Sample records for austrian triga-mk-2 reactor

  1. Austrian Social Security Database


    Zweimüller, Josef; Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf; Lalive, Rafael; Kuhn, Andreas; Wuellrich, Jean-Philippe; Ruf, Oliver; Büchi, Simon


    The Austrian Social Security Database (ASSD) is a matched firm-worker data set, which records the labor market history of almost 11 million individuals from January 1972 to April 2007. Moreover, more than 2.2 million firms can be identified. The individual labor market histories are described in the follow- ing dimensions: very detailed daily labor market states and yearly earnings at the firm-worker level, together with a limited set of demographic characteris- tics. Additionally the ASSD pr...

  2. Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva


    This standard applies to the following types of reactors: shunt reactors, current-limiting reactors including neutral-earthing reactors, damping reactors, tuning (filter) reactors, earthing transformers (neutral couplers), arc-suppression reactors, smoothing reactors, with the exception of the following reactors: small reactors with a rating generally less than 2 kvar single-phase and 10 kvar three-phase, reactors for special purposes such as high-frequency line traps or reactors mounted on rolling stock.

  3. Visit of the Austrian Ambassador

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez


    The Austrian Ambassador Wolfgang Petritsch (light raincoat) learns about superconducting magnets at the LHC magnet test facility in building SM18 during a visit to CERN. The blue pipe-like structure in the left background is String 2: the 120-m long full-scale model of an LHC cell, which is used to test LHC systems.

  4. Mr. Wolfgang Petritsch, Austrian Ambassador

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez


    Dr.Peter Schmid/CERN/EP, Dr.Wolfgang Petritsch, Austrian Ambassador, Permanent representative at UN, Mrs.Nora Petritsch, Dr.Kurt Hubner/CERN/AC, Mrs. Frederike Klaus-Salesin, Adviser, Mrs.Andrea Strohmeier, Secretary of the Ambassador, Mr.Heinz Klaus, Attaché, Dr.Theodor Tortschanoff/CERN/LHC, Mr.Peter Storer, Advisor. Dr.Peter Schmid/CERN/EP, Dr.Wolfgang Petritsch, Austrian Ambassador, Permanent representative at UN, Mrs.Nora Petritsch, Dr.Kurt Hubner/CERN/AC, Mrs. Frederike Klaus-Salesin, Adviser, Mrs.Andrea Strohmeier, Secretary of the Ambassador, Mr.Heinz Klaus, Attaché, Dr.Theodor Tortschanoff/CERN/LHC, Mr.Peter Storer, Advisor.

  5. The Forgotten Austrian Economics Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bianca Vieru


    Full Text Available In light of the current events, namely the crisisthat economy has to face for quite someyears now, plenty of questions are raised, not only among specialists in the field but also amongordinary people as they prove to be most impoverished by these imbalances. Thus, this paper aims, asa first objective, to explain, froma general perspective and using an inductive-subjectivemethodology based on a brief survey as well as on observation, two of the most important causes that,according to the Austrian Business Cycle Theory, are the leading motives for triggering crises. Weare referring particularly to an excessivestate interventionismmanifested throughout itsexpansionary monetary policy.Secondly, we seek to establish the interconnections between theseelements and the case of the Great Depression as well as the current recession. The results we cameacross point out towards the same pattern designed by the Austrian economists, although thecircumstances are, each time, different. Hence, the contribution of this paper consists of handling thedetails that surround the subject by extracting only the essential aspects regarding the triggering ofcrises; we refer to the main ideas that need to be underlined for a better comprehension of the topic.

  6. The Consumer in Austrian Economics and the Austrian Perspective on Consumer Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leen, A.R.


    In this thesis I examined the place of the competitive-entrepreneurial consumer in Austrian economic thought. For a neoclassical economist, competition among consumers is hard to find. For an Austrian economist, however, it is a necessity. The introduction puts forward the problem that although an A

  7. The Austrian UV monitoring network (United States)

    Blumthaler, Mario; Klotz, Barbara; Schwarzmann, Michael; Schreder, Josef


    The Austrian UV Monitoring network is operational since 1998 providing a large data set of erythemally weighted UV irradiance recorded with broadband UV biometer at 12 stations distributed all over Austria. In order to obtain high quality data all biometer are recalibrated once a year, the detectors are checked regularly for humidity and quality control is done routinely. The collected data are processed and then published on the website where the UV-Index of all measurement sites is presented in near real time together with a map of the distribution of the UV-Index over Austria. These UV-Index data together with measurements of global radiation and ozone levels from OMI are used to study long term trends for the stations of the monitoring network. Neither for all weather conditions nor for clear sky conditions is a statistically significant trend found for the UV-Index (with one exception) and for ozone. Furthermore, the radiation amplification factor (RAF) is determined experimentally from the power law correlation between UV-Index and ozone level for the site Innsbruck (577 m above sea level, 47.26°N, 11.38°E) for 19°solar elevation. A value of 0.91 ± 0.05 is found for the RAF for clear sky days with low ground albedo and a value of 1.03 ± 0.08 for days with high ground albedo (snow cover).

  8. President Hans Ager of Austrian Federal Council Visits China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>An Austrian goodwill delegation led by Hans . Ager, president of the Austrian Federal Coun-cil and board member of the Austrian Association for Promotion of Friendship and Cultural Relations with China (AAPFCRC), paid a friendly visit to China in November, 2003 at the invitation of the CPAFFC. On the delegation were Dietmar Bachmann, president of the Industrial Federation of

  9. Austrian Airlines:Safety is our Business!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan


    @@ Mighty Capacity Managed "Although Austrian Airlines is a middle-sized company, it has a mighty capacity of over 10 million customers every year. Because it has an extensive European service network." G(o)tz stressed to China's Foreign Trade.

  10. The Continuing Relevance of Austrian Capital Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul


    The article presents a speech by Professor Nicolai J. Foss of Copenhagen Business School, delivered at the Austrian Scholars Conference held on March 8, 2012 in Auburn, Alabama, in which he discussed the knowledge essays by economist Friedrich A. von Hayek, the concept of capital theory and the w...... and the works of Hayek on political philosophy and cultural evolution....

  11. Reactor (United States)

    Evans, Robert M.


    1. A neutronic reactor having a moderator, coolant tubes traversing the moderator from an inlet end to an outlet end, bodies of material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy disposed within the coolant tubes, and means for circulating water through said coolant tubes characterized by the improved construction wherein the coolant tubes are constructed of aluminum having an outer diameter of 1.729 inches and a wall thickness of 0.059 inch, and the means for circulating a liquid coolant through the tubes includes a source of water at a pressure of approximately 350 pounds per square inch connected to the inlet end of the tubes, and said construction including a pressure reducing orifice disposed at the inlet ends of the tubes reducing the pressure of the water by approximately 150 pounds per square inch.

  12. The voice of Austrians at CERN

    CERN Multimedia


    On 7 May the Austrian Minister for Science announced that, after over 50 years of membership, Austria would withdraw from CERN. By 18 May the Austrian Chancellor had reversed the decision. The Bulletin spoke to some of the Austrian community at CERN about the rollercoaster of events in between. var flash_video_player=get_video_player_path(); insert_player_for_external('Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056-0753-kbps-640x360-25-fps-audio-64-kbps-44-kHz-stereo', 'mms://', 'false', 533, 300, '', '1180837', true, 'Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056-0600-kbps-maxH-360-25-fps-audio-128-kbps-48-kHz-stereo.mp4'); To watch this video in German click here. There was jubil...

  13. Network Topology of the Austrian Airline Flights

    CERN Document Server

    Han, D D; Qian, J H


    We analyze the directed, weighted and evolutionary Austrian airline flight network. It is shown that such a specific airline flight network displays features of small-world networks, namely large clustering coefficient and small average shortest-path length. We study the detailed flight information both in a week and on a whole. In both cases, the degree distributions reveal power law with exponent value of 2 $\\sim$ 3 for the small degree branch and a flat tail for the large degree branch. Similarly, the flight weight distributions have power-law for the small weight branch. The degree-degree correlation analysis shows the network has disassortative behavior, i.e. the large airports are likely to link to smaller airports.

  14. The Austrian Approach: Entering the World of Children. (United States)

    Feistritzer, Patricia; Balcerack, Carl


    This photo-essay describes a Waldorf School. Developed by Austrian Rudolf Steiner, the Waldorf plan is dedicated to allowing the child a childlike environment. It emphasizes storytelling, creative dramatics, flexibility, improvisation, crafts, and movement. (SJL)

  15. Acidification and Nitrogen Eutrophication of Austrian Forest Soils


    Robert Jandl; Stefan Smidt; Franz Mutsch; Alfred Fürst; Harald Zechmeister; Heidi Bauer; Thomas Dirnböck


    We evaluated the effect of acidic deposition and nitrogen on Austrian forests soils. Until thirty years ago air pollution had led to soil acidification, and concerns on the future productivity of forests were raised. Elevated rates of nitrogen deposition were believed to cause nitrate leaching and imbalanced forest nutrition. We used data from a soil monitoring network to evaluate the trends and current status of the pH and the C : N ratio of Austrian forest soils. Deposition measurements and...

  16. Compliance of Austrian tourists with prophylactic measures. (United States)

    Kollaritsch, H; Wiedermann, G


    Physicians dealing with prophylactic measures for tourists going to developing countries will often not be able to foresee the outcome of their recommendations. Therefore an open study with 2,627 Austrian tourists on their flight home from a tropical destination was carried out to evaluate the behaviour of typical short-term travellers with respect to different kinds of precautionary measures. 94.1% of all tourists informed themselves before travelling abroad, but a high proportion of travellers tends to contact only their travel agency or their personal friends, this leading to inadequate information. Regarding the individual performance of precautionary measures the results indicate a few principal conclusions: Among the recommended inoculations the vaccinations against typhoid fever, poliomyelitis and tetanus are widely underestimated, the latter two in particular for adults, while compliance with the passive immunization against Hepatitis A is generally good (more than 80% of all travellers receive Hepatitis A immunoglobulins prophylactically). The most crucial point seems to be the chemoprophylaxis against malaria in as much as a) there seems to be a considerable lack of information about malaria endemic areas among physicians, b) tourists tend to use the most simple applicable drug unaware of epidemiological considerations and c) the regular intake of chemoprophylaxis declines significantly with the complexity of the intake procedure. In addition, tourists are in general well informed about nutritional risks, but only half of them will receive adequate information on the risk of sexually transmitted diseases and a basic medical travel kit.

  17. HORA - an Austrian platform for natural hazards (United States)

    Hlatky, T.


    HORA - an Austrian platform for natural hazards as a new way in risk communication One initiatives launched in Austria demonstrate that public participation not only bears the risk of a partial transfer of responsibility by the authorities; it may above all prepare the ground for entirely new approaches and create new links. The recent installation of the first internet risk zoning system in Austria underscores the importance of involving private parties in natural disaster protection. This public-private partnership (PPP) between the Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management (BMLFUW) and the Austrian Insurance Association (VVO) was launched in the wake of the 2002 flood disaster. The first project phase, the Austrian flood risk zoning system called HORA (screenshot see fig. 1), has now been accessible on the Web since 1st June 2006. In accordance with a risk partnership concluded between federal government, insurance companies and private parties, the project initiators seek to offer the public a preliminary risk assessment tool for evaluation of their home, industrial enterprise, of infrastructure. Digital risk maps shall provide information on 30-year, 100-year and 200-year flood events as they occur alongside the 26.000-km-long domestic river network. The probability with which a certain block of land is immersed in water during a flood event can be calculated by means of hydraulic engineering methods. These have traditionally relied on statistical figures, which are known to be very inaccurate, especially when major events such as flooding are concerned. The Vienna University of Technology (TU) (Institute of Hydraulic and Water Resources Engineering) has dedicated many years to developing more accurate, process oriented risk assessment techniques. The starting points was to identify different flood-triggering processes and to divide them into specific categories as long-duration rainfalls, short-duration rainfalls, storms

  18. [Fight against epidemics: Austrian prisoners in Troyes]. (United States)

    Hetzel, Géraldine


    The victories near Ulm and Elchingen, where the Napoleonic army took 60000 prisoners between 15th and 20th of October 1805, lead to the arrival at Troyes (county "Aube") of nearly 2000 Austrian soldiers to be held inside former monasteries among whose, mainly the Jacobinians casern where more than half of them stayed. At the beginning of 1806, the government sent the epidemics medical practitioner Dr Desgenettes on an inspection tour to control the state of health of the populations of places where foreign prisoners were held, which lead him through several counties of the North-eastern part of France, where he surveyed several diseases ranging from all kinds offevers up to dysentery, scabies or gangrenes. With the means of acid fumigations invented by the chemist Guyton Morveau from Dijon, the authorities took care of combating and preventing the epidemics in the caserns. As soon as October 1805, the epidemics medical practitioner Dr Pigeotte from Troyes wrote to the county governor his observations recommending a better diet, airing of the rooms and also calls to take some exercise. All these precepts showed an astonishing modernity.

  19. Sociotechnical scenarios for the Austrian energy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wächter Petra


    Full Text Available Reducing greenhouse gases by 80%, as demanded by the IPCC, is one of the great long-term challenges facing our societies today and will doubtless require transformative changes to current energy regimes. Large-scale system transitions such as the one envisaged for the global energy system in the next 30–40 years can only be realized through complex processes of change involving global, regional, national, and local levels. In this paper we use sociotechnical scenario analysis to contribute ideas for the transformative change of the current Austrian energy system over the long term and to identify some of the particular policy measures, as well as structural changes and broader shifts in perspective, that would be necessary to deal with such challenges. There is less emphasis on the technical issues involved than on the socio-economic and governance requirements such a shift would demand. We also explain our experiences with the sociotechnical scenario process and its outcomes. In particular, we identify examples of some critical issues and opportunities within one of the identified key action fields and discuss their various implications for energy policy and everyday practices.

  20. Austrian Economics and the Transaction Cost Approach to the Firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai J. Foss


    Full Text Available As the transaction cost theory of the firm was taking shape in the 1970s, another important movement in economics was emerging: a revival of the ‘Austrian’ tradition in economic theory associated with such economists as Ludwig von Mises and F. A. Hayek (1973; Dolan, 1976; Spadaro, 1978. As Oliver Williamson has pointed out, Austrian economics is among the diverse sources for transaction cost economics. In particular, Williamson frequently cites Hayek (e.g., Williamson, 1985, p. 8; 1991, p. 162, particularly Hayek’s emphasis on adaptation as a key problem of economic organisation (Hayek, 1945. Following Williamson’s lead, a reference to Hayek’s ‘The Use of Knowledge in Society’ (Hayek, 1945 has become almost mandatory in discussions of economic organisation (e.g., Ricketts, 1987, p. 59; Milgrom and Roberts, 1992, p. 56; Douma and Schreuder 1991, p. 9. However, there are many other potential links between Austrian and transaction cost economics that have not been explored closely and exploited.This article argues that characteristically Austrian ideas about property, entrepreneurship, economic calculation, tacit knowledge, and the temporal structure of capital have important implications for theories of economic organisation, transaction cost economics in particular. Austrian economists have not, however, devoted substantial attention to the theory of the firm, preferring to focus on business-cycle theory, welfare economics, political economy, comparative economic systems, and other areas. Until recently the theory of the firm was an almost completely neglected area in Austrian economics, but over the last decade, a small Austrian literature on the firm has emerged. While these works cover a wide variety of theoretical and applied topics, their authors share the view that Austrian insights have something to offer students of firm organisation.

  1. Air pollution damage to Austrian pine in New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, E.; Davis, S.H. Jr.


    Following a period of high pollution, extensive needle damage was observed on Austrian pine trees. Since the species is common in New Jersey, it was possible to obtain an approximation of its sensitivity. In nurseries, Christmas tree plantations and park areas, which included many species of conifers in addition to Austrian pine, species specifically noted as free from apparent damage were white pine (Pinus strobus), scotch pine (P. sylvestris), red pine (P. resinosa), Atlas cedar (Cedrus atlantica glauca), Norway spruce (Picea abies), Colorado spruce (P. pungens), white spruce (P. canadensis), balsam fir (Abies balsamea), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga taxifolia), and many varieties of juniper, arbor vitae, hemlock, and yew. During the survey needle damage, which could be traced back to the episode of 24 June, was also observed on Japanese red pine (P. densiflora) and Japanese black pine (P. densiflora) and Japanese black pine (P. Thunbergil). The injury to Japanese red pine was identical to that on Austrian pine, but on Japanese black pine the damage appeared not on the current year's needles, but on 1-year-old needles and it did not have the distinctive dividing line between injured and healthy tissue. These two species did not occur in sufficient number to allow further evaluation. Austrian pine has been cited in the literature as very tolerant of industrial smoke. Currently, German foresters are advising aginst the use of spruce and firs in industrial areas and are recommending ''resistant species as Austrian pine.'' In New Jersey fluoride damage has been observed on Austrian pine on occasion over the past 20 years. Because of the damage also caused by photochemical smog in New Jersey, the resistance of the species should be reevaluated. A need may develop for a breeding program to provide resistant material to the highly polluted metropolitan areas.

  2. The Austrian Business Cycle Theory: Validity and Implications


    Eid, Tord Kopland


    In this thesis the Austrian business cycle theory is analyzed. Based on the work of Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk (1959[1889]), Knut Wicksell (1962[1898]) and Ludwig von Mises (1953[1912]), the theory was further developed and made famous by Friedrich von Hayek in the 1930s. Arguably, Hayek was the main rival of Keynes during this decade, but after heavy criticism and the publication of the General Theory (Keynes, 1936), the Austrian business cycle theory was left with few advocates by the end of Wor...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Toth


    Full Text Available The Hungarian model was heralded as one of the most successful post-socialist way of integration into the globalised world economy and European economic area in the nineties. Currently, Hungary is suffering from a full-blown crisis 1996 onwards. Increasingly large number of Hungarians is losing their faith in political parties, institutions, democracy and in market economy. The government, elected in 2010 by supermajority and still enjoying a broad support despite the deepening recession, condemns the development path taken after 1989 and openly rejects the wrong model of the last 20 years. The government intends to build a new economic model following a model, which one can call a model of economic nationalism as the only way out of the crisis. The paper intends to portray, through the case of Hungary, how economy and politics is interconnected, and why political elites are choosing a credit fuelled development path. The paper intends to portray how a credit fuelled growth was induced by politics and ended up in tears. Moreover, the paper describes the consequences of pro-etatist shift in the public sentiment due to the alleged “market-failure”, which was in reality a crisis, at first place, created for political purposes by political means. This article, based on the Austrian business cycle theory, argues that the tragedy of Hungary was that it went through a government inspired spending binge in the first half of the 2000s. The deficit spending of the government was accompanied by the expansion of credit by the commercial banks, mostly denominated in Swiss francs. The combined effect of deficit spending and credit expansion was the build-up of debt and loss of cost competitiveness. The 2008 crisis ended the credit fuelled development path and has started the long and painful period of deleveraging crisis. On the other hand, the Hungarian crisis is a post-Keynesian crisis. It had broken out when the state was already heavily indebted and

  4. English, French, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese? Code Choice and Austrian Export (United States)

    Lavric, Eva; Back, Bernhard


    This article deals with how "export oriented Austrian companies effect code choice in their business relationships with customers from Romance language speaking countries". The focus lies on the most widespread Romance languages, therefore on French, Spanish, Italian and Portuguese speaking customers.The question of code choice in export…

  5. Forecasting Austrian national elections: The Grand Coalition model (United States)

    Aichholzer, Julian; Willmann, Johanna


    Forecasting the outcomes of national elections has become established practice in several democracies. In the present paper, we develop an economic voting model for forecasting the future success of the Austrian ‘grand coalition’, i.e., the joint electoral success of the two mainstream parties SPOE and OEVP, at the 2013 Austrian Parliamentary Elections. Our main argument is that the success of both parties is strongly tied to the accomplishments of the Austrian system of corporatism, that is, the Social Partnership (Sozialpartnerschaft), in providing economic prosperity. Using data from Austrian national elections between 1953 and 2008 (n=18), we rely on the following predictors in our forecasting model: (1) unemployment rates, (2) previous incumbency of the two parties, and (3) dealignment over time. We conclude that, in general, the two mainstream parties benefit considerably from low unemployment rates, and are weakened whenever they have previously formed a coalition government. Further, we show that they have gradually been losing a good share of their voter basis over recent decades. PMID:26339109

  6. Acidification and Nitrogen Eutrophication of Austrian Forest Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Jandl


    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of acidic deposition and nitrogen on Austrian forests soils. Until thirty years ago air pollution had led to soil acidification, and concerns on the future productivity of forests were raised. Elevated rates of nitrogen deposition were believed to cause nitrate leaching and imbalanced forest nutrition. We used data from a soil monitoring network to evaluate the trends and current status of the pH and the C : N ratio of Austrian forest soils. Deposition measurements and nitrogen contents of Norway spruce needles and mosses were used to assess the nitrogen supply. The pH values of soils have increased because of decreasing proton depositions caused by reduction of emissions. The C : N ratio of Austrian forest soils is widening. Despite high nitrogen deposition rates the increase in forest stand density and productivity has increased the nitrogen demand. The Austrian Bioindicator Grid shows that forest ecosystems are still deficient in nitrogen. Soils retain nitrogen efficiently, and nitrate leaching into the groundwater is presently not a large-scale problem. The decline of soil acidity and the deposition of nitrogen together with climate change effects will further increase the productivity of the forests until a limiting factor such as water scarcity becomes effective.

  7. Occupational incidents with self-propelled machinery in Austrian agriculture. (United States)

    Mayrhofer, Hannes; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef


    Tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery, and material handling machinery are the most commonly used self-propelled machineries in Austrian agriculture, and they have similarities in main accident scenarios. Statistical data of all occupational incidents with these machines reported between 2008 and 2010 were analyzed to obtain information about the circumstances of the incidents, and about the victims and their work environments. Criteria of recognized occupational incidents provided by the Austrian Social Insurance Institution for Farmers were analyzed according to machinery category by means of cross-tabulation and chi-square tests. The results were discussed and evaluated in the context of the literature. The results of the analysis of the databases show that 786 occupational incidents with tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery, and material handling machinery occurred in Austrian agriculture between 2008 and 2010. There were 231 occupational incidents in 2008; the number rose to 268 in 2009 and to 286 in 2010. A total of 41 incidents were fatal. For the machinery categories analyzed, the majority of injured victims were male, older than 40 years, Austrian citizens, and managers of a mixed-agricultural farm. A large number of the incidents occurred in all machinery categories by loss of control during operating a vehicle.

  8. Two centuries of the Austrian Civil code (1811-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Dušan


    Full Text Available Austrian civil code (Allgemeines bürgerliches Gesetzbuch - ABGB, ACC succeeded in resisting the challenges of time for two centuries. A number of factors influenced it's longevity. First of all, prior to adoption of the law, a long lasting and well designed work, which has been described in greater detail in this article, was done. The Code was written gradually, with lots of recalculations, checks and public debates. In legal literature, it is often written about a unique lawmaking experiment, which Austrian authorities made by implementing the Code in one part of the state territory. The Code was written for feudal order, but according to principles of natural law. This second thing has, in addition to widely formulated and flexible legal norms, left enough space for extensive interpretation of outdated rules, and filling in the legal lacunas, whose number was increasing as the time passed. Courts often used this opportunity in a creative manner, contributing to survival of the Code. Many additions and changes were made to the Code, but there were few of those who thought that it should be changed by a new one Code. Austrians are preparing a more detailed revision of the ACC, which will allow modernization of the national law and it's synchronization with trends in current European law, but on the other hand, to preserve the two century old legal heritage. The second part of this article is dedicated to the influence of the Austrian Civil Code on the development of civil law in the former Yugoslavia and Serbia. ACC served as model for adoption of the Serbian Civil Code of 1844. It was applied as a positive law in the first half of XX century, in one part of the territory of today's Autonomous Province of Vojvodina. Formally, legal rules of the Austrian Civil Code can even be applied today, according to the Law on Nullity of Legal Regulations Enacted Prior to 6th of April 1941, and During the Enemy Occupation. However, that possibility is more

  9. Austrian Wels Orchestra’s Performance Tour in Shandong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>On the evening of April 12, beau-tiful music wafted through the big hall of the Rizhao International Conference Center. When the enthusiastic and exciting Radezky March was played, an audience of over 1,000 people gave a standing ovation in time to the music as the Austrian Wels Orchestra’s performance tour in Shandong came to a successful end.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Peptine


    Full Text Available Market equilibrium is an illusion. The economic reality shows us that the main characteristic of the markets is the state of instability. The complexity of the phenomenon and the strong implications engendered by the economic fluctuations in the macro system, justify the rich scientific research activity of the main schools of economic thought to explain it. The Austrian school of economic thought has one of the most realistic analyses of the factors who generate the market instability.

  11. Nuclear Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogerton, John


    This pamphlet describes how reactors work; discusses reactor design; describes research, teaching, and materials testing reactors; production reactors; reactors for electric power generation; reactors for supply heat; reactors for propulsion; reactors for space; reactor safety; and reactors of tomorrow. The appendix discusses characteristics of U.S. civilian power reactor concepts and lists some of the U.S. reactor power projects, with location, type, capacity, owner, and startup date.

  12. Hydrogeological interpretation of natural radionuclide contents in Austrian groundwaters (United States)

    Schubert, Gerhard; Berka, Rudolf; Hörhan, Thomas; Katzlberger, Christian; Landstetter, Claudia; Philippitsch, Rudolf


    The Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety (AGES) stores comprehensive data sets of radionuclide contents in Austrian groundwater. There are several analyses concerning Rn-222, Ra-226, gross alpha and gross beta as well as selected analyses of Ra-228, Pb-210, Po-210, Uranium and U-234/U-238. In a current project financed by the Austrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management, AGES and the Geological Survey of Austria (GBA) are evaluating these data sets with regard to the geological backgrounds. Several similar studies based on groundwater monitoring have been made in the USA (for instance by Focazio, M.J., Szabo, Z., Kraemer, T.F., Mullin, A.H., Barringer, T.H., De Paul, V.T. (2001): Occurrence of selected radionuclides in groundwater used for drinking water in the United States: a reconnaissance survey, 1998. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 00-4273). The geological background for the radionuclide contents of groundwater will be derived from geological maps in combination with existing Thorium and Uranium analyses of the country rocks and stream-sediments and from airborne radiometric maps. Airborne radiometric data could contribute to identify potential radionuclide hot spot areas as only airborne radiometric mapping could provide countrywide Thorium and Uranium data coverage in high resolution. The project will also focus on the habit of the sampled wells and springs and the hydrological situation during the sampling as these factors can have an important influence on the Radon content of the sampled groundwater (Schubert, G., Alletsgruber, I., Finger, F., Gasser, V., Hobiger, G. and Lettner, H. (2010): Radon im Grundwasser des Mühlviertels (Oberösterreich) Grundwasser. - Springer (in print). Based on the project results an overview map (1:500,000) concerning the radionuclide potential should be produced. The first version should be available in February 2011.

  13. Religion and suicide risk in lesbian, gay and bisexual Austrians. (United States)

    Kralovec, Karl; Fartacek, Clemens; Fartacek, Reinhold; Plöderl, Martin


    Religion is known to be a protective factor against suicide. However, religiously affiliated sexual minority individuals often report a conflict between religion and sexual identity. Therefore, the protective role of religion against suicide in sexual minority people is unclear. We investigated the effect of religion on suicide risk in a sample of 358 lesbian, gay and bisexual Austrians. Religion was associated with higher scores of internalized homophobia, but with fewer suicide attempts. Our data indicate that religion might be both a risk and a protective factor against suicidality in religiously affiliated sexual minority individuals.

  14. Austrian diplomacy in a changing global and European context: Between innovation, adaptation and resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maurer, Heidi


    Twenty years after Austria joining the EU, this contribution investigates how Austrian diplomacy has been adjusting to the changing European demands and opportunities next to global and domestic pressures for adaptation. Austrian diplomatic adaptation has predominantly been reactive. EU membership a

  15. 69 The Multicultural Education in Bucovina during the Austrian Domination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Baltag


    Full Text Available In 1775, the territory of Bucovina became part of the Habsburg monarchy and it stayed like that for 143 years. All throughout this period when the Romanians lived here next to Ukrainians, Germans, Jews and other nationalities, the Austrian government took into consideration their need for culture, which resulted in the development of a multicultural teaching system. This implied that the languages of teaching in the Bukovinian schools were: Latin, Greek, Romanian, Ukrainian and, more often than not, German. Although the weighty presence of the German language in the academic institutions limited the number of young Romanians in schools, the teaching in German enabled the access of the Bukovinian students to the great European universities from Vienna, Salzburg, Lemberg, Kraków or Prague, before the founding of the Chernivtsi University (1875. Thus, beyond the negative aspects of the separation of this territory from Romania, the Austrian occupation represented an effervescent period from a cultural viewpoint, which lent a specific identity to the teaching system in Bukovina.

  16. 4th February 2011 - Austrian Academy of Sciences President H. Denk visiting CMS underground area with Collaboration Spokesperson G. Tonelli, Austrian Academy of Sciences Secretary General A. Suppan, CERN Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Director, High Energy Physics Laboratory, Austrian Academy of Sciences C Fabjan.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice


    4th February 2011 - Austrian Academy of Sciences President H. Denk visiting CMS underground area with Collaboration Spokesperson G. Tonelli, Austrian Academy of Sciences Secretary General A. Suppan, CERN Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Director, High Energy Physics Laboratory, Austrian Academy of Sciences C Fabjan.

  17. Decommissioning of the Astra research reactor: Review and status on July 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Franz


    Full Text Available The paper describes work on the decommissioning of the ASTRA research reactor at the Austrian Research Centers Seibersdorf. Organizational, planning, and dismantling work done until July 2003 including radiation protection and waste management procedures as well as the current status of the project are presented. Completion of the decommissioning activities is planned for 2006.

  18. Information systems for administration, clinical documentation and quality assurance in an Austrian disease management programme. (United States)

    Beck, Peter; Truskaller, Thomas; Rakovac, Ivo; Bruner, Fritz; Zanettin, Dominik; Pieber, Thomas R


    5.9% of the Austrian population is affected by diabetes mellitus. Disease Management is a structured treatment approach that is suitable for application to the diabetes mellitus area and often is supported by information technology. This article describes the information systems developed and implemented in the Austrian disease management programme for type 2 diabetes. Several workflows for administration as well as for clinical documentation have been implemented utilizing the Austrian e-Health infrastructure. De-identified clinical data is available for creating feedback reports for providers and programme evaluation.

  19. A Thought Experiment Comparing Austrian and Keynesian Stimulus Packages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir Kraus

    Full Text Available Essentially, there are two competing views of how to overcome an economy-wide recession/depression. The Austrian view understands the free-play of competition as the most potent means to overcome the short-run mismatch between an excessive boom-level of nominal wages/prices and depressed crisis-level volume of aggregate spending. In the Keynesian view, the disastrous mismatch between desired saving and planned investment inherent in capitalist economies requires the government to step in and take up the burden of spending to infuse the lacking demand for products and labor.The thought experiment presented in the paper is designed to provide the reader with a direct comparison of major analytical claims of the two competing approaches to assess the ability of each of the two to affect, positively or negatively, employment, capital accumulation, and the general standard of living/real wages.

  20. A fractal comparison of real and Austrian business cycle models (United States)

    Mulligan, Robert F.


    Rescaled range and power spectral density analysis are applied to examine a diverse set of macromonetary data for fractal character and stochastic dependence. Fractal statistics are used to evaluate two competing models of the business cycle, Austrian business cycle theory and real business cycle theory. Strong evidence is found for antipersistent stochastic dependence in transactions money (M1) and components of the monetary aggregates most directly concerned with transactions, which suggests an activist monetary policy. Savings assets exhibit persistent long memory, as do those monetary aggregates which include savings assets, such as savings money (M2), M2 minus small time deposits, and money of zero maturity (MZM). Virtually all measures of economic activity display antipersistence, and this finding is invariant to whether the measures are adjusted for inflation, including real gross domestic product, real consumption expenditures, real fixed private investment, and labor productivity. This strongly disconfirms real business cycle theory.

  1. Second President of Austrian National Council Mag. Barbara Prammer Visits China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>At the invitation of the CPAFFC, a high-ranking delegation of the Austrian Association for Promotion of Friendship and Cultural Relations with China (AAPFCRC) led by Ms. Mag. Barbara Prammer, second president of the Aus-

  2. A short report of the investigations made on the facies of Austrian coal deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachsenhofer, Reinhard F. [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Leoben, A-8700 Leoben (Austria)


    Petrological studies on Austrian coal deposits started in the 1940s. During the last decade, multi-disciplinary investigations involving petrology, geochemistry, and palynology were performed to study the relationship between geodynamics, coal-forming environments, and coal properties.

  3. Direct investment strategies of Austrian companies in Romania.A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Arjoca


    Full Text Available The Austrian companies present in Romania have learned their lessons after the subprime crisis started in year 2008 and although operating in various industrial areas and therefore being differently affected by the crisis, they have followed rather a similar strategy. Despite the unfavourable economic circumstances in Romania, all Austrian investors still recognise the country’s potential and have started consolidating their position on the market.

  4. New Promotion of Austrian Airlines to Celebrate the 10th Anniversary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


      2005 marks the 10th Anniversary of Austrian Airlines' flight operations to China. Austrian Airlines kicks off the celebration year with super attractive roundtrip fares from Beijing and Shanghai to Europe starting at RMB4,500 (excluding taxes and surcharges). The earlier the tickets are booked and purchased,the lower the airfares are for travel during the period from February 13 to April 15,2005.……

  5. New Promotion of Austrian Airlines to Celebrate the 10th Anniversary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ 2005 marks the 10th Anniversary of Austrian Airlines' flight operations to China. Austrian Airlines kicks off the celebration year with super attractive roundtrip fares from Beijing and Shanghai to Europe starting at RMB4,500 (excluding taxes and surcharges). The earlier the tickets are booked and purchased,the lower the airfares are for travel during the period from February 13 to April 15,2005.

  6. Potentials to mitigate climate change using biochar - the Austrian perspective (United States)

    Bruckman, Viktor J.; Klinglmüller, Michaela; Liu, Jay; Uzun, Basak B.; Varol, Esin A.


    Biomass utilization is seen as one of various promising strategies to reduce additional carbon emissions. A recent project on potentials of biochar to mitigate climate change (FOREBIOM) goes even a step further towards bioenergy in combination of CCS or "BECS" and tries to assess the current potentials, from sustainable biomass availability to biochar amendment in soils, including the identification of potential disadvantages and current research needs. The current report represents an outcome of the 1st FOREBIOM Workshop held in Vienna in April, 2013 and tries to characterize the Austrian perspective of biochar for climate change mitigation. The survey shows that for a widespread utilization of biochar in climate change mitigation strategies, still a number of obstacles have to be overcome. There are concerns regarding production and application costs, contamination and health issues for both producers and customers besides a fragmentary knowledge about biochar-soil interactions specifically in terms of long-term behavior, biochar stability and the effects on nutrient cycles. However, there are a number of positive examples showing that biochar indeed has the potential to sequester large amounts of carbon while improving soil properties and subsequently leading to a secondary carbon sink via rising soil productivity. Diversification, cascadic utilization and purpose designed biochar production are key strategies overcoming initial concerns, especially regarding economic aspects. A theoretical scenario calculation showed that relatively small amounts of biomass that is currently utilized for energy can reduce the gap between Austria's current GHG emissions and the Kyoto target by about 30% if biomass residues are pyrolized and biochar subsequently used as soil amendment. However, by using a more conservative approach that is representing the aims of the underlying FOREBIOM project (assuming that 10% of the annual biomass increment from forests is used for biochar

  7. Holocaust Studies in Austrian Elementary and Secondary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Mittnik


    Full Text Available This article presents arguments in support of teaching about the Holocaust and Nazism in Austria at an early age. To accomplish this, Austrian and German elementary school textbooks were analyzed for the amount of content dealing with the Holocaust and Jews; the results showed that since 1980 the amount of content on the Holocaust increased in Germany, and to a lesser extent in Austria. The article reviews some of the criticism in Europe of the term Holocaust Education and explores some of arguments about why that is. The author argues that moral education and teaching of Human Rights are important components of, but ought not be the main goal of teaching about the Holocaust. The role of Austria after World War II, and exploration of the so called victim myth, prevalent until the 1990s are important to understanding history and to how history textbooks were created. After a discussion of how the Holocaust can be taught to elementary and early secondary school aged children, some suggestions are made about approaches to teaching the Holocaust to students in these age groups.

  8. France and the Austrian Empire 1815-1918

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horel Catherine


    Full Text Available Relations between France and the Habsburg Empire during the long nineteenth century went through several phases bounded by the events crucial not just to the two countries' mutual relations but to all of Europe. The Congress of Vienna defined their mutual relations for the next thirty years. The Habsburgs and their omnipresent minister Metternich were fearful of revolutionary and liberal movements traditionally having their origins in France. And it was the revolutionary events of 1848 that brought about a change in the balance of power and their mutual relations. Metternich's retirement and, more importantly, the arrival of the Russian armies in Central Europe and the subsequent strengthening of Prussia, conferred a new importance to the role of the Habsburg Monarchy as a bulwark against the advancement of Russia and a vital counterweight to Prussia. With the defeat of Napoleon III and the creation of Germany with Alsace and Lorraine Franco-Austrian relations entered a new phase. The destiny of the two provinces alienated the Habsburgs from the French Republic, especially after the reorganization of Europe into two confronting blocs. The logic of alliances led to their being adversaries in the world conflict, although Napoleon III's geo-strategic analyses remained present almost to its very end, when Clemenceau's government gave support to the nationality principle thereby crucially contributing to the collapse of the Habsburg Monarchy.

  9. The new Austrian tunnelling method in coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thierse, D.


    The new Austrian tunnelling method (NATM), as a composite support and lining system of bolts, steel mats and shotcrete, prevents the deconsolidation of the strata and activates the self-supporting properties of the strata envelope. By bringing in the strata for support it provides an exceptionally high support resistance, which outdoes steel supports and which is needed at increasing depths with their predictable high rock pressures and with large cross-sections in rooms where the limits of conventional steel arches are exceeded. Even thin shotcrete casing has a high support resistance. Where effects of other workings are present the NATM can be relied upon to have good stability over a long period and to be repair-friendly, as flaking off the casing can be made good by re-bolting and re-spraying. In contrast with the costly changing of entire support arches, partial surfaces can be repaired as required. The NATM is particularly cost-effective in the construction of drainage roads, which have to be lined against aggressive water, shaft porches, branch-offs, large rooms such as workshops, landings, belt drive rooms with internal cross-sections of 25 to 30 m/sup 2/ and shaft widening and traversing with irregular cross-sections. In geologically extremely difficult levels, such as those of the Laura and Zollverein 7/8 seams, the NATM has also been successfully used to construct drainage roads, branch-offs and shaft traverses. 30 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. H Reactor (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The H Reactor was the first reactor to be built at Hanford after World War II.It became operational in October of 1949, and represented the fourth nuclear reactor on...

  11. An inventory of glacial lakes in the Austrian Alps (United States)

    Buckel, Johannes; Otto, Jan-Christoph; Keuschnig, Markus; Götz, Joachim


    The formation of lakes is one of the consequences of glacier retreat due to climate change in mountain areas. Numerous lakes have formed in the past few decades in many mountain regions around the globe. Some of these lakes came into focus due to catastrophic hazard events especially in the Himalayas and the Andes. Glacial lake development and lifetime is controlled by the complex interplay of glacier dynamics, geomorphological process activity and geological boundary conditions. Besides the hazard potential new lakes in formerly glaciated areas will significantly contribute to a new landscape setting and to changing geomorphologic, hydrologic and ecologic conditions at higher alpine altitudes. We present an inventory of high alpine lakes in the Austrian Alps located above an altitude of 1700 m asl. Most of these lakes are assumed to be of glacial origin, but other causes for development, like mass movements are considered as well. The inventory is a central part of the project FUTURELAKES that aims at modelling the potential development of glacial lakes in Austria (we refer to the presentation by Helfricht et al. during the conference for more details on the modelling part). Lake inventory data will serve as one basis for model validation since modelling is performed on different time steps using glacier inventory data. The purpose of the lake inventory is to get new insights into boundary conditions for lake formation and evolution by analysing existing lake settings. Based on these information the project seeks to establish a model of lake sedimentation after glacier retreat in order to assess the potential lifetime of the new lakes in Austria. Lakes with a minimum size of 1000 m² were mapped using multiple aerial imagery sources. The dataset contains information on location, geometry, dam type, and status of sedimentation for each lake. Additionally, various geologic, geomorphic and morphometric parameters describe the lake catchments. Lake data is related to

  12. Impacts of Austrian Climate Variability on Honey Bee Mortality (United States)

    Switanek, Matt; Brodschneider, Robert; Crailsheim, Karl; Truhetz, Heimo


    Global food production, as it is today, is not possible without pollinators such as the honey bee. It is therefore alarming that honey bee populations across the world have seen increased mortality rates in the last few decades. The challenges facing the honey bee calls into question the future of our food supply. Beside various infectious diseases, Varroa destructor is one of the main culprits leading to increased rates of honey bee mortality. Varroa destructor is a parasitic mite which strongly depends on honey bee brood for reproduction and can wipe out entire colonies. However, climate variability may also importantly influence honey bee breeding cycles and bee mortality rates. Persistent weather events affects vegetation and hence foraging possibilities for honey bees. This study first defines critical statistical relationships between key climate indicators (e.g., precipitation and temperature) and bee mortality rates across Austria, using 6 consecutive years of data. Next, these leading indicators, as they vary in space and time, are used to build a statistical model to predict bee mortality rates and the respective number of colonies affected. Using leave-one-out cross validation, the model reduces the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) by 21% with respect to predictions made with the mean mortality rate and the number of colonies. Furthermore, a Monte Carlo test is used to establish that the model's predictions are statistically significant at the 99.9% confidence level. These results highlight the influence of climate variables on honey bee populations, although variability in climate, by itself, cannot fully explain colony losses. This study was funded by the Austrian project 'Zukunft Biene'.

  13. 5th Austrian Hungarian workshop on celestial mechanics (United States)

    Süli, Áron


    The 5th Hungarian-Austrian Workshop on Celestial Mechanics took place from 9th until the 10th of April 2010 in Vienna, Austria. The workshop was held in the Institute for Astronomy of Vienna University. From the Eötvös University and from the host institute experts and PhD students gathered together to discuss the challenges and new results of the actual problems of celestial mechanics. The workshop was held in the meeting room at the Sternwarte of the Vienna University located in a magnificent park in the heart of Vienna. Following the themes of the four previous events the focus for this workshop ranged from the Trojan problem, dynamics in binary star systems and exoplanetray systems. We were pleased to acknowledge the support of the host university. The talks were characterized by a large spectrum, which is typical of the workshops on celestial mechanics. Several talks discussed different aspects of the trojan problem, such as the three Trojan Problem, dynamics of trojan-like planets in binary stars, the frequencies of their motion around the triangular lagrangian points, etc. Several speakers focused on the formation of planetary systems and on the field of exoplanetary systems, like exoplanetary systems in higher order mean motion resonances, formation of planets in binary systems, stability of exomoons etc. Some of the presentation used sophisticated mathematical tools in order to understand mean motion resonances, the Sitnikov problem applying the KAM and the Nekhoroshev theorem. The theme of a number of talks was the motion of Solar System bodies: dynamics of the newly discovered moons of Pluto and of near-Earth asteroids. General problems were also addressed, among others chaos in Hamiltonian systems, adaptive Lie-integration method and iterative solution approximation to the generalised Sitnikov problem.

  14. Occupational accidents with mowing machines in Austrian agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kogler


    Full Text Available The number of recognized accidents during agricultural work is still very high in Austria. In the years 2008 to 2009, there occurred 84 approved work accidents with mowing machines. The main causes of accidents were the loss of control of machines, transportations or conveyances, hand tools, objects or animals. In the literature, numerous studies of general agricultural and forestry accident situations are available. Detailed studies on specific types of agricultural machines, which describe concrete circumstances and causes of accidents, are in limited numbers. The accident database from the General Accident Insurance Institution and the Austrian Social Insurance Institution of Farmers, with personal and accidental data information about mowing machine accidents, were analyzed. The results showed that most accidents occurred on mixed agricultural farms (68%. The majority of the injured persons were male (86%, over 40-years-old (86% with an agricultural or forestry education (91%. The most common accidents occurred in the summer months (69% and on afternoons during the working week (79%. The majority of accidents were caused by contact with the machine (55% and the loss of control (73% during their operation (60% and harvesting work (63%. The most frequently injuries were wounds, fractures and superficial injuries (81% to the upper and lower extremities (66%. The results of the chi-square test showed significant correlations between the specific task with the form of contact, the working process, the day and season. Results of the odds ratio determination showed an increased risk of suffering serious injury for men in the first half of the year and half of the day due to loss of control over the machine during agricultural harvesting work.

  15. No Austrians in South Tyrol? Why the German-speaking community in Italy’s South Tyrol (Alto Adige province is not usually called an Austrian minority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Julian Emanuel Volkmer


    Full Text Available No Austrians in South Tyrol? Why the German-speaking community in Italy’s South Tyrol (Alto Adige province is not usually called an Austrian minority The article discusses the question why the German-speakers in Northern Italy’s South Tyrol province are only very rarely referred to as an Austrian minority, in spite of the fact that they were split off from Austria, and not Germany, in the aftermath of World War I. An analysis of the naming of German-speaking South Tyroleans in German, Austrian, Italian and English-speaking news media, which demonstrates a preference for terms such as “German-speaking minority” or “German minority” over “Austrian minority and equivalents, is followed by a discussion of three hypotheses to account for the situation. The author shows how the question of how to name the German-speaking South Tyroleans is closely intertwined with the issue of Austrian national identity and its re-orientation away from Germany in the aftermath of the Second World War. The author comes to the conclusion that the minority is not usually referred to as Austrian both due to the fact that it is difficult to include them in the young (civic Austrian nation in a logically consistent manner, and due to the German-speaking South Tyroleans’ own inconsistent self-identification as Austrians.   Nie ma Austriaków w Tyrolu Południowym? Dlaczego niemieckojęzyczna wspólnota we włoskiej prowincji Tyrol Południowy (Alto Adige zwykle nie jest nazywana mniejszością austriacką Artykuł podejmuje kwestię, dlaczego niemieckojęzyczna ludność północnowłoskiej prowincji Tyrol Południowy rzadko bywa nazywana mniejszością austriacką, pomimo tego że w efekcie I wojny światowej odłączona została ona od Austrii, a nie od Niemiec. Analiza nazewnictwa odnoszonego do niemieckojęzycznej ludności Tyrolu Południowego, które występuje w informacyjnych środkach przekazu: niemiecko-, austriacko-, włosko- i angloj

  16. A Lightning Detector Onboard Austrian Nanosatellite (LiNSAT) (United States)

    Jaffer, G.; Koudelka, O.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Eichelberger, H.


    This paper presents architecture of a lightning detector onboard future Austrian Lightning Nanosatellite (LiNSAT) in low-earth-orbit (LEO) and results of two terrestrial measurement campaigns to geo-locate and discriminate lightning types in presence of noise sources. The LiNSAT is proposed to be launched with three satellites constellation for the purpose of Time-of-Arrival technique. Our main scientific objective is to investigate lightning events by the observation of VHF electromagnetic signals (Sferics) and to derive the signatures of lightning. One of the important parameters is lightning flash rate, which can be used as a proxy for locating severe weather activity. Another objective is to discriminate the discharges of lightning events evaluated by the inherent features and to differentiate cloud discharges (IC; intercloud and Intracloud) from ground discharges (CG; cloud-to-ground), return strokes, leaders and transionospheric pulse pairs. The discrimination is important because the ratio of the two (IC/CG) is a good indicator of convective storm development. We conducted two measurement campaigns; one for artificial lightning produced in high voltage chamber and second natural lightning recorded at urban environment. We focus mainly on envelopes of the received time series including noisy features and narrowband carriers to extract characteristic parameters. We determined the chamber inter-walls distance by considering reflections in the first measurements. Initially the algorithm for the instruments onboard electronics has been developed and verified in Matlab and will be transformed to machine language. Next consideration is to use existing lightning data from previous French mission “DEMETER” to validate the accomplished results. The lightning detector onboard has to perform tasks like determination of pulse-width, pulse-count, pulse rise/fall time etc; we get noise possibly from narrowband carriers and artifacts from satellite itself (EMC) in

  17. Reactor Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ait Abderrahim, A


    The Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis of reactor fuel. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised.

  18. Reactor safeguards

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Charles R


    Reactor Safeguards provides information for all who are interested in the subject of reactor safeguards. Much of the material is descriptive although some sections are written for the engineer or physicist directly concerned with hazards analysis or site selection problems. The book opens with an introductory chapter on radiation hazards, the construction of nuclear reactors, safety issues, and the operation of nuclear reactors. This is followed by separate chapters that discuss radioactive materials, reactor kinetics, control and safety systems, containment, safety features for water reactor

  19. Reactor operation

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, J


    Reactor Operation covers the theoretical aspects and design information of nuclear reactors. This book is composed of nine chapters that also consider their control, calibration, and experimentation.The opening chapters present the general problems of reactor operation and the principles of reactor control and operation. The succeeding chapters deal with the instrumentation, start-up, pre-commissioning, and physical experiments of nuclear reactors. The remaining chapters are devoted to the control rod calibrations and temperature coefficient measurements in the reactor. These chapters also exp

  20. Monitoring Language Skills in Austrian Primary (Elementary) Schools: A Case Study. (United States)

    Zangl, Renate


    Provides an overview of how language skills in young learners have been assessed in two primary school contexts, carried out in a total of seven Austrian primary schools. The schools took part in an initiative where the integration of a foreign language was introduced when children entered primary school at the age of six. (Author/VWL)

  1. PCDD/F and PCB levels in Austrian cow's milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanner, G.; Moche, W. [Umweltbundesamt Wien (Austria)


    In 2003 the Federal Environment Agency carried out a first Austrian wide milk monitoring study with the objective to get an overview of average PCDD/F levels in cow's milk, additionally dioxinlike PCBs, according to WHO, and indicator PCBs, as listed by national regulations, were analysed.

  2. Minority Schools in the South Tyrol and in the Austrian Burgenland: A Comparison of Two Models. (United States)

    Rowley, A. R.


    Presents findings from an empirical study comparing the status of the German minority in the Italian South Tyrol and the Croatian minority in the Austrian Burgenland. The article analyzes observations of actual language use in schools and compares school authorities, curricula, and employment opportunities of the two minorities. (SED)

  3. Quality of Austrian and Dutch Falls-Prevention Information: A Comparative Descriptive Study (United States)

    Schoberer, Daniela; Mijnarends, Donja M.; Fliedner, Monica; Halfens, Ruud J. G.; Lohrmann, Christa


    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the quality of written patient information material available in Austrian and Dutch hospitals and nursing homes pertaining to falls prevention. Design: Comparative descriptive study design Setting: Hospitals and nursing homes in Austria and the Netherlands. Method: Written patient…



    Nesterenko, O.


    F.A. fon Hayek's approach to competition's understanding has been clarified, critical analysis directions of neo-classical model of perfect competition have been analyzed. Specific points of Austrian competitive theory have been determined and scientist ideas evolution to competitive process has been worked out.

  5. Networking for Education for Sustainable Development in Austria: The Austrian ECOLOG-Schools Programme (United States)

    Rauch, Franz


    This case describes networking for education for sustainable development within the Austrian ECOLOG-schools network. The article presents theoretical concepts of networks in education in general, and the organization of the ECOLOG-network in particular. Based upon these foundations, the concept and results of a participatory evaluation study are…

  6. Reactor Neutrinos


    Soo-Bong Kim; Thierry Lasserre; Yifang Wang


    We review the status and the results of reactor neutrino experiments. Short-baseline experiments have provided the measurement of the reactor neutrino spectrum, and their interest has been recently revived by the discovery of the reactor antineutrino anomaly, a discrepancy between the reactor neutrino flux state of the art prediction and the measurements at baselines shorter than one kilometer. Middle and long-baseline oscillation experiments at Daya Bay, Double Chooz, and RENO provided very ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Kolos


    Full Text Available It is shown that the developed technology of melting, pouring, rolling allowed to receive cold-shaped reinforcing steel, corresponding to the requirements of Austrian standard ONORM В 4200. 

  8. Effect of climate index on diameter increment of 40 Austrian pine half-sib lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukin Marina


    Full Text Available The effects of the climate characters and climate index calculated by Thornthwaite-Mather method on diameter increment of Austrian pine trees in the seedling seed orchard on Jelova Gora was studied in the period from 1996 to 2002. The samples for dendrometric analysis were taken from 498 trees in 40 half-sib lines originating from the best natural sites of this species. A strong correlation was determined between the range of precipitation regime and Thornthwaite-Mather climate index, and the development of current diameter increment. The study results indicate that the diameter increment of Austrian pine increases considerably with the increase of humidity, regardless of the relatively modest demands regarding the site productive characteristics.

  9. Praxeology and the firm: a contribution to the Austrian redefinition of the economic organization problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Ivan


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to syntetize theory of entrepreneurship of the Austrian School of economics with the contractual theory of the firm. Transaction cost theory of Ronald Coase and his followers holds that the firm is the organization with dominant component of ordering, while market is defined by competition and rivalry. But, market also includes interdependency and cooperation, such as in the case of cartel. Therefore non-competitive forms of economic coordination are not specificity for the firm, and can be observed in the open market as well. Agency theory rejects the notion of the firm as a hierarchy, and it is based on completeness of knowledge and contract. Theory of entrepreneurship and monetary calculation of Austrian School enables us to integrate contractual theory into the theoretical setting characterized by uncertainty, information asymmetry and positive transaction costs.

  10. Austrian Capital Theory and the Link Between Entrepreneurship and the Theory of the Firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.;


    Several writers link entrepreneurship to asset ownership, trying to incorporatethe theory of entrepreneurship into the theory of the firm. The critical link, weargue, is capital heterogeneity. Transaction cost, property rights, and resourcebasedapproaches to the firm assume that assets, both...... tangible and intangible,are heterogeneous; arranging these assets to minimize contractual hazards, toprovide efficient investment incentives, or to exploit competitive advantage isconceived as the prime task of economic organization. None of these approaches,however, is based on a systematic theory...... of capital heterogeneity. Inthis paper we outline the approach to capital developed by the Austrian schoolof economics and integrate it into an entrepreneurial theory of the firm. We refineAustrian capital theory by defining capital heterogeneity in terms of subjectivelyperceived attributes, that is...

  11. Manmade radionuclide vector in Austrian soil and vegetation near Temelin nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinojmeri, M.; Ringer, V. [Oesterreichische Agentur fuer Gesundheit und Ernaehrungssicherheit - AGES (Austria)


    Since Chernobyl NPP accident an environmental monitoring program concerning the Upper Austrian region near Czech Republic Nuclear Power Plant, NPP Temelin, is in progress between AGES and BMLFUV, the Austrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment, Water and Food, in Austria. This paper presents the results obtained during the sampling campaign over biennial period of 2010-2011. Soil samples, grass and different cereal species were collected. Beside Cs-134, Cs-137 and Sr-89, Sr-90 isotopes, at this phase the number of isotopes determined was extended with plutonium isotopes Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241 and Am-241. A comparison of these results with the existing data so far is presented. New knowledge was obtained related the bio-kinetic parameters of these elements in the environment. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  12. Negotiating Partnership: How Serbian Hauzmajstor Established a Business Relationship with Austrian Rustler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Vučinić-Nešković


    Full Text Available This study is an account of how Serbian Hauzmajstor negotiated and entered into partnership with the Austrian Rustler. The introduction is devoted to the development of Hauzmajstor, a small real estate maintenance firm, founded by a Serbian repatriate in 2004. Beginning with its start up as the first daughter firm of Komon sens, a consulting and project development firm, the study follows its adaptation to the local business environment, concentrating on its organizational and business culture. The focus of the study is on the detailed description and analysis of experiences of the Hauzmajstor insiders with the Austrian Rustler, first as a potential, and later as an actual partner. In the end, a view from the other side, i.e. perceptions of Hauzmajstor by the Rustler Group area manager are given.

  13. Susceptibility of Austrian Clinical Klebsiella and Enterobacter Isolates Linked to Patient-Related Data


    Badura, Alexandra; Pregartner, Gudrun; Holzer, Judith C.; Feierl, Gebhard; Grisold, Andrea J.


    The aim of the study was to analyze the antimicrobial susceptibility of Austrian clinical Klebsiella sp. and Enterobacter sp. isolates linked to patient-related data over a time period from 1998 to 2014. The main findings of this study were (i) a marked difference of antibiotic susceptibility rates between different infection sites for both Klebsiella sp. and Enterobacter sp., (ii) significantly greater percentages of resistant isolates among both Klebsiella sp. and Enterobacter sp. in male p...

  14. Integrating English as a Foreign Language in Austrian primary schools: contextual and participant perspectives


    Millonig, Diana Jean


    Government guidelines in Austria specify that first and second year primary school pupils (age 6-8 years old) should receive their first teaching of a foreign language integrated into the syllabus subjects. The present study, embedded in the theoretical framework of social constructivist learning and socio-cultural language learning theories, investigated the actual classroom practices of Austrian primary school teachers during the integration of English into the lessons. The main research...

  15. Austrian parliament adopts legislation on income tax reform, ESPN Flash Report


    Fink, Marcel


    On 7 July 2015, the National Assembly of the Austrian parliament adopted the Tax Reform Act 2015/2016. This encompassing reform comprises no less than 43 different measures, of which major changes to income tax is one of the most important. Income tax will be reduced for most taxpayers from 2016. However, the positive impact for low-income households will be rather limited.

  16. Phylogenetic analysis of Austrian canine distemper virus strains from clinical samples from dogs and wild carnivores. (United States)

    Benetka, V; Leschnik, M; Affenzeller, N; Möstl, K


    Austrian field cases of canine distemper (14 dogs, one badger [Meles meles] and one stone marten [Martes foina]) from 2002 to 2007 were investigated and the case histories were summarised briefly. Phylogenetic analysis of fusion (F) and haemagglutinin (H) gene sequences revealed different canine distemper virus (CDV) lineages circulating in Austria. The majority of CDV strains detected from 2002 to 2004 were well embedded in the European lineage. One Austrian canine sample detected in 2003, with a high similarity to Hungarian sequences from 2005 to 2006, could be assigned to the Arctic group (phocine distemper virus type 2-like). The two canine sequences from 2007 formed a clearly distinct group flanked by sequences detected previously in China and the USA on an intermediate position between the European wildlife and the Asia-1 cluster. The Austrian wildlife strains (2006 and 2007) could be assigned to the European wildlife group and were most closely related to, yet clearly different from, the 2007 canine samples. To elucidate the epidemiological role of Austrian wildlife in the transmission of the disease to dogs and vice versa, H protein residues related to receptor and host specificity (residues 530 and 549) were analysed. All samples showed the amino acids expected for their host of origin, with the exception of a canine sequence from 2007, which had an intermediate position between wildlife and canine viral strains. In the period investigated, canine strains circulating in Austria could be assigned to four different lineages reflecting both a high diversity and probably different origins of virus introduction to Austria in different years.

  17. [The Austrian Red Cross and Austrian bacteriologists in the Balkan wars 1912/13 - Centenary of the first application of the bacteriology in theatres of war]. (United States)

    Flamm, Heinz


    When Austria joined the Geneva Convention the "Patriotischer Hilfsverein" (Patriotic Aid Society) which was founded for the concerns of wounded soldiers, was named "Austrian Society of the Red Cross". It had to stand its first big test in 1912 in the first Balkan war; military surgeons and bacteriologists were deployed to all warring states. The cholera dominated under the infectious diseases among the various forces and the civilian populations. Upon request of the Bulgarian king renowned bacteriologists of the University of Vienna were dispatched. Their work presented the first action of bacteriology for disease control on theatres of war. The great success of the surgical and hygienic measures initiated in 1912 a reform of the Austrian Red Cross. In 1913 Austria made a detailed application to the International Committee of the Red Cross in order to extend the Geneva Convention to war epidemics. The Committee forwarded and recommended this application to all member states, however, the outbreak of the First World War then prevented its resolution.

  18. Effects of Renal Denervation Documented in the Austrian National Multicentre Renal Denervation Registry (United States)

    Lambert, Thomas; Steinwender, Clemens; Weber, Thomas; Suppan, Markus; Brussee, Helmut; Koppelstätter, Christian; Kerschbaum, Julia; Watschinger, Bruno; Hohenstein-Scheibenecker, Katharina; Reindl-Schwaighofer, Roman; Sturmberger, Thomas; Kindslehner, Claudia; Weiss, Thomas Werner; Rohla, Miklos; Gruener, Peter; Maister, Petra; Auer, Johann; Dechant, Cornelia; Sykora, Josef; Krismer, Christoph; Glaser, Stefan; Zweiker, Robert


    Renal denervation (RDN) is a new procedure for treatment-resistant hypertensive patients. In order to monitor all procedures undergone in Austria, the Austrian Society of Hypertension established the investigator-initiated Austrian Transcatheter Renal Denervation (TREND) Registry. From April 2011 to September 2014, 407 procedures in 14 Austrian centres were recorded. At baseline, office and mean 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) were 171/94 and 151/89 mmHg, respectively, and patients were taking a median of 4 antihypertensive medications. Mean 24-h ABP changes after 2–6 weeks, 3, 6 and 12 months were -11/-6, -8/-4, -8/-5 and -10/-6 mmHg (p<0.05 at all measurements), respectively. The periprocedural complication rate was 2.5%. Incidence of long-term complications during follow-up (median 1 year) was 0.5%. Office BP and ABP responses showed only a weak correlation (Pearson coefficient 0.303). Based on the data from the TREND registry, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in addition to office BP should be used for patient selection as well as for monitoring response to RDN. Furthermore, criteria for optimal patient selection are suggested. PMID:27529426

  19. Multifunctional reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.


    Multifunctional reactors are single pieces of equipment in which, besides the reaction, other functions are carried out simultaneously. The other functions can be a heat, mass or momentum transfer operation and even another reaction. Multifunctional reactors are not new, but they have received much

  20. Decommissioning of the ASTRA research reactor: Dismantling the auxiliary systems and clearance and reuse of the buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Franz


    Full Text Available The paper presents work performed in the last phase of the decommissioning of the ASTRA research reactor at the Austrian Research Centers Seibersdorf. Dismantling the pump room installations and the ventilation system, as well as the clearance of the buildings is described. Some conclusions and summary data regarding the timetable, material management, and the cost of the entire project are also presented.

  1. Reactor vessel


    Makkee, M.; Kapteijn, F.; Moulijn, J.A


    A reactor vessel (1) comprises a reactor body (2) through which channels (3) are provided whose surface comprises longitudinal inwardly directed parts (4) and is provided with a catalyst (6), as well as buffer bodies (8, 12) connected to the channels (3) on both sides of the reactor body (2) and comprising connections for supplying (9, 10, 11) and discharging (13, 14, 15) via the channels (3) gases and/or liquids entering into a reaction with each other and substances formed upon this reactio...

  2. NUCLEAR REACTOR (United States)

    Miller, H.I.; Smith, R.C.


    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which use a liquid fuel, such as a solution of uranyl sulfate in ordinary water which acts as the moderator. The reactor is comprised of a spherical vessel having a diameter of about 12 inches substantially surrounded by a reflector of beryllium oxide. Conventionnl control rods and safety rods are operated in slots in the reflector outside the vessel to control the operation of the reactor. An additional means for increasing the safety factor of the reactor by raising the ratio of delayed neutrons to prompt neutrons, is provided and consists of a soluble sulfate salt of beryllium dissolved in the liquid fuel in the proper proportion to obtain the result desired.

  3. Reactor Neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Bong Kim


    Full Text Available We review the status and the results of reactor neutrino experiments. Short-baseline experiments have provided the measurement of the reactor neutrino spectrum, and their interest has been recently revived by the discovery of the reactor antineutrino anomaly, a discrepancy between the reactor neutrino flux state of the art prediction and the measurements at baselines shorter than one kilometer. Middle and long-baseline oscillation experiments at Daya Bay, Double Chooz, and RENO provided very recently the most precise determination of the neutrino mixing angle θ13. This paper provides an overview of the upcoming experiments and of the projects under development, including the determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy and the possible use of neutrinos for society, for nonproliferation of nuclear materials, and geophysics.

  4. Chemical Reactors. (United States)

    Kenney, C. N.


    Describes a course, including content, reading list, and presentation on chemical reactors at Cambridge University, England. A brief comparison of chemical engineering education between the United States and England is also given. (JN)

  5. The ACOnet (Austrian Academic Computer Network) is data carrier for teleradiological consultations; Das ACOnet (Austrian Academic Computer Network) als Datentraeger fuer teleradiologische Konsultationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giacomuzzi, S.M. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Innsbruck (Austria)]|[Universitaetsklinik Innsbruck (Austria). Inst. fuer Medizinische Physik; Springer, P.; Dessl, A.; Waldenberger, P.; Buchberger, W.; Bodner, G.; Bale, R.; Jaschke, W. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Innsbruck (Austria); Stoeger, A. [Universitaetsklinik Innsbruck (Austria). Inst. fuer MRI; Schreder, J.G. [Universitaetsklinik Innsbruck (Austria). Inst. fuer Medizinische Physik; Gell, G. [Universitaetsklinik Innsbruck (Austria). Inst. fuer Medizinische Informatik


    Purpose: To assess the feasibility of image transfer for teleradiologic consultations using the Austrian Academic Computer Network (ACOnet). The ACOnet corresponds between the main univerisities to a MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) with a transfer rate of 4 Mbps. Its use is free of charge for university institutions. Materials and methods: 1740 test image data sets and 620 image data sets for teleradiological consultations were exchanged without annotations between the Departments of Diagnostic Radiology of the universities of Innsbruck and Graz, using the ACOnet. Results: Data transmission was reliable and fast with an average transfer capacity of 170.2 kBytes/s (94-341 kBytes/s). There were no major problems with image transfer during the test phase. Conclusion: Due to its high transfer capacity, the ACOnet is considered a reasonable alternative to the ISDN service. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Radiologische Bilddatensaetze sollten fuer telemedizinische Konsultationen mittels des Austrian Academic Computer Network (ACOnet) zwischen den Universitaetskliniken Innsbruck und Graz ausgetauscht werden. Das ACOnet, dessen Benutzung fuer Universitaeten frei ist, entspricht zwischen den Landesuniversitaeten einem MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) mit einer Uebertragungsrate von 4 Mbps. Material und Methode: Die Uebertragung von 1740 Testbilddatensaetzen und 12 radiologischen Konsultationen (620 Bilddatensaetze), ohne Annotationen, zwischen den radiologischen Abteilungen der Universitaetskliniken Innsbruck und Graz zum Zwecke teleradiologischer Konsultationen mittels ACOnet. Ergebnisse: Die Uebertragungen ergaben eine hohe durchschnittliche Uebertragungskapazitaet von 170,2 kBytes/s (94-341 kBytes/s). Das ACOnet erwies sich waehrend der gesamten Testphase als zuverlaessig und praktikabel fuer die Uebertragung teleradiologischer Bilddatensaetze. Schlussfolgerungen: Durch die hohe Uebertragungskapazitaet stellt das ACOnet eine erfolgversprechende Alternative zum ISDN-Service dar

  6. Reactor Neutrinos


    Lasserre, T.; Sobel, H.W.


    We review the status and the results of reactor neutrino experiments, that toe the cutting edge of neutrino research. Short baseline experiments have provided the measurement of the reactor neutrino spectrum, and are still searching for important phenomena such as the neutrino magnetic moment. They could open the door to the measurement of coherent neutrino scattering in a near future. Middle and long baseline oscillation experiments at Chooz and KamLAND have played a relevant role in neutrin...

  7. Austrian dose measurements onboard space station MIR and the International Space Station--overview and comparison. (United States)

    Berger, T; Hajek, M; Summerer, L; Vana, N; Akatov, Y; Shurshakov, V; Arkhangelsky, V


    The Atominstitute of the Austrian Universities has conducted various space research missions in the last 12 years in cooperation with the Institute for Biomedical Problems in Moscow. They dealt with the exact determination of the radiation hazards for cosmonauts and the development of precise measurement devices. Special emphasis will be laid on the last experiment on space station MIR the goal of which was the determination of the depth distribution of absorbed dose and dose equivalent in a water filled Phantom. The first results from dose measurements onboard the International Space Station (ISS) will also be discussed. The spherical Phantom with a diameter of 35 cm was developed at the Institute for Biomedical Problems and had 4 channels where dosimeters can be exposed in different depths. The exposure period covered the timeframe from May 1997 to February 1999. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were exposed inside the Phantom, either parallel or perpendicular to the hull of the spacecraft. For the evaluation of the linear energy transfer (LET), the high temperature ratio (HTR) method was applied. Based on this method a mean quality factor and, subsequently, the dose equivalent is calculated according to the Q(LET infinity) relationship proposed in ICRP 26. An increased contribution of neutrons could be detected inside the Phantom. However the total dose equivalent did not increase over the depth of the Phantom. As the first Austrian measurements on the ISS dosimeter packages were exposed for 248 days, starting in February 2001 at six different locations onboard the ISS. The Austrian dosimeter sets for this first exposure on the ISS contained five different kinds of passive thermoluminescent dosimeters. First results showed a position dependent absorbed dose rate at the ISS.

  8. The knowledge balance of the inter- and transdisciplinary Austrian Landscape Research programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Begusch-Pfefferkorn


    Full Text Available Austrian Landscape Research, a programme of the Austrian Ministry of Science, has created scientific foundations for the sustainable development of Austrian landscapes and regions (plus bordering regions. Landscapes and regions were to be explored from different angles; implementing the research findings was to be part of the research work. The programme was designed to make room for science open to society, for unconventional ideas, methods, and courses of action. Programmatic targets and research principles supported this intent. The results of the programme met with national and international approval. The ALR knowledge balance is an attempt at presenting and assessing the achievements of this comprehensive contract research programme.Le programme du Ministère autrichien des Sciences, intitulé « Recherche sur le paysage autrichien », visait à construire les fondements scientifiques d’un développement durable des paysages et des régions de l’Autriche et des territoires limitrophes. Les paysages et les régions ont été étudiés selon différentes approches disciplinaires et la mise en pratique des résultats de cette étude était partie prenante du programme de recherche. La vocation de ce programme était de faire la place à une science ouverte sur la société, à des idées, méthodes et pratiques non conventionnelles. Les objectifs du programme et les principes de recherche vont dans le sens de ces exigences. Les résultats du programme ont été reconnus sur le plan national et international. Le bilan des connaissances du programme de recherche sur le paysage autrichien (KLF a pour but de présenter et d’évaluer les performances de ce vaste programme de recherche.

  9. The Austrian newspaper «Reichspost» about Hunger in the USSR 1932–1933

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor G. Ivantcov


    Full Text Available The Article is devoted to one of the tragic pages of history of the USSR, the famine of 1932–1933. Closeness of archival documents in the Soviet period on the subject was the cause of much speculation, as in post-Soviet Russia and in other former Soviet republics. Moreover, in many studies appeared quite mystical figure of 10 million dead from starvation. The article is completely one from the archives, namely early translation of the article from the Austrian newspaper «Reichpost» where it was first announced this figure.

  10. Feasibility and acceptance of biofeedback-assisted mental training in an Austrian elementary school: a pilot study. (United States)

    Crevenna, Richard; Krammer, Christine; Keilani, Mohammad


    This pilot study aimed to investigate feasibility, acceptance, and effects of biofeedback-assisted mental training in a population of fifteen 10-year-old pupils in an Austrian elementary school. Participants were instructed in relaxation techniques by using biofeedback. Before intervention, after 6 weeks with active mental training and with regular instructions by the teacher, and after a further time period of 6 weeks without instructions, attention and concentration improved. The results indicate feasibility, good acceptance, and beneficial effects of biofeedback-assisted mental techniques in Austrian elementary school pupils.

  11. Austrian's syndrome: The first described case of pneumococcal meningitis pneumonia and endocarditis in an injecting drug user. (United States)

    Beadsworth, Mike B J; Wooton, Dan; Chenzbraun, Adrian; Beeching, Nick J


    We describe the first reported case of Austrian's syndrome in an injecting drug user (IDU). The triad of endocarditis, meningitis and pneumonia caused by invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is most commonly associated with excess alcohol. Injecting drug use is a recognised risk factor for IPD, whose prevalence and resistance continue to rise. We propose that injecting drug use is associated with Austrian's syndrome and that it should at least be considered in 'at risk' groups presenting with IPD. Furthermore, IDU presenting with IPD, meningitis and pneumonia should be considered for echocardiography.

  12. High concentrations of anthocyanins in genuine cherry-juice of old local Austrian Prunus avium varieties. (United States)

    Schüller, Elisabeth; Halbwirth, Heidi; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Slatnar, Ana; Veberic, Robert; Forneck, Astrid; Stich, Karl; Spornberger, Andreas


    Antioxidant activity and polyphenols were quantified in vapour-extracted juice of nine Austrian, partially endemic varieties of sweet cherry (Prunus avium): cv. 'Spätbraune von Purbach', cv. 'Early Rivers', cv. 'Joiser Einsiedekirsche', cv. 'Große Schwarze Knorpelkirsche' and four unidentified local varieties. Additionally the effect of storage was evaluated for six of the varieties. A variety showing the highest antioxidant capacity (9.64 μmol Trolox equivalents per mL), total polyphenols (2747 mg/L) and total cyanidins (1085 mg/L) was suitable for mechanical harvest and its juice did not show any losses of antioxidant capacity and total anthocyanin concentration during storage. The juice of cv. 'Große Schwarze Knorpelkirsche' had also high concentrations of total anthocyanins (873 mg/L), but showed substantial losses through storage. The local Austrian sweet cherry varieties from the Pannonian climate zone are particularly suitable for the production of processed products like cherry juice with high content of anthocyanins and polyphenols.

  13. Renal infarction as a presentation of Austrian syndrome: thromboembolic phenomenon of pneumococcal endocarditis. (United States)

    Mankongpaisarnrung, Charoen; Soontrapa, Suthipong; Nantsupawat, Teerapat; Desai, Vipul; Nugent, Kenneth


    A 52-year-old unvaccinated and splenectomized man presented with fever, altered sensorium, bilateral flank pain and chest discomfort accompanied with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation with a rapid ventricular response. An abdominal computed tomography scan was performed, which revealed a right renal infarct and splenosis. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed, which demonstrated an echodense structure on the mitral valve with mitral regurgitation and a vegetation on the aortic valve with aortic regurgitation. Subsequently, he was found to have pneumococcal infective endocarditis, pneumococcal pneumonia and bacterial meningitis, namely Austrian syndrome. He underwent an early aortic valve and mitral valve repair but still had a poor clinical outcome. Renal infarction has a mortality of approximately 13.2%, which is strongly influenced by the underlying diseases and infectious complications. Medical and surgical treatment initiated in a timely manner is often inadequate. The authors report the first case of Austrian syndrome presenting with renal infarction as a clue to an embolic event associated with infective endocarditis in this study.

  14. The Austrian health reform 2013 is promising but requires continuous political ambition. (United States)

    Hofmarcher, Maria M


    The Austrian health system is much more complex and fragmented than in other OECD countries. In 2013 legislation was adopted to enhance efficiency through better balancing care provision across providers by promoting new primary care models and better coordination of care. Reform objectives should be achieved by cooperative and unified decision making across key stakeholders and by adherence to a budget cap that prescribes fiscal containment on the order of 3.4 billion Euros until 2016. This is priced into the envisaged savings of the current consolidation program. Efforts have been made to bridge the accountability divide by establishing agreements and administrative layers to govern the health system by objectives. Yet, more could have been achieved. For example, cross-stakeholder pooling of funds for better contracting governance and effective purchasing across care settings could have been introduced. This would have required addressing over capacity and fragmentation within social security. At the same time, legal provisions for cooperative governance between Sickness Funds and the governments on the regional level should have been stipulated. The Austrian 2013 reform is interesting to other countries as it aims to ensure better-balanced care at a sustainable path by employing a public management approach to governance relations across key payers of care.

  15. Austrian pine phenolics are likely contributors to systemic induced resistance against Diplodia pinea. (United States)

    Sherwood, Patrick; Bonello, Pierluigi


    The molecular basis of the systemic induced resistance (SIR) phenotype known to occur in Austrian pine (Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold) in response to the tip blight and canker pathogen Diplodia pinea (Desm.) remains unclear. Specialized metabolites such as phenolics are considered to be an important component of plant defense, including SIR, but the antimicrobial activity of many of these putative defensive chemicals remains untested at realistic concentrations and in conjunction with each other. Here, we examined the anti-Diplodia activity of several previously identified Austrian pine phenolics associated with SIR by comparing the diameters of fungal colonies grown on media amended with ferulic acid, coumaric acid, taxifolin, pinosylvin, pinosylvin monomethyl ether and lignin. All of the compounds were tested both individually and as clusters (combinations) previously determined to occur in planta in a co-regulated fashion. Both the individual compounds and clusters were tested at constitutive concentrations and pathogen-induced concentrations linked to an SIR phenotype. Lignin possessed the strongest antifungal activity individually, and clusters at the SIR concentrations had the greatest antifungal effects, achieving fungistasis. This study exemplifies the value of evaluating potential biomarkers of resistance at in planta concentrations that are associated with the systemically resistant phenotype, and provides strong evidence that co-regulation of chemical defenses potentiates such a phenotype.

  16. Water demand for ski resort development in the Austrian Alps: an Overview (United States)

    Breiling, M.; Sokratov, S.


    Austria has the highest national added value from winter tourism in Europe, as well as worldwide. 15.7 million arrivals were counted in Austrian accommodation establishments in the 2010/11 winter season. There were more than 62 million overnight stays and 51.2 million skier-days were consumed. 588 million transports were carried out by more than 3000 lifts (cable cars, chair lifts and T-bars). Including indirect and induced effects, this resulted in more than 10 billion euros in added value being generated. The lack of snow in many Austrian skiing areas during the 2006/2007 winter season demonstrated the extent to which meteorological conditions influence operations. Declines in the number of skiers transported and total skier days were the result. The cable-car operators also had to struggle with little snow in the 2010/2011 winter. The Austrian Cable Car Operators' Association stated that the opening of 70-80% of all skiing areas outside of the peak season could only be assured through the use of snowmaking equipment. The central criterion for winter sports enthusiasts to make a trip is the guarantee that they will find snow at their destination and Austria's cable-car operators invest more than 100 million euros in the erection and improvement of snowmaking complexes every year to satisfy this deand. In the 2010/2011 season, this provided for 17,800 jobs. Cable car operators set up snowmaking equipment to become independent from meteorological conditions and improve the capacity utilisation of their expensive investments in transport systems in the early winter. Austria has a skiing area of around 25,400 hectares - around 17,000 hectares at altitudes between 600m and 3200m are currently suitable for snowmaking. As much as 70% of the snow is produced immediately before the start of the season. This recent trend is responsible that the irrigation pattern of Austrian land use changed significantly in the last decade. Previously maize fields and low lands in summer

  17. Sonochemical Reactors. (United States)

    Gogate, Parag R; Patil, Pankaj N


    Sonochemical reactors are based on the generation of cavitational events using ultrasound and offer immense potential for the intensification of physical and chemical processing applications. The present work presents a critical analysis of the underlying mechanisms for intensification, available reactor configurations and overview of the different applications exploited successfully, though mostly at laboratory scales. Guidelines have also been presented for optimum selection of the important operating parameters (frequency and intensity of irradiation, temperature and liquid physicochemical properties) as well as the geometric parameters (type of reactor configuration and the number/position of the transducers) so as to maximize the process intensification benefits. The key areas for future work so as to transform the successful technique at laboratory/pilot scale into commercial technology have also been discussed. Overall, it has been established that there is immense potential for sonochemical reactors for process intensification leading to greener processing and economic benefits. Combined efforts from a wide range of disciplines such as material science, physics, chemistry and chemical engineers are required to harness the benefits at commercial scale operation.

  18. Austrian visit

    CERN Multimedia


    Hans Hoffmann, Director for Technology Transfer and Scientific Computing, and Maria Rauch-Kallat, Minister of Health and Women's Issues, Austria, signing the visitors' book.Maria Rauch-Kallat, Minister of Health and Women's Issues, Austria, was welcomed by Hans Hoffmann, Director for Technology Transfer and Scientific Computing, on her visit to CERN on 19 May 2003. The theme of the visit was Technology Transfer and spin-offs from CERN for medical applications. Maria Rauch-Kallat toured also the installations of ATLAS.

  19. "Gender-into-Teaching" at the Vienna University of Technology. Experiences and Reflections on an Austrian Project (United States)

    Knoll, Bente; Ratzer, Brigitte


    "Gender-into-teaching" is the first Austrian project to develop strategies on how to implement gender topics at a technical university. This project can really be qualified as a model for other universities and as unique in Austria. Up to now, there are many more males in higher-level positions in the university hierarchies. The--very…

  20. What Does It Take to Be an Adult in Austria? Views of Adulthood in Austrian Adolescents, Emerging Adults, and Adults (United States)

    Sirsch, Ulrike; Dreher, Eva; Mayr, Eva; Willinger, Ulrike


    The present study examined the defining features of emerging adulthood, subjects' conceptions of the transition to adulthood, and the perceived adult status in Austria. The sample consisted of 775 subjects (226 adolescents, 317 emerging adults, 232 adults). Results showed that most Austrian emerging adults feel themselves to be between adolescence…

  1. Epidemiology of allergies in Austria. Results of the first Austrian allergy report. (United States)

    Dorner, Thomas; Lawrence, Kitty; Rieder, Anita; Kunze, Michael


    The first Austrian Allergy Report is a compilation of all available epidemiological data relating to allergies in Austria. According to this report the cumulative prevalence of allergies in the Viennese population is 27.6% for men and 32.2% for women and the period prevalence in the year before questioning 19.6% and 22.4% respectively. 20.8% of men and 23.1% of women reported about allergies at health examinations. However, an allergy sensitivity to at least one inhalation allergen, verifiable by means of a prick test, is detectable in 50.8% of the general population and in 39.3% of those free from ailments. Analysis of the hospital discharge statistics of all Austrian hospitals shows that around 12,000 people per year were admitted on grounds of an allergy. In accordance with international studies some population sub groups are more often affected than others. Women suffer from allergies somewhat more frequently than men, although the sex difference is reversed among children. Allergies occur in all age groups, with most studies showing that people in their twenties are most frequently affected. People with higher levels of education, in more highly qualified jobs and living in urban areas are more commonly affected by allergies than people from lower socio-economic levels and rural communities. The internationally identified increase in trend can also be identified in Austria with a 2fold, 3.6fold, and 4.6fold increase in the prevalence of hay fever, asthma and atopic eczema respectively, determined from the military health examinations of all recruits for national service between 1986 and 2003/04, although a clear decline in allergy prevalence was registered between 2003/04 and 2005. Health reports like the first Austrian Allergy Report provide the basis for international comparison of basic data. These data also enable the evaluation of the impact of different diseases on the health system as well as the development of public health strategies.

  2. Endocrine disrupters in the aquatic environment: the Austrian approach--ARCEM. (United States)

    Bursch, W; Fuerhacker, M; Gemeiner, M; Grillitsch, B; Jungbauer, A; Kreuzinger, N; Moestl, E; Scharf, S; Schmid, E; Skutan, S; Walter, I


    A consortium of Austrian scientists (ARCEM) carried out a multidisciplinary environmental study on Austrian surface and ground waters including chemical monitoring, bioindication, risk assessment and risk management for selected endocrine disrupters: 17beta-estradiol, estriol, estrone, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, 4-nonylphenol, 4-nonylphenol ethoxylates (4-NP1EO, 4-NP2EO) and their degradation products, ocytlphenol, ocytlphenol ethoxylates (OP1EO, OP2EO) as well as bisphenol A. To obtain data representative for Austria, a material flow analysis served to select relevant compounds and water samples were collected monthly over one year at those sites routinely used in Austrian water quality control. The following results were obtained and conclusions drawn: 1. Chemical monitoring: As compared to other countries, relatively low levels of pollution with endocrine disrupters were detected. 2. Bioindication: In the surface waters under study, male fish showed significant signs of feminization and demasculinization (increased production of the egg-yolk protein and histological changes of the gonads. 3. Risk assessment: For humans, exposure via either drinking water abstraction (ground water) or fish consumption was considered. The exposure levels of the compounds under study were below those considered to result in human health risks. Likewise, for bisphenol A and octylphenols, there was no indication for risk posed upon the aquatic environment (fish). However, nonylphenol or 17alpha-ethinylestradiol exposure along with results of bioindication (2) suggest a borderline estrogenic activity in a considerable number of surface waters. Consequently the emissions of these substances into the surface waters affected have to be reduced. 4. Risk management: Waste water treatment experiments revealed a positive correlation between the removal rate of endocrine disrupters from the waste water and the sludge retention time in the treatment plants. These substances are removed to a

  3. Assessment of climate change impact on SOM balance with the Austrian Carbon Calculator (United States)

    Franko, Uwe; Gründling, Ralf; Sedy, Katrin; Zethner, Gerhard; Formayer, Herbert


    Soil organic matter (SOM) balance depends on climate and climate change due to the impact on SOM turnover conditions as well as on cropping and crop yields. The Austrian Carbon calculator (ACC) is a tool for the comparison of future land use scenarios with the current agriculture in order to identify opportunities to sustain the SOM balance. The ACC can be used in a regional mode as well as in local mode for the assessment of single farm fields. The assessment is based on the concept of Biologic Active Time (BAT). BAT is calculated based on soil data from the Austrian eBod map and climate data for past and future on a 1 km grid. The ACC was implemented for the regions Mühlviertel and Marchfeld. Crop yields are calculated based on statistics from the Austrian agricultural sub regions "Kleinproduktionsgebiet" for the most common crops. The regional scenarios consist of the abundance of crops, the part of nitrogen added as mineral fertilizer and the part of irrigation. The local soil management is calculated based on crop rotations with yields, organic amendments, irrigation and the tillage system (ploughed or not ploughed). The SOM balance is assessed with the reproduction index (REP_IX) that is calculated as the quotient from carbon reproduction (Carbon flux into SOM) and the BAT value. This way REP_IX includes the impact from management as well as from climate. If the future management will not change REP_IX the SOM balance will be the same as well. This methodology helps to adapt the management to future conditions to sustain the current SOM conditions without an absolute assessment if the current SOM state is optimal or not. The regional results of ACC will be made available as thematic maps on the project web site. For local applications farmer can use the tool to analyze their special site conditions and management plans to assess the management options under climate change conditions. The described concept can be improved if reliable information about the

  4. Projected Numbers of Ischemic Strokes Recorded in the Austrian Stroke-Unit Registry from 2012 to 2075 (United States)

    Trinka, Eugen; Seyfang, Leonard; Mutzenbach, Sebastian; Stadler, Katharina; Pikija, Slaven; Killer, Monika; Broussalis, Erasmia


    Background and Purpose This study analyzed the number of patients with ischemic strokes recorded in the Austrian Stroke-Unit Registry with the aim of projecting this number from 2012 to 2075 and to highlight that the Austrian health system will face a dramatic increase in older patients within the next few decades. Methods Current demographic information was obtained from EUROSTAT, and information on age- and sex-stratified 1-year incidence rates of ischemic stroke were obtained from the Austrian Stroke-Unit Registry. Sensitivity analysis was performed by analyzing the projections based on predicted ageing, main, and growth population scenarios, and with stratification by age and gender. Results The total number of ischemic strokes recorded in the Austrian Stroke-Unit Registry was 8,690 in 2012 and is expected to increase to 15,826, 15,626, or 18,134 in 2075 according to the ageing, main, and growth scenarios, respectively. The corresponding numbers of patients are projected to increase or decrease within different age strata as follows (100%=number of registered ischemic strokes in 2012): 0–40 years, 100%/99% (males/females); 40–50 years, 83%/83%; 50–60 years, 98%/97%; 60–70 years, 126%/119%; 70–80 years, 159%/139%; 80–90 years, 307%/199%; and 90+ years, 894%/413%. Conclusions The ageing population in Austria will result in the number of patients increasing considerably from 2012 to 2075, to 182%, 180%, or 208% (relative to 100% in 2012) according to the ageing, main, and growth scenarios, respectively; the corresponding value among those aged 80+ years is 315%, 290%, or 347%. These figures demonstrated the importance of improving primary preventive measures. The results of this study should provide a basis for discussions among health-care professionals and economists to face the future large financial burden of ischemic stroke on the Austrian health system.

  5. The archives of the glacier survey of the Austrian Alpine Club (United States)

    Fischer, Andrea; Bendler, Gebhard


    The archive of the Austrian Alpine Club holds masses of material on glaciers and their former extent. The material includes descriptions and sketches of the summits conquered by early mountaineers, mapping campaigns and data from early scientific expeditions as well as data on glacier length change. To date a large proportion of the glaciological information in the material has not been catalogued or analysed. As cold ice, containing relevant climate information, might still exist at the highest peaks of Austria, a pilot project was started to collect some of the data of two test sites in Tyrol, in Silvretta and Ötztal Alps, to reveal former summit shapes and glacier tongue positions. Additional information on the number and position of crevasses as well as firn extent is often evident from the material. Challenging tasks not yet tackled are compiling a catalogue of the material and defining an analysis scheme.

  6. The Dual Listing of Austrian Companies in Vienna and Frankfurt: Dependence Analysis

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    Lukasz Gurgul


    Full Text Available International capital flows can be hampered by a variety of barriers such as transaction costs, information costs, and legal restrictions. The solution in this situation can be dual listing. The framework of the research presented here assumes that domestic securities are dually listed on a foreign capital market, while none of the foreign securities is dually listed on the domestic capital market. This paper is concerned with a dependence analysis of the log-levels and returns of Austrian stocks listed in Frankfurt and Vienna. The important issue is dynamic linear and non-linear causality between log-levels (returns of prices and the indices ATX and DAX. In this context the important directions of causality are found along with the level of relations of the selected types of causality.

  7. Requirements for Electronic Delivery Systems in eGovernment - An Austrian Experience (United States)

    Tauber, Arne

    Electronic mailing systems are the dominant communication systems in private and business matters. Public administrations deliver documents to citizens and businesses - subpoenas, legal verdicts, notifications, administrative penalties etc. However, official activities are more strongly linked to legal regulations than in civil law. Delivery of crucial and strictly personal documents raises the demand for qualified identification and non-repudiation services as featured by registered mail in the paper world. Legal requirements for electronic delivery carried-out by public administrations (eDelivery) cannot be fulfilled by standard certified mailing systems. Although the requirements for eDelivery systems may differ due to national legal regulations, this paper discusses common requirements and challenges on an abstract level. Moreover, we show how these requirements have been addressed by introducing the Austrian eDelivery system for eGovernment applications.

  8. Austrian Business Cycle Theory: Are 100 Percent Reserves Sufficient to Prevent a Business Cycle?

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    Philipp Bagus


    Full Text Available Authors in the Austrian tradition have made the credit expansion of a fractional reserve banking system as the prime cause of business cycles. Authors such as Selgin (1988 and White (1999 have argued that a solution to this problem would be a free banking system. They maintain that the competition between banks would limit the credit expansion effectively. Other authors such as Rothbard (1991 and Huerta de Soto (2006 have gone further and advocated a 100 percent reserve banking system ruling out credit expansion altogether. In this article it is argued that a 100 percent reserve system can still bring about business cycles through excessive maturity mismatching between deposits and loans.

  9. Case study of a fast propagating bacteriogenically induced concrete corrosion in an Austrian sewer system (United States)

    Grengg, Cyrill; Mittermayr, Florian; Baldermann, Andre; Böttcher, Michael; Leis, Albrecht; Koraimann, Günther; Dietzel, Martin


    Reaction mechanisms leading to microbially induced concrete corrosion (MICC) are highly complex and often not fully understood. The aim of the present case study is to contribute to a deeper understanding of reaction paths, environmental controls, and corrosion rates related to MICC in a modern Austrian sewer system by introducing an advanced multi proxy approach that comprises gaseous, hydro-geochemical, bacteriological, and mineralogical analyses. Various crucial parameters for detecting alteration features were determined in the field and laboratory, including (i) temperature, pH, alkalinity, chemical compositions of the solutions, (ii) chemical and mineralogical composition of solids, (iii) bacterial analysis, and (iv) concentrations of gaseous H2S, CH4 and CO2 within the sewer pipe atmosphere. An overview of the field site and analytical results, focusing on reaction mechanisms causing the corrosion, as well as possible remediation strategies will be presented.

  10. Comprehensive investigation of radon exposure in Austrian tourist mines and caves. (United States)

    Gruber, V; Ringer, W; Gräser, J; Aspek, W; Gschnaller, J


    According to Austrian Law, dose assessments in workplaces with potentially enhanced radon exposures are mandatory since 2008, including tourist mines and caves. A pilot study was carried out to evaluate the situation to test the measurement methods and to specify the main parameters controlling the radon concentration in tourist mines and caves. Radon was measured in six mines and three caves for 1 y, along with determining thoron and equilibrium factors and taking into account climatic, geological and site-related effects. The radon concentrations have a seasonal dependence with maximum in summer and minimum in winter, related to natural ventilation. Radon concentrations in the karst caves were quite low, as it was in the salt mine, whereas radon concentrations in copper and silver mines were high. The dose assessment of the employees yielded doses above 6 mSv a(-1) only in the copper mine.

  11. The Austrian social festival Keep the Ball Rolling in a peripheral region of Upper Styria

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    Gstach Isabell


    Full Text Available The “Steirische Eisenstraße” is a region located in the province of Styria in Austria, which has been struggling with a massive shift in population and age structure for some time. In 2012/13 the Austrian social festival Keep the Ball Rolling is taking place in this region. Over a period of 18 months, the social festival is providing opportunities to think of their own environment. Consequently, they can develop and implement ideas for good cohabitation and put these into practice. The main focus of this article is the demographic presentation of the “Steirische Eisenstraße” region, according to population, employment and age structure. The introduction of the social festival is fundamental in initiating successful change processes.

  12. Building positive nature awareness in pupils using the "Rainforest of the Austrians" in Costa Rica. (United States)

    Aubrecht, Margit; Hölzl, Irmgard; Huber, Werner; Weissenhofer, Anton


    20 years ago, Michael Schnitzler founded the NGO "Rainforest of the Austrians" to help save one of the most diverse rainforests in Central America, the Esquinas rainforest on the Pacific coast of SW Costa Rica, from being destroyed through logging. In this abstract we present an interdisciplinary upper Austrian school project aiming at building positive awareness in pupils towards rainforest conservation by fund-raising to help purchase endangered forest areas. The acquired rainforest was donated to the Costa Rican government and became part of the National Park "Piedras Blancas". In the following, we present a chronology of events and actions of the school project. We started our rainforest project by face-to-face encounters, letting involved persons speak directly to the pupils. Dr. Huber, coordinator of the tropical rainforest station La Gamba in Costa Rica (, together with Dr. Weissenhofer, presented an introductory slide show about the "Rainforest of the Austrians". With rainforest images and sounds in their mind the pupils wrote "trips of a lifetime" stories, thus creating idyllic images of rainforest habitats. Following up on that, we visited the exhibition "Heliconia and Hummingbirds" at the Biology Center in Linz. Reports about the slide show and the exhibition followed. Tropical sites were compared by producing climate graphs of La Gamba, Costa Rica, and Manaus in Brazil. The global distribution and the decrease of rainforests were also analyzed. In biology lessons the symbiosis between plants and animals of the rainforest were worked out by searching the Internet. Flyers with profiles of rainforest animals were produced. We also discussed the ecotourism project "RICANCIE" in Ecuador using fact sheets. "RICANCIE" is a Spanish acronym standing for "Indigenous Community Network of the Upper Napo for Intercultural Exchange and Ecotourism". It was founded in 1993 aiming to improve the quality of life for some 200 indigenous Kichwa families

  13. Authority Relationship From a Societal Perspective: Social Representations of Obedience and Disobedience in Austrian Young Adults. (United States)

    Fattori, Francesco; Curly, Simone; Jörchel, Amrei C; Pozzi, Maura; Mihalits, Dominik; Alfieri, Sara


    Obedience and disobedience have always been salient issues for both civil society and social psychologists. Since Milgram's first studies on destructive obedience there has not been a bottom-up definition of what obedience and disobedience mean. The current study aimed at investigating the social representations young adults use to define and to co-construct knowledge about obedience and disobedience in Austria. One hundred fifty four (106 females, 68.8%) Austrian young adults (Mean age = 22.9; SD = 3.5) completed a mixed-method questionnaire comprising open-ended questions and free word associations. Overall obedience and disobedience are respectively defined as conformity and non-conformity to regulations, ranging from implicit social norms to explicit formal laws. Authority is multi-faceted and has a central role in orienting obedience and disobedience. Further fundamental determinants of the authority relationship and relevant application of the results are discussed in this paper.

  14. Authority Relationship From a Societal Perspective: Social Representations of Obedience and Disobedience in Austrian Young Adults

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    Francesco Fattori


    Full Text Available Obedience and disobedience have always been salient issues for both civil society and social psychologists. Since Milgram’s first studies on destructive obedience there has not been a bottom-up definition of what obedience and disobedience mean. The current study aimed at investigating the social representations young adults use to define and to co-construct knowledge about obedience and disobedience in Austria. One hundred fifty four (106 females, 68.8% Austrian young adults (Mean age = 22.9; SD = 3.5 completed a mixed-method questionnaire comprising open-ended questions and free word associations. Overall obedience and disobedience are respectively defined as conformity and non-conformity to regulations, ranging from implicit social norms to explicit formal laws. Authority is multi-faceted and has a central role in orienting obedience and disobedience. Further fundamental determinants of the authority relationship and relevant application of the results are discussed in this paper.

  15. Scientific support, soil information and education provided by the Austrian Soil Science Society (United States)

    Huber, Sigbert; Baumgarten, Andreas; Birli, Barbara; Englisch, Michael; Tulipan, Monika; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie


    The Austrian Soil Science Society (ASSS), founded in 1954, is a non-profit organisation aiming at furthering all branches of soil science in Austria. The ASSS provides information on the current state of soil research in Austria and abroad. It organizes annual conferences for scientists from soil and related sciences to exchange their recent studies and offers a journal for scientific publications. Annually, ASSS awards the Kubiena Research Prize for excellent scientific studies provided by young scientists. In order to conserve and improve soil science in the field, excursions are organized, also in cooperation with other scientific organisations. Due to well-established contacts with soil scientists and soil science societies in many countries, the ASSS is able to provide its members with information about the most recent developments in the field of soil science. This contributes to a broadening of the current scientific knowledge on soils. The ASSS also co-operates in the organisation of excursions and meetings with neighbouring countries. Several members of the ASSS teach soil science at various Austrian universities. More detail on said conferences, excursions, publications and awards will be given in the presentation. Beside its own scientific journal, published once or twice a year, and special editions such as guidebooks for soil classification, the ASSS runs a website providing information on the Society, its activities, meetings, publications, awards and projects. Together with the Environment Agency Austria the ASSS runs a soil platform on the internet. It is accessible for the public and thus informs society about soil issues. This platform offers a calendar with national and international soil events, contacts of soil related organisations and networks, information on national projects and publications. The society has access to products, information material and information on educational courses. Last but not least information on specific soil

  16. The Austrian radon activities on the way to the national radon action plan. (United States)

    Gruber, V; Ringer, W; Wurm, G; Haider, W


    Based on the new Euratom Basic Safety Standards (BSS), all EU member states will be obliged to design a strategy to address long-term risks from radon exposure, which is laid down in the 'national radon action plan'. In Austria, the National Radon Centre is responsible for the development of the action plan. This paper presents the current and planned radon protection activities on the way to establish the radon action plan--like the national radon database, the definition of radon risk areas by improving the existing radon map, as well as strategies and activities to increase the radon awareness of the public and decision-makers and to involve the building sector. The impact of and the need for actions caused by the BSS requirements on the Austrian radon legislation, strategy and programme are discussed.

  17. Neutron flux measurements at the TRIGA reactor in Vienna for the prediction of the activation of the biological shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merz, Stefan [Vienna University of Technology, Atominstitut, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Djuricic, Mile [Vienna University of Technology, Atominstitut, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Nuclear Engineering Seibersdorf, 2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Villa, Mario; Boeck, Helmuth [Vienna University of Technology, Atominstitut, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Steinhauser, Georg, E-mail: [Vienna University of Technology, Atominstitut, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Vienna (Austria)


    The activation of the biological shield is an important process for waste management considerations of nuclear facilities. The final activity can be estimated by modeling using the neutron flux density rather than the radiometric approach of activity measurements. Measurement series at the TRIGA reactor Vienna reveal that the flux density next to the biological shield is in the order of 10{sup 9} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} at maximum power; but it is strongly influenced by reactor installations. The data allow the estimation of the final waste categorization of the concrete according to the Austrian legislation. - Highlights: > Neutron activation is an important process for the waste management of nuclear facilities. > Biological shield of the TRIGA reactor Vienna has been topic of investigation. > Flux values allow a categorization of the concrete concerning radiation protection legislation. > Reactor installations are of great importance as neutron sources into the biological shield. > Every installation shows distinguishable flux profiles.

  18. Identification and characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from Austrian companion animals and horses. (United States)

    Loncaric, Igor; Künzel, Frank; Licka, Theresia; Simhofer, Hubert; Spergser, Joachim; Rosengarten, Renate


    The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance, resistance gene patterns and genetic relatedness of a collection of Austrian methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates from companion animals and horses. A total of 89 non-repetitive MRSA isolates collected during routine veterinary microbiological examinations from April 2004 to the end of 2012, and one isolate from 2013 were used for this study. The presence of mecA and other resistance genes was confirmed by PCR. Isolates were genotyped by spa typing, two multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analyses (MLVA) analyses, SCCmec typing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). PCR targeting Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) and detection of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE), toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST) was performed using PCR assays. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed. Five sequence types (STs-ST398, ST254, ST22, ST5 and ST1), SCCmec types II, IVa, V, and non-type-abele, 8 spa-types (t003, t011, t036, t127, t386, t1348, and t4450), and two isolates could not be assigned, 21 MLVA-14Orsay types Multiplex-PCR MLVA (mMLVA) displayed 17 different MLVA types. The present study is the most comprehensive dealing with MRSA from Austrian companion animals and horses. The results confirm that MRSA ST398 is present in a wide range of animal species and is predominant especially in horses. In other companion animals it is unclear whether the infections with the different MRSA isolates investigated in the present study truly represents a rare phenomenon or may be an emerging problem in companion animals.

  19. Decommissioning of the ASTRA research reactor: Planning, executing and summarizing the project

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    Meyer Franz


    Full Text Available The decommissioning of the ASTRA research reactor at the Austrian Research Centres Seibersdorf was described within three technical papers already released in Nuclear Technology & Radiation Protection throughout the years 2003, 2006, and 2008. Following a suggestion from IAEA the project was investigated well after the files were closed regarding rather administrative than technical matters starting with the project mission, explaining the project structure and identifying the key factors and the key performance indicators. The continuous documentary and reporting system as implemented to fulfil the informational needs of stake-holders, management, and project staff alike is described. Finally the project is summarized in relationship to the performance indicators.

  20. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Inventor); Sahimi, Muhammad (Inventor); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Inventor); Harale, Aadesh (Inventor); Park, Byoung-Gi (Inventor); Liu, Paul K. T. (Inventor)


    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  1. D and DR Reactors (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The world's second full-scale nuclear reactor was the D Reactor at Hanford which was built in the early 1940's and went operational in December of 1944.D Reactor ran...

  2. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T.; Sahimi, Muhammad; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak; Harale, Aadesh; Park, Byoung-Gi; Liu, Paul K. T.


    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  3. Connectedness to nature and public (skin) health perspectives: results of a representative, population-based survey among Austrian residents. (United States)

    Haluza, Daniela; Simic, Stana; Höltge, Jan; Cervinka, Renate; Moshammer, Hanns


    Connectedness to nature (CN) influences motivation to have contact with outdoor natural environments. Spending leisure time in natural environments is beneficial for human health and well-being. Besides these positive effects, health risks of open-air activities are mainly related to unprotected sun light exposure-associated acute and chronic skin hazards. Thus, we conducted a cross-sectional, representative telephone survey among Austrian residents to study the association of perceived CN level with sun-exposure knowledge, tanning habits, and sun protective behaviour. In total, 1,500 study subjects (50.5% females) participated in this questionnaire survey. Although knowledge about tanning and motives to tan were similar among genders, females performed more photoprotective measures and were more connected to nature (all p nature connectedness and skin health-relevant recreational habits of Austrian residents. The findings suggest to integrate hitherto neglected gender-specific Public (Skin) Health promotion when counselling on the manifold health advantages of outdoor activities.

  4. Chinese President Hu Jintao and Austrian President Heinz Fischer Send Messages of Congratulations on 2006 China Year in Austria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>Editor’s note: In January 2004, Benita Ferrero-Waldner, Austrian foreign minister at the time, announced that China Year would be held in Austria in 2006 to mark the 35th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between Austria and China and to promote understanding of China and bilateral cooperation. The two sides decided after consultation that the activities for the China Year would be jointly organized by the Austria-China Friendship Association and the Chinese People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries. The governments of the two countries attach great importance to the holding of the China Year. Chinese President Hu Jintao, Austrian President Heinz Fischer and Federal Chancellor Wolfgang Schussel and other state leaders

  5. Wood dimensions and value in the Austrian pine plantations in Forest Estate "Sombor"-Forest Unit "Subotica"

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    Ranković Nenad


    Full Text Available The relationship and interaction between quantitative (number and dimensions of trees and value indicators in Austrian pine plantations were researched in Forest Management Unit „Subotičke Šume” (Forest Estate „Sombor” - FA „Subotica”. As the measurement of quantitative elements is more simple, their effect on wood value can be used as a rather reliable support in the value estimation of standing trees. The analysis of the research results shows that there is a strong inter-relationship of the study elements, so they can be a good foundation for the estimation of standing timber value in artificial Austrian pine plantations at the given site.

  6. Modelling technical snow production for skiing areas in the Austrian Alps with the physically based snow model AMUNDSEN (United States)

    Hanzer, F.; Marke, T.; Steiger, R.; Strasser, U.


    Tourism and particularly winter tourism is a key factor for the Austrian economy. Judging from currently available climate simulations, the Austrian Alps show a particularly high vulnerability to climatic changes. To reduce the exposure of ski areas towards changes in natural snow conditions as well as to generally enhance snow conditions at skiing sites, technical snowmaking is widely utilized across Austrian ski areas. While such measures result in better snow conditions at the skiing sites and are important for the local skiing industry, its economic efficiency has also to be taken into account. The current work emerges from the project CC-Snow II, where improved future climate scenario simulations are used to determine future natural and artificial snow conditions and their effects on tourism and economy in the Austrian Alps. In a first step, a simple technical snowmaking approach is incorporated into the process based snow model AMUNDSEN, which operates at a spatial resolution of 10-50 m and a temporal resolution of 1-3 hours. Locations of skiing slopes within a ski area in Styria, Austria, were digitized and imported into the model environment. During a predefined time frame in the beginning of the ski season, the model produces a maximum possible amount of technical snow and distributes the associated snow on the slopes, whereas afterwards, until to the end of the ski season, the model tries to maintain a certain snow depth threshold value on the slopes. Due to only few required input parameters, this approach is easily transferable to other ski areas. In our poster contribution, we present first results of this snowmaking approach and give an overview of the data and methodology applied. In a further step in CC-Snow, this simple bulk approach will be extended to consider actual snow cannon locations and technical specifications, which will allow a more detailed description of technical snow production as well as cannon-based recordings of water and energy

  7. Using TI-92 in the 9th-Grade of Austrian Grammar Schools--Hypotheses, Experiences, Results, Problems. (United States)

    Wurnig, Otto

    This paper reports the results of student use of a TI-92 graphing calculator to solve algebra and analytic geometry problems in 9th grade Austrian classes. Students who had been trained in using the TI-92 were asked to compute x, given that a right-angled triangle had sides x, x+3, and x+6 in at least three ways, and to document their solution…

  8. The Austrian fulvestrant registry: results from a prospective observation of fulvestrant in postmenopausal patients with metastatic breast cancer


    Bartsch, Rupert; Mlineritsch, Brigitte; Gnant, Michael; Niernberger, Thomas; Pluschnig, Ursula; Greil, Richard; Wenzel, Catharina; Sevelda, Paul; Thaler, Josef; Rudas, Margaretha; Pober, Michael; Zielinski, Christoph C.; Steger, Guenther G.


    Abstract Background Endocrine therapy is the preferred treatment in oestrogen- and/or progesterone-receptor (ER/PgR) positive breast cancer. Fulvestrant is a pure ER-antagonist. We present results from the Austrian Fulvestrant Registry. Methods Three-hundred and fifty patients were included. Time to progression (TTP) was defined as primary endpoint. A multivariate analysis was performed to identify factors significantly associated with TTP. ...

  9. The impact of seeds provenance and nursery provenance method on Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn. seedlings quality

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    Vladan Ivetić


    Full Text Available The influence of seed provenances and seedling production methods on quality of one and two years old seedlings of Austrian pine were investigated. Seeds from three provenances of Austrian pine (Goc, Studenica and Sargan were used for seedlings production, combined with three production methods: (i the modified seedbeds (bare-root, (ii the container type Plantagrah II and (iii the container type Gocko. Provenance, as well as the combined influence of provenance and production method had minimal influence on the variability of one and two years old Austrian pine seedlings. Nevertheless, the production method had the highest influence. The production system, besides its importance in nursery, will have a high influence on seedlings growth during the first year after planting. Considering the results of this study (e.g. the highest values of the diameter, number of lateral roots, shoot and root dry weight, and quality index and the lowest value of SQ and satisfactory value of S:R, we can conclude that the seedlings produced in container type Gocko led to the highest seedlings quality, recommended especially for afforestation on hard sites.     

  10. The impact of seeds provenance and nursery production method on Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn. seedlings quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladan Ivetić


    Full Text Available The influence of seed provenances and seedling production methodson quality of one and two years old seedlings of Austrian pine wereinvestigated. Seeds from three provenances of Austrian pine (Goč, Studenica and Šargan were used for seedlings production, combined with three production methods: (i the modified seedbeds (bare-root, (ii the container type Plantagrah II and (iii the container type Gočko. Provenance, as well as the combined influence of provenance and production method had minimal influence on the variability of one and two years old Austrian pine seedlings. Nevertheless, the production method had the highest influence. The production system, besides its importance in nursery, will have a high influence on seedlings growth during the first year after planting. Considering the results of this study (e.g. the highest values of the diameter, number of lateral roots, shoot and root dry weight, and quality index and the lowest value of SQ and satisfactory value of S:R, we can conclude that the seedlings produced in container type Gočko led to the highestseedlings quality, recommended especially for afforestation on hard sites.

  11. Normal weight estonian prepubertal boys show a more cardiovascular-risk-associated adipose tissue distribution than austrian counterparts. (United States)

    Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra J; Moeller, Reinhard; Horejsi, Renate; Jürimäe, Toivo; Jürimäe, Jaak; Mäestu, Jarek; Purge, Priit; Saar, Meeli; Tafeit, Erwin; Kaimbacher, Petra; Kruschitz, Renate; Weghuber, Daniel; Schnedl, Wolfgang J; Mangge, Harald


    Objective. Risk phenotypes for cardiovascular disease (CVD) differ markedly between countries, like the reported high difference in CVD mortality in Austria and Estonia. Hitherto, the goal of this study was to find out risk profiles in body fat distribution yet present in childhood, paving the way for later clinical end points. Methods. he subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) distribution patterns in 553 Austrian (A) and Estonian (E) clinically healthy normal weight boys aged 11.1 (±0.8) years were analysed. We applied the patented optical device Lipometer which determines the individual subcutaneous adipose tissue topography (SAT-Top). Results. Total body fat did not differ significantly between E and A boys. A discriminant analysis using all Lipometer data, BMI, and the total body fat (TBF) yielded 84.6% of the boys correctly classified in Estonians and Austrians by 9 body sites. A factor analysis identified the SAT distribution of E as critically similar to male adult patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Conclusions. We show in normal weight Estonian boys a highly significant decreased fat accumulation on the lower body site compared to age matched Austrian males. This SAT-Top phenotype may play an important role for the increased cardiovascular risk seen in the Estonian population.

  12. Analysis of ERT data of geoelectrical permafrost monitoring on Hoher Sonnblick (Austrian Central Alps) (United States)

    Pfeiler, Stefan; Schöner, Wolfgang; Reisenhofer, Stefan; Ottowitz, David; Jochum, Birgit; Kim, Jung-Ho; Hoyer, Stefan; Supper, Robert; Heinrich, Georg


    In the Alps infrastructure facilities such as roads, routes or buildings are affected by the changes of permafrost, which often cause enormous reparation costs. Investigation on degradation of Alpine Permafrost in the last decade has increased, however, the understanding of the permafrost changes inducing its atmospheric forcing processes is still insufficient. Within the project ATMOperm the application of the geoelectrical method to estimate thawing layer thickness for mountain permafrost is investigated near the highest meteorological observatory of Austria on the Hoher Sonnblick. Therefore, it is necessary to further optimize the transformation of ERT data to thermal changes in the subsurface. Based on an innovative time lapse inversion routine for ERT data (Kim J.-H. et al 2013) a newly developed data analysis software tool developed by Kim Jung-Ho (KIGAM) in cooperation with the Geophysics group of the Geological Survey of Austria allows the statistical analysis of the entire sample set of each and every data point measured by the geoelectrical monitoring instrument. This gives on the one hand of course an enhanced opportunity to separate between „good" and „bad" data points in order to assess the quality of measurements. On the other hand, the results of the statistical analysis define the impact of every single data point on the inversion routine. The interpretation of the inversion results will be supplemented by temperature logs from selected boreholes along the ERT profile as well as climatic parameters. KIM J.-H., SUPPER R., TSOURLOS P. and YI M.-J.: Four-dimensional inversion of resistivity monitoring data through Lp norm minimizations. - Geophysical Journal International, 195(3), 1640-1656, 2013. Doi: 10.1093/gji/ggt324. (No OA) Acknowledgments: The geoelectrical monitoring on Hoher Sonnblick has been installed and is operated in the frame of the project ATMOperm (Atmosphere - permafrost relationship in the Austrian Alps - atmospheric extreme

  13. Effects of crop management, soil type, and climate on N2O emissions from Austrian Soils (United States)

    Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Sigmund, Elisabeth; Kasper, Martina; Kitzler, Barbara; Haas, Edwin; Wandl, Michael; Strauss, Peter; Poetzelsberger, Elisabeth; Dersch, Georg; Winiwarter, Wilfried; Amon, Barbara


    Within the project FarmClim ("Farming for a better climate") we assessed recent N2O emissions from two selected regions in Austria. Our aim was to deepen the understanding of Austrian N2O fluxes regarding region specific properties. Currently, N2O emissions are estimated with the IPCC default emission factor which only considers the amount of N-input as an influencing factor for N2O emissions. We evaluated the IPCC default emission factor for its validity under spatially distinct environmental conditions. For this two regions for modeling with LandscapeDNDC have been identified in this project. The benefit of using LandscapeDNDC is the detailed illustration of microbial processes in the soil. Required input data to run the model included daily climate data, vegetation properties, soil characteristics and land management. The analysis of present agricultural practices was basis for assessing the hot spots and hot moments of nitrogen emissions on a regional scale. During our work with LandscapeDNDC we were able to adapt specific model algorithms to Austrian agricultural conditions. The model revealed a strong dependency of N2O emissions on soil type. We could estimate how strongly soil texture affects N2O emissions. Based on detailed soil maps with high spatial resolution we calculated region specific contribution to N2O emissions. Accordingly we differentiated regions with deviating gas fluxes compared to the predictions by the IPCC inventory methodology. Taking region specific management practices into account (tillage, irrigation, residuals) calculation of crop rotation (fallow, catch crop, winter wheat, barley, winter barley, sugar beet, corn, potato, onion and rapeseed) resulted in N2O emissions differing by a factor of 30 depending on preceding crop and climate. A maximum of 2% of N fertilizer input was emitted as N2O. Residual N in the soil was a major factor stimulating N2O emissions. Interannual variability was affected by varying N-deposition even in case

  14. Reactor and method of operation (United States)

    Wheeler, John A.


    A nuclear reactor having a flattened reactor activity curve across the reactor includes fuel extending over a lesser portion of the fuel channels in the central portion of the reactor than in the remainder of the reactor.

  15. Enduring Power of Attorney (EPoA – comparison between Austrian and German Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ganner


    Full Text Available ENGLISH: With the establishment of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD the treatment of people with disabilities is changing from a protective perspective to a rights - based approach. The Enduring Power of Attorney (EPoA is an important instrument, which helps with the implementation of the CRPD into national law. As an instrument of self - determined substituted decision - making it is recognised as the best practice model to safeguard the autonomy of people suffering the deprivations of age and other disabilities. This article touches briefly on general supported and substituted decision - making instruments and then goes on to examine the differences and similarities, advantages and disadvantages b e- tween Austrian and German laws concerning EPoAs. DEUTSCH: Mit der Umsetzung der UN-Behindertenrechtskonvention findet ein Paradigmenwechsel und Umdenken im Umgang mit Personen mit Behinderungen statt. Der Primat der Fürsorge weicht einem liberalen, auf Menschenrechten basierenden Ansatz. In diesem Kontext ist die Vorsorgevollmacht ein effektives Mittel, das die Implementation der UN-Behindertenrechtskonvention in nationales Recht vorantreibt und die Selbstbestimmung und Eigenständigkeit altersbedingt eingeschränkter Menschen und von Menschen mit Behinderungen gewährleistet. Dieser Artikel beschäftigt sich einleitend mit allgemeinen Rechtsinstrumenten der (unterstützten Entscheidungsfindung bei nicht selbst entscheidungsfähigen Personen und analysiert in weiterer Folge Gemeinsamkeiten und Unterschiede sowie Vor- und Nachteile der Vorsorgevollmacht nach österreichischem und deutschem Recht.

  16. From Plenck (d. 1807) to Dohi (d. 1931) and today: Austrian influence on Japanese dermatology. (United States)

    Holubar, K; Schmidt, C; Kokert, B


    The Vienna surgeon Joseph Plenck first listed individual skin lesions, some of which we consider primary efflorescences today. He wrote many more treatises, relating to different areas of medicine, most of which reached Japan. One century later Keizo Dohi wrote, that Plenck's oeuvre will remain unforgotten in the history of dermatology, for his importance, in general and for the close relation to the development of medicine and dermatology in Japan. A search for Japanese translations of Plenck's books could prove that. Dohi himself wanted to become a surgeon but changed his plans and enrolled in Moriz Kaposi's (1837-1902) department in Vienna as a postgraduate student in 1893. Sifting through Dohi's textbook and papers, the importance of the Hebra-Kaposi School for Japan is again explicitly stated by the Japanese master, who founded the Japanese Dermatological Society in December of 1900 and the disciplines's journal in 1901. The language of publication was German. Dohi's first paper appeared in the Archiv für Dermatologie und Syphilis in 1896, in German. In recent years Austrian dermatology has become influential again in dermatological research after a mid century low. A series of investigators have spent sabbatical years or postgraduate training at the former Hebra-Kaposi Department in Vienna. Their scientific achievements were mainly in the field of immunobiology of the skin. A list of publications and their authors is presented.

  17. [Burnout symptoms in Austrian student nurses in their third year of training]. (United States)

    Hausmann, Clemens


    Burnout is considered a major negative outcome of work related distress in social and health care services, especially in nursing. In the present study 179 student nurses in their third year of training and 47 registered nurses, all working in the Austrian province of Salzburg, were examined with the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Satisfaction With Life Scale. Compared on a regional and national level, burnout scores of student nurses were equal to those of registered nurses and workers in social and nursing professions. The specific stressors of education and training lead to strain comparable to years of professional experience and exposure to stressors. The relatively high level of satisfaction with life in student nurses may be due to specific resources and ways of compensation, that require further examination. Differences between urban and rural districts (with lower burnout scores and higher satisfaction with life sores in rural districts) were strong in student nurses. Compared with international nurse and health care samples, burnout is relatively low in the examined groups. Registered nurses and student nurses in rural districts show the lowest scores of all in emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, respectively.

  18. Sustainability Management with the Sustainability Balanced Scorecard in SMEs: Findings from an Austrian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Falle


    Full Text Available Given the economic importance of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs and their need for strategic sustainability management, this paper examines the concept of Sustainability Balanced Scorecard (SBSC with respect to SMEs. This case study describes the development of an SBSC in a middle-sized Austrian brewery. The existing methods used in SBSC creation were adapted to suit the company’s specific needs. The findings show that when developing an SBSC it is important to take specific SME characteristics into account and apply methods that allow for adaptation to the prevailing conditions, such as strategic management, organizational structure and resources. In the case study special attention was paid to strategy analysis and thereby the creation of a solid basis for the SBSC. Furthermore, the results show SBSC development is not a process of distinct consecutive steps, as it is often suggested in the literature, but rather that it is a complex process marked by iterative steps. Moreover, the paper highlights the supporting factors and challenges experienced. Whereas top management support, the presence of a project team and high employee involvement were identified as key supporting factors, a lack of specific resources and blurry strategy formulation exert negative influence on the development process. The results presented here should help other SMEs in their development of an SBSC. The paper stimulates scientific discourse on sustainability and strategic management by highlighting the relevant supporting factors and challenges.

  19. Doping in sports: knowledge and attitudes among parents of Austrian junior athletes. (United States)

    Blank, C; Leichtfried, V; Schaiter, R; Fürhapter, C; Müller, D; Schobersberger, W


    Strategies for doping prevention are based on prior identification of opportunities for intervention. There is no current research focusing on the potential role in doping prevention, which might be played by the parents of junior elite athletes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes toward doping among parents of Austrian junior athletes and to analyze factors potentially influencing these beliefs. In this study, two questionnaires were distributed to 1818 student athletes, each with instructions that these surveys were to be completed by their parents (n(total) = 3636). Parents filled in questionnaires at home without observation. Responses from 883 parents were included in this analysis. Compared to female parents, male parents demonstrated significantly better knowledge about doping and its side effects and were more likely to be influenced by their own sporting careers and amounts of sports activities per week. Parental sex did not demonstrate a significant influence on responses reflecting attitudes toward doping. Additional research is needed to compare these results with young athletes' knowledge and attitudes to determine if and to what degree parental attitudes and beliefs influence the behavior and attitudes of their children.

  20. Inbreeding and its Effect on Performance Traits in Austrian Meat Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Maximini


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of inbreeding of meat performance tested herd book sheep in Austria and to evaluate the effect of individual inbreeding on growth and CT (computer tomography scan carcass traits. Performance data (13,614 records, five breeds: Merinoland, Suff olk, Texel, German Blackheaded Meat sheep, Jura were collected in the years 2000-2010. The traits analysed were live weight and average daily gain, as well as traits of body frame, back fat and eye muscle area, all measured on live animals with CT. Inbreeding coefficients (F were calculated with the soft ware PEDIG. F was nested within breed and tested in a mixed model using ASReml. Levels of inbreeding were low with O F of 1.5-3.1%. Only few traits were significantly affected by inbreeding. Both positive and negative effects were found. The effects were small, most oft en nonlinear and vary across breeds. Inbreeding and its effects on performance traits do not seem to be an issue in Austrian meat sheep populations at the moment. However, monitoring and further analyses are recommended.

  1. Inbreeding and its Effect on Performance Traits in Austrian Meat Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Maximini


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of inbreeding of meat performance tested herd book sheep in Austria and to evaluate the effect of individual inbreeding on growth and CT (computer tomography scan carcass traits. Performance data (13,614 records, five breeds: Merinoland, Suff olk, Texel, German Blackheaded Meat sheep, Jura were collected in the years 2000-2010. The traits analysed were live weight and average daily gain, as well as traits of body frame, back fat and eye muscle area, all measured on live animals with CT. Inbreeding coefficients (F were calculated with the soft ware PEDIG. F was nested within breed and tested in a mixed model using ASReml. Levels of inbreeding were low with O F of 1.5-3.1%. Only few traits were significantly affected by inbreeding. Both positive and negative effects were found. The effects were small, most oft en nonlinear and vary across breeds. Inbreeding and its effects on performance traits do not seem to be an issue in Austrian meat sheep populations at the moment. However, monitoring and further analyses are recommended.

  2. Between resentment and aid: German and Austrian psychiatrist and neurologist refugees in Great Britain since 1933. (United States)

    Loewenau, Aleksandra


    This article is a historiographical exploration of the experiences that German and Austrian émigré psychiatrists and neurologists made in Great Britain since 1933, after the Nazi Governments in Central Europe had ousted them from their positions. When placing these occurrences in a wider historiographical perspective, the in-depth analysis provided here also describes the living and working conditions of the refugee neuroscientists on the British Isles. In particular, it looks at the very elements and issues that influenced the international forced migration of physicians and psychiatrists during the 1930s and 1940s. Only a fraction of refugee neuroscientists had however been admitted to Britain. Those lucky ones were assisted by a number of charitable, local, and academic organizations. This article investigates the rather lethargic attitude of the British government and medical circles towards German-speaking Jewish refugee neuroscientists who wished to escape Nazi Germany. It will also analyze the help that those refugees received from the academic establishment and British Jewish organizations, while likewise examining the level and extent of the relationship between social and scientific resentments in Great Britain. A special consideration will be given to the aid programs that had already began in the first year after the Nazis had seized power in Germany, with the foundation of the British Assistance Council by Sir William Henry Beveridge (1879-1963) in 1933.

  3. Morphodynamic effects on the habitat of juvenile cyprinids (Chondrostoma nasus) in a restored Austrian lowland river. (United States)

    Hauer, Christoph; Unfer, Günther; Schmutz, Stefan; Habersack, Helmut


    At the Sulm River, an Austrian lowland river, an ecologically orientated flood protection project was carried out from 1998-2000. Habitat modeling over a subsequent 3-year monitoring program (2001-2003) helped assess the effects of river bed embankment and of initiating a new meander by constructing a side channel and allowing self-developing side erosion. Hydrodynamic and physical habitat models were combined with fish-ecological methods. The results show a strong influence of riverbed dynamics on the habitat quality and quantity for the juvenile age classes (0+, 1+, 2+) of nase (Chondrostoma nasus), a key fish species of the Sulm River. The morphological conditions modified by floods changed significantly and decreased the amount of weighted usable areas. The primary factor was river bed aggradation, especially along the inner bend of the meander. This was a consequence of the reduced sediment transport capacity due to channel widening in the modeling area. The higher flow velocities and shallower depths, combined with the steeper bank angle, reduced the Weighted Useable Areas (WUAs) of habitats for juvenile nase. The modeling results were evaluated by combining results of mesohabitat-fishing surveys and habitat quality assessments. Both, the modeling and the fishing results demonstrated a reduced suitability of the habitats after the morphological modifications, but the situation was still improved compared to the pre-restoration conditions at the Sulm River.

  4. Cornerstones of the Austrian radon risk communication strategy; Eckpfeiler der oesterreichischen Radonrisikokommunikationsstrategie (OeRRKS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunte, A.; Ringer, W. [AGES, Linz (Austria). Oesterreichische Fachstelle fuer Radon


    On behalf of the Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management (BMLFUW), the National Radon Centre of Austria developed the National Radon Risk Communication Strategy. The superior goal is the reduction of the radon exposure of Austrian citizens as well as the reduction of radon-related lung cancer deaths. Austria, like many other countries, follows the approach to raise awareness and to inform the public to achieve this goal. The presented strategy deals with the question of how radon protection issues can be communicated to the public, existing fears can be reduced and affected people can be motivated to take action (perform a radon test, if necessary, mitigate or install preventive measures in new buildings). The cornerstones of the National Radon Risk Communication Strategy can be summarized as follows: - Definition of communication goals - Identification and categorization of target groups - Development of specific key messages for each of the target groups - Determination of communication channels and assessment of their efficiency - Integration of the radon issue in education and training - Cooperation with relevant organizations and platforms. The communication objectives, target groups and communication paths (and their evaluation) will be discussed during the presentation in detail.

  5. Joint annual meeting of the Swiss Physical and the Society Austrian Physical Society

    CERN Document Server


    The next annual meeting, hosted by CERN, will take place from 21 - 25 August 2017 in Genève at two different locations. Starting at CERN on 21st with internal meetings of some of the participating societies, the 22nd will be dedicated to plenary and invited talks and more (see below). We will then move to the Centre International de Conférences de Genève (CICG) on 23 - 25 August where further plenary talks and all topical sessions will take place. The meeting is organised - as every two years - as a joint meeting with the Austrian Physical Society (ÖPG) and the Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy (SSAA). The Swiss Institute of Particle Physics (CHIPP) will participate additionally to their usual 2-year rhythm. We also welcome for the first time the NCCR MARVEL (Computational Design and Discovery of Novel Materials). They all together guarantee an exciting conference covering physics at its best. Many thanks go to CERN for their generous help and support with the organisation.

  6. Runs of Homozygosity Reveal Genome-wide Autozygosity in the Austrian Fleckvieh Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Ferencakovic


    Full Text Available Runs of homozygosity (ROH are recognized as potential inbreeding measure in studies on humans. Inbreeding coefficients derived from ROH (FROH measure proportion of the genome arranged in long homozygous segments and highly correlate with those derived from pedigree (Fped. From that we assumed that ROH represent an alternative to pedigree inbreeding levels in studies on animals too, because pedigree can be incorrect, incomplete and can not fully explain what happened in meiosis. To confirm our premise we used pedigree and genotype data from 500 Austrian dual purpose Simmental bulls to determine correlation between FROH and Fped. ROH were obtainedusing Fortran 90 soft ware created by the authors. Proportions of genome in ROH were calculated for lengths of ROH of >1, >2, >4, >8 and >16 Mb. Pedigree data were analyzed and inbreeding coefficients for complete pedigree (FpedT and five generations (Fped5 were calculated using ENDOG soft ware. We found low FpedT and Fped5 (means of 1.5% and 0.9% while FROH for segments >1Mb suggested much higher values (9.0% indicating old inbreeding that can not be traced using pedigree. The highest correlations were found between FROH calculated from ROH of length >4Mb and FpedT (0.68 that is consistent with studies on humans. We conclude that inbreeding coefficients derived from ROH are useful for measuring levels of inbreeding in cattle, because ROH are not subject to mistakes as pedigrees and calculations made from those.

  7. The Austrian Botanic Gardens Work Group, an Example of Active Networking to Promote Small Botanic Gardens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Roland K. EBERWEIN


    The continuously increasing demands on botanic gardens during the last few decades have led to a huge in increase administration and an urgent need for additional specialized personnel, especially botanists, teachers, database specialists and administrative staff. Instead of meeting these requirements, many botanic gardens are faceing a severe decrease in funding and personnel. Larger gardens provide the opportunity to distribute several tasks to different employees, whereas small gardens are short staffed and often nn by a single curator who has to fulfill all functions. In order to meet actual demands more easily, the Austrian botanic gardens are linked nationally via an active workgroup.This network not only allows the distribution of information but also facilitates the sharing of duties. A listserver speeds up the communication and correspondence within the workgroup, collection priorities and projects (e. g., GSPC) are coordinated, seedbanking becomes decentralized, printedmatters are shared and distributed, etc. Small gardens with only few employees can participate in projects by taking on small-ideally using with their special resources-in order not to fall behind. In addition, there is also an urgent need for international networking by means of plant and seed exchange (Index Semihum), BGCI membership, discussion groups, personal contacts and projects. Mission statements,special marketing strategies for public relations, integrating projects of other workgroup members and adapted public awareness programs are important to focus attention to small gardens and to help them keep alive.

  8. Haunted Encounters: Exile and Holocaust Literature in German and Austrian Post-war Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Lang


    Full Text Available In an essay titled ‘The Exiled Tongue’ (2002, Nobel Prize winner Imre Kertész develops a genealogy of Holocaust and émigré writing, in which the German language plays an important, albeit contradictory, role. While the German language signified intellectual independence and freedom of self-definition (against one’s roots for Kertész before the Holocaust, he notes (based on his engagement with fellow writer Jean Améry that writing in German created severe difficulties in the post-war era. Using the examples of Hilde Spiel and Friedrich Torberg, this article explores this notion and asks how the loss of language experienced by Holocaust survivors impacted on these two Austrian-Jewish writers. The article argues that, while the works of Spiel and Torberg are haunted by the Shoah, the two writers do not write in the post-Auschwitz language that Kertész delineates in his essays, but are instead shaped by the exile experience of both writers. At the same time though, Kertész’ concept seems to be haunted by exile, as his reception of Jean Améry’s works, which form the basis of his linguistic genealogies, shows an inability to integrate the experience of exile.

  9. Decommissioning of the ASTRA research reactor: Dismantling of the biological shield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Franz


    Full Text Available The paper describes the dismantling of the inactive and activated areas of the biological shield of the ASTRA research reactor at the Austrian Research Center in Seibersdorf. The calculation of the parameters determining the activated areas at the shield (reference nuclide, nuclide vector in the barite concrete and horizontal and vertical reduction behaviors of activity concentration and the activation profiles within the biological shield for unrestricted release, release restricted to permanent deposit and radioactive waste are presented. Considerations of located activation anomalies in the shield, e.g. in the vicinities of the beam-tubes, were made according to the reactor's operational history. Finally, an overview of the materials removed from the biological shield is given.

  10. Mars Analog Mission: Glacier Simulation AMADEE-15 by Austrian Space Forum (United States)

    Groemer, Gernot; Losiak, Anna; Soucek, Alexander; Plank, Clemens; Zanardini, Laura; Sejkora, Nina; Sams, Sebastian


    Austrian Space Forum: The Austrian Space Forum (OeWF, Österreichisches Weltraum Forum) is a non-profit, citizen-science organization of aerospace specialists and enthusiasts. One of its specialisations is Mars analog research. Analog studies and analog instrument validation supported all planetary surface missions so far [1] and are considered as an effective tool to prepare for future missions to Mars [2,3,4,5,6,7]. Since 2006, OeWF has conducted 11 Mars analog field campaigns in diverse locations that represented: 1) average current Mars conditions (the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) in Utah in 2006 [8] and the Northern Sahara near Erfoud, Morocco in 2013 [9]); 2) the early and wet Mars (analog site of Rio Tinto Spain in 2011 [10]); and 3) subsurface exploration (Dachstein Ice Caves in 2012). During these campaigns, 68 experiments and major engineering tests were performed, whichwere mostly focused on astrobiology, robotics, human factors, geoscience and spacesuit operations. Major assets of OeWF include two advanced spacesuit simulators Aouda [11], an increasingly evolving Mission Support Center, a dedicated Remote Science Support team [12], and a growing set of Standard Operating Procedures defining major workflows within a mission team. The spacesuit simulators were operated by a total of 18 analog astronauts, who were selected and trained during a >6 month program. Total EVA time is nearly 600 hours, leading to a significant experience in analog field simulations. AMADEE-15: The mission took place between August 2nd and 14th 2015 at the Kaunertal Glacier in Tyrol, Austria. This glacier was selected as a study site because of its accessibility and high number of micro-landscapes analogous to those expected on Mars in locations where abundant water ice is present. As such it is considered a first-tier Mars analog [13]. The Base station was located at N 46.86320, E 10.71401 at 2800 masl, the highest reached location was on elevation of 2887 m. Eleven

  11. From the new Austrian tunneling method to the geoengineering condition evaluation and dynamic controlling method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanjun Shang; Kun Li; Wantong He; Chunbo Sheng


    The new Austrian tunneling method (NATM) is widely applied in design and construction of under-ground engineering projects. When the type and distribution of unfavorable geological bodies (UGBs) associated with their influences on geoengineering are complicated or unfortunately are overlooked, we should pay more attentions to internal features of rocks grades IV and V (even in local but mostly controlling zones). With increasing attentions to the characteristics, mechanism and influences of en-gineering construction-triggered geohazards, it is crucial to fully understand the disturbance of these geohazards on project construction. A reasonable determination method in construction procedure, i.e. the shape of working face, the type of engineering support and the choice of feasible procedure, should be considered in order to mitigate the construction-triggered geohazards. Due to their high sensitivity to groundwater and in-situ stress, various UGBs exhibit hysteretic nature and failure modes. To give a complete understanding on the internal causes, the emphasis on advanced comprehensive geological forecasting and overall reinforcement treatment is therefore of more practical significance. Compre-hensive evaluation of influential factors, identification of UGB, and measures of discontinuity dynamic controlling comprises the geoengineering condition evaluation and dynamic controlling method. In a case of a cut slope, the variations of UGBs and the impacts of key environmental factors are presented, where more severe construction-triggered geohazards emerged in construction stage than those pre-dicted in design and field investigation stages. As a result, the weight ratios of different influential factors with respect to field investigation, design and construction are obtained.

  12. The Austrian radiation monitoring network ARAD - best practice and added value (United States)

    Olefs, Marc; Baumgartner, Dietmar; Obleitner, Friedrich; Bichler, Christoph; Foelsche, Ulrich; Pietsch, Helga; Rieder, Harald; Weihs, Philipp; Geyer, Florian; Haiden, Thomas; Schöner, Wolfgang


    The Austrian RADiation monitoring network (ARAD) has been established to advance the national climate monitoring and to support satellite retrieval, atmospheric modelling and solar energy techniques development. Measurements cover the downwelling solar and thermal infrared radiation using instruments according to Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) standards. A unique feature of ARAD is its vertical dimension of five stations, covering an air column between about 200 m a.s.l. (Vienna) and 3100 m a.s.l. (BSRN site Sonnblick). The contribution outlines the aims and scopes of ARAD, its measurement and calibration standards, methods, strategies and station locations. ARAD network operation uses innovative data processing for quality assurance and quality control, applying manual and automated control algorithms. A combined uncertainty estimate for the broadband shortwave radiation fluxes at all five ARAD stations indicates that accuracies range from 1.5 to 23 %. If a directional response error of the pyranometers and the temperature response of the instruments and the data acquisition system (DAQ) is corrected, this expanded uncertainty reduces to 1.4 to 5.2 %. Thus, for large signals (global: 1000 W m-2, diffuse: 500 W m-2) BSRN target accuracies are met or closely met for 70 % of valid measurements at the ARAD stations after this correction. For small signals (50 W m-2), the targets are not achieved as a result of uncertainties associated with the DAQ or the instrument sensitivities. Additional accuracy gains can be achieved in future by additional measurements and corrections. However, for the measurement of direct solar radiation improved instrument accuracy is needed. ARAD could serve as a powerful example for establishing state-of-the-art radiation monitoring at the national level with a multiple-purpose approach. Instrumentation, guidelines and tools (such as the data quality control) developed within ARAD are best practices which could be adopted in other

  13. Quasi-dynamic Material Flow Analysis applied to the Austrian Phosphorus cycle (United States)

    Zoboli, Ottavia; Rechberger, Helmut


    Phosphorus (P) is one of the key elements that sustain life on earth and that allow achieving the current high levels of food production worldwide. It is a non-renewable resource, without any existing substitute. Because of its current dissipative use by mankind and to its very slow geochemical cycle, this resource is rapidly depleting and it is strongly connected to the problem of ensuring food security. Moreover P is also associated to important environmental problems. Its extraction often generates hazardous wastes, while its accumulation in water bodies can lead to eutrophication, with consequent severe ecological damages. It is therefore necessary to analyze and understand in detail the system of P, in regard to its use and management, to identify the processes that should be targeted in order to reduce the overall consumption of this resource. This work aims at establishing a generic quasi-dynamic model, which describes the Austrian P-budget and which allows investigating the trends of P use in the past, but also selected future scenarios. Given the importance of P throughout the whole anthropogenic metabolism, the model is based on a comprehensive system that encompasses several economic sectors, from agriculture and animal husbandry to industry, consumption and waste and wastewater treatment. Furthermore it includes the hydrosphere, to assess the losses of P into water bodies, due to the importance of eutrophication problems. The methodology applied is Material Flow Analysis (MFA), which is a systemic approach to assess and balance the stocks and flows of a material within a system defined in space and time. Moreover the model is integrated in the software STAN, a freeware tailor-made for MFA. Particular attention is paid to the characteristics and the quality of the data, in order to include data uncertainty and error propagation in the dynamic balance.

  14. Sedimentary chydorid (Cladocera ephippia in relation to lake ecological quality in the Austrian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liisa Nevalainen


    Full Text Available Research on chydorid (Crustacea: Cladocera: Chydoridae reproduction is scarce and very little is known about the dynamics of parthenogenetic (asexual and gamogenetic (sexual reproduction modes in these cyclical parthenogens. The paleolimnological approach has a lot to offer to this research since chydorid carapaces (indicative of asexual reproduction and ephippia (indicative of sexual reproduction are identifiable in lake sediments. In the current study, we examined historical changes in chydorid reproduction patterns in an Austrian Alpine lake with the objective to explore reproductive shifts under limnological variability and with the hypothesis that sexual reproduction intensifies under unfavourable environmental conditions. For this, we utilised subfossil remains from a sediment sequence covering the past ~300 years in a high Alpine lake, lake Oberer Landschitzsee. The results suggested that in-lake processes likely changed as a response to post-Little Ice Age (LIA climate warming. Indeed, the benthic quality – indicated by the chironomidbased benthic quality index (BQI – deteriorated, and the productivity – indicated by organic matter in the sediment – increased. The chydorid community exhibited dramatic shifts in the post-LIA section of the core, around 1850-1950 AD, when the two dominant species Alona (A. affinis and A. quadrangularis were outcompeted by Acroperus harpae, Alonella excisa, and Chydorus (C. sphaericus-type and their reproduction gradually shifted towards the dominance of sexual reproduction. The community shift and prevalence of sexual reproduction coincided with the period of unfavourable limnological conditions, evidenced by low BQI values and higher organic content. Therefore, we suggest that the intensified sexual reproduction was a local response to deteriorated benthic conditions and a vigorous adaptive mechanism to ensure successful diapause and genetic variability under environmental change. The results give

  15. From the new Austrian tunneling method to the geoengineering condition evaluation and dynamic controlling method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Shang


    Full Text Available The new Austrian tunneling method (NATM is widely applied in design and construction of underground engineering projects. When the type and distribution of unfavorable geological bodies (UGBs associated with their influences on geoengineering are complicated or unfortunately are overlooked, we should pay more attentions to internal features of rocks grades IV and V (even in local but mostly controlling zones. With increasing attentions to the characteristics, mechanism and influences of engineering construction-triggered geohazards, it is crucial to fully understand the disturbance of these geohazards on project construction. A reasonable determination method in construction procedure, i.e. the shape of working face, the type of engineering support and the choice of feasible procedure, should be considered in order to mitigate the construction-triggered geohazards. Due to their high sensitivity to groundwater and in-situ stress, various UGBs exhibit hysteretic nature and failure modes. To give a complete understanding on the internal causes, the emphasis on advanced comprehensive geological forecasting and overall reinforcement treatment is therefore of more practical significance. Comprehensive evaluation of influential factors, identification of UGB, and measures of discontinuity dynamic controlling comprises the geoengineering condition evaluation and dynamic controlling method. In a case of a cut slope, the variations of UGBs and the impacts of key environmental factors are presented, where more severe construction-triggered geohazards emerged in construction stage than those predicted in design and field investigation stages. As a result, the weight ratios of different influential factors with respect to field investigation, design and construction are obtained.

  16. Mapping the value of ecosystem services: A case study from the Austrian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Paletto


    Full Text Available Ecosystem services (ES are considered the conditions and processes through which natural ecosystems sustain and fulfil human life. In the decision making process related to the natural resources management, two key-aspects must be taken into account: the economic value of the benefits provided by ES (provisioning, regulating and cultural services and the spatial distribution of these benefits. The purpose of the paper is to develop a method aimed to capture the economic value of the benefits provided by ES, in order to support the decision makers in the natural resources management. ES are not homogeneous across landscapes nor in space. Consequently, gaining knowledge on the spatial distribution of the economic relevance of ES is a fundamental information to target management actions. This method was tested in a case study in the Austrian Alps (Leiblachtal area in Vorarlberg region, characterized by a high importance of forests and grasslands. The results show that the highest economic values could be achieved for the provisioning services with a range between 200 €/ha year and 1,400€/ha year. The regulating services have also important economic values, but strongly localized in specific areas (i.e. protective forests against natural hazards. The economic values of the cultural services are influenced by the preferences of tourists and varies between 5 €/ha year to 60 €/ha year. The method allowed us to reveal the spatial heterogeneity of provisioning, regulating and cultural ES, depending on the ecological characteristics of the site.

  17. Reactor Physics Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Raedt, C


    The Reactor Physics and Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis on reactor fuel. This expertise is applied within the Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Research Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments. Progress and achievements in 1999 in the following areas are reported on: (1) investigations on the use of military plutonium in commercial power reactors; (2) neutron and gamma calculations performed for BR-2 and for other reactors; (3) the updating of neutron and gamma cross-section libraries; (4) the implementation of reactor codes; (6) the management of the UNIX workstations; and (6) fuel cycle studies.

  18. [The Austrian penal code and the Codex Ur-nammu--a comparison from the forensic medicine viewpoint]. (United States)

    Feenstra, O; Roll, P; Seybold, I


    A comparison between the Mesopotamian Law (Codex Ur-nammu) and the Austrian Penal Code reveals the long-sightedness of the founder of the 3rd dynasty from Ur, called Ur-nammu. It seems extremely remarkable that at those remote times (3rd Millenium B. C.) body injuries were satisfied by simple money-penalties. The Codex Ur-nammu therefore not only represents on exceedingly piece of work from the historical point of view but also from the point of view from Legal Medicine.

  19. A Process Model for IT Migrations in the Context of a Hospital Merger - Results from an Austrian Case Study. (United States)

    Steininger, Katharina; Kempinger, Birgit; Schiffer, Stefan; Pomberger, Gustav


    In 2016, a new university hospital merged from three former independent Austrian hospitals started its operation. This paper presents a process model developed to coordinate the IT migration after the merger, using five phases to meet the requirements of the specific setting. A methodological mix of interviews, surveys and workshops was applied during the IT migration process. High stakeholder participation and a transparent methodical approach led to a broad agreement on success factors, migration objectives, and evaluation results. Thus, acceptance for the finally selected migration scenario was very high among employees, which is known to be crucial for the success of migration projects.

  20. Development of Investment Activities of Commercial Insurance Companies in Slovak, Czech and Austrian Insurance Markets in 2004-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Meheš


    Full Text Available The contribution deals with investments of commercial insurance companies operating in Slovak, Czech and Austrian insurance market in the period of 2004–2009. First of all, development of technical reserves volume as an important prerequisite of investing of commercial insurance companies will be characterized. After that, we evaluate financial placements and investment activities – ratio of total investments and technical reserves. We also present statistical tests by means of which we examine the existence of the relation between the volume of technical reserves and the volume of investments of commercial insurance companies.

  1. The Austrian Approach in Promoting Partnership in Balkan Areas: Research Cooperation and Networking between Austria, Kosovo and South Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SALIH S.


    Full Text Available Creating and improving the partnerships in order to strengthen the cooperation between institutions andcontribute towards a sustainable regional scientific collaboration is of major preoccupation for the Austrian Science andBalkan areas. Permanent work in maintaining a diversity of wheat plants and cultivars is a key to survival of plants,which are undergone to the new abiotic and biotic stress (climatic condition, pests and disease demonstrates to be asuitable issue to ve approached in this aim. The partnership between four countries is developing (Austria, Kosovo,Bulgaria and Romania, in order to implement the colaboration.

  2. Interaction with customers: The Application of Social Media within the Austrian Supply Chain for Food and Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Meixner


    Full Text Available Social media marketing has become a powerful tool of interaction with stakeholders. An increasing number of companies are using social media platforms to initiate active interaction and communication with current and prospective customers. Within this study, certain content and contact features, as well as social media activities of companies of the Austrian food and beverage industry were evaluated. Empirical findings concerning the threats, risks, and opportunities connected with the application of social media are presented. The results imply that social media applications are innovative alternatives for customer relationship management. However, more knowledge on how to properly use social media marketing seems to be necessary.

  3. A Comparison of Bird Abundance in Different Types of Rural Settlements along the Czech-Austrian Border


    Machynková, Kateřina


    In the nesting season 2015, the differences between abundances of 11 selected synanthropic species were monitored in village housing development and agricultural buildings on both sides of Czech-Austrian border in the area of Třeboň and in the Gmünd district. There were 20 municipalities chosen for this research, from whom half were in the Czech Republic and the other half in Austria. Two squares 100 x 100 m were demarcated in each village, of which one was situated mostly in the residential ...

  4. Application of various statistical methods to analyze genetic diversity of Austrian (Pinus nigra Arn. and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. based on protein markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lučić Aleksandar


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of studies on protein polymorphism in seeds of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn. as the most important economic species of the genus Pinus in Serbia. Polymorphism of protein markers was determined in selected genotypes originating from seven populations (Scots pine and six populations (Austrian pine. Analysis of protein markers was performed using two statistical methods, NTSYS and correspondence analysis. Both methods give the same arrangement of the analyzed populations, whereby, because of a different view of genetic distances, they can and should be combined, enabling easier and more precise understanding of mutual relationships of the observation units.

  5. LMFBR type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, Hiroto


    A reactor container of the present invention has a structure that the reactor container is entirely at the same temperature as that at the inlet of the reactor and, a hot pool is incorporated therein, and the reactor container has is entirely at the same temperature and has substantially uniform temperature follow-up property transiently. Namely, if the temperature at the inlet of the reactor core changes, the temperature of the entire reactor container changes following this change, but no great temperature gradient is caused in the axial direction and no great heat stresses due to axial temperature distribution is caused. Occurrence of thermal stresses caused by the axial temperature distribution can be suppressed to improve the reliability of the reactor container. In addition, since the laying of the reactor inlet pipelines over the inside of the reactor is eliminated, the reactor container is made compact and the heat shielding structures above the reactor and a protection structure of container walls are simplified. Further, secondary coolants are filled to the outside of the reactor container to simplify the shieldings. The combined effects described above can improve economical property and reliability. (N.H.).

  6. Wood pellet production costs under Austrian and in comparison to Swedish framework conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thek, Gerold [Bios Bioenergiesysteme GmbH, Graz (Austria); Obernberger, Ingwald [Bios Bioenergiesysteme GmbH, Graz (Austria); Graz Univ. of Technology, Inst. for Resource Efficient and Sustainable Systems, Graz (Austria)


    pellet production costs to be considerably lower due to larger plant capacities, the combination of pellet production and biomass CHP or biomass district heating plants and the implementation of technologies which allow an efficient heat recovery from the dryers. Moreover, another difference between the Austrian and the Swedish framework conditions is the price of electricity, which is much lower in Sweden. (Author)

  7. Advanced catchment characterization with a combination of different methods - a case study from the Austrian Alps (United States)

    Markart, G.; Bieber, G.; Roemer, A.; Jochum, B.; Klebinder, K.; Kohl, B.; Mayerhofer, F.; Pausch, H.; Pfeiler, S.; Pirkl, H.; Sotier, B.; Strasser, M.; Suntinger, K.


    of maps of the dominant flow processes at the surface and in the near surface on the one hand and the attribution of bandwidths of shallow interflow velocities to the dominant substrata on the other. This information resulted in a significant improvement of the hydrological modeling results. The authors gratefully acknowledge funding of the project "Shallow Interflow" by the Austrian Academy of Sciences (ÖAW), Commission of Hydrology.

  8. The Austrian radiation monitoring network ARAD - best practice and added value (United States)

    Olefs, Marc; Baumgartner, Dietmar J.; Obleitner, Friedrich; Bichler, Christoph; Foelsche, Ulrich; Pietsch, Helga; Rieder, Harald E.; Weihs, Philipp; Geyer, Florian; Haiden, Thomas; Schöner, Wolfgang


    The Austrian RADiation monitoring network (ARAD) has been established to advance the national climate monitoring and to support satellite retrieval, atmospheric modeling and the development of solar energy techniques. Measurements cover the downward solar and thermal infrared radiation using instruments according to Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) standards. A unique feature of ARAD is its vertical dimension of five stations, covering an altitude range between about 200 m a.s.l (Vienna) and 3100 m a.s.l. (BSRN site Sonnblick). The paper outlines the aims and scopes of ARAD, its measurement and calibration standards, methods, strategies and station locations. ARAD network operation uses innovative data processing for quality assurance and quality control, utilizing manual and automated control algorithms. A combined uncertainty estimate for the broadband shortwave radiation fluxes at all five ARAD stations, using the methodology specified by the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement indicates that relative accuracies range from 1.5 to 2.9 % for large signals (global, direct: 1000 W m-2, diffuse: 500 W m-2) and from 1.7 to 23 % (or 0.9 to 11.5 W m-2) for small signals (50 W m-2) (expanded uncertainties corresponding to the 95 % confidence level). If the directional response error of the pyranometers and the temperature response of the instruments and the data acquisition system (DAQ) are corrected, this expanded uncertainty reduces to 1.4 to 2.8 % for large signals and to 1.7 to 5.2 % (or 0.9-2.6 W m-2) for small signals. Thus, for large signals of global and diffuse radiation, BSRN target accuracies are met or nearly met (missed by less than 0.2 percentage points, pps) for 70 % of the ARAD measurements after this correction. For small signals of direct radiation, BSRN targets are achieved at two sites and nearly met (also missed by less than 0.2 pps) at the other sites. For small signals of global and diffuse radiation, targets are achieved

  9. Modelling tunnel jet emissions with LASAT: evaluation study with two Austrian data sets (Ehrentalerbergtunnel and Kaisermuhlentunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Hirtl


    model parameters derived for the Ehrentalerbergtunnel are also applied to this site. It is shown that LASAT is able to simulate the position of the plume and that the modelled and the measured concentration values do not deviate more than 30 %. This study reveals that LASAT can be applied to tunnel portal emissions. The model simulations for both the Ehrentalerbergtunnel and Kaisermühlentunnel meet the requirements specified in the Austrian design guideline RVS 9.263 “Ventilation Systems - Pollutant burden at portals”.

  10. Derivation of GNSS derived station velocities for a surface deformation model in the Austrian region (United States)

    Umnig, Elke; Weber, Robert; Maras, Jadre; Brückl, Ewald


    This contribution deals with the first comprehensive analysis of GNSS derived surface velocities computed within an observation network of about 100 stations covering the whole Austrian territory and parts of the neighbouring countries. Coordinate time series are available now, spanning a period of 5 years (2010.0-2015.0) for one focus area in East Austria and one and a half year (2013.5-2015.0) for the remaining part of the tracking network. In principle the data series are stemming from two different GNSS campaigns. The former was set up to investigate intra plate tectonic movements within the framework of the project ALPAACT (seismological and geodetic monitoring of ALpine-PAnnonian ACtive Tectonics), the latter was designed to support a number of various requests, e.g. derivation of GNSS derived water vapour fields, but also to expand the foresaid tectonic studies. In addition the activities within the ALPAACT project supplement the educational initiative SHOOLS & QUAKES, where scholars contribute to seismological research. For the whole period of the processed coordinate time series daily solutions have been computed by means of the Bernese software. The processed coordinate time series are tied to the global reference frame ITRF2000 as well as to the frame ITRF2008. Due to the transition of the reference from ITRF2000 to ITRF2008 within the processing period, but also due to updates of the Bernese software from version 5.0 to 5.2 the time series were initially not fully consistent and have to be re-aligned to a common frame. So the goal of this investigation is to derive a nationwide consistent horizontal motion field on base of GNSS reference station data within the ITRF2008 frame, but also with respect to the Eurasian plate. In this presentation we focus on the set-up of the coordinate time series and on the problem of frame alignment. Special attention is also paid to the separation into linear and periodic motion signals, originating from tectonic or non

  11. On specific character of Austrian national code in literature and music: origins of game-like nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetkov Yu. L.


    Full Text Available In the article the mutual influence of folk theatre, Austrian Singspiel and Viennese opera in the genres of comic opera, operetta and drama performances involving music, singing and dancing is studied. The powerful influence of Italian and French opera schools, as well as the Italian Commedia Dell'arte led to the flourishing of music and theatre art in Austria: opera buffa (A. Salieri, Ch. W. Glück, J. Haydn, W. A. Mozart, fairy-tale comedies of F. Raimund and satirical dramas of Nestroy. Their game-like nature finds its expression in musical turns, satirical songs and duets. Viennese dance operetta has absorbed the traditions of Viennese popular comedy and comic opera. Recitative, vocal music and folk dances were the key elements of operettas (J. Strauss junior, F. von Suppe, K. Millöcker, K. Zeller, F. Lehar. The music and the game in Austria are the results of theatralization of life: the life turns into something like art. Austrian culture, which is addressed directly to the human being and short of complex philosophical musings and speculative schemes, has genetically built-in playful, musical and theatrical basis, as well as German. Strongly-pronounced playful and musical source as an important national component of the culture, its code, determine its highly fictitious character (staginess and integrity (both genre and intermediately, thereby maintain its special status in the European culture.

  12. BRCA1-related breast cancer in Austrian breast and ovarian cancer families: specific BRCA1 mutations and pathological characteristics. (United States)

    Wagner, T M; Möslinger, R A; Muhr, D; Langbauer, G; Hirtenlehner, K; Concin, H; Doeller, W; Haid, A; Lang, A H; Mayer, P; Ropp, E; Kubista, E; Amirimani, B; Helbich, T; Becherer, A; Scheiner, O; Breiteneder, H; Borg, A; Devilee, P; Oefner, P; Zielinski, C


    We identified 17 BRCA1 mutations in 86 Austrian breast and ovarian cancer families (20%) that were screened for mutations by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) and the protein truncation test (PTT). Eleven distinct mutations were detected, 4 of them (962del4, 2795del4, 3135del4 and L3376stop) not previously reported in families of non-Austrian origin. In addition, 6 rare missense mutations (allele frequency Cys61Gly (3 times) 5382insC (2 times) and Q1806stop (2 times). Haplotype analysis of the 4 recurrent mutations suggested a common ancestor for each of these. Thirty-four breast cancer cases from 17 families with BRCA1 mutations were further analyzed. We observed a low median age of onset (39.5 years). Sixty-eight percent of all BRCA1 breast cancer cases had negative axillary lymph nodes. This group showed a significant prevalence of a negative estrogen and progesterone receptor status and stage I tumors compared with an age-related, node-negative control group. The prevalence of grade III tumors was marginally significant. Survival analysis either with a control group matched for age (within 5 years), grade, histologic subtype and estrogen receptor status, or with an age-related, node-negative comparison group, showed no statistical difference.

  13. Light water reactor safety

    CERN Document Server

    Pershagen, B


    This book describes the principles and practices of reactor safety as applied to the design, regulation and operation of light water reactors, combining a historical approach with an up-to-date account of the safety, technology and operating experience of both pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors. The introductory chapters set out the basic facts upon which the safety of light water reactors depend. The central section is devoted to the methods and results of safety analysis. The accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl are reviewed and their implications for light wate

  14. Nuclear reactor physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Weston M


    Nuclear reactor physics is the core discipline of nuclear engineering. Nuclear reactors now account for a significant portion of the electrical power generated worldwide, and new power reactors with improved fuel cycles are being developed. At the same time, the past few decades have seen an ever-increasing number of industrial, medical, military, and research applications for nuclear reactors. The second edition of this successful comprehensive textbook and reference on basic and advanced nuclear reactor physics has been completely updated, revised and enlarged to include the latest developme

  15. Spinning fluids reactor (United States)

    Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert


    A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

  16. Reactor Vessel Surveillance Program for Advanced Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kyeong-Hoon; Kim, Tae-Wan; Lee, Gyu-Mahn; Kim, Jong-Wook; Park, Keun-Bae; Kim, Keung-Koo


    This report provides the design requirements of an integral type reactor vessel surveillance program for an integral type reactor in accordance with the requirements of Korean MEST (Ministry of Education, Science and Technology Development) Notice 2008-18. This report covers the requirements for the design of surveillance capsule assemblies including their test specimens, test block materials, handling tools, and monitors of the surveillance capsule neutron fluence and temperature. In addition, this report provides design requirements for the program for irradiation surveillance of reactor vessel materials, a layout of specimens and monitors in the surveillance capsule, procedures of installation and retrieval of the surveillance capsule assemblies, and the layout of the surveillance capsule assemblies in the reactor.

  17. Modelling site-specific N2O emission factors from Austrian agricultural soils for targeted mitigation measures (NitroAustria) (United States)

    Amon, Barbara; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Kasper, Martina; Foldal, Cecilie; Schiefer, Jasmin; Kitzler, Barbara; Schwarzl, Bettina; Zethner, Gerhard; Anderl, Michael; Sedy, Katrin; Gaugitsch, Helmut; Dersch, Georg; Baumgarten, Andreas; Haas, Edwin; Kiese, Ralf


    Results from a previous project "FarmClim" highlight that the IPCC default emission factor is not able to reflect region specific N2O emissions from Austrian arable soils. The methodology is limited in identifying hot spots and hot moments of N2O emissions. When estimations are based on default emission factors no recommendations can be given on optimisation measures that would lead to a reduction of soil N2O emissions. The better the knowledge is about Nitrogen and Carbon budgets in Austrian agricultural managed soils the better the situation can be reflected in the Austrian GHG emission inventory calculations. Therefore national and regionally modelled emission factors should improve the evidence for national deviation from the IPCC default emission factors and reduce the uncertainties. The overall aim of NitroAustria is to identify the drivers for N2O emissions on a regional basis taking different soil types, climate, and agricultural management into account. We use the LandscapeDNDC model to update the N2O emission factors for N fertilizer and animal manure applied to soils. Key regions in Austria were selected and region specific N2O emissions calculated. The model runs at sub-daily time steps and uses data such as maximum and minimum air temperature, precipitation, radiation, and wind speed as meteorological drivers. Further input data are used to reflect agricultural management practices, e.g., planting/harvesting, tillage, fertilizer application, irrigation and information on soil and vegetation properties for site characterization and model initialization. While at site scale, arable management data (crop cultivation, rotations, timings etc.) is obtained by experimental data from field trials or observations, at regional scale such data need to be generated using region specific proxy data such as land use and management statistics, crop cultivations and yields, crop rotations, fertilizer sales, manure resulting from livestock units etc. The farming

  18. IT adoption of clinical information systems in Austrian and German hospitals: results of a comparative survey with a focus on nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaubmayr Christine


    Full Text Available Abstract Background IT adoption is a process that is influenced by different external and internal factors. This study aimed 1. to identify similarities and differences in the prevalence of medical and nursing IT systems in Austrian and German hospitals, and 2. to match these findings with characteristics of the two countries, in particular their healthcare system, and with features of the hospitals. Methods In 2007, all acute care hospitals in both countries received questionnaires with identical questions. 12.4% in Germany and 34.6% in Austria responded. Results The surveys revealed a consistent higher usage of nearly all clinical IT systems, especially nursing systems, but also PACS and electronic archiving systems, in Austrian than in German hospitals. These findings correspond with a significantly wider use of standardised nursing terminologies and a higher number of PC workstations on the wards (average 2.1 PCs in Germany, 3.2 PCs in Austria. Despite these differences, Austrian and German hospitals both reported a similar IT budget of 2.6% in Austria and 2.0% in Germany (median. Conclusions Despite the many similarities of the Austrian and German healthcare system there are distinct differences which may have led to a wider use of IT systems in Austrian hospitals. In nursing, the specific legal requirement to document nursing diagnoses in Austria may have stimulated the use of standardised terminologies for nursing diagnoses and the implementation of electronic nursing documentation systems. Other factors which correspond with the wider use of clinical IT systems in Austria are: good infrastructure of medical-technical devices, rigorous organisational changes which had led to leaner processes and to a lower length of stay, and finally a more IT friendly climate. As country size is the most pronounced difference between Germany and Austria it could be that smaller countries, such as Austria, are more ready to translate innovation into

  19. SNTP program reactor design (United States)

    Walton, Lewis A.; Sapyta, Joseph J.


    The Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program is evaluating the feasibility of a particle bed reactor for a high-performance nuclear thermal rocket engine. Reactors operating between 500 MW and 2,000 MW will produce engine thrusts ranging from 20,000 pounds to 80,000 pounds. The optimum reactor arrangement depends on the power level desired and the intended application. The key components of the reactor have been developed and are being tested. Flow-to-power matching considerations dominate the thermal-hydraulic design of the reactor. Optimal propellant management during decay heat cooling requires a three-pronged approach. Adequate computational methods exist to perform the neutronics analysis of the reactor core. These methods have been benchmarked to critical experiment data.

  20. Fast Spectrum Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Donald; Tsvetkov, Pavel


    Fast Spectrum Reactors presents a detailed overview of world-wide technology contributing to the development of fast spectrum reactors. With a unique focus on the capabilities of fast spectrum reactors to address nuclear waste transmutation issues, in addition to the well-known capabilities of breeding new fuel, this volume describes how fast spectrum reactors contribute to the wide application of nuclear power systems to serve the global nuclear renaissance while minimizing nuclear proliferation concerns. Readers will find an introduction to the sustainable development of nuclear energy and the role of fast reactors, in addition to an economic analysis of nuclear reactors. A section devoted to neutronics offers the current trends in nuclear design, such as performance parameters and the optimization of advanced power systems. The latest findings on fuel management, partitioning and transmutation include the physics, efficiency and strategies of transmutation, homogeneous and heterogeneous recycling, in addit...

  1. Hybrid reactors. [Fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R.W.


    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of /sup 233/U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m/sup -2/, and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid.

  2. [Recommendations for the use of faecal microbiota transplantation "stool transplantation": consensus of the Austrian Society of Gastroenterology and Hepatology (ÖGGH) in cooperation with the Austrian Society of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine]. (United States)

    Kump, P K; Krause, R; Steininger, C; Gröchenig, H P; Moschen, A; Madl, C; Novacek, G; Allerberger, F; Högenauer, C


    The intestinal microbiota has a pivotal role in the maintenance of health of the human organism, especially in the defense against pathogenic microorganisms. Alterations in the microbiota, also termed dysbiosis, seem to be involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of intestinal and extraintestinal diseases. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), also known as stool transplantation, is a therapeutic procedure aiming at restoring an altered intestinal microbiota by administration of stool microorganisms from a healthy donor into the intestinal tract of a patient. FMT is most commonly used for recurrent forms of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI). There are currently many cohort studies in a large number of patients and a randomized controlled trial showing a dramatic effect of FMT for this indication. Therefore FMT is recommended by international medical societies for the treatment of recurrent CDI with high scientific evidence. Other potential indications are the treatment of fulminant CDI or the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. In the practical utilization of FMT there are currently several open questions regarding the screening of stool donors, the processing of stool and the mode of FMT application. Different modes of FMT application have been described, the application into the colon has to be preferred due to less reported side effects than the application into the upper gastrointestinal tract. So far only very few side effects due to FMT have been reported, nevertheless the use and risks of FMT are currently intensely debated in the medical community. This consensus report of the Austrian society of gastroenterology and hepatology (ÖGGH) in cooperation with the Austrian society of infectious diseases and tropical medicine provides instructions for physicians who want to use FMT which are based on the current medical literature.

  3. Multi purpose research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raina, V.K. [Research Reactor Design and Projects Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)]. E-mail:; Sasidharan, K. [Research Reactor Design and Projects Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Sengupta, Samiran [Research Reactor Design and Projects Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Singh, Tej [Research Reactor Services Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)


    At present Dhruva and Cirus reactors provide the majority of research reactor based facilities to cater to the various needs of a vast pool of researchers in the field of material sciences, physics, chemistry, bio sciences, research and development work for nuclear power plants and production of radio isotopes. With a view to further consolidate and expand the scope of research and development in nuclear and allied sciences, a new 20 MWt multi purpose research reactor is being designed. This paper describes some of the design features and safety aspects of this reactor.

  4. INVAP's Research Reactor Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Villarino


    Full Text Available INVAP, an Argentine company founded more than three decades ago, is today recognized as one of the leaders within the research reactor industry. INVAP has participated in several projects covering a wide range of facilities, designed in accordance with the requirements of our different clients. For complying with these requirements, INVAP developed special skills and capabilities to deal with different fuel assemblies, different core cooling systems, and different reactor layouts. This paper summarizes the general features and utilization of several INVAP research reactor designs, from subcritical and critical assemblies to high-power reactors.

  5. LMFBR type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanbe, Mitsuru


    An LMFBR type reactor comprises a plurality of reactor cores in a reactor container. Namely, a plurality of pot containing vessels are disposed in the reactor vessel and a plurality of reactor cores are formed in a state where an integrated-type fuel assembly is each inserted to a pot, and a coolant pipeline is connected to each of the pot containing-vessel to cool the reactor core respectively. When fuels are exchanged, the integrated-type fuel assembly is taken out together with the pot from the reactor vessel in a state where the integrated-type fuel assembly is immersed in the coolants in the pot as it is. Accordingly, coolants are supplied to each of the pot containing-vessel connected with the coolant pipeline and circulate while cooling the integrated-type fuel assembly for every pot. Then, when the fuels are exchanged, the integrated type fuel assembly is taken out to the outside of the reactor together with the pot by taking up the pot from the pot-containing vessel. Then, neutron economy is improved to thereby improve reactor power and the breeding ratio. (N.H.)

  6. LC-MS/MS analysis of neonicotinoid insecticides in honey: methodology and residue findings in Austrian honeys. (United States)

    Tanner, Gina; Czerwenka, Christoph


    An analytical method for the simultaneous determination of residues of eight neonicotinoid insecticides and two metabolites in honey using LC-MS/MS was developed and validated. Two approaches of sample preparation were investigated, with the final method involving acetonitrile extraction and subsequent cleanup by dispersive solid-phase extraction (QuEChERS type). Validation was based on quintuplicate analysis at three fortification levels and showed satisfactory recoveries (60-114%) and high precision (RSDs between 2.7 and 12.8%). Low limits of detection and quantification could be achieved for all analytes ranging from 0.6 to 5 μg/kg and from 2 to 10 μg/kg, respectively. Investigations of Austrian honey samples revealed the presence of acetamiprid, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam residues in honey; however, no sample exceeded the maximum residue limits. On average, flower honey samples contained neonicotinoid residues in higher quantities compared to forest honey samples.

  7. Hygiene of Raw Milk from Austrian Spotted, Holstein and Romanian Spotted Breeds, in Three Farms from Central Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Ștețca


    Full Text Available Analysis strictly medical, objective and impartial demonstrate that none of the foods considered to be basic, it is an ideal food, and milk can have some adverse effects on consumers, if the product is subject to changes caused by the improper welfare and health of the animals, but not least the processing technology. This study aimed the analyzing of raw cow milk related to the quality indicators on hygiene. There were considered the samples collected from three farms of the Central part of Romania, each of 24 samples of raw milk. The cows breed were farm A - Austrian spotted, farm B - Holstein and farm C - Romanian spotted. The parameters investigated here were total bacteria count and somatic cell count. The range of the non-conforming milk samples was 1:5.

  8. Meeting report: Vienna 2008 Workshop of the German-Austrian Working Group for Studying Prognostic Factors in Myelodysplastic Syndromes. (United States)

    Valent, Peter; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Büsche, Guntram; Sotlar, Karl; Horny, Hans-Peter; Haase, Detlef; Haferlach, Torsten; Kern, Wolfgang; Bettelheim, Peter; Baumgartner, Christian; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Nösslinger, Thomas; Wimazal, Friedrich; Giagounidis, Aristoteles A; Lübbert, Michael; Krieger, Otto; Kolb, Hans-Jochem; Stauder, Reinhard; Pfeilstöcker, Michael; Gattermann, Norbert; Fonatsch, Christa; Aul, Carlo; Germing, Ulrich


    Criteria, scoring systems, and treatment algorithms for myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) have been updated repeatedly in recent years. This apparently results from increased awareness and early recognition of the disease, an increasing number of new diagnostic and prognostic markers and tools, and new therapeutic options that may change the course and thus prognosis in MDS. To address these challenges and to create useful new diagnostic and prognostic parameters and scores, the German-Austrian Working Group for Studying Prognostic Factors in MDS was established in 2003 and later was extended to centers in Switzerland (D-A-CH group). In addition, the group cooperates with the European LeukemiaNet, the MDS Foundation, and other national and international working groups in order to improve diagnosis and prognostication. The current article represents a meeting report from the latest workshop organized by the group in Vienna in October 2008.

  9. Light water reactor program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franks, S.M.


    The US Department of Energy`s Light Water Reactor Program is outlined. The scope of the program consists of: design certification of evolutionary plants; design, development, and design certification of simplified passive plants; first-of-a-kind engineering to achieve commercial standardization; plant lifetime improvement; and advanced reactor severe accident program. These program activities of the Office of Nuclear Energy are discussed.

  10. Space Nuclear Reactor Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, David Irvin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    We needed to find a space reactor concept that could be attractive to NASA for flight and proven with a rapid turnaround, low-cost nuclear test. Heat-pipe-cooled reactors coupled to Stirling engines long identified as the easiest path to near-term, low-cost concept.

  11. Reactor Materials Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Walle, E


    The activities of the Reactor Materials Research Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. The programmes within the department are focussed on studies concerning (1) fusion, in particular mechanical testing; (2) Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC); (3) nuclear fuel; and (4) Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel (RPVS)

  12. Nuclear reactor design

    CERN Document Server


    This book focuses on core design and methods for design and analysis. It is based on advances made in nuclear power utilization and computational methods over the past 40 years, covering core design of boiling water reactors and pressurized water reactors, as well as fast reactors and high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. The objectives of this book are to help graduate and advanced undergraduate students to understand core design and analysis, and to serve as a background reference for engineers actively working in light water reactors. Methodologies for core design and analysis, together with physical descriptions, are emphasized. The book also covers coupled thermal hydraulic core calculations, plant dynamics, and safety analysis, allowing readers to understand core design in relation to plant control and safety.

  13. Status of French reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballagny, A. [Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, Saclay (France)


    The status of French reactors is reviewed. The ORPHEE and RHF reactors can not be operated with a LEU fuel which would be limited to 4.8 g U/cm{sup 3}. The OSIRIS reactor has already been converted to LEU. It will use U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} as soon as its present stock of UO{sub 2} fuel is used up, at the end of 1994. The decision to close down the SILOE reactor in the near future is not propitious for the start of a conversion process. The REX 2000 reactor, which is expected to be commissioned in 2005, will use LEU (except if the fast neutrons core option is selected). Concerning the end of the HEU fuel cycle, the best option is reprocessing followed by conversion of the reprocessed uranium to LEU.

  14. 11 June 2012 - Austrian Federal Minister of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection R. Hundstorfer signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Ambassador to the UN C. Strohal (CERN-HI-120611334)

    CERN Multimedia


    11 June 2012 - Austrian Federal Minister of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection R. Hundstorfer signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Ambassador to the UN C. Strohal (CERN-HI-120611334)

  15. 4 August 2011 - Austrian Head of Protocol, Directorate General III, Federal Ministry of Science and Research I. Friedrich (3rd from left) in the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with M. Benedkit, C. Wulz and C. Fabjan.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice


    4 August 2011 - Austrian Head of Protocol, Directorate General III, Federal Ministry of Science and Research I. Friedrich (3rd from left) in the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with M. Benedkit, C. Wulz and C. Fabjan.

  16. Slurry reactor design studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, J.M.; Degen, B.D.; Cady, G.; Deslate, F.D.; Summers, R.L. (Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (USA)); Akgerman, A. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (USA)); Smith, J.M. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA))


    The objective of these studies was to perform a realistic evaluation of the relative costs of tublar-fixed-bed and slurry reactors for methanol, mixed alcohols and Fischer-Tropsch syntheses under conditions where they would realistically be expected to operate. The slurry Fischer-Tropsch reactor was, therefore, operated at low H{sub 2}/CO ratio on gas directly from a Shell gasifier. The fixed-bed reactor was operated on 2.0 H{sub 2}/CO ratio gas after adjustment by shift and CO{sub 2} removal. Every attempt was made to give each reactor the benefit of its optimum design condition and correlations were developed to extend the models beyond the range of the experimental pilot plant data. For the methanol design, comparisons were made for a recycle plant with high methanol yield, this being the standard design condition. It is recognized that this is not necessarily the optimum application for the slurry reactor, which is being proposed for a once-through operation, coproducing methanol and power. Consideration is also given to the applicability of the slurry reactor to mixed alcohols, based on conditions provided by Lurgi for an Octamix{trademark} plant using their standard tubular-fixed reactor technology. 7 figs., 26 tabs.

  17. Gas cooled fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Although most of the development work on fast breeder reactors has been devoted to the use of liquid metal cooling, interest has been expressed for a number of years in alternative breeder concepts using other coolants. One of a number of concepts in which interest has been retained is the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR). As presently envisioned, it would operate on the uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuel cycle, similar to that used in the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR), and would use helium gas as the coolant.

  18. Microfluidic electrochemical reactors (United States)

    Nuzzo, Ralph G [Champaign, IL; Mitrovski, Svetlana M [Urbana, IL


    A microfluidic electrochemical reactor includes an electrode and one or more microfluidic channels on the electrode, where the microfluidic channels are covered with a membrane containing a gas permeable polymer. The distance between the electrode and the membrane is less than 500 micrometers. The microfluidic electrochemical reactor can provide for increased reaction rates in electrochemical reactions using a gaseous reactant, as compared to conventional electrochemical cells. Microfluidic electrochemical reactors can be incorporated into devices for applications such as fuel cells, electrochemical analysis, microfluidic actuation, pH gradient formation.

  19. Fast Breeder Reactor studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Kittel, J.H.; Fauske, H.K.; Lineberry, M.J.; Stevenson, M.G.; Amundson, P.I.; Dance, K.D.


    This report is a compilation of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) resource documents prepared to provide the technical basis for the US contribution to the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. The eight separate parts deal with the alternative fast breeder reactor fuel cycles in terms of energy demand, resource base, technical potential and current status, safety, proliferation resistance, deployment, and nuclear safeguards. An Annex compares the cost of decommissioning light-water and fast breeder reactors. Separate abstracts are included for each of the parts.

  20. Comparison of Austrian, Hungarian and Macedonian methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus strains in relation to prevalence of cytotoxin genes. (United States)

    Kocsis, Erika; Lagler, Heimo; Pesti, Natasa; Stich, Karin; Kristóf, Katalin; Nagy, Károly; Hermann, Péter; Komka, Kinga; Cekovska, Zaklina; Graninger, Wolfgang; Rozgonyi, Ferenc


    Cytotoxin genes in 128 Austrian (AT) MSSA, 48 MRSA, 94 Hungarian (HU) MSSA, 110 MRSA and 67 Macedonian (MK) MSSA, 81 MRSA strains were examined. The presence of alfa-haemolysin gene (hla) was more common in HU MSSA strains compared to AT and MK (99%, 86%, 72%: pcytotoxin genes and combinations differed significantly in Staphylococcus aureus strains according to geographical origin and methicillin-resistance.

  1. Changes in equipment and image quality. Impact of one year Austrian breast cancer early detection programme; Aenderungen in der Geraetelandschaft und Bildqualitaet. Auswirkungen nach einem Jahr Oesterreichischem Brustkrebsfrueherkennungsprogramm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menhart, S.; Osanna-Elliott, A.; Semturs, F.; Schloegl, C.; Wildner, S.; Zwettler, G. [AGES, Wien (Austria). Referenzzentrum fuer technische Qualitaetssicherung im Brustkrebsfrueherkennungsprogramm


    The nationwide Austrian Breast Cancer Early Detection Programme (''BKFP'') started in January 2014. The Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety Ltd. was entrusted with running the reference center for technical quality control (''RefZQS'') on April 1, 2014. The quality of the radiologists' equipment is evaluated against the standards described in the EUREF-Oeprotocol, which is based on the European guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening and diagnosis (EPQC V4, 2006) and has been optimized for Austrian requirements. In its first year of operation the RefZQS has controlled the entire equipment (mammography, periphery and ultrasound system) of all participating radiologists. A significant number of systems had to be adjusted to meet the EUREF-Oecriteria. Some of the systems could not be adjusted accordingly, and had to be replaced. In the wake of the start of the screening programme, several sites switched from CR to more modern DR systems, yielding a significant benefit by reduction of radiation burden. The most important data after one year of RefZQS, especially according to adjustments and replacements, are presented.

  2. Shaping Disciplinary Boundaries: Scientific Practice and Politics in the Methodenstreit Between the German Historical School and the Austrian School of Economics (United States)

    de Sousa, Filomena

    In view of the great success enjoyed by the natural sciences by the end of the nineteenth century, scholars working in the social field felt the need to highlight the importance of the human sciences as piece and part of the broad scientific scene. Discussions purporting to the limits and status of the sciences devoted to the study of human behaviour, especially in relation to the logic of the natural sciences, led to the articulation of the conceptual pair Erklären/Verstehen as corresponding to the demarcation between Naturwissenschaften and Geisteswissenschaften. The differentiation between History and Society took central stage in the context of the debates about the scientific parameters shaping disciplinary boundaries and gave rise to the famous Methodenstreit opposing Gustav Schmoller the leader of the German Younger School of Economics to Carl Menger, the founding father of the Austrian School of Economics. The relevance of this episode can be measured by its impact not only on economics, but on the broader context of twentieth century social science, as the Methodenstreit turned on the dispute between Methodological Individualism and Holism. In this essay I tell the story of the divergences between German and Austrian scholars and suggest that the gap between the German Historical School and the Austrian School of Economics may be narrower than standard textbooks suggest.

  3. The effectiveness of the Austrian disease management programme for type 2 diabetes: a cluster-randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klima Gert


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disease management programmes (DMPs are costly and impose additional work load on general practitioners (GPs. Data on their effectiveness are inconclusive. We therefore conducted a cluster-randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of the Austrian DMP for diabetes mellitus type 2 on HbA1c and quality of care for adult patients in primary care. Methods All GPs of Salzburg-province were invited to participate. After cluster-randomisation by district, all patients with diabetes type 2 were recruited consecutively from 7-11/2007. The DMP, consisting mainly of physician and patient education, standardised documentation and agreement on therapeutic goals, was implemented in the intervention group while the control group received usual care. We aimed to show superiority of the intervention regarding metabolic control and process quality. The primary outcome measure was a change in HbA1c after one year. Secondary outcomes were days in the hospital, blood pressure, lipids, body mass index (BMI, enrolment in patient education and regular guideline-adherent examination. Blinding was not possible. Results 92 physicians recruited 1489 patients (649 intervention, 840 control. After 401 ± 47 days, 590 intervention-patients and 754 controls had complete data. In the intention to treat analysis (ITT of all 1489 patients, HbA1c decreased 0.41% in the intervention group and 0.28% in controls. The difference of -0.13% (95% CI -0.24; -0.02 was significant at p = 0.026. Significance was lost in mixed models adjusted for baseline value and cluster-effects (adjusted mean difference -0.03 (95% CI -0.15; 0.09, p = 0.607. Of the secondary outcome measures, BMI and cholesterol were significantly reduced in the intervention group compared to controls in ITT after adjustments (-0.53 kg/m²; 95% CI -1.03;-0.02; p = 0.014 and -0.10 mmol/l; 95% CI -0.21; -0.003; p = 0.043. Additionally, more patients received patient education (49.5% vs. 20

  4. Reactor BR2. Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubel, P


    The BR2 is a materials testing reactor and is still one of SCK-CEN's important nuclear facilities. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. During the last three years, the availability of the installation was maintained at an average level of 97.6 percent. In the year 2000, the reactor was operated for a total of 104 days at a mean power of 56 MW. In 2000, most irradiation experiments were performed in the CALLISTO PWR loop. The report describes irradiations achieved or under preparation in 2000, including the development of advanced facilities and concept studies for new programmes. An overview of the scientific irradiation programmes as well as of the R and D programme of the BR2 reactor in 2000 is given.

  5. Reactor Neutrino Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, A C


    We present a review of the antineutrino spectra emitted from reactors. Knowledge of these and their associated uncertainties are crucial for neutrino oscillation studies. The spectra used to-date have been determined by either conversion of measured electron spectra to antineutrino spectra or by summing over all of the thousands of transitions that makeup the spectra using modern databases as input. The uncertainties in the subdominant corrections to beta-decay plague both methods, and we provide estimates of these uncertainties. Improving on current knowledge of the antineutrino spectra from reactors will require new experiments. Such experiments would also address the so-called reactor neutrino anomaly and the possible origin of the shoulder observed in the antineutrino spectra measured in recent high-statistics reactor neutrino experiments.

  6. New reactor type proposed

    CERN Multimedia


    "Russian scientists at the Research Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering in Moscow are hoping to develop a new reactor that will use lead and bismuth as fuel instead of uranium and plutonium" (1/2 page).

  7. Helias reactor studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beidler, C.D. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Grieger, G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Harmeyer, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Kisslinger, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Karulin, N. [Nuclear Fusion Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Maurer, W. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany); Nuehrenberg, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Rau, F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Sapper, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Wobig, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)


    The present status of Helias reactor studies is characterised by the identification and investigation of specific issues which result from the particular properties of this type of stellarator. On the technical side these are issues related to the coil system, while physics studies have concentrated on confinement, alpha-particle behaviour and ignition conditions. The usual assumptions have been made in those fields which are common to all toroidal fusion reactors: blanket and shield, refuelling and exhaust, safety and economic aspects. For blanket and shield sufficient space has been provided, a detailed concept will be developed in future. To date more emphasis has been placed on scoping and parameter studies as opposed to fixing a specific set of parameters and providing a detailed point study. One result of the Helias reactor studies is that physical dimensions are on the same order as those of tokamak reactors. However, it should be noticed that this comparison is difficult in view of the large spectrum of tokamak reactors ranging from a small reactor like Aries, to a large device such as SEAFP. The notion that the large aspect ratio of 10 or more in Helias configurations also leads to large reactors is misleading, since the large major radius of 22 m is compensated by the average plasma radius of 1.8 m and the average coil radius of 5 m. The plasma volume of 1400 m{sup 3} is about the same as the ITER reactor and the magnetic energy of the coil system is about the same or even slightly smaller than envisaged in ITER. (orig.)

  8. Future Reactor Experiments


    He, Miao


    The measurement of the neutrino mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ opens a gateway for the next generation experiments to measure the neutrino mass hierarchy and the leptonic CP-violating phase. Future reactor experiments will focus on mass hierarchy determination and the precision measurement of mixing parameters. Mass hierarchy can be determined from the disappearance of reactor electron antineutrinos based on the interference effect of two separated oscillation modes. Relative and absolute measure...

  9. Reactor Neutrino Experiments


    Cao, Jun


    Precisely measuring $\\theta_{13}$ is one of the highest priority in neutrino oscillation study. Reactor experiments can cleanly determine $\\theta_{13}$. Past reactor neutrino experiments are reviewed and status of next precision $\\theta_{13}$ experiments are presented. Daya Bay is designed to measure $\\sin^22\\theta_{13}$ to better than 0.01 and Double Chooz and RENO are designed to measure it to 0.02-0.03. All are heading to full operation in 2010. Recent improvements in neutrino moment measu...

  10. Department of Reactor Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risø National Laboratory, Roskilde

    The general development of the Department of Reactor Technology at Risø during 1981 is presented, and the activities within the major subject fields are described in some detail. Lists of staff, publications, and computer programs are included.......The general development of the Department of Reactor Technology at Risø during 1981 is presented, and the activities within the major subject fields are described in some detail. Lists of staff, publications, and computer programs are included....

  11. Moon base reactor system (United States)

    Chavez, H.; Flores, J.; Nguyen, M.; Carsen, K.


    The objective of our reactor design is to supply a lunar-based research facility with 20 MW(e). The fundamental layout of this lunar-based system includes the reactor, power conversion devices, and a radiator. The additional aim of this reactor is a longevity of 12 to 15 years. The reactor is a liquid metal fast breeder that has a breeding ratio very close to 1.0. The geometry of the core is cylindrical. The metallic fuel rods are of beryllium oxide enriched with varying degrees of uranium, with a beryllium core reflector. The liquid metal coolant chosen was natural lithium. After the liquid metal coolant leaves the reactor, it goes directly into the power conversion devices. The power conversion devices are Stirling engines. The heated coolant acts as a hot reservoir to the device. It then enters the radiator to be cooled and reenters the Stirling engine acting as a cold reservoir. The engines' operating fluid is helium, a highly conductive gas. These Stirling engines are hermetically sealed. Although natural lithium produces a lower breeding ratio, it does have a larger temperature range than sodium. It is also corrosive to steel. This is why the container material must be carefully chosen. One option is to use an expensive alloy of cerbium and zirconium. The radiator must be made of a highly conductive material whose melting point temperature is not exceeded in the reactor and whose structural strength can withstand meteor showers.

  12. Proteins in seed and seedlings of selected Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold trees as genetic markers tolerant to drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mataruga Milan


    Full Text Available A precondition necessary for creation and selection of genotypes tolerant of stress conditions is a study of physiological, biochemical and molecular bases of their adaptive reaction to stress. The study includes 40 lines of free pollination originating from 5 provenances: Sutjeska, Višegrad, Tara, Teslić and Durmitor (B&H, Serbia and Montenegro. Two populations were selected from each provenance, i.e.: 5 lines of free pollination represent the population growing on the cliffs and 3 lines of free pollination represent the population growing at the best site of Austrian pine. Specific characteristics of the studied provenances, populations, and free pollination lines were confirmed by the analyses in the salt-soluble proteins. The identical protein composition was proved in a small number of cases in the replicates of the same free pollination line, which indicates a high intra-line variability, which can be the result of the effect of father, as well as of heterozygosity of mother trees. The analyses of protein composition of seed showed considerable differences at provenance level. Inter-line, population and provenance differences, and also, the interaction between the origin and drought factor, were recorded for 9-day-old seedlings germinated in induced drought conditions and in normal conditions.

  13. Necrotizing fasciitis due to Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139 after exposure to Austrian bathing sites. (United States)

    Hirk, Sonja; Huhulescu, Steliana; Allerberger, Franz; Lepuschitz, Sarah; Rehak, Sonja; Weil, Sandra; Gschwandtner, Elisabeth; Hermann, Michael; Neuhold, Stephanie; Zoufaly, Alexander; Indra, Alexander


    We report on two cases of necrotizing fasciitis of the lower leg due to nontoxigenic Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae). A 73-year-old woman (case 1) and an 80-year-old man (case 2) were hospitalized with symptoms of necrotizing fasciitis on July 18 and August 15, 2015, respectively. In both cases, symptoms started the day after swimming in local ponds. Swabs gained intraoperatively and a blood culture from the male patient, yielded V. cholerae non-O1/non-O139, negative for cholera toxin gene ctx and positive for hemolysin genes hlyA and hlyB. Water samples taken from pond A on August 17, 2015 (32 days after exposure of case 1) and from pond B on August 20, 2015 (7 days after exposure of case 2) yielded non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae in most-probable numbers of > 11,000 per 100 ml each. The occurrence of two cases of necrotizing fasciitis within a 1 month period related to two Austrian non-saline bathing waters, previously not known to harbor V. cholerae, is probably linked to the prevailing extreme weather conditions (heat wave, drought) this summer in Austria. While case 1 was discharged in good clinical condition after 73 days, case 2 died after four months of hospitalization. Public health authorities are challenged to assess the effects of long-term climate change on pathogen growth and survival in continental bodies of fresh water.

  14. Labour and Childbirth After Previous Caesarean Section: Recommendations of the Austrian Society of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (OEGGG). (United States)

    Reif, P; Brezinka, C; Fischer, T; Husslein, P; Lang, U; Ramoni, A; Zeisler, H; Klaritsch, P


    The new expert recommendation from the Austrian Society of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (OEGGG) comprises an interpretation and summary of guidelines from the leading specialist organisations worldwide (RCOG, ACOG, SOGC, CNGOF, WHO, NIH, NICE, UpToDate). In essence it outlines alternatives to the direct pathway to elective repeat caesarean section (ERCS). In so doing it aligns with international trends, according to which a differentiated, individualised clinical approach is recommended that considers benefits and risks to both mother and child, provides detailed counselling and takes the patient's wishes into account. In view of good success rates (60-85 %) for vaginal birth after caesarean section (VBAC) the consideration of predictive factors during antenatal birth planning has become increasingly important. This publication provides a compact management recommendation for the majority of standard clinical situations. However it cannot and does not claim to cover all possible scenarios. The consideration of all relevant factors in each individual case, and thus the ultimate decision on mode of delivery, remains the discretion and responsibility of the treating obstetrician.

  15. Testing the Lexical Competence of German in Slovak-German and German(Austrian-Czech/Slovak Adolescent Bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallay Jozef


    Full Text Available The paper builds on our previous work in the field of bilingual education and/ or the process of natural bilingualisation of Slovak-German bilinguals in Slovak educational diasporas (educational islands in Austria. Starting point of psycholinguistic testing based on classic American Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test ( PPVT -III in its revised and German version presented in this paper is the thesis of initial lagging behind of linguistic (lexical, grammatical competence level of language L2 of bilingual children from preschool age in relation to various sociolinguistic variables, which, however, with age may, under certain favourable conditions nearly equal competence of monolinguals and in the area of reception of language even exceed it. For testing the reception levels of German mental lexicon we used two approximately equally large groups of respondents in a bilingual secondary grammar school in Bratislava and Vienna. The hypothesis of our research was that bilingual Austrian-Czech/Slovak bilinguals from Austria would achieve significantly better results than the Slovak-German bilinguals from Slovakia. The test results, however, surprisingly disproved our hypothesis and want to contribute to the debate on setting minimum standards of language competence of bilinguals as well as on optimisation of conditions of bilingual or monolingual education of not only Slovaks abroad.

  16. [Outbreak of subclinical mastitis due to beta hemolytic group L streptococci (S. dysgalactiae ssp. equisimilis) in an Austrian dairy herd]. (United States)

    Baumgartner, Martina; Giffinger, Friederike; Hoppe, Jan Christoph; Spergser, Joachim


    This study is reporting an outbreak of subclinical mastitis due to beta-hemolytic group L streptococci in an Austrian dairy herd with a history of high somatic cell count. At the first survey 16 of 33 lactating cows (28 quarters of 132) were cultured positive for beta-hemolytic, CAMP and esculin negative cocci that grew on Columbia blood agar with small grey catalase negative colonies. With the commercial API 20 Strep system (bioMerieux, F) isolates were classified as members of streptococci group L. All tested strains (eight of 28) produced acid from ribose, lactose, trehalose, amidon and glycogen; they hydrolysed hippurate and showed beta-glucuronidase, beta-galactosidase, alkaline phosphatase, leucinaminopeptidase and arginindehydrolase activity. Isolates were sensitive to bacitracin but resistant to tetracycline. Using phenotypic characterisation as well as sequence analysis of the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region of a representative strain, recovered isolates were identified as Streptococcus (S.) dysgalactiae ssp. equisimilis. Mastitis was characterized by normal milk secretions and absence of clinical abnormalities but high elevations of somatic cell count. Based on the characteristics of the strains and on the observations during the first herd survey, contagious transmission during milking as a result of poor milking hygiene was assumed. The mastitis was controlled through implementation of a strict hygiene protocol including use of single-use udder towels, post milking teat desinfection and cluster disinfection between milking cows in combination with antibiotic treatment of infected udders.

  17. Reactor Safety Planning for Prometheus Project, for Naval Reactors Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Delmolino


    The purpose of this letter is to submit to Naval Reactors the initial plan for the Prometheus project Reactor Safety work. The Prometheus project is currently developing plans for cold physics experiments and reactor prototype tests. These tests and facilities may require safety analysis and siting support. In addition to the ground facilities, the flight reactor units will require unique analyses to evaluate the risk to the public from normal operations and credible accident conditions. This letter outlines major safety documents that will be submitted with estimated deliverable dates. Included in this planning is the reactor servicing documentation and shipping analysis that will be submitted to Naval Reactors.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steimke, J.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Guerrero, H.


    Savannah River Site has five dormant nuclear production reactors. Long term disposition will require filling some reactor buildings with grout up to ground level. Portland cement based grout will be used to fill the buildings with the exception of some reactor tanks. Some reactor tanks contain significant quantities of aluminum which could react with Portland cement based grout to form hydrogen. Hydrogen production is a safety concern and gas generation could also compromise the structural integrity of the grout pour. Therefore, it was necessary to develop a non-Portland cement grout to fill reactors that contain significant quantities of aluminum. Grouts generate heat when they set, so the potential exists for large temperature increases in a large pour, which could compromise the integrity of the pour. The primary purpose of the testing reported here was to measure heat of hydration, specific heat, thermal conductivity and density of various reactor grouts under consideration so that these properties could be used to model transient heat transfer for different pouring strategies. A secondary purpose was to make qualitative judgments of grout pourability and hardened strength. Some reactor grout formulations were unacceptable because they generated too much heat, or started setting too fast, or required too long to harden or were too weak. The formulation called 102H had the best combination of characteristics. It is a Calcium Alumino-Sulfate grout that contains Ciment Fondu (calcium aluminate cement), Plaster of Paris (calcium sulfate hemihydrate), sand, Class F fly ash, boric acid and small quantities of additives. This composition afforded about ten hours of working time. Heat release began at 12 hours and was complete by 24 hours. The adiabatic temperature rise was 54 C which was within specification. The final product was hard and displayed no visible segregation. The density and maximum particle size were within specification.

  19. Scaleable, High Efficiency Microchannel Sabatier Reactor Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Microchannel Sabatier Reactor System (MSRS) consisting of cross connected arrays of isothermal or graded temperature reactors is proposed. The reactor array...

  20. LMFBR type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Takeshi; Iida, Masaaki; Moriki, Yasuyuki


    A reactor core is divided into a plurality of coolants flowrate regions, and electromagnetic pumps exclusively used for each of the flowrate regions are disposed to distribute coolants flowrates in the reactor core. Further, the flowrate of each of the electromagnetic pumps is automatically controlled depending on signals from a temperature detector disposed at the exit of the reactor core, so that the flowrate of the region can be controlled optimally depending on the burning of reactor core fuels. Then, the electromagnetic pumps disposed for every divided region are controlled respectively, so that the coolants flowrate distribution suitable to each of the regions can be attained. Margin for fuel design is decreased, fuels are used effectively, as well as an operation efficiency can be improved. Moreover, since the electromagnetic pump has less flow resistance compared with a mechanical type pump, and flow resistance of the reactor core flowrate control mechanism is eliminated, greater circulating flowrate can be ensured after occurrence of accident in a natural convection using a buoyancy of coolants utilizable for after-heat removal as a driving force. (N.H.).

  1. Reactor Structural Materials: Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaouadi, R


    The objectives of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on Rector Pressure Vessel (RPV) Steels are:(1) to complete the fracture toughness data bank of various reactor pressure vessel steels by using precracked Charpy specimens that were tested statically as well as dynamically; (2) to implement the enhanced surveillance approach in a user-friendly software; (3) to improve the existing reconstitution technology by reducing the input energy (short cycle welding) and modifying the stud geometry. Progress and achievements in 1999 are reported.

  2. Thermionic Reactor Design Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, Alfred


    Paper presented at the 29th IECEC in Monterey, CA in August 1994. The present paper describes some of the author's conceptual designs and their rationale, and the special analytical techniques developed to analyze their (thermionic reactor) performance. The basic designs, first published in 1963, are based on single-cell converters, either double-ended diodes extending over the full height of the reactor core or single-ended diodes extending over half the core height. In that respect they are similar to the thermionic fuel elements employed in the Topaz-2 reactor subsequently developed in the Soviet Union, copies of which were recently imported by the U.S. As in the Topaz-2 case, electrically heated steady-state performance tests of the converters are possible before fueling.

  3. Nuclear Rocket Engine Reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Lanin, Anatoly


    The development of a nuclear rocket engine reactor (NRER ) is presented in this book. The working capacity of an active zone NRER under mechanical and thermal load, intensive neutron fluxes, high energy generation (up to 30 MBT/l) in a working medium (hydrogen) at temperatures up to 3100 K is displayed. Design principles and bearing capacity of reactors area discussed on the basis of simulation experiments and test data of a prototype reactor. Property data of dense constructional, porous thermal insulating and fuel materials like carbide and uranium carbide compounds in the temperatures interval 300 - 3000 K are presented. Technological aspects of strength and thermal strength resistance of materials are considered. The design procedure of possible emergency processes in the NRER is developed and risks for their origination are evaluated. Prospects of the NRER development for pilotless space devices and piloted interplanetary ships are viewed.

  4. Operation of Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    3.1 Annual Report of SPR Operation Chu Shaochu Having overseen by National Nuclear Safety Administration and specialists, the reactor restarted up successfully after Safety renovation on April 16, 1996. In August 1996 the normal operation of SPR was approved by the authorities of Naitonal Nuclear Safety Administration. 1 Operation status In 1996, the reactor operated safely for 40 d and the energy released was about 137.3 MW·d. The operation status of SPR is shown in table 1. The reactor started up to higher power (power more than 1 MW) and lower power (for physics experiments) 4 times and 14 times respectively. Measurement of control rod efficiency and other measurement tasks were 2 times and 5 times respectively.

  5. An Overview of Reactor Concepts, a Survey of Reactor Designs. (United States)


    Public Affairs Office and is releasaole to the National Technical Information Services (NTIS). At NTIS, it will be available to the general public...Reactors that use deu- terium (heavy water) as a coolant can use natural uranium as a fuel. The * Canadian reactor, CANDU , utilizes this concept...reactor core at the top and discharged at the Dotton while the reactor is in operation. The discharged fuel can then b inspected to see if it can De used

  6. Oscillatory flow chemical reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavnić Danijela S.


    Full Text Available Global market competition, increase in energy and other production costs, demands for high quality products and reduction of waste are forcing pharmaceutical, fine chemicals and biochemical industries, to search for radical solutions. One of the most effective ways to improve the overall production (cost reduction and better control of reactions is a transition from batch to continuous processes. However, the reactions of interests for the mentioned industry sectors are often slow, thus continuous tubular reactors would be impractically long for flow regimes which provide sufficient heat and mass transfer and narrow residence time distribution. The oscillatory flow reactors (OFR are newer type of tube reactors which can offer solution by providing continuous operation with approximately plug flow pattern, low shear stress rates and enhanced mass and heat transfer. These benefits are the result of very good mixing in OFR achieved by vortex generation. OFR consists of cylindrical tube containing equally spaced orifice baffles. Fluid oscillations are superimposed on a net (laminar flow. Eddies are generated when oscillating fluid collides with baffles and passes through orifices. Generation and propagation of vortices create uniform mixing in each reactor cavity (between baffles, providing an overall flow pattern which is close to plug flow. Oscillations can be created by direct action of a piston or a diaphragm on fluid (or alternatively on baffles. This article provides an overview of oscillatory flow reactor technology, its operating principles and basic design and scale - up characteristics. Further, the article reviews the key research findings in heat and mass transfer, shear stress, residence time distribution in OFR, presenting their advantages over the conventional reactors. Finally, relevant process intensification examples from pharmaceutical, polymer and biofuels industries are presented.

  7. Perspectives on reactor safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haskin, F.E. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering; Camp, A.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) maintains a technical training center at Chattanooga, Tennessee to provide appropriate training to both new and experienced NRC employees. This document describes a one-week course in reactor, safety concepts. The course consists of five modules: (1) historical perspective; (2) accident sequences; (3) accident progression in the reactor vessel; (4) containment characteristics and design bases; and (5) source terms and offsite consequences. The course text is accompanied by slides and videos during the actual presentation of the course.

  8. Reactor Materials Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Walle, E


    The activities of SCK-CEN's Reactor Materials Research Department for 2001 are summarised. The objectives of the department are: (1) to evaluate the integrity and behaviour of structural materials used in nuclear power industry; (2) to conduct research to unravel and understand the parameters that determine the material behaviour under or after irradiation; (3) to contribute to the interpretation, the modelling of the material behaviour and to develop and assess strategies for optimum life management of nuclear power plant components. The programmes within the department are focussed on studies concerning (1) Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC); (2) nuclear fuel; and (3) Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel.

  9. Reactor operation environmental information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haselow, J.S.; Price, V.; Stephenson, D.E.; Bledsoe, H.W.; Looney, B.B.


    The Savannah River Site (SRS) produces nuclear materials, primarily plutonium and tritium, to meet the requirements of the Department of Defense. These products have been formed in nuclear reactors that were built during 1950--1955 at the SRS. K, L, and P reactors are three of five reactors that have been used in the past to produce the nuclear materials. All three of these reactors discontinued operation in 1988. Currently, intense efforts are being extended to prepare these three reactors for restart in a manner that protects human health and the environment. To document that restarting the reactors will have minimal impacts to human health and the environment, a three-volume Reactor Operations Environmental Impact Document has been prepared. The document focuses on the impacts of restarting the K, L, and P reactors on both the SRS and surrounding areas. This volume discusses the geology, seismology, and subsurface hydrology. 195 refs., 101 figs., 16 tabs.

  10. High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The HFIR at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is a light-water cooled and moderated reactor that is the United States’ highest flux reactor-based neutron source. HFIR...

  11. The Role of the Photogeologic Mapping in the Morocco 2013 Mars Analog Field Simulation (Austrian Space Forum) (United States)

    Losiak, Anna; Orgel, Csilla; Moser, Linda; MacArthur, Jane; Gołębiowska, Izabela; Wittek, Steffen; Boyd, Andrea; Achorner, Isabella; Rampey, Mike; Bartenstein, Thomas; Jones, Natalie; Luger, Ulrich; Sans, Alejandra; Hettrich, Sebastian


    The MARS2013 mission: The Austrian Space Forum together with multiple scientific partners will conduct a Mars analog field simulation. The project takes place between 1st and 28th of February 2013 in the northern Sahara near Erfoud. During the simulation a field crew (consisting of suited analog astronauts and a support team) will conduct several experiments while being managed by the Mission Support Center (MSC) located in Innsbruck, Austria. The aim of the project is to advance preparation of the future human Mars missions by testing: 1) the mission design with regard to operational and engineering challenges (e.g., how to work efficiently with introduced time delay in communication between field team and MSC), 2) scientific instruments (e.g., rovers) and 3) human performance in conditions analogous to those that will be encountered on Mars. The Role of Geological Mapping: Remote Science Support team (RSS) is responsible for processing science data obtained in the field. The RSS is also in charge of preparing a set of maps to enable planning activities of the mission (including the development of traverses) [1, 2]. The usage of those maps will increase the time-cost efficiency of the entire mission. The RSS team members do not have any prior knowledge about the area where the simulation is taking place and the analysis is fully based on remote sensing satellite data (Landsat, GoogleEarth) and a digital elevation model (ASTER GDEM)from the orbital data. The maps design: The set of maps (covering area 5 km X 5 km centered on the Mission Base Camp) was designed to simplify the process of site selection for the daily traverse planning. Additionally, the maps will help to accommodate the need of the field crew for the increased autonomy in the decision making process, forced by the induced time delay between MSC and "Mars". The set of provided maps should allow the field team to orientate and navigate in the explored areas as well as make informed decisions about

  12. A survey of visual function in an Austrian population of school-age children with reading and writing difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McClelland Julie F


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To describe and compare visual function measures of two groups of school age children (6-14 years of age attending a specialist eyecare practice in Austria; one group referred to the practice from educational assessment centres diagnosed with reading and writing difficulties and the other, a clinical age-matched control group. Methods Retrospective clinical data from one group of subjects with reading difficulties (n = 825 and a clinical control group of subjects (n = 328 were examined. Statistical analysis was performed to determine whether any differences existed between visual function measures from each group (refractive error, visual acuity, binocular status, accommodative function and reading speed and accuracy. Results Statistical analysis using one way ANOVA demonstrated no differences between the two groups in terms of refractive error and the size or direction of heterophoria at distance (p > 0.05. Using predominately one way ANOVA and chi-square analyses, those subjects in the referred group were statistically more likely to have poorer distance visual acuity, an exophoric deviation at near, a lower amplitude of accommodation, reduced accommodative facility, reduced vergence facility, a reduced near point of convergence, a lower AC/A ratio and a slower reading speed than those in the clinical control group (p Conclusions This study highlights the high proportions of visual function anomalies in a group of children with reading difficulties in an Austrian population. It confirms the importance of a full assessment of binocular visual status in order to detect and remedy these deficits in order to prevent the visual problems continuing to impact upon educational development.

  13. Reactor operation safety information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The report contains a reactor facility description which includes K, P, and L reactor sites, structures, operating systems, engineered safety systems, support systems, and process and effluent monitoring systems; an accident analysis section which includes cooling system anomalies, radioactive materials releases, and anticipated transients without scram; a summary of onsite doses from design basis accidents; severe accident analysis (reactor core disruption); a description of operating contractor organization and emergency planning; and a summary of reactor safety evolution. (MB)

  14. Thermal Reactor Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Information is presented concerning fire risk and protection; transient thermal-hydraulic analysis and experiments; class 9 accidents and containment; diagnostics and in-service inspection; risk and cost comparison of alternative electric energy sources; fuel behavior and experiments on core cooling in LOCAs; reactor event reporting analysis; equipment qualification; post facts analysis of the TMI-2 accident; and computational methods.

  15. Chromatographic and Related Reactors. (United States)


    special information about effects of surface heteroge- neity in the methanation reaction. Studies of an efficient multicolumn assembly for measuring...of organic basic catalysts such as pyridine and 4-methylpicoline. It was demonstrated that the chromatographic reactor gave special information about...Programmed Reaction to obtain special information about surface heterogeneity in the methanation reaction. Advantages of stopped flow over steady state

  16. Nuclear Reactors and Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cason, D.L.; Hicks, S.C. [eds.


    This publication Nuclear Reactors and Technology (NRT) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available from the open literature on nuclear reactors and technology, including all aspects of power reactors, components and accessories, fuel elements, control systems, and materials. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past month. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency`s Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements. The digests in NRT and other citations to information on nuclear reactors back to 1948 are available for online searching and retrieval on the Energy Science and Technology Database and Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) database. Current information, added daily to the Energy Science and Technology Database, is available to DOE and its contractors through the DOE Integrated Technical Information System. Customized profiles can be developed to provide current information to meet each user`s needs.

  17. Fusion reactor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This paper discuses the following topics on fusion reactor materials: irradiation, facilities, test matrices, and experimental methods; dosimetry, damage parameters, and activation calculations; materials engineering and design requirements; fundamental mechanical behavior; radiation effects; development of structural alloys; solid breeding materials; and ceramics.

  18. WATER BOILER REACTOR (United States)

    King, L.D.P.


    As its name implies, this reactor utilizes an aqueous solution of a fissionable element salt, and is also conventional in that it contains a heat exchanger cooling coil immersed in the fuel. Its novelty lies in the utilization of a cylindrical reactor vessel to provide a critical region having a large and constant interface with a supernatant vapor region, and the use of a hollow sleeve coolant member suspended from the cover assembly in coaxial relation with the reactor vessel. Cool water is circulated inside this hollow coolant member, and a gap between its outer wall and the reactor vessel is used to carry off radiolytic gases for recombination in an external catalyst chamber. The central passage of the coolant member defines a reflux condenser passage into which the externally recombined gases are returned and condensed. The large and constant interface between fuel solution and vapor region prevents the formation of large bubbles and minimizes the amount of fuel salt carried off by water vapor, thus making possible higher flux densities, specific powers and power densities.

  19. The First Reactor. (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    On December 2, 1942, in a racquet court underneath the West Stands of Stagg Field at the University of Chicago, a team of scientists led by Enrico Fermi created the first controlled, self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction. This updated and revised story of the first reactor (or "pile") is based on postwar interviews (as told to Corbin…


    Jonke, A.A.; Graae, J.E.A.; Levitz, N.M.


    A multistage fluidized bed reactor is described in which each of a number of stages is arranged with respect to an associated baffle so that a fluidizing gas flows upward and a granular solid downward through the stages and baffles, whereas the granular solid stopsflowing downward when the flow of fluidizing gas is shut off.

  1. Brazilian multipurpose reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) Project is an action of the Federal Government, through the Ministry of Science Technology and Innovation (MCTI) and has its execution under the responsibility of the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). Within the CNEN, the project is coordinated by the Research and Development Directorate (DPD) and developed through research units of this board: Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (IPEN); Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN); Centre for Development of Nuclear Technology (CDTN); Regional Center of Nuclear Sciences (CRCN-NE); and Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD). The Navy Technological Center in Sao Paulo (CTMSP) and also the participation of other research centers, universities, laboratories and companies in the nuclear sector are important and strategic partnerships. The conceptual design and the safety analysis of the reactor and main facilities, related to nuclear and environmental licensing, are performed by technicians of the research units of DPD / CNEN. The basic design was contracted to engineering companies as INTERTHECNE from Brazil and INVAP from Argentine. The research units from DPD/CNEN are also responsible for the design verification on all engineering documents developed by the contracted companies. The construction and installation should be performed by specific national companies and international partnerships. The Nuclear Reactor RMB will be a open pool type reactor with maximum power of 30 MW and have the OPAL nuclear reactor of 20 MW, built in Australia and designed by INVAP, as reference. The RMB reactor core will have a 5x5 configuration, consisting of 23 elements fuels (EC) of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} dispersion-type Al having a density of up to 3.5 gU/cm{sup 3} and enrichment of 19.75% by weight of {sup 23{sup 5}}U. Two positions will be available in the core for materials irradiation devices. The main objectives of the RMB Reactor and the other nuclear and radioactive

  2. The impact of risk and protective factors on mental health and well-being-Austrian adolescents and migrant adolescents from war-affected countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Buchegger-Traxler


    Full Text Available

    Background: young persons are most strongly affected by displacement through political/military actions. This is also a European problem as well as an issue for the European Union. Applying the social-ecological model by Bronfenbrenner we concentrated on micro- and mesosystems of Austrian adolescents and migrant adolescents of war-affected countries.

    Methods: a questionnaire was administered to adolescents in Austria attending schools beyond the mandatory school age, yielding a sample of about 1 100 students from Austrian and immigrant background. We used analysis of variance to compare host and immigrant youth as well as regression analysis to assess the impact of risk and protective factors on youth outcomes.

    Results: we do find sex differences for protective factors and youth outcomes but few differences between immigrant and Austrian adolescents. Youth outcomes analysed were somatic symptoms, anxiety, depression, self-esteem, anti-social behaviour, substance use, and academic performance. Important risk factors turned out to be intergenerational conflict, exposure to violence, and social distance. Protective factors include family connectedness, parental monitoring, school connectedness, peer support, and neighbourhood attachment.

    Conclusions: the most important protective factor is school connectsdness. Social distance and intergenerational conflict are the dominant risk factors influencing youth outcomes. Our research leads to a better understanding of factors determining the well-being of adolescents and contributes to finding new approaches to prevent or cope with mental health problems of young immigrants. In particular it appears to be important to keep young persons in education and/or training since school connectedness influences mental health and well-being positively.

  3. Modeling Chemical Reactors I: Quiescent Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Michoski, C E; Schmitz, P G


    We introduce a fully generalized quiescent chemical reactor system in arbitrary space $\\vdim =1,2$ or 3, with $n\\in\\mathbb{N}$ chemical constituents $\\alpha_{i}$, where the character of the numerical solution is strongly determined by the relative scaling between the local reactivity of species $\\alpha_{i}$ and the local functional diffusivity $\\mathscr{D}_{ij}(\\alpha)$ of the reaction mixture. We develop an operator time-splitting predictor multi-corrector RK--LDG scheme, and utilize $hp$-adaptivity relying only on the entropy $\\mathscr{S}_{\\mathfrak{R}}$ of the reactive system $\\mathfrak{R}$. This condition preserves these bounded nonlinear entropy functionals as a necessarily enforced stability condition on the coupled system. We apply this scheme to a number of application problems in chemical kinetics; including a difficult classical problem arising in nonequilibrium thermodynamics known as the Belousov-Zhabotinskii reaction where we utilize a concentration-dependent diffusivity tensor $\\mathscr{D}_{ij}(...

  4. Integrating the hospital information system (HIS) into the Austrian electronic health record ("ELGA") using the example of the health care facility "Breitenstein". (United States)

    Bonstingl, Martina


    The health care facility "Breitenstein" makes use of a hospital information system to coordinate clinical processes and document medical health data. So as to comply with novel Austrian legislation and fit the "ELGA" architecture, the system has to be adapted. This paper is based on a literature research and gives answers to technical and legal aspects of "ELGA". The introduction of an IHE connector and a CDA manager are the main changes to the current hospital information system. The implementation of interfaces that allow an integration of further "ELGA" features possible are the next step of the project.

  5. Alternative approaches to fusion. [reactor design and reactor physics for Tokamak fusion reactors (United States)

    Roth, R. J.


    The limitations of the Tokamak fusion reactor concept are discussed and various other fusion reactor concepts are considered that employ the containment of thermonuclear plasmas by magnetic fields (i.e., stellarators). Progress made in the containment of plasmas in toroidal devices is reported. Reactor design concepts are illustrated. The possibility of using fusion reactors as a power source in interplanetary space travel and electric power plants is briefly examined.

  6. Reactor monitoring using antineutrino detectors (United States)

    Bowden, N. S.


    Nuclear reactors have served as the antineutrino source for many fundamental physics experiments. The techniques developed by these experiments make it possible to use these weakly interacting particles for a practical purpose. The large flux of antineutrinos that leaves a reactor carries information about two quantities of interest for safeguards: the reactor power and fissile inventory. Measurements made with antineutrino detectors could therefore offer an alternative means for verifying the power history and fissile inventory of a reactor as part of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and/or other reactor safeguards regimes. Several efforts to develop this monitoring technique are underway worldwide.

  7. Reactor vessel support system. [LMFBR (United States)

    Golden, M.P.; Holley, J.C.


    A reactor vessel support system includes a support ring at the reactor top supported through a box ring on a ledge of the reactor containment. The box ring includes an annular space in the center of its cross-section to reduce heat flow and is keyed to the support ledge to transmit seismic forces from the reactor vessel to the containment structure. A coolant channel is provided at the outside circumference of the support ring to supply coolant gas through the keyways to channels between the reactor vessel and support ledge into the containment space.

  8. Methanogenesis in Thermophilic Biogas Reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær


    Methanogenesis in thermophilic biogas reactors fed with different wastes is examined. The specific methanogenic activity with acetate or hydrogen as substrate reflected the organic loading of the specific reactor examined. Increasing the loading of thermophilic reactors stabilized the process...... as indicated by a lower concentration of volatile fatty acids in the effluent from the reactors. The specific methanogenic activity in a thermophilic pilot-plant biogas reactor fed with a mixture of cow and pig manure reflected the stability of the reactor. The numbers of methanogens counted by the most...... against Methanothrix soehngenii or Methanothrix CALS-I in any of the thermophilic biogas reactors examined. Studies using 2-14C-labeled acetate showed that at high concentrations (more than approx. 1 mM) acetate was metabolized via the aceticlastic pathway, transforming the methyl-group of acetate...


    Wheeler, J.A.


    A design of a reactor is presented in which the fuel elements may be immersed in a liquid coolant when desired without the necessity of removing them from the reactor structure. The fuel elements, containing the fissionable material are in plate form and are disposed within spaced slots in a moderator material, such as graphite to form the core. Adjacent the core is a tank containing the liquid coolant. The fuel elements are mounted in spaced relationship on a rotatable shaft which is located between the core and the tank so that by rotation of the shaft the fuel elements may be either inserted in the slots in the core to sustain a chain reaction or immersed in the coolant.

  10. Compact fusion reactors

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva


    Fusion research is currently to a large extent focused on tokamak (ITER) and inertial confinement (NIF) research. In addition to these large international or national efforts there are private companies performing fusion research using much smaller devices than ITER or NIF. The attempt to achieve fusion energy production through relatively small and compact devices compared to tokamaks decreases the costs and building time of the reactors and this has allowed some private companies to enter the field, like EMC2, General Fusion, Helion Energy, Lawrenceville Plasma Physics and Lockheed Martin. Some of these companies are trying to demonstrate net energy production within the next few years. If they are successful their next step is to attempt to commercialize their technology. In this presentation an overview of compact fusion reactor concepts is given.

  11. Reactor Neutrino Spectra


    Hayes, A. C.; Vogel, Petr


    We present a review of the antineutrino spectra emitted from reactors. Knowledge of these spectra and their associated uncertainties is crucial for neutrino oscillation studies. The spectra used to date have been determined either by converting measured electron spectra to antineutrino spectra or by summing over all of the thousands of transitions that make up the spectra, using modern databases as input. The uncertainties in the subdominant corrections to β-decay plague both methods, and we ...


    Greenstreet, B.L.


    A system for maintaining the alignment of moderator block structures in reactors is presented. Integral restraining grids are placed between each layer of blocks in the moderator structure, at the top of the uppermost layer, and at the bottom of the lowermost layer. Slots are provided in the top and bottom surfaces of the moderator blocks so as to provide a keying action with the grids. The grids are maintained in alignment by vertical guiding members disposed about their peripheries. (AEC)

  13. Difference in factors associated with low-level viraemia and virological failure: results from the Austrian HIV Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Leierer


    Full Text Available Introduction: For some patients, it remains a challenge to achieve complete virological suppression which is the goal of antiretroviral therapy (ART. Identifying factors associated with low-level viraemia (LLV and virological failure (VF under ART might help to optimize management of these patients. Materials and Methods: We investigated patients from the Austrian HIV Cohort Study receiving unmodified ART for >6 months with two nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs with either a non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI or a boosted protease inhibitor (PI or an integrase inhibitor (INSTI between 1 July 2012 and 1 July 2013 with at least one viral load (VL measurement below the limit of detection (BLD or below level of quantification (BLQ in their treatment history. VF was defined as HIV-RNA levels ≥200 copies/mL and all other quantifiable measurements were classified as LLV. Factors associated with LLV and VF compared to BLD and BLQ were identified by using logistic regression models. Results: Of the 2,276 patients analyzed, 1,972 (86.6% were BLD or BLQ, 222 (9.8% showed LLV and 82 (3.6% had VF. A higher risk for LLV and VF was found in patients with ART interruptions and in patients with boosted PI therapy. The risk for LLV and VF was lower in patients from a centre which uses Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay compared to the other centres measuring VL by the Roche Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan 2.0. A higher risk for LLV but not for VF was found in patients with a higher VL before ART and shorter ART duration. A higher risk for VF but not for LLV was found in patients of younger age, originating from a high prevalence country, with a lower CD4 count and in male injecting drug users. Conclusions: This study of well-defined patients on stable ART over a period of more than six months gives insights into the different factors associated with LLV and VF. In patients with VF, factors associated with adherence play a prominent

  14. German-austrian recommendations for HIV1-therapy in pregnancy and in HIV1-exposed newborn - update 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buchholz Bernd


    Full Text Available Abstract German-Austrian recommendations for HIV1-therapy in pregnancy - Update 2008 Bernd Buchholz (University Medical Centre Mannheim, Pediatric Clinic, Matthias Beichert (Mannheim, Gynecology and Obstetrics Practice, Ulrich Marcus (Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, Thomas Grubert, Andrea Gingelmaier (Gynecology Clinic of the Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Dr. med. Annette Haberl (HIV-Department, J. W. Goethe-University Hospital, Frankfurt, Dr. med. Brigitte Schmied (Otto-Wagner Spital, Wien. In Germany during the last years about 200-250 HIV1-infected pregnant women delivered a baby each year, a number that is currently increasing. To determine the HIV-status early in pregnancy voluntary HIV-testing of all pregnant women is recommended in Germany and Austria as part of prenatal care. In those cases, where HIV1-infection was known during pregnancy, since 1995 the rate of vertical transmission of HIV1 was reduced to 1-2%. This low transmission rate has been achieved by the combination of anti-retroviral therapy of pregnant women, caesarean section scheduled before onset of labour, anti-retroviral post exposition prophylaxis in the newborn and refraining from breast-feeding by the HIV1-infected mother. To keep pace with new results in research, approval of new anti-retroviral drugs and changes in the general treatment recommendations for HIV1-infected adults, in 1998, 2001, 2003 and 2005 an interdisciplinary consensus meeting was held. Gynaecologists, infectious disease specialists, paediatricians, pharmacologists, virologists and members of the German AIDS Hilfe (NGO were participating in this conference to update the prevention strategies. A fifth update became necessary in 2008. The updating process was started in January 2008 and was terminated in September 2008. The guidelines provide new recommendations on the indication and the starting point for HIV-therapy in pregnancies without complications, drugs and drug combinations to be

  15. Relative importance of factors influencing the prevalence of lameness in Austrian cubicle loose-housed dairy cows. (United States)

    Rouha-Mülleder, Cornelia; Iben, Christine; Wagner, Elisabeth; Laaha, Gregor; Troxler, Josef; Waiblinger, Susanne


    The development of lameness is influenced by a number of different factors (housing, management, human-animal relationship and animal-related parameters). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the complex interactions of these aspects and to search for the relative importance of single factors. In 80 dairy herds of Austrian Simmental cows housed in cubicle loose housing in Upper and Lower Austria, risk factors for lameness, selected from the four factor groups housing, management, human-animal relationship and animal-related variables, were investigated during one farm visit in the autumn and winter months. To assess their relative importance, a multivariable analysis (regression trees) was calculated. The most important risk factor for lameness was the lying surface: straw bedding of at least 2 cm thickness or cow-comfort mats were associated with a lower percentage of lame cows. In case of insufficient quality of the lying surface, the next important parameter identified was the position of the neck rail: a neck rail diagonal greater than 1.94 m was associated with a lower percentage of lame cows. By contrast, on farms with high-quality lying surfaces, lameness prevalence was lower when at least parts of the alleys were constructed with solid floor and not slatted. Further variables associated with a low prevalence of lameness were a longer time span between calving and separation of the calf from the dam, the existence of an outside run, a lower percentage of fat cows, a greater space allowance, more cubicles than animals and a lower kerb height. In addition, further management factors such as the way in which heifers are integrated into the herd or management decisions taking into account the cows' welfare were related to less lameness. Human-animal relationship variables such as, for example, the behaviour and attitude of the stockpeople were explaining variables. In sum, important risk factors were found in all factor groups. Therefore it is


    Heckman, T.P.


    A nuclear power reactor of the type in which a liquid moderator-coolant is transformed by nuclear heating into a vapor that may be used to drive a turbo- generator is described. The core of this reactor comprises a plurality of freely suspended tubular fuel elements, called fuel element trains, within which nonboiling pressurized liquid moderator-coolant is preheated and sprayed through orifices in the walls of the trains against the outer walls thereof to be converted into vapor. Passage of the vapor ovcr other unwetted portions of the outside of the fuel elements causes the steam to be superheated. The moderatorcoolant within the fuel elements remains in the liqUid state, and that between the fuel elements remains substantiaily in the vapor state. A unique liquid neutron-absorber control system is used. Advantages expected from the reactor design include reduced fuel element failure, increased stability of operation, direct response to power demand, and circulation of a minimum amount of liquid moderatorcoolant. (A.G.W.)

  17. Review: Natural tracers in fractured hard-rock aquifers in the Austrian part of the Eastern Alps—previous approaches and future perspectives for hydrogeology in mountain regions (United States)

    Hilberg, Sylke


    Extensive in-depth research is required for the implementation of natural tracer approaches to hydrogeological investigation to be feasible in mountainous regions. This review considers the application of hydrochemical and biotic parameters in mountain regions over the past few decades with particular reference to the Austrian Alps, as an example for alpine-type mountain belts. A brief introduction to Austria's hydrogeological arrangement is given to show the significance of fractured hard-rock aquifers for hydrogeological science as well as for water supply purposes. A literature search showed that research concerning fractured hard-rock aquifers in Austria is clearly underrepresented to date, especially when taking the abundance of this aquifer type and the significance of this topic into consideration. The application of abiotic natural tracers (hydrochemical and isotope parameters) is discussed generally and by means of examples from the Austrian Alps. The potential of biotic tracers (microbiota and meiofauna) is elucidated. It is shown that the meiofauna approach to investigating fractured aquifers has not yet been applied in the reviewed region, nor worldwide. Two examples of new approaches in mountainous fractured aquifers are introduced: (1) use of CO2 partial pressure and calcite saturation of spring water to reconstruct catchments and flow dynamics (abiotic approach), and, (2) consideration of hard-rock aquifers as habitats to reconstruct aquifer conditions (biotic approach).

  18. The New INTA High-Range Standard Humidity Generator and Its Comparison with the Austrian National Humidity Standard Maintained at BEV/E+E (United States)

    Benyon, Robert; Mitter, Helmat


    A EUROMET collaborative project has been set up between Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (INTA) and E+E ELEKTRONIK Ges.m.b.H, the two designated laboratories of the Spanish and Austrian National Metrology Institutes, Centro Español de Metrología (CEM) and Bundesamt für Eich- und Vermessungswesen (BEV), respectively. The objective of the project is to provide INTA with a new standard that covers the dew-point temperature range from - 27°C to +90°C with a gas flow up to 5 L· min-1 in the “two-pressure” mode, extended to 95°C when operated as a continuous flow “single-pressure” generator, and investigate the importance of the enhancement factors in the uncertainty estimations used in support of the participants’ calibration and measurement capabilities (CMC) (The CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement, ). The equivalence of the Spanish and Austrian national standards is also to be evaluated, further supporting the outcomes of the Key Comparisons, in which both have already participated. The preliminary results obtained to date are reported and discussed in the context of the project and the consistency of the declared CMC’s.

  19. Nuclear research reactors in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cota, Anna Paula Leite; Mesquita, Amir Zacarias, E-mail: aplc@cdtn.b, E-mail: amir@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    The rising concerns about global warming and energy security have spurred a revival of interest in nuclear energy, giving birth to a 'nuclear power renaissance' in several countries in the world. Particularly in Brazil, in the recent years, the nuclear power renaissance can be seen in the actions that comprise its nuclear program, summarily the increase of the investments in nuclear research institutes and the government target to design and build the Brazilian Multipurpose research Reactor (BMR). In the last 50 years, Brazilian research reactors have been used for training, for producing radioisotopes to meet demands in industry and nuclear medicine, for miscellaneous irradiation services and for academic research. Moreover, the research reactors are used as laboratories to develop technologies in power reactors, which are evaluated today at around 450 worldwide. In this application, those reactors become more viable in relation to power reactors by the lowest cost, by the operation at low temperatures and, furthermore, by lower demand for nuclear fuel. In Brazil, four research reactors were installed: the IEA-R1 and the MB-01 reactors, both at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas Nucleares (IPEN, Sao Paulo); the Argonauta, at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN, Rio de Janeiro) and the IPR-R1 TRIGA reactor, at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN, Belo Horizonte). The present paper intends to enumerate the characteristics of these reactors, their utilization and current academic research. Therefore, through this paper, we intend to collaborate on the BMR project. (author)

  20. Thermionic Reactor Design Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, Alfred


    During the 1960's and early 70's the author performed extensive design studies, analyses, and tests aimed at thermionic reactor concepts that differed significantly from those pursued by other investigators. Those studies, like most others under Atomic Energy Commission (AEC and DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sponsorship, were terminated in the early 1970's. Some of this work was previously published, but much of it was never made available in the open literature. U.S. interest in thermionic reactors resumed in the early 80's, and was greatly intensified by reports about Soviet ground and flight tests in the late 80's. This recent interest resulted in renewed U.S. thermionic reactor development programs, primarily under Department of Defense (DOD) and Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship. Since most current investigators have not had an opportunity to study all of the author's previous work, a review of the highlights of that work may be of value to them. The present paper describes some of the author's conceptual designs and their rationale, and the special analytical techniques developed to analyze their performance. The basic designs, first published in 1963, are based on single-cell converters, either double-ended diodes extending over the full height of the reactor core or single-ended diodes extending over half the core height. In that respect they are similar to the thermionic fuel elements employed in the Topaz-2 reactor subsequently developed in the Soviet Union, copies of which were recently imported by the U.S. As in the Topaz-2 case, electrically heated steady-state performance tests of the converters are possible before fueling. Where the author's concepts differed from the later Topaz-2 design was in the relative location of the emitter and the collector. Placing the fueled emitter on the outside of the cylindrical diodes permits much higher axial conductances to reduce ohmic

  1. Turning points in reactor design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckjord, E.S.


    This article provides some historical aspects on nuclear reactor design, beginning with PWR development for Naval Propulsion and the first commercial application at Yankee Rowe. Five turning points in reactor design and some safety problems associated with them are reviewed: (1) stability of Dresden-1, (2) ECCS, (3) PRA, (4) TMI-2, and (5) advanced passive LWR designs. While the emphasis is on the thermal-hydraulic aspects, the discussion is also about reactor systems.

  2. Fast reactor programme in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Chellapandi; P R Vasudeva Rao; Prabhat Kumar


    Role of fast breeder reactor (FBR) in the Indian context has been discussed with appropriate justification. The FBR programme since 1985 till 2030 is highlighted focussing on the current status and future direction of fast breeder test reactor (FBTR), prototype fast breeder reactor (PFBR) and FBR-1 and 2. Design and technological challenges of PFBR and design and safety targets with means to achieve the same are the major highlights of this paper.

  3. Acceptability of reactors in space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buden, D.


    Reactors are the key to our future expansion into space. However, there has been some confusion in the public as to whether they are a safe and acceptable technology for use in space. The answer to these questions is explored. The US position is that when reactors are the preferred technical choice, that they can be used safely. In fact, it dies not appear that reactors add measurably to the risk associated with the Space Transportation System.

  4. Spiral-shaped disinfection reactors

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, Noreddine


    This disclosure includes disinfection reactors and processes for the disinfection of water. Some disinfection reactors include a body that defines an inlet, an outlet, and a spiral flow path between the inlet and the outlet, in which the body is configured to receive water and a disinfectant at the inlet such that the water is exposed to the disinfectant as the water flows through the spiral flow path. Also disclosed are processes for disinfecting water in such disinfection reactors.

  5. Hydrogen Production in Fusion Reactors


    Sudo, S.; Tomita, Y.; Yamaguchi, S.; Iiyoshi, A.; Momota, H; Motojima, O.; Okamoto, M.; Ohnishi, M.; Onozuka, M; Uenosono, C.


    As one of methods of innovative energy production in fusion reactors without having a conventional turbine-type generator, an efficient use of radiation produced in a fusion reactor with utilizing semiconductor and supplying clean fuel in a form of hydrogen gas are studied. Taking the candidates of reactors such as a toroidal system and an open system for application of the new concepts, the expected efficiency and a concept of plant system are investigated.

  6. Neutrino Oscillation Studies with Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Vogel, Petr; Zhang, Chao


    Nuclear reactors are one of the most intense, pure, controllable, cost-effective, and well-understood sources of neutrinos. Reactors have played a major role in the study of neutrino oscillations, a phenomenon that indicates that neutrinos have mass and that neutrino flavors are quantum mechanical mixtures. Over the past several decades reactors were used in the discovery of neutrinos, were crucial in solving the solar neutrino puzzle, and allowed the determination of the smallest mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$. In the near future, reactors will help to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to solve the puzzling issue of sterile neutrinos.

  7. Current role of MDCT in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (2011). A clinical guideline of the Austrian Societies of Cardiology and Radiology; Aktueller Stellenwert der MSCTA in der Koronargefaessdiagnostik (2011). Klinischer Leitfaden der Oesterreichischen Gesellschaften fuer Kardiologie und Radiologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hergan, K. [Salzburger Landeskliniken, Paracelsus Medizinische Privatuniv. (Austria). Universitaetsinst. fuer Radiologie; Globits, S. [Landesklinikum St. Poelten (Austria). 3. Medizinische Abt./Kardiologie; Loewe, C. [Medizinische Univ. Wien (AT). Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik] (and others)


    The clinical guideline of the Austrian Societies for Cardiology and Radiology on the actual role of MDCT in the diagnosis of coronary artery diseases includes the following issues: CT calcium scoring; CT angiography (CTA) of the coronaries; actually recommended application of MDCR; generally inappropriate use of the technique for specific patients; radiation exposure; structural and organizational framework.


    Snell, A.H.


    This patent relates to a reactor and process for carrying out a controlled fast neutron chain reaction. A cubical reactive mass, weighing at least 920 metric tons, of uranium metal containing predominantly U/sup 238/ and having a U/sup 235/ content of at least 7.63% is assembled and the maximum neutron reproduction ratio is limited to not substantially over 1.01 by insertion and removal of a varying amount of boron, the reactive mass being substantially freed of moderator.

  9. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor (United States)

    Scott, C.D.


    A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase is described. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figures.

  10. Licensed reactor nuclear safety criteria applicable to DOE reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Department of Energy (DOE) Order DOE 5480.6, Safety of Department of Energy-Owned Nuclear Reactors, establishes reactor safety requirements to assure that reactors are sited, designed, constructed, modified, operated, maintained, and decommissioned in a manner that adequately protects health and safety and is in accordance with uniform standards, guides, and codes which are consistent with those applied to comparable licensed reactors. This document identifies nuclear safety criteria applied to NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) licensed reactors. The titles of the chapters and sections of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.70, Standard Format and Content of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants, Rev. 3, are used as the format for compiling the NRC criteria applied to the various areas of nuclear safety addressed in a safety analysis report for a nuclear reactor. In each section the criteria are compiled in four groups: (1) Code of Federal Regulations, (2) US NRC Regulatory Guides, SRP Branch Technical Positions and Appendices, (3) Codes and Standards, and (4) Supplemental Information. The degree of application of these criteria to a DOE-owned reactor, consistent with their application to comparable licensed reactors, must be determined by the DOE and DOE contractor.

  11. Efficiency of the Austrian disease management program for diabetes mellitus type 2: a historic cohort study based on health insurance provider’s routine data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostermann Herwig


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Austrian diabetes disease management program (DMP was introduced in 2007 in order to improve health care delivery for diabetics via the promotion of treatment according to guidelines. Considering the current low participation rates in the DMP and the question of further promotion of the program, it is of particular interest for health insurance providers in Austria to assess whether enrollment in the DMP leads to differences in the pattern of the provision of in- and outpatient services, as well as to the subsequent costs in order to determine overall program efficiency. Methods Historic cohort study comparing average annual levels of in- and outpatient health services utilization and its associated costs for patients enrolled and not enrolled in the DMP before (2006 and 2 years after (2009 the implementation of the program in Austria. Data on the use of services and data on costs were extracted from the records of the Austrian Social Insurance Institution for Business. 12,199 persons were identified as diabetes patients treated with anti-diabetic medication or anti-diabetics with insulin throughout the study period. 314 diabetics were enrolled in the DMP. Results Patients enrolled in the diabetes DMP received a more evolved pattern of outpatient care, featuring higher numbers of services provided by general practitioners and specialists (79 vs. 62, more diagnostic services (22 vs. 15 as well as more services provided by outpatient care centers (9 vs. 6 in line with increased levels of participation in medical assessments as recommended by the treatment guideline in 2009. Hospitalization was lower for DMP patients spending 3.75 days in hospital, as compared to 6.03 days for diabetes patients in regular treatment. Overall, increases in costs of care and medication throughout the study period were lower for enrolled patients (€ 718 vs. € 1.684, resulting in overall costs of € 5,393 p.c. for DMP patients and

  12. Reactor Physics Analysis Models for a CANDU Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hang Bok


    Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor physics analysis is typically performed in three steps. At first, macroscopic cross-sections of the reference lattice is produced by modeling the reference fuel channel. Secondly macroscopic cross-sections of reactivity devices in the reactor are generated. The macroscopic cross-sections of a reactivity device are calculated as incremental cross-sections by subtracting macroscopic cross-sections of a three-dimensional lattice without reactivity device from those of a three-dimensional lattice with a reactivity device. Using the macroscopic cross-sections of the reference lattice and incremental cross-sections of the reactivity devices, reactor physics calculations are performed. This report summarizes input data of typical CANDU reactor physics codes, which can be utilized for the future CANDU reactor physics analysis.

  13. Risk-based damage potential and loss estimation of extreme flooding scenarios in the Austrian Federal Province of Tyrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Huttenlau


    Full Text Available Within the last decades serious flooding events occurred in many parts of Europe and especially in 2005 the Austrian Federal Province of Tyrol was serious affected. These events in general and particularly the 2005 event have sensitised decision makers and the public. Beside discussions pertaining to protection goals and lessons learnt, the issue concerning potential consequences of extreme and severe flooding events has been raised. Additionally to the general interest of the public, decision makers of the insurance industry, public authorities, and responsible politicians are especially confronted with the question of possible consequences of extreme events. Answers thereof are necessary for the implementation of preventive appropriate risk management strategies. Thereby, property and liability losses reflect a large proportion of the direct tangible losses. These are of great interest for the insurance sector and can be understood as main indicators to interpret the severity of potential events. The natural scientific-technical risk analysis concept provides a predefined and structured framework to analyse the quantities of affected elements at risk, their corresponding damage potentials, and the potential losses. Generally, this risk concept framework follows the process steps hazard analysis, exposition analysis, and consequence analysis. Additionally to the conventional hazard analysis, the potential amount of endangered elements and their corresponding damage potentials were analysed and, thereupon, concrete losses were estimated. These took the specific vulnerability of the various individual elements at risk into consideration. The present flood risk analysis estimates firstly the general exposures of the risk indicators in the study area and secondly analyses the specific exposures and consequences of five extreme event scenarios. In order to precisely identify, localize, and characterize the relevant risk indicators of buildings

  14. Brookhaven leak reactor to close

    CERN Multimedia

    MacIlwain, C


    The DOE has announced that the High Flux Beam Reactor at Brookhaven is to close for good. Though the news was not unexpected researchers were angry the decision had been taken before the review to assess the impact of reopening the reactor had been concluded (1 page).

  15. Thermochemical reactor systems and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipinski, Wojciech; Davidson, Jane Holloway; Chase, Thomas Richard


    Thermochemical reactor systems that may be used to produce a fuel, and methods of using the thermochemical reactor systems, utilizing a reactive cylindrical element, an optional energy transfer cylindrical element, an inlet gas management system, and an outlet gas management system.

  16. Chemical-vapor-deposition reactor (United States)

    Chern, S.


    Reactor utilizes multiple stacked trays compactly arranged in paths of horizontally channeled reactant gas streams. Design allows faster and more efficient deposits of film on substrates, and reduces gas and energy consumption. Lack of dead spots that trap reactive gases reduces reactor purge time.

  17. Antineutrino Monitoring of Thorium Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Akindele, Oluwatomi A; Norman, Eric B


    Various groups have demonstrated that antineutrino monitoring can be successful in assessing the plutonium content in water-cooled nuclear reactors for nonproliferation applications. New reactor designs and concepts incorporate nontraditional fuels types and chemistry. Understanding how these properties affect the antineutrino emission from a reactor can extend the applicability of antineutrino monitoring.Thorium molten salt reactors (MSR) breed U-233, that if diverted constitute an IAEA direct use material. The antineutrino spectrum from the fission of U-233 has been determined, the feasibility of detecting the diversion of a significant quantity, 8 kg of U-233, within the IAEA timeliness goal of 30 days has been evaluated. The antineutrino emission from a thorium reactor operating under normal conditions is compared to a diversion scenario at a 25 meter standoff by evaluating the daily antineutrino count rate and the energy spectrum of the detected antineutrinos. It was found that the diversion of a signifi...

  18. Engineering reactors for catalytic reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vivek V Ranade


    Catalytic reactions are ubiquitous in chemical and allied industries. A homogeneous or heterogeneous catalyst which provides an alternative route of reaction with lower activation energy and better control on selectivity can make substantial impact on process viability and economics. Extensive studies have been conducted to establish sound basis for design and engineering of reactors for practising such catalytic reactions and for realizing improvements in reactor performance. In this article, application of recent (and not so recent) developments in engineering reactors for catalytic reactions is discussed. Some examples where performance enhancement was realized by catalyst design, appropriate choice of reactor, better injection and dispersion strategies and recent advances in process intensification/ multifunctional reactors are discussed to illustrate the approach.

  19. Unsteady processes in catalytic reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matros, Yu.Sh.


    In recent years a realization has occurred that reaction and reactor dynamics must be considered when designing and operating catalytic reactors. In this book, the author has focussed on both the processes occurring on individual porous-catalyst particles as well as the phenomena displayed by collections of these particles in fixed-bed reactors. The major topics discussed include the effects of unsteady-state heat and mass transfer, the influence of inhomogeneities and stagnant regions in fixed beds, and reactor operation during forced cycling of operating conditions. Despite the title of the book, attention is also paid to the determination of the number and stability of fixed-bed steady states, with the aim of describing the possibility of controlling reactors at unstable steady states. However, this development is somewhat dated, given the recent literature on multiplicity phenomena and process control.

  20. A model of reactor kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, A.S.; Thompson, B.R.


    The analytical model of nuclear reactor transients, incorporating both mechanical and nuclear effects, simulates reactor kinetics. Linear analysis shows the stability borderline for small power perturbations. In a stable system, initial power disturbances die out with time. With an unstable combination of nuclear and mechanical characteristics, initial disturbances persist and may increase with time. With large instability, oscillations of great magnitude occur. Stability requirements set limits on the power density at which particular reactors can operate. The limiting power density depends largely on the product of two terms: the fraction of delayed neutrons and the frictional damping of vibratory motion in reactor core components. As the fraction of delayed neutrons is essentially fixed, mechanical damping largely determines the maximum power density. A computer program, based on the analytical model, calculates and plots reactor power as a nonlinear function of time in response to assigned values of mechanical and nuclear characteristics.

  1. Metallic fuels for advanced reactors (United States)

    Carmack, W. J.; Porter, D. L.; Chang, Y. I.; Hayes, S. L.; Meyer, M. K.; Burkes, D. E.; Lee, C. B.; Mizuno, T.; Delage, F.; Somers, J.


    In the framework of the Generation IV Sodium Fast Reactor Program, the Advanced Fuel Project has conducted an evaluation of the available fuel systems supporting future sodium cooled fast reactors. This paper presents an evaluation of metallic alloy fuels. Early US fast reactor developers originally favored metal alloy fuel due to its high fissile density and compatibility with sodium. The goal of fast reactor fuel development programs is to develop and qualify a nuclear fuel system that performs all of the functions of a conventional fast spectrum nuclear fuel while destroying recycled actinides. This will provide a mechanism for closure of the nuclear fuel cycle. Metal fuels are candidates for this application, based on documented performance of metallic fast reactor fuels and the early results of tests currently being conducted in US and international transmutation fuel development programs.

  2. The contribution of school to the feeling of acceptance and the risk of suicide attempts among Austrian gay and bisexual males. (United States)

    Plöderl, Martin; Faistauer, Gregor; Fartacek, Reinhold


    School-related factors contributing to the suicidality of lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals are understudied, especially in German-speaking Europe. Among our Web-based sample of 468 Austrian gay or bisexual adults, 18% attempted suicide and about one half of them reported that hard times at school related to one's homosexuality partly or mainly caused the attempt. Such suicide attempts were associated with a lack of acceptance at school and harassment experiences. In contrast to suicide attempts, acceptance at school was significantly associated with protective factors such as teachers intervening against homophobia or presence of openly homosexual teachers or peers. These findings may be important for consideration in school-based suicide prevention programs.

  3. To Infinity and Beyond – Are Innovation Contests at Austrian Technical Colleges the Right Tool to Stimulate the Creative and Technical Potential of the Country?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Zafoschnig


    Full Text Available Nowadays, creativity as it is applied for finding new technologies and making new inventions, is characterised by new unorthodox aspects of and approaches to problem solving. At the same time, innovation uses new scientific, technical and cultural elements to sustainably change the social structure of society. However, creative and innovative ideas are not affluent or ever-lasting resources. They need to be stimulated, elicited and put into realisation. This has to be done through expensive research and development cam-paigns, but may also be achieved at a lower level, namely, for example, at Austrian Technical Colleges. There, students are often encouraged to submit their diploma thesis projects in national and regional competitions and have recently proved to be very successful.

  4. Genetic and phenotypic analysis of Vibrio cholerae non-O1, non-O139 isolated from German and Austrian patients. (United States)

    Schirmeister, F; Dieckmann, R; Bechlars, S; Bier, N; Faruque, S M; Strauch, E


    Vibrio cholerae belonging to the non-O1, non-O139 serogroups are present in the coastal waters of Germany and in some German and Austrian lakes. These bacteria can cause gastroenteritis and extraintestinal infections, and are transmitted through contaminated food and water. However, non-O1, non-O139 V. cholerae infections are rare in Germany. We studied 18 strains from German and Austrian patients with diarrhea or local infections for their virulence-associated genotype and phenotype to assess their potential for infectivity in anticipation of possible climatic changes that could enhance the transmission of these pathogens. The strains were examined for the presence of genes encoding cholera toxin and toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP), as well as other virulence-associated factors or markers, including hemolysins, repeats-in-toxin (RTX) toxins, Vibrio seventh pandemic islands VSP-1 and VSP-2, and the type III secretion system (TTSS). Phenotypic assays for hemolysin activity, serum resistance, and biofilm formation were also performed. A dendrogram generated by incorporating the results of these analyses revealed genetic differences of the strains correlating with their clinical origin. Non-O1, non-O139 strains from diarrheal patients possessed the TTSS and/or the multifunctional autoprocessing repeats-in-toxin (MARTX) toxin, which were not found in the strains from ear or wound infections. Routine matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of all strains provided reliable identification of the species but failed to differentiate between strains or clusters. The results of this study indicate the need for continued surveillance of V. cholerae non-O1, non-O139 in Germany, in view of the predicted increase in the prevalence of Vibrio spp. due to the rise in surface water temperatures.

  5. Neutrino Experiments at Reactors (United States)

    Reines, F.; Gurr, H. S.; Jenkins, T. L.; Munsee, J. H.


    A description is given of the electron-antineutrino program using a large fission reactor. A search has been made for a neutral weak interaction via the reaction (electron antineutrino + d .> p + n + electron antineutrino), the reaction (electron antineutrino + d .> n + n + e{sup +}) has now been detected, and an effort is underway to observe the elastic scattering reaction (electron antineutrino + e{sup -} .> electron antineutrino + e{sup -}) as well as to measure more precisely the reaction (electron antineutrino + p .> n + e{sup+}). The upper limit on the elastic scattering reaction which we have obtained with our large composite NaI, plastic, liquid scintillation detector is now about 50 times the predicted value.

  6. Neutronic Reactor Shield (United States)

    Fermi, Enrico; Zinn, Walter H.

    The argument of the present Patent is a radiation shield suitable for protection of personnel from both gamma rays and neutrons. Such a shield from dangerous radiations is achieved to the best by the combined action of a neutron slowing material (a moderator) and a neutron absorbing material. Hydrogen is particularly effective for this shield since it is a good absorber of slow neutrons and a good moderator of fast neutrons. The neutrons slowed down by hydrogen may, then, be absorbed by other materials such as boron, cadmium, gadolinium, samarium or steel. Steel is particularly convenient for the purpose, given its effectiveness in absorbing also the gamma rays from the reactor (both primary gamma rays and secondary ones produced by the moderation of neutrons). In particular, in the present Patent a shield is described, made of alternate layers of steel and Masonite (an hydrolized ligno-cellulose material). The object of the present Patent is not discussed in any other published paper.

  7. Licensed reactor nuclear safety criteria applicable to DOE reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This document is a compilation and source list of nuclear safety criteria that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) applies to licensed reactors; it can be used by DOE and DOE contractors to identify NRC criteria to be evaluated for application to the DOE reactors under their cognizance. The criteria listed are those that are applied to the areas of nuclear safety addressed in the safety analysis report of a licensed reactor. They are derived from federal regulations, USNRC regulatory guides, Standard Review Plan (SRP) branch technical positions and appendices, and industry codes and standards.

  8. Reactor service life extension program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, G.R.; Sindelar, R.L.; Ondrejcin, R.S.; Baumann, E.W.


    A review of the Savannah River Site production reactor systems was initiated in 1980 and led to implementation of the Reactor Materials Program in 1984 to assess reactor safety and reactor service life. The program evaluated performance of the reactor tanks, primary coolant piping, and thermal shields, components of welded construction that were fabricated from Type 304 stainless steel. The structural integrity analysis of the primary coolant system has shown that the pressure boundary is not susceptible to gross rupture, including a double ended guillotine break or equivalent large area bank. Residual service life is potentially limited by two material degradation modes, irradiation damage and intergranular stress corrosion cracking. Analysis of the structural integrity of the tanks and piping has shown that continued safe operation of the reactors for several additional decades is not limited by the material performance of the primary coolant system. Although irradiation damage has not degraded material behavior to an unacceptable level, past experience has revealed serious difficulties with repair welding on irradiated stainless steel. Stress corrosion can be mitigated by newly identified limits on impurity concentrations in the coolant water and by stress mitigation of weld residual stresses. Work continues in several areas: the effects of helium on mechanical behavior of irradiated stainless steel; improved weld methods for piping and the reactor tanks; and a surveillance program to track irradiation effects on the tank walls.

  9. Reactor service life extension program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, G.R.; Sindelar, R.L.; Ondrejcin, R.S.; Baumann, E.W.


    A review of the Savannah River Site production reactor systems was initiated in 1980 and led to implementation of the Reactor Materials Program in 1984 to assess reactor safety and reactor service life. The program evaluated performance of the reactor tanks, primary coolant piping, and thermal shields, components of welded construction that were fabricated from Type 304 stainless steel. The structural integrity analysis of the primary coolant system has shown that the pressure boundary is not susceptible to gross rupture, including a double ended guillotine break or equivalent large area bank. Residual service life is potentially limited by two material degradation modes, irradiation damage and intergranular stress corrosion cracking. Analysis of the structural integrity of the tanks and piping has shown that continued safe operation of the reactors for several additional decades is not limited by the material performance of the primary coolant system. Although irradiation damage has not degraded material behavior to an unacceptable level, past experience has revealed serious difficulties with repair welding on irradiated stainless steel. Stress corrosion can be mitigated by newly identified limits on impurity concentrations in the coolant water and by stress mitigation of weld residual stresses. Work continues in several areas: the effects of helium on mechanical behavior of irradiated stainless steel; improved weld methods for piping and the reactor tanks; and a surveillance program to track irradiation effects on the tank walls.

  10. Assessment of torsatrons as reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, J.F. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Painter, S.L. (Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia))


    Stellarators have significant operational advantages over tokamaks as ignited steady-state reactors because stellarators have no dangerous disruptions and no need for continuous current drive or power recirculated to the plasma, both easing the first wall, blanket, and shield design; less severe constraints on the plasma parameters and profiles; and better access for maintenance. This study shows that a reactor based on the torsatron configuration (a stellarator variant) could also have up to double the mass utilization efficiency (MUE) and a significantly lower cost of electricity (COE) than a conventional tokamak reactor (ARIES-I) for a range of assumptions. Torsatron reactors can have much smaller coil systems than tokamak reactors because the coils are closer to the plasma and they have a smaller cross section (higher average current density because of the lower magnetic field). The reactor optimization approach and the costing and component models are those used in the current stage of the ARIES-I tokamak reactor study. Typical reactor parameters for a 1-GW(e) Compact Torsatron reactor example are major radius R[sub 0] = 6.6-8.8 m, on-axis magnetic field B[sup 0] = 4.8-7.5 T, B[sub max] (on coils) = 16 T, MUE 140-210 kW(e)/tonne, and COE (in constant 1990 dollars) = 67-79 mill/kW(e)h. The results are relatively sensitive to assumptions on the level of confinement improvement and the blanket thickness under the inboard half of the helical windings but relatively insensitive to other assumptions.

  11. Concept for LEU Burst Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Steven Karl [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kimpland, Robert Herbert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Design and performance of a proposed LEU burst reactor are sketched. Salient conclusions reached are the following: size would be ~1,500 kg or greater, depending on the size of the central cavity; internal stresses during burst require split rings for relief; the reactor would likely require multiple control and safety rods for fine control; the energy spectrum would be comparable to that of HEU machines; and burst yields and steady-state power levels will be significantly greater in an LEU reactor.

  12. Nuclear reactor downcomer flow deflector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmore, Charles B. (Greensburg, PA); Altman, David A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Singleton, Norman R. (Murrysville, PA)


    A nuclear reactor having a coolant flow deflector secured to a reactor core barrel in line with a coolant inlet nozzle. The flow deflector redirects incoming coolant down an annulus between the core barrel and the reactor vessel. The deflector has a main body with a front side facing the fluid inlet nozzle and a rear side facing the core barrel. The rear side of the main body has at least one protrusion secured to the core barrel so that a gap exists between the rear side of the main body adjacent the protrusion and the core barrel. Preferably, the protrusion is a relief that circumscribes the rear side of the main body.

  13. Safety of VVER-440 reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Slugen, Vladimir


    Safety of VVER-440 Reactors endeavours to promote an increase in the safety of VVER-440 nuclear reactors via the improvement of fission products limitation systems and the implementation of special non-destructive spectroscopic methods for materials testing. All theoretical and experimental studies performed the by author over the last 25 years have been undertaken with the aim of improving VVER-440 defence in depth, which is one of the most important principle for ensuring safety in nuclear power plants. Safety of VVER-440 Reactors is focused on the barrier system through which the safety pri

  14. Random processes in nuclear reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, M M R


    Random Processes in Nuclear Reactors describes the problems that a nuclear engineer may meet which involve random fluctuations and sets out in detail how they may be interpreted in terms of various models of the reactor system. Chapters set out to discuss topics on the origins of random processes and sources; the general technique to zero-power problems and bring out the basic effect of fission, and fluctuations in the lifetime of neutrons, on the measured response; the interpretation of power reactor noise; and associated problems connected with mechanical, hydraulic and thermal noise sources

  15. Fuel Fabrication and Nuclear Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The uranium from the enrichment plant is still in the form of UF6. UF6 is not suitable for use in a reactor due to its highly corrosive chemistry as well as its phase diagram. UF6 is converted into UO2 fuel pellets, which are in turn placed in fuel rods and assemblies. Reactor designs are variable in moderators, coolants, fuel, performance etc.The dream of energy ‘too-cheap to meter’ is no more, and now the nuclear power industry is pushing ahead with advanced reactor designs.

  16. Nuclear reactor PBMR and cogeneration; Reactor nuclear PBMR y cogeneracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez S, J. R.; Alonso V, G., E-mail: [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    In recent years the nuclear reactor designs for the electricity generation have increased their costs, so that at the moment costs are managed of around the 5000 US D for installed kw, reason for which a big nuclear plant requires of investments of the order of billions of dollars, the designed reactors as modular of low power seek to lighten the initial investment of a big reactor dividing the power in parts and dividing in modules the components to lower the production costs, this way it can begin to build a module and finished this to build other, differing the long term investment, getting less risk therefore in the investment. On the other hand the reactors of low power can be very useful in regions where is difficult to have access to the electric net being able to take advantage of the thermal energy of the reactor to feed other processes like the water desalination or the vapor generation for the processes industry like the petrochemical, or even more the possible hydrogen production to be used as fuel. In this work the possibility to generate vapor of high quality for the petrochemical industry is described using a spheres bed reactor of high temperature. (Author)

  17. FASTER test reactor preconceptual design report summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandy, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Belch, H. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Brunett, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Heidet, F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hill, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hoffman, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jin, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mohamed, W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Moisseytsev, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Passerini, S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sienicki, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sumner, T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vilim, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hayes, Steven [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    The FASTER reactor plant is a sodium-cooled fast spectrum test reactor that provides high levels of fast and thermal neutron flux for scientific research and development. The 120MWe FASTER reactor plant has a superheated steam power conversion system which provides electrical power to a local grid allowing for recovery of operating costs for the reactor plant.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav K. Mayevski


    Full Text Available This paper describes a mathematical model of an industrial chemical reactor for production of synthetic rubber. During reactor operation the model parameters vary considerably. To create a control algorithm performed transformation of mathematical model of the reactor in order to obtain a dependency that can be used to determine the model parameters are changing during reactor operation.

  19. FASTER Test Reactor Preconceptual Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandy, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Belch, H. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Brunett, A. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Heidet, F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hill, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hoffman, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jin, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mohamed, W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Moisseytsev, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Passerini, S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sienicki, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sumner, T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vilim, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hayes, S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    The FASTER test reactor plant is a sodium-cooled fast spectrum test reactor that provides high levels of fast and thermal neutron flux for scientific research and development. The 120MWe FASTER reactor plant has a superheated steam power conversion system which provides electrical power to a local grid allowing for recovery of operating costs for the reactor plant.

  20. Breeder Reactors, Understanding the Atom Series. (United States)

    Mitchell, Walter, III; Turner, Stanley E.

    The theory of breeder reactors in relationship to a discussion of fission is presented. Different kinds of reactors are characterized by the cooling fluids used, such as liquid metal, gas, and molten salt. The historical development of breeder reactors over the past twenty-five years includes specific examples of reactors. The location and a brief…

  1. Evolution of the tandem mirror reactor concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, G.A.; Logan, B.G.


    We discuss the evolution of the tandem mirror reactor concept from the original conceptual reactor design (1977) through the first application of the thermal barrier concept to a reactor design (1979) to the beginning of the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (1982).

  2. Jules Horowitz Reactor, basic design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergamaschi, Y.; Bouilloux, Y.; Chantoin, P.; Guigon, B.; Bravo, X.; Germain, C.; Rommens, M.; Tremodeux, P


    Since the shutdown of the SILOE reactor in 1997, the OSIRIS reactor has ensured the needs regarding technological irradiation at CEA including those of its industrial partners and customers. The Jules Horowitz Reactor will replace it. It has the ambition to provide the necessary nuclear data and maintain a fission research capacity in Europe after 2010. This capacity should be service-oriented. It will be established in Cadarache. The Jules Horowitz reactor will also: - represent a significant step in term of performances and experimental capabilities, - be designed with a high flexibility, in order to satisfy the current demand from European industry, research and be able to accommodate future requirements, - reach a high level of safety, according to the best current practice. This paper will present the main functionalities and the design options resulting from the 'preliminary design' studies. (authors)

  3. Advanced Catalytic Hydrogenation Retrofit Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinaldo M. Machado


    Industrial hydrogenation is often performed using a slurry catalyst in large stirred-tank reactors. These systems are inherently problematic in a number of areas, including industrial hygiene, process safety, environmental contamination, waste production, process operability and productivity. This program proposed the development of a practical replacement for the slurry catalysts using a novel fixed-bed monolith catalyst reactor, which could be retrofitted onto an existing stirred-tank reactor and would mitigate many of the minitations and problems associated with slurry catalysts. The full retrofit monolith system, consisting of a recirculation pump, gas/liquid ejector and monolith catalyst, is described as a monolith loop reactor or MLR. The MLR technology can reduce waste and increase raw material efficiency, which reduces the overall energy required to produce specialty and fine chemicals.

  4. Advanced Carbothermal Electric Reactor Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall objective of the Phase 1 effort was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the Advanced Carbothermal Electric (ACE) Reactor concept. Unlike...

  5. Reactor operation environmental information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, L.R.; Hayes, D.W.; Hunter, C.H.; Marter, W.L.; Moyer, R.A.


    This volume is a reactor operation environmental information document for the Savannah River Plant. Topics include meteorology, surface hydrology, transport, environmental impacts, and radiation effects. 48 figs., 56 tabs. (KD)

  6. Unique features of space reactors (United States)

    Buden, David

    Space reactors are designed to meet a unique set of requirements; they must be sufficiently compact to be launched in a rocket to their operational location, operate for many years without maintenance and servicing, operate in extreme environments, and reject heat by radiation to space. To meet these restrictions, operating temperatures are much greater than in terrestrial power plants, and the reactors tend to have a fast neutron spectrum. Currently, a new generation of space reactor power plants is being developed. The major effort is in the SP-100 program, where the power plant is being designed for seven years of full power, and no maintenance operation at a reactor outlet operating temperature of 1350 K.

  7. Thermal Analysis for Mobile Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>Mobile reactor design in the paper is consisted of two grades of thermal electric conversion. The first grade is the thermionic conversion inside the core and the second grade is thermocouple conversion

  8. Teaching About Nature's Nuclear Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Herndon, J M


    Naturally occurring nuclear reactors existed in uranium deposits on Earth long before Enrico Fermi built the first man-made nuclear reactor beneath Staggs Field in 1942. In the story of their discovery, there are important lessons to be learned about scientific inquiry and scientific discovery. Now, there is evidence to suggest that the Earth's magnetic field and Jupiter's atmospheric turbulence are driven by planetary-scale nuclear reactors. The subject of planetocentric nuclear fission reactors can be a jumping off point for stimulating classroom discussions about the nature and implications of planetary energy sources and about the geomagnetic field. But more importantly, the subject can help to bring into focus the importance of discussing, debating, and challenging current thinking in a variety of areas.

  9. Advanced Carbothermal Electric Reactor Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop the Advanced Carbothermal Electric (ACE) reactor to efficiently extract oxygen from lunar regolith. Unlike state-of-the-art carbothermal...

  10. Solid State Reactor Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mays, G.T.


    The Solid State Reactor (SSR) is an advanced reactor concept designed to take advantage of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) recently developed graphite foam that has enhanced heat transfer characteristics and excellent high-temperature mechanical properties, to provide an inherently safe, self-regulated, source of heat for power and other potential applications. This work was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) program (Project No. 99-064) from August 1999 through September 30, 2002. The initial concept of utilizing the graphite foam as a basis for developing an advanced reactor concept envisioned that a suite of reactor configurations and power levels could be developed for several different applications. The initial focus was looking at the reactor as a heat source that was scalable, independent of any heat removal/power conversion process. These applications might include conventional power generation, isotope production and destruction (actinides), and hydrogen production. Having conducted the initial research on the graphite foam and having performed the scoping parametric analyses from neutronics and thermal-hydraulic perspectives, it was necessary to focus on a particular application that would (1) demonstrate the viability of the overall concept and (2) require a reasonably structured design analysis process that would synthesize those important parameters that influence the concept the most as part of a feasible, working reactor system. Thus, the application targeted for this concept was supplying power for remote/harsh environments and a design that was easily deployable, simplistic from an operational standpoint, and utilized the new graphite foam. Specifically, a 500-kW(t) reactor concept was pursued that is naturally load following, inherently safe, optimized via neutronic studies to achieve near-zero reactivity change with burnup, and proliferation resistant. These four major areas

  11. Microchannel Reactors for ISRU Applications (United States)

    Carranza, Susana; Makel, Darby B.; Blizman, Brandon; Ward, Benjamin J.


    Affordable planning and execution of prolonged manned space missions depend upon the utilization of local resources and the waste products which are formed in manned spacecraft and surface bases. Successful in-situ resources utilization (ISRU) will require component technologies which provide optimal size, weight, volume, and power efficiency. Microchannel reactors enable the efficient chemical processing of in situ resources. The reactors can be designed for the processes that generate the most benefit for each mission. For instance, propellants (methane) can be produced from carbon dioxide from the Mars atmosphere using the Sabatier reaction and ethylene can be produced from the partial oxidation of methane. A system that synthesizes ethylene could be the precursor for systems to synthesize ethanol and polyethylene. Ethanol can be used as a nutrient for Astrobiology experiments, as well as the production of nutrients for human crew (e.g. sugars). Polyethylene can be used in the construction of habitats, tools, and replacement parts. This paper will present recent developments in miniature chemical reactors using advanced Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) and microchannel technology to support ISRU of Mars and lunar missions. Among other applications, the technology has been demonstrated for the Sabatier process and for the partial oxidation of methane. Microchannel reactors were developed based on ceramic substrates as well as metal substrates. In both types of reactors, multiple layers coated with catalytic material are bonded, forming a monolithic structure. Such reactors are readily scalable with the incorporation of extra layers. In addition, this reactor structure minimizes pressure drop and catalyst settling, which are common problems in conventional packed bed reactors.

  12. Reactor antineutrinos and nuclear physics (United States)

    Balantekin, A. B.


    Short-baseline reactor neutrino experiments successfully measured the neutrino parameters they set out to measure, but they also identified a shape distortion in the 5-7 MeV range as well as a reduction from the predicted value of the flux. Nuclear physics input into the calculations of reactor antineutrino spectra needs to be better refined if this anomaly is to be interpreted as due to sterile neutrino states.

  13. Reactor Simulator Testing (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Michael P.; Webster, Kenny L.; Pearson, Boise J.


    As part of the Nuclear Systems Office Fission Surface Power Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) project, a reactor simulator test loop (RxSim) was design & built to perform integrated testing of the TDU components. In particular, the objectives of RxSim testing was to verify the operation of the core simulator, the instrumentation and control system, and the ground support gas and vacuum test equipment. In addition, it was decided to include a thermal test of a cold trap purification design and a pump performance test at pump voltages up to 150 V since the targeted mass flow rate of 1.75 kg/s was not obtained in the RxSim at the originally constrained voltage of 120 V. This paper summarizes RxSim testing. The gas and vacuum ground support test equipment performed effectively in NaK fill, loop pressurization, and NaK drain operations. The instrumentation and control system effectively controlled loop temperature and flow rates or pump voltage to targeted settings. The cold trap design was able to obtain the targeted cold temperature of 480 K. An outlet temperature of 636 K was obtained which was lower than the predicted 750 K but 156 K higher than the cold temperature indicating the design provided some heat regeneration. The annular linear induction pump (ALIP) tested was able to produce a maximum flow rate of 1.53 kg/s at 800 K when operated at 150 V and 53 Hz.

  14. Novel Catalytic Membrane Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart Nemser, PhD


    There are many industrial catalytic organic reversible reactions with amines or alcohols that have water as one of the products. Many of these reactions are homogeneously catalyzed. In all cases removal of water facilitates the reaction and produces more of the desired chemical product. By shifting the reaction to right we produce more chemical product with little or no additional capital investment. Many of these reactions can also relate to bioprocesses. Given the large number of water-organic compound separations achievable and the ability of the Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. (CMS) perfluoro membranes to withstand these harsh operating conditions, this is an ideal demonstration system for the water-of-reaction removal using a membrane reactor. Enhanced reaction synthesis is consistent with the DOE objective to lower the energy intensity of U.S. industry 25% by 2017 in accord with the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and to improve the United States manufacturing competitiveness. The objective of this program is to develop the platform technology for enhancing homogeneous catalytic chemical syntheses.

  15. LMFBR type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwashige, Kengo


    In an LMFBR type reactor, partitions are disposed to a coolant channel at positions lower than the free liquid level, and the width of the partitions is adapted to have a predetermined condition. Namely, when low temperature fluid overflowing the wall of the coolant channel, flows down and collided against the free liquid surface in the coolant channel, since the dropping speed thereof is reduced abruptly, large pressure waves are caused by kinetic force of the low temperature fluid. However, if appropriate numbers of partitions having an appropriate shape are formed, the dropping speed of the low temperature fluid is moderated to reduce the pressure waves. In addition, since the pressure waves are dispersed to the circumferential and lateral directions of the coolant flow channel respectively, the propagation of the pressure waves can be prevented effectively. Further, when the flow of the low temperature fluid is changed to the circumferential direction, for example, by earthquakes, since the partitions act as members resisting against the circumferential change of the low temperature fluid, the change of the direction can be suppressed. (N.H.)

  16. Calculation of reactor antineutrino spectra in TEXONO

    CERN Document Server

    Chen Dong Liang; Mao Ze Pu; Wong, T H


    In the low energy reactor antineutrino physics experiments, either for the researches of antineutrino oscillation and antineutrino reactions, or for the measurement of abnormal magnetic moment of antineutrino, the flux and the spectra of reactor antineutrino must be described accurately. The method of calculation of reactor antineutrino spectra was discussed in detail. Furthermore, based on the actual circumstances of NP2 reactors and the arrangement of detectors, the flux and the spectra of reactor antineutrino in TEXONO were worked out

  17. Tritium management in fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galloway, T.R.


    This is a review paper covering the key environmental and safety issues and how they have been handled in the various magnetic and inertial confinement concepts and reference designs. The issues treated include: tritium accident analyses, tritium process control, occupational safety, HTO formation rate from the gas-phase, disposal of tritium contaminated wastes, and environmental impact--each covering the Joint European Tokamak (J.E.T. experiment), Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), Russian T-20, The Next Step (TNS) designs by Westinghouse/ORNL and General Atomic/ANL, the ANL and ORNL EPR's, the G.A. Doublet Demonstration Reactor, the Italian Fintor-D and the ORNL Demo Studies. There are also the following full scale plant reference designs: UWMAK-III, LASL's Theta Pinch Reactor Design (RTPR), Mirror Fusion Reactor (MFR), Tandem Mirror Reactor (TMR), and the Mirror Hybrid Reactor (MHR). There are four laser device breakeven experiments, SHIVA-NOVA, LLL reference designs, ORNL Laser Fusion power plant, the German ''Saturn,'' and LLL's Laser Fusion EPR I and II.

  18. "Mid-G" region sequences of the glycoprotein gene of Austrian infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus isolates form two lineages within European isolates and are distinct from American and Asian lineages. (United States)

    Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Schachner, Oskar; Dürrwald, Ralf; Latif, Muna; Nowotny, Norbert


    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is one of the most important pathogens of salmonid fish. In this study a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the genetic evolution and variety of Austrian IHNV strains, as well as selected strains ensuring worldwide coverage, is presented. The phylogenetic investigation is based on sequences comprising the "mid-G" region of the G gene, and it includes all currently available IHNV sequences of the G gene with a length of at least 615 bp. Austrian IHNVs are located--together with other European IHNV isolates--in two clusters of genogroup M (M-Eur1 and M-Eur2) and are clearly separated from American and Asian lineages. The genetic clustering, however, could not be linked to certain clinical symptoms or significant differences in the mortality rates.

  19. Innovative hybrid biological reactors using membranes; Reactores biologico hibrido innovadores utilizando membranas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diez, R.; Esteban-Garcia, A. L.; Florio, L. de; Rodriguez-Hernandez, L.; Tejero, I.


    In this paper we present two lines of research on hybrid reactors including the use of membranes, although with different functions: RBPM, biofilm reactors and membranes filtration RBSOM, supported biofilm reactors and oxygen membranes. (Author) 14 refs.

  20. “Mid-G” Region Sequences of the Glycoprotein Gene of Austrian Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus Isolates Form Two Lineages within European Isolates and Are Distinct from American and Asian Lineages▿


    Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Schachner, Oskar; Dürrwald, Ralf; Latif, Muna; Nowotny, Norbert


    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is one of the most important pathogens of salmonid fish. In this study a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the genetic evolution and variety of Austrian IHNV strains, as well as selected strains ensuring worldwide coverage, is presented. The phylogenetic investigation is based on sequences comprising the “mid-G” region of the G gene, and it includes all currently available IHNV sequences of the G gene with a length of at least 615 bp. Austri...

  1. Abstracts of the 28. annual meeting of the Austrian Radiation Oncology, Radiation Biology and Medical Radiation Physics Society (OeGRO 2011); Abstracts der 28. Jahrestagung der Oesterreichischen Gesellschaft fuer Radioonkologie, Radiobiologie und Medizinische Radiophysik (OeGRO 2011)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The second part of the volume includes the abstracts of the 28th annual meeting of the Austrian Radiation Oncology, Radiation Biology and Medical Radiation Physics Society (OeGRO 2011), covering the following topics: extracranial stereotactic radiotherapy; brachytherapy, hyperthermia; radiotherapy side effects; psycho-oncology in radiotherapy; head-neck carcinomas; radiation source implants for carcinoma irradiation; MRI-supported adaptive radiotherapy; CT-guided radiotherapy; mammary carcinomas; prostate carcinomas; magnetic nanoparticles for future medical applications.

  2. 德奥艺术歌曲钢琴伴奏的作用%German and Austrian Art Song Piano Accompaniment to Enhance the Role of the Piano Solo Ability of Exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    German and Austrian art songs creates performances with piano-based instrumental accom-paniment.Piano accompaniment features German and Austrian art songs,mainly reflected in"Shaping sex"and"extension"of two aspects.German and Austrian art songs on piano accompaniment of piano training system helps develop the"skill","singing,"and played the role of deposit into their imagination,expres-sive improve.either from the melodic development practices,and diverse musical structure of sex,or de-rivative works,as well as emotional,piano solo ability to be performance are available through the German and Austrian art songs for piano accompaniment exercises to achieve.%德奥艺术歌曲开创了以钢琴为主的器乐伴奏的表演形式。德奥艺术歌曲的钢琴伴奏特点,主要体现在“塑造性”与“延伸性”两个方面。对德奥艺术歌曲的钢琴伴奏的系统训练有助于培养钢琴演奏的“技巧性”、“歌唱性”,并对其想象力、表现力的提高起到促进作用。无论是从旋律的发展手法、曲式结构的多样性,还是作品的延伸性,以及所要表现的情感方面,钢琴独奏能力的培养都可以通过对德奥艺术歌曲的钢琴伴奏练习来达到。

  3. Establishment of licensing process for development reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Jong Chull; Yune, Young Gill; Kim, Woong Sik (and others)


    A study on licensing processes for development reactors has been performed to prepare the licensing of development reactors developed in Korea. The contents and results of the study are summarized as follows. The licensing processes for nuclear reactors in Korea, U.S.A., Japan, France, U.K., Canada, and IAEA were surveyed and analyzed to obtain technical bases necessary for establishing licensing processes applicable to development reactors in Korea. Based on the technical bases obtained the above analysis, the purpose, power output, and design characteristics of development reactors were analyzed in detail. The analysis results suggested that development reactors should be classified as a new reactor category (called as 'development reactor') separated from the current reactor categories such as the research reactor and the power reactor. Therefore, it is proposed to establish a new reactor category classified as 'development reactor' for the development reactors. And licensing processes, including licensing technical requirements, licensing document requirements, and other regulatory requirements, were also proposed for the development reactors. In order to institutionalize the licensing processes developed in this study, it is necessary to revise the current laws. Therefore, draft provisions of Atomic Energy Act, Enforcement Decree of the Atomic Energy Act, and Enforcement Regulation of the Atomic Energy Act have been developed for the preparation of the future legalization of the licensing processes proposed for the development reactors. Conclusively, a proposal of licensing processes and draft provisions of laws have been developed for the development reactors. The results proposed in this study can be applied directly to the licensing of the future development reactors. Furthermore, they will also contribute to establishing successfully the licensing processes of the development reactors.

  4. Repairing liner of the reactor; Reparacion del liner del reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar H, F. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    Due to the corrosion problems of the aluminum coating of the reactor pool, a periodic inspections program by ultrasound to evaluate the advance grade and the corrosion speed was settled down. This inspections have shown the necessity to repair some areas, in those that the slimming is significant, of not making it can arrive to the water escape of the reactor pool. The objective of the repair is to place patches of plates of 1/4 inch aluminum thickness in the areas of the reactor 'liner', in those that it has been detected by ultrasound a smaller thickness or similar to 3 mm. To carry out this the fuels are move (of the core and those that are decaying) to a temporary storage, the structure of the core is confined in a tank that this placed inside the pool of the reactor, a shield is placed in the thermal column and it is completely extracted the water for to leave uncover the 'liner' of the reactor. (Author)

  5. Reactor Simulator Testing (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Michael P.; Webster, Kenny L.; Pearson, Boise Jon


    As part of the Nuclear Systems Office Fission Surface Power Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) project, a reactor simulator test loop (RxSim) was design & built to perform integrated testing of the TDU components. In particular, the objectives of RxSim testing was to verify the operation of the core simulator, the instrumentation and control system, and the ground support gas and vacuum test equipment. In addition, it was decided to include a thermal test of a cold trap purification design and a pump performance test at pump voltages up to 150 V since the targeted mass flow rate of 1.75 kg/s was not obtained in the RxSim at the originally constrained voltage of 120 V. This paper summarizes RxSim testing. The gas and vacuum ground support test equipment performed effectively in NaK fill, loop pressurization, and NaK drain operations. The instrumentation and control system effectively controlled loop temperature and flow rates or pump voltage to targeted settings. The cold trap design was able to obtain the targeted cold temperature of 480 K. An outlet temperature of 636 K was obtained which was lower than the predicted 750 K but 156 K higher than the cold temperature indicating the design provided some heat regeneration. The annular linear induction pump (ALIP) tested was able to produce a maximum flow rate of 1.53 kg/s at 800 K when operated at 150 V and 53 Hz. Keywords: fission, space power, nuclear, liquid metal, NaK.

  6. Reactivity determination in accelerator driven reactors using reactor noise analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Ljiljana 1


    Full Text Available Feynman-alpha and Rossi-alpha methods are used in traditional nuclear reactors to determine the subcritical reactivity of a system. The methods are based on the measurement of the mean value, variance and the covariance of detector counts for different measurement times. Such methods attracted renewed attention recently with the advent of the so-called accelerator driven reactors (ADS proposed some time ago. The ADS systems, intended to be used either in energy generation or transuranium transmutation, will use a subcritical core with a strong spallation source. A spallation source has statistical properties that are different from those traditionally used by radioactive sources. In such reactors the monitoring of the subcritical reactivity is very important, and a statistical method, such as the Feynman-alpha method, is capable of resolving this problem.

  7. Heterogeneous Transmutation Sodium Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. E. Bays


    The threshold-fission (fertile) nature of Am-241 is used to destroy this minor actinide by capitalizing upon neutron capture instead of fission within a sodium fast reactor. This neutron-capture and its subsequent decay chain leads to the breeding of even neutron number plutonium isotopes. A slightly moderated target design is proposed for breeding plutonium in an axial blanket located above the active “fast reactor” driver fuel region. A parametric study on the core height and fuel pin diameter-to-pitch ratio is used to explore the reactor and fuel cycle aspects of this design. This study resulted in both non-flattened and flattened core geometries. Both of these designs demonstrated a high capacity for removing americium from the fuel cycle. A reactivity coefficient analysis revealed that this heterogeneous design will have comparable safety aspects to a homogeneous reactor of comparable size. A mass balance analysis revealed that the heterogeneous design may reduce the number of fast reactors needed to close the current once-through light water reactor fuel cycle.

  8. Thermonuclear Reflect AB-Reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Bolonkin, Alexander


    The author offers a new kind of thermonuclear reflect reactor. The remarkable feature of this new reactor is a three net AB reflector, which confines the high temperature plasma. The plasma loses part of its energy when it contacts with the net but this loss can be compensated by an additional permanent plasma heating. When the plasma is rarefied (has a small density), the heat flow to the AB reflector is not large and the temperature in the triple reflector net is lower than 2000 - 3000 K. This offered AB-reactor has significantly less power then the currently contemplated power reactors with magnetic or inertial confinement (hundreds-thousands of kW, not millions of kW). But it is enough for many vehicles and ships and particularly valuable for tunnelers, subs and space apparatus, where air to burn chemical fuel is at a premium or simply not available. The author has made a number of innovations in this reactor, researched its theory, developed methods of computation, made a sample computation of typical pr...

  9. Imaging Fukushima Daiichi reactors with muons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruo Miyadera


    Full Text Available A study of imaging the Fukushima Daiichi reactors with cosmic-ray muons to assess the damage to the reactors is presented. Muon scattering imaging has high sensitivity for detecting uranium fuel and debris even through thick concrete walls and a reactor pressure vessel. Technical demonstrations using a reactor mockup, detector radiation test at Fukushima Daiichi, and simulation studies have been carried out. These studies establish feasibility for the reactor imaging. A few months of measurement will reveal the spatial distribution of the reactor fuel. The muon scattering technique would be the best and probably the only way for Fukushima Daiichi to make this determination in the near future.

  10. Fast breeder reactors an engineering introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Judd, A M


    Fast Breeder Reactors: An Engineering Introduction is an introductory text to fast breeder reactors and covers topics ranging from reactor physics and design to engineering and safety considerations. Reactor fuels, coolant circuits, steam plants, and control systems are also discussed. This book is comprised of five chapters and opens with a brief summary of the history of fast reactors, with emphasis on international and the prospect of making accessible enormous reserves of energy. The next chapter deals with the physics of fast reactors and considers calculation methods, flux distribution,

  11. Persistence of antibodies in 4-8 year old Austrian children after vaccination with hexavalent DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib and MMR vaccines. (United States)

    Paulke-Korinek, Maria; Fischmeister, Gustav; Grac, Ana; Rendi-Wagner, Pamela; Kundi, Michael; Mohsenzadeh-Rabbani, Afsaneh; Moritz, Katharina; Fenninger, Beate; Jarisch, Reinhart; Jasinska, Joanna; Holzmann, Heidemarie; Wiedermann, Ursula; Kollaritsch, Herwig


    To determine the proficiency of the Austrian childhood vaccination schedule to induce long lasting seroprotection against vaccine preventable diseases a seroepidemiological study in 348 children between four and eight years of age was conducted. Antibodies against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, measles, mumps and rubella antigens were assessed in children, who had been vaccinated with hexavalent DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccines at three, four, five months and in the second year of life and/or MMR vaccines in the second year of life at least once, but mostly twice. High seroprotection rates (SPRs) were detected for tetanus (96%) and measles (90%). SPRs regarding diphtheria and mumps were 81% and 72%, respectively. Rubella-SPRs were 68% in females and 58% in males. Hepatitis B-antibody levels ≥10 mIU/mL were present in 52%; antibodies against pertussis were detected in 27% of the children. SPRs for measles and rubella depended on the interval since last vaccination; mumps-antibodies were significantly lower after one MMR-vaccination only. Antibodies against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis depended on the interval since last vaccination while HBs-antibodies did not. The low levels of antibodies 1-7 years after vaccination against pertussis, rubella and mumps after only one vaccination should be considered when recommending new vaccination schedules.

  12. Model-Based Estimation of Forest Canopy Height in Red and Austrian Pine Stands Using Shuttle Radar Topography Mission and Ancillary Data: a Proof-of-Concept Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown Jr., C G; Sarabandi, K; Pierce, L E


    In this paper, accurate tree stand height retrieval is demonstrated using C-band Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) height and ancillary data. The tree height retrieval algorithm is based on modeling uniform tree stands with a single layer of randomly oriented vegetation particles. For such scattering media, the scattering phase center height, as measured by SRTM, is a function of tree height, incidence angle, and the extinction coefficient of the medium. The extinction coefficient for uniform tree stands is calculated as a function of tree height and density using allometric equations and a fractal tree model. The accuracy of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated using SRTM and TOPSAR data for 15 red pine and Austrian pine stands (TOPSAR is an airborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar). The algorithm yields root-mean-square (rms) errors of 2.5-3.6 m, which is a substantial improvement over the 6.8-8.3-m rms errors from the raw SRTM minus National Elevation Dataset Heights.

  13. Seroprevalence for Coxiella burnetii, Francisella tularensis, Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis in Austrian adults: a cross-sectional survey among military personnel and civilians. (United States)

    Tobudic, Selma; Nedomansky, Klara; Poeppl, Wolfgang; Müller, Maria; Faas, Angelus; Mooseder, Gerhard; Allerberger, Franz; Stanek, Gerold; Burgmann, Heinz


    The prevalence of Coxiella burnetii, Francisella tularensis, Brucella abortus, and Brucella melitensis infections in Austria and the exposure risk of military personnel were assessed in an exploratory nationwide cross-sectional seroprevalence survey in 526 healthy adult individuals, 222 of which were soldiers and 304 were civilians. Screening for IgA/IgG antibodies to C. burnetii (Phase I) and IgG/IgM antibodies to C. burnetii (Phase II), and to F. tularensis was done with commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. To detect antibodies against B. abortus and B. melitensis, an in-house complement fixation test was used. Overall, 11 individuals (2.0%) showed antibodies to C. burnetii, 3 individuals (0.5%) were seropositive for F. tularensis, and one (0.3%) individual was borderline positive. All individuals positive or borderline for F. tularensis tested negative for antibodies against C. burnetii. All individuals tested negative for antibodies against B. melitensis/B. abortus. There were no significant differences between the seroprevalence of C. burnetii and F. tularensis among military personnel and civilians. Our data demonstrate serological evidence of a low rate of exposure to C. burnetii and F. tularensis among the Austrian adult population and military personnel.

  14. Women show a closer association between educational level and hypertension or diabetes mellitus than males: a secondary analysis from the Austrian HIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kautzky-Willer Alexandra


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lifestyle diseases and cardiovascular complications are dramatically increasing, but little is known about the impact of educational level and health behaviour in men and women in different populations. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the association between educational level (EL and self-reported chronic diseases and health behaviour in both sexes. Methods Data were derived from the Austrian Health Interview Surveys 2006/2007, which includes 13 558 persons (50.9% females. The associations between EL and the risk of obesity, hypertension, diabetes, myocardial infarction, stroke and anxiety disorders or depression, nutrition, exercise, and smoking were evaluated. University education served as the reference category (EL4, the lowest educational level was required schooling only (EL0. Results Only among women did the risk for diabetes mellitus and hypertension increase with decreasing educational level with the highest rates for EL0 OR [95% CI] adjusted for age, income, family status and lifestyle: 3.7 [1.7-8.0], and 2.5 [1.8-3.5], respectively. Only among the men, however, did the risk for stroke increase with decreasing educational level adjusted OR for EL0: 8.5 [1.7-42.7]. For anthropometric measures and lifestyle factors in both sexes the risk increased with decreasing EL. Conclusion EL affects lifestyle, overweight and obesity in both sexes. The apparent sex-specific differences in the association between the prevalence of some chronic disease with EL call for further investigation.

  15. Humus characteristics and seasonal changes of soil arthropod communities in a natural sessile oak (Quercus petraea L.) stand and adjacent Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) plantation. (United States)

    Cakir, Meric; Makineci, Ender


    In order to assess the effects of conversion of natural stands into plantations, soil invertebrate micro- and macroarthropod communities were evaluated for their abundance and richness in a sessile oak (SO; Quercus petraea L.) stand and adjacent Austrian pine (AP; Pinus nigra Arnold) plantation. Sites were sampled four times a year in 3-month intervals from May 2009 to February 2010. Humus characteristics such as total mass; carbon, lignin, and cellulose contents; and C/N ratio were significantly different between SO and AP. Statistically significant differences were detected on soil pH, carbon and nitrogen contents, and electrical conductivity between the two sites. The number of microarthropods was higher in AP than in the SO site. The annual mean abundance values of microarthropods in a square meter were 67,763 in AP and 50,542 in SO, and the annual mean abundance values of macroarthropods were 921 m(-2) in AP and 427 m(-2) in SO. Among the soil microarthropods, Acari and Collembola were the dominant groups. Shannon's diversity index was more affected by evenness than species number despite the species diversity (H') of soil arthropods being generally higher in the SO stand. The abundance of microarthropods showed clear seasonal trends depending upon the humidity of the soil.

  16. Acute effects of particulate matter on respiratory diseases, symptoms and functions:. epidemiological results of the Austrian Project on Health Effects of Particulate Matter (AUPHEP) (United States)

    Neuberger, Manfred; Schimek, Michael G.; Horak, Friedrich; Moshammer, Hanns; Kundi, Michael; Frischer, Thomas; Gomiscek, Bostjan; Puxbaum, Hans; Hauck, Helger; Auphep-Team

    To examine hypotheses regarding health effects of particulate matter, we conducted time series studies in Austrian urban and rural areas. Of the pollutants measured, ambient PM 2.5 was most consistently associated with parameters of respiratory health. Time series studies applying semiparametric generalized additive models showed significant increases of respiratory hospital admissions (ICD 490-496) at age 65 and older. The early increase of 5.5% in Vienna at a lag of 2 days in males and of 5.6% per 10 μg/m 3 at a lag of 3 days in females was not observed in a nearby rural area. Another increase of respiratory admissions (mainly COPD) was observed after a lag of 10-11 days. A time series on a panel of 56 healthy preschool children showed a significant impact of the carbonaceous fraction of PM 2.5 on tidal breathing pattern assessed by inductive plethysmography. In repeated oscillometric measurements of respiratory resistance in 164 healthy elementary school children not only immediate responses to fine particulates were found but also latent ones, possibly indicating inflammatory changes in airways. It may be speculated that the improvements of urban air quality prevented measurable effects on respiratory mortality. More sensitive indicators, however, still show acute impairments of respiratory function and health in elderly and children which are associated with fine particulates and subfractions related to motor traffic.

  17. Plasma reactor waste management systems (United States)

    Ness, Robert O., Jr.; Rindt, John R.; Ness, Sumitra R.


    The University of North Dakota is developing a plasma reactor system for use in closed-loop processing that includes biological, materials, manufacturing, and waste processing. Direct-current, high-frequency, or microwave discharges will be used to produce plasmas for the treatment of materials. The plasma reactors offer several advantages over other systems, including low operating temperatures, low operating pressures, mechanical simplicity, and relatively safe operation. Human fecal material, sunflowers, oats, soybeans, and plastic were oxidized in a batch plasma reactor. Over 98 percent of the organic material was converted to gaseous products. The solids were then analyzed and a large amount of water and acid-soluble materials were detected. These materials could possibly be used as nutrients for biological systems.

  18. Nuclear Reactor Engineering Analysis Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos Chavez-Mercado; Jaime B. Morales-Sandoval; Benjamin E. Zayas-Perez


    The Nuclear Reactor Engineering Analysis Laboratory (NREAL) is a sophisticated computer system with state-of-the-art analytical tools and technology for analysis of light water reactors. Multiple application software tools can be activated to carry out different analyses and studies such as nuclear fuel reload evaluation, safety operation margin measurement, transient and severe accident analysis, nuclear reactor instability, operator training, normal and emergency procedures optimization, and human factors engineering studies. An advanced graphic interface, driven through touch-sensitive screens, provides the means to interact with specialized software and nuclear codes. The interface allows the visualization and control of all observable variables in a nuclear power plant (NPP), as well as a selected set of nonobservable or not directly controllable variables from conventional control panels.

  19. Utilisation of thorium in reactors (United States)

    Anantharaman, K.; Shivakumar, V.; Saha, D.


    India's nuclear programme envisages a large-scale utilisation of thorium, as it has limited deposits of uranium but vast deposits of thorium. The large-scale utilisation of thorium requires the adoption of closed fuel cycle. The stable nature of thoria and the radiological issues associated with thoria poses challenges in the adoption of a closed fuel cycle. A thorium fuel based Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) is being planned to provide impetus to development of technologies for the closed thorium fuel cycle. Thoria fuel has been loaded in Indian reactors and test irradiations have been carried out with (Th-Pu) MOX fuel. Irradiated thorium assemblies have been reprocessed and the separated 233U fuel has been used for test reactor KAMINI. The paper highlights the Indian experience with the use of thorium and brings out various issues associated with the thorium cycle.

  20. A tubular focused sonochemistry reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU GuangPing; LIANG ZhaoFeng; LI ZhengZhong; ZHANG YiHui


    This paper presents a new sonochemistry reactor, which consists of a cylindrical tube with a certain length and piezoelectric transducers at tube's end with the longitudinal vibration. The tube can effectively transform the longitudinal vibration into the radial vibration and thereby generates ultrasound. Furthermore, ultrasound can be focused to form high-intensity ultrasonic field inside tube. The reactor boasts of simple structure and its whole vessel wall can radiate ultrasound so that the electroacoustic transfer efficiency is high. The focused ultrasonic field provides good condition for sonochemical reaction. The length of the reactor can be up to 2 meters, and liquids can pass through it continuously, so it can be widely applied in liquid processing such as sonochemistry.

  1. A compact Tokamak transmutation reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QiuLi-Jian; XiaoBing-Jia


    The low aspect ration tokamak is proposed for the driver of a transmutation reactor.The main parameters of the reactor core,neutronic analysis of the blanket are given>the neutron wall loading can be lowered from the magnitude order of 1 MW/m2 to 0.5MW/m2 which is much easier to reach in the near future,and the transmutation efficiency (fission/absorption ratio)is raised further.The blanket power density is about 200MW/m3 which is not difficult to deal with.The key components such as diverter and center conductor post are also designed and compared with conventional TOkamak,Finally,by comparison with the other drivers such as FBR,PWR and accelerator,it can be anticipated that the low aspect ratio transmutation reactor would be one way of fusion energy applications in the near future.

  2. Investigation of KW reactor incident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturges, D G [USAEC Hanford Operations Office, Richland, WA (United States); Hauff, T W; Greager, O H [General Electric Co., Richland, WA (United States). Hanford Atomic Products Operation


    The new KW reactor was placed in operation on January 4, 1955, and had been running at relatively low power levels for only 17 hours when it was shut down because of a process tube water leak which appeared to be associated with a slug rupture. After several days of unrewarding effort to remove the slugs and tube by customary methods, it developed that considerable melting of the tube and slugs had taken place. It was then evident that removal of the stuck mass and repairs to the damaged tube channel would require unusual measures that were certain to extend the reactor outage for several weeks. This report documents the work and findings of the Committee which investigated the KW reactor incident. Its content represents unanimous agreement among the three Committee members.

  3. Fundamentals of Nuclear Reactor Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, E E


    This new streamlined text offers a one-semester treatment of the essentials of how the fission nuclear reactor works, the various approaches to the design of reactors, and their safe and efficient operation. The book includes numerous worked-out examples and end-of-chapter questions to help reinforce the knowledge presented. This textbook offers an engineering-oriented introduction to nuclear physics, with a particular focus on how those physics are put to work in the service of generating nuclear-based power, particularly the importance of neutron reactions and neutron behavior. Engin

  4. PITR: Princeton Ignition Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The principal objectives of the PITR - Princeton Ignition Test Reactor - are to demonstrate the attainment of thermonuclear ignition in deuterium-tritium, and to develop optimal start-up techniques for plasma heating and current induction, in order to determine the most favorable means of reducing the size and cost of tokamak power reactors. This report describes the status of the plasma and engineering design features of the PITR. The PITR geometry is chosen to provide the highest MHD-stable values of beta in a D-shaped plasma, as well as ease of access for remote handling and neutral-beam injection.

  5. Analysis of Adiabatic Batch Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erald Gjonaj


    Full Text Available A mixture of acetic anhydride is reacted with excess water in an adiabatic batch reactor to form an exothermic reaction. The concentration of acetic anhydride and the temperature inside the adiabatic batch reactor are calculated with an initial temperature of 20°C, an initial temperature of 30°C, and with a cooling jacket maintaining the temperature at a constant of 20°C. The graphs of the three different scenarios show that the highest temperatures will cause the reaction to occur faster.

  6. External fuel thermionic reactor system. (United States)

    Mondt, J. F.; Peelgren, M. L.


    Thermionic reactors are prime candidates for nuclear electric propulsion. The national thermionic reactor effort is concentrated on the flashlight concept with the external-fuel concept as the backup. The external-fuel concept is very adaptable to a completely modular power subsystem which is attractive for highly reliable long-life applications. The 20- to 25-cm long, externally-fueled converters have been designed, fabricated, and successfully tested with many thermal cycles by electrical heating. However, difficulties have been encountered during encapsulation for nuclear heated tests and none have been started to date. These nuclear tests are required to demonstrate the concept feasibility.

  7. Reactor shutdown delays medical procedures (United States)

    Gwynne, Peter


    A longer-than-expected maintenance shutdown of the Canadian nuclear reactor that produces North America's entire supply of molybdenum-99 - from which the radioactive isotopes technetium-99 and iodine-131 are made - caused delays to the diagnosis and treatment of thousands of seriously ill patients last month. Technetium-99 is a key component of nuclear-medicine scans, while iodine-131 is used to treat cancer and other diseases of the thyroid. Production eventually resumed, but only after the Canadian government had overruled the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), which was still concerned about the reactor's safety.

  8. Request for Naval Reactors Comment on Proposed Prometheus Space Flight Nuclear Reactor High Tier Reactor Safety Requirements and for Naval Reactors Approval to Transmit These Requirements to JPL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Kokkinos


    The purpose of this letter is to request Naval Reactors comments on the nuclear reactor high tier requirements for the PROMETHEUS space flight reactor design, pre-launch operations, launch, ascent, operation, and disposal, and to request Naval Reactors approval to transmit these requirements to Jet Propulsion Laboratory to ensure consistency between the reactor safety requirements and the spacecraft safety requirements. The proposed PROMETHEUS nuclear reactor high tier safety requirements are consistent with the long standing safety culture of the Naval Reactors Program and its commitment to protecting the health and safety of the public and the environment. In addition, the philosophy on which these requirements are based is consistent with the Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group recommendations on space nuclear propulsion safety (Reference 1), DOE Nuclear Safety Criteria and Specifications for Space Nuclear Reactors (Reference 2), the Nuclear Space Power Safety and Facility Guidelines Study of the Applied Physics Laboratory.

  9. Oregon State University TRIGA Reactor annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, T.V.; Johnson, A.G.; Bennett, S.L.; Ringle, J.C.


    The use of the Oregon State University TRIGA Reactor during the year ending June 30, 1979, is summarized. Environmental and radiation protection data related to reactor operation and effluents are included.

  10. Reactor Antineutrino Signals at Morton and Boulby

    CERN Document Server

    Dye, Steve


    Increasing the distance from which an antineutrino detector is capable of monitoring the operation of a registered reactor, or discovering a clandestine reactor, strengthens the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons Treaty. This report presents calculations of reactor antineutrino interactions, from quasi-elastic neutrino-proton scattering and elastic neutrino-electron scattering, in a water-based detector operated >10 km from a commercial power reactor. It separately calculates signal from the proximal reactor and background from all other registered reactors. The main results are interaction rates and kinetic energy distributions of charged leptons scattered from quasi-elastic and elastic processes. Comparing signal and background distributions evaluates reactor monitoring capability. Scaling the results to detectors of different sizes, target media, and standoff distances is straightforward. Calculations are for two examples of a commercial reactor (P_th~3 GW) operating nearby (L~20 km) an underground facil...

  11. Transmutation of actinides in power reactors. (United States)

    Bergelson, B R; Gerasimov, A S; Tikhomirov, G V


    Power reactors can be used for partial short-term transmutation of radwaste. This transmutation is beneficial in terms of subsequent storage conditions for spent fuel in long-term storage facilities. CANDU-type reactors can transmute the main minor actinides from two or three reactors of the VVER-1000 type. A VVER-1000-type reactor can operate in a self-service mode with transmutation of its own actinides.

  12. Laminar Entrained Flow Reactor (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Laminar Entrained Flow Reactor (LEFR) is a modular, lab scale, single-user reactor for the study of catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP). This system can be employed to study a variety of reactor conditions for both in situ and ex situ CFP.

  13. Some new viewpoints in reactor noise analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗征培; 李富; 等


    It is propsed that the linearity criterion and order criterion via frequency spectrum features without any limitation of the model's phase can be used in reactor noise analysis.The time constant,natural frequency as well as the recovered transfer function of reactors can bhe obtained via the analyzable model based on reactor noise.

  14. Heat-pipe thermionic reactor concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm Pedersen, E.


    Main components are reactor core, heat pipe, thermionic converter, secondary cooling system, and waste heat radiator; thermal power generated in reactor core is transported by heat pipes to thermionic converters located outside reactor core behind radiation shield; thermionic emitters are in direct...

  15. Heavy Water Reactor; Reacteurs a eau lourde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, St.; HOpwood, J.; Meneley, D. [Energie Atomique du Canada (Canada)


    This document deals with the Heavy Water Reactor (HWR) technology and especially the Candu (Canada Deuterium Uranium) reactor. This reactors type offers many advantages that promote them for the future. General concepts, a description of the Candu nuclear power plants, the safety systems, the fuel cycle and economical and environmental aspects are included. (A.L.B.)

  16. Operating Modes Of Chemical Reactors Of Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meruyert Berdieva


    Full Text Available In the work the issues of stable technological modes of operation of main devices of producing polysterol reactors have been researched as well as modes of stable operation of a chemical reactor have been presented, which enables to create optimum mode parameters of polymerization process, to prevent emergency situations of chemical reactor operation in industrial conditions.

  17. Nuclear Reactors and Technology; (USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cason, D.L.; Hicks, S.C. (eds.)


    Nuclear Reactors and Technology (NRT) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available from the open literature on nuclear reactors and technology, including all aspects of power reactors, components and accessories, fuel elements, control systems, and materials. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database (EDB) during the past month. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency's Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements. The digests in NRT and other citations to information on nuclear reactors back to 1948 are available for online searching and retrieval on EDB and Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) database. Current information, added daily to EDB, is available to DOE and its contractors through the DOE integrated Technical Information System. Customized profiles can be developed to provide current information to meet each user's needs.

  18. A Simple Tubular Reactor Experiment. (United States)

    Hudgins, Robert R.; Cayrol, Bertrand


    Using the hydrolysis of crystal violet dye by sodium hydroxide as an example, the theory, apparatus, and procedure for a laboratory demonstration of tubular reactor behavior are described. The reaction presented can occur at room temperature and features a color change to reinforce measured results. (WB)

  19. Silica-Immobilized Enzyme Reactors (United States)


    immobilized artificial membrane chromatography and lysophospholipid micellar electrokinetic chromatography . J. Chromatogr. A 1998, 810, 95-103. 50...Journal of Liquid Chromatography and Related Technologies. Air Force Research Laboratory Materials and Manufacturing Directorate Airbase...immobilized enzyme reactors (IMERs) can also be integrated directly to further analytical methods such as liquid chromatography or mass spectrometry.[6] In

  20. British high flux beam reactor. (United States)

    Egelstaff, P A


    The neutron scattering technique has become an accepted method for the study of condensed matter. Because of the great scientific and technical value of neutron experiments and the growing body of users, several proposals have been made during the past decade for a nuclear reactor devoted primarily to this technique. This article reviews the reasons for and history behind these proposals.

  1. Nuclear reactors and fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Nuclear Fuel Center (CCN) of IPEN produces nuclear fuel for the continuous operation of the IEA-R1 research reactor of IPEN. The serial production started in 1988, when the first nuclear fuel element was delivered for IEA-R1. In 2011, CCN proudly presents the 100{sup th} nuclear fuel element produced. Besides routine production, development of new technologies is also a permanent concern at CCN. In 2005, U{sub 3}O{sub 8} were replaced by U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-based fuels, and the research of U Mo is currently under investigation. Additionally, the Brazilian Multipurpose Research Reactor (RMB), whose project will rely on the CCN for supplying fuel and uranium targets. Evolving from an annual production from 10 to 70 nuclear fuel elements, plus a thousand uranium targets, is a huge and challenging task. To accomplish it, a new and modern Nuclear Fuel Factory is being concluded, and it will provide not only structure for scaling up, but also a safer and greener production. The Nuclear Engineering Center has shown, along several years, expertise in the field of nuclear, energy systems and correlated areas. Due to the experience obtained during decades in research and technological development at Brazilian Nuclear Program, personnel has been trained and started to actively participate in design of the main system that will compose the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) which will make Brazil self-sufficient in production of radiopharmaceuticals. The institution has participated in the monitoring and technical support concerning the safety, licensing and modernization of the research reactors IPEN/MB-01 and IEA-R1. Along the last two decades, numerous specialized services of engineering for the Brazilian nuclear power plants Angra 1 and Angra 2 have been carried out. The contribution in service, research, training, and teaching in addition to the development of many related technologies applied to nuclear engineering and correlated areas enable the institution to

  2. Heterogeneous Recycling in Fast Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forget, Benoit; Pope, Michael; Piet, Steven J.; Driscoll, Michael


    Current sodium fast reactor (SFR) designs have avoided the use of depleted uranium blankets over concerns of creating weapons grade plutonium. While reducing proliferation risks, this restrains the reactor design space considerably. This project will analyze various blanket and transmutation target configurations that could broaden the design space while still addressing the non-proliferation issues. The blanket designs will be assessed based on the transmutation efficiency of key minor actinide (MA) isotopes and also on mitigation of associated proliferation risks. This study will also evaluate SFR core performance under different scenarios in which depleted uranium blankets are modified to include minor actinides with or without moderators (e.g. BeO, MgO, B4C, and hydrides). This will be done in an effort to increase the sustainability of the reactor and increase its power density while still offering a proliferation resistant design with the capability of burning MA waste produced from light water reactors (LWRs). Researchers will also analyze the use of recycled (as opposed to depleted) uranium in the blankets. The various designs will compare MA transmutation efficiency, plutonium breeding characteristics, proliferation risk, shutdown margins and reactivity coefficients with a current reference sodium fast reactor design employing homogeneous recycling. The team will also evaluate the out-of-core accumulation and/or burn-down rates of MAs and plutonium isotopes on a cycle-by-cycle basis. This cycle-by-cycle information will be produced in a format readily usable by the fuel cycle systems analysis code, VISION, for assessment of the sustainability of the deployment scenarios.

  3. A new MTR fuel for a new MTR reactor: UMo for the Jules Horowitz reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guigon, B. [CEA Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Vacelet, H. [CERCA, Romans (France); Dornbusch, D. [Technicatome, Aix en Provence (France)


    Within some years, the Jules Horowitz Reactor will be the only working experimental reactor (material and fuel testing reactor) in France. It will have to provide facilities for a wide range of needs from activation analysis to power reactor fuel qualification. In this paper the main characteristics of the Jules Horowitz Reactor are presented. Safety criteria are explained. Finally, merits and disadvantages of UMo compared to the standard U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} fuel are discussed. (author)

  4. Neutrino Mixing Discriminates Geo-reactor Models

    CERN Document Server

    Dye, S T


    Geo-reactor models suggest the existence of natural nuclear reactors at different deep-earth locations with loosely defined output power. Reactor fission products undergo beta decay with the emission of electron antineutrinos, which routinely escape the earth. Neutrino mixing distorts the energy spectrum of the electron antineutrinos. Characteristics of the distorted spectrum observed at the earth's surface could specify the location of a geo-reactor, discriminating the models and facilitating more precise power measurement. The existence of a geo-reactor with known position could enable a precision measurement of the neutrino oscillation parameter delta-mass-squared.

  5. Reactor monitoring and safeguards using antineutrino detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bowden, N S


    Nuclear reactors have served as the antineutrino source for many fundamental physics experiments. The techniques developed by these experiments make it possible to use these very weakly interacting particles for a practical purpose. The large flux of antineutrinos that leaves a reactor carries information about two quantities of interest for safeguards: the reactor power and fissile inventory. Measurements made with antineutrino detectors could therefore offer an alternative means for verifying the power history and fissile inventory of a reactors, as part of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and other reactor safeguards regimes. Several efforts to develop this monitoring technique are underway across the globe.

  6. Reactor assessments of advanced bumpy torus configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uckan, N.A.; Owen, L.W.; Spong, D.A.; Miller, R.L.; Ard, W.B.; Pipkins, J.F.; Schmitt, R.J.


    Recently, several configurational approaches and concept improvement schemes were introduced for enhancing the performance of the basic ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) concept and for improving its reactor potential. These configurations include planar racetrack and square geometries, Andreoletti coil systems, and bumpy torus-stellarator hybrids (which include twisted racetrack and helical axis stellarator-snakey torus). Preliminary evaluations of reactor implications of each of these configurations have been carried out based on magnetics (vacuum) calculations, transport and scaling relationships, and stability properties. Results indicate favorable reactor projections with a significant reduction in reactor physical size as compared to conventional EBT reactor designs carried out in the past.

  7. Detection of antineutrinos for reactor monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeong Duk [Center for Underground Physics, Institute of Basic Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Reactor neutrinos have been detected in the past 50 years by various detectors for different purposes. Beginning in the 1980s, neutrino physicists have tried to use neutrinos to monitor reactors and develop an optimized detector for nuclear safeguards. Recently, motivated by neutrino oscillation physics, the technology and scale of reactor neutrino detection have progressed considerably. In this review, I will give an overview of the detection technology for reactor neutrinos, and describe the issues related to further improvements in optimized detectors for reactor monitoring.

  8. Ethnopharmacological in vitro studies on Austria's folk medicine—An unexplored lore in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of 71 Austrian traditional herbal drugs☆ (United States)

    Vogl, Sylvia; Picker, Paolo; Mihaly-Bison, Judit; Fakhrudin, Nanang; Atanasov, Atanas G.; Heiss, Elke H.; Wawrosch, Christoph; Reznicek, Gottfried; Dirsch, Verena M.; Saukel, Johannes; Kopp, Brigitte


    Ethnopharmacological relevance In Austria, like in most Western countries, knowledge about traditional medicinal plants is becoming scarce. Searching the literature concerning Austria's ethnomedicine reveals its scant scientific exploration. Aiming to substantiate the potential of medicinal plants traditionally used in Austria, 63 plant species or genera with claimed anti-inflammatory properties listed in the VOLKSMED database were assessed for their in vitro anti-inflammatory activity. Material and methods 71 herbal drugs from 63 plant species or genera were extracted using solvents of varying polarities and subsequently depleted from the bulk constituents, chlorophylls and tannins to avoid possible interferences with the assays. The obtained 257 extracts were assessed for their in vitro anti-inflammatory activity. The expression of the inflammatory mediators E-selectin and interleukin-8 (IL-8), induced by the inflammatory stimuli tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and the bacterial product lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was measured in endothelial cells. The potential of the extracts to activate the nuclear factors PPARα and PPARγ and to inhibit TNF-α-induced activation of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in HEK293 cells was determined by luciferase reporter gene assays. Results In total, extracts from 67 of the 71 assessed herbal drugs revealed anti-inflammatory activity in the applied in vitro test systems. Thereby, 30 could downregulate E-selectin or IL-8 gene expression, 28 were strong activators of PPARα or PPARγ (inducing activation of more than 2-fold at a concentration of 10 µg/mL) and 21 evoked a strong inhibition of NF-κB (inhibition of more than 80% at 10 µg/mL). Conclusion Our research supports the efficacy of herbal drugs reported in Austrian folk medicine used for ailments associated with inflammatory processes. Hence, an ethnopharmacological screening approach is a useful tool for the discovery of new drug leads. PMID:23770053

  9. Tick-borne Diseases (Borreliosis, Anaplasmosis, Babesiosis) in German and Austrian Dogs: Status quo and Review of Distribution, Transmission, Clinical Findings, Diagnostics and Prophylaxis. (United States)

    Pantchev, Nikola; Pluta, Silvia; Huisinga, Elke; Nather, Stephanie; Scheufelen, Miriam; Vrhovec, Majda Globokar; Schweinitz, Andrea; Hampel, Herwig; Straubinger, Reinhard K


    Tick-borne diseases (TBD) in dogs have gained in significance in German and Austrian veterinary practices. The widespread European tick species Ixodes ricinus represents an important vector for spirochaetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato group and Rickettsiales such as Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The meadow or ornate dog tick (Dermacentor reticulatus) is an important vector for Babesia canis, as is the brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) for Babesia vogeli in the Mediterranean region. The present work covers pathogen transmission by tick vectors, including the mechanisms and the minimum intervals required, in conjunction with possible non-vector-borne transmission routes. It also addresses the incubation periods, pathogenicity and clinical findings associated with each pathogen and genospecies and presents case examples. Current data on prevalence, annual fluctuations and distribution in various pre-selected dog populations (symptomatic versus asymptomatic) in both countries are depicted in maps. Reasons for changes in prevalence (especially of Borrelia) are discussed. Criteria and algorithms for clinical diagnosis and monitoring in dogs, including case history, direct detection (blood smears, molecular detection by species-specific PCR and sequencing) and indirect methods (whole-cell and peptide-based antibody tests), are presented, together with laboratory abnormalities (haematology, clinical chemistry, urine). The role of anti-C6 antibody concentration (ACAC) and its correlation with proteinuria and Lyme nephritis are assessed on the basis of new data. Consideration is also given to the importance of blood smears, PCR and serology in the case of anaplasmosis and babesiosis, and the diagnostic value of combining these methods. The relevance of molecular differentiation of Anaplasma species (A. phagocytophilum versus A. platys) and Babesia spp. (large versus small forms) in cases of serological cross-reaction is emphasized. A summary is given of

  10. The application of a social cognition model in explaining fruit intake in Austrian, Norwegian and Spanish schoolchildren using structural equation modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Rodrigo Carmen


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this paper was to test the goodness of fit of the Attitude – Social influence – self-Efficacy (ASE model in explaining schoolchildren's intentions to eat fruit and their actual fruit intake in Austria, Norway and Spain; to assess how well the model could explain the observed variance in intention to eat fruit and in reported fruit intake and to investigate whether the same model would fit data from all three countries. Methods Samples consisted of schoolchildren from three of the countries participating in the cross-sectional part of the Pro Children project. Sample size varied from 991 in Austria to 1297 in Spain. Mean age ranged from 11.3 to 11.4 years. The initial model was designed using items and constructs from the Pro Children study. Factor analysis was conducted to test the structure of the measures in the model. The Norwegian sample was used to test the latent variable structure, to make a preliminary assessment of model fit, and to modify the model to increase goodness of fit with the data. The original and modified models were then applied to the Austrian and Spanish samples. All model analyses were carried out using structural equation modelling techniques. Results The ASE-model fitted the Norwegian and Spanish data well. For Austria, a slightly more complex model was needed. For this reason multi-sample analysis to test equality in factor structure and loadings across countries could not be used. The models explained between 51% and 69% of the variance in intention to eat fruit, and 27% to 38% of the variance in reported fruit intake. Conclusion Structural equation modelling showed that a rather parsimonious model was useful in explaining the variation in fruit intake of 11-year-old schoolchildren in Norway and Spain. For Austria, more modifications were needed to fit the data.

  11. Effectiveness of the Austrian disease-management-programme for type 2 diabetes: study protocol of a cluster-randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klima Gert


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to its rising prevalence type 2 diabetes plays an important role concerning population health in Austria and other western countries. In various studies deficiencies in the care of diabetic patients have been revealed. These deficiencies may be overcome by disease-management-programmes (DMPs, but international experience shows that the effectiveness of DMPs is inconsistent. In particular large programmes designed by state-affiliated public health insurances have not been evaluated in randomized controlled trials (RCTs. We are therefore conducting a large scale RCT of the Austrian DMP for type 2 diabetic patients in the province of Salzburg to evaluate the programme regarding its effects on metabolic control, guideline adherent care and the quality of life of diabetic patients. Methods/Design The study is open for participation to all GPs and internists in the province of Salzburg. Physicians are randomized before recruitment of patients with the districts of Salzburg as clusters of randomisation. A total of over 1200 patients with type 2 diabetes will then be recruited. In the intervention group the DMP is applied for one year. Controls receive usual care. Endpoints are a decrease in HbA1c in the intervention group > 0,5% compared to controls, a higher percentage of patients with required diagnostic measures according to guidelines, improved cardiovascular risk profile and higher quality of life scores within one year. Current status of the study 98 Physicians agreed to participate in the study. 96 of them recruited 1494 patients, 654 in the intervention and 840 in the control group. Trail Registration This trial has been registered with Current Controlled Trials Ltd. (ISRCTN27414162.

  12. Integrating field measurements, a geomorphological map and stochastic modelling to estimate the spatially distributed rockfall sediment budget of the Upper Kaunertal, Austrian Central Alps (United States)

    Heckmann, Tobias; Hilger, Ludwig; Vehling, Lucas; Becht, Michael


    The estimation of catchment-scale rockfall rates relies on the regionalisation of local measurements. Here, we propose a new framework for such a regionalisation by the example of a case study in the Upper Kaunertal, Austrian Central Alps (62.5 km2). Measurements of rockfall deposition during 12 months onto six collector nets within the study area were combined with published mean annual rates from the literature, and a probability density function was fitted to these data. A numerical model involving a random walk routing scheme and a one-parameter friction model was used to simulate rockfall trajectories, starting from potential rockfall source areas that were delineated from a digital elevation model. Rockfall rates sampled from the fitted probability density function were assigned to these trajectories in order to model the spatial distribution and to estimate the amount of rockfall deposition. By recording all trajectories as edges of a network of raster cells, and by aggregating the latter to landforms (or landform types) as delineated in a geomorphological map of the study area, rockfall sediment flux from sources to different landforms could be quantified. Specifically, the geomorphic coupling of rockfall sources to storage landforms and the glacial and fluvial sediment cascade was investigated using this network model. The total rockfall contribution to the sediment budget of the Upper Kaunertal is estimated at c. 8000 Mg yr- 1, 16.5% of which is delivered to the glaciers, and hence to the proglacial zone. The network approach is favourable, for example because multiple scenarios (involving different probability density functions) can be calculated on the basis of the same set of trajectories, and because deposits can be back-linked to their respective sources. While the methodological framework constitutes the main aim of our paper, we also discuss how the estimation of the budget can be improved on the basis of spatially distributed production rates.

  13. CFD Simulation on Ethylene Furnace Reactor Tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Different mathematical models for ethylene furnace reactor tubes were reviewed. On the basis of these models a new mathematical simulation approach for reactor tubes based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique was presented. This approach took the flow, heat transfer, mass transfer and thermal cracking reactions in the reactor tubes into consideration. The coupled reactor model was solved with the SIMPLE algorithm. Some detailed information about the flow field, temperature field and concentration distribution in the reactor tubes was obtained, revealing the basic characteristics of the hydrodynamic phenomena and reaction behavior in the reactor tubes. The CFD approach provides the necessary information for conclusive decisions regarding the production optimization, the design and improvement of reactor tubes, and the new techniques implementation.

  14. Advanced reactor physics methods for heterogeneous reactor cores (United States)

    Thompson, Steven A.

    To maintain the economic viability of nuclear power the industry has begun to emphasize maximizing the efficiency and output of existing nuclear power plants by using longer fuel cycles, stretch power uprates, shorter outage lengths, mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel and more aggressive operating strategies. In order to accommodate these changes, while still satisfying the peaking factor and power envelope requirements necessary to maintain safe operation, more complexity in commercial core designs have been implemented, such as an increase in the number of sub-batches and an increase in the use of both discrete and integral burnable poisons. A consequence of the increased complexity of core designs, as well as the use of MOX fuel, is an increase in the neutronic heterogeneity of the core. Such heterogeneous cores introduce challenges for the current methods that are used for reactor analysis. New methods must be developed to address these deficiencies while still maintaining the computational efficiency of existing reactor analysis methods. In this thesis, advanced core design methodologies are developed to be able to adequately analyze the highly heterogeneous core designs which are currently in use in commercial power reactors. These methodological improvements are being pursued with the goal of not sacrificing the computational efficiency which core designers require. More specifically, the PSU nodal code NEM is being updated to include an SP3 solution option, an advanced transverse leakage option, and a semi-analytical NEM solution option.

  15. Reactor pulse repeatability studies at the annular core research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePriest, K.R. [Applied Nuclear Technologies, Sandia National Laboratories, Mail Stop 1146, Post Office Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1146 (United States); Trinh, T.Q. [Nuclear Facility Operations, Sandia National Laboratories, Mail Stop 0614, Post Office Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1146 (United States); Luker, S. M. [Applied Nuclear Technologies, Sandia National Laboratories, Mail Stop 1146, Post Office Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1146 (United States)


    The Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) at Sandia National Laboratories is a water-moderated pool-type reactor designed for testing many types of objects in the pulse and steady-state mode of operations. Personnel at Sandia began working to improve the repeatability of pulse operations for experimenters in the facility. The ACRR has a unique UO{sub 2}-BeO fuel that makes the task of producing repeatable pulses difficult with the current operating procedure. The ACRR produces a significant quantity of photoneutrons through the {sup 9}Be({gamma}, n){sup 8}Be reaction in the fuel elements. The photoneutrons are the result of the gammas produced during fission and in fission product decay, so their production is very much dependent on the reactor power history and changes throughout the day/week of experiments in the facility. Because the photoneutrons interfere with the delayed-critical measurements required for accurate pulse reactivity prediction, a new operating procedure was created. The photoneutron effects at delayed critical are minimized when using the modified procedure. In addition, the pulse element removal time is standardized for all pulse operations with the modified procedure, and this produces less variation in reactivity removal times. (authors)

  16. In-reactor performance of pressure tubes in CANDU reactors (United States)

    Rodgers, D. K.; Coleman, C. E.; Griffiths, M.; Bickel, G. A.; Theaker, J. R.; Muir, I.; Bahurmuz, A. A.; Lawrence, S. St.; Resta Levi, M.


    The pressure tubes in CANDU reactors have been operating for times up to about 25 years. The in-reactor performance of Zr-2.5Nb pressure tubes has been evaluated by sampling and periodic inspection. This paper describes the behaviour and discusses the factors controlling the behaviour of these components in currently operating CANDU reactors. The mechanical properties (such as ultimate tensile strength, UTS, and fracture toughness), and delayed-hydride-cracking properties (crack growth rate Vc, and threshold stress intensity factor, KIH) change with irradiation; the former reach a limiting value at a fluence of Pressure tubes exhibit elongation and diametral expansion. The deformation behaviour is a function of operating conditions and material properties that vary from tube-to-tube and as a function of axial location. Semi-empirical predictive models have been developed to describe the deformation response of average tubes as a function of operating conditions. For corrosion and, more importantly deuterium pickup, semi-empirical predictive models have also been developed to represent the behaviour of an average tube. The effect of material variability on corrosion behaviour is less well defined compared with other properties. Improvements in manufacturing have increased fracture resistance by minimising trace elements, especially H and Cl, and reduced variability by tightening controls on forming parameters, especially hot-working temperatures.

  17. Fluidized bed coal combustion reactor (United States)

    Moynihan, P. I.; Young, D. L. (Inventor)


    A fluidized bed coal reactor includes a combination nozzle-injector ash-removal unit formed by a grid of closely spaced open channels, each containing a worm screw conveyor, which function as continuous ash removal troughs. A pressurized air-coal mixture is introduced below the unit and is injected through the elongated nozzles formed by the spaces between the channels. The ash build-up in the troughs protects the worm screw conveyors as does the cooling action of the injected mixture. The ash layer and the pressure from the injectors support a fluidized flame combustion zone above the grid which heats water in boiler tubes disposed within and/or above the combustion zone and/or within the walls of the reactor.

  18. Nuclear reactor alignment plate configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altman, David A; Forsyth, David R; Smith, Richard E; Singleton, Norman R


    An alignment plate that is attached to a core barrel of a pressurized water reactor and fits within slots within a top plate of a lower core shroud and upper core plate to maintain lateral alignment of the reactor internals. The alignment plate is connected to the core barrel through two vertically-spaced dowel pins that extend from the outside surface of the core barrel through a reinforcement pad and into corresponding holes in the alignment plate. Additionally, threaded fasteners are inserted around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad and into the alignment plate to further secure the alignment plate to the core barrel. A fillet weld also is deposited around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad. To accomodate thermal growth between the alignment plate and the core barrel, a gap is left above, below and at both sides of one of the dowel pins in the alignment plate holes through with the dowel pins pass.

  19. Transport simulation for EBT reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uckan, T.; Uckan, N.A.; Jaeger, E.F.


    Transport simulation and modeling studies for the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) reactor are carried out by using zero-dimensional (0-D) and one-and-one-half-dimensional (1 1/2-D) transport calculations. The time-dependent 0-D model is used for global analysis, whereas the 1 1/2-D radial transport code is used for accurate determination of density, temperature, and ambipolar potential profiles and of the role of these profiles in reactor plasma performance. Analysis with the 1 1/2-D transport code shows that profile effects near the outer edge of the hot electron ring lead to enhanced confinement by at least a factor of 2 to 5 beyond the simple scaling that is obtained from the global analysis. The radial profiles of core plasma density and temperatures (or core pressure) obtained from 1 1/2-D transport calculations are found to be similar to those theoretically required for stability.

  20. Gas-liquid autoxidation reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morbidelli, M.; Paludetto, R.; Carra, S.


    A procedure for the simulation of autoxidation gas-liquid reactors has been developed based both on mathematical models and laboratory experiments. It has been shown that the complex radical chain mechanism of the autoxidation process can be simulated through two global parallel reactions, whose rates are obtained by assuming pseudo-steady-state concentration values for all the radical species involved. Using ethylbenzene autoxidation as a model reaction, an experimental analysis has been performed in order to estimate all the kinetic parameters of the model. The effect of the interaction between gas-liquid mass-transfer phenomena and the complex kinetic mechanism on the overall performance of an autoxidation reactor has been examined in detail within the framework of the liquid film model.

  1. Fast breeder reactor protection system (United States)

    van Erp, J.B.


    Reactor protection is provided for a liquid-metal-fast breeder reactor core by measuring the coolant outflow temperature from each of the subassemblies of the core. The outputs of the temperature sensors from a subassembly region of the core containing a plurality of subassemblies are combined in a logic circuit which develops a scram alarm if a predetermined number of the sensors indicate an over temperature condition. The coolant outflow from a single subassembly can be mixed with the coolant outflow from adjacent subassemblies prior to the temperature sensing to increase the sensitivity of the protection system to a single subassembly failure. Coherence between the sensors can be required to discriminate against noise signals. (Official Gazette)

  2. Reactor vessel lower head integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, A.M.


    On March 28, 1979, the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) nuclear power plant underwent a prolonged small break loss-of-coolant accident that resulted in severe damage to the reactor core. Post-accident examinations of the TMI-2 reactor core and lower plenum found that approximately 19,000 kg (19 metric tons) of molten material had relocated onto the lower head of the reactor vessel. Results of the OECD TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project concluded that a localized hot spot of approximately 1 meter diameter had existed on the lower head. The maximum temperature on the inner surface of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) in this region reached 1100{degrees}C and remained at that temperature for approximately 30 minutes before cooling occurred. Even under the combined loads of high temperature and high primary system pressure, the TMI-2 RPV did not fail. (i.e. The pressure varied from about 8.5 to 15 MPa during the four-hour period following the relocation of melt to the lower plenum.) Analyses of RPV failure under these conditions, using state-of-the-art computer codes, predicted that the RPV should have failed via local or global creep rupture. However, the vessel did not fail; and it has been hypothesized that rapid cooling of the debris and the vessel wall by water that was present in the lower plenum played an important role in maintaining RPV integrity during the accident. Although the exact mechanism(s) of how such cooling occurs is not known, it has been speculated that cooling in a small gap between the RPV wall and the crust, and/or in cracks within the debris itself, could result in sufficient cooling to maintain RPV integrity. Experimental data are needed to provide the basis to better understand these phenomena and improve models of RPV failure in severe accident codes.

  3. The ARIES tokamak reactor study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The ARIES study is a community effort to develop several visions of tokamaks as fusion power reactors. The aims are to determine the potential economics, safety, and environmental features of a range of possible tokamak reactors, and to identify physics and technology areas with the highest leverage for achieving the best tokamak reactor. Three ARIES visions are planned, each having a different degree of extrapolation from the present data base in physics and technology. The ARIES-I design assumes a minimum extrapolation from current tokamak physics (e.g., 1st stability) and incorporates technological advances that can be available in the next 20 to 30 years. ARIES-II is a DT-burning tokamak which would operate at a higher beta in the 2nd MHD stability regime. It employs both potential advances in the physics and expected advances in technology and engineering. ARIES-II will examine the potential of the tokamak and the D{sup 3}He fuel cycle. This report is a collection of 14 papers on the results of the ARIES study which were presented at the IEEE 13th Symposium on Fusion Engineering (October 2-6, 1989, Knoxville, TN). This collection describes the ARIES research effort, with emphasis on the ARIES-I design, summarizing the major results, the key technical issues, and the central conclusions.

  4. Actinide transmutation in nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bultman, J.H.


    An optimization method is developed to maximize the burning capability of the ALMR while complying with all constraints imposed on the design for reliability and safety. This method leads to a maximal transuranics enrichment, which is being limited by constraints on reactivity. The enrichment can be raised by using the neutrons less efficiently by increasing leakage from the fuel. With the developed optimization method, a metallic and an oxide fueled ALMR were optimized. Both reactors perform equally well considering the burning of transuranics. However, metallic fuel has a much higher heat conductivity coefficient, which in general leads to better safety characteristics. In search of a more effective waste transmuter, a modified Molten Salt Reactor was designed. A MSR operates on a liquid fuel salt which makes continuous refueling possible, eliminating the issue of the burnup reactivity loss. Also, a prompt negative reactivity feedback is possible for an overmoderated reactor design, even when the Doppler coefficient is positive, due to the fuel expansion with fuel temperature increase. Furthermore, the molten salt fuel can be reprocessed based on a reduction process which is not sensitive to the short-lived spontaneously fissioning actinides. (orig./HP).

  5. Assessment of the thorium fuel cycle in power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasten, P.R.; Homan, F.J.; Allen, E.J.


    A study was conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to evaluate the role of thorium fuel cycles in power reactors. Three thermal reactor systems were considered: Light Water Reactors (LWRs); High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (HTGRs); and Heavy Water Reactors (HWRs) of the Canadian Deuterium Uranium Reactor (CANDU) type; most of the effort was on these systems. A summary comparing thorium and uranium fuel cycles in Fast Breeder Reactors (FBRs) was also compiled.

  6. Investigation of molten salt fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Kenichi; Konomura, Mamoru [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)


    On survey research for practicability strategy of fast reactor (FR) (phase 1), to extract future practicability image candidates of FR from wide options, in addition to their survey and investigation objects of not only solid fuel reactors of conventional research object but also molten salt reactor as a flowing fuel reactor, investigation on concept of molten salt FR plant was carried out. As a part of the first step of the survey research for practicability strategy, a basic concept on plant centered at nuclear reactor facility using chloride molten salt reactor capable of carrying out U-Pu cycle was examined, to perform a base construction to evaluate economical potential for a practical FBR. As a result, a result could be obtained that because of inferior fuel inventory and heat transmission to those in Na cooling reactor in present knowledge, mass of reactor vessel and intermediate heat exchanger were to widely increased to expect reduction of power generation unit price even on considering cheapness of its fuel cycle cost. Therefore, at present step further investigation on concept design of the chloride molten salt reactor plant system is too early in time, and it is at a condition where basic and elementary researches aiming at upgrading of economical efficiency such as wide reduction of fuel inventory, a measure expectable for remarkable rationalization effect of reprocessing system integrating a reactor to a processing facility, and so on. (G.K.)

  7. Molten-Salt Depleted-Uranium Reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Bao-Guo; Gu, Ji-Yuan


    The supercritical, reactor core melting and nuclear fuel leaking accidents have troubled fission reactors for decades, and greatly limit their extensive applications. Now these troubles are still open. Here we first show a possible perfect reactor, Molten-Salt Depleted-Uranium Reactor which is no above accident trouble. We found this reactor could be realized in practical applications in terms of all of the scientific principle, principle of operation, technology, and engineering. Our results demonstrate how these reactors can possess and realize extraordinary excellent characteristics, no prompt critical, long-term safe and stable operation with negative feedback, closed uranium-plutonium cycle chain within the vessel, normal operation only with depleted-uranium, and depleted-uranium high burnup in reality, to realize with fission nuclear energy sufficiently satisfying humanity long-term energy resource needs, as well as thoroughly solve the challenges of nuclear criticality safety, uranium resource insuffic...

  8. Performance of a multipurpose research electrochemical reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henquin, E.R. [Programa de Electroquimica Aplicada e Ingenieria Electroquimica (PRELINE), Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santiago del Estero 2829, S3000AOM Santa Fe (Argentina); Bisang, J.M., E-mail: [Programa de Electroquimica Aplicada e Ingenieria Electroquimica (PRELINE), Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santiago del Estero 2829, S3000AOM Santa Fe (Argentina)


    Highlights: > For this reactor configuration the current distribution is uniform. > For this reactor configuration with bipolar connection the leakage current is small. > The mass-transfer conditions are closely uniform along the electrode. > The fluidodynamic behaviour can be represented by the dispersion model. > This reactor represents a suitable device for laboratory trials. - Abstract: This paper reports on a multipurpose research electrochemical reactor with an innovative design feature, which is based on a filter press arrangement with inclined segmented electrodes and under a modular assembly. Under bipolar connection, the fraction of leakage current is lower than 4%, depending on the bipolar Wagner number, and the current distribution is closely uniform. When a turbulence promoter is used, the local mass-transfer coefficient shows a variation of {+-}10% with respect to its mean value. The fluidodynamics of the reactor responds to the dispersion model with a Peclet number higher than 10. It is concluded that this reactor is convenient for laboratory research.

  9. Sulfide toxicity kinetics of a uasb reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Paula Jr.


    Full Text Available The effect of sulfide toxicity on kinetic parameters of anaerobic organic matter removal in a UASB (up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor is presented. Two lab-scale UASB reactors (10.5 L were operated continuously during 12 months. The reactors were fed with synthetic wastes prepared daily using glucose, ammonium acetate, methanol and nutrient solution. One of the reactors also received increasing concentrations of sodium sulfide. For both reactors, the flow rate of 16 L.d-1 was held constant throughout the experiment, corresponding to a hydraulic retention time of 15.6 hours. The classic model for non-competitive sulfide inhibition was applied to the experimental data for determining the overall kinetic parameter of specific substrate utilization (q and the sulfide inhibition coefficient (Ki. The application of the kinetic parameters determined allows prediction of methanogenesis inhibition and thus the adoption of operating parameters to minimize sulfide toxicity in UASB reactors.

  10. Repositorien: Der grüne Weg zu Open Access Publishing aus der Perspektive einer Forschungsförderungsorganisation: 10 Fragen von Bruno Bauer an Falk Reckling, Mitarbeiter des FWF Der Wissenschaftsfonds / Repository: The Green Road to Open Access Publishing and the FWF Austrian Science Fund's point of view: 10 questions to Falk Reckling, Austrian Science Fund, by Bruno Bauer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer, Bruno


    Full Text Available Advocates of Open Access call to substitute the established scholarly publication model, in particular subscriptions and licences, by an Open Access Publishing model. Scholarly papers should be immediately accessible without paying and leave the copyright to the author. At the beginning the Open Access movement focused on and demanded for the publication of original scientific articles in Open Access journals. Meanwhile they moved on to support a form of secondary publication, the self-archiving of sholarly papers in institutional repositories. The current interview with Falk Reckling gives an account of the FWF Austrian Science Fund ( and their point of view towards Open Access. The interview hits the Golden Road as well as the Green Road to open access and their costs. Preconditions for a paradigm shift towards Open Access Publishing are brought up and prospects of sholarly publishing in 2020 were discussed with a look on libraries and their possible role within this setting

  11. Introduction to the neutron kinetics of nuclear power reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Tyror, J G; Grant, P J


    An Introduction to the Neutron Kinetics of Nuclear Power Reactors introduces the reader to the neutron kinetics of nuclear power reactors. Topics covered include the neutron physics of reactor kinetics, feedback effects, water-moderated reactors, fast reactors, and methods of plant control. The reactor transients following faults are also discussed, along with the use of computers in the study of power reactor kinetics. This book is comprised of eight chapters and begins with an overview of the reactor physics characteristics of a nuclear power reactor and their influence on system design and

  12. Microstructured reactors for hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aartun, Ingrid


    Small scale hydrogen production by partial oxidation (POX) and oxidative steam reforming (OSR) have been studied over Rh-impregnated microchannel Fecralloy reactors and alumina foams. Trying to establish whether metallic microchannel reactors have special advantages for hydrogen production via catalytic POX or OSR with respect to activity, selectivity and stability was of special interest. The microchannel Fecralloy reactors were oxidised at 1000 deg C to form a {alpha}-Al2O3 layer in the channels in order to enhance the surface area prior to impregnation. Kr-BET measurements showed that the specific surface area after oxidation was approximately 10 times higher than the calculated geometric surface area. Approximately 1 mg Rh was deposited in the channels by impregnation with an aqueous solution of RhCl3. Annular pieces (15 mm o.d.,4 mm i.d., 14 mm length) of extruded {alpha}-Al2O3 foams were impregnated with aqueous solutions of Rh(NO3)3 to obtain 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 wt.% loadings, as predicted by solution uptake. ICP-AES analyses showed that the actual Rh loadings probably were higher, 0.025, 0.077 and 0.169 wt.% respectively. One of the microchannel Fecralloy reactors and all Al2O3 foams were equipped with a channel to allow for temperature measurement inside the catalytic system. Temperature profiles obtained along the reactor axes show that the metallic microchannel reactor is able to minimize temperature gradients as compared to the alumina foams. At sufficiently high furnace temperature, the gas phase in front of the Rh/Al2O3/Frecralloy microchannel reactor and the 0.025 wt.% Rh/Al2O3 foams ignites. Gas phase ignition leads to lower syngas selectivity and higher selectivity to total oxidation products and hydrocarbon by-products. Before ignition of the gas phase the hydrogen selectivity is increased in OSR as compared to POX, the main contribution being the water-gas shift reaction. After gas phase ignition, increased formation of hydrocarbon by

  13. Plasma spark discharge reactor and durable electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Young I.; Cho, Daniel J.; Fridman, Alexander; Kim, Hyoungsup


    A plasma spark discharge reactor for treating water. The plasma spark discharge reactor comprises a HV electrode with a head and ground electrode that surrounds at least a portion of the HV electrode. A passage for gas may pass through the reactor to a location proximate to the head to provide controlled formation of gas bubbles in order to facilitate the plasma spark discharge in a liquid environment.

  14. Experimental Breeder Reactor I Preservation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julie Braun


    Experimental Breeder Reactor I (EBR I) is a National Historic Landmark located at the Idaho National Laboratory, a Department of Energy laboratory in southeastern Idaho. The facility is significant for its association and contributions to the development of nuclear reactor testing and development. This Plan includes a structural assessment of the interior and exterior of the EBR I Reactor Building from a preservation, rather than an engineering stand point and recommendations for maintenance to ensure its continued protection.

  15. Reactor Bolshoi Moshchnosti Kalani; Reacteurs RBMK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastien, D. [Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers (CNAM), 75 - Paris (France)


    The Reactor Bolshoi Molshchnosti Kalani (RBMK) are pressure tubes reactor, boiling light water cooled. Exported since 1990 from the ex-USSR, they are today in three independent countries: Russian, Ukraine and Lithuania. Since this date, data exchange with the occident allowed the better knowledge of this reactor type. The design, the technical description (core, fuel, primary system), the safety and the improvement since Chernobyl are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  16. NASA Reactor Facility Hazards Summary. Volume 1 (United States)


    The Lewis Research Center of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration proposes to build a nuclear research reactor which will be located in the Plum Brook Ordnance Works near Sandusky, Ohio. The purpose of this report is to inform the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards of the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission in regard to the design Lq of the reactor facility, the characteristics of the site, and the hazards of operation at this location. The purpose of this research reactor is to make pumped loop studies of aircraft reactor fuel elements and other reactor components, radiation effects studies on aircraft reactor materials and equipment, shielding studies, and nuclear and solid state physics experiments. The reactor is light water cooled and moderated of the MTR-type with a primary beryllium reflector and a secondary water reflector. The core initially will be a 3 by 9 array of MTR-type fuel elements and is designed for operation up to a power of 60 megawatts. The reactor facility is described in general terms. This is followed by a discussion of the nuclear characteristics and performance of the reactor. Then details of the reactor control system are discussed. A summary of the site characteristics is then presented followed by a discussion of the larger type of experiments which may eventually be operated in this facility. The considerations for normal operation are concluded with a proposed method of handling fuel elements and radioactive wastes. The potential hazards involved with failures or malfunctions of this facility are considered in some detail. These are examined first from the standpoint of preventing them or minimizing their effects and second from the standpoint of what effect they might have on the reactor facility staff and the surrounding population. The most essential feature of the design for location at the proposed site is containment of the maximum credible accident.

  17. Heat for industry from nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikoin, I.K.; Novikov, V.M.

    Two factors which incline nations toward the use of heat from nuclear reactors for industrial use are: 1) exhaustion of cheap fossil fuel resources, and 2) ecological problems associated both with extraction of fossil fuel from the earth and with its combustion. In addition to the usual problems that beset nuclear reactors, special problems associated with using heat from nuclear reactors in various industries are explored.

  18. D-D tokamak reactor studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, K.E. Jr.; Baker, C.C.; Brooks, J.N.; Ehst, D.A.; Finn, P.A.; Jung, J.; Mattas, R.F.; Misra, B.; Smith, D.L.; Stevens, H.C.


    A tokamak D-D reactor design, utilizing the advantages of a deuterium-fueled reactor but with parameters not unnecessarily extended from existing D-T designs, is presented. Studies leading to the choice of a design and initial studies of the design are described. The studies are in the areas of plasma engineering, first-wall/blanket/shield design, magnet design, and tritium/fuel/vacuum requirements. Conclusions concerning D-D tokamak reactors are stated.

  19. Initiating Events for Multi-Reactor Plant Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhlheim, Michael David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Flanagan, George F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Poore, III, Willis P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    Inherent in the design of modular reactors is the increased likelihood of events that initiate at a single reactor affecting another reactor. Because of the increased level of interactions between reactors, it is apparent that the Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs) for modular reactor designs need to specifically address the increased interactions and dependencies.

  20. Holocene climate and anthropogenic impacts on two austrian alpine lakes: instrumental record based inference models and multi-proxy approach studies (United States)

    Schmidt, R.; Kamenik, C.; Hetzel, M.; Kaiblinger, C.; Koinig, K. A.; Thompson, R.


    Sediment cores from two lakes (Oberer and Unterer Landschitzsee) within the same drainage area and located slightly above and below the present day timberline, on the southern slopes of the central Austrian Alps, have been investigated using a multi-proxy approach. Transfer functions were constructed for diatoms (special emphasis being given to Fragilaria) and chrysophyte stomatocysts. The functions have been used to infer mean July water temperatures and the date of spring mixing, as based on a training set of thermistor recordings made in 45 lakes over a two year period. Other climate-driven environmental parameters which were reconstructed by transfer function studies are alkalinity and pH. In addition basic geochemical measurements, mineral magnetism, and pollen analyses were carried out on the sediment sequences. The period subsequent to the Younger Dryas (about 12000 cal. BP) is characterized by high alkalinity and low water temperatures, which in the earliest sediment records, were probably affected by glacial meltwater. Low water temperatures continued until 8000 cal. BP., due to a series of cold and wet climate oscillations. A marked temperature increase of about 3^o C followed between 8000 and 7400 cal. BP., paralleled by an increase in alkalinity and pH. Subsequently to about 6000 cal. BP. there followed a long-term trend of increasing humidity climaxing, at about 3000 cal. BP, in a series of oscillations between colder (and probably wetter) periods and warmer phases. A decline in pH mirrors this long-term trend in increasing humidity. Lowered pH appears to have been affected by temperature decline and/or melt-water impact during the more extreme events. Alpine land-use at Unterer Landschitzsee started about 3500 cal. BP and intensified during the Keltic/Roman and Medieval periods; these phases of enhanced anthropogenic impact are found to be closely related to climatic ameliorations. Changes in geochemistry (e.g., C/N and Fe/Mn ratios) relate to a

  1. Network analysis of sediment cascades derived from a digital geomorphological map - an example from the Gradenbach catchment (Schober Mountains, Austrian Alps) (United States)

    Götz, Joachim; Heckmann, Tobias; Schrott, Lothar


    A detailed geomorphological map of the Gradenbach catchment (32 km², Schober Mountains, Austrian Alps) is presented that focuses on the sediment transfer system. Data were acquired in the field and by the interpretation of orthophotos, LIDAR data and derivatives (slope, curvature, aspect, shaded relief). The resulting digital geomorphological map contains polygon representations of landforms together with their morphometric parameters and an assessment of recent geomorphic activity. Special attention was paid to landform coupling, i.e. an additional table was constructed that indicates recently observable coupling between specific landforms (based on their ID in the database). From these data, we can obtain sediment cascades as a succession of coupled landforms along which sediment transfer occurs through the activity of various geomorphic processes. Based on this digital landform inventory the sediment transfer system is analysed using graph theory. As a rather new approach in geomorphology (already established within several disciplines; e.g. hydrology, biogeography), graph theory provides a promising framework for connectivity analysis in geomorphologic systems and powerful tools to visualise and analyse catchment-wide sediment transfer networks. Since the concept is arbitrarily scalable it can be applied to discrete land surface units (e.g. mapped landforms) or to continuous surface data (e.g. grid cells). In combination with geomorphological mapping, the concept allows for the (abstracted) visualisation of complex coupling relationships between multiple sediment storage landforms. Graph networks can be analysed at the level of nodes (e.g. the number of incoming and/or outgoing edges and their character as sediment source, sink or link), edges (e.g. importance within the network as conveyors of sediment from different sources), pathways (e.g. edge sequences leading to the catchment outlet or to storage landforms; these can be termed sediment cascades), or the

  2. High Performance Photocatalytic Oxidation Reactor System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Pioneer Astronautics proposes a technology program for the development of an innovative photocatalytic oxidation reactor for the removal and mineralization of...

  3. Savannah River Site reactor safety assessment. Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woody, N.D.; Brandyberry, M.D. [eds.] [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Baker, W.H.; Brandyberry, M.D.; Kearnaghan, D.P.; O`Kula, K.R.; Woody, N.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Amos, C.N.; Weingardt, J.J. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)


    This report gives the results of a Savannah River Site (SRS) Production Reactor risk assessment. Measures of adverse consequences to health and safety resulting from representations of severe accidents in SRS reactors are presented. In addition, the report gives a summary of the methods employed to represent these accidents and to assess the resultant consequences. The report is issued to provide timely information to the US Department of Energy (DOE) on the risk of operation of SRS reactors, for insights into severe accident phenomena that contribute to this risk, and in support of improved bases for other Site programs in Heavy Water Reactor safety.

  4. History of fast reactor fuel development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kittel, J.H.; Frost, B.R.T. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Mustelier, J.P. (COGEMA, Velizy-Villacoublay (France))


    Most of the first generation of fast reactors that were operated at significant power levels employed solid metal fuels. They were constructed in the United States and United Kingdom in the 1950s and included Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR)-I and -II operated by Argonne National Laboratory, United States, the Enrico Fermi Reactor operated by the Atomic Power Development Associates, United States and DFR operated by the U.K. Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA). Their paper tracer pre-development of fast reactor fuel from these early days through the 1980s including ceramic fuels.

  5. Advanced nuclear reactor types and technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignatiev, V. [ed.; Feinberg, O.; Morozov, A. [Russian Research Centre `Kurchatov Institute`, Moscow (Russian Federation); Devell, L. [Studsvik Eco and Safety AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)


    The document is a comprehensive world-wide catalogue of concepts and designs of advanced fission reactor types and fuel cycle technologies. Two parts have been prepared: Part 1 Reactors for Power Production and Part 2 Heating and Other Reactor Applications. Part 3, which will cover advanced waste management technology, reprocessing and disposal for different nuclear fission options is planned for compilation during 1995. The catalogue was prepared according to a special format which briefly presents the project title, technical approach, development status, application of the technology, reactor type, power output, and organization which developed these designs. Part 1 and 2 cover water cooled reactors, liquid metal fast reactors, gas-cooled reactors and molten salt reactors. Subcritical accelerator-driven systems are also considered. Various reactor applications as power production, heat generation, ship propulsion, space power sources and transmutation of such waste are included. Each project is described within a few pages with the main features of an actual design using a table with main technical data and figure as well as references for additional information. Each chapter starts with an introduction which briefly describes main trends and approaches in this field. Explanations of terms and abbreviations are provided in a glossary.

  6. Supercritical-pressure light water cooled reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Oka, Yoshiaki


    This book focuses on the latest reactor concepts, single pass core and experimental findings in thermal hydraulics, materials, corrosion, and water chemistry. It highlights research on supercritical-pressure light water cooled reactors (SCWRs), one of the Generation IV reactors that are studied around the world. This book includes cladding material development and experimental findings on heat transfer, corrosion and water chemistry. The work presented here will help readers to understand the fundamental elements of reactor design and analysis methods, thermal hydraulics, materials and water

  7. Sandia National Laboratories Medical Isotope Reactor concept.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coats, Richard Lee; Dahl, James J.; Parma, Edward J., Jr.


    This report describes the Sandia National Laboratories Medical Isotope Reactor and hot cell facility concepts. The reactor proposed is designed to be capable of producing 100% of the U.S. demand for the medical isotope {sup 99}Mo. The concept is novel in that the fuel for the reactor and the targets for the {sup 99}Mo production are the same. There is no driver core required. The fuel pins that are in the reactor core are processed on a 7 to 21 day irradiation cycle. The fuel is low enriched uranium oxide enriched to less than 20% {sup 235}U. The fuel pins are approximately 1 cm in diameter and 30 to 40 cm in height, clad with Zircaloy (zirconium alloy). Approximately 90 to 150 fuel pins are arranged in the core in a water pool {approx}30 ft deep. The reactor power level is 1 to 2 MW. The reactor concept is a simple design that is passively safe and maintains negative reactivity coefficients. The total radionuclide inventory in the reactor core is minimized since the fuel/target pins are removed and processed after 7 to 21 days. The fuel fabrication, reactor design and operation, and {sup 99}Mo production processing use well-developed technologies that minimize the technological and licensing risks. There are no impediments that prevent this type of reactor, along with its collocated hot cell facility, from being designed, fabricated, and licensed today.

  8. NCSU reactor sharing program. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, P.B.


    The Nuclear Reactor Program at North Carolina State University provides the PULSTAR Research Reactor and associated facilities to eligible institutions with support, in part, from the Department of Energy Reactor Sharing Program. Participation in the NCSU Reactor Sharing Program continues to increase steadily with visitors ranging from advance high school physics and chemistry students to Ph.D. level research from neighboring universities. This report is the Final Technical Report for the DOE award reference number DE-FG05-95NE38136 which covers the period September 30, 1995 through September 30, 1996.

  9. Molecular ecology of anaerobic reactor systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofman-Bang, H. Jacob Peider; Zheng, D.; Westermann, Peter;


    Anaerobic reactor systems are essential for the treatment of solid and liquid wastes and constitute a core facility in many waste treatment plants. Although much is known about the basic metabolism in different types of anaerobic reactors, little is known about the microbes responsible...... to the abundance of each microbe in anaerobic reactor systems by rRNA probing. This chapter focuses on various molecular techniques employed and problems encountered when elucidating the microbial ecology of anaerobic reactor systems. Methods such as quantitative dot blot/fluorescence in-situ probing using various...

  10. Advances in light water reactor technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Saito, Takehiko; Ishiwatari, Yuki; Oka, Yoshiaki


    ""Advances in Light Water Reactor Technologies"" focuses on the design and analysis of advanced nuclear power reactors. This volume provides readers with thorough descriptions of the general characteristics of various advanced light water reactors currently being developed worldwide. Safety, design, development and maintenance of these reactors is the main focus, with key technologies like full MOX core design, next-generation digital I&C systems and seismic design and evaluation described at length. This book is ideal for researchers and engineers working in nuclear power that are interested

  11. Nanostructured Catalytic Reactors for Air Purification Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I project proposes the development of lightweight compact nanostructured catalytic reactors for air purification from toxic gaseous organic...

  12. Phosphorus removal in aerated stirred tank reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghigliazza, R.; Lodi, A.; Rovatti, M. [Inst. of Chemical and Process Engineering ``G.B. Bonino``, Univ. of Genoa (Italy)


    The possibility to obtain biological phosphorus removal in strictly aerobic conditions has been investigated. Experiments, carried out in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), show the feasibility to obtain phosphorus removal without the anaerobic phase. Reactor performance in terms of phosphorus abatement kept always higher then 65% depending on adopted sludge retention time (SRT). In fact increasing SRT from 5 days to 8 days phosphorus removal and reactor performance increase but overcoming this SRT value a decreasing in reactor efficiency was recorded. (orig.) With 6 figs., 3 tabs., 18 refs.

  13. Sodium fast reactors with closed fuel cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Raj, Baldev; Vasudeva Rao, PR 0


    Sodium Fast Reactors with Closed Fuel Cycle delivers a detailed discussion of an important technology that is being harnessed for commercial energy production in many parts of the world. Presenting the state of the art of sodium-cooled fast reactors with closed fuel cycles, this book:Offers in-depth coverage of reactor physics, materials, design, safety analysis, validations, engineering, construction, and commissioning aspectsFeatures a special chapter on allied sciences to highlight advanced reactor core materials, specialized manufacturing technologies, chemical sensors, in-service inspecti

  14. Autonomous Control of Space Nuclear Reactors Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Nuclear reactors to support future robotic and manned missions impose new and innovative technological requirements for their control and protection instrumentation....

  15. Neutron imaging on the VR-1 reactor (United States)

    Crha, J.; Sklenka, L.; Soltes, J.


    Training reactor VR-1 is a low power research reactor with maximal thermal power of 1 kW. The reactor is operated by the Faculty of Nuclear Science and Physical Engineering of the Czech Technical University in Prague. Due to its low power it suits as a tool for education of university students and training of professionals. In 2015, as part of student research project, neutron imaging was introduced as another type of reactor utilization. The low available neutron flux and the limiting spatial and construction capabilities of the reactor's radial channel led to the development of a special filter/collimator insertion inside the channel and choosing a nonstandard approach by placing a neutron imaging plate inside the channel. The paper describes preliminary experiments carried out on the VR-1 reactor which led to first radiographic images. It seems, that due to the reactor construction and low reactor power, the neutron imaging technique on the VR-1 reactor is feasible mainly for demonstration or educational and training purposes.

  16. Microchannel Methanation Reactors Using Nanofabricated Catalysts Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Makel Engineering, Inc. (MEI) and the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) propose to develop and demonstrate a microchannel methanation reactor based on...

  17. Nanostructured Catalytic Reactors for Air Purification Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase II project proposes the development of lightweight compact nanostructured catalytic reactors for air purification from toxic gaseous organic...

  18. Continuous steroid biotransformations in microchannel reactors. (United States)

    Marques, Marco P C; Fernandes, Pedro; Cabral, Joaquim M S; Znidaršič-Plazl, Polona; Plazl, Igor


    The use of microchannel reactor based technologies within the scope of bioprocesses as process intensification and production platforms is gaining momentum. Such trend can be ascribed a particular set of characteristics of microchannel reactors, namely the enhanced mass and heat transfer, combined with easier handling and smaller volumes required, as compared to traditional reactors. In the present work, a continuous production process of 4-cholesten-3-one by the enzymatic oxidation of cholesterol without the formation of any by-product was assessed. The production was carried out within Y-shaped microchannel reactors in an aqueous-organic two-phase system. Substrate was delivered from the organic phase to aqueous phase containing cholesterol oxidase and the product formed partitions back to the organic phase. The aqueous phase was then forced through a plug-flow reactor, containing immobilized catalase. This step aimed at the reduction of hydrogen peroxide formed as a by-product during cholesterol oxidation, to avoid cholesterol oxidase deactivation due to said by-product. This setup was compared with traditional reactors and modes of operation. The results showed that microchannel reactor geometry outperformed traditional stirred tank and plug-flow reactors reaching similar conversion yields at reduced residence time. Coupling the plug-flow reactor containing catalase enabled aqueous phase reuse with maintenance of 30% catalytic activity of cholesterol oxidase while eliminating hydrogen peroxide. A final production of 36 m of cholestenone was reached after 300 hours of operation.

  19. Reactors for nuclear electric propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buden, D.; Angelo, J.A. Jr.


    Propulsion is the key to space exploitation and power is the key to propulsion. This paper examines the role of nuclear fission reactors as the primary power source for high specific impulse electric propulsion systems for space missions of the 1980s and 1990s. Particular mission applications include transfer to and a reusable orbital transfer vehicle from low-Earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit, outer planet exploration and reconnaissance missions, and as a versatile space tug supporting lunar resource development. Nuclear electric propulsion is examined as an indispensable component in space activities of the next two decades.

  20. Biodegradation of MTBE in reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waul, Christopher Kevin


    The fuel oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) was first introduced in the 1970’s to improve gasoline combustion efficiency and reduce emission of harmful gases. However, it has caused groundwater contamination in Denmark and in many locations worldwide through accidental releases from leaking...... such as ammonium or benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene (BTEX) oxidizers, which can be present together in a single system. The competition resulted in reduced and/or delayed degradation of MTBE when there were limitations of oxygen or space in the reactor. The fraction of biologically active (BA) MTBE...

  1. Coupled reactor kinetics and heat transfer model for heat pipe cooled reactors (United States)

    Wright, Steven A.; Houts, Michael


    Heat pipes are often proposed as cooling system components for small fission reactors. SAFE-300 and STAR-C are two reactor concepts that use heat pipes as an integral part of the cooling system. Heat pipes have been used in reactors to cool components within radiation tests (Deverall, 1973); however, no reactor has been built or tested that uses heat pipes solely as the primary cooling system. Heat pipe cooled reactors will likely require the development of a test reactor to determine the main differences in operational behavior from forced cooled reactors. The purpose of this paper is to describe the results of a systems code capable of modeling the coupling between the reactor kinetics and heat pipe controlled heat transport. Heat transport in heat pipe reactors is complex and highly system dependent. Nevertheless, in general terms it relies on heat flowing from the fuel pins through the heat pipe, to the heat exchanger, and then ultimately into the power conversion system and heat sink. A system model is described that is capable of modeling coupled reactor kinetics phenomena, heat transfer dynamics within the fuel pins, and the transient behavior of heat pipes (including the melting of the working fluid). This paper focuses primarily on the coupling effects caused by reactor feedback and compares the observations with forced cooled reactors. A number of reactor startup transients have been modeled, and issues such as power peaking, and power-to-flow mismatches, and loading transients were examined, including the possibility of heat flow from the heat exchanger back into the reactor. This system model is envisioned as a tool to be used for screening various heat pipe cooled reactor concepts, for designing and developing test facility requirements, for use in safety evaluations, and for developing test criteria for in-pile and out-of-pile test facilities. .

  2. Compound cryopump for fusion reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Kovari, M; Shephard, T


    We reconsider an old idea: a three-stage compound cryopump for use in fusion reactors such as DEMO. The helium "ash" is adsorbed on a 4.5 K charcoal-coated surface, while deuterium and tritium are adsorbed at 15-22 K on a second charcoal-coated surface. The helium is released by raising the first surface to ~30 K. In a separate regeneration step, deuterium and tritium are released at ~110 K. In this way, the helium can be pre-separated from other species. In the simplest design, all three stages are in the same vessel, with a single valve to close the pump off from the tokamak during regeneration. In an alternative design, the three stages are in separate vessels, connected by valves, allowing the stages to regenerate without interfering with each other. The inclusion of the intermediate stage would not affect the overall pumping speed significantly. The downstream exhaust processing system could be scaled down, as much of the deuterium and tritium could be returned directly to the reactor. This could reduce ...

  3. K-East and K-West Reactors (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hanford's "sister reactors", the K-East and the K-West Reactors, were built side-by-side in the early 1950's. The two reactors went operational within four months of...

  4. A new MTR fuel for a new MTR reactor: UMo for the Jules Horowitz reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guigon, B. [CEA Cadarache, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire DEN, Reacteur Jules Horowitz, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Vacelet, H. [Compagnie pour l' Etude et la Realisation de Combustibles Atomiques, CERCA, Etablissement de Romans, 26 (France); Dornbusch, D. [Technicatome, Service d' Architecture Generale, 13 - Aix-en-Provence (France)


    Within some years, the Jules Horowitz Reactor will be the only working experimental reactor (material and fuel testing reactor) in France. It will have to provide facilities for a wide range of needs: from activation analysis to power reactor fuel qualification. In this paper will be presented the main characteristics of the Jules Horowitz Reactor: its total power, neutron flux, fuel element... Safety criteria will be explained. Finally merits and disadvantages of UMo compared to the standard U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} fuel will be discussed. (authors)

  5. Annual report on JEN-1 reactor; Informe periodico del Reactor JEN-1 correspondiente al ano 1971

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, J.


    In the annual report on the JEN-1 reactor the main features of the reactor operations and maintenance are described. The reactor has been critical for 1831 hours, what means 65,8% of the total working time. Maintenance and pool water contamination have occupied the rest of the time. The maintenance schedule is shown in detail according to three subjects. The main failures and reactor scrams are also described. The daily maximum values of the water activity are given so as the activity of the air in the reactor hall. (Author)

  6. Selective purge for hydrogenation reactor recycle loop (United States)

    Baker, Richard W.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.


    Processes and apparatus for providing improved contaminant removal and hydrogen recovery in hydrogenation reactors, particularly in refineries and petrochemical plants. The improved contaminant removal is achieved by selective purging, by passing gases in the hydrogenation reactor recycle loop or purge stream across membranes selective in favor of the contaminant over hydrogen.

  7. Radiochemical problems of fusion reactors. 1. Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespi, M.B.A.


    A list of fusion reactor candidate materials is given, for use in connection with blanket structure, breeding, moderation, neutron multiplication, cooling, magnetic field generation, electrical insulation and radiation shielding. The phenomena being studied for each group of materials are indicated. Suitable irradiation test facilities are discussed under the headings (1) accelerator-based neutron sources, (2) fission reactors, and (3) ion accelerators.

  8. Advanced tokamak concepts and reactor designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomens, A. A. M.


    From a discussion of fusion reactor designs based on today's well-established experience gained in the operation of large tokamaks, it is concluded that such reactors are economically not attractive. The physics involved in the various options for concept improvement is described, some examples

  9. Startup of an industrial adiabatic tubular reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwijs, J.W.; Berg, van den H.; Westerterp, K.R.


    The dynamic behaviour of an adiabatic tubular plant reactor during the startup is demonstrated, together with the impact of a feed-pump failure of one of the reactants. A dynamic model of the reactor system is presented, and the system response is calculated as a function of experimentally-determine

  10. Rotor for a pyrolysis centrifuge reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a rotor for a pyrolysis centrifuge reactor, said rotor comprising a rotor body having a longitudinal centre axis, and at least one pivotally mounted blade being adapted to pivot around a pivot axis under rotation of the rotor body around the longitudinal centre axis....... Moreover, the present invention relates to a pyrolysis centrifuge reactor applying such a rotor....

  11. Helix reactor: great potential for flow chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerdink, P.; Runstraat, A. van den; Roelands, C.P.M.; Goetheer, E.L.V.


    The Helix reactor is highly suited for precise reaction control based on good hydrodynamics. The hydrodynamics are controlled by the Dean vortices, which create excellent heat transfer properties, approach plug flow and avoid turbulence. The flexibility of this reactor has been demonstrated using a

  12. The Design of a Nuclear Reactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    The aim of this largely pedagogical article is toemploy pre-college physics to arrive at an understanding of a system as complex as a nuclear reactor. We focus on three key issues: the fuelpin, the moderator, and lastly the dimensions ofthe nuclear reactor.

  13. Design of an organic simplified nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirvan, Koroush [Dept. of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States); Forrest, Eric [Primary Standards Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (United States)


    Numerous advanced reactor concepts have been proposed to replace light water reactors ever since their establishment as the dominant technology for nuclear energy production. While most designs seek to improve cost competitiveness and safety, the implausibility of doing so with affordable materials or existing nuclear fuel infrastructure reduces the possibility of near-term deployment, especially in developing countries. The organic nuclear concept, first explored in the 1950s, offers an attractive alternative to advanced reactor designs being considered. The advent of high temperature fluids, along with advances in hydrocracking and reforming technologies driven by the oil and gas industries, make the organic concept even more viable today. We present a simple, cost-effective, and safe small modular nuclear reactor for offshore underwater deployment. The core is moderated by graphite, zirconium hydride, and organic fluid while cooled by the organic fluid. The organic coolant enables operation near atmospheric pressure and use of plain carbon steel for the reactor tank and primary coolant piping system. The core is designed to mitigate the coolant degradation seen in early organic reactors. Overall, the design provides a power density of 40 kW/L, while reducing the reactor hull size by 40% compared with a pressurized water reactor while significantly reducing capital plant costs.

  14. Technical features of the MR reactor decommissioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig David


    Full Text Available This paper presents a preliminary technical design for the dismantling of the MR reactor. The goal of the design is the removal of reactor components allowing the re-use of the building for a different nuclear related purpose. The sequence of segmentation procedures is established. Considerations on the size reduction and tooling are presented.

  15. The First Reactor, 40th Anniversary (rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allardice, Corbin; Trapnell, Edward R; Fermi, Enrico; Fermi, Laura; Williams, Robert C


    This booklet, an updated version of the original booklet describing the first nuclear reactor, was written in honor of the 40th anniversary of the first reactor or "pile". It is based on firsthand accounts told to Corbin Allardice and Edward R. Trapnell, and includes recollections of Enrico and Laura Fermi.


    Balent, R.


    This patent describes a method of obtaining a flatter flux and more uniform power generation across the core of a nuclear reactor. The method comprises using moderator elements having differing moderating strength. The elements have an increasing amount of the better moderating material as a function of radial and/or axial distance from the reactor core center. (AEC)

  17. Parametric sensitivity and runaway in tubular reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morbidelli, M.; Varma, A.


    Parametric sensitivity of tubular reactors is analyzed to provide critical values of the heat of reaction and heat transfer parameters defining runaway and stable operations for all positive-order exothermic reactions with finite activation energies, and for all reactor inlet temperatures. Evaluation of the critical values does not involve any trial and error.

  18. Microbial degradation of MTBE in reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waul, Christopher Kevin; Arvin, Erik; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye


    , toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes, may reduce the removal rates of MTBE, or prevent its removal in reactors. With mathematical modelling, the long startup time required for some MTBE degrading reactors could be predicted. Long startup times of up to 200 days were due to the low maximum growth rate...

  19. Design of an Organic Simplified Nuclear Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koroush Shirvan


    Full Text Available Numerous advanced reactor concepts have been proposed to replace light water reactors ever since their establishment as the dominant technology for nuclear energy production. While most designs seek to improve cost competitiveness and safety, the implausibility of doing so with affordable materials or existing nuclear fuel infrastructure reduces the possibility of near-term deployment, especially in developing countries. The organic nuclear concept, first explored in the 1950s, offers an attractive alternative to advanced reactor designs being considered. The advent of high temperature fluids, along with advances in hydrocracking and reforming technologies driven by the oil and gas industries, make the organic concept even more viable today. We present a simple, cost-effective, and safe small modular nuclear reactor for offshore underwater deployment. The core is moderated by graphite, zirconium hydride, and organic fluid while cooled by the organic fluid. The organic coolant enables operation near atmospheric pressure and use of plain carbon steel for the reactor tank and primary coolant piping system. The core is designed to mitigate the coolant degradation seen in early organic reactors. Overall, the design provides a power density of 40 kW/L, while reducing the reactor hull size by 40% compared with a pressurized water reactor while significantly reducing capital plant costs.

  20. Austrian decision strenghtens Baltic Unity

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Euroopa Liidu välisministrite kohtumisel Brüsselis tänas Eesti välisminister Urmas Paet kolleege pantvangide vabastamisel osutatud abi eest ning avaldas toetust Leedule Mihhail Golovatovi vabastamisega vallandunud diplomaatilises konfliktis Austriaga

  1. National Austrian PTCA Registry 1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mühlberger V


    Full Text Available Eine komplette und kontrollierte Nationale Datenbank, offen für einen Auditor, ist die Voraussetzung für Qualitätskontrolle, Qualitätsmanagement und Verbesserungen. Wir vergleichen in Österreich invasive (Koronarangiographie und interventionelle (PTCA = PCI Resultate von Jahr zu Jahr und von Region zu Region seit dem Jahr 1990. Gleichzeitig führen wir Monitorvisiten (Audits durch und nehmen an der Europäischen Datensammlung teil. 31.419 diagnostische Koronarangiographien (CA und 8.559 PTCA (= PCI wurden an 27 Erwachsenenzentren (22 davon führen PTCA durch während des Jahres 1998 in Österreich durchgeführt. Das entspricht einer Zunahme von 5,4 % bei Angiographien (CA und 11,1 % bei PTCA (= PCI gegenüber 1997. 70 % der PTCA (allerdings nur in jenen Zentren, welche dies berichten werden während der diagnostischen Angiographie (CA ausgeführt, eine direkte PTCA wegen oder während eines Myokardinfarktes in 5,5 %. Insgesamt 5.838 Stents (bei 68 % der PTCA-Fälle wurden implantiert. Der internationale Vergleich zeigt Österreich unter den Spitzenreitern mit 3927 CA und 1070 PTCA pro Million Einwohner. Als Konsequenz aus einer diagnostischen Angiographie resultiert in 39 von 100 Fällen eine Revaskularisation, sei es durch PTCA oder durch Operation. Die Spitalssterblichkeit betrug nach PTCA 0,5 %, die Rate notfallmäßiger Operationen 0,15 % nach PTCA, während ein Myokardinfarkt im Herzkatheterlabor als Folge des Eingriffes in 0,9 % auftrat. In den Jahren 1993 bis 1996 stieg die Mortalität infolge notfallmäßiger Bypassoperationen nach fehlgeschlagener PTCA von 3,3 über 8,3 und 18,3 auf 28,6 %, fiel dann auf 8,3 % im Jahr 1997 und stieg 1998 wieder auf 15,4 % (das sind 2 von 13 Fällen. Ähnlich wie in den Vorjahren wurde auch 1998 innerhalb jener 22 Zentren mit PTCA-Aktivität der Ischämienachweis vor PTCA in 3.644 Fällen (15 Zentren, die Primärerfolgsrate in 6.390 Fällen (18 Zentren sowie eine Kontrollergometrie innerhalb drei Monaten nach PTCA bei 1.524 Fällen (9 Zentren dokumentiert. Leicht zunehmend ist der Anteil der Typ B-Läsionen von 34 über 37 auf 47 % von 1996 bis 1998, bei gleichzeitiger Zunahme der Typ C-Läsionen auf 24 %. Die mittlere Fallbelastung für alle 141 Ärzte, die diagnostische Koronarangiographien 1998 durchführten, betrug 222 Fälle im Jahr. Die 81 "PTCA-Ärzte" führten durchschnittlich 106 Interventionen aus. Ärzte mit überdurchschnittlicher Fallzahl befürworten die Dokumentation der Fallbelastung. Österreich scheint eine jener Nationen weltweit zu sein, die seit Jahren eine komplette und kontrollierte nationale Datenbank für invasive und interventionelle Kardiologie unterhält. Darüberhinaus veranstalten wir Monitorvisiten und Rückantworten mit Diskussion der Ergebnisse, wie bei einem Audit-Verfahren. Höhere Fallzahlen bei geringeren Komplikationsraten trotz eher schwerwiegenderen Krankengutes sprechen für eine gleichzeitige Qualitätsverbesserung. Damit ist allerdings nicht erwiesen, daß das eine (Qualitätsverbesserung ursächliche Folge des anderen (Audit ist.

  2. Verification of Remote Inspection Techniques for Reactor Internal Structures of Liquid Metal Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Young Sang; Lee, Jae Han


    The reactor internal structures and components of a liquid metal reactor (LMR) are submerged in hot sodium of reactor vessel. The division 3 of ASME code section XI specifies the visual inspection as major in-service inspection (ISI) methods of reactor internal structures and components. Reactor internals of LMR can not be visually examined due to opaque liquid sodium. The under-sodium viewing techniques using an ultrasonic wave should be applied for the visual inspection of reactor internals. Recently, an ultrasonic waveguide sensor with a strip plate has been developed for an application to the under-sodium inspection. In this study, visualization technique, ranging technique and monitoring technique have been suggested for the remote inspection of reactor internals by using the waveguide sensor. The feasibility of these remote inspection techniques using ultrasonic waveguide sensor has been evaluated by an experimental verification.

  3. State space modeling of reactor core in a pressurized water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashaari, A.; Ahmad, T.; M, Wan Munirah W. [Department of Mathematical Science, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Shamsuddin, Mustaffa [Institute of Ibnu Sina, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Abdullah, M. Adib [Swinburne University of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Computing and Science, Jalan Simpang Tiga, 93350 Kuching, Sarawak (Malaysia)


    The power control system of a nuclear reactor is the key system that ensures a safe operation for a nuclear power plant. However, a mathematical model of a nuclear power plant is in the form of nonlinear process and time dependent that give very hard to be described. One of the important components of a Pressurized Water Reactor is the Reactor core. The aim of this study is to analyze the performance of power produced from a reactor core using temperature of the moderator as an input. Mathematical representation of the state space model of the reactor core control system is presented and analyzed in this paper. The data and parameters are taken from a real time VVER-type Pressurized Water Reactor and will be verified using Matlab and Simulink. Based on the simulation conducted, the results show that the temperature of the moderator plays an important role in determining the power of reactor core.

  4. State space modeling of reactor core in a pressurized water reactor (United States)

    Ashaari, A.; Ahmad, T.; Shamsuddin, Mustaffa; M, Wan Munirah W.; Abdullah, M. Adib


    The power control system of a nuclear reactor is the key system that ensures a safe operation for a nuclear power plant. However, a mathematical model of a nuclear power plant is in the form of nonlinear process and time dependent that give very hard to be described. One of the important components of a Pressurized Water Reactor is the Reactor core. The aim of this study is to analyze the performance of power produced from a reactor core using temperature of the moderator as an input. Mathematical representation of the state space model of the reactor core control system is presented and analyzed in this paper. The data and parameters are taken from a real time VVER-type Pressurized Water Reactor and will be verified using Matlab and Simulink. Based on the simulation conducted, the results show that the temperature of the moderator plays an important role in determining the power of reactor core.

  5. Precision spectroscopy with reactor anti-neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, P; Huber, Patrick; Schwetz, Thomas


    In this work we present an accurate parameterization of the anti-neutrino flux produced by the isotopes 235U, 239Pu and 241Pu in nuclear reactors. We determine the coefficients of this parameterization, as well as their covariance matrix, by performing a fit to spectra inferred from experimentally measured beta spectra. Subsequently we show that flux shape uncertainties play only a minor role in the KamLAND experiment, however, we find that future reactor neutrino experiments to measure the mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ are sensitive to the fine details of the reactor neutrino spectra. Finally, we investigate the possibility to determine the isotopic composition in nuclear reactors through an anti-neutrino measurement. We find that with a 3 month exposure of a one ton detector the isotope fractions and the thermal reactor power can be determined at a few percent accuracy, which may open the possibility of an application for safeguard or non-proliferation objectives.

  6. Scanning tunneling microscope assembly, reactor, and system (United States)

    Tao, Feng; Salmeron, Miquel; Somorjai, Gabor A


    An embodiment of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) reactor includes a pressure vessel, an STM assembly, and three spring coupling objects. The pressure vessel includes a sealable port, an interior, and an exterior. An embodiment of an STM system includes a vacuum chamber, an STM reactor, and three springs. The three springs couple the STM reactor to the vacuum chamber and are operable to suspend the scanning tunneling microscope reactor within the interior of the vacuum chamber during operation of the STM reactor. An embodiment of an STM assembly includes a coarse displacement arrangement, a piezoelectric fine displacement scanning tube coupled to the coarse displacement arrangement, and a receiver. The piezoelectric fine displacement scanning tube is coupled to the coarse displacement arrangement. The receiver is coupled to the piezoelectric scanning tube and is operable to receive a tip holder, and the tip holder is operable to receive a tip.

  7. Reactor assessments of advanced bumpy torus configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uckan, N.A.; Owen, L.W.; Spong, D.A.; Miller, R.L.; Ard, W.B.; Pipkins, J.F.; Schmitt, R.J.


    Recently, several innovative approaches were introduced for enhancing the performance of the basic ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) concept and for improving its reactor potential. These include planar racetrack and square geometries, Andreoletti coil systems, and bumpy torus-stellarator hybrids (which include twisted racetrack and helical axis stellarator - snakey torus). Preliminary evaluations of reactor implications of each approach have been carried out based on magnetics (vacuum) calculations, transport and scaling relationships, and stability properties deduced from provisional configurations that implement the approach but are not necessarily optimized. Further optimization is needed in all cases to evaluate the full potential of each approach. Results of these studies indicate favorable reactor projections with a significant reduction in reactor physical size as compared to conventional EBT reactor designs carried out in the past.

  8. Reactivity control assembly for nuclear reactor. [LMFBR (United States)

    Bollinger, L.R.


    This invention, which resulted from a contact with the United States Department of Energy, relates to a control mechanism for a nuclear reactor and, more particularly, to an assembly for selectively shifting different numbers of reactivity modifying rods into and out of the core of a nuclear reactor. It has been proposed heretofore to control the reactivity of a breeder reactor by varying the depth of insertion of control rods (e.g., rods containing a fertile material such as ThO/sub 2/) in the core of the reactor, thereby varying the amount of neutron-thermalizing coolant and the amount of neutron-capturing material in the core. This invention relates to a mechanism which can advantageously be used in this type of reactor control system.

  9. Power Control Method for Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baang, Dane; Suh, Yongsuk; Park, Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Considering safety-oriented design concept and other control environment, we developed a simple controller that provides limiting function of power change- rate as well as fine tracking performance. The design result has been well-proven via simulation and actual application to a TRIGA-II type research reactor. The proposed controller is designed to track the PDM(Power Demand) from operator input as long as maintaining the power change rate lower than a certain value for stable reactor operation. A power control method for a TRIGA-II type research reactor has been designed, simulated, and applied to actual reactor. The control performance during commissioning test shows that the proposed controller provides fine control performance for various changes in reference values (PDM), even though there is large measurement noise from neutron detectors. The overshoot at low power level is acceptable in a sense of reactor operation.

  10. Eberhard Widmann (Stefan Meyer Institute, Vienna) and Silke Federmann (Ph.D. Student from Vienna in the CERN-Austrian Ph.D. program) together with a microwave cavity developed by Silke at CERN. The cavity will be used for the first time to look for spin-flip transitions of antihydrogen atoms later this year.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice


    Eberhard Widmann (Stefan Meyer Institute, Vienna) and Silke Federmann (Ph.D. Student from Vienna in the CERN-Austrian Ph.D. program) together with a microwave cavity developed by Silke at CERN. The cavity will be used for the first time to look for spin-flip transitions of antihydrogen atoms later this year.

  11. 19 September 2011 - Austrian State Secretary for European and International Affairs W. Waldner, signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss; visiting CMS service cavern with Collaboration Spokesperson G. Tonelli and the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with M. Zerlauth.

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoît Jeannet


    Austrian state secretary for foreign affairs, Wolfgang Waldner, left, was welcomed to CERN by Felicitas Pauss, head of international relations at CERN, on 19 September. While at CERN, he toured the CMS control room and underground experimental service cavern, the LHC superconducting magnet test hall, and the Universe of Particles exhibition in the Globe of Science and Innovation.

  12. Ceramic oxygen transport membrane array reactor and reforming method (United States)

    Kelly, Sean M.; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Robinson, Charles; Wilson, Jamie R.; Gonzalez, Javier E.; Doraswami, Uttam R.


    The invention relates to a commercially viable modular ceramic oxygen transport membrane reforming reactor configured using repeating assemblies of oxygen transport membrane tubes and catalytic reforming reactors.

  13. Fast Spectrum Molten Salt Reactor Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehin, Jess C [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Flanagan, George F [ORNL; Patton, Bruce W [ORNL; Howard, Rob L [ORNL; Harrison, Thomas J [ORNL


    During 2010, fast-spectrum molten-salt reactors (FS-MSRs) were selected as a transformational reactor concept for light-water reactor (LWR)-derived heavy actinide disposition by the Department of Energy-Nuclear Energy Advanced Reactor Concepts (ARC) program and were the subject of a preliminary scoping investigation. Much of the reactor description information presented in this report derives from the preliminary studies performed for the ARC project. This report, however, has a somewhat broader scope-providing a conceptual overview of the characteristics and design options for FS-MSRs. It does not present in-depth evaluation of any FS-MSR particular characteristic, but instead provides an overview of all of the major reactor system technologies and characteristics, including the technology developments since the end of major molten salt reactor (MSR) development efforts in the 1970s. This report first presents a historical overview of the FS-MSR technology and describes the innovative characteristics of an FS-MSR. Next, it provides an overview of possible reactor configurations. The following design features/options and performance considerations are described including: (1) reactor salt options-both chloride and fluoride salts; (2) the impact of changing the carrier salt and actinide concentration on conversion ratio; (3) the conversion ratio; (4) an overview of the fuel salt chemical processing; (5) potential power cycles and hydrogen production options; and (6) overview of the performance characteristics of FS-MSRs, including general comparative metrics with LWRs. The conceptual-level evaluation includes resource sustainability, proliferation resistance, economics, and safety. The report concludes with a description of the work necessary to begin more detailed evaluation of FS-MSRs as a realistic reactor and fuel cycle option.

  14. Radiation protection at new reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brissaud, A. [EDF INDUSTRY, Basic Design Department, EDF-SEPTEN, VILLEURBANNE Cedex (France)


    The theoritical knowledge and the feedback of operating experience concerning radiations in reactors is now considerable. It is available to the designer in the form of predictive softwares and data bases. Thus, it is possible to include the radiation protection component throughout all the design process. In France, the existing reactors have not been designed with quantified radiation protection targets, although considerable efforts have been made to reduce sources of radiation illustrated by the decrease of the average dose rates (typically a factor 5 between the first 900 MWe and the last 1300 MWe units). The EDF ALARA PROJECT has demonstrated that good practises, radiation protection awareness, careful work organization had a strong impact on operation and maintenance work volume. A decrease of the average collective dose by a factor 2 has been achieved without noticeable modifications of the units. In the case of new nuclear facilities projects (reactor, intermediate storage facility,...), or special operations (such as steam generator replacement), quantified radiation protection targets are included in terms of collective and average individual doses within the frame of a general optimization scheme. The target values by themselves are less important than the application of an optimization process throughout the design. This is because the optimization process requires to address all the components of the dose, particularly the work volume for operation and maintenance. A careful study of this parameter contributes to the economy of the project (suppression of unecessary tasks, time-saving ergonomy of work sites). This optimization process is currently applied to the design of the EPR. General radiation protection provisions have been addressed during the basic design phase by applying general rules aiming at the reduction of sources and dose rates. The basic design optimization phase has mainly dealt with the possibility to access the containment at full

  15. The research reactors their contribution to the reactors physics; Les reacteurs de recherche leur apport sur la physique des reacteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barral, J.C. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Zaetta, A. [CEA/Cadarache, Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires, DRN, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Johner, J. [CEA/Cadarache, Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee (DRFC), 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Mathoniere, G. [CEA/Saclay, DEN, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)] [and others


    The 19 october 2000, the french society of nuclear energy organized a day on the research reactors. This associated report of the technical session, reactors physics, is presented in two parts. The first part deals with the annual meeting and groups general papers on the pressurized water reactors, the fast neutrons reactors and the fusion reactors industry. The second part presents more technical papers about the research programs, critical models, irradiation reactors (OSIRIS and Jules Horowitz) and computing tools. (A.L.B.)

  16. PCCF flow analysis -- DR Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calkin, J.F.


    This report contains an analysis of PCCF tube flow and Panellit pressure relations at DR reactor. Supply curves are presented at front header pressures from 480 to 600 psig using cold water and the standard 0.236 inch orifice with taper down stream and the pigtail valve (plug or ball) open. Demand curves are presented for slug column lengths of 200 inches to 400 inches using 1.44 inch O.D. solid poison pieces (either Al or Pb-Cd) and cold water with a rear header pressure of 50 psig. Figure 1 is a graph of Panellit pressure vs. flow with the above supply and demand curves and clearly shows the effect of front header pressure and charge length on flow.

  17. Coacervates as prebiotic chemical reactors (United States)

    Kolb, Vera M.; Swanson, Mercedes; Menger, Fredric M.


    Coacervates are colloidal systems that are comprised of two immiscible aqueous layers, the colloid-rich layer, so-called coacervate, and the colloid-poor layer, so-called equilibrium liquid. Although immiscible, the two phases are both water-rich. Coacervates are important for prebiotic chemistry, but also have various practical applications, notably as transport vehicles of personal care products and pharmaceuticals. Our objectives are to explore the potential of coacervates as prebiotic chemical reactors. Since the reaction medium in coacervates is water, this creates a challenge, since most organic reactants are not water-soluble. To overcome this challenge we are utilizing recent Green Chemistry examples of the organic reactions in water, such as the Passerini reaction. We have investigated this reaction in two coacervate systems, and report here our preliminary results.

  18. Replacement reactor to revolutionise magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Atkins, G


    Electric motors, hearing aids and magnetic resonance imaging are only some of the applications that will benefit from the first advances in magnets in a quarter of a century. Magnets achieve their characteristics when electrons align themselves to produce a unified magnetic field. Neutrons can probe these magnetic structures. The focus is not just on making more powerful magnets, but also identifying the characteristics that make magnets cheaper and easier for industry to manufacture. Staff from the ANSTO's Neutron Scattering Group have already performed a number of studies on the properties of magnets using using HIFAR, but the Replacement Research Reactor that will produce cold neutrons would allow scientists to investigate the atomic properties of materials with large molecules. A suite of equipment will enable studies at different temperatures, pressures and magnetic fields

  19. Dynamic analysis of process reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shadle, L.J.; Lawson, L.O.; Noel, S.D.


    The approach and methodology of conducting a dynamic analysis is presented in this poster session in order to describe how this type of analysis can be used to evaluate the operation and control of process reactors. Dynamic analysis of the PyGas{trademark} gasification process is used to illustrate the utility of this approach. PyGas{trademark} is the gasifier being developed for the Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF) by Jacobs-Siffine Engineering and Riley Stoker. In the first step of the analysis, process models are used to calculate the steady-state conditions and associated sensitivities for the process. For the PyGas{trademark} gasifier, the process models are non-linear mechanistic models of the jetting fluidized-bed pyrolyzer and the fixed-bed gasifier. These process sensitivities are key input, in the form of gain parameters or transfer functions, to the dynamic engineering models.

  20. Reactor operation environmental information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L.D.; Specht, W.L.; Mackey, H.E.; Paller, M.H.; Wilde, E.W.; Dicks, A.S.


    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a large United States Department of Energy installation on the upper Atlantic Coastal Plain of South Carolina. The SRS contains diverse habitats, flora, and fauna. Habitats include upland terrestrial areas, varied wetlands including Carolina Bays, the Savannah River swamp system, and impoundment related and riparian wetlands, and the aquatic habitats of several stream systems, two large cooling reservoirs, and the Savannah River. These diverse habitats support a large variety of plants and animals including many commercially or recreational valuable species and several rare, threatened or endangered species. This volume describes the major habitats and their biota found on the SRS, and discuss the impacts of continued operation of the K, L, and P production reactors.

  1. (Meeting on fusion reactor materials)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.H. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Klueh, R.L.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Wiffen, F.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Loomis, B.A. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))


    During his visit to the KfK, Karlsruhe, F. W. Wiffen attended the IEA 12th Working Group Meeting on Fusion Reactor Materials. Plans were made for a low-activation materials workshop at Culham, UK, for April 1991, a data base workshop in Europe for June 1991, and a molecular dynamics workshop in the United States in 1991. At the 11th IEA Executive Committee on Fusion Materials, discussions centered on the recent FPAC and Colombo panel review in the United States and EC, respectively. The Committee also reviewed recent progress toward a neutron source in the United States (CWDD) and in Japan (ESNIT). A meeting with D. R. Harries (consultant to J. Darvas) yielded a useful overview of the EC technology program for fusion. Of particular interest to the US program is a strong effort on a conventional ferritic/martensitic steel for fist wall/blanket operation beyond NET/ITER.

  2. Validation of an Austrian forecasting model for biologically effective UV radiation (UV index); Validierung des oesterreichischen Vorhersagemodells fuer die biologisch-effektive UV Strahlung (UV Index)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schauberger, G.; Schmalwieser, A. [Veterinaermedizinische Univ., Vienna (Austria). Inst. fuer Medizinische Physik


    Since October 1995 there has been an Austrian forecasting service for the next day's UV index for the three model domains Austria, Europe and world. This forecasting model uses spectral irradiation intensity data measured for 16 specific wavelengths, taking into account solar altitude, height above sea level and atmospheric ozone concentration. Weighting spectral irradiation intensity according to the spectral erythematous effect curve yields a measure of biologically effective UV radiation, and subsequent normalisation with respect to 25 mW{sub biol}/m-2 relates the result to the dimension figure for the UV index. The model has been validated by means of data obtained by continuous measurement with Robertson-Berger measuring devices (site of the Vienna Veterinary Hospital: 48 15 15.47'N; 16 25.98E; elevation 153 amsl). The spectral sensitivity of these instruments is approximately the same as that of the human skin to reddening. Combining the UV index with the expected UV dose for the day permits issuing recommendations for the most suitable sun protection factor in sunblock creams as a function of users' photobiological skin type. Users of the UV index are expected to have enough personal initiative to select the UV index that most closely corresponds to their local population situation. According to the principles of UV radiation protection the performance of the model is considered poor if the measured UV index is greater than the forecast index. This happens in approx. 12% of all cases. The error frequency of positive errors (forecast values greater than measured values) reflects the degree to which extinction of UV radiation through the population occurs, as the present model does not take this factor into account. [German] Seit Oktober 1995 wird in Oesterreich taeglich eine Prognose des UV-Index fuer die drei Modelldomaenen: Oesterreich, Europa und weltweit, geltend fuer den darauf folgenden Tag, erstellt. Das oesterreichische Prognosemodell

  3. Flexible Conversion Ratio Fast Reactor Systems Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neil Todreas; Pavel Hejzlar


    Conceptual designs of lead-cooled and liquid salt-cooled fast flexible conversion ratio reactors were developed. Both concepts have cores reated at 2400 MWt placed in a large-pool-type vessel with dual-free level, which also contains four intermediate heat exchanges coupling a primary coolant to a compact and efficient supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle power conversion system. Decay heat is removed passively using an enhanced Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System and a Passive Secondary Auxiliary Cooling System. The most important findings were that (1) it is feasible to design the lead-cooled and salt-cooled reactor with the flexible conversion ratio (CR) in the range of CR=0 and CR=1 n a manner that achieves inherent reactor shutdown in unprotected accidents, (2) the salt-cooled reactor requires Lithium thermal Expansion Modules to overcme the inherent salt coolant's large positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, (3) the preferable salt for fast spectrum high power density cores is NaCl-Kcl-MgCl2 as opposed to fluoride salts due to its better themal-hydraulic and neutronic characteristics, and (4) both reactor, but attain power density 3 times smaller than that of the sodium-cooled reactor.

  4. The Swedish Zero Power Reactor R0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landergaard, Olof; Cavallin, Kaj; Jonsson, Georg


    The reactor R0 is a critical facility built for heavy water and natural uranium or fuel of low enrichment,, The first criticality was achieved September 25, 1959. During a first period of more than two years the R0 will be operated as a bare reactor in order to simplify interpretation of results. The reactor tank is 3. 2 m high and 2. 25 m in diameter. The fuel suspension system is quite flexible in order to facilitate fuel exchange and lattice variations. The temperature of the water can be varied between about 10 and 90 C by means of a heater and a cooler placed in the external circulating system. The instrumentation of the reactor has to meet the safety requirements not only during operation but also during rearrangements of the core in the shut-down state. Therefore, the shut-down state is always defined by a certain low 'safe' moderator level in the reactor tank. A number of safety rods are normally kept above the moderator ready for action. For manual or automatic control of the reactor power a specially designed piston pump is needed, by which the moderator level is varied. The pump speed is controlled from the reactor power error by means of a Ward-Leonard system. Moderator level measurement is made by means of a water gauge with an accuracy of {+-} 0. 1 mm.

  5. Facility for a Low Power Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalker, R. G.


    Preliminary investigation indicates that a reactor facility with ample research provisions for use by University or other interested groups, featuring safety in design, can be economically constructed in the Los Angeles area. The complete installation, including an underground gas-tight reactor building, with associated storage and experiment assembly building, administration offices, two general laboratory buildings, hot latoratory and lodge, can be constructed for approxinately $1,500,000. This does not include the cost of the reactor itself or of its auxiliary equipment,

  6. Pyrometric fuel particle measurements in pressurised reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernberg, R.; Joutsenoja, T. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)


    A fiberoptic two-colour pyrometric technique for fuel particle temperature and size measurement is modified and applied to three pressurized reactors of different type in Finland, Germany and France. A modification of the pyrometric method for simultaneous in situ measurement of the temperature and size of individual pulverized coal particles at the pressurized entrained flow reactor in Jyvaeskylae was developed and several series of measurements were made. In Orleans a fiberoptic pyrometric device was installed to a pressurised thermogravimetric reactor and the two-colour temperatures of fuel samples were measured. Some results of these measurements are presented. The project belongs to EU`s Joule 2 extension research programme. (author)

  7. Oxidation performance of graphite material in reactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaowei LUO; Xinli YU; Suyuan YU


    Graphite is used as a structural material and moderator for high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR). When a reactor is in operation, graphite oxida-tion influences the safety and operation of the reactor because of the impurities in the coolant and/or the acci-dent conditions, such as water ingress and air ingress. In this paper, the graphite oxidation process is introduced, factors influencing graphite oxidation are analyzed and discussed, and some new directions for further study are pointed out.

  8. Sistemas de salvaguardia en reactores EPR



    En este documento se describe brevemente el funcionamiento de los diversos sistemas de una planta nuclear operada con un reactor de tipo PWR. Más concretamente, el proyecto se centra en una descripción exhaustiva de los sistemas de salvaguardia y seguridad que regulan el funcionamiento de un reactor de tipo EPR, así como la central nuclear que contiene a dicho reactor. El proceso ha consistido en clasificar y resumir los distintos sistemas que operan en dicha planta, estudiando sus caracterís...

  9. Packed fluidized bed blanket for fusion reactor (United States)

    Chi, John W. H.


    A packed fluidized bed blanket for a fusion reactor providing for efficient radiation absorption for energy recovery, efficient neutron absorption for nuclear transformations, ease of blanket removal, processing and replacement, and on-line fueling/refueling. The blanket of the reactor contains a bed of stationary particles during reactor operation, cooled by a radial flow of coolant. During fueling/refueling, an axial flow is introduced into the bed in stages at various axial locations to fluidize the bed. When desired, the fluidization flow can be used to remove particles from the blanket.

  10. Monitoring and control of anaerobic reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pind, Peter Frode; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær;


    measurements are reviewed in detail. In the sequel, possible manipulated variables, such as the hydraulic retention time, the organic loading rate, the sludge retention time, temperature, pH and alkalinity are evaluated with respect to the two main reactor types: high-rate and low-rate. Finally, the different......The current status in monitoring and control of anaerobic reactors is reviewed. The influence of reactor design and waste composition on the possible monitoring and control schemes is examined. After defining the overall control structure, and possible control objectives, the possible process...

  11. Transients in reactors for power systems compensation (United States)

    Abdul Hamid, Haziah

    This thesis describes new models and investigations into switching transient phenomena related to the shunt reactors and the Mechanically Switched Capacitor with Damping Network (MSCDN) operations used for reactive power control in the transmission system. Shunt reactors and MSCDN are similar in that they have reactors. A shunt reactor is connected parallel to the compensated lines to absorb the leading current, whereas the MSCDN is a version of a capacitor bank designed as a C-type filter for use in the harmonic-rich environment. In this work, models have been developed and transient overvoltages due to shunt reactor deenergisation were estimated analytically using MathCad, a mathematical program. Computer simulations used the ATP/EMTP program to reproduce both single-phase and three-phase shunt reactor switching at 275 kV operational substations. The effect of the reactor switching on the circuit breaker grading capacitor was also examined by considering various switching conditions.. The main original achievement of this thesis is the clarification of failure mechanisms occurring in the air-core filter reactor due to MSCDN switching operations. The simulation of the MSCDN energisation was conducted using the ATP/EMTP program in the presence of surge arresters. The outcome of this simulation shows that extremely fast transients were established across the air-core filter reactor. This identified transient event has led to the development of a detailed air-core reactor model, which accounts for the inter-turn RLC parameters as well as the stray capacitances-to-ground. These parameters are incorporated into the transient simulation circuit, from which the current and voltage distribution across the winding were derived using electric field and equivalent circuit modelling. Analysis of the results has revealed that there are substantial dielectric stresses imposed on the winding insulation that can be attributed to a combination of three factors. (i) First, the

  12. Assessing Pretreatment Reactor Scaling Through Empirical Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lischeske, James J.; Crawford, Nathan C.; Kuhn, Erik; Nagle, Nicholas J.; Schell, Daniel J.; Tucker, Melvin P.; McMillan, James D.; Wolfrum, Edward J.


    Pretreatment is a critical step in the biochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. Due to the complexity of the physicochemical transformations involved, predictively scaling up technology from bench- to pilot-scale is difficult. This study examines how pretreatment effectiveness under nominally similar reaction conditions is influenced by pretreatment reactor design and scale using four different pretreatment reaction systems ranging from a 3 g batch reactor to a 10 dry-ton/d continuous reactor. The reactor systems examined were an Automated Solvent Extractor (ASE), Steam Explosion Reactor (SER), ZipperClave(R) reactor (ZCR), and Large Continuous Horizontal-Screw Reactor (LHR). To our knowledge, this is the first such study performed on pretreatment reactors across a range of reaction conditions (time and temperature) and at different reactor scales. The comparative pretreatment performance results obtained for each reactor system were used to develop response surface models for total xylose yield after pretreatment and total sugar yield after pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. Near- and very-near-optimal regions were defined as the set of conditions that the model identified as producing yields within one and two standard deviations of the optimum yield. Optimal conditions identified in the smallest-scale system (the ASE) were within the near-optimal region of the largest scale reactor system evaluated. A reaction severity factor modeling approach was shown to inadequately describe the optimal conditions in the ASE, incorrectly identifying a large set of sub-optimal conditions (as defined by the RSM) as optimal. The maximum total sugar yields for the ASE and LHR were 95%, while 89% was the optimum observed in the ZipperClave. The optimum condition identified using the automated and less costly to operate ASE system was within the very-near-optimal space for the total xylose yield of both the ZCR and the LHR, and was

  13. Modality-dependent dose requirements in the Austrian breast cancer early detection program. First results from technical quality assurance; Geraeteabhaengiger Dosisbedarf im Oesterreichischen Brustkrebsfrueherkennungsprogramm. Erste Ergebnisse aus der technischen Qualitaetssicherung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osanna-Elliott, A.; Semturs, F.; Menhart, S.; Schloegl, C.; Wildner, S.; Zwettler, G. [AGES, Wien (Austria). Referenzzentrum fuer technische Qualitaetssicherung im Brustkrebsfrueherkennungsprogramm


    The Austrian Breast Cancer Early Detection Program (BKFP) has officially started in January 2014. In order to ensure that all participating women can rely on a sufficient cancer detection rate while at the same time the required dose is as low as reasonably achievable, all participating radiology institutes (approx. 200) have to fulfill strict quality assurance requirements. The control and certification is performed by the Reference Center for Technical Quality Assurance (RefZQS), which has been developing the methods and tolerances in a pilot project since 2007. The limits are defined in the EUREF-Oeprotocol which is based on the European EPQC guidelines. From the requirement for optimized image quality while simultaneously following the ALARA principle, we found modality-dependent dose requirements, which we had expected but which have now been compiled for the first time for Austria.

  14. Passive compact molten salt reactor (PCMSR), modular thermal breeder reactor with totally passive safety system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harto, Andang Widi [Engineering Physics Department, Faculty of Engineering, Gadjah Mada University (Indonesia)


    Design Study Passive Compact Molten Salt Reactor (PCMSR) with totally passive safety system has been performed. The term of Compact in the PCMSR name means that the reactor system is designed to have relatively small volume per unit power output by using modular and integral concept. In term of modular, the reactor system consists of three modules, i.e. reactor module, turbine module and fuel management module. The reactor module is an integral design that consists of reactor, primary and intermediate heat exchangers and passive post shutdown cooling system. The turbine module is an integral design of a multi heating, multi cooling, regenerative gas turbine. The fuel management module consists of all equipments related to fuel preparation, fuel reprocessing and radioactive handling. The preliminary calculations show that the PCMSR has negative temperature and void reactivity coefficient, passive shutdown characteristic related to fuel pump failure and possibility of using natural circulation for post shutdown cooling system.

  15. Advanced research reactor fuel development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Kyu; Pak, H. D.; Kim, K. H. [and others


    The fabrication technology of the U{sub 3}Si fuel dispersed in aluminum for the localization of HANARO driver fuel has been launches. The increase of production yield of LEU metal, the establishment of measurement method of homogeneity, and electron beam welding process were performed. Irradiation test under normal operation condition, had been carried out and any clues of the fuel assembly breakdown was not detected. The 2nd test fuel assembly has been irradiated at HANARO reactor since 17th June 1999. The quality assurance system has been re-established and the eddy current test technique has been developed. The irradiation test for U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} dispersed fuels at HANARO reactor has been carried out in order to compare the in-pile performance of between the two types of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} fuels, prepared by both the atomization and comminution processes. KAERI has also conducted all safety-related works such as the design and the fabrication of irradiation rig, the analysis of irradiation behavior, thermal hydraulic characteristics, stress analysis for irradiation rig, and thermal analysis fuel plate, for the mini-plate prepared by international research cooperation being irradiated safely at HANARO. Pressure drop test, vibration test and endurance test were performed. The characterization on powders of U-(5.4 {approx} 10 wt%) Mo alloy depending on Mo content prepared by rotating disk centrifugal atomization process was carried out in order to investigate the phase stability of the atomized U-Mo alloy system. The {gamma}-U phase stability and the thermal compatibility of atomized U-16at.%Mo and U-14at.%Mo-2at.%X(: Ru, Os) dispersion fuel meats at an elevated temperature have been investigated. The volume increases of U-Mo compatibility specimens were almost the same as or smaller than those of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}. However the atomized alloy fuel exhibited a better irradiation performance than the comminuted alloy. The RERTR-3 irradiation test of nano

  16. Hydrodynamics of multi-phase packed bed micro-reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Márquez Luzardo, N.M.


    Why to use packed bed micro-reactors for catalyst testing? Miniaturized packed bed reactors have a large surface-to-volume ratio at the reactor and particle level that favors the heat- and mass-transfer processes at all scales (intra-particle, inter-phase and inter-particle or reactor level). If the

  17. Progress of China Experimental Fast Reactor in 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    1 Background Fast reactor is the reactor which realized the chain fission with fast neutron.As an optional type of generation Ⅳ reactor,fast reactor has three characters:1) It can change 238U to 239Pu and raise the uranium resource utilization

  18. Uncertainties in the Anti-neutrino Production at Nuclear Reactors


    Djurcic, Z.(Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois, 60439, U.S.A.); Detwiler, J. A.; Piepke, A.; Foster Jr., V. R.; Miller, L.; Gratta, G.


    Anti-neutrino emission rates from nuclear reactors are determined from thermal power measurements and fission rate calculations. The uncertainties in these quantities for commercial power plants and their impact on the calculated interaction rates in electron anti-neutrino detectors is examined. We discuss reactor-to-reactor correlations between the leading uncertainties and their relevance to reactor anti-neutrino experiments.

  19. Ex-vessel Steam Explosion Analysis for Pressurized Water Reactor and Boiling Water Reactor


    Matjaž Leskovar; Mitja Uršič


    A steam explosion may occur during a severe accident, when the molten core comes into contact with water. The pressurized water reactor and boiling water reactor ex-vessel steam explosion study, which was carried out with the multicomponent three-dimensional Eulerian fuel–coolant interaction code under the conditions of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Steam Explosion Resolution for Nuclear Applications project reactor exercise, is presented and discussed. In ...

  20. 29 March 2012 - Austrian Niederösterreich Governor E. Pröll with Klubobmann and Chairman of EBG MedAustron GmbH Council K. Schneeberger, Director General for Cultural Policy Amabssador M.Eichtinger and Permanent Representative of Austria to the UNO and Austrian Delegate to CERN Council Ambassador C. Strohal in the MedAustron facility at CERN building 184.

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer


    CERN-HI-1203078 01 - 13: visit of LINAC 3 with M. Benedikt CERN-HI-1203078 14 - 20: in the Roy Billinge room CERN-HI-1203078 21- 22: visit of the LEIR accelerator in building 354 CERN-HI-1203078 23 - 55: signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer and Head of International Relations F. Pauss CERN-HI-1203078 56 - 99: in building 184, Governor Pröll and CERN Director-General R. Heuer switch on the MedAustron ion source to produce the proton beam; visit MedAustron facility. CERN-HI-1203078 32:from left to right: Klubobmann and Chairman of EBG MedAustron GmbH Council K. Schneeberger; Director-General R. Heuer;Niederösterreich Governor E. Pröll;Head of International Relations F. Pauss;Permanent Representative of Austria to the UNO and Austrian Delegate to CERN Council Ambassador C. Strohal.

  1. Optimization of a sequence of reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui


    Concerns the optimal production of sulphuric acid in a sequence of reactors. Using a suitable approximation to the objective function, this problem can easily be solved using the maximum principle. A numerical example documents the applicability of the suggested approach...

  2. The Bifurcation Behavior of CO Coupling Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐艳; 马新宾; 许根慧


    The bifurcation behavior of the CO coupling reactor was examined based on the one-dimensional pseudohomogeneous axial dispersion dynamic model. The method of finite difference was used for solving the boundary value problem; the continuation technique and the direct method were applied to determine the bifurcation diagram.The effects of dimensionless adiabatic temperature rise, Damkoehler number, activation energy, heat transfer coefficient and feed ratio on the bifurcation behavior were investigated. It was shown that there existed static bifurcation and the oscillations did not occur in the reactor. The result also revealed that the reactor exhibited at most 1-3-1 multiplilicity patterns within the range of practical possible parameters and the measures, such as weakening the axial dispersion of reactor, enhancing heat transfer, decreasing the concentration of ethyl nitrite, were efficient for avoiding the possible risk of multiple steady states.

  3. Heat pipe reactors for space power applications (United States)

    Koenig, D. R.; Ranken, W. A.; Salmi, E. W.


    A family of heat pipe reactors design concepts has been developed to provide heat to a variety of electrical conversion systems. Three power plants are described that span the power range 1-500 kWe and operate in the temperature range 1200-1700 K. The reactors are fast, compact, heat-pipe cooled, high-temperature nuclear reactors fueled with fully enriched refractory fuels, UC-ZrC or UO2. Each fuel element is cooled by an axially located molybdenum heat pipe containing either sodium or lithium vapor. Virtues of the reactor designs are the avoidance of single-point failure mechanisms, the relatively high operating temperature, and the expected long lifetimes of the fuel element components.

  4. Reactor Antineutrinos: From Confusion to Clarity (United States)

    Dwyer, Dan


    Antineutrinos emitted by nuclear reactors have been a powerful tool for particle physics, demonstrating the existence of these weakly-interacting particles as well as their flavor oscillation. Despite these successes, our understanding of the total flux and energy spectra of reactor antineutrinos has been fraught with problems. I will give a brief overview of the unexpected developments in this field, and discuss upcoming measurements of antineutrinos, beta decays, and nuclear fission which are relevant to these questions. These measurements are expected to clarify many currently murky issues, including the hypothetical oscillation of reactor antineutrinos to sterile states. The results should also provide a unique perspective into the nuclear physics of fission reactors. DOE OHEP DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  5. Chemical reactor modeling multiphase reactive flows

    CERN Document Server

    Jakobsen, Hugo A


    Chemical Reactor Modeling closes the gap between Chemical Reaction Engineering and Fluid Mechanics.  The second edition consists of two volumes: Volume 1: Fundamentals. Volume 2: Chemical Engineering Applications In volume 1 most of the fundamental theory is presented. A few numerical model simulation application examples are given to elucidate the link between theory and applications. In volume 2 the chemical reactor equipment to be modeled are described. Several engineering models are introduced and discussed. A survey of the frequently used numerical methods, algorithms and schemes is provided. A few practical engineering applications of the modeling tools are presented and discussed. The working principles of several experimental techniques employed in order to get data for model validation are outlined. The monograph is based on lectures regularly taught in the fourth and fifth years graduate courses in transport phenomena and chemical reactor modeling, and in a post graduate course in modern reactor m...

  6. µ-reactors for Heterogeneous Catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Robert

    catalyst surface area by reacting off an adsorbed layer of oxygen with CO. This procedure can be performed at temperatures low enough that sintering of Pt nanoparticles is not an issue. Some results from the reactors are presented. In particular an unexpected oscillation phenomenon of CO-oxidation on Pt...... nanoparticles are presented in detail. The sensitivity of the reactors are currently being investigated with CO oxidation on Pt thin films as a test reaction, and the results so far are presented. We have at this point shown that we are able to reach full conversion with a catalyst area of 38 µm2 with a turn......This thesis is the summary of my work on the µ-reactor platform. The concept of µ-reactors is presented and some of the experimental challenges are outlined. The various experimental issues regarding the platform are discussed and the actual implementation of three generations of the setup...

  7. Corrosion Minimization for Research Reactor Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Shaber; Gerard Hofman


    Existing university research reactors are being converted to use low-enriched uranium fue to eliminate the use of highly-enriched uranium. These conversions require increases in fuel loading that will result in the use of elements with more fuel plates, resulting in a net decrease in the water annulus between fuel plates. The proposed decrease in the water annulus raises questions about the requirements and stability of the surface hydroxide on the aluminum fuel cladding and the potential for runaway corrosion resulting in fuel over-temperature incidents. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), as regulator for these university reactors, must ensure that proposed fuel modifications will not result in any increased risk or hazard to the reactor operators or the public. This document reviews the characteristics and behavior of aluminum hydroxides, analyzes the drivers for fuel plate corrosion, reviews relevant historical incidents, and provides recommendations on fuel design, surface treatment, and reactor operational practices to avoid corrosion issues.

  8. Interactions of Pellet with Reactor Relevant Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENGLilin; DENGBaiquan; YANJiancheng


    Extended algorithm has been developed for ablation rate calculations of Li, Be, B impurity pellets and five combinations of solid isotopic hydrogenic H2, HD, D2, DT, T2 pellets. Numerical calculations have been performed for reactor relevant plasma.

  9. Autonomous Control of Space Nuclear Reactors Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Nuclear reactors to support future lunar and Mars robotic and manned missions impose new and innovative technological requirements for their control and protection...

  10. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frances M. Marshall; Jeff Benson; Mary Catherine Thelen


    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is a large test reactor for providing the capability for studying the effects of intense neutron and gamma radiation on reactor materials and fuels. The ATR is a pressurized, light-water, high flux test reactor with a maximum operating power of 250 MWth. The INL also has several hot cells and other laboratories in which irradiated material can be examined to study material irradiation effects. In 2007 the US Department of Energy (DOE) designated the ATR as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) to facilitate greater access to the ATR and the associated INL laboratories for material testing research by a broader user community. This paper highlights the ATR NSUF research program and the associated educational initiatives.


    The Spouted Bed Reactor (SBR) technology utilizes the unique attributes of the "spouting " fluidization regime, which can provide heat transfer rates comparable to traditional fluid beds, while providing robust circulation of highly heterogeneous solids, concurrent with very agg...

  12. Molten salt reactors - safety options galore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gat, U. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dodds, H.L. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)


    Safety features and attributes of molten salt reactors (MSR) are described. The unique features of fluid fuel reactors of on-line continuous processing and the ability for so-called external cooling result in simple and safe designs with low excess reactivity, low fission product inventory, and small source term. These, in turn, make a criticality accident unlikely and reduce the severity of a loss of coolant to where they are no longer severe accidents. A melt down is not an accident for a reactor that uses molten fuel. The molten salts are stable, non-reactive and efficient heat transfer media that operate at high temperatures at low pressures and are highly compatible with selected structural materials. All these features reduce the accident plethora. Freeze valves can be used for added safety. An ultimate safe reactor (U.S.R) is described with safety features that are passive, inherent and non-tamperable (PINT).

  13. Steady State Analysis of Small Molten Salt Reactor : Effect of Fuel Salt Flow on Reactor Characteristics


    Yamamoto, Takahisa; MITACHI, Koshi; Suzuki, Takashi


    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is a thermal neutron reactor with graphite moderation and operates on the thorium-uranium fuel cycle. The feature of the MSR is that fuel salt flows inside the reactor during the nuclear fission reaction. In the previous study, the authors developed numerical model with which to simulate the effects of fuel salt flow on the reactor characteristics. In this study, we apply the model to the steady-state analysis of a small MSR system and estimate the effects of fue...

  14. Development of technology for next generation reactor - Development of next generation reactor in Korea -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Kyun; Chang, Moon Heuy; Hwang, Yung Dong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)] [and others


    The project, development of next generation reactor, aims overall related technology development and obtainment of related license in 2001. The development direction is to determine the reactor type and to build up the design concept in 1994. For development trend analysis of foreign next generation reactor, level-1 PSA, fuel cycle analysis and computer code development are performed on System 80+ and AP 600. Especially for design characteristics analysis and volume upgrade of AP 600, nuclear fuel and reactor core design analysis, coolant circuit design analysis, mechanical structure design analysis and safety analysis etc. are performed. (Author).

  15. A fast and flexible reactor physics model for simulating neutron spectra and depletion in fast reactors (United States)

    Recktenwald, Geoff; Deinert, Mark


    Determining the time dependent concentration of isotopes within a nuclear reactor core is central to the analysis of nuclear fuel cycles. We present a fast, flexible tool for determining the time dependent neutron spectrum within fast reactors. The code (VBUDS: visualization, burnup, depletion and spectra) uses a two region, multigroup collision probability model to simulate the energy dependent neutron flux and tracks the buildup and burnout of 24 actinides, as well as fission products. While originally developed for LWR simulations, the model is shown to produce fast reactor spectra that show high degree of fidelity to available fast reactor benchmarks.

  16. Developments and Tendencies in Fission Reactor Concepts (United States)

    Adamov, E. O.; Fuji-Ie, Y.

    This chapter describes, in two parts, new-generation nuclear energy systems that are required to be in harmony with nature and to make full use of nuclear resources. The issues of transmutation and containment of radioactive waste will also be addressed. After a short introduction to the first part, Sect. 58.1.2 will detail the requirements these systems must satisfy on the basic premise of peaceful use of nuclear energy. The expected designs themselves are described in Sect. 58.1.3. The subsequent sections discuss various types of advanced reactor systems. Section 58.1.4 deals with the light water reactor (LWR) whose performance is still expected to improve, which would extend its application in the future. The supercritical-water-cooled reactor (SCWR) will also be shortly discussed. Section 58.1.5 is mainly on the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which offers efficient and multipurpose use of nuclear energy. The gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR) is also included. Section 58.1.6 focuses on the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) as a promising concept for advanced nuclear reactors, which may help both to achieve expansion of energy sources and environmental protection thus contributing to the sustainable development of mankind. The molten-salt reactor (MSR) is shortly described in Sect. 58.1.7. The second part of the chapter deals with reactor systems of a new generation, which are now found at the research and development (R&D) stage and in the medium term of 20-30 years can shape up as reliable, economically efficient, and environmentally friendly energy sources. They are viewed as technologies of cardinal importance, capable of resolving the problems of fuel resources, minimizing the quantities of generated radioactive waste and the environmental impacts, and strengthening the regime of nonproliferation of the materials suitable for nuclear weapons production. Particular attention has been given to naturally safe fast reactors with a closed fuel cycle (CFC

  17. A comparison of radioactive waste from first generation fusion reactors and fast fission reactors with actinide recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, M.; Kazimi, M.S.


    Limitations of the fission fuel resources will presumably mandate the replacement of thermal fission reactors by fast fission reactors that operate on a self-sufficient closed fuel cycle. This replacement might take place within the next one hundred years, so the direct competitors of fusion reactors will be fission reactors of the latter rather than the former type. Also, fast fission reactors, in contrast to thermal fission reactors, have the potential for transmuting long-lived actinides into short-lived fission products. The associated reduction of the long-term activation of radioactive waste due to actinides makes the comparison of radioactive waste from fast fission reactors to that from fusion reactors more rewarding than the comparison of radioactive waste from thermal fission reactors to that from fusion reactors. Radioactive waste from an experimental and a commercial fast fission reactor and an experimental and a commercial fusion reactor has been characterized. The fast fission reactors chosen for this study were the Experimental Breeder Reactor 2 and the Integral Fast Reactor. The fusion reactors chosen for this study were the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and a Reduced Activation Ferrite Helium Tokamak. The comparison of radioactive waste parameters shows that radioactive waste from the experimental fast fission reactor may be less hazardous than that from the experimental fusion reactor. Inclusion of the actinides would reverse this conclusion only in the long-term. Radioactive waste from the commercial fusion reactor may always be less hazardous than that from the commercial fast fission reactor, irrespective of the inclusion or exclusion of the actinides. The fusion waste would even be far less hazardous, if advanced structural materials, like silicon carbide or vanadium alloy, were employed.

  18. Environmental Information Document: L-reactor reactivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr. (comp.)


    Purpose of this Environmental Information Document is to provide background for assessing environmental impacts associated with the renovation, restartup, and operation of L Reactor at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). SRP is a major US Department of Energy installation for the production of nuclear materials for national defense. The purpose of the restart of L Reactor is to increase the production of nuclear weapons materials, such as plutonium and tritium, to meet projected needs in the nuclear weapons program.

  19. Oscillation Parameters with forthcoming Reactor Neutrino Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Lasserre, Thierry


    I review the status of the forthcoming reactor neutrino experiments that toe the cutting edge of neutrino oscillation research. Kilometer baseline oscillation experiments (Double Chooz, Daya Bay, and Reno) will soon play a relevant role providing clean information on the last undetermined neutrino mixing angle !13. A 50-70 km baseline reactor neutrino experiment could later provide the best sensitivity to the !12 mixing angle.

  20. Advanced Reactors Transition Program Resource Loaded Schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GANTT, D.A.


    The Advanced Reactors Transition (ART) Resource Loaded Schedule (RLS) provides a cost and schedule baseline for managing the project elements within the ART Program. The Fast Flux Test Facility (FETF) activities are delineated through the end of FY 2000, assuming continued standby. The Nuclear Energy (NE) Legacies and Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) activities are delineated through the end of the deactivation process. This revision reflects the 19 Oct 1999 baseline.