WorldWideScience

Sample records for austrian organizations

  1. Austrian highlights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Simon

    2001-01-01

    An overview of recent development in the Austrian hydroelectric industry is presented, and details of the installed capacity, the Austrian government's power market reform package, and the promotion of small-scale hydroelectric power plants are given. The operation of Verbund - Austria's largest power generator and distributor - and the restructuring of the Verbund's main Austrian Hydro Power (AHP) generating group are discussed. The export of power, the joint venture of Verbund with CIR Energia in Italy to market power to commercial and industrial users, and the controversy surrounding the Freudenau run-of-the river plant which successfully tested a matrix turbine are reported

  2. Austrian natural scientists in exile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1978-01-01

    This text was written by E. Broda for the international symposium for exploration of the Austrian exile from 1934 to 1945 (“Internationales Symposiums zur Erforschung des österreichischen Exils von 1934 bis 1945”) in the year 1978. The article is about the specific problems of the Austrian scientific landscape, caused by the political events in the first half of the 20th century. The focus is primarily on the enormous ‘brain drain’, triggered by political repression in the period of Nazi rule (1938 - 1945), the Austro-fascism period (1934 - 1938) and the economic regression, anti-intellectual and anti-Semitic sentiment in the Country since 1918. The article emphasizes the importance of exile organizations, such as the ‘Free Austrian Movement’ or the ‘Association of Austrian Engineers, Chemists and Scientific Workers in Great Britain’ for the reconstruction of a scientific culture in Austria, after the Second World War. (rössner) [de

  3. The Austrian Space Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseiner, K.; Balogh, W.

    2002-01-01

    After several years of preparation and discussion among the involved players, the Austrian Space Plan was approved for implementation in November 2001. Based on careful benchmarking and analysis of the capabilities of the Austrian space sector it aims to create excellent conditions for the sector's further development. The new space strategy embraces Austria's participation in the mandatory and optional programmes of the European Space Agency and establishes a National Space Programme supported by separate funding opportunities. A set of clearly-defined indicators ensures that the progress in implementing the Space Plan can be objectively judged through independent, annual reviews. The National Space Programme promotes international cooperation in space research and space activities with the aim to strengthen the role of space science and to better prepare Austrian space industry for the commercial space market. In the framework of the Space Plan the Austrian Space Agency has been tasked with integrating the industry's growing involvement in aeronautics activities to better utilize synergies with the space sector. This paper reviews the various steps leading to the approval of the new space strategy and discusses the hurdles mastered in this process. It reports on the Space Plan's first results, specifically taking into account projects involving international cooperation. For the first the Austria aerospace-sector can rely on an integrated strategy for aeronautics- and space activities which is firmly rooted in the efforts to enhance the country's R&D activities. It may also act as a useful example for other small space- using countries planning to enhance their involvement in space activities.

  4. Organizations and Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.; Linder, Stefan

    Austrian economics focuses on markets, but has much to say about organizations. In particular, Austrian insights on the structure of production, the heterogeneity and subjectivity of resources, the nature of uncertainty, the role of monetary calculation, and the function of the entrepreneur provide...... solid foundations for a distinctly Austrian theory of organizations. We review these insights, discuss recent literature on Austrian economics and the theory of the firm, and suggest new directions for developing and extending an Austrian approach to organizations....

  5. Austrian Thinking on International Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.

    1988-01-01

    After mentioning Mises' few contributions to international monetary economics I first review Hayek's views on international economics. I then try to find out if Haberler's and Machlup's contributions to international economics do show any special Austrian traits. After that, I turn to Schumpeter.

  6. Visit of the Austrian Ambassador

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    The Austrian Ambassador Wolfgang Petritsch (light raincoat) learns about superconducting magnets at the LHC magnet test facility in building SM18 during a visit to CERN. The blue pipe-like structure in the left background is String 2: the 120-m long full-scale model of an LHC cell, which is used to test LHC systems.

  7. Mr. Wolfgang Petritsch, Austrian Ambassador

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    Dr.Peter Schmid/CERN/EP, Dr.Wolfgang Petritsch, Austrian Ambassador, Permanent representative at UN, Mrs.Nora Petritsch, Dr.Kurt Hubner/CERN/AC, Mrs. Frederike Klaus-Salesin, Adviser, Mrs.Andrea Strohmeier, Secretary of the Ambassador, Mr.Heinz Klaus, Attaché, Dr.Theodor Tortschanoff/CERN/LHC, Mr.Peter Storer, Advisor. Dr.Peter Schmid/CERN/EP, Dr.Wolfgang Petritsch, Austrian Ambassador, Permanent representative at UN, Mrs.Nora Petritsch, Dr.Kurt Hubner/CERN/AC, Mrs. Frederike Klaus-Salesin, Adviser, Mrs.Andrea Strohmeier, Secretary of the Ambassador, Mr.Heinz Klaus, Attaché, Dr.Theodor Tortschanoff/CERN/LHC, Mr.Peter Storer, Advisor.

  8. Síndrome de Austrian

    OpenAIRE

    Midon,Márcio Estevão; Goldoni,Fernando; Souza,Sylvian Greicy Rocha; Miyasato,Jan Norimitsu Schiemann

    2011-01-01

    Neste relato, é descrito o caso de um paciente masculino, 64 anos, sem história de etilismo, que se apresentou com a Tríade de Osler, que consiste no desenvolvimento de endocardite, pneumonia e meningite, por um mesmo agente. A síndrome é denominada síndrome de Austrian, quando a infecção for por Streptococcus pneumoniae. Serão discutidas as manifestações clínicas, fisiopatológicas e a terapêutica mais adequada para esse quadro. Tendo em vista a raridade do caso e a elevada morbimortalidade, ...

  9. Financial Capability of Austrian Households

    OpenAIRE

    Pirmin Fessler; Martin Schürz; Karin Wagner; Beat Weber

    2007-01-01

    Based on a survey by the Oesterreichische Nationalbank (OeNB) in 2004, this paper aims to assess Austrian households’ financial capability with respect to managing money, planning ahead financially, making financial choices and staying informed. People’s attitudes about money often depend on their education, income and age. A higher level of education, income and age tends to go hand in hand with a more positive financial attitude. The OeNB’s survey, however, revealed that, in the case of Aus...

  10. The Forgotten Austrian Economics Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bianca Vieru

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In light of the current events, namely the crisisthat economy has to face for quite someyears now, plenty of questions are raised, not only among specialists in the field but also amongordinary people as they prove to be most impoverished by these imbalances. Thus, this paper aims, asa first objective, to explain, froma general perspective and using an inductive-subjectivemethodology based on a brief survey as well as on observation, two of the most important causes that,according to the Austrian Business Cycle Theory, are the leading motives for triggering crises. Weare referring particularly to an excessivestate interventionismmanifested throughout itsexpansionary monetary policy.Secondly, we seek to establish the interconnections between theseelements and the case of the Great Depression as well as the current recession. The results we cameacross point out towards the same pattern designed by the Austrian economists, although thecircumstances are, each time, different. Hence, the contribution of this paper consists of handling thedetails that surround the subject by extracting only the essential aspects regarding the triggering ofcrises; we refer to the main ideas that need to be underlined for a better comprehension of the topic.

  11. Austrian emission inventory for dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winiwarter, W.; Trenker, C.; Hoeflinger, W.

    2001-09-01

    For the first time, Austrian emissions of anthropogenic particulate matter emissions to the atmosphere have been estimated. Results have been reported as total suspended particles (TSP) as well as for the fractions of particles smaller than 10 μm or 2.5 μm aerodynamic diameter (PM 10 , PM 2.5 ), respectively. Base years for the inventory were 1990, 1995 and 1999. Excluded from this assessment is wind blown dust, which has been considered a natural source here. National statistics have been applied, specifically those also used previously in the Austrian air pollution inventory (OLI). Emission factors have been taken from literature compilations, only for exceptional cases specific Austrian assessments were performed or original literature on emission measurements was consulted. Resuspension of dust by road traffic emerged as the most important source. For the size fraction of PM 10 this source contributed about half of the emissions, when applying the calculation scheme by the U.S. EPA. While this scheme is widely used and well documented, its validity is currently subject of intense scientific debate. As these results do not seem to coincide with ambient air measurements, resuspension of road dust is considered separately and not now included in the national total. The sum of all other sources increases from 75,000 t of TSP in 1990 and 1995 to 77,000 t in 1999, while both PM 10 and PM 2.5 exhibit decreasing tendency (at 45,000 t and 26,000 t in 1999, respectively). The increase in TSP derives from increasing traffic and friction related emissions (tire wear, break wear), decrease of the finer particulate matter is due to reductions in firewood consumption for domestic heating. Most important source sectors are fugitive emissions from material transfer in industry as well as the building industry and the tilling of agricultural land. Common to these sources is the high uncertainty of available data. Wood combustion is the most important of the non

  12. The consumer in Austrian economics and the Austrian perspective on consumer policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leen, A.R.

    1999-01-01

    In this thesis I examined the place of the competitive-entrepreneurial consumer in Austrian economic thought. For a neoclassical economist, competition among consumers is hard to find. For an Austrian economist, however, it is a necessity. The introduction puts forward the problem that although an

  13. Nuclear hazard scenarios for Austria. Comparative assessment of nuclear hazard scenarios for planning purposes by the Austrian army

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueck, K.; Sdouz, G.; Weimann, G.

    2000-12-01

    In order to provide for an optimum protection of the population in case of a wide-spread contamination, in particular in case of a reactor accident, the determined deployment and co-operation of various organizations and institutions of the federal and provincial governments is required. In scenarios where civil authorities have reached the limit of their deployment, a special role is attributable to the Austrian Army which may take over important tasks in that case and is the only Austrian institution who is able to perform these tasks for a prolonged period of time. To be able to perform this task in a reliable and optimum way, the potential accident scenarios and the resulting possible consequences on the Austrian territory are assessed and described. This should enable those responsible in the Austrian army to assess the required capacity of resources. Furthermore, comparisons with other wide-spread contamination as well as their causes are presented and possible trends in the future are discussed. In addition, the scenarios elaborated in the study shall serve as a base for further investigations of the possibilities of the Austrian Army with its equipment and personal training to give optimal assistance to the Austrian state and its citizens in catastrophic situations. They shall serve further as base for further investigations of possible improvements in the equipment and the training status as well as a possible extension of the utilization of existing measurement and operational equipment at disposition to the Austrian Army. (author)

  14. The Austrian school in Bulgaria: A history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Nenovsky

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study is to highlight the acceptance, dissemination, interpretation, criticism and make some attempts at contributing to Austrian economics made in Bulgaria during the last 120 years. We consider some of the main characteristics of the Austrian school, such as subjectivism and marginalism, as basic components of the economic thought in Bulgaria and as incentives for the development of some original theoretical contributions. Even during the first few years of Communist regime (1944–1989, with its Marxist monopoly over intellectual life, the Austrian school had some impact on the economic thought in the country. Subsequent to the collapse of Communism, there was a sort of a Renaissance and rediscovery of this school. Another contribution of our study is that it illustrates the adaptability and spontaneous evolution of ideas in a different and sometimes hostile environment.

  15. The Continuing Relevance of Austrian Capital Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2012-01-01

    The article presents a speech by Professor Nicolai J. Foss of Copenhagen Business School, delivered at the Austrian Scholars Conference held on March 8, 2012 in Auburn, Alabama, in which he discussed the knowledge essays by economist Friedrich A. von Hayek, the concept of capital theory and the w......The article presents a speech by Professor Nicolai J. Foss of Copenhagen Business School, delivered at the Austrian Scholars Conference held on March 8, 2012 in Auburn, Alabama, in which he discussed the knowledge essays by economist Friedrich A. von Hayek, the concept of capital theory...... and the works of Hayek on political philosophy and cultural evolution....

  16. Networking for Education for Sustainable Development in Austria: The Austrian ECOLOG-Schools Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Franz

    2016-01-01

    This case describes networking for education for sustainable development within the Austrian ECOLOG-schools network. The article presents theoretical concepts of networks in education in general, and the organization of the ECOLOG-network in particular. Based upon these foundations, the concept and results of a participatory evaluation study are…

  17. Natural radionuclides in Austrian mineral waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallner, G.

    2009-01-01

    The activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 210 Pb, 210 Po as well as 238 U and 234 U in Austrian mineral waters were measured and the doses to the public were calculated. Radium isotopes (and 210 Pb), 210 Po and uranium isotopes are isolated from the sample and measured by LSC and α-spectroscopy. (orig.)

  18. The Austrian x red pine hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. B. Critchfield

    1963-01-01

    The genetic improvement of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) presents tree breeders with one of their most difficult problems. Not only is this valuable species remarkably uniform, but until 1955 it resisted all attempts to cross it with other pines. In that year red pine and Austrian pine (P. nigra var. austriaca [...

  19. The Austrian Toxoplasmosis Register, 1992-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prusa, Andrea-Romana; Kasper, David C; Pollak, Arnold; Gleiss, Andreas; Waldhoer, Thomas; Hayde, Michael

    2015-01-15

    We aimed to determine the incidence of primary gestational infections with Toxoplasma gondii and congenital toxoplasmosis in Austria, a country with a nationwide prenatal serological screening program since 1974. We analyzed retrospective data from the Austrian Toxoplasmosis Register of pregnant women with Toxoplasma infection and their offspring with births between 1992 and 2008, identified by the prenatal mandatory screening program. Treatment was administered to women from diagnosis of a Toxoplasma infection until delivery. Infected infants were treated up to 1 year of life routinely. Clinical manifestations in infected infants were monitored at least for 1 year and documented in the register. The Austrian Toxoplasmosis Register included 2147 pregnant women with suspected Toxoplasma infection. Annually, 8.5 per 10 000 women acquired Toxoplasma infection during pregnancy, and 1.0 per 10 000 infants had congenital toxoplasmosis (13% mean transmission rate). Our data showed that women treated according to the Austrian scheme had a 6-fold decrease in the maternofetal transmission rate compared to women without treatment. Results from the Austrian Toxoplasmosis Register show the efficiency of the prenatal screening program. Our results are of clinical relevance for infants, healthcare systems, and policy makers to consider preventive Toxoplasma screening as a potential tool to reduce the incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. The voice of Austrians at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    On 7 May the Austrian Minister for Science announced that, after over 50 years of membership, Austria would withdraw from CERN. By 18 May the Austrian Chancellor had reversed the decision. The Bulletin spoke to some of the Austrian community at CERN about the rollercoaster of events in between. var flash_video_player=get_video_player_path(); insert_player_for_external('Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056-0753-kbps-640x360-25-fps-audio-64-kbps-44-kHz-stereo', 'mms://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056-Multirate-200-to-753-kbps-640x360-25-fps.wmv', 'false', 533, 300, 'https://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056-posterframe-640x360-at-10-percent.jpg', '1180837', true, 'Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056-0600-kbps-maxH-360-25-fps-audio-128-kbps-48-kHz-stereo.mp4'); To watch this video in German click here. There was jubil...

  1. Indications for liver transplantation in adults : Recommendations of the Austrian Society for Gastroenterology and Hepatology (ÖGGH) in cooperation with the Austrian Society for Transplantation, Transfusion and Genetics (ATX).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziadei, Ivo; Zoller, Heinz; Fickert, Peter; Schneeberger, Stefan; Finkenstedt, Armin; Peck-Radosavljevic, Markus; Müller, Helmut; Kohl, Claudia; Sperner-Unterweger, Barbara; Eschertzhuber, Stephan; Hofer, Harald; Öfner, Dietmar; Tilg, Herbert; Vogel, Wolfgang; Trauner, Michael; Berlakovich, Gabriela

    2016-10-01

    Liver transplantation has emerged as an established and well-accepted therapeutic option for patients with acute and chronic liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma. The disproportion between recipients and donors is still an ongoing problem that has only been solved partially over the last centuries. For several patients no life-saving organs can be distributed. Therefore, objective and internationally established recommendations regarding indication and organ allocation are imperative. The aim of this article is to establish evidence-based recommendations regarding the evaluation and assessment of adult candidates for liver transplantation. This publication is the first Austrian consensus paper issued and approved by the Austrian Society of Gastroenterology and Hepatology in cooperation with the Austrian Society of Transplantation, Infusion and Genetics.

  2. First results of the Austrian radon mitigation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maringer, F.J.; Akis, N.G.; Kaineder, H.

    1998-01-01

    Objectives of the Austrian radon mitigation research project were to find cost-effective methods for characterizing the radon situation of dwellings and to evaluate the implementation of remedial actions for Austrian house types. Three houses in regions with elevated radon levels were closely examined. The methods used for radon diagnosis and the mitigation concept are described. The conception and implementation of proposed remedial actions are highlighted. Preliminary results of the investigations and remedial actions are presented. (A.K.)

  3. Publications of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf 1976-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranz, F.; Nevyjel, A.

    1989-02-01

    About 3000 publications, written by staff members of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf (OEFZS) within the period 1976-1985 are cited. The bibliography includes citations of journal articles, proceedings, books, technical reports as well as dissertations and diploma works, carried out in Seibersdorf by students of Austrian universities. It covers the subject areas of chemistry, physics, biology, radiation protection, reactor safety, isotope applications, materials technology, environmental research, mathematics and information, electronics and agriculture. 10 refs. (Author)

  4. Language Management Strategies in Austrian and Slovenian SMES

    OpenAIRE

    Igor Rižnar; Robert Rybnicek

    2017-01-01

    According to the ELAN study and a substantial body of previous research, a significant amount of business is being lost in the eu due to a lack of language skills. In our article, we analyse how Austrian and Slovenian small and medium-sized enterprises (SMES) adopt language management strategies (LMSS). We investigate, by means of a questionnaire sent to Slovenian and Austrian SMES, how aware they are of the elan findings, what language strategies they have adopted and wheth...

  5. PEGASUS - An Austrian Nanosatellite for QB50

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharlemann, Carsten; Seifert, Bernhard; Kohl, Dominik; Birschitzky, David; Gury, Lionel; Kerschbaum, Franz; Obertscheider, Christof; Ottensamer, Roland; Reissner, Alexander; Riel, Thomas; Sypniewski, Richard; Taraba, Michael; Trausmuth, Robert; Turetschek, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    PEGASUS - An Austrian Nanosatellite for QB50 C. Scharlemann* David Birschitzky* Lionel Gury*, Franz Kerschbaum~, Dominik Kohl#, Christof Obertscheider*, Roland Ottensamer~, Alexander Reissner+, Thomas Riel#, B. Seifert+, Richard Sypniewski*, Michael Taraba?, Robert Trausmuth*, Thomas Turetschek?, …. (*)University of Applied Sciences Wiener Neustadt, Austria (+)FOTEC GmbH, Wiener Neustadt, Austria (+) Spaceteam, TU Wien, Austria (~) University Wien, Wien, Austria The QB50 project is an international project with the goal to send up to 50 Nanosatellites, a.k.a. CubeSat, into the Thermosphere. The scientific goal of this mission is to monitor over a period of up to nine months the prevailing conditions in this rather unknown part of Earth's atmosphere. Each of the 50 nanosatellites will be equipped with one of three possible scientific instruments: (i) a set of Langmuir probes, (ii) atomic oxygen measurement device, (iii) ion/neutral mass spectrometer. All satellites will be launched together and released in a string-of-pearls type fashion. It is predicted that the satellites will drift apart rather rapidly following the release. Therefore, the QB50 missions offers the possibility of a measurement grid in the thermosphere of unprecedented scope and accuracy. One of the satellites, named PEGASUS, is designed and build by a team of Austrian researches and students. PEGASUS will be equipped with the aforementioned Langmuir probes and will provide information about essential properties of the plasma in the thermosphere such as the electrontemperature and -density. In order to ensure the capability to collect and downlink the data over several months, PEGASUS requires about the same types of subsystems as one would find on large-scale satellites. This includes an attitude control system, an on-board computer, telecommunication devices, an electrical power systems allowing to harvest the solar power and either distribute or store it for later use, a thermal control system

  6. Cornerstones of the Austrian radon risk communication strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunte, A.; Ringer, W.

    2015-01-01

    On behalf of the Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management (BMLFUW), the National Radon Centre of Austria developed the National Radon Risk Communication Strategy. The superior goal is the reduction of the radon exposure of Austrian citizens as well as the reduction of radon-related lung cancer deaths. Austria, like many other countries, follows the approach to raise awareness and to inform the public to achieve this goal. The presented strategy deals with the question of how radon protection issues can be communicated to the public, existing fears can be reduced and affected people can be motivated to take action (perform a radon test, if necessary, mitigate or install preventive measures in new buildings). The cornerstones of the National Radon Risk Communication Strategy can be summarized as follows: - Definition of communication goals - Identification and categorization of target groups - Development of specific key messages for each of the target groups - Determination of communication channels and assessment of their efficiency - Integration of the radon issue in education and training - Cooperation with relevant organizations and platforms. The communication objectives, target groups and communication paths (and their evaluation) will be discussed during the presentation in detail.

  7. 52. Annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippitsch, M.

    2002-01-01

    The 52th Symposium of the Austrian Physical Society was held from 23.-26. September 2002 at the Montan University of Leoben (Austria). The papers presented were organized under the following sessions: main session (intermetallic materials, nanostructures as sensors, volcanic products as dating materials); Fritz-Kohlrausch-price 2002 (electronic structure and charge transfer in doped single-walled carbon nanotubes), Max-Auwaerter-price 2002 ( growth phenomena of thin overlayers on semiconductor surfaces), Viktor-Hess-price 2002 (analysis of rare Ke4 - decays), Roman-Ulrich-Sexl-price 2002 (experienced physics); acoustics; atomic-, molecular- and plasma physics (plasma ion mass spectrometers, proton-transfer-reaction-mass-spectrometry, radiation damage, electron-molecule interactions, decay); solid physics (nanoopticcs, nanocrystalline magnetic materials, nanostructure, nanoelectronics); nuclear and particle physics (CP-violations, neutral kaons, quark-antiquark systems, QCD, kaonic atoms spectroscopy, hadronic decay, long-lived radionuclides); medical-, bio-and environmental physics (biological radiation damage, photons therapy, Med-AUSTRON, doses rate, endovascular brachytherapy); physics-industry-energy (ski-simulation, acoustic surface wave); neutrons and synchrotron radiation physics (neutron quantum interferometry, AUSTRON, synchrotron-induced x-ray analysis); polymer physics(micro-Raman spectroscopy, x-ray analysis); quantum electronics, electrodynamics and optics (solid-state lasers, doped lasers, quantum purification and teleportation, Bose-Einstein condensates, quantum optics, Talbot-Lau interferometry, neutron quantum phases) and two poster sessions with topics dealing with the subjects above mentioned. Those contributions which are in the INIS subject scope are indexed separately. (nevyjel)

  8. HORA - an Austrian platform for natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlatky, T.

    2009-04-01

    HORA - an Austrian platform for natural hazards as a new way in risk communication One initiatives launched in Austria demonstrate that public participation not only bears the risk of a partial transfer of responsibility by the authorities; it may above all prepare the ground for entirely new approaches and create new links. The recent installation of the first internet risk zoning system in Austria underscores the importance of involving private parties in natural disaster protection. This public-private partnership (PPP) between the Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management (BMLFUW) and the Austrian Insurance Association (VVO) was launched in the wake of the 2002 flood disaster. The first project phase, the Austrian flood risk zoning system called HORA (screenshot see fig. 1), has now been accessible on the Web since 1st June 2006. In accordance with a risk partnership concluded between federal government, insurance companies and private parties, the project initiators seek to offer the public a preliminary risk assessment tool for evaluation of their home, industrial enterprise, of infrastructure. Digital risk maps shall provide information on 30-year, 100-year and 200-year flood events as they occur alongside the 26.000-km-long domestic river network. The probability with which a certain block of land is immersed in water during a flood event can be calculated by means of hydraulic engineering methods. These have traditionally relied on statistical figures, which are known to be very inaccurate, especially when major events such as flooding are concerned. The Vienna University of Technology (TU) (Institute of Hydraulic and Water Resources Engineering) has dedicated many years to developing more accurate, process oriented risk assessment techniques. The starting points was to identify different flood-triggering processes and to divide them into specific categories as long-duration rainfalls, short-duration rainfalls, storms

  9. Natural radionuclides in Austrian bottled mineral waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriele Wallner; Tania Jabbar

    2010-01-01

    All commercially available mineral waters of Austrian origin were investigated with regard to the natural radionuclides 228 Ra, 226 Ra, 210 Pb, 210 Po, 238 U and 234 U. From 1 to 1.5 L of sample the nuclides were extracted and measured sequentially: the radium isotopes as well as 210 Pb were measured by liquid scintillation counting after separation on a membrane loaded with element-selective particles (Empore Radium Disks), 210 Po was determined by α-particle spectroscopy after spontaneous deposition onto a copper planchette and uranium was determined also by α-particle spectroscopy after anion separation and microprecipitation with NdF 3 . The calculated committed effective doses for adults, teens and babies were compared to the total indicative dose of 0.1 mSv/year given in the EC Drinking Water Directive. The dominant portion of the committed effective dose was due to 228 Ra. Highly mineralised waters showed also higher 226 Ra and 228 Ra levels. (author)

  10. Austrian Economics and the Transaction Cost Approach to the Firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai J. Foss

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available As the transaction cost theory of the firm was taking shape in the 1970s, another important movement in economics was emerging: a revival of the ‘Austrian’ tradition in economic theory associated with such economists as Ludwig von Mises and F. A. Hayek (1973; Dolan, 1976; Spadaro, 1978. As Oliver Williamson has pointed out, Austrian economics is among the diverse sources for transaction cost economics. In particular, Williamson frequently cites Hayek (e.g., Williamson, 1985, p. 8; 1991, p. 162, particularly Hayek’s emphasis on adaptation as a key problem of economic organisation (Hayek, 1945. Following Williamson’s lead, a reference to Hayek’s ‘The Use of Knowledge in Society’ (Hayek, 1945 has become almost mandatory in discussions of economic organisation (e.g., Ricketts, 1987, p. 59; Milgrom and Roberts, 1992, p. 56; Douma and Schreuder 1991, p. 9. However, there are many other potential links between Austrian and transaction cost economics that have not been explored closely and exploited.This article argues that characteristically Austrian ideas about property, entrepreneurship, economic calculation, tacit knowledge, and the temporal structure of capital have important implications for theories of economic organisation, transaction cost economics in particular. Austrian economists have not, however, devoted substantial attention to the theory of the firm, preferring to focus on business-cycle theory, welfare economics, political economy, comparative economic systems, and other areas. Until recently the theory of the firm was an almost completely neglected area in Austrian economics, but over the last decade, a small Austrian literature on the firm has emerged. While these works cover a wide variety of theoretical and applied topics, their authors share the view that Austrian insights have something to offer students of firm organisation.

  11. This year the CERN Accelerator School returned to Austria after an interval of ten years and organized its Basic Accelerator Physics course together with the Austrian Academy of Sciences (HEPHY) in Baden, near Vienna, from 12-24 September, 2004.

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The school was a resounding success with 95 students of more than 20 different nationalities attending. This particularly high attendance is very satisfying and confirms the strong interest in accelerator physics among young scientists. Feedback from the students praised the expertise of the lecturers, the high standard of the lectures as well as the pleasant environment and excellent organization.

  12. The new Austrian dosimetry standard laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duftschmid, K.E.

    1977-01-01

    A dosimetry laboratory has recently been established in Austria in cooperation between the Austrian Bureau of Standards and the Research Center Seibersdorf. It fullfills the task of a national radiation standard as well as calibration center for protection and therapy dosimeters. The design concept, irradiation facilities and equipment, are described. The building consists of a large protection-level hall (20x8 m), a therapy level bunker (8x4 m) and a central measuring and control room. In addition four general purpose labs are situated in an adjacent part of the building. The protection level hall houses an X-ray machine (Philips MG 420) especially modified to operate in a wide range of tube voltage and current. A gamma radiation facility containing six radionuclide sources up to 10 Ci 60 Co is also provided. Both irradiation units emit a parallel beam through the length axis of the hall along a common measuring track of 20 m length with a three-dimensional remote positioning system. The therapy level room is shielded to permit a 5 kCi 60 Co source in a teletherapy head (PICKER C8M/80) and a 250 kV therapy X-ray machine (Siemens Stabilipan). It also powers a soft X-ray tube (5 - 60 kV) mounted on an optical bench. For batch calibration of personnel dosimeters in circular geometry a pneumatic exposure assembly with selection of four sources is used. The measuring equipment mainly uses secondary standard ionization chamber instruments and three parallel-plate free-air chambers for the energy range 5-400 kV. The later addition of a calorimeter is planned. A laboratory is now in the set-up and test phase and should be in full operation by late 1977

  13. An Austrian framework for PET quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicoletti, R.; Dobrozemsky, G.; Minear, G.; Bergmann, H.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The European patient protection directive (97/43 EURATOM) requires regular routine quality control (QC) of PET imaging devices. Since no standards were available covering this area and in order to comply with the directive a joint working party of the Austrian societies of nuclear medicine and of medical physics have developed a set of procedures suitable for both dedicated PET scanners and gamma cameras operating in coincidence mode (GCPET). The routine procedures proposed include both manufacturer recommended procedures and tests for specific parameters and calibration procedures. Wherever possible, procedures adapted or derived from NEMA standards publication NU 2-2001 were used to permit direct comparison with specified parameters of image quality. For dedicated PET scanners the most important procedures are the checking of detector sensitivities and the attenuation calibration scan. With full ring scanners the attenuation calibration scan is a blank scan, with partial ring devices a special attenuation calibration phantom has to be used. Test protocols are specific to manufacturer and scanner type. They are usually performed automatically overnight. In addition, some instruments require special calibrations, e.g. gain adjustments or coincidence timing calibration. GCPET procedures include the frequent assessment in coincidence mode of detector uniformity, energy resolution and system sensitivity. Common to both dedicated PET and GCPET are the regular quarterly assessment of tomographic spatial resolution and the calibration of the system for quantitative measurements. As a total performance test for both systems assessment of image quality following NU 2-2001 was included, to be carried out after major system changes or repairs. The suite of QC procedures was tested on several dedicated PET and GCPET systems including all major manufacturers' systems. Due to missing hardware or software not all tests could be performed on all systems. Some of the

  14. Report 1985 of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf. Abridged version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwach, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    The report gives a short survey of the work carried out by the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf in 1985. The working programme comprises five main areas: Energy and safety; Materials research, isotope and radiation techniques; Measuring techniques and information processing; Environmental protection, health and food; Industrial consulting. (Author)

  15. Forecasting Austrian national elections: The Grand Coalition model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichholzer, Julian; Willmann, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    Forecasting the outcomes of national elections has become established practice in several democracies. In the present paper, we develop an economic voting model for forecasting the future success of the Austrian ‘grand coalition’, i.e., the joint electoral success of the two mainstream parties SPOE and OEVP, at the 2013 Austrian Parliamentary Elections. Our main argument is that the success of both parties is strongly tied to the accomplishments of the Austrian system of corporatism, that is, the Social Partnership (Sozialpartnerschaft), in providing economic prosperity. Using data from Austrian national elections between 1953 and 2008 (n=18), we rely on the following predictors in our forecasting model: (1) unemployment rates, (2) previous incumbency of the two parties, and (3) dealignment over time. We conclude that, in general, the two mainstream parties benefit considerably from low unemployment rates, and are weakened whenever they have previously formed a coalition government. Further, we show that they have gradually been losing a good share of their voter basis over recent decades. PMID:26339109

  16. 48. annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Netzer, F.P.

    1998-01-01

    This volume contains short communications of lectures and posters of the 48 th Symposium of the Austrian Physical Society which had been held at the University of Graz (Austria) in 1998. The following topics are included: atomic physics, molecular physics, plasma physics, solid state physics, nuclear and particle physics, polymer physics, biophysics, environmental physics, quantum electronics and quantum optics. (Suda)

  17. 45. Annual Convention of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This volume contains lectures of the 45 th symposium of the Austrian Physical Society which had been held in Leoben, Austria in 1995. The following topics are included: Atomic physics, molecular physics, plasma physics, solid state physics, nuclear and particle physics, biophysics, environmental physics, quantum electronics and quantum optics. (Suda)

  18. 50. Annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippitsch, M.E.

    2000-01-01

    The conference held from 25. - 29. 9. 2000 at the University of Graz was elaborated by the Austrian society of physics in the fields of solid state physics, polymers physics, quantum electronics, electrodynamics, optics, nuclear and particle physics, atomic, molecules and plasma physics, acoustics, physics - industry - energy and physics teaching. (botek)

  19. English, French, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese? Code Choice and Austrian Export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavric, Eva; Back, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    This article deals with how "export oriented Austrian companies effect code choice in their business relationships with customers from Romance language speaking countries". The focus lies on the most widespread Romance languages, therefore on French, Spanish, Italian and Portuguese speaking customers.The question of code choice in export…

  20. 47. annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutschera, W.

    1997-01-01

    This volume contains lectures (short communications) of the 47. symposium of the Austrian Physical Society which had been held at the University of Vienna (Austria) in 1997. The following topics are included: atomic physics, molecular physics, plasma physics, solid state physics, nuclear and particle physics, biophysics, environmental physics, quantum electronics and quantum optics. (Suda)

  1. 49. annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blatt, R.; Maerk, T.

    1999-01-01

    This volume contains short communications of lectures and poster sessions of the 49th symposium of the Austrian Physical Society which has been held at the University of Innsbruck (Austria) in 1999. The following topics are included: atomic physics, molecular physics, plasma physics, solid state physics, nuclear and particle physics, polymer physics, biophysics, environmental physics, quantum electronics and quantum optics. (Suda)

  2. Holocaust Studies in Austrian Elementary and Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittnik, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    This article presents arguments in support of teaching about the Holocaust and Nazism in Austria at an early age. To accomplish this, Austrian and German elementary school textbooks were analyzed for the amount of content dealing with the Holocaust and Jews; the results showed that since 1980 the amount of content on the Holocaust increased in…

  3. Crowdsourcing Austrian data on decomposition with the help of citizen scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandén, Taru; Berthold, Helene; Schwarz, Michael; Baumgarten, Andreas; Spiegel, Heide

    2017-04-01

    Decay of organic material, decomposition, is a critical process for life on earth. Through decomposition, food becomes available for plants and soil organisms that they use in their growth and maintenance. When plant material decomposes, it loses weight and releases the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere. Terrestrial soils contain about three times more carbon than the atmosphere and, therefore, changes in the balance of soil carbon storage and release can significantly amplify or attenuate global warming. Many factors affecting the global carbon cycle are already known and mapped; however, an index for decomposition rate is still missing, even though it is needed for climate modelling. The Tea Bag Index (TBI) measures decomposition in a standardised, achievable, climate-relevant, and time-relevant way by burying commercial nylon tea bags in soils for three months (Keuskamp et al., 2013). In the summer of 2016, TBI (expressed as decomposition rate (k) and stabilisation index (S)) was measured with the help of Austrian citizen scientists at 7-8 cm soil depth in three different land uses (maize croplands, grasslands and forests). In total ca. 2700 tea bags were sent to the citizen scientists of which ca. 50% were returned. The data generated by the citizen scientists will be incorporated into an Austrian as well as a global soil map of decomposition. This map can be used as input to improve climate modelling in the future.

  4. Hospital admissions for traumatic brain injury of Austrian residents vs. of visitors to Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauritz, Walter; Brazinova, Alexandra; Majdan, Marek; Leitgeb, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    The goal was to compare epidemiology of hospital admissions for traumatic brain injury (TBI) in Austrian residents vs. visitors to Austria. Data on all hospital admissions due to TBI (ICD-10 codes S06.0-S06.9; years 2009-2011) was provided by the Austrian Statistical Office. Data on Austrian population and on tourism (visitor numbers, nights spent) was retrieved from www.statistik.at . Age, sex, mechanism of injury, season and mortality was analysed for Austrian residents vs. visitors. Visitors contributed 3.9% to the total population and 9.2% of all TBI cases. Incidence of hospital admissions was 292/100,000/year in Austrian residents and was 727/100,000/year in visitors. Male:female ratio was 1.39:1 in Austrian residents and 1.55:1 in visitors. Austrian cases were older than visitors' cases (mean age 41 vs. 28 years). Austrian cases were distributed evenly over the seasons, while 75% of the visitors' cases happened during winter and spring. The most frequently observed causes of TBI in Austrian residents were private accidents, while sports caused almost half of the visitors' cases. Hospital mortality was lower in visitors than in Austrian residents (0.8 vs. 2.1%). Sports-related TBI of visitors causes a significant workload for Austrian hospitals. Better prevention is warranted.

  5. Gazing behavior reactions of Vietnamese and Austrian consumers to Austrian wafers and their relations to wanting, expected and tasted liking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Thi Minh Hang; Tu, Viet Phu; Duerrschmid, Klaus

    2018-05-01

    Predictability of consumers' food choice based on their gazing behavior using eye-tracking has been shown and discussed in recent research. By applying this observational technique and conventional methods on a specific food product, this study aims at investigating consumers' reactions associated with gazing behavior, wanting, building up expectations, and the experience of tasting. The tested food products were wafers from Austria with hazelnut, whole wheat, lemon and vanilla flavors, which are very well known in Austria and not known in Vietnam. 114 Vietnamese and 128 Austrian participants took part in three sections: The results indicate that: i) the gazing behavior parameters are highly correlated in a positive way with the wanting-to-try choice; ii) wanting to try is in compliance with the expected liking for the Austrian consumer panel only, which is very familiar with the products; iii) the expected and tasted liking of the products are highly country and product dependent. The expected liking is strongly correlated with the tasted liking for the Austrian panel only. Differences between the reactions of the Vietnamese and Austrian consumers are discussed in detail. The results, which reflect the complex process from gazing for "wanting to try" to the expected and tasted liking, are discussed in the context of the cognitive theory and food choice habits of the consumers. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. [Pain care in Austrian health care centers: Questionnaire study on the current status of Austrian pain clinics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, I-S; Bornemann-Cimenti, H; Messerer, B; Vittinghoff, M; Sandner-Kiesling, A

    2015-12-01

    Pain clinics provide interdisciplinary therapy to treat chronic pain patients and to increase the return-to-work rate. In recent years and due to increased economic pressure in health care, a change in the management of pain in Austrian health care centers has been observed. For the analysis of the current situation, two surveys addressing all Austrian pain clinics were performed. In total, 133 heads of Austrian Anesthesia Departments were interviewed online and personally. The data from the first interview were confirmed by an additional telephone survey that was performed by one anesthetist per Austrian state (n = 9). Currently, 44 Austrian pain clinics are active. During the last 5 years, 9 pain clinics closed. Adding the current active pain clinics together, they represent a total of 17.5 full-time-operated clinics. The most common reasons for closing the pain clinics were lack of personnel (47%), lack of time resources (26%), lack of space resources (11%), and financial difficulties (11%). A reduction of >50% of operating hours during the last 3 years was reported by 9 hospitals. The reasons for not running a pain clinic were lack of personnel (36%), lack of time (25%) and department too small (16%). Estimates between actual and required clinics indicate that 49.5 full-time-operating pain clinics are lacking in Austria, resulting in 74% of the Austrian chronic pain patients not receiving interdisciplinary pain management. Our survey confirmed the closure of 9 pain clinics during the last 5 years due to lack of personnel and time. Pain clinics appear to provide the simplest economic saving potential. This development is a major concern. Although running a pain clinic seems to be expensive at the first sight, it reduces pain, sick leave, complications, and potential legal issues against health care centers, while simultaneously increasing the hospital's competitiveness. Our results show that 74% of Austrian chronic pain patients do not have access to an

  7. Austrian Transition to Open Access“ 2017–2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer, Bruno

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In December the higher education structural funds project (Hochschulraumstrukturmittelprojekt “Austrian Transition to Open Access (AT2OA“ was authorised by the Austrian Federal Ministry of Science, Research and Economy. The 21 public universities cooperate on this project running from 2017 to 2020 in order to promote open access through concerted measures. Constitutive on OANA’s “suggestions for the implementation of Open Access in Austria” published in 2015 four subprojects have been developed. These subprojects’ main focuses are drafting an expert’s report about the financial impact of a total adjustment to open access on a national and institutional basis, the extension of existing consortium licences with an open access component, establishment of an open access publishing fund as well as the promotion of open access monographs and suitable open access infrastructures.

  8. Asymmetric Mutual Social Perception of Austrians and Germans: A Social Identity Approach Assessing Implicit and Explicit Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Renner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Whereas Austrians tend to perceive Germans as "competent but cold", Germans tend to see Austrians as "incompetent but nice" in the sense of Fiske's Stereotype Content Model. With respect to the unequal distribution of power between Austria and Germany, which outnumbers Austria by approximately the tenfold population, Social Identity Theory (SIT predicts that Austrians will tend to devalue Germans, attempting to preserve their self-esteem and cultural identity, whereas Germans will perceive Austrians more positively. We tested this expectation with N = 31 Austrian and N = 49 German students at an Austrian university. Our hypotheses of asymmetrical mutual attitudes and massive devaluation of Germans by Austrians were confirmed by the Implicit Association Test, whereas on adjective lists as an explicit measure, Austrians described Germans more favourably, obviously out of a desire not to appear prejudiced. The results support SIT and have important implications for the development of Austrian academic education.

  9. Austrian Security Strategy: Need For Reformulation Due To Security Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-14

    mandatory service and volunteer militia officer training, he attended professional officer training at the Theresian Military Academy in Wr. Neustadt...Austrian Security Strategy (ASS) - including an excursus on the European Security Strategy 2015-2020 - the current security situation in Austria and...the European Union (EU), and the parliamentary debate in 2011 and 2013. I have also analyzed the opinions of various security institutes and articles

  10. The Swiss-Austrian Alliance for Mountain Research

    OpenAIRE

    Scheurer, Thomas; Björnsen, Astrid; Borsdorf, Axel; Braun, Valerie; Weingartner, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    Switzerland and Austria are committed to addressing sustainable mountain development in Europe through a joint effort. In June 2013, more than 140 researchers as well as representatives of the 2 countries' funding ministries participated in the “Mountain Days” event in Mittersill, Austria, thereby marking the official launch of the Swiss-Austrian Alliance. The resulting Mittersill Commitment Paper highlights 8 research areas and calls for international cooperation between mountain researchers...

  11. Austrian Households’ Financial Wealth: An Analysis Based on Microeconomic Data

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Beer; Peter Mooslechner; Martin Schürz; Karin Wagner

    2006-01-01

    Microeconomic data on households are providing increasingly important information for many economic policy issues. This study presents the results of a survey conducted by the Oesterreichische Nationalbank on Austrian households’ financial wealth. The descriptive presentation of household financial wealth also covers data on household debt and investment. Household income is shown to have a significant influence on the level of financial assets. The results of logit estimates and a cluster an...

  12. Holocaust Studies in Austrian Elementary and Secondary Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp Mittnik

    2016-01-01

    This article presents arguments in support of teaching about the Holocaust and Nazism in Austria at an early age. To accomplish this, Austrian and German elementary school textbooks were analyzed for the amount of content dealing with the Holocaust and Jews; the results showed that since 1980 the amount of content on the Holocaust increased in Germany, and to a lesser extent in Austria. The article reviews some of the criticism in Europe of the term Holocaust Education and explores some of...

  13. The Austrian Research Centers activities in energy risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sdouz, Gert

    1998-01-01

    Among the institutions involved in energy analyses in Austria the risk context is being treated by three different entities: the Energy Consumption Agency, internationally known as EVA, the Federal Environmental Protection Agency, or Urnweltbundesarnt assessing mainly the environmental risks involved and the Austrian Research Centers, working on safety and risk evaluation. The Austrian Research Center Seibersdorf draws form its proficiency in Reactor Safety and Fusion Research, two fields of experience it has been involved in since its foundation, for some 40 years now. Nuclear energy is not well accepted by the Austrian population. Therefore in our country only energy systems with advanced safety level might be accepted in the far future. This means that the development of methods to compare risks is an important task. The characteristics of energy systems featuring advanced safety levels are: A very low hazard potential and a focus on deterministic safety instead of probabilistic safety, meaning to rely on inherently safe physics concepts, confirmed by probabilistic safety evaluation results. This can be achieved by adequate design of fusion reactors, advanced fission reactors and all different renewable sources of energy

  14. Language Management Strategies in Austrian and Slovenian SMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Rižnar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the ELAN study and a substantial body of previous research, a significant amount of business is being lost in the eu due to a lack of language skills. In our article, we analyse how Austrian and Slovenian small and medium-sized enterprises (SMES adopt language management strategies (LMSS. We investigate, by means of a questionnaire sent to Slovenian and Austrian SMES, how aware they are of the elan findings, what language strategies they have adopted and whether the knowledge of English is sufficient for their successful business operations on global markets. The findings show that Slovenian exporting SMES are not completely aware of the benefits a language management strategy could bring to their business operations on foreign markets. In contrast, Austrian exporting SMES are more likely to provide language training for their staff, employ native speakers, and use local agents for their language needs considerably more often, as well as use the services of professional translators and interpreters almost three times more often.

  15. THE FUNCTIONS OF VIENNESE DIALECT IN THE WORKS OF MODERN AUSTRIAN FICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukshis Vadim Andreevich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of definition of linguistic status of the Austrian dialects and their functions in Austrian fiction continues to preserve the academic value. The main peculiarities of Viennese dialect are given, the conclusions of its status among the other Austrian dialects are made in the article, the characteristic features of the functions of the Viennese dialect are given in the works of Austrian fiction. The author of the article proceeds from the position that the Viennese dialect is the important stylistic means and makes the conclusion about its functions in the works of Austrian fiction. Three novels and one story of modern Austrian writers have been selected for the analysis: H. Anderle (The Worthy Funeral. The Mortal Histories, E. Menasse (Vienna, F. Nabl (Edhof, P Campa (The Second Travel. The article studies four functions of Viennese dialect based on the research of the texts of the Austrian fiction works. The analysis based on the utterances of the heroes helped to prove that Austrian writers use the Viennese dialect as 1 means of marking the regional characteristics; 2 means of marking the age; 3 means of marking the social type and 4 means of emotions expression. The research of the speech of the heroes permitted to reveal the most common Viennese words and expressions and demonstrate their role in the texts not only as the means of creating the speech portrait of the heroes but only the markers of the originality of modern Austrian German.

  16. State aid in the Austrian electricity industry law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehulka, J.

    2009-01-01

    The present work deals with the existence of State aid in the Austrian electricity industry and focuses on three selected areas of the Austrian legal system, which are examined for their compatibility with Community law. Subject of the first part of this work is a representation of the article 87 ff Treaty of Rome and its impact on Austrian provisions on the promotion of electricity from renewable energies or on the promotion of cogeneration energy. In this context, the first principles of the European state aid law and in particular the European Court are presented regarding the existence of State aid. Here, the Rsp of the Court in connection with the use of State resources in the Rs PreussenElektra Stardust Marine and Pearle is paid in connection with para-fiscal levies special attention. The evaluation of the Austrian support model is based on PreussenElektra, Stardust Marine and Pearle. Then the system of green electricity production in Austria represented. In addition to the Community law principles (green power directive, frameworks and guidelines for environmental aid) is here in particular the 'Oekostromgesetz' and treated it's novellas. It is an intensive discussion with the Commission's decisions on the compatibility of the green power and CHP funding and the funding of the countries with state aid rules. As part of this analysis is to attempt a classification of the Commission's practice in the Community legal system. The second part of the work deals with the determination of absorbed. System utilization rates and their distribution to the network operator. After a presentation of the Community legislation (EC regulations, the internal electricity market directives) and Rsp of the European Court of Justice (Case ADBHu, Ferring, Altmark Trans) to services of general economic interest is first attempted to determine the presence of these services in the 216 Austrian legislation. Here, the question will be, entrusted with services of general economic

  17. European Publication issues from an Austrian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    CLAUS-CHRISTIAN CARBON

    2009-01-01

    Publishing in Austria faces several barriers: Austria (1) has a small number of scientists compared with the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) average and only recently benefited from higher research intensities, (2) it has not yet made the full switch to English as lingua franca, (3) it has not yet developed an efficient Open-Access strategy, (4) it has a lower number of journal gatekeepers than expected by publication output, (5) it faces several legal barriers w...

  18. Austrian education governance restructuring during Maria Theresa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Teodora BIRIŞ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During the reign of Maria Theresa, education on the Habsburg territory has seen a real growth period.In this regard, a number of legislative measures were taken which were concerned with the type of schools and the education shape, the organization of their teaching methods, the value of learning subjects, assessment modalities, the shape of the graduation studies and the possibility of continuing studies.A very important decision was to introduce compulsory education to primary cycle, which also allowed poor children access to education.For most people, the "rescuing" measure had been both for those established schools for children whose parents labored in factories or mines and for schools with disabled children, who previously had not access to regular schools.

  19. Dual model of vocational education: Austrian example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomić Milica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dual education, as a form of secondary vocational education means that education and practical training are held on two locations - in school and in a company (organization, factory and that these two institutions jointly participate in the realization of vocational education. The paper presents an account of the functioning of dual education in Austria. In that framework special attention was paid to law regulations in this field, the modes of dual education, progression through the system and the perspectives of the young in the labour market. Among the key features of dual education which are, at the same time, considered the factors of its successfulness, the following stand out: active role of social partners in the conceptualization and realization of vocational education; intensive practical training of high quality; systemic interrelatedness of vocational schools and firms where practical training is provided, the compliance of the offer of educational profiles and the needs of labour market; the system of stimulation for the firms that provide professional training for students, clear legislation and the system of professional qualifications. Yet, the challenges of dual educations are not neglected in the paper.

  20. Religion and suicide risk in lesbian, gay and bisexual Austrians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralovec, Karl; Fartacek, Clemens; Fartacek, Reinhold; Plöderl, Martin

    2014-04-01

    Religion is known to be a protective factor against suicide. However, religiously affiliated sexual minority individuals often report a conflict between religion and sexual identity. Therefore, the protective role of religion against suicide in sexual minority people is unclear. We investigated the effect of religion on suicide risk in a sample of 358 lesbian, gay and bisexual Austrians. Religion was associated with higher scores of internalized homophobia, but with fewer suicide attempts. Our data indicate that religion might be both a risk and a protective factor against suicidality in religiously affiliated sexual minority individuals.

  1. Some remarks on the Austrian radiation protection legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetter, H.

    1979-01-01

    Some of the provisions of the Austrian Radiation Protection Law and Radiation Protection Ordinance differ from those recommended by ICRP and IAEO. This is particularly true for the definition of working conditions, the categorization of radiation areas and the classification of radiation workers. It is suggested that the responsible authorities when considering a revision of the legislation in the light of ICRP 26 and the revised IAEA Basic Safety Standards, also study the desirability of adapting the currently applicable provisions to the universally accepted international norms. (Auth.)

  2. Scientific support, soil information and education provided by the Austrian Soil Science Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Sigbert; Baumgarten, Andreas; Birli, Barbara; Englisch, Michael; Tulipan, Monika; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie

    2015-04-01

    The Austrian Soil Science Society (ASSS), founded in 1954, is a non-profit organisation aiming at furthering all branches of soil science in Austria. The ASSS provides information on the current state of soil research in Austria and abroad. It organizes annual conferences for scientists from soil and related sciences to exchange their recent studies and offers a journal for scientific publications. Annually, ASSS awards the Kubiena Research Prize for excellent scientific studies provided by young scientists. In order to conserve and improve soil science in the field, excursions are organized, also in cooperation with other scientific organisations. Due to well-established contacts with soil scientists and soil science societies in many countries, the ASSS is able to provide its members with information about the most recent developments in the field of soil science. This contributes to a broadening of the current scientific knowledge on soils. The ASSS also co-operates in the organisation of excursions and meetings with neighbouring countries. Several members of the ASSS teach soil science at various Austrian universities. More detail on said conferences, excursions, publications and awards will be given in the presentation. Beside its own scientific journal, published once or twice a year, and special editions such as guidebooks for soil classification, the ASSS runs a website providing information on the Society, its activities, meetings, publications, awards and projects. Together with the Environment Agency Austria the ASSS runs a soil platform on the internet. It is accessible for the public and thus informs society about soil issues. This platform offers a calendar with national and international soil events, contacts of soil related organisations and networks, information on national projects and publications. The society has access to products, information material and information on educational courses. Last but not least information on specific soil

  3. 4th February 2011 - Austrian Academy of Sciences President H. Denk visiting CMS underground area with Collaboration Spokesperson G. Tonelli, Austrian Academy of Sciences Secretary General A. Suppan, CERN Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Director, High Energy Physics Laboratory, Austrian Academy of Sciences C Fabjan.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    4th February 2011 - Austrian Academy of Sciences President H. Denk visiting CMS underground area with Collaboration Spokesperson G. Tonelli, Austrian Academy of Sciences Secretary General A. Suppan, CERN Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Director, High Energy Physics Laboratory, Austrian Academy of Sciences C Fabjan.

  4. Occurrence of Six Honeybee Viruses in Diseased Austrian Apiaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berényi, Olga; Bakonyi, Tamás; Derakhshifar, Irmgard; Köglberger, Hemma; Nowotny, Norbert

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence, prevalence, and distribution patterns of acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), black queen cell virus (BQCV), chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV), deformed wing virus (DWV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV), and sacbrood virus (SBV) were investigated in 90 Austrian honeybee colonies suffering from symptoms of depopulation, sudden collapse, paralysis, or dark coloring by employing reverse transcription-PCR. Infestation with parasites was also recorded. The samples originated from all parts of Austria. The most prevalent virus was DWV, present in 91% of samples, followed by ABPV, SBV, and BQCV (68%, 49%, and 30%, respectively). CBPV was detected in 10% of colonies, while KBV was not present in any sample. In most samples, more than one virus was identified. The distribution pattern of ABPV, BQCV, CBPV, and SBV varied considerably in the different geographic regions investigated, while DWV was widespread in all Austrian federal states. In bees that showed dark coloring and disorientation, CBPV was always detected. Simultaneous infections of DWV and ABPV were most frequently observed in colonies suffering from weakness, depopulation, and sudden collapse. Bees obtained from apparently healthy colonies within the same apiaries showed a similar distribution pattern of viruses; however, the relative virus load was 10 to 126 times lower than in bees from diseased colonies. A limited number of bee samples from surrounding central European countries (Germany, Poland, Hungary, and Slovenia) were also tested for the presence of the above viruses. Variances were found in the distribution of BQCV and SBV. PMID:16597939

  5. 69 The Multicultural Education in Bucovina during the Austrian Domination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Baltag

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1775, the territory of Bucovina became part of the Habsburg monarchy and it stayed like that for 143 years. All throughout this period when the Romanians lived here next to Ukrainians, Germans, Jews and other nationalities, the Austrian government took into consideration their need for culture, which resulted in the development of a multicultural teaching system. This implied that the languages of teaching in the Bukovinian schools were: Latin, Greek, Romanian, Ukrainian and, more often than not, German. Although the weighty presence of the German language in the academic institutions limited the number of young Romanians in schools, the teaching in German enabled the access of the Bukovinian students to the great European universities from Vienna, Salzburg, Lemberg, Kraków or Prague, before the founding of the Chernivtsi University (1875. Thus, beyond the negative aspects of the separation of this territory from Romania, the Austrian occupation represented an effervescent period from a cultural viewpoint, which lent a specific identity to the teaching system in Bukovina.

  6. Information systems for administration, clinical documentation and quality assurance in an Austrian disease management programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Peter; Truskaller, Thomas; Rakovac, Ivo; Bruner, Fritz; Zanettin, Dominik; Pieber, Thomas R

    2009-01-01

    5.9% of the Austrian population is affected by diabetes mellitus. Disease Management is a structured treatment approach that is suitable for application to the diabetes mellitus area and often is supported by information technology. This article describes the information systems developed and implemented in the Austrian disease management programme for type 2 diabetes. Several workflows for administration as well as for clinical documentation have been implemented utilizing the Austrian e-Health infrastructure. De-identified clinical data is available for creating feedback reports for providers and programme evaluation.

  7. Meeting blindly… Is Austrian economics useful for dynamic capabilities theory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Shastitko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper relates competition studies and views on competition policy within Austrian economics to the dynamic capabilities theory. The idea of interacting research programs in economics is used to provide the frame for reflecting on particular issues of competition, on the one hand, and (1 ignorance, (2 knowledge (including tacit knowledge, (3 rationality, (4 equilibrium, (5 innovation, (6 entrepreneurship, and (7 monopoly, on the other hand. Unlike the majority of previous studies, these issues are discussed here mainly through the lens of new institutional economics. Williamson's three-level scheme is used to explain opportunities and constraints for mutually enriching exchange of concepts between different but close approaches in economic research. This paper shows that there are important interconnections and complementarities despite significant differences in objects of study and weak mutual flows of ideas and concepts.

  8. 64th Annual Meeting of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The 64th Annual Meeting of the Austrian physical society, including a special topical Energy Day. was held at the Echophysics – European Centre for the History of Physics, Schloss Pöllau 1, 8225 Pöllau, Austria. The plenary sessions gave an overview of the present status of research in quantum mechanics, particle physics and solid state physics.The topical sessions were dedicated to: nuclear and particle physics; atoms, molecules, quantum optics and plasmas; solid state physics and research with neutron and synchrotron radiation; history of physics; surfaces, interfaces and thin films; nanostructures; fundamental interactions; gravity, quantum chromodynamics; particle theory and collider physics; detectors and methods. Those contributions which are in the INIS subject scope are indexed individually

  9. 51. Annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberhummer, H.

    2001-01-01

    The 51th Symposium of the Austrian Physical Society was held from 17-21 September 2001 at the Technical University of Vienna (Austria). The topics covered deal with: energy (greenhouse effect, climatic change, environment protection, energy system transformation, innovative energy technologies), neutrons and synchrotron radiation, quantum mechanics, microscopy, accelerator-driven systems, physics aspects of radiotherapy, nano world, micro cosmos, modern physics, life in the universe, x-ray fluorescence, heavy-ion accelerator mass spectrometry, acoustics, atomic-, molecular- and plasma physics, solid-state physics, nuclear and particle physics, medical-, bio-and environmental physics, quantum electronics, electrodynamics and optics. Those contributions which are in the INIS subject scope are indexed separately. (nevyjel)

  10. Survey of microfungi in the Kleinwalsertal (Austrian alps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, M; Ale-Agha, N; Brassmann, M

    2008-01-01

    During an excursion to the Alps near the German/Austrian border (Kleinwalsertal) in August 2007, we were able to collect more than 40 species of microfungi as parasites or saprophytes on different parts of wild plants. Some of them have been observed only rarely until now. Most of the species collected belong to the classes Ascomycotina, Basidiomycotina, and Deuteromycotina. For example: -Leptosphaeria jaceae Holm on Centaurea jacea L.; -Mycosphaerella equiseticola Bond.-Mont. on Equisetum telmateia Ehrh.; -Erysiphe cichoracearum DC. on Adenostyles alliariae (Gouan) Kerner, Centaurea phrygia, Cicerbita alpina (L.) Wallr.; -Podosphaera fusca (Fr.) U. Braun comb. nov. on Petasites paradoxus (Retz.) Baumg. and Senecio alpinus (L.) Scop.; -Pirottaea veneta Sacc. and Speg. on Lamium maculatum L.; -Coleosporium tussilaginis (Pers.) Kleb. on Adenostyles alliariae, Petasites paradoxus; -Puccinia mulgedii (West.) Syd. on Cicerbita alpinl; -Titleospora equiseti (Desm.) Vassil., -Stagonospora equiseti Fautr. on Equisetum telmateia, -Valdensia heterodoxa Peyronel on Cicerbita alpina.

  11. A Thought Experiment Comparing Austrian and Keynesian Stimulus Packages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir Kraus

    Full Text Available Essentially, there are two competing views of how to overcome an economy-wide recession/depression. The Austrian view understands the free-play of competition as the most potent means to overcome the short-run mismatch between an excessive boom-level of nominal wages/prices and depressed crisis-level volume of aggregate spending. In the Keynesian view, the disastrous mismatch between desired saving and planned investment inherent in capitalist economies requires the government to step in and take up the burden of spending to infuse the lacking demand for products and labor.The thought experiment presented in the paper is designed to provide the reader with a direct comparison of major analytical claims of the two competing approaches to assess the ability of each of the two to affect, positively or negatively, employment, capital accumulation, and the general standard of living/real wages.

  12. A fractal comparison of real and Austrian business cycle models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Robert F.

    2010-06-01

    Rescaled range and power spectral density analysis are applied to examine a diverse set of macromonetary data for fractal character and stochastic dependence. Fractal statistics are used to evaluate two competing models of the business cycle, Austrian business cycle theory and real business cycle theory. Strong evidence is found for antipersistent stochastic dependence in transactions money (M1) and components of the monetary aggregates most directly concerned with transactions, which suggests an activist monetary policy. Savings assets exhibit persistent long memory, as do those monetary aggregates which include savings assets, such as savings money (M2), M2 minus small time deposits, and money of zero maturity (MZM). Virtually all measures of economic activity display antipersistence, and this finding is invariant to whether the measures are adjusted for inflation, including real gross domestic product, real consumption expenditures, real fixed private investment, and labor productivity. This strongly disconfirms real business cycle theory.

  13. Between resentment and aid: German and Austrian psychiatrist and neurologist refugees in Great Britain since 1933.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenau, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    This article is a historiographical exploration of the experiences that German and Austrian émigré psychiatrists and neurologists made in Great Britain since 1933, after the Nazi Governments in Central Europe had ousted them from their positions. When placing these occurrences in a wider historiographical perspective, the in-depth analysis provided here also describes the living and working conditions of the refugee neuroscientists on the British Isles. In particular, it looks at the very elements and issues that influenced the international forced migration of physicians and psychiatrists during the 1930s and 1940s. Only a fraction of refugee neuroscientists had however been admitted to Britain. Those lucky ones were assisted by a number of charitable, local, and academic organizations. This article investigates the rather lethargic attitude of the British government and medical circles towards German-speaking Jewish refugee neuroscientists who wished to escape Nazi Germany. It will also analyze the help that those refugees received from the academic establishment and British Jewish organizations, while likewise examining the level and extent of the relationship between social and scientific resentments in Great Britain. A special consideration will be given to the aid programs that had already began in the first year after the Nazis had seized power in Germany, with the foundation of the British Assistance Council by Sir William Henry Beveridge (1879-1963) in 1933.

  14. Diagnosis, management and response criteria of iron overload in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS): updated recommendations of the Austrian MDS platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valent, Peter; Stauder, Reinhard; Theurl, Igor; Geissler, Klaus; Sliwa, Thamer; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Bettelheim, Peter; Sill, Heinz; Pfeilstöcker, Michael

    2018-02-01

    Despite the availability of effective iron chelators, transfusion-related morbidity is still a challenge in chronically transfused patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). In these patients, transfusion-induced iron overload may lead to organ dysfunction or even organ failure. In addition, iron overload is associated with reduced overall survival in MDS. Areas covered: During the past 10 years, various guidelines for the management of MDS patients with iron overload have been proposed. In the present article, we provide our updated recommendations for the diagnosis, prevention and therapy of iron overload in MDS. In addition, we propose refined treatment response criteria. As in 2006 and 2007, recommendations were discussed and formulated by participants of our Austrian MDS platform in a series of meetings in 2016 and 2017. Expert commentary: Our updated recommendations should support early recognition of iron overload, optimal patient management and the measurement of clinical responses to chelation treatment in daily practice.

  15. Analysis of the evolution and current status of the Austrian civil procedural law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Marija M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the rules contained in the Austrian Civil Procedure Act. Although this act was adopted back in 1895, it is still in force. This continuity is a proof of the great value of this legislative document. This Act has had a significant influence on the Central and Eastern European procedural laws. From the period of its enactment, despite preserving its fundamental components, the Austrian Civil Procedure Act has been through a number of modifications, including the amendments that were introduced towards the end of 20th and in early 21st century. More recent modifications are a result of the influence of common European procedural law and concern the issues like jurisdiction, enforcement of decisions, proceedings concerning payment orders, special litigations, non-contentious proceedings. The Austrian civil procedural law, as a normative system, accompanied by a rich literature and creative judicial practice, has influenced the Serbian law, whose system and particular institutes have accepted the solutions contained in the Austrian law. The paper gives an overview of the systems and basic institutes of the Austrian civil procedure: complaint, response to the complaint, preliminary hearing, main hearing, evidence and evidentiary hearing, court's ruling. The aim is to consider the existing contents of the Austrian Civil Procedure Act in the context of reforms of the Serbian Civil Procedure Act.

  16. Occupational radiation exposure in upper Austrian water supplies and Spas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringer, W.; Simader, M.; Bernreiter, M.; Aspek, W.; Kaineder, H.

    2006-01-01

    The Council Directive 96/29/EURATOM lays down the basic safety standards for the protection of the workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionising radiation, including natural radiation. Based on the directive and on the corresponding Austrian legislation a comprehensive study was conducted to determine the occupational radiation exposure in Upper Austrian water supplies and spas. The study comprises 45 water supplies and 3 spas, one of them being a radon spa. Most measurements taken were to determine the radon concentration in air at different workplaces (n = 184), but also measurements of the dose rate at dehumidifiers (n = 7) and gamma spectrometric measurements of back washing water (n = 4) were conducted. To determine the maximum occupational radon exposure in a water supply measurements were carried out in all water purification buildings and in at least half o f the drinking water reservoirs of the water supply. The results were combined with the respective working times in these locations (these data having been collected by means of a questionnaire). Where the calculated exposure was greater than 1 MBq h/m then all drinking water reservoirs of the concerned water suppl y were measured for their radon concentration to ensure a reliable assessment of the exposure. The results show that the radon concentrations in the water supplies were lower as expected, being in 55% of all measurement sites below 1000 Bq/m in 91% below 5000 Bq/m and with a maximum value of 38700 Bq/m.This leads to exposures that are below 2 MBq h/m (corresponding to approx. 6 mSv/a) in 42 water supplies. However, for the remaining three water supplies maximal occupational exposures due to radon of 2.8 MBq h/m (∼ 10 mSv/a), 15 MBq h/m (∼ 50 mSv/a), and 17 MBq h/m ( ∼ 56 mSv/a), respectively, were determined. In these water supplies remediation measures were proposed, based mainly on improved ventilation of and/or reduction of working time in the building

  17. Potentials to mitigate climate change using biochar - the Austrian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckman, Viktor J.; Klinglmüller, Michaela; Liu, Jay; Uzun, Basak B.; Varol, Esin A.

    2015-04-01

    Biomass utilization is seen as one of various promising strategies to reduce additional carbon emissions. A recent project on potentials of biochar to mitigate climate change (FOREBIOM) goes even a step further towards bioenergy in combination of CCS or "BECS" and tries to assess the current potentials, from sustainable biomass availability to biochar amendment in soils, including the identification of potential disadvantages and current research needs. The current report represents an outcome of the 1st FOREBIOM Workshop held in Vienna in April, 2013 and tries to characterize the Austrian perspective of biochar for climate change mitigation. The survey shows that for a widespread utilization of biochar in climate change mitigation strategies, still a number of obstacles have to be overcome. There are concerns regarding production and application costs, contamination and health issues for both producers and customers besides a fragmentary knowledge about biochar-soil interactions specifically in terms of long-term behavior, biochar stability and the effects on nutrient cycles. However, there are a number of positive examples showing that biochar indeed has the potential to sequester large amounts of carbon while improving soil properties and subsequently leading to a secondary carbon sink via rising soil productivity. Diversification, cascadic utilization and purpose designed biochar production are key strategies overcoming initial concerns, especially regarding economic aspects. A theoretical scenario calculation showed that relatively small amounts of biomass that is currently utilized for energy can reduce the gap between Austria's current GHG emissions and the Kyoto target by about 30% if biomass residues are pyrolized and biochar subsequently used as soil amendment. However, by using a more conservative approach that is representing the aims of the underlying FOREBIOM project (assuming that 10% of the annual biomass increment from forests is used for biochar

  18. First experiences with NORM regulations in the Austrian legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauke, Michael; Katzlberger, C.; Haider, W.; Ringer, W.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: This paper gives a brief overview of important aspects of the recently implemented NORM ordinance in the Austrian Radiation Protection Legislation. It describes first experiences from pilot studies and dose assessments in this field. The field of application of this ordinance is defined by a list of work activities which might cause a significant increase in the exposure of workers and of members of the public. This list includes work activities, which potentially increase the exposure due to radon or uranium, thorium and their progenies and work activities, where residues with elevated levels of natural radionuclides may lead to a significant increase in the exposure of workers and the public. The first level of a dose assessment is the determination of activity concentrations in materials. It is assumed that the dose of workers does not exceed 1 mSv per year, if the activity concentrations of natural radionuclides are below 1 Bq/g. A notification of the workplace to the radiation protection authority is sufficient in this case. Otherwise a detailed dose assessment considering all relevant exposure pathways has to be performed as well as radiation protection measures and organisational measures, if needed. If the results of the dose assessment show higher levels than 6 mSv per year, radiation protection measures like personal dosimeters and periodical medical examination and reporting to the radiation protection authority are obligatory. A similar dose assessment procedure has to be applied for residues. The residues are allowed to be disposed as conventional waste, as long as the dose assessment shows a dose lower than 1 mSv per year. Otherwise the residues have to be treated as radioactive waste. Only accredited or certified institutions may perform authorised dose assessments. The Austrian Agency for Food and Health Safety performed pilot studies in this field for getting more experience in the field of dose assessment and to get an overview of the

  19. Cornerstones of the Austrian radon risk communication strategy; Eckpfeiler der oesterreichischen Radonrisikokommunikationsstrategie (OeRRKS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunte, A.; Ringer, W. [AGES, Linz (Austria). Oesterreichische Fachstelle fuer Radon

    2015-07-01

    On behalf of the Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management (BMLFUW), the National Radon Centre of Austria developed the National Radon Risk Communication Strategy. The superior goal is the reduction of the radon exposure of Austrian citizens as well as the reduction of radon-related lung cancer deaths. Austria, like many other countries, follows the approach to raise awareness and to inform the public to achieve this goal. The presented strategy deals with the question of how radon protection issues can be communicated to the public, existing fears can be reduced and affected people can be motivated to take action (perform a radon test, if necessary, mitigate or install preventive measures in new buildings). The cornerstones of the National Radon Risk Communication Strategy can be summarized as follows: - Definition of communication goals - Identification and categorization of target groups - Development of specific key messages for each of the target groups - Determination of communication channels and assessment of their efficiency - Integration of the radon issue in education and training - Cooperation with relevant organizations and platforms. The communication objectives, target groups and communication paths (and their evaluation) will be discussed during the presentation in detail.

  20. Austrian consensus on the definition and treatment of portal hypertension and its complications (Billroth II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck-Radosavljevic, Markus; Angermayr, Bernhard; Datz, Christian; Ferlitsch, Arnulf; Ferlitsch, Monika; Fuhrmann, Valentin; Häfner, Michael; Kramer, Ludwig; Maieron, Andreas; Payer, Berit; Reiberger, Thomas; Stauber, Rudolf; Steininger, Rudolf; Trauner, Michael; Thurnher, Siegfried; Ulbrich, Gregor; Vogel, Wolfgang; Zoller, Heinz; Graziadei, Ivo

    2013-04-01

    In November 2004, the Austrian Society of Gastroenterology and Hepatology (ÖGGH) held for the first time a consensus meeting on the definitions and treatment of portal hypertension and its complications in the Billroth-Haus in Vienna, Austria (Billroth I-Meeting). This meeting was preceded by a meeting of international experts on portal hypertension with some of the proponents of the Baveno consensus conferences (http://www.oeggh.at/videos.asp). The consensus itself is based on the Baveno III consensus with regard to portal hypertensive bleeding and the suggestions of the International Ascites Club regarding the treatment of ascites. Those statements were modified by new knowledge derived from the recent literature and also by the current practice of medicine as agreed upon by the participants of the consensus meeting. In October 2011, the ÖGGH organized the second consensus meeting on portal hypertension and its complications in Vienna (Billroth II-Meeting). The Billroth II-Guidelines on the definitions and treatment of portal hypertension and its complications take into account the developments of the last 7 years, including the Baveno-V update and several key publications.

  1. France and the Austrian Empire 1815-1918

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horel Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Relations between France and the Habsburg Empire during the long nineteenth century went through several phases bounded by the events crucial not just to the two countries' mutual relations but to all of Europe. The Congress of Vienna defined their mutual relations for the next thirty years. The Habsburgs and their omnipresent minister Metternich were fearful of revolutionary and liberal movements traditionally having their origins in France. And it was the revolutionary events of 1848 that brought about a change in the balance of power and their mutual relations. Metternich's retirement and, more importantly, the arrival of the Russian armies in Central Europe and the subsequent strengthening of Prussia, conferred a new importance to the role of the Habsburg Monarchy as a bulwark against the advancement of Russia and a vital counterweight to Prussia. With the defeat of Napoleon III and the creation of Germany with Alsace and Lorraine Franco-Austrian relations entered a new phase. The destiny of the two provinces alienated the Habsburgs from the French Republic, especially after the reorganization of Europe into two confronting blocs. The logic of alliances led to their being adversaries in the world conflict, although Napoleon III's geo-strategic analyses remained present almost to its very end, when Clemenceau's government gave support to the nationality principle thereby crucially contributing to the collapse of the Habsburg Monarchy.

  2. Primary productivity and climate change in Austrian lowland rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoboli, Ottavia; Schilling, Katerina; Ludwig, Anna-Lena; Kreuzinger, Norbert; Zessner, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    There is increasing evidence of water temperature being a key controlling factor of stream ecosystem metabolism. Although the focus of research currently lies on carbon emissions from fluvial networks and their potential role as positive climate feedback, it is also important to estimate the risk of eutrophication streams will be exposed to in the future. In this work, a methodological approach is developed to create a scientific basis for such assessment and is applied to two Austrian lowland rivers with significantly different characteristics. Gross primary productivity (GPP) is determined through the open diel oxygen method and its temperature dependence is quantified based on the metabolic theory of ecology. This relationship is combined with the outcomes of a climate change scenario obtained through a novel integrated modelling framework. Results indicate that in both rivers, a 1.5°C warming would provoke an increase of GPP of 7-9% and that such an increase would not be limited by nutrient availability. The results further suggest that the situation for the relatively shallow river might be more critical, given that its GPP values in summer are five times higher than in the deeper murky river.

  3. Holocaust Studies in Austrian Elementary and Secondary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Mittnik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents arguments in support of teaching about the Holocaust and Nazism in Austria at an early age. To accomplish this, Austrian and German elementary school textbooks were analyzed for the amount of content dealing with the Holocaust and Jews; the results showed that since 1980 the amount of content on the Holocaust increased in Germany, and to a lesser extent in Austria. The article reviews some of the criticism in Europe of the term Holocaust Education and explores some of arguments about why that is. The author argues that moral education and teaching of Human Rights are important components of, but ought not be the main goal of teaching about the Holocaust. The role of Austria after World War II, and exploration of the so called victim myth, prevalent until the 1990s are important to understanding history and to how history textbooks were created. After a discussion of how the Holocaust can be taught to elementary and early secondary school aged children, some suggestions are made about approaches to teaching the Holocaust to students in these age groups.

  4. Structures and perspectives of the Austrian energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlgemut, N.

    1992-03-01

    The technical tools for projecting future energy demand can be grouped into two broad categories: Firstly, time series or cross section data based econometric models which contain information about customers' past behavior and thus enable to judge the causal effects of economic factors like incomes and prices on energy demand (passive forecasting). Secondly, structural simulation models which indicate how energy services transform to flows of useful, final and primary energy. These models enable to estimate the technical potential of improving the energy application and energy transformation systems (active scenario approach). Comparison of the two approaches with respect to projections for future energy demand yields that, typically, in the short run of econometric approach will dominate the structural simulation model. In the long run, however, this relation will be reversed. The econometric models suffer lack of technical information necessary to describe the demand for energy. The structural simulation model enables an incorporation of technical factors like efficiencies and fuel shares. An application of the structural model is a simulation run describing a scenario in order to reduce the Austrian CO 2 -emissions according to the recommendations of the conference of Toronto

  5. Cs-137 transfer into plants from contaminated Austrian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerzabek, M.H.; Ullah, S.M.; Mueck, K.

    1989-01-01

    In Austria, the activity deposit per square meter due to the Chernobyl reactor accident ranges between 740 Bq in the northeastern part of Lower Austria and 90761 Bq in Upper Austria. The resulting high Cs-137 concentrations in the Austrian soils make soil to plant transfer studies desireable. Another question, the present work deals with, is to see the influence of K-, Mg- and NH 4 NO 3 - applications on the Cs plant uptake. Pot experiments with two contaminated brown soils and a chernozem were conducted. The following mean Cs- transfer factors (FW/DW) were obtained: barley (grains: 0,00094; straw: 0,009), corn (grains: 0,0028; straw: 0,0057), rye (grains: 0,020; straw: 0,048) and endive (0,0028). The transfer factors were hardly influenced by potassium- and magnesium- applications, due to the high clay contents of the soils and the adequate autochthonous supply with potassium and magnesium. NH 4 NO 3 - treatments increased the Cs-uptake into rye (grains and straw) distinctly. 13 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs. (Author)

  6. What did we learn from the Austrian radon project?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedmann, H.

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 40000 measurements of indoor radon concentrations were performed in randomly selected homes during the Austrian Radon Project. These measurements were carried out by using long-term measuring devices (SSNTD and Electret detectors) and short-term charcoal detectors with liquid scintillation counting as the method of analysis. In addition to the equilibrium factor, soil gas measurements and quasi-continuous indoor measurements, parallel-measurements with different detector systems in randomly selected homes were also performed. Very different results were occasionally obtained for one and the same room at the same time. This was so not only when comparing the long-term and short-term measuring devices; actually, different long-term detector systems also often showed significant discrepancies in results, although all detector systems had been carefully calibrated and tested in laboratories. The essential conclusion was that during a longer exposure in randomly selected homes, the detectors may be moved, opened, or handled in other unfavourable ways which introduce additional uncertainties in the measuring results. The aim of the Austrian Radon Project was to estimate the radon risk for geographic areas (municipalities). This task is different from the evaluation of the mean radon concentration in a single home. Generally, while long-term measurements (a year or even longer) are necessary to get reliable results for a particular house, this is not so where only the mean indoor radon concentrations for an area are of interest. Observed indoor radon concentrations give information about the actual radon exposures of the inhabitants but not about the radon risk from the ground. The house type, the way the house is constructed, the storey where people live, and some living patterns (ventilation rate etc.) modify the geological risk significantly, although it is the geological situation that has to be primarily taken into account when planning and constructing

  7. [Current incidence of accidents on Austrian ski slopes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedl, G; Philippe, M; Sommersacher, R; Dünnwald, T; Kopp, M; Burtscher, M

    2014-12-01

    Alpine skiing and snowboarding are the most popular winter sports. These sports are also associated with a certain injury risk which, however, has steadily decreased during the past decades. During the winter season 2002/2003 the last large survey on ski injuries in Austria was performed. Among others, modern skiing equipment and optimized slope preparation may impact on the injury risk. We hypothesise that these changes may have led to a further decrease in ski injuries during the past decade. In the winter season 2012/2013, skiing injuries were recorded in 26 Austrian ski areas. Data were collected from rescue personnel on ski slopes and by physicians in the hospital or doctors practice with the help of a questionnaire. A total of 7325 injured skiers and snowboarders (age: 34.8 ± 17.8 years) were recorded (49 % males and 51 % females; 80 % skiers, 14 % snowboarders, 6 % others). The most frequent causes of injury were self-inflicted falls (87 %) and collisions with other skiers/snowboarders (8 %). Most affected injury locations among skiers were the knee (41 %; predominantly in female skiers, > 50 %), shoulder/back (18 %) and arms (10 %). Most affected injury locations among snowboarders were arms (38 %) and shoulder/back (23 %). Head injuries were found at the same frequency (8 %) in skiers and snowboarders. The calculated injury rate was about 0.6 injuries per 1000 skier days and has decreased by more than 50 % during the past decade. Modern skiing equipment and optimised slope preparation may be at least partly responsible for the decreased injury risk on ski slopes which is supported by the observation of a reduced falling frequency. Future preventive measures should focus on a reduction of knee injuries in female skiers. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. 5th Austrian Hungarian workshop on celestial mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süli, Áron

    2011-06-01

    The 5th Hungarian-Austrian Workshop on Celestial Mechanics took place from 9th until the 10th of April 2010 in Vienna, Austria. The workshop was held in the Institute for Astronomy of Vienna University. From the Eötvös University and from the host institute experts and PhD students gathered together to discuss the challenges and new results of the actual problems of celestial mechanics. The workshop was held in the meeting room at the Sternwarte of the Vienna University located in a magnificent park in the heart of Vienna. Following the themes of the four previous events the focus for this workshop ranged from the Trojan problem, dynamics in binary star systems and exoplanetray systems. We were pleased to acknowledge the support of the host university. The talks were characterized by a large spectrum, which is typical of the workshops on celestial mechanics. Several talks discussed different aspects of the trojan problem, such as the three Trojan Problem, dynamics of trojan-like planets in binary stars, the frequencies of their motion around the triangular lagrangian points, etc. Several speakers focused on the formation of planetary systems and on the field of exoplanetary systems, like exoplanetary systems in higher order mean motion resonances, formation of planets in binary systems, stability of exomoons etc. Some of the presentation used sophisticated mathematical tools in order to understand mean motion resonances, the Sitnikov problem applying the KAM and the Nekhoroshev theorem. The theme of a number of talks was the motion of Solar System bodies: dynamics of the newly discovered moons of Pluto and of near-Earth asteroids. General problems were also addressed, among others chaos in Hamiltonian systems, adaptive Lie-integration method and iterative solution approximation to the generalised Sitnikov problem.

  9. Occupational accidents with mowing machines in Austrian agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kogler

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The number of recognized accidents during agricultural work is still very high in Austria. In the years 2008 to 2009, there occurred 84 approved work accidents with mowing machines. The main causes of accidents were the loss of control of machines, transportations or conveyances, hand tools, objects or animals. In the literature, numerous studies of general agricultural and forestry accident situations are available. Detailed studies on specific types of agricultural machines, which describe concrete circumstances and causes of accidents, are in limited numbers. The accident database from the General Accident Insurance Institution and the Austrian Social Insurance Institution of Farmers, with personal and accidental data information about mowing machine accidents, were analyzed. The results showed that most accidents occurred on mixed agricultural farms (68%. The majority of the injured persons were male (86%, over 40-years-old (86% with an agricultural or forestry education (91%. The most common accidents occurred in the summer months (69% and on afternoons during the working week (79%. The majority of accidents were caused by contact with the machine (55% and the loss of control (73% during their operation (60% and harvesting work (63%. The most frequently injuries were wounds, fractures and superficial injuries (81% to the upper and lower extremities (66%. The results of the chi-square test showed significant correlations between the specific task with the form of contact, the working process, the day and season. Results of the odds ratio determination showed an increased risk of suffering serious injury for men in the first half of the year and half of the day due to loss of control over the machine during agricultural harvesting work.

  10. Austrian Painter Leopold Kupelwieser and Bishop Josip Juraj Strossmayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljerka Dulibić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available All 20th-century chronologies of the collector’s activity of Bishop Josip Juraj Strossmayer (1815-1905 and overviews of the evolution of today’s Strossmayer’s Gallery of Old Masters at the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts mention the bishop’s cooperation with the Austrian Nazarene painter Leopold Kupelwieser (1796-1862, father of Paul Kupelwieser, the former owner of the Brijuni islands. This episode from the “prehistory” of Strossmayer’s Gallery has hitherto been known only as a brief notice repeated in almost identical formulations: “In 1857, the bishop sent the first larger group of paintings to Vienna in order to be restored under the supervision of painter Leopold Kupelwieser.” Research of archival documents mentioning the cooperation between Bishop Strossmayer and painter Kupelwieser has now been complemented with an overview of Kupelwieser’s activity in Croatia, with an aim of promoting the preservation and evaluation of this segment of his painting oeuvre. Besides paintings ordered by Strossmayer (presently at the Diocesan Museum of Zagreb, Kupelwieser produced two paintings for Croatian churches independently of his cooperation with the bishop (for the church of St Stephen of Hungary, today’s church of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Nova Gradiška, and for the chapel of St Peter and Paul in Dvor na Uni. Two more paintings are preserved on the Brijuni islands that do not directly belong to Kupelwieser’s oeuvre yet are closely linked to him.

  11. Impacts of Austrian Climate Variability on Honey Bee Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switanek, Matt; Brodschneider, Robert; Crailsheim, Karl; Truhetz, Heimo

    2015-04-01

    Global food production, as it is today, is not possible without pollinators such as the honey bee. It is therefore alarming that honey bee populations across the world have seen increased mortality rates in the last few decades. The challenges facing the honey bee calls into question the future of our food supply. Beside various infectious diseases, Varroa destructor is one of the main culprits leading to increased rates of honey bee mortality. Varroa destructor is a parasitic mite which strongly depends on honey bee brood for reproduction and can wipe out entire colonies. However, climate variability may also importantly influence honey bee breeding cycles and bee mortality rates. Persistent weather events affects vegetation and hence foraging possibilities for honey bees. This study first defines critical statistical relationships between key climate indicators (e.g., precipitation and temperature) and bee mortality rates across Austria, using 6 consecutive years of data. Next, these leading indicators, as they vary in space and time, are used to build a statistical model to predict bee mortality rates and the respective number of colonies affected. Using leave-one-out cross validation, the model reduces the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) by 21% with respect to predictions made with the mean mortality rate and the number of colonies. Furthermore, a Monte Carlo test is used to establish that the model's predictions are statistically significant at the 99.9% confidence level. These results highlight the influence of climate variables on honey bee populations, although variability in climate, by itself, cannot fully explain colony losses. This study was funded by the Austrian project 'Zukunft Biene'.

  12. No Austrians in South Tyrol? Why the German-speaking community in Italy’s South Tyrol (Alto Adige province is not usually called an Austrian minority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Julian Emanuel Volkmer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available No Austrians in South Tyrol? Why the German-speaking community in Italy’s South Tyrol (Alto Adige province is not usually called an Austrian minority The article discusses the question why the German-speakers in Northern Italy’s South Tyrol province are only very rarely referred to as an Austrian minority, in spite of the fact that they were split off from Austria, and not Germany, in the aftermath of World War I. An analysis of the naming of German-speaking South Tyroleans in German, Austrian, Italian and English-speaking news media, which demonstrates a preference for terms such as “German-speaking minority” or “German minority” over “Austrian minority and equivalents, is followed by a discussion of three hypotheses to account for the situation. The author shows how the question of how to name the German-speaking South Tyroleans is closely intertwined with the issue of Austrian national identity and its re-orientation away from Germany in the aftermath of the Second World War. The author comes to the conclusion that the minority is not usually referred to as Austrian both due to the fact that it is difficult to include them in the young (civic Austrian nation in a logically consistent manner, and due to the German-speaking South Tyroleans’ own inconsistent self-identification as Austrians.   Nie ma Austriaków w Tyrolu Południowym? Dlaczego niemieckojęzyczna wspólnota we włoskiej prowincji Tyrol Południowy (Alto Adige zwykle nie jest nazywana mniejszością austriacką Artykuł podejmuje kwestię, dlaczego niemieckojęzyczna ludność północnowłoskiej prowincji Tyrol Południowy rzadko bywa nazywana mniejszością austriacką, pomimo tego że w efekcie I wojny światowej odłączona została ona od Austrii, a nie od Niemiec. Analiza nazewnictwa odnoszonego do niemieckojęzycznej ludności Tyrolu Południowego, które występuje w informacyjnych środkach przekazu: niemiecko-, austriacko-, włosko- i angloj

  13. Social, psychological and demographic reflections on the Austrian nuclear power question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretschneider, R.

    1980-01-01

    The political history of an Austrian referendum in 1978, which led to abandonment of a nuclear power station, is reviewed, and an attempt is made to analyse the reasons for the 'No' vote. Surveys are presented which attempt to classify the yes, no and undecided voters in terms of political views. The effects of the Harrisburg accident on Austrian public opinion is examined and the possibility of accentuated differences between 'for' and 'against' groups is stated. It is noted that success in energy saving may reduce the significance of the atomic energy question. (G.M.E.)

  14. Analysis of criteria for entry of the austrian warm-blood horse into the stud book

    OpenAIRE

    Dana Karásková; Iva Jiskrová

    2008-01-01

    The focus of the investigation was on an analysis of criteria for the entry of mares of the Austrian warm-blood horse into the stud book and analysis of the pedigree of the mares. The objective of the thesis was to compare the selected properties of the mares based on their pedigree and to evaluate the effect of the Trakehner horse on the frame, type and conformation of the Austrian warm-blood, to ana­ly­se the influence of selected effects on the physique and mechanics of movement on entry i...

  15. Towards a Dynamic Resource-Based View: Insights from Austrian capital and Entrepreneurship Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Ishikawa, Ibuki

    are not inquired into. We argue that the RBV may profitably draw on Austrian (Misesian) and Knightian insights in entrepreneurship and capital theory, particularly in its Lachmannian manifestation, in order to strengthen its dynamic components. We link the RBV and Austrian ideas in the context of the theory...... of complex systems pioneered by Herbert Simon. We draw a number of implications for strategic management from this synthesis, notably into resource value and sustainability of competitive advantage.JEL Code: B53, D21, L23, M1...

  16. Long-Term Socio-Ecological Research in Practice: Lessons from Inter- and Transdisciplinary Research in the Austrian Eisenwurzen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Gingrich

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Long-Term Socio-Ecological Research (LTSER is an inter- and transdisciplinary research field addressing socio-ecological change over time at various spatial and temporal scales. In the Austrian Eisenwurzen region, an LTSER platform was founded in 2004. It has fostered and documented research projects aiming at advancing LTSER scientifically and at providing regional stakeholders with relevant information for sustainable regional development. Since its establishment, a broad range of research activities has been pursued in the region, integrating information from long-term ecological monitoring sites with approaches from social sciences and the humanities, and in cooperation with regional stakeholders. Based on the experiences gained in the Eisenwurzen LTSER platform, this article presents current activities in the heterogeneous field of LTSER, identifying specific (inter-disciplinary contributions of three research strands of LTSER: long-term ecological research, socio-ecological basic research, and transdisciplinary research. Given the broad array of diverse contributions to LTSER, we argue that the platform has become a relevant “boundary organization,” linking research to its regional non-academic context, and ensuring interdisciplinary exchange among the variety of disciplines. We consider the diversity of LTSER approaches an important resource for future research. Major success criteria of LTSER face specific challenges: (1 existing loose, yet stable networks need to be maintained and extended; (2 continuous generation of and access to relevant data needs to be secured and more data need to be included; and (3 consecutive research projects that have allowed for capacity building in the past may be threatened in the future if national Austrian research funders cease to provide resources.

  17. Evaluation of air pollution-related risks for Austrian mountain forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smidt, Stefan; Herman, Friedl

    2004-01-01

    The present paper describes air pollution status and evaluation of risks related to effects of phytotoxic pollutants in the Austrian mountain forests. The results are based on Austrian networks (Forest Inventory, Forest Damage Monitoring System, Austrian Bioindicator Grid), the Austrian sample plots of the European networks of the UN-ECE (ICP Forests, Level I and Level II) and interdisciplinary research approaches. Based on the monitoring data and on modelling and mapping of Critical Thresholds, the evaluation of risk factors was possible. Cause-effect relationships between air pollution and tree responses were shown by tree-physiological measurements. Sulfur impact, proton and lead input, concentrations of nitrogen oxides, nitrogen input and ozone were evaluated. The risk was demonstrated at a regional and large-scale national level. Especially the increasing O 3 level and the accumulation of Pb with altitude present most serious risk for mountain forests. - Despite strong reduction of emissions in Europe, pollutants are still a potential stress factor, especially for sensitive mountain forest ecosystems in Austria

  18. Progress Report 1984 of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf. Abridged version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwach, G.W.

    1986-06-01

    The report gives a short survey of the work carried out by the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf in 1984. The working programme comprises five main areas: Energy and safety; Materials research, isotope and radiation techniques; Measuring techniques and information processing; Environmental protection, health and food; Industrial consulting. (Author)

  19. Heritabilities and genetic correlations for honey yield, gentleness, calmness and swarming behaviour in Austrian honey bees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brascamp, Evert; Willam, Alfons; Boigenzahn, Christian; Bijma, Piter; Veerkamp, Roel F.

    2016-01-01

    Heritabilities and genetic correlations were estimated for honey yield and behavioural traits in Austrian honey bees using data on nearly 15,000 colonies of the bee breeders association Biene Österreich collected between 1995 and 2014. The statistical models used distinguished between the genetic

  20. 46th annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society. Programme and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, H.G.

    1996-01-01

    This volume contains lectures (short communications) of the 46 th symposium of the Austrian Physical Society which had been held at the University of Linz (Austria) in 1996. The following topics are included: atomic physics, molecular physics, plasma physics, solid state physics, nuclear and particle physics, biophysics, environmental physics, quantum electronics and quantum optics. (Suda)

  1. Influence of the American ODAC Statement on Austrian Bevacizumab Prescribing Practice for Metastatic Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Preusser, Matthias; Fülöp, Gerhard; Berghoff, Anna Sophie; Heinzl, Harald; Steger, Guenther G.; Greil, Richard; Zielinski, Christoph C.; Bartsch, Rupert

    2012-01-01

    The influence of the discrepancy between the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee (ODAC) and European Medicines Agency positions on bevacizumab prescribing practice for metastatic breast cancer in Austria during January 2006 to June 2011 was investigated. The Austrian bevacizumab prescribing practice was found to be significantly influenced by the ODAC statement issued in July 2010.

  2. 1983 Annual convention of the Austrian Physical Society, University of Linz, 28 - 30 September 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Proceedings of lectures and poster presentations given at the 1983 convention of the Austrian Physical Society, with (German) abstracts only. The four topical sessions were: 1) electrodynamics and optics 2) solid state physics 3) nuclear and particle physics 4) physics of high polymers Only part of the presentations pertain to the subject scope of INIS. (G.Q.)

  3. Radiation protection safety report for 1984 of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steger, F.; Irlweck, K.; Sorantin, H.

    1985-04-01

    The safety report of the Institute of Radioprotection comprises all measurements which have been performed by the so called 'Kontrollabteilung' to protect employees and environment of the Research Center Seibersdorf against radiation. The 'Kontrollabteilung' is a special section in the Institute and is headed by the acting health physics officer according to the Austrian radiation law. (Author)

  4. Civic Education under Pressure? A Case Study from an Austrian School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schild, Isabella; Breitfuss, Judith

    2018-01-01

    When the politician Roman Haider of the party Freiheitliche Partei Österreichs (FPÖ--Freedom Party of Austria) caused the interruption of a lecture about political extremism in an Austrian school in spring 2017, a heated debate erupted over the place of politics in school education. While Haider accused the lecturer of political propaganda,…

  5. Severe Austrian Syndrome in an Immunocompromised Adult Patient – A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirteș Ioana Raluca

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Known also as Osler’s triad, Austrian syndrome is a complex pathology which consists of pneumonia, meningitis and endocarditis, all caused by the haematogenous dissemination of Streptococcus pneumoniae. The multivalvular lesions are responsible for a severe and potential lethal outcome.

  6. Psychometric Properties of the Revised Facts on Suicide Quiz in Austrian Medical and Psychology Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, Martin; Tran, Ulrich S.; Sonneck, Gernot

    2008-01-01

    Psychometric properties and demographic correlates of a German form of R. W. Hubbard and J. L. McIntosh's (1992) Revised Facts on Suicide Quiz (RFOS), an inventory for assessing overall knowledge about suicide, were investigated in a sample of 1,093 Austrian medical and psychology students. Internal consistency of the RFOS was weak, as were many…

  7. From the 'Austrian Foundation for Atomic Energy Research' to the 'Seibersdorf Laboratories'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rößner, M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is the description of the process of institutionalization of nuclear research in Austria in the context of the „Atoms for Peace“ program in the 1950s. This aspect of the history of Austrian nuclear research has been relatively unexplored. The focus of this work is the presentation of measures that have been put in Austria to participate in the 'Atoms for Peace' program. Moreover, the expectations and goals of the Austrian nuclear program are analyzed. For this purpose, foundation, structure and research activities of the “Austrian Atomic Energy Commission”, the “Austrian Society for the Study of Atomic Energy” and the “Nuclear Reactor Centre Seibersdorf“ in the period from 1954 until about 1970 are examined. To establish a relationship with the international historical research of the history of nuclear research, the Austrian situation is compared to the Swiss and the German. It turns out that the Austrian expectations and objectives in nuclear research at the beginning of the period of observation roughly corresponded with the international trends. It also follows that by the establishment of the SGAE and the “Nuclear Reactor Centre Seibersdorf“ the development course of Austrian nuclear research occupied a special position compared to foreign institutions.(author) [de

  8. Austrian Daily Climate Data Rescue and Quality Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkovic, A.; Lipa, W.; Adler, S.; Albenberger, J.; Lechner, W.; Swietli, R.; Vossberg, I.; Zehetner, S.

    2010-09-01

    Checked climate datasets are a "conditio sine qua non" for all projects that are relevant for environment and climate. In the framework of climate change studies and analysis it is essential to work with quality controlled and trustful data. Furthermore these datasets are used as input for various simulation models. In regard to investigations of extreme events, like strong precipitation periods, drought periods and similar ones we need climate data in high temporal resolution (at least in daily resolution). Because of the historical background - during Second World War the majority of our climate sheets were sent to Berlin, where the historical sheets were destroyed by a bomb attack and so important information got lost - only several climate sheets, mostly duplicates, before 1939 are available and stored in our climate data archive. In 1970 the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics in Vienna started a first attempt to digitize climate data by means of punch cards. With the introduction of a routinely climate data quality control in 1984 we can speak of high-class-checked daily data (finally checked data, quality flag 6). Our group is working on the processing of digitization and quality control of the historical data for the period 1872 to 1983 for 18 years. Since 2007 it was possible to intensify the work (processes) in the framework of an internal project, namely Austrian Climate Data Rescue and Quality Control. The aim of this initiative was - and still is - to supply daily data in an outstanding good and uniform quality. So this project is a kind of pre-project for all scientific projects which are working with daily data. In addition to routine quality checks (that are running since 1984) using the commercial Bull Software we are testing our data with additional open source software, namely ProClim.db. By the use of this spatial and statistical test procedure, the elements air temperature and precipitation - for several sites in Carinthia - could

  9. Effects of word-of-mouth on the behavior of Austrian blood donors: a case study of the Red Cross Blood Donation Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sebastian; Greiling, Dorothea; Leibetseder, Nina

    2017-12-13

    The procurement of blood is an essential challenge of today's health care. Current studies emphasize the influence of word-of-mouth (WOM) on health care behavior, including blood donation. Still, there exists no study which systematically investigates how WOM affects the behavior of blood donors. Therefore, this paper aims to contribute to this lack of research by focusing on Austrian blood donors as possible receivers and senders of WOM. A survey was distributed to 300 donors of the Austrian Red Cross with a return of 245 surveys. The results highlight the strong influence of WOM on the awareness of the blood service and the willingness to donate blood. Further, structured and organized procedures, friendly employees and respectful interaction were found to be important factors determining willingness to recommend blood donation. Family members as well as friends are the preferred WOM-receivers and the personal face-to-face contact is the favored channel of communication. The results also show that WOM-behavior is strongly influenced by factors such as age, gender and donation frequency. By helping blood bank managers to better understand how WOM affects donation intention and behavior, this study provides a new approach to attract blood donors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Analysis of criteria for entry of the austrian warm-blood horse into the stud book

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Karásková

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the investigation was on an analysis of criteria for the entry of mares of the Austrian warm-blood horse into the stud book and analysis of the pedigree of the mares. The objective of the thesis was to compare the selected properties of the mares based on their pedigree and to evaluate the effect of the Trakehner horse on the frame, type and conformation of the Austrian warm-blood, to ana­ly­se the influence of selected effects on the physique and mechanics of movement on entry into the stud book of the Austrian warm-blood, and to compare selected properties of the mares with the pedigree standard of the Austrian warm-blood. The database was compiled from results of evaluations of the conformation and mechanics of movement on entry into stud books in the period of 1990–2006. The evaluated characteristics were the basic body measurements – height of withers, heart girth, bone, and evaluation of the body conformation on a ten-point scale – head, neck, forehand, middle-piece, quarters, forelegs, hind legs, correctness of pace, walk, mechanics of movement and total mark for conformation. The comparative base consisted of 4407 mares. On the basis of results of subsequent tests we can indicate the pedigree group 1 (pure-bred Trakehner mares as a group which obtained the highest marks for body conformation (head – 7.82, neck – 7.38, middle-piece – 7.46, correctness of pace – 7.27 total mark for conformation – 7.37. We compared the group of mares of the Austrian warm-blood pedigree standard and we discovered that out of the 4407 mares entered into the stud book of the Austrian warm-blood horses in the period of 1990–2006 the height at withers of 65 mares (1.5 % of the monitored population was less than 158 cm, which in the Stud Book Rules is the minimal height for entry.

  11. Biblical Allusions in Expressionist Poetry in the Context of Austrian, German, and Ukrainian Literature : A Comparative Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mykhalchuk, T.

    2016-01-01

    With the application of comparative methodology, this article analyzes biblical allusions, reminiscences, paraphrases, direct and indirect quotations, and symbols in the poetry of Austrian, German, and Ukrainian writers (Georg Heym, Mykola Bazhan, Mykola Khvyliovyj Todosii, T. Osmachka, Pavlo

  12. Why Credit Deflation Is More Likely than Mass Inflation: An Austrian Overview of the Inflation Versus Deflation Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Boyapati

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an Austrian overview of the inflation versus deflation debate which has captured the attention of the economics profession in the years following the US housing bust. Much of the Austrian analysis of this debate has focused on the massive expansion of the Federal Reserve’s balance sheet and attendant creation of new reserves. Several Austrian economists have predicted that the creation of new reserves will cause a massive increase in inflation. The money multiplier theory, on which these predictions are based, is criticized and an overview of the Austrian business cycle theory is provided to explain why banks are reluctant to issue new credit. Finally, an analysis of the politics of deflation is provided and a class theory is presented to explain why a policy of controlled credit deflation is more likely than a policy that would result in mass inflation or hyperinflation.

  13. The views and motives of environmental ethics in the articles of Austrian nature and environmental protection associations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leinwather, T.

    2000-03-01

    This study deals with the views and motives of environmental ethics in the articles of Austrian nature and environmental protection associations. There are different ways of arguing: In an anthropocentric point of view nature is seen as a resource for man; human life needs protection an cultivation of nature. The non-anthropocentric point of view is more popular. Nature is not only seen as a resource for human needs and interests. It follows its own aims and purposes, seems to be a valuable being and has to be protected for itself. The study presents the two parent organizations 'Umweltdachverband - OeGNU' and 'Oeko-Buero' and their 45 members. The associations mainly argue from an anthropocentric point of view for the protection of nature and environment. Their motives are the care for human health and quality of life, the ensuring of resources, the leisure-time in nature and patriotism. The anthropocentric arguments perfectly fit into the other articles of these organizations: many of them are dealing with economical, scientifical, recreational and pedagogical affairs. And often they represent interests of agriculture, forestry ore trade. Non-anthropocentric statements are of minor importance and seem to be a way to present the seriousness of their demand for protection of nature and environment. (author)

  14. Francesco Saverio Amman: an Austrian cotton entrepreneur in Lombardy,1838-82.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licini, S

    1999-01-01

    This article examines the cotton manufacturing industry in Lombardy during the period when Austrian rule was being restored in the wake of the Congress of Vienna. It adopts Pollard's emphasis on the regional nature of industrialisation, drawing on the surviving accounts of Francesco Saverio Amman - the Austrian-born founder of a major cotton-mill - and attempts to identify differences and similarities between his career and achievements and those of his many counterparts in the rest of Europe. The article begins by looking at Amman's economic and social advancement, and then discusses the development of his business interests. It concludes by examining how he chose to invest his earnings, both within and without the cotton industry.

  15. Is adult education a ‘white’ business? Professionals with migrant backgrounds in Austrian adult education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Kukovetz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on an applied research project, which examines the participation of migrants (first and second generation as professionals in Austrian adult education. We present selected outcomes concerning barriers and encouraging factors in the careers of professionals with migrant background. Our main findings show the importance of the recognition of credentials, of social capital and of strategies to avoid discrimination on behalf of the institutions of adult education. Introducing the analytical perspective of critical whiteness, we conclude that Austrian adult education still has to reflect its own role in terms of white privileges. Finally we point out some approaches and strategies to widening participation and reducing discrimination in the professional field.

  16. Austrian syndrome in the context of a fulminant pneumococcal native valve endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Wilbring

    Full Text Available This is the case of a young male suffering from Austrian syndrome, which is the triad of endocarditis, meningitis, and pneumonia due to invasive S. pneumoniae infection. He reported recurrent fever for six months without any antibiotic treatment, which may have determined the further course of the syndrome. Echocardiography revealed massive native valve endocarditis, and the patient was considered for ultima-ratio cardiac surgery. Intraoperative aspect presented extensive affection of the aortic root with full destruction of aortic valve, mitral valve, and aortomitral continuity. The myocardium showed a phlegmonlike infiltration. Microbiologic testing of intraoperatively collected specimens identified penicillin-sensitive Streptococcus pneumoniae. S. pneumoniae is a very uncommon cause for infective infiltrative endocarditis and is associated with severe clinical courses. Austrian syndrome is even more rare, with only a few reported cases worldwide. In those patients, only early diagnosis, immediate antibiotic treatment, and emergent cardiac surgery can save lives.

  17. Use of the TRIGA Reactor by the Radiochemistry Group of the Atominstitute of the Austrian Universities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bichler, M.; Buchtela, K.; Grass, F.; Ismail, S.

    1994-01-01

    The Radiochemistry Group of the Atominstitute of the Austrian Universities uses the TRIGA Mark II Reactor mainly for neutron activation analysis. Transport of samples to and from the irradiation positions in the reactor is performed by fast pneumatic transfer systems (transfer time 20 msec and 300 msec) and slow conventional transport facilities. Gamma-spectrometric instrumentation equipped with loss free counting systems is used to handle the high count rates up to 500 000 counts/sec. During the last years neutron activation analysis was applied to investigate environmental samples (soil, dust, incineration ash), geological samples (rocks, sediments, fossils, volcanic gases), biological materials (lichens, mushrooms and other plant materials, human diet, biological reference materials), raw materials (phosphate, coal) and archaeological materials (ancient glass). Lichen analysis was used for environmental monitoring. The content of some of the trace elements can be correlated with industrial activities, like manganese content with steel industry, the occurrence of vanadium and nickel with oil firing plants and stainless steel industry, selenium is found in lichen near coal firing plants. The amount of chlorine and sodium indicates the application of salt for road treatment during winter time, aluminum, scandium and hafnium content depends on the amount of dust in the environment. A further environmental application of neutron activation analysis is the determination of trace elements in volcanic gases. The halogens, arsenic, antimony, selenium, tellurium and mercury were determined and their daily output was calculated. The distribution of trace elements in fossils of known age gives us a geochemical key to condition and development of the paleo-environment. For this purpose we determined rare earth elements in 250 million years old microfossils (conodonts). Neutron activation analysis served also for some non scientific but nevertheless useful purposes: Organic

  18. Authority Relationship From a Societal Perspective: Social Representations of Obedience and Disobedience in Austrian Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Fattori, Francesco; Curly, Simone; J?rchel, Amrei C.; Pozzi, Maura; Mihalits, Dominik; Alfieri, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Obedience and disobedience have always been salient issues for both civil society and social psychologists. Since Milgram’s first studies on destructive obedience there has not been a bottom-up definition of what obedience and disobedience mean. The current study aimed at investigating the social representations young adults use to define and to co-construct knowledge about obedience and disobedience in Austria. One hundred fifty four (106 females, 68.8%) Austrian young adults (Mean age = 22....

  19. Open Access Policies of Research Funders: The Case Study of the Austrian Science Fund (FWF)

    OpenAIRE

    Tonto, Yaşar; Doğan, Güleda; Al, Umut; Madran, Orçun

    2015-01-01

    The Austrian Science Fund (FWF) is the main funder for basic research in Austria. FWF has been instrumental in promoting Open Access in Austria and elsewhere and possesses a strong Open Access policy for the research it funds. This case study presents FWF as a good practice of an effective funder policy on account of its comprehensive strategy and multi-faceted approach for implementing and supporting it.

  20. [The Austrian Red Cross and Austrian bacteriologists in the Balkan wars 1912/13 - Centenary of the first application of the bacteriology in theatres of war].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamm, Heinz

    2012-04-01

    When Austria joined the Geneva Convention the "Patriotischer Hilfsverein" (Patriotic Aid Society) which was founded for the concerns of wounded soldiers, was named "Austrian Society of the Red Cross". It had to stand its first big test in 1912 in the first Balkan war; military surgeons and bacteriologists were deployed to all warring states. The cholera dominated under the infectious diseases among the various forces and the civilian populations. Upon request of the Bulgarian king renowned bacteriologists of the University of Vienna were dispatched. Their work presented the first action of bacteriology for disease control on theatres of war. The great success of the surgical and hygienic measures initiated in 1912 a reform of the Austrian Red Cross. In 1913 Austria made a detailed application to the International Committee of the Red Cross in order to extend the Geneva Convention to war epidemics. The Committee forwarded and recommended this application to all member states, however, the outbreak of the First World War then prevented its resolution.

  1. Alcohol Consumption and Physical Activity in Austrian College Students-A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermeier, Martin; Frühauf, Anika; Kopp-Wilfling, Prisca; Rumpold, Gerhard; Kopp, Martin

    2018-01-30

    The age of college students is considered as crucial for developing health-related behaviors, e.g., alcohol consumption or a physically active lifestyle. Previous research reported a positive relationship between alcohol consumption and physical activity (PA) in college students. However, the main body of research was done in students from the United States who might differ from European students. Thus the aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between alcohol consumption and PA in a sample of Austrian college students. In a cross-sectional design, 861 Austrian students from various study fields responded to a web-based questionnaire. Self-reported alcohol consumption, PA, and relevant sociodemographic variables were assessed. Multiple regression analyses were used to study the relationship between alcohol consumption and PA. In none of the regression models, a significant relationship between alcohol consumption and PA was found. There was a significant influence of sex, age, relationship status, education level, and study field on alcohol consumption. Male, older, and undergraduate students studying social sciences without a relationship reported higher alcohol consumption. Conclusions/Importance: The results do not support a general relationship between alcohol consumption and PA among urban Austrian college students of various study fields. Compared to other variables (e.g., sex, relationship status), PA seems to be less important in relation to the consumption of alcohol. This study challenges a global perspective on a positive relationship between alcohol consumption and PA and highlights the need for more cross-cultural investigations.

  2. 137Cs-migration in soils and its transfer to roe deer in an Austrian forest stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strebl, F.; Gerzabek, M.H.; Karg, V.; Tataruch, F.

    1996-01-01

    The depth distribution of 137 Cs in an Austrian spruce forest stand was investigated in soil profiles sampled in thin layers (2 cm) and in pooled soil samples over an area of 200 ha. The 137 Cs concentrations both from Chernobyl and global fallout decrease exponentially with depth. Forty-six percent of Chernobyl-derived caesium and 26% from global fallout are still to be found in the litter layer; 137 Cs content in samples on organic matter as well as cation exchange capacity. Using a compartment model, average residence half-times of 5.3, 9.9, 1.78 and 0.8 years were calculated for the layers litter, 0-5 (Ah 1 ), 5-10 (Ah 2 ) and 10-20 cm (A/B) of mineral soil, respectively. Using the model predictions of soil contamination as a basis and considering that roe deer forage plants' rooting depths, the development of 137 Cs contamination of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) (1987-1993) was well described by applying an aggregated transfer factor

  3. 137Cs-migration in soils and its transfer to roe deer in an Austrian forest stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strebl, F.; Gerzabek, M. H.; Karg, V.; Tataruch, F.

    1996-03-01

    The depth distribution of 137 Cs in an Austrian spruce forest stand was investigated in soil profiles sampled in thin layers (2 cm) and in pooled soil samples over an area of 200 ha. The 137 Cs concentrations both from Chernobyl and global fallout decrease exponentially with depth. Forty-six percent of Chernobyl-derived cesium and 26 % from global fallout are still to be found in the litter layer; 137 Cs content in samples on organic matter as well as cation exchange capacity. Using a compartment model, average residence half-times of 5.3, 9.9, 1.78 and 0.8 years were calculated for the layers litter, 0-5 (Ah 1 ), 5-10 (Ah 2 ) and 10-20 cm (A/B) of mineral soil, respectively. Using the model predictions of soil contamination as a basis and considering the roe deer forage plants' rooting depths, the development of 137 Cs contamination of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) (1987 - 1993) was well described by applying an aggregated transfer factor. (author)

  4. How organizational research can avoid the pitfalls of a co-optation perspective: analyzing gender equality work in Austrian universities with organizational institutionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striedinger, Angelika

    2017-04-03

    The concept of co-optation offers vocabulary to discuss how concerns and demands of feminist movements are transformed on their way to, and within, mainstream organizations and policymaking. However, applications of this concept can have problematic implications, failing to grasp the complexity of social change efforts and contributing to divisions, rather than alliances, between different groups that work and fight for gender equality. This article argues that conceptual tools from organizational institutionalism can help to avoid these pitfalls by capturing the ambivalence of organizational change initiatives, and allowing us to identify not only counterintentional effects, but also subtle and unexpected opportunities of organizational gender equality work. I illustrate my arguments with empirical examples from research on gender equality work in Austrian universities.

  5. Managing a culturally diverse workforce : Diversity perspectives in organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Podsiadlowski, Astrid; Gröschke, Daniela; Kogler, Marina; Springer, Cornelia; van der Zee, Karen

    The authors conducted two studies to analyze why and how organizations approach and manage cultural diversity in the Austrian workplace and to identify organizations' diversity perspectives. In Study 1, 29 interviews revealed insights into organizational approaches to diversity and how these

  6. Environmental situation in Austria. Seventh state of the environment report of the federal minister of environment to the national assembly of the Austrian parliament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderl, M.; Banko, G.; Baumann, R.

    2004-01-01

    With the presentation of the seventh state of the Environment Report, the Umweltbundesamt - Austrian Environment Agency - fulfils its legal obligation of submitting detailed information on the state of the environment in Austria, thus providing the National Assembly of the Austrian Parliament as well as the Federal Government with an objective basis of data and information. It covers the period under review of 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2003 (unless stated otherwise) and is organized in 6 chapters: 1.- Sustainable development; 2.- Man and environment; 3.- Environmental impacts (agriculture, forest management and hunting, water resource management, energy industry, spatial planning, transport, the handling of chemicals, the application of pesticides and biocidal products, the application of genetically modified organisms, industry, waste management, contaminated sites, and noise); 4.- Environmental media (water, air, soil); 5.- Fauna, flora, habitats (biodiversity, nature protection, national parks in Austria, forest, agricultural habitats, Alpine regions) and 6.- Special chapters (greenhouse emissions and climate change, floods). In order to facilitate orientation, chapters 2-5 has been structured as follows: The 'Introduction' gives an overview of the conditions relevant for Austria as well as the current situation - if applicable also in comparison with other countries, the subchapter 'Environmental policy targets' lists the goals relevant for the respective topic specified in or to be derived from national or EU-wide laws, regulations, ordinances, plans or strategies; 'Situation and Trends' describes the current situation as well as future trends as far as they are detectable; the subchapter 'Summary Assessment and Outlook' compares the status quo with the trends contained in the 'Environmental policy targets'; the subchapter 'Recommendations' contains, from a point of view of precautionary environmental protection, recommendations of measures to guarantee

  7. Attitudes among the general Austrian population towards neonatal euthanasia: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldnagl, Lena; Freidl, Wolfgang; Stronegger, Willibald J

    2014-10-07

    The Groningen Protocol aims at providing guidance in end-of-life decision-making for severely impaired newborns. Since its publication in 2005 many bioethicists and health care professionals have written articles in response. However, only very little is known about the opinion among the general population on this subject. The aim of this study was to present the general attitude towards neonatal euthanasia (NE) among the Austrian population and the factors associated with the respondents' opinion. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the general Austrian population. Computer-assisted telephone interviews were performed with 1,000 interviewees aged 16 years and older. Binary logistic regression was performed in order to determine factors that are independently associated with the respondents' opinion about neonatal euthanasia. While 63.6% of the participants rejected the idea of neonatal euthanasia for severely impaired newborns, 36.4% opted either in favor or were undecided. Regression analysis has shown the respondents' educational level (p = 0.005) and experience in the care of terminally ill persons (p = 0.001) to be factors that are positively associated with the rejection of neonatal euthanasia, whereas a higher age was associated with a lower degree of rejection (p = 0.021). We found that the majority of the Austrian population rejects the idea of neonatal euthanasia for severely impaired newborns. However, given the increasing levels of rejection of NE among the younger generations and among people with a higher educational level, it cannot be precluded that the rejection rate might in future increase even further, rather than decrease.

  8. The Perception of Montenegro and the Montenegrins in Austrian Military Reports during the 1830s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Milković

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available An attempt is made in the article to draw attention to the specific perception of the Other when the perspective of the immediate neighbourhood is in question, more particularly, of the Kingdom of Dalmatia, Croatia and Slavonia in relation to the Kingdom of Montenegro in the first half of the 19th century. The focus of research lies in the reports that have as their theme Montenegro and the Montenegrins, these having been written by Captain Friedrich Orešković and Major Josip Jelačić – later the Croatian Ban – at that time adjutant to the military and civil governor of Dalmatia, Lilienberg. The reports were written on Lilienberg’s orders in connection with a then-current conflict that had broken out on the border between Austrian units and the Montenegrins (1838, and the final definition of the Austrian-Montenegrin border. Applying the concepts of Marija Todorova and Božidar Jezernik, the way in which the conceptions that Orešković and Jelačić harboured about Montenegro and the Montenegrins were a reflection of their specific social habitude as Austrian officers is analysed in the paper. Through their comparison with the perception of Montenegro and the Montenegrins among other social strata, light is cast on the diverse ideological and identificational patterns that co-existed on the territory of the Triune Kingdom, also providing an indication of the multi-layered nature of its modern society. The similarity with notions about Montenegro and the Montenegrins and the Balkans in general that existed in Western Europe are also established, as well as the significant differences that suggest that the immediate neighbourhood results in a specificity of perception independently of the broad ideological framework.

  9. 54. Annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippitsch, M.

    2004-01-01

    The papers presented were organized under the following sessions: main session (from attoseconds to RGB to telecom, density functional calculations, magnetic anisotropy of nanostructures, quantum cascade laser, bose-einstein condensates, DNA molecular force sensor); Fritz-Kohlrausch-price 2004 (nanoscale building blocks), Max-Auwaerter-price 2004 (electron emission and nano defects, magnetic rings), AT + S price 2004 (conducting atomic-force microscopy for nanoscale studies), Viktor-Hess-price 2004 (entanglement for meson-antimeson systems), Roman-Ulrich-Sexl-price 2004 (teaching physics ); acoustics; atomic-, molecular- and plasma physics (kinetic electron emission, accelerated-mass spectrometry of molecules, dissociative electron attachment, voc measurements); solid physics (spin relaxation, nano clean room reactor, proton transport through nanotubes); nuclear and particle physics (color reconnection, supersymmetry at Large Hadron Collider, pionic hydrogen, kaonic hydrogen, quantum chaos, quantum dwell time, trigger system simulation, ATLAS initial detector layout, QCD); medical-, bio-and environmental physics (PTR-MS, validation Monte Carlo FLUKA codes, Gamma camera- positron emission tomography); neutrons and synchrotron radiation physics (3D synchrotron micro on human bones); surface and thin film analysis; quantum electronics, electrodynamics and optics (teleportation, optic induced changes in interaction in BEC, electronic feed back cooling single ions) and poster sessions with topics dealing with the subjects above mentioned. This book of abstracts contains their summaries and those contributions which are in the INIS subject scope are indexed individually. (nevyjel)

  10. Progress report 1980/81 of the Austrian Academy of Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    From the numerous institutes and divisions of the Austrian Academy of Sciences presented in this report the Commission for Arteriosclerosis and Thrombosis Research (application of radioimmunoassay) and the Institute for X-ray Microstructure Research (investigation of biological substances by X-ray and neutron small angle scattering) are partly within the scope of INIS. Fully in scope are short project discriptions of the Institute for Radium Research and Nulear Physics: the Commission for the SIN-project and the Institute for High Energy Physics, completed by publication lists. (G.Q.)

  11. Land Administration and Land Consolidation as Part of Austrian Land Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansberger Reinfried

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Land administration and land consolidation are two pillars of the Austrian land management sharing a long tradition and duties defined by the constitution. Land administration supports measures of land consolidation with cadastre data, land registry data and other geo–technical data. New methods and instruments of geodata assessment provides a more detailed information about land and its changes. The geo–products are contributing to an improved process efficiency of land consolidation authorities. In addition, the role of land consolidation changed from an instrument to improve farming structures to a multifunctional tool of land management.

  12. The most important parasitic and saprophytic fungi in Austrian pine and Scots pine plantations in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karadžić Dragan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In Austrian pine plantations in Serbia, the greatest damage is caused by the fungi Mycosphaerella pini, Sphaeropsis sapinea, Cenangium ferruginosum, Germmeniella abietina (in the mountain regions and occasionally Armillaria spp., Lophodermium spp. (seditiosum, conigenum, pinastri and Cyclaneusma niveum. In Scots pine plantations, the greatest damage is caused by the fungi Heterobasidion annosum (especially in plantations on sandy soils, Armillaria spp, Lophodermium seditiosum, L. pinastri, Cyclaneusma minus and Sphaeropsis sapinea. Damage caused by rust fungi (Coleosporium sennecionis, Melampsora pinitorqua and Cronartium flaccidum occurs less frequently. In mountainous regions in Scots pine plantations, great damage is caused by Phacidium infestans, Lophodermella sulcigena and Gremmeniella abietina.

  13. Preliminary survey on the information campaign on nuclear energy of the Austrian Government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, H.

    1977-01-01

    To provide adequate, unbiased information to the public as well as basic material for future decisions concerning nuclear energy to parliament, the Austrian Government began the Information Campaign on Nuclear Energy in October 1976 and it will continue to June 1977. In the first phase of this campaign, teams of experts consisting of promoters and critics of nuclear energy discussed the various aspects of this topic in public as well as in internal debates, finally producing exhaustive reports. In the second phase, scheduled to take place in May and June 1977, these reports will be discussed in a series of symposia by representatives of the different viewpoints of the Austrian public on nuclear energy. They will then be submitted to parliament together with a summary provided by the Government. The motivation of the campaign, the preparation and execution of the first phase, as well as the first steps in the preparation of the second pahse, are described. Preliminary analyses concern: a) the interaction between the authorities, the experts and the public; b) the interaction among the experts; c) the character of the protest movement and its activities and the public activities of the promoters of nuclear energy; d) the role of the mass media and the information flow in society; and, very cursorily; e) the international echo. Preliminary conclusions are drawn on the organisation of the process of optimal transfer of information to the public, consensus-finding in society and decision-making; a comparison with experiences in other countries is attempted

  14. Why Context Matters: Social Inclusion and Multilingualism in an Austrian School Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Jessner

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article draws attention to language choice and language use of Austrian bi- and multilingual school children. We explore some implications of their linguistic practices with regard to social inclusion in an Austrian educational school setting. Pursuing a Dynamic Systems and Complexity Theory approach, we hypothesise that before language users actually use a language within a certain context, they have to evaluate the respective communicative situation by taking multiple contextual factors into consideration, meaning language users choose to use, or not to use, a language based on the socio-contextual information at hand. We consider these contextual factors to be most relevant as they provide the basis on which speakers can actually make use of a certain language within a given context. By drawing on examples of empirical data obtained through a language background survey, we examine some of the complex and dynamic interactions of contextual parameters influencing language choice and language use in the formal educational setting of classroom instruction. Based on the results of this study, we display a selection of the dynamic and complex interactions of pupils’ language use in one specific context as well as their language preferences and how these relate to social inclusion.

  15. Augmenting Austrian flood management practices through geospatial predictive analytics: a study in Carinthia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, S. M.; Paulus, G.

    2013-06-01

    The Danube River basin has long been the location of significant flooding problems across central Europe. The last decade has seen a sharp increase in the frequency, duration and intensity of these flood events, unveiling a dire need for enhanced flood management policy and tools in the region. Located in the southern portion of Austria, the state of Carinthia has experienced a significant volume of intense flood impacts over the last decade. Although the Austrian government has acknowledged these issues, their remedial actions have been primarily structural to date. Continued focus on controlling the natural environment through infrastructure while disregarding the need to consider alternative forms of assessing flood exposure will only act as a provisional solution to this inescapable risk. In an attempt to remedy this flaw, this paper highlights the application of geospatial predictive analytics and spatial recovery index as a proxy for community resilience, as well as the cultural challenges associated with the application of foreign models within an Austrian environment.

  16. Characterization of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from Austrian companion animals and horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginders, Maximilian; Leschnik, Michael; Künzel, Frank; Kampner, Doris; Mikula, Claudia; Steindl, Georg; Eichhorn, Inga; Feßler, Andrea T; Schwarz, Stefan; Spergser, Joachim; Loncaric, Igor

    2017-11-14

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the genetic relatedness and the antimicrobial resistance profiles of a collection of Austrian Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from companion animals and horses. A total of 12 non-repetitive isolates presumptively identified as S. pneumoniae were obtained during routinely diagnostic activities between March 2009 and January 2017. Isolates were confirmed as S. pneumoniae by bile solubility and optochin susceptibility testing, matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and sequence analysis of a part recA and the 16S rRNA genes. Isolates were further characterized by pneumolysin polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and genotyped by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed and resistance genes were detected by specific PCR assays. All isolates were serotyped. Four sequence types (ST) (ST36, ST3546, ST6934 and ST6937) and four serotypes (3, 19A, 19F and 23F) were detected. Two isolates from twelve displayed a multidrug-resistance pheno- and genotype. This study represents the first comprehensive investigation on characteristics of S. pneumoniae isolates recovered from Austrian companion animals and horses. The obtained results indicate that common human sero- (23F) and sequence type (ST36) implicated in causing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) may circulate in dogs. Isolates obtained from other examined animals seem to be host-adapted.

  17. [Counselling customers with psychotropic vs. cardiovascular prescriptions: a survey among Austrian community pharmacists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmair, Gisela; Amering, Michaela; Kaiser, Gerda; Katschnig, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Prescriptions for psychotropic drugs in general and their share of all prescriptions have substantially risen over the last decades. Thus, also counselling by pharmacists becomes more important in this area. This study focuses on how community pharmacists see their own role when counselling persons with prescriptions for psychotropic medication and how this differs from counselling persons with other types of prescriptions. Based on the Toronto Community Pharmacists' Questionnaire an online questionnaire was developed with the assistance of the Austrian Pharmacists Association. This instrument elicits pharmacists' attitudes toward and professional interactions with users of psychotropic drugs on the one hand and of cardiovascular medication on the other. After a pilot study the questionnaire - which was to be filled in anonymously - was put on a web portal for six months and Austrian community pharmacists were invited to answer it. 125 pharmacists completed the questionnaire. Overall it was reported, that new customers with psychotropic prescriptions were less often counselled than those with prescriptions for cardiovascular medication. The main reasons for this difference seem to be the lack of privacy in public pharmacies, the fear of stigmatising customers with psychotropic medication and a perceived lack of training concerning the treatment of mental disorders. In addition to improving such training, it was suggested that seminars and workshops for communication skills should be organised. The reduced frequency in counselling new customers with psychotropic medication is related to a lack of privacy in public pharmacies, fear of stigmatising customers and a perceived need for improving the training on the treatment of mental disorders.

  18. Assessing the impact of health technology assessment on the Austrian healthcare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Ines; Zechmeister, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    In Austria, research in health technology assessment (HTA) has been conducted since the 1990s. The aim of this study is to analyze whether the HTA research program of the Institute of Technology Assessment (ITA) and the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for HTA (LBI-HTA) have had an impact on the Austrian healthcare system. We applied qualitative and quantitative empirical research methods, such as interviewing, download analysis, questionnaire, retrospective routine data analysis, and media analysis. Data were analyzed according to a conceptual framework, considering seven impact categories (awareness, acceptance, process, decision, practice, final outcomes, enlightenment) and different target groups. A rising number of downloads and single HTA reports with high media interest were identified. Interviews showed that HTA reports have increasingly been used for investment and reimbursement decisions, as well as for the preparation of negotiations. Economic impact was indicated by decreased expenditures due to HTA recommendations. Overall, knowledge about evidence-based medicine increased and, in places, an "HTA culture" can be recognized. Yet, several decision-making processes occur at all levels without the use of HTA. The analysis demonstrated an impact within all predefined categories; however, it depends on the system level and its target groups. HTA reports are primarily used by hospital management, (social) insurances, and the Austrian Ministry of Health. Nevertheless, there is still potential to increase the impact of HTA. Therefore, the inclusion of HTA in decision-making processes in Austria needs to move from a voluntary basis to a mandatory one.

  19. High concentrations of anthocyanins in genuine cherry-juice of old local Austrian Prunus avium varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüller, Elisabeth; Halbwirth, Heidi; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Slatnar, Ana; Veberic, Robert; Forneck, Astrid; Stich, Karl; Spornberger, Andreas

    2015-04-15

    Antioxidant activity and polyphenols were quantified in vapour-extracted juice of nine Austrian, partially endemic varieties of sweet cherry (Prunus avium): cv. 'Spätbraune von Purbach', cv. 'Early Rivers', cv. 'Joiser Einsiedekirsche', cv. 'Große Schwarze Knorpelkirsche' and four unidentified local varieties. Additionally the effect of storage was evaluated for six of the varieties. A variety showing the highest antioxidant capacity (9.64 μmol Trolox equivalents per mL), total polyphenols (2747 mg/L) and total cyanidins (1085 mg/L) was suitable for mechanical harvest and its juice did not show any losses of antioxidant capacity and total anthocyanin concentration during storage. The juice of cv. 'Große Schwarze Knorpelkirsche' had also high concentrations of total anthocyanins (873 mg/L), but showed substantial losses through storage. The local Austrian sweet cherry varieties from the Pannonian climate zone are particularly suitable for the production of processed products like cherry juice with high content of anthocyanins and polyphenols. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Augmenting Austrian flood management practices through geospatial predictive analytics: a study in Carinthia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Ward

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Danube River basin has long been the location of significant flooding problems across central Europe. The last decade has seen a sharp increase in the frequency, duration and intensity of these flood events, unveiling a dire need for enhanced flood management policy and tools in the region. Located in the southern portion of Austria, the state of Carinthia has experienced a significant volume of intense flood impacts over the last decade. Although the Austrian government has acknowledged these issues, their remedial actions have been primarily structural to date. Continued focus on controlling the natural environment through infrastructure while disregarding the need to consider alternative forms of assessing flood exposure will only act as a provisional solution to this inescapable risk. In an attempt to remedy this flaw, this paper highlights the application of geospatial predictive analytics and spatial recovery index as a proxy for community resilience, as well as the cultural challenges associated with the application of foreign models within an Austrian environment.

  1. Water demand for ski resort development in the Austrian Alps: an Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiling, M.; Sokratov, S.

    2012-04-01

    Austria has the highest national added value from winter tourism in Europe, as well as worldwide. 15.7 million arrivals were counted in Austrian accommodation establishments in the 2010/11 winter season. There were more than 62 million overnight stays and 51.2 million skier-days were consumed. 588 million transports were carried out by more than 3000 lifts (cable cars, chair lifts and T-bars). Including indirect and induced effects, this resulted in more than 10 billion euros in added value being generated. The lack of snow in many Austrian skiing areas during the 2006/2007 winter season demonstrated the extent to which meteorological conditions influence operations. Declines in the number of skiers transported and total skier days were the result. The cable-car operators also had to struggle with little snow in the 2010/2011 winter. The Austrian Cable Car Operators' Association stated that the opening of 70-80% of all skiing areas outside of the peak season could only be assured through the use of snowmaking equipment. The central criterion for winter sports enthusiasts to make a trip is the guarantee that they will find snow at their destination and Austria's cable-car operators invest more than 100 million euros in the erection and improvement of snowmaking complexes every year to satisfy this deand. In the 2010/2011 season, this provided for 17,800 jobs. Cable car operators set up snowmaking equipment to become independent from meteorological conditions and improve the capacity utilisation of their expensive investments in transport systems in the early winter. Austria has a skiing area of around 25,400 hectares - around 17,000 hectares at altitudes between 600m and 3200m are currently suitable for snowmaking. As much as 70% of the snow is produced immediately before the start of the season. This recent trend is responsible that the irrigation pattern of Austrian land use changed significantly in the last decade. Previously maize fields and low lands in summer

  2. Organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.

    1978-01-01

    Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)

  3. Organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on "organizers," tools or techniques that provide identification and classification along with possible relationships or connections among ideas, concepts, and issues. Discusses David Ausubel's research and ideas concerning advance organizers; the implications of Ausubel's theory to curriculum and teaching; "webbing," a…

  4. 25 October 2017- Austrian, German and Swiss Science Foundations signing the guest book in the Globe of Science and Innovation

    CERN Multimedia

    Ordan, Julien Marius

    2017-01-01

    Austrian, German and Swiss Science Foundations in Globe: Professor Klement Tockner, Präsident, Fonds zur Förderung der wissenschaftlichen Forschung, Austria; Professor Peter, Strohschneider, Präsident, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft Germany; Professor Matthias Egger, Präsident, Schweizerischer Nationalfonds zur Förderung der Wissenschaftlichen Forschung, Switzerland

  5. ["Maintaining a Common Culture"--the German Research Foundation and the Austrian-German scientific aid in the interbellum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fengler, Silke; Luxbacher, Günther

    2011-12-01

    After the end of the Great War, private as well as public research funding in Austria was anaemic and slow to develop. Whereas the German state-funded Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) was established as early as 1920, first steps in that direction were only taken in Austria in the late 1920s. In 1929, the Osterreichisch-deutsche Wissenschaftshilfe (ODW) was founded under the auspices of the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the DFG. Although prima facie on an equal footing, the new research funding organisation was in fact highly dependent on its German cooperation partner. The article explores for the first time ODW's position within the German and Austrian science and foreign policies, which aimed to promote the idea of unification of both states within the German Reich. A quantitative analysis of the subsidies policy in the first five years of existence shows that the ODW gave financial aid primarily to conservative research fields, affecting the intellectual balance of power in the First Austrian Republic. Policy continuities and discontinuities of the organisation in the course of the national-socialist rise to power in Germany after 1933 are examined in the second part of the article. The article thus both increases our knowledge about the most important German research funding organisation DFG, and identifies some of the fundamental structural features of Austrian science policy in the interwar years.

  6. Combining IPPC and emission trading: An assessment of energy efficiency and CO2 reduction potentials in the Austrian paper industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starzer, Otto; Dworak, Oliver

    2005-01-01

    In the frame of an innovative project partnership E.V.A. - the Austrian Energy Agency accompanied the Austrian paper industry for the last 2.5 years in developing a branch specific climate change strategy. Within the scope of this project an assessment of the energy efficiency status of the branch was carried out as well as an evaluation of still realisable energy savings and CO 2 reduction potentials. The paper presents the methodology applied, which combines a top down approach (benchmarking and best practice) with a bottom up approach (on-site interviews and energy audits), supported by a huge data collection process. Within the benchmarking process all Austrian paper industry installations affected by the EU emission trading directive were benchmarked against their respective IPPC/BAT values. Furthermore an extensive list of best practice examples derived from existing or ongoing studies was compared with the energy efficiency measures already carried out by the companies ('early actions'). These theory-oriented findings were complemented by several on-site interviews with the respective energy managers as well as by detailed energy audits carried out by a consulting company, covering in total more than 80% of the Austrian paper industry's CO 2 emissions. The paper concludes with the main results of the project, presenting the pros and cons of working with IPPC documents and BAT values in terms of energy efficiency assessments. Recommendations are presented on how to improve the allocation exercise for the next emission trading period from 2008 to 2012

  7. What Does It Take to Be an Adult in Austria? Views of Adulthood in Austrian Adolescents, Emerging Adults, and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirsch, Ulrike; Dreher, Eva; Mayr, Eva; Willinger, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the defining features of emerging adulthood, subjects' conceptions of the transition to adulthood, and the perceived adult status in Austria. The sample consisted of 775 subjects (226 adolescents, 317 emerging adults, 232 adults). Results showed that most Austrian emerging adults feel themselves to be between adolescence…

  8. Austrian visit

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Hans Hoffmann, Director for Technology Transfer and Scientific Computing, and Maria Rauch-Kallat, Minister of Health and Women's Issues, Austria, signing the visitors' book.Maria Rauch-Kallat, Minister of Health and Women's Issues, Austria, was welcomed by Hans Hoffmann, Director for Technology Transfer and Scientific Computing, on her visit to CERN on 19 May 2003. The theme of the visit was Technology Transfer and spin-offs from CERN for medical applications. Maria Rauch-Kallat toured also the installations of ATLAS.

  9. Antimicrobial consumption on Austrian dairy farms: an observational study of udder disease treatments based on veterinary medication records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clair L. Firth

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Antimicrobial use in livestock production is an important contemporary issue, which is of public interest worldwide. Antimicrobials are not freely available to Austrian farmers and can only be administered to livestock by veterinarians, or by farmers who are trained members of the Animal Health Service. Since 2015, veterinarians have been required by law to report antimicrobials dispensed to farmers for use in food-producing animals. The study presented here went further than the statutory framework, and collected data on antimicrobials dispensed to farmers and those administered by veterinarians. Methods Seventeen veterinary practices were enrolled in the study via convenience sampling. These veterinarians were asked to contact interested dairy farmers regarding participation in the study (respondent-driven sampling. Data were collected from veterinary practice software between 1st October 2015 and 30th September 2016. Electronic data (89.4% were transferred via an online interface and paper records (10.6% were entered by the authors. Antimicrobial treatments with respect to udder disease were analysed by number of defined daily doses per cow and year (nDDDvet/cow/year, based on the European Medicines Agency technical unit, Defined Daily Dose for animals (DDDvet. Descriptive statistics and the Wilcoxon rank sum test were used to analyse the results. Results Antimicrobial use data from a total of 248 dairy farms were collected during the study, 232 of these farms treated cows with antibiotics; dry cow therapy was excluded from the current analysis. The mean number of DDDvet/cow/year for the antimicrobial treatment of all udder disease was 1.33 DDDvet/cow/year. Of these treatments, 0.73 DDDvet/cow/year were classed as highest priority critically important antimicrobials (HPCIAs, according to the World Health Organization (WHO definition. The Wilcoxon rank sum test determined a statistically significant difference between the median

  10. Management Effects On Quality of Organically Grown Winter Wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Schweinzer, A.; Friedel, J. K.

    2013-01-01

    following pre-crop pea. Danish grains generally contained more soluble polymers of less interest for the baking process than the Austrian ones. The study emphasizes the challenges in improving the quality of organically grown wheat beyond what is predetermined by environmental growth conditions and cultivar....... However, baking quality appeared better than could be expected from the quality parameters determined....

  11. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... and considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  12. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    and considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from......Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  13. The Dual Listing of Austrian Companies in Vienna and Frankfurt: Dependence Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz Gurgul

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available International capital flows can be hampered by a variety of barriers such as transaction costs, information costs, and legal restrictions. The solution in this situation can be dual listing. The framework of the research presented here assumes that domestic securities are dually listed on a foreign capital market, while none of the foreign securities is dually listed on the domestic capital market. This paper is concerned with a dependence analysis of the log-levels and returns of Austrian stocks listed in Frankfurt and Vienna. The important issue is dynamic linear and non-linear causality between log-levels (returns of prices and the indices ATX and DAX. In this context the important directions of causality are found along with the level of relations of the selected types of causality.

  14. Authority Relationship From a Societal Perspective: Social Representations of Obedience and Disobedience in Austrian Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Fattori

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Obedience and disobedience have always been salient issues for both civil society and social psychologists. Since Milgram’s first studies on destructive obedience there has not been a bottom-up definition of what obedience and disobedience mean. The current study aimed at investigating the social representations young adults use to define and to co-construct knowledge about obedience and disobedience in Austria. One hundred fifty four (106 females, 68.8% Austrian young adults (Mean age = 22.9; SD = 3.5 completed a mixed-method questionnaire comprising open-ended questions and free word associations. Overall obedience and disobedience are respectively defined as conformity and non-conformity to regulations, ranging from implicit social norms to explicit formal laws. Authority is multi-faceted and has a central role in orienting obedience and disobedience. Further fundamental determinants of the authority relationship and relevant application of the results are discussed in this paper.

  15. The Austrian early radiation warning system. Current status and new developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1995 the Austrian early radiation warning system consisted of external gamma dose rate measuring devices in 336 locations that are rather evenly distributed across Austria and of nine aerosol warning devices. The measurement devices are connected to regional warning centres via dedicated telephone lines. Now a basic change in the system is foreseen. A renewal of the air contamination warning devices is scheduled, plans are being developed to use more 'intelligent' gamma measuring devices and packet switched data transfer. A data base system will be set up, containing on-line dose rate and air contamination data as well as laboratory measurement data for various media. Communication of these data to federal and regional authorities and other institutions will be managed within a geographical information system. (R.P.)

  16. Modelling the impact of changes in the interest rates on the economy: An Austrian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Le Roux

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Even though econometric models and yield curve analysis are useful in assessing the impact of interest rate changes on the economic structure, their power to predict the magnitude and direction of swings in the business cycle is often restricted to the use of short-term interest rates. From an Austrian school perspective on interest rates, empirical evidence suggests that the profitability of heavy industries further downstream outperforms that of light industries in the initial stages of monetary easing, due to a rising demand for investment goods and a rise in capacity utilisation levels. This paper assesses the impact of interest rates changes on the productive structure of the economy by taking into account the effect thereof on sector earnings and ultimately share prices.

  17. Uncertainty and the welfare economics of medical care: an Austrian rebuttal Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Berdine

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Part 2 of this 3 part series continues a rebuttal to Kenneth Arrow’s famous argument that health care is special and free market economic principles do not apply. The rebuttal is based on concepts of Austrian Economics. Part 1 of the series framed the debate and discussed general concepts. Part 2 discusses specific examples of how health care is special and does not behave according to market principles. Uncertainty of demand and uncertainty of outcome are discussed in detail. Information asymmetry is a special form of uncertainty that Kenneth Arrow claimed was somewhat unique to health care. Free market solutions to these problems are discussed in general with specific examples provided. The conclusions are that free market insurance (as opposed to subsidy handles uncertainty of demand, branding handles uncertainty of outcome, and the free market for specialized information handles information asymmetry.

  18. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of Austrian wine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, X. [Atominstitut der Osterreichischen Universitaeten, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Kregsamer, P. [Atominstitut der Osterreichischen Universitaeten, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Wobrauschek, P. [Atominstitut der Osterreichischen Universitaeten, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Streli, C. [Atominstitut der Osterreichischen Universitaeten, 1020 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: streli@ati.ac.at

    2006-11-15

    The concentration of major, minor and trace elements in Austrian wine was determined by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence using gallium as internal standard. A multi-elemental analysis was possible by pipetting 6 {mu}l of wine directly on the reflector and drying. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis was performed with Atomika EXTRA II A (Cameca) X-rays from a Mo tube with a high-energy cut-off at 20 keV in total-reflection geometry. The results showed that it was possible to identify only by the elemental analysis as fingerprint the vineyards and year of vintage among 11 different wines.

  19. Building positive nature awareness in pupils using the "Rainforest of the Austrians" in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrecht, Margit; Hölzl, Irmgard; Huber, Werner; Weissenhofer, Anton

    2013-04-01

    20 years ago, Michael Schnitzler founded the NGO "Rainforest of the Austrians" to help save one of the most diverse rainforests in Central America, the Esquinas rainforest on the Pacific coast of SW Costa Rica, from being destroyed through logging. In this abstract we present an interdisciplinary upper Austrian school project aiming at building positive awareness in pupils towards rainforest conservation by fund-raising to help purchase endangered forest areas. The acquired rainforest was donated to the Costa Rican government and became part of the National Park "Piedras Blancas". In the following, we present a chronology of events and actions of the school project. We started our rainforest project by face-to-face encounters, letting involved persons speak directly to the pupils. Dr. Huber, coordinator of the tropical rainforest station La Gamba in Costa Rica (www.lagamba.at), together with Dr. Weissenhofer, presented an introductory slide show about the "Rainforest of the Austrians". With rainforest images and sounds in their mind the pupils wrote "trips of a lifetime" stories, thus creating idyllic images of rainforest habitats. Following up on that, we visited the exhibition "Heliconia and Hummingbirds" at the Biology Center in Linz. Reports about the slide show and the exhibition followed. Tropical sites were compared by producing climate graphs of La Gamba, Costa Rica, and Manaus in Brazil. The global distribution and the decrease of rainforests were also analyzed. In biology lessons the symbiosis between plants and animals of the rainforest were worked out by searching the Internet. Flyers with profiles of rainforest animals were produced. We also discussed the ecotourism project "RICANCIE" in Ecuador using fact sheets. "RICANCIE" is a Spanish acronym standing for "Indigenous Community Network of the Upper Napo for Intercultural Exchange and Ecotourism". It was founded in 1993 aiming to improve the quality of life for some 200 indigenous Kichwa families

  20. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of Austrian wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, X.; Kregsamer, P.; Wobrauschek, P.; Streli, C.

    2006-01-01

    The concentration of major, minor and trace elements in Austrian wine was determined by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence using gallium as internal standard. A multi-elemental analysis was possible by pipetting 6 μl of wine directly on the reflector and drying. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis was performed with Atomika EXTRA II A (Cameca) X-rays from a Mo tube with a high-energy cut-off at 20 keV in total-reflection geometry. The results showed that it was possible to identify only by the elemental analysis as fingerprint the vineyards and year of vintage among 11 different wines

  1. Austrian Business Cycle Theory: Are 100 Percent Reserves Sufficient to Prevent a Business Cycle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Bagus

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Authors in the Austrian tradition have made the credit expansion of a fractional reserve banking system as the prime cause of business cycles. Authors such as Selgin (1988 and White (1999 have argued that a solution to this problem would be a free banking system. They maintain that the competition between banks would limit the credit expansion effectively. Other authors such as Rothbard (1991 and Huerta de Soto (2006 have gone further and advocated a 100 percent reserve banking system ruling out credit expansion altogether. In this article it is argued that a 100 percent reserve system can still bring about business cycles through excessive maturity mismatching between deposits and loans.

  2. The Austrian social festival Keep the Ball Rolling in a peripheral region of Upper Styria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gstach Isabell

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The “Steirische Eisenstraße” is a region located in the province of Styria in Austria, which has been struggling with a massive shift in population and age structure for some time. In 2012/13 the Austrian social festival Keep the Ball Rolling is taking place in this region. Over a period of 18 months, the social festival is providing opportunities to think of their own environment. Consequently, they can develop and implement ideas for good cohabitation and put these into practice. The main focus of this article is the demographic presentation of the “Steirische Eisenstraße” region, according to population, employment and age structure. The introduction of the social festival is fundamental in initiating successful change processes.

  3. Survey to identify depth of penetration of critical incident reporting systems in Austrian healthcare facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendlhofer, Gerald; Eder, Harald; Leitgeb, Karina; Gorges, Roland; Jakse, Heidelinde; Raiger, Marianne; Türk, Silvia; Petschnig, Walter; Pregartner, Gudrun; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Brunner, Gernot

    2018-01-01

    Incident reporting systems or so-called critical incident reporting systems (CIRS) were first recommended for use in health care more than 15 years ago. The uses of these CIRS are highly variable among countries, ranging from being used to report critical incidents, falls, or sentinel events resulting in death. In Austria, CIRS have only been introduced to the health care sector relatively recently. The goal of this work, therefore, was to determine whether and specifically how CIRS are used in Austria. A working group from the Austrian Society for Quality and Safety in Healthcare (ASQS) developed a survey on the topic of CIRS to collect information on penetration of CIRS in general and on how CIRS reports are used to increase patient safety. Three hundred seventy-one health care professionals from 274 health care facilities were contacted via e-mail. Seventy-eight respondents (21.0%) completed the online survey, thereof 66 from hospitals and 12 from other facilities (outpatient clinics, nursing homes). In all, 64.1% of the respondents indicated that CIRS were used in the entire health care facility; 20.6% had not yet introduced CIRS and 15.4% used CIRS only in particular areas. Most often, critical incidents without any harm to patients were reported (76.9%); however, some health care facilities also use their CIRS to report patient falls (16.7%), needle stick injuries (17.9%), technical problems (51.3%), or critical incidents involving health care professionals. CIRS are not yet extensively or homogeneously used in Austria. Inconsistencies exist with respect to which events are reported as well as how they are followed up and reported to health care professionals. Further recommendations for general use are needed to support the dissemination in Austrian health care environments.

  4. Lymphedema and employability - Review and results of a survey of Austrian experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Markus; Schoberwalter, Dieter; Cenik, Fadime; Keilani, Mohammad; Crevenna, Richard

    2017-03-01

    Literature about lymphedema and its influence on the ability to work and employability is limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate the opinion of Austrian experts on factors influencing the ability to work and employability in patients suffering from lymphedema. A self-administered questionnaire consisting of 6 questions was sent to 12 Austrian lymphedema experts with 6 different specializations from May to August 2016. These experts were asked about suitable and unsuitable professions, the possible influence of lymphedema on the ability to work and employability as well as about existing and additional measures to improve the return to work. The reply rate was 100% (12 out of 12). All experts agreed that lymphedema can restrict the ability to work and employability. The leading reason for limited ability to work and employability was restricted mobility or function of the affected limb along with time-consuming therapeutic modalities, pain and psychological stress. The most suitable job named was teacher and the most unsuitable job named was cook. As easements for return to work, early rehabilitation, self-management, coping strategies, patient education, employer's goodwill and employer's cooperation were reported. Furthermore, experts stressed the need for an adjustment of the legal framework as well as low-barrier and more therapy offers. Adjusted work demands seem to be of greater importance to support the ability to work and employability than recommendations for specific job profiles alone. Experts suggest an adjustment of the legal framework for affected patients, claiming a right for early rehabilitation as well as for life-long therapy. Even though some clinically useful conclusions may be drawn from this article, further research in the field is warranted.

  5. Post-irradiation examination of HTR-fuel at the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitsamer, G.; Proksch, E.; Stolba, G.; Strigl, A.; Falta, G.; Zeger, J.

    1985-01-01

    Austrian R and D activities in the HTR-field reach back almost to the beginning of this advanced reactor line. For more than 20 years post-irradiation examination (PIE) of HTR-fuel has been performed at the laboratories of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf Ltd. (OEFZS) (formerly OESGAE) and a high degree of qualification has been achieved in the course of that time. Most of the PIE-work has been carried out by international cooperation on contract basis with the OECD-DRAGON-project and with KFA-Juelich (FRG). There has also been some collaboration with GA (USA), Belgonucleaire and others in the past. HTR-fuel elements contain the fissile and fertile materials in form of coated particles (CPs) which are embedded in a graphite matrix. Because of this special design it has been necessary from the very beginning of the PIE work up to now to develop new methods (i.e. fuel element disintegration methods, chlorine gas leach, single particle examination techniques...) as well as to adapt and improve already existing methods (i.e. gamma spectrometry, mass-spectrometry, optical methods...). The main interests on PIE-work at Seibersdorf are concentrated on particle performance, fission product distribution and the 'free' Uranium content (contamination and broken particles) of the fuel elements (fuel spheres or cylindrical compacts). A short compilation of the applied methods and of available instrumental facilities is given as follows: deconsolidation of fuel elements; equipment for electrochemical deconsolidation; examinations and measurements of graphite and electrolyte samples; examination of coated particles; single particle examinations

  6. Leishmania infections in Austrian soldiers returning from military missions abroad: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obwaller, Adelheid G; Köhsler, Martina; Poeppl, Wolfgang; Herkner, Harald; Mooseder, Gerhard; Aspöck, Horst; Walochnik, Julia

    2018-01-12

    The incidence of leishmaniasis is known to increase in conflict areas. The aim of this study was to determine the exposure to Leishmania species in Austrian soldiers returning from missions abroad also assessing possible risk factors. A retrospective explorative cross-sectional serological study was conducted in 225 healthy Austrian soldiers returning from UN or EU peace-keeping missions in Syria, the Lebanon and Bosnia and Herzegovina (BIH), respectively. Sera were tested for anti-Leishmania antibodies using a commercial ELISA. All positive individuals were screened for Leishmania DNA by PCR targeting the ITS1 region using EDTA blood samples. In total, 13.3% (30/225) of the individuals tested were either positive (8%=18/225) or borderline (5.3%=12/225) in the ELISA, with highest seroprevalence in soldiers returning from Syria (17.8%=18/101; 12 positive, 6 borderline), second from the Lebanon (11.1%=7/63; 4 positive, 3 borderline), and lowest from BIH (8.2%=5/61; 2 positive, 3 borderline). Ten soldiers returning from Syria and one from BIH were also positive for Leishmania DNA. Six of these were identified as Leishmania donovani/infantum complex, two as L. tropica, and another three as mixed infections by DNA sequencing. Epidemiological data were collected with a questionnaire, seropositivity correlated with a history of lengthy-healing insect bites (OR 5.33, 95% CI 1.23-23.04, p = 0.025). Although, pre-travel serological data was not available in this study, the exposure of soldiers to Leishmania spp. during their missions can be assumed to be considerable. As even asymptomatic infections may resurge in case of emerging immunodeficiencies, adequate prevention measures seem important. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Teaching in Bukovina at the time of the Austrian domination. The Foundation of the University of Tchernivtsi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Baltag

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Teaching is a mirror that reveals how a nation defines and limits its identity in history, taking its landmarks at cultural level. The situation of education in Bukovina during the Austrian occupation was precarious, especially in the presence of the Romanian language in schools. In that sense, the Romanians of Bukovina fought against the preponderance of German language, imposed by the Austrian occupation and against the pressure exerted by the Ukrainians to impose their mother tongue in educational institutions. If the quality of the teaching of the first schools remained at a fairly low level, the time has come when, following the Western model, Bukovina raised the level of its institutions. The Theological Institute which turns into the Faculty of Theology so that the University of Tchernivtsi allowed students to complete their studies in Bukovina, without having to study in the academic centers of Liov or Vienna.

  8. Connectedness to nature and public (skin) health perspectives: results of a representative, population-based survey among Austrian residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluza, Daniela; Simic, Stana; Höltge, Jan; Cervinka, Renate; Moshammer, Hanns

    2014-01-20

    Connectedness to nature (CN) influences motivation to have contact with outdoor natural environments. Spending leisure time in natural environments is beneficial for human health and well-being. Besides these positive effects, health risks of open-air activities are mainly related to unprotected sun light exposure-associated acute and chronic skin hazards. Thus, we conducted a cross-sectional, representative telephone survey among Austrian residents to study the association of perceived CN level with sun-exposure knowledge, tanning habits, and sun protective behaviour. In total, 1,500 study subjects (50.5% females) participated in this questionnaire survey. Although knowledge about tanning and motives to tan were similar among genders, females performed more photoprotective measures and were more connected to nature (all p nature connectedness and skin health-relevant recreational habits of Austrian residents. The findings suggest to integrate hitherto neglected gender-specific Public (Skin) Health promotion when counselling on the manifold health advantages of outdoor activities.

  9. Modelling technical snow production for skiing areas in the Austrian Alps with the physically based snow model AMUNDSEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzer, F.; Marke, T.; Steiger, R.; Strasser, U.

    2012-04-01

    Tourism and particularly winter tourism is a key factor for the Austrian economy. Judging from currently available climate simulations, the Austrian Alps show a particularly high vulnerability to climatic changes. To reduce the exposure of ski areas towards changes in natural snow conditions as well as to generally enhance snow conditions at skiing sites, technical snowmaking is widely utilized across Austrian ski areas. While such measures result in better snow conditions at the skiing sites and are important for the local skiing industry, its economic efficiency has also to be taken into account. The current work emerges from the project CC-Snow II, where improved future climate scenario simulations are used to determine future natural and artificial snow conditions and their effects on tourism and economy in the Austrian Alps. In a first step, a simple technical snowmaking approach is incorporated into the process based snow model AMUNDSEN, which operates at a spatial resolution of 10-50 m and a temporal resolution of 1-3 hours. Locations of skiing slopes within a ski area in Styria, Austria, were digitized and imported into the model environment. During a predefined time frame in the beginning of the ski season, the model produces a maximum possible amount of technical snow and distributes the associated snow on the slopes, whereas afterwards, until to the end of the ski season, the model tries to maintain a certain snow depth threshold value on the slopes. Due to only few required input parameters, this approach is easily transferable to other ski areas. In our poster contribution, we present first results of this snowmaking approach and give an overview of the data and methodology applied. In a further step in CC-Snow, this simple bulk approach will be extended to consider actual snow cannon locations and technical specifications, which will allow a more detailed description of technical snow production as well as cannon-based recordings of water and energy

  10. Victimhood through a creaturely lens: creatureliness, trauma and victimhood in Austrian and Italian literature and film after 1945

    OpenAIRE

    Hills, A. J.

    2017-01-01

    The thesis compares the representation of the Second World War, fascism and the Holocaust in Italian and Austrian literature and film. In Austria, the national myth of ‘Hitler’s first victim’ echoes with the prevalent Italian cultural narrative of the ‘good Italian’, which forecloses uncomfortable reckonings with toxic historical legacies and their traumatic aftermaths. By drawing on a range of theoretical writers such as Benjamin, Weil, Santner and Agamben, I argue that the ‘creature’ is a p...

  11. Sunbed Use Prevalence and Associated Skin Health Habits: Results of a Representative, Population-Based Survey among Austrian Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluza, Daniela; Simic, Stana; Moshammer, Hanns

    2016-01-01

    Recreational sunbed use accounts for the main non-solar source of exposure to ultraviolet radiation in fair-skinned Western populations. Indoor tanning is associated with increased risks for acute and chronic dermatological diseases. The current community-based study assessed the one-year prevalence of sunbed use and associated skin health habits among a representative, gender-balanced sample of 1500 Austrian citizens. Overall one-year prevalence of sunbed use was 8.9% (95% confidence interval (CI) 7.5%–10.4%), with slightly higher prevalence in females (9.2%, 95% CI 7.3%–11.2%) compared to males (8.6%, 95% CI 6.7%–10.6%). Factors predicting sunbed use were younger age (by trend decreasing with older age), place of living, smoking, skin type (by trend increasing with darker skin), sun exposure, motives to tan, and use of UV-free tanning products. Despite media campaigns on the harmful effects of excessive sunlight and sunbed exposure, we found a high prevalence of self-reported sunbed use among Austrian citizens. From a Public (Skin) Health perspective, the current research extends the understanding of prevailing leisure time skin health habits in adding data on prevalence of sunbed use in the general Austrian population. PMID:26907308

  12. Rise, use and treatment of works in Austria. Compiled for the Austrian Federal Waste Management Plan 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perz, K.

    2001-06-01

    The Austrian Waste Management Act (AWG) entered into force on 1 July 1990. Paragraph 1 of the act defines the following objectives: to keep detrimental, unbeneficial or otherwise unhealthy influences on man, as well as on animals, plants, their living conditions and their natural environment as low as possible; to preserve raw material and energy resources; to keep the demand for landfill capacities as low as possible; to ensure that only such materials should remain as waste, the dumping of which does not present any potential hazard for future generations (precautionary principle). The waste management act thus places the highest priority on the protection of human beings and the environment and upon the preservation of natural resources. Accordingly, it must be the aim of waste management to handle waste in such a way that environmental pollution is kept as low as possible by prevention, recovery and disposal. Paragraph 5 of the Austrian waste management act stipulates that the Federal Minister of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management has to issue the Federal Waste Management Plan in order to reach the objectives and observing the rules of modern waste management. Following the first waste management plan in 1992 an amendment is required every three years. This is why the Austrian Federal Environment Agency elaborated the following studies: waste generation, recovery and disposal in Austria; hazardous waste and waste oils in Austria; non-hazardous waste in Austria. Further information on waste management facilities in Austria is presented on our homepage (http://www.ubavie.gv.at). (author)

  13. Analysis of ERT data of geoelectrical permafrost monitoring on Hoher Sonnblick (Austrian Central Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiler, Stefan; Schöner, Wolfgang; Reisenhofer, Stefan; Ottowitz, David; Jochum, Birgit; Kim, Jung-Ho; Hoyer, Stefan; Supper, Robert; Heinrich, Georg

    2016-04-01

    In the Alps infrastructure facilities such as roads, routes or buildings are affected by the changes of permafrost, which often cause enormous reparation costs. Investigation on degradation of Alpine Permafrost in the last decade has increased, however, the understanding of the permafrost changes inducing its atmospheric forcing processes is still insufficient. Within the project ATMOperm the application of the geoelectrical method to estimate thawing layer thickness for mountain permafrost is investigated near the highest meteorological observatory of Austria on the Hoher Sonnblick. Therefore, it is necessary to further optimize the transformation of ERT data to thermal changes in the subsurface. Based on an innovative time lapse inversion routine for ERT data (Kim J.-H. et al 2013) a newly developed data analysis software tool developed by Kim Jung-Ho (KIGAM) in cooperation with the Geophysics group of the Geological Survey of Austria allows the statistical analysis of the entire sample set of each and every data point measured by the geoelectrical monitoring instrument. This gives on the one hand of course an enhanced opportunity to separate between „good" and „bad" data points in order to assess the quality of measurements. On the other hand, the results of the statistical analysis define the impact of every single data point on the inversion routine. The interpretation of the inversion results will be supplemented by temperature logs from selected boreholes along the ERT profile as well as climatic parameters. KIM J.-H., SUPPER R., TSOURLOS P. and YI M.-J.: Four-dimensional inversion of resistivity monitoring data through Lp norm minimizations. - Geophysical Journal International, 195(3), 1640-1656, 2013. Doi: 10.1093/gji/ggt324. (No OA) Acknowledgments: The geoelectrical monitoring on Hoher Sonnblick has been installed and is operated in the frame of the project ATMOperm (Atmosphere - permafrost relationship in the Austrian Alps - atmospheric extreme

  14. Effects of crop management, soil type, and climate on N2O emissions from Austrian Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Sigmund, Elisabeth; Kasper, Martina; Kitzler, Barbara; Haas, Edwin; Wandl, Michael; Strauss, Peter; Poetzelsberger, Elisabeth; Dersch, Georg; Winiwarter, Wilfried; Amon, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    Within the project FarmClim ("Farming for a better climate") we assessed recent N2O emissions from two selected regions in Austria. Our aim was to deepen the understanding of Austrian N2O fluxes regarding region specific properties. Currently, N2O emissions are estimated with the IPCC default emission factor which only considers the amount of N-input as an influencing factor for N2O emissions. We evaluated the IPCC default emission factor for its validity under spatially distinct environmental conditions. For this two regions for modeling with LandscapeDNDC have been identified in this project. The benefit of using LandscapeDNDC is the detailed illustration of microbial processes in the soil. Required input data to run the model included daily climate data, vegetation properties, soil characteristics and land management. The analysis of present agricultural practices was basis for assessing the hot spots and hot moments of nitrogen emissions on a regional scale. During our work with LandscapeDNDC we were able to adapt specific model algorithms to Austrian agricultural conditions. The model revealed a strong dependency of N2O emissions on soil type. We could estimate how strongly soil texture affects N2O emissions. Based on detailed soil maps with high spatial resolution we calculated region specific contribution to N2O emissions. Accordingly we differentiated regions with deviating gas fluxes compared to the predictions by the IPCC inventory methodology. Taking region specific management practices into account (tillage, irrigation, residuals) calculation of crop rotation (fallow, catch crop, winter wheat, barley, winter barley, sugar beet, corn, potato, onion and rapeseed) resulted in N2O emissions differing by a factor of 30 depending on preceding crop and climate. A maximum of 2% of N fertilizer input was emitted as N2O. Residual N in the soil was a major factor stimulating N2O emissions. Interannual variability was affected by varying N-deposition even in case

  15. Modeling glacier beds in the Austrian Alps: How many lakes will form in future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Dominik; Geilhausen, Martin; Linsbauer, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Glacial retreat exposes landscapes with relief characteristics greatly differing from the former ice covered surfaces. If glacial retreat exposes natural basins capable of forming proglacial lakes, then the downstream hydrologic and geomorphic systems in such catchments will be significantly altered due to discharge modifications, sediment trapping, decoupling effects and long term sediment storage (e.g. Geilhausen et al. 2013). Further implications are related to hydropower management, tourism and natural hazards. Consequently, sound knowledge of present day glacier beds ("proglacial zones of tomorrow") and in particular the total number, locations and characteristics of overdeepenings are of importance. For Austria, however, this important information about significant future changes of high alpine regions is yet missing. An interdisciplinary research project is currently in preparation to close this gap. This paper presents results of a pilot study. We used a novel GIS-based approach (GlabTop, cf. Linsbauer et al. 2012) to compute approximate glacier beds in the Austrian Alps. GlabTop ('Glacier bed Topography') is based on an empirical relation between average basal shear stress and elevation range of individual glaciers and makes use of digital elevation models (DEM), glacier outlines and branch lines (i.e. a set of lines covering all important glacier branches). DEMs and glacier outlines were derived from the Austrian glacier inventory (1998) and branch lines were manually digitized. The inventory includes 911 glaciers of which 876 (96%) were considered and 35 were excluded due to size restrictions ( 0.01 km²) with the potential of forming proglacial lakes when glacier retreat reveals the bed. The total area and volume of all overdeepenings is approx. 10 km² and 236 Mio m³ respectively and 33 lakes will be larger than 1 km³. A total glacier volume of 16 ± 5 km³ with an average ice thickness of 36 ± 11 m was calculated for 1998. Comparisons with

  16. Past and future of the Austrian snow cover - results from the CC-Snow project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Ulrich; Marke, Thomas; Hanzer, Florian; Ragg, Hansjörg; Kleindienst, Hannes; Wilcke, Renate; Gobiet, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    This study has the goal to simulate the evolution of the Austrian snow cover from 1971 to 2050 by means of a coupled modelling scheme, and to estimate the effect of climate change on the evolution of the natural snow cover. The model outcomes are interepreted with focus on both the future natural snow conditions, and the effects on winter skiing tourism. Therefore the regional temperature-index snow model SNOWREG is applied, providing snow maps with a spatial resolution of 250 m. The model is trained by means of assimilating local measurements and observed natural snow cover patterns. Meteorological forcing consists of the output of four realizations of the ENSEMBLES project for the A1B emission scenario. The meteorological variables are downscaled and error corrected with a quantile based empirical-statistical method on a daily time basis. The control simulation is 1971-2000, and the scenario simulation 2021-2050. Spatial interpolation is performed on the basis of parameter-elevation relations. We compare the four different global/regional climate model combinations and their effect on the snow modelling, and we explain the patterns of the resulting snow cover by means of regional climatological characteristics. The provinces Tirol and Styria serve as test regions, being typical examples for the two climatic subregions of Austria. To support the interpretation of the simulation results we apply indicators which enable to define meaningful measures for the comparison of the different periods and regions. Results show that the mean duration of the snow cover will decrease by 15 to 30 days per winter season, mostly in elevations between 2000 and 2500 m. Above 3000 m the higher winter precipitation can compensate this effect, and mean snow cover duration may even slightly increase. We also investigate the local scale by application of the physically based mountain snow model AMUNDSEN. This model is capable of producing 50 m resolution output maps for indicators

  17. Inverting the pyramid! Extent and quality of food advertised on Austrian television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missbach, Benjamin; Weber, Adelheid; Huber, Elke M; König, Jürgen S

    2015-09-18

    Research showed that food marketing for children frequently contradicts national dietary guidelines. Children, unlike adults, are not able to understand the persuasiveness of the advertisements with its short- and long-term effects on health, thus the common international tenor is to restrict food marketing. In the European Union, marketing restriction based on self-regulation have been initiated (EU Pledge Nutrition Criteria). The study aims contribute to depict the status quo of television advertisement targeted at children before the pledged initiative came into full effect. In this study we analyze the quality and displaying frequency of a set of advertisements targeted at children broadcasted on Austrian television. Promoted food products targeted at children or adults were identified. Category-based analysis of the displayed food was performed based on the Austrian Nutrition guidelines (number of displayed food per food category). The children's food content was analyzed according to the newly established nutritional quality criteria for advertised food in the EU to assess the nutritional quality of the depicted food. In total, 360 h of video material was recorded in February and March 2014. A set of 1919 food advertisements, with 15.1 % targeted at children were broadcasted. Of all food advertisements targeted at children, 92.4 % was for fatty, sweet and salty snacks, while no advertisements for vegetables, legumes or fruits were shown. From all food advertisements for children, 65.9 % originated from participating companies of the EU Pledge Nutrition Criteria. Further analysis revealed that 95.9 % of the advertised food for children showed at least one aspect of nonconformity with the EU Pledge Nutrition Criteria; on the contrary 64.7 % of the displayed food advertisement also featured at least one desirable food component (e.g. high fibre content, high protein content). The present research suggests that the majority of advertised food for children do not

  18. The Austrian breast implant register: recent trends in implant-based breast surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurzer, Paul; Rappl, Thomas; Friedl, Herwig; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Spendel, Stephan; Hoflehner, Helmut; Parvizi, Daryousch

    2014-12-01

    Due to the fact that the number of breast implant surgeries for cosmetic and medical purposes is rising yearly, a discussion about the quality of service for both patients and physicians is more important than ever. To this end, we reviewed the Austrian Breast Implant Register with one specific question in mind: What are the trends? In the statistical analysis of the Austrian Breast Implant Register, we were able to identify 13,112 registered breast implants between 2004 and 2012. The whole dataset was then divided into medical and cosmetic groups. We focused on device size, surface characteristics, filling material, device placement and incision site. All factors were considered for all examined years. In summary, the most used device had a textured surface (97 %) and silicone gel as the filling material (93 %). The mean size of implants for the cosmetic group was 240 cc, placement was submuscular (58 %) and the incision site was inframammary (67 %). In the medical group, the mean size was 250 cc. Yearly registrations had their peak in 2008 (1,898 registered devices); from this year on, registrations decreased annually. A slight trend away from subglandular placement in the cosmetic group was noted. Also, the usage of implants with polyurethane surface characteristics has increased since 2008. The smooth surface implants had a peak usage in 2006 and their usage decreased steadily from then on whereas the textured surface was steady over the years. Keeping the problems related to the quality of breast implants in mind, we could recommend an obligatory national register. Organisations of surgeons and governments should develop and establish these registers. Furthermore, an all-encompassing international register should be established by the European Union and the American FDA (Food and Drug Administration); this might be useful in comparing the individual country registers and also would help in delivering "evidence based" medicine in cosmetic and medical procedures

  19. Declining ambient air pollution and lung function improvement in Austrian children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, Manfred; Moshammer, Hanns; Kundi, Michael

    Three thousand four hundred fifty-one Austrian elementary school children were examined (between 2 and 8 times) by spirometry by standardized methods, over a 5 yr period. The districts where they lived were grouped into those where NO 2 declined during this period (by at least 30 μg/m 3 measured as half year means) and those with less or no decline in ambient NO 2. In both groups of districts, SO 2 and TSP fell by similar amounts over this period. A continuous improvement of MEF25 (maximum exspiratory flow rate at 25% vital capacity) was found in districts with declining ambient NO 2. Populations did not differ in respect of anthropometric factors, passive smoking or socioeconomic status. A birth cohort from this study population which was followed up to age 18 confirmed the improved growth of MEF25 with decline in NO 2, while the improved growth of forced vital capacity was more related to decline in SO 2. This study provides the first evidence that improvements in the outdoor air quality during the 1980s are correlated with health benefits, and suggest that adverse effects on lung function related to ambient air pollution are reversible before adulthood. Improvement of small airway functions appeared to be more dependent on reductions of NO 2 than reduction in SO 2 and TSP.

  20. The liberalization of the European energy market from the perspective of the Austrian regional power company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sander, H.

    1999-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the liberalization of the European energy sector from an Austrian perspective, emphasizing its effect on a regional power company (KELAG). The energy market's changing conditions are creating new opportunities for consumers that allow them to optimize their ability to fulfill their power requirements. Decentralized solutions are now just as viable for large industrial customers as the ability to have all energy supplied through the utility network. In addition, partnerships with independent power producers (IPP's) or cooperation between the large customers in energy production can be considered. From a regional perspective, the central management concept of KELAG is the answer to an altered market situation, since this concept created tremendous potential for streamlining the management of energy production and operation of the network. The liberalization of the energy market for large industrial customers in Carinthia's electricity sector was preceded by a series of important decisions. The Verbundgesellschaft combine their generating facilities. In the future the power plants of Draukraft in Carinthia will be supervised and controlled remotely from KELAG's central control unit in Klagenfurt, as a result of which the central control unit becomes the primary energy control for Carinthia. (author)

  1. Austrian height and body proportion references for children aged 4 to under 19 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleiss, Andreas; Lassi, Michael; Blümel, Peter; Borkenstein, Martin; Kapelari, Klaus; Mayer, Michael; Schemper, Michael; Häusler, Gabriele

    2013-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated differences between national and the WHO reference curves in children older than 5 years. Moreover, reference curves for body proportions (sitting height, subischial leg length and their ratio) based on state-of-the-art statistics are not available. To develop reference curves for height and body proportions for use in Austria and compare the curves with WHO reference curves. To estimate and statistically investigate extreme percentiles. A sample of ∼14 500 children between 4-19 years of age was drawn via schooling institutions, stratified by provinces according to age- and sex-specific population proportions. GAMLSS models were used for a flexible estimation of percentile curves. After the age of 5 years national reference curves are more suitable than the WHO reference curves for clinical use in Austria. These height curves are very similar to the German reference curves published recently. Therefore, these reference curves for criteria of body proportions are recommended for use in other populations. Further validation studies are needed to establish whether the recently recommended -2.5 and -3.0 SD for height are a sensitive and specific cut-off in the diagnostic work-up for children with a suspected growth disorder using this new Austrian height chart.

  2. An approach towards public health and foodborne human listeriosis--the Austrian Listeria monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asperger, H; Wagner, M; Brandl, E

    2001-01-01

    The Institute for Milk Hygiene, Milk Technology and Food Science has launched a Listeria monitoring for Austrian cheese factories in 1988 which is nowadays a valuable tool to control the safety of cheese production. It is a means to qualify the proper hygienic conditions in the participating cheese plants. Proper hygiene protects cheese plants from getting contaminated by L. monocytogenes. The preventive elimination of foodborne pathogens facilitates a thriving economical development of the domestic cheese industry as contamination by L. monocytogenes may lead to a stop of delivery, product recall and other costly measures. This report comprehensively describes the principle of the monitoring including a description of the microbiological and molecular tools. It summarizes data on the detection frequency of Listeria contamination with respect to the different matrices under investigation. Furthermore an overview is given on the course of 17 contamination periods in 10 cheese plants and the outcome of the decontamination endeavours is described. Apart from epidemiological investigations, this report summarizes data regarding molecular species confirmation in the genus Listeria as the species assignment was comparatively examined by both conventional microbiology and molecular tools. Genotyping by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis was applied in three plants which were confronted with a long term contamination period. The data presented in this paper rely on results which were collected through a decade of investigation (1990-2000).

  3. Comprehensive investigation of radon exposure in Austrian tourist mines and caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, V; Ringer, W; Gräser, J; Aspek, W; Gschnaller, J

    2014-11-01

    According to Austrian Law, dose assessments in workplaces with potentially enhanced radon exposures are mandatory since 2008, including tourist mines and caves. A pilot study was carried out to evaluate the situation to test the measurement methods and to specify the main parameters controlling the radon concentration in tourist mines and caves. Radon was measured in six mines and three caves for 1 y, along with determining thoron and equilibrium factors and taking into account climatic, geological and site-related effects. The radon concentrations have a seasonal dependence with maximum in summer and minimum in winter, related to natural ventilation. Radon concentrations in the karst caves were quite low, as it was in the salt mine, whereas radon concentrations in copper and silver mines were high. The dose assessment of the employees yielded doses above 6 mSv a(-1) only in the copper mine. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Austrian Guideline for Geomechanical Design of Tunnels - Necessity for Cooperation between Geologists, Geotechnical and Civil Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Ludwig; Eder, Stefan; Mattle, Bruno; Hammer, Helmut

    Rising competitive pressure in the construction business, ever tighter schedules being set up by the clients and ongoing disputes between engineering geologists and civil engineers about the role of geotechnical engineers have - in the last few years - led to increasing discussions between engineers and geologists about the allocation of competences during the design process of underground structures. In the course of this debate, which is often polemic and anything but objective, important information is quite frequently lost - a development which may not only be to the disadvantage of the client but which may also do damage to the reputation of the professions involved. The design procedure of the new Austrian guideline for the geomechanical design of underground structures requires a close collaboration of geologists, geotechnical and civil engineers, yet without allocating competences. While preparing the tender documents for the first construction lot of the Northern feeder line of the Brenner base tunnel, the necessity of a close cooperation of the involved professions became apparent due to the complex geological situation encountered in the project area and the enormous amount of data available. Despite these difficult boundary conditions, the successful application of the guideline was last but not least the result of the joint efforts of the multidisciplinary design team.

  5. Joint Annual Meeting of the Swiss Physical Society and the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The meeting was organised - as every two years - as a joint meeting with the Austrian Physical Society ((ÖPG) and the Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy (SSAA). The Swiss Institute of Particle Physics (CHIPP) participated additionally to their usual 2-year rhythm. We also welcomed for the first time the NCCR MARVEL (Computational Design and Discovery of Novel Materials). They all together guarantee an exciting conference covering physics at its best. This meeting was hosted by CERN, Genève. The plenary sessions gave an overview of the present status of research in molecular spintronics, biophotonic micro manipulation of cells, gravitational waves, spectroscopy of trapped antihydrogen atoms, reflective optical systems for astronomical applications, trapped-ion interfaces for quantum networks and quantum photonics. The topical sessions were dedicated to: Applied Physics and Plasma Physics; Astronomy and Astrophysics; Atomic Physics and Quantum Optics; Biophysics, Medical Physics and Soft Matter; Condensed Matter Physics; Correlated-Electron Physics in Transition-Metal Oxides; Earth, Atmosphere and Environmental Physics; Emergent phenomena in novel low-dimensional materials; History of Physics; Magnetism and Spintronics at the Nanoscale; Nuclear, Particle- and Astrophysics; Physics in Startups; Scientific Opportunities with SwissFEL; Surfaces, Interfaces and Thin Films; Theoretical Physics. Those contributions which are in the INIS subject scope are indexed individually.

  6. Suicides on the Austrian railway network: hotspot analysis and effect of proximity to psychiatric institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Peter; Sonneck, Gernot

    2017-01-01

    Railway suicide is a significant public health problem. In addition to the loss of lives, these suicides occur in public space, causing traumatization among train drivers and passengers, and significant public transport delays. Prevention efforts depend upon accurate knowledge of clustering phenomena across the railway network, and spatial risk factors. Factors such as proximity to psychiatric institutions have been discussed to impact on railway suicides, but analytic evaluations are scarce and limited. We identify 15 hotspots on the Austrian railway system while taking case location uncertainties into account. These hotspots represent 0.9% of the total track length (5916 km/3676 miles) that account for up to 17% of all railway suicides (N=1130). We model suicide locations on the network using a smoothed inhomogeneous Poisson process and validate it using randomization tests. We find that the density of psychiatric beds is a significant predictor of railway suicide. Further predictors are population density, multitrack structure and—less consistently—spatial socio-economic factors including total suicide rates. We evaluate the model for the identified hotspots and show that the actual influence of these variables differs across individual hotspots. This analysis provides important information for suicide prevention research and practice. We recommend structural separation of railway tracks from nearby psychiatric institutions to prevent railway suicide. PMID:28405359

  7. Diabetic ketoacidosis at diagnosis in Austrian children: a population-based analysis, 1989-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Maria; Schober, Edith; Rami-Merhar, Birgit; Hofer, Sabine; Fröhlich-Reiterer, Elke; Waldhoer, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    To analyze the effect of a community-based, poster-focused prevention program on the frequency of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at diabetes onset in Austria. All newly diagnosed patients with diabetes ≤ 15 years of age were registered prospectively by the Austrian Diabetes Incidence Study Group. Registered data included initial blood glucose, pH, and ketonuria. DKA was defined as pH diabetes in the years 2005-2009 and 2010-2011 was compared. During the study period, 4038 children were registered. A total of 37.2% presented with DKA; 26% had a mild and 11.2% a severe form. The frequency of DKA was negatively associated with age at onset. In the years before the intervention program, 26% had mild DKA compared with 27% after the intervention (not significant). The prevalence of severe DKA in the years before the campaign was 12% compared with 9.5% thereafter (not significant). No significant change in the DKA rate at onset by the prevention program could be found when we compared age groups diabetes in Austria is high and did not change despite the efforts of a community-based information program. Copyright © 2013. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  8. Photosynthetic temperature adaptation of Pinus cembra within the timberline ecotone of the Central Austrian Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Gerhard; Oberhuber, Walter; Walder, Lisa; Spieler, Daniela; Gruber, Andreas

    2010-04-01

    Temperature is suggested to determine the upper limit of tree life. Therefore, future climate warming may be of importance for tree distribution within the European Alps, where low temperatures limit carbon metabolism.We focused on the effects of air and soil temperature on net photosynthesis (P(n)) of Pinus cembra an evergreen climax species of the timberline ecotone of the Central Austrian Alps. Light response and temperature response curves were estimated along an altitudinal gradient ranging from the forest limit up to the krummholz limit in both summer and fall.In general, P(n) was significantly lower in fall as compared to summer. Nevertheless, independent from season mean P(n) values tended to increase with elevation and were positively correlated with root zone temperatures. The specific leaf area by contrast declined with increasing elevation. Furthermore, the temperature optimum of net photosynthesis declined with increasing elevation and was positively correlated with the mean maximum air temperature of the 10 days prior the date of measurement.Thus, our findings appear to reflect a long-term adaptation of the photosynthetic apparatus of Pinus cembra to the general temperature conditions with respect to elevation combined with a short term acclimation to the prevailing temperature regime.

  9. Multi-methodical realisation of the new Austrian climate maps for 1971-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, I.; Böhm, R.; Hiebl, J.; Reisenhofer, S.; Schöner, W.

    2010-09-01

    Constantly changing climate, the further development of geostatistical interpolation methods and the availability of a higher resolved digital elevation model gave reason for updating the most frequently demanded climate maps out of the Austrian digital climate atlas (ÖKLIM) from 1961-1990 to 1971-2000. The resulting 19 grids concern 30-year-means of air temperature (annual, January, July means) and derived indices (ice days, frost days, freeze-thaw days, summer days, hot days, heating degree days), precipitation (annual, winter half-year, summer half-year sums) and derived indices (days with precipitation, percentage of solid precipitation), snow (sum of fresh-fallen snow, snow cover duration, maximum snow depth) and sunshine (January, July absolute sunshine duration) parameters. For application in all branches of geosciences (e.g. climate variability and modelling, hydrology, biogeography, natural hazards) as well as for planning in all kinds of contexts (e.g. agriculture, tourism, generation of renewable energy, climate change adaption) such digital grids of standard climate information are greatly demanded and likely to gain even more importance in the near future. Data preparation was carried out with large effort. In order to avoid adverse border effects and to guarantee an equal state of quality across all parts of the country, the study region was extended beyond the national borders and stations from all neighbouring countries were requested. The final data collection includes between 319 (percentage of solid precipitation) and 1,399 (annual precipitation sum) records from eleven national and foreign institutes. To achieve a station density as high as possible, data gaps of up to five or ten years were filled considering the same parameter at reference stations or a related parameter station-wise. According to the climate parameter, different geostatistical interpolation methods were applied. Multiple regressions against elevation, longitude, latitude and

  10. Do Women With Atrial Fibrillation Experience More Severe Strokes? Results From the Austrian Stroke Unit Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Clemens; Seyfang, Leonhard; Ferrari, Julia; Gattringer, Thomas; Greisenegger, Stefan; Willeit, Karin; Toell, Thomas; Krebs, Stefan; Brainin, Michael; Kiechl, Stefan; Willeit, Johann; Lang, Wilfried; Knoflach, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Ischemic strokes associated with atrial fibrillation (AF) are more severe than those of other cause. We aim to study potential sex effects in this context. In this cross-sectional study, 74 425 adults with acute ischemic stroke from the Austrian Stroke Unit Registry were included between March 2003 and January 2016. In 63 563 patients, data on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale on admission to the stroke unit, presence of AF, vascular risk factors, and comorbidities were complete. Analysis was done by a multivariate regression model. Stroke severity in general increased with age. AF-related strokes were more severe than strokes of other causes. Sex-related differences in stroke severity were only seen in stroke patients with AF. Median (Q 25 , 75 ) National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score points were 9 (4,17) in women and 6 (3,13) in men ( P stroke severity was independent of age, previous functional status, vascular risk factors, and vascular comorbidities and remained significant in various subgroups. Women with AF do not only have an increased risk of stroke when compared with men but also experience more severe strokes. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. The life-skills program Lions Quest in Austrian schools: implementation and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matischek-Jauk, Marlies; Krammer, Georg; Reicher, Hannelore

    2017-08-30

    This article investigates the importance of implementation level for the effectiveness of the school-based life skills program Lions Quest in a sample of Austrian students (n = 363 from three schools; aged 9-15 at T1). A quasi-experimental pre- and post-test design with intervention and control group over 2 years was used. The effects of low, average, and high implementation levels on the outcome variables classroom climate, bullying and psychosocial health were analyzed. Multilevel analyses of the longitudinal data indicated greatest effects in the intervention group with highest implementation level, smaller effects with average implementation level, and no or rather detrimental effects in one case with the low implementation level (always compared with the control group who received no intervention). A moderate implementation level was necessary to foster the programs aims for three out of four aspects of class climate and bullying, while no effects were found for psychosocial health. These results are discussed with respect to key factors that are important for successful implementation of school programs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. The second Austrian benchmark study for blood use in elective surgery: results and practice change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombotz, Hans; Rehak, Peter H; Shander, Aryeh; Hofmann, Axel

    2014-10-01

    Five years after the first Austrian benchmark study demonstrated relatively high transfusion rate and an abundance of nonindicated transfusions in elective surgeries, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of the first benchmark study. Data from 3164 patients undergoing primary unilateral total hip replacement (THR), primary unilateral noncemented total knee replacement (TKR), or coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery at 15 orthopedic and six cardiac centers were collected and compared with the first study. Transfusion rates decreased in THR (41% to 30%) and TKR (41% to 25%), but remained unchanged in CABG surgery (57% vs. 55%) compared with the first study. More than 80% of all transfusions involved at least 2 units of red blood cells (RBCs). Marked variations were observed in transfusion rates among the centers. The prevalence of anemia was three times higher in patients who received transfusions versus those who did not. However, preoperative anemia was left untreated in the majority of patients. A considerable intercenter variability of RBC loss ranging from 26% to 43% in THR, from 24% to 40% in TKR, and from 30% to 49% in CABG procedures was observed. The second benchmark study demonstrates substantial intercenter variability and small but significant reductions in RBC transfusions and RBC loss. Even though the main independent predictors of transfusion were the relative lost RBC volume followed by the relative preoperative and the lowest relative postoperative hemoglobin, preoperative anemia was not adequately treated in many patients, underscoring the importance of patient blood management in these patients. © 2014 AABB.

  13. Austrian medical students' attitudes towards male and female homosexuality: a comparative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Oliver; Voracek, Martin; Musalek, Michael; Springer-Kremser, Marianne

    2004-11-30

    The attitudes of health-care professionals and medical students towards male and female homosexuality are of practical relevance and have increasingly become a topic of scientific research. Comparative investigations between medical students and other student groups have not yet been conducted. To assess the attitudes of Austrian medical students towards homosexuality and to compare these with the attitudes of students of politics and veterinary medicine. Students of medicine (122), politics (145), and veterinary medicine (153) completed a questionnaire consisting of validated instruments assessing anti-homosexual attitudes, items assessing knowledge on homosexual issues, and basic demographic information. Participants' attitudes were predominantly positive. For all instruments, two-way analyses of covariance revealed significant influences of participants' sex and study major: students of medicine and veterinary medicine held more negative attitudes than students of politics, and males were more prejudiced than females. Overall, attitudes towards male and female homosexuality were balanced, but male students of politics and veterinary medicine were more prejudiced towards male than female homosexuality. A significant influence of participants' sex (favoring females) was observed in knowledge of homosexual issues. Although neutrality and empathy are considered vital in the doctor-patient relationship, medical students revealed more negative attitudes than students of politics did, the latter's attitudes being similar to those of students of veterinary medicine. These findings suggest that educational and correcting interventions are required in medical training.

  14. Joint annual meeting of the Swiss Physical and the Society Austrian Physical Society

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The next annual meeting, hosted by CERN, will take place from 21 - 25 August 2017 in Genève at two different locations. Starting at CERN on 21st with internal meetings of some of the participating societies, the 22nd will be dedicated to plenary and invited talks and more (see below). We will then move to the Centre International de Conférences de Genève (CICG) on 23 - 25 August where further plenary talks and all topical sessions will take place. The meeting is organised - as every two years - as a joint meeting with the Austrian Physical Society (ÖPG) and the Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy (SSAA). The Swiss Institute of Particle Physics (CHIPP) will participate additionally to their usual 2-year rhythm. We also welcome for the first time the NCCR MARVEL (Computational Design and Discovery of Novel Materials). They all together guarantee an exciting conference covering physics at its best. Many thanks go to CERN for their generous help and support with the organisation.

  15. Suicide by shooting is correlated to rate of gun licenses in Austrian counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzersdorfer, Elmar; Kapusta, Nestor D; Sonneck, Gernot

    2006-08-01

    Shooting as method of suicide has increased considerably in Austria over recent decades and represented 23.5% of all suicides among men during the period 1990-2000. It is thought that the availability of guns could lead to their use in acts of suicide, and therefore we investigated the numbers of gun licenses (which constitutes ownership of guns and permission to carry a gun) in the nine Austrian counties and their correlation with suicides by shooting and other methods. We studied registered suicides, including the method used, between 1990 and 2000 in Austria and the numbers of gun licenses held in the nine counties of Austria in the same period. We found a strong correlation between the average gun license rate for the period 1990-2000 and suicides by shooting (r = 0.967), and only very weak correlation, and for some of the years under investigation a negative correlation, with other methods of committing suicide (r = 0.117) and the suicide rate in general (r = 0.383). As shooting as a method of suicide has increased in Austria in recent decades, and is a highly lethal method, the finding that the shooting suicide rate is related to the extent of gun ownership deserves attention, especially as there is evidence that restriction of gun ownership is an important factor in suicide prevention.

  16. Foodborne gastroenteritis outbreak in an Austrian healthcare facility caused by asymptomatic, norovirus-excreting kitchen staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, D; Kuo, H-W; Hell, M; Kasper, S; Lederer, I; Mikula, C; Springer, B; Allerberger, F

    2011-03-01

    An outbreak of norovirus GGII.4 2006b affected an Austrian 600-bed healthcare facility from 15 to 27 March 2009. A total of 204 patients, residents and staff fitted the outbreak case definition; 17 (8.3%) were laboratory-confirmed. Foodborne origin was suspected in the 114 patient and resident cases with onset 15-18 March. A case-cohort study was performed to test the hypothesis that consumption of dishes offered on 14, 15 and 16 March (risk days) was associated with increased risk of infection. Data on food exposure of 62% (317/510) of the patient and resident cohort were available for a simultaneous retrospective cohort study. The case-cohort analysis revealed that consumption of sliced cold sausage offered on 15 March [odds ratio (OR): 3.98; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18-14.1], a meat dish with salad (adjusted OR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.19-4.08) and a rolled spinach pancake (adjusted OR: 2.17; 95% CI: 1.27-3.71) on 16 March were independent risk factors. It is likely that one of the five asymptomatic excretors among the kitchen staff on duty on the risk days was the source of food contamination. The case-cohort study design was found to be a valid alternative to the retrospective cohort study design for the investigation of a suspected foodborne outbreak in a large cohort. Copyright © 2010 The Hospital Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Diversity of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from Austrian ruminants and New World camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, B; Krametter-Frötscher, R; Knauer, F; Ehricht, R; Monecke, S; Feßler, A T; Schwarz, S; Grunert, T; Spergser, J; Loncaric, I

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, the antimicrobial resistance patterns and the genetic diversity of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from Austrian ruminants and New World camelids that were treated at the University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna. Between April 2014 and January 2017, 723 nasal swabs originating from ruminants and New World camelids were examined. MRSA isolates were characterized by mecA/mecA1/mecC PCRs and by DNA microarray analysis. They were genotyped by spa typing, dru typing, MLST and MLVA. Glycopolymer fingerprinting by FTIR spectroscopy was also performed. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted by agar disk diffusion. Twelve MRSA isolates were mecA-positive, whereas three were mecC-positive. The MRSA isolates carried five different SCCmec elements, and belonged to three sequence types (ST45, ST130, ST398). The MRSA isolates displayed seven different resistance phenotypes. The present study describes for the first time mecC-carrying MRSA isolates originating from domesticated animals in Austria. More systematic studies are needed to unravel the role of ruminants and New World camelids as reservoirs for MRSA as a potential risk for zooanthropogenic transmission. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Indoor air in schools and lung function of Austrian school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Peter; Kundi, Michael; Moshammer, Hanns; Piegler, Kathrin; Hohenblum, Philipp; Scharf, Sigrid; Fröhlich, Marina; Damberger, Bernhard; Tappler, Peter; Hutter, Hans-Peter

    2012-07-01

    The Children's Environment and Health Action Plan for Europe (CEHAPE) of WHO focuses (inter alia) on improving indoor environments where children spend most of their time. At present, only little is known about air pollution in schools and its effect on the lung function of school children. Our project was set up as an Austrian contribution to CEHAPE. In a cross-sectional approach, differences in indoor pollution in nine elementary all-day schools were assessed and 34 of these pollutants were analyzed for a relationship with respiratory health determined by spirometry using a linear regression model. Overall 596 children (aged 6-10 years) were eligible for the study. Spirometry was performed in 433 children. Socio-economic status, area of living (urban/rural), and smoking at home were included in the model as potential confounders with school-related average concentration of air pollutants as the variable of primary interest. A negative association with flow volumes (MEF(75)) was found for formaldehyde in air samples, benzylbutylphthalate and the sum of polybrominated diphenylethers in school dust. FVC and FEV(1) were negatively associated with ethylbenzene and xylenes in air samples and tris(1,3-dichlor-2-propyl)-phosphate on particulates. Although, in general, the quality of school indoor air was not worse than that reported for homes, effects on the respiratory health of children cannot be excluded. A multi-faceted strategy to improve the school environment is needed.

  19. A physiotherapy-directed occupational health programme for Austrian school teachers: a cluster randomised pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figl-Hertlein, A; Horsak, B; Dean, E; Schöny, W; Stamm, T

    2014-03-01

    Although physiotherapists have long advocated workplace health, school teachers have not traditionally been a focus of study by these professionals. However, classroom teaching contributes to a range of occupational health issues related to general health as well as ergonomics that can be prevented or addressed by physiotherapists. To undertake a pilot study to explore the potential effects of a physiotherapy-directed occupational health programme individualised for school teachers, develop study methodology and gather preliminary data to establish a 'proof of concept' to inform future studies. Cluster randomised pilot study using a convenience sample. Eight Austrian regional secondary schools. Schools and their teachers were recruited and allocated to an intervention group (IG, n=26 teachers) or a control group (CG, n=43 teachers). Teachers were eligible to participate if they reported no health issues that compromised their classroom responsibilities. The IG participated in an individualised physiotherapy-directed occupational health programme (six 30-minute sessions) related to ergonomics and stress management conducted over a 5-month semester. The CG had a pseudo-intervention of one oral education session. Primary outcomes included scores from the physical and mental components and health transition item of the Short-Form-36 Health Survey questionnaire (SF-36), and emotional well-being and resistance to stress items from the work-related behaviour and experience patterns questionnaire. Data were collected before and after one semester. The primary outcome measure, the SF-36 physical component score, showed a reduction in the CG and no change in the IG, meaning that the CG deteriorated over the study semester while the IG did not show any change. A physiotherapy-directed occupational health programme may prevent deterioration of physical health of school teachers in one semester (proof of concept). This pilot study provided valuable information to inform the

  20. Mapping the value of ecosystem services: A case study from the Austrian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Paletto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem services (ES are considered the conditions and processes through which natural ecosystems sustain and fulfil human life. In the decision making process related to the natural resources management, two key-aspects must be taken into account: the economic value of the benefits provided by ES (provisioning, regulating and cultural services and the spatial distribution of these benefits. The purpose of the paper is to develop a method aimed to capture the economic value of the benefits provided by ES, in order to support the decision makers in the natural resources management. ES are not homogeneous across landscapes nor in space. Consequently, gaining knowledge on the spatial distribution of the economic relevance of ES is a fundamental information to target management actions. This method was tested in a case study in the Austrian Alps (Leiblachtal area in Vorarlberg region, characterized by a high importance of forests and grasslands. The results show that the highest economic values could be achieved for the provisioning services with a range between 200 €/ha year and 1,400€/ha year. The regulating services have also important economic values, but strongly localized in specific areas (i.e. protective forests against natural hazards. The economic values of the cultural services are influenced by the preferences of tourists and varies between 5 €/ha year to 60 €/ha year. The method allowed us to reveal the spatial heterogeneity of provisioning, regulating and cultural ES, depending on the ecological characteristics of the site.

  1. Determining the amount of waste plastics in the feed of Austrian waste-to-energy facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzböck, Therese; Van Eygen, Emile; Rechberger, Helmut; Fellner, Johann

    2016-01-01

    Although thermal recovery of waste plastics is widely practiced in many European countries, reliable information on the amount of waste plastics in the feed of waste-to-energy plants is rare. In most cases the amount of plastics present in commingled waste, such as municipal solid waste, commercial, or industrial waste, is estimated based on a few waste sorting campaigns, which are of limited significance with regard to the characterisation of plastic flows. In the present study, an alternative approach, the so-called Balance Method, is used to determine the total amount of plastics thermally recovered in Austria’s waste incineration facilities in 2014. The results indicate that the plastics content in the waste feed may vary considerably among different plants but also over time. Monthly averages determined range between 8 and 26 wt% of waste plastics. The study reveals an average waste plastics content in the feed of Austria’s waste-to-energy plants of 16.5 wt%, which is considerably above findings from sorting campaigns conducted in Austria. In total, about 385 kt of waste plastics were thermally recovered in all Austrian waste-to-energy plants in 2014, which equals to 45 kg plastics cap-1. In addition, the amount of plastics co-combusted in industrial plants yields a total thermal utilisation rate of 70 kg cap-1 a-1 for Austria. This is significantly above published rates, for example, in Germany reported rates for 2013 are in the range of only 40 kg of waste plastics combusted per capita. PMID:27474393

  2. Determining the amount of waste plastics in the feed of Austrian waste-to-energy facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzböck, Therese; Van Eygen, Emile; Rechberger, Helmut; Fellner, Johann

    2017-02-01

    Although thermal recovery of waste plastics is widely practiced in many European countries, reliable information on the amount of waste plastics in the feed of waste-to-energy plants is rare. In most cases the amount of plastics present in commingled waste, such as municipal solid waste, commercial, or industrial waste, is estimated based on a few waste sorting campaigns, which are of limited significance with regard to the characterisation of plastic flows. In the present study, an alternative approach, the so-called Balance Method, is used to determine the total amount of plastics thermally recovered in Austria's waste incineration facilities in 2014. The results indicate that the plastics content in the waste feed may vary considerably among different plants but also over time. Monthly averages determined range between 8 and 26 wt% of waste plastics. The study reveals an average waste plastics content in the feed of Austria's waste-to-energy plants of 16.5 wt%, which is considerably above findings from sorting campaigns conducted in Austria. In total, about 385 kt of waste plastics were thermally recovered in all Austrian waste-to-energy plants in 2014, which equals to 45 kg plastics cap -1 . In addition, the amount of plastics co-combusted in industrial plants yields a total thermal utilisation rate of 70 kg cap -1  a -1 for Austria. This is significantly above published rates, for example, in Germany reported rates for 2013 are in the range of only 40 kg of waste plastics combusted per capita.

  3. Origin and age of the Eisenkappel gabbro to granite suite (Carinthia, SE Austrian Alps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C; Thöni, M; Goessler, W; Tessadri, R

    2011-07-01

    The northern part of the Karawanken plutonic belt is a gabbro-granite complex located just north of the Periadriatic lineament near the Slovenian-Austrian border. Petrographic and geochemical studies of the Eisenkappel intrusive complex indicate that this multiphase plutonic suite developed by a combination of crystal accumulation, fractional crystallization and assimilation processes, magma mixing and mingling. The mafic rocks are alkaline and have within-plate geochemical characteristics, indicating anorogenic magmatism in an extensional setting and derivation from an enriched mantle source. The mafic melts triggered partial melting of the crust and the formation of granite. The granitic rocks are alkalic, metaluminous and have the high Fe/Fe + Mg characteristics of within-plate plutons. Temperature and pressure conditions, derived from amphibole-plagioclase and different amphibole thermobarometers, suggest that the analysed Eisenkappel gabbros crystallized at around 1000 ± 20 °C and 380-470 MPa, whereas the granitic rock crystallized at T ≤ 800 ± 20 °C and ≤ 350 MPa. Mineral-whole rock Sm-Nd analyses of two cumulate gabbros yielded 249 ± 8.4 Ma and 250 ± 26 Ma (εNd: + 3.6), garnet-whole rock Sm-Nd analyses of two silicic samples yielded well-constrained ages of 238.4 ± 1.9 Ma and 242.1 ± 2.1 Ma (εNd: - 2.6).

  4. Quasi-dynamic Material Flow Analysis applied to the Austrian Phosphorus cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoboli, Ottavia; Rechberger, Helmut

    2013-04-01

    Phosphorus (P) is one of the key elements that sustain life on earth and that allow achieving the current high levels of food production worldwide. It is a non-renewable resource, without any existing substitute. Because of its current dissipative use by mankind and to its very slow geochemical cycle, this resource is rapidly depleting and it is strongly connected to the problem of ensuring food security. Moreover P is also associated to important environmental problems. Its extraction often generates hazardous wastes, while its accumulation in water bodies can lead to eutrophication, with consequent severe ecological damages. It is therefore necessary to analyze and understand in detail the system of P, in regard to its use and management, to identify the processes that should be targeted in order to reduce the overall consumption of this resource. This work aims at establishing a generic quasi-dynamic model, which describes the Austrian P-budget and which allows investigating the trends of P use in the past, but also selected future scenarios. Given the importance of P throughout the whole anthropogenic metabolism, the model is based on a comprehensive system that encompasses several economic sectors, from agriculture and animal husbandry to industry, consumption and waste and wastewater treatment. Furthermore it includes the hydrosphere, to assess the losses of P into water bodies, due to the importance of eutrophication problems. The methodology applied is Material Flow Analysis (MFA), which is a systemic approach to assess and balance the stocks and flows of a material within a system defined in space and time. Moreover the model is integrated in the software STAN, a freeware tailor-made for MFA. Particular attention is paid to the characteristics and the quality of the data, in order to include data uncertainty and error propagation in the dynamic balance.

  5. From the new Austrian tunneling method to the geoengineering condition evaluation and dynamic controlling method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Shang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The new Austrian tunneling method (NATM is widely applied in design and construction of underground engineering projects. When the type and distribution of unfavorable geological bodies (UGBs associated with their influences on geoengineering are complicated or unfortunately are overlooked, we should pay more attentions to internal features of rocks grades IV and V (even in local but mostly controlling zones. With increasing attentions to the characteristics, mechanism and influences of engineering construction-triggered geohazards, it is crucial to fully understand the disturbance of these geohazards on project construction. A reasonable determination method in construction procedure, i.e. the shape of working face, the type of engineering support and the choice of feasible procedure, should be considered in order to mitigate the construction-triggered geohazards. Due to their high sensitivity to groundwater and in-situ stress, various UGBs exhibit hysteretic nature and failure modes. To give a complete understanding on the internal causes, the emphasis on advanced comprehensive geological forecasting and overall reinforcement treatment is therefore of more practical significance. Comprehensive evaluation of influential factors, identification of UGB, and measures of discontinuity dynamic controlling comprises the geoengineering condition evaluation and dynamic controlling method. In a case of a cut slope, the variations of UGBs and the impacts of key environmental factors are presented, where more severe construction-triggered geohazards emerged in construction stage than those predicted in design and field investigation stages. As a result, the weight ratios of different influential factors with respect to field investigation, design and construction are obtained.

  6. Evaluation of recommendations on limits of exposure to ultraviolet radiation on the basis of data from the Austrian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keck, G.; Schauberger, G.; Cabaj, A.

    1996-01-01

    For the application of solaria at present the following international recommendations on limits of exposure exist, which differ strongly: 1. IRPA/INIRC (1991): 30 MED/a (i.e. 7.5 kJ/a). 2. IEC 335-2-27 (1978, 1989): 25 kJ/m 2 /a for each region of the body, that is 100 MED/a. On the basis of our data from the Austrian population we give an evaluation of these recommendations for the entire population. This evaluation shows that 100 MED/a is much too high, it seduces rather to use solaria than to restrict their application

  7. Interaction with customers: The Application of Social Media within the Austrian Supply Chain for Food and Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Meixner

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Social media marketing has become a powerful tool of interaction with stakeholders. An increasing number of companies are using social media platforms to initiate active interaction and communication with current and prospective customers. Within this study, certain content and contact features, as well as social media activities of companies of the Austrian food and beverage industry were evaluated. Empirical findings concerning the threats, risks, and opportunities connected with the application of social media are presented. The results imply that social media applications are innovative alternatives for customer relationship management. However, more knowledge on how to properly use social media marketing seems to be necessary.

  8. Development of Investment Activities of Commercial Insurance Companies in Slovak, Czech and Austrian Insurance Markets in 2004-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Meheš

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with investments of commercial insurance companies operating in Slovak, Czech and Austrian insurance market in the period of 2004–2009. First of all, development of technical reserves volume as an important prerequisite of investing of commercial insurance companies will be characterized. After that, we evaluate financial placements and investment activities – ratio of total investments and technical reserves. We also present statistical tests by means of which we examine the existence of the relation between the volume of technical reserves and the volume of investments of commercial insurance companies.

  9. Joint annual meeting of the Austrian physical society, Swiss physical society, Austrian society of astronomy and astrophysics in Innsbruck. Bulletin SPG / SSP Vol 26, 2009; OEPG Tagungsband Nr. 59

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briegel, H.; Gornik, E.; Rossel, C.; Schindler, S.

    2009-01-01

    This was the first joint annual meeting of the Austrian physical society, the Swiss physical society and the Austrian society of astronomy and astrophysics with the participation of the Swiss society for astrophysics and astronomy. Its objective was to improve the scientific communication and cooperation of researchers of both countries in all fields of physics and astronomy. The plenary sessions gave an overview of the present status from topics such as atomic clusters interactions to nuclear physics and physics of nanostructures. The topical sessions were dedicated to: atomic- and molecular physics and quantum optics; applied physics (medical physics, thin films, molecular physics and materials); nuclear and particle physics (nuclear physics, colliders (LHCb, Belle, CMS I, CMS II and HERA, ATLAS I and II, PANDA), low and medium energy (UCN, OPERA), astrophysics and particle physics; plasma physics; solid state physics (x-rays and neutrons, spins, magnetism, nano and photonics); surfaces, boundary layers and thin films; history of physics and physics in the school. Those contributions which are in the INIS subject scope are indexed individually. (nevyjel)

  10. Ambient levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) may reduce pollen viability in Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) trees--correlative evidence from a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottardini, Elena; Cristofori, Antonella; Cristofolini, Fabiana; Maccherini, Simona; Ferretti, Marco

    2008-09-01

    A fully randomized sampling design was adopted to test whether pollen viability of Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) was impacted by NO(2) pollution. Spatial strata (500500 m each) with high (41.9-44.6 microg m(-3)) and low (15.4-21.0 microg m(-3)) NO(2) were selected from a defined population in a small area (236.5 km(2), germination (P<0.01) and tube length (P<0.01). This suggested a possible impact of NO(2) on the regeneration of Austrian pine in polluted environments.

  11. Palaeoclimate records 60-8 ka in the Austrian and Swiss Alps and their forelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiri, Oliver; Koinig, Karin A.; Spötl, Christoph; Barrett, Sam; Brauer, Achim; Drescher-Schneider, Ruth; Gaar, Dorian; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Kerschner, Hanns; Luetscher, Marc; Moran, Andrew; Nicolussi, Kurt; Preusser, Frank; Schmidt, Roland; Schoeneich, Philippe; Schwörer, Christoph; Sprafke, Tobias; Terhorst, Birgit; Tinner, Willy

    2014-12-01

    The European Alps and their forelands provide a range of different archives and climate proxies for developing climate records in the time interval 60-8 thousand years (ka) ago. We review quantitative and semi-quantitative approaches for reconstructing climatic variables in the Austrian and Swiss sector of the Alpine region within this time interval. Available quantitative to semi-quantitative climate records in this region are mainly based on fossil assemblages of biota such as chironomids, cladocerans, coleopterans, diatoms and pollen preserved in lake sediments and peat, the analysis of oxygen isotopes in speleothems and lake sediment records, the reconstruction of past variations in treeline altitude, the reconstruction of past equilibrium line altitude and extent of glaciers based on geomorphological evidence, and the interpretation of past soil formation processes, dust deposition and permafrost as apparent in loess-palaeosol sequences. Palaeoclimate reconstructions in the Alpine region are affected by dating uncertainties increasing with age, the fragmentary nature of most of the available records, which typically only incorporate a fraction of the time interval of interest, and the limited replication of records within and between regions. Furthermore, there have been few attempts to cross-validate different approaches across this time interval to confirm reconstructed patterns of climatic change by several independent lines of evidence. Based on our review we identify a number of developments that would provide major advances for palaeoclimate reconstruction for the period 60-8 ka in the Alps and their forelands. These include (1) the compilation of individual, fragmentary records to longer and continuous reconstructions, (2) replication of climate records and the development of regional reconstructions for different parts of the Alps, (3) the cross-validation of different proxy-types and approaches, and (4) the reconstruction of past variations in climate

  12. Results of a first look into the Austrian animal phenological records

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheifinger, H.; Koch, E. [Central Inst. for Meteorology and Geodynamics, Vienna (Austria); Winkler, H. [Konrad Lorenz Inst. for Ethology, Vienna (Austria)

    2005-04-01

    The year to year variability and trends of animal phenological phases (honey bee, cockchafer, 3 butterfly species, swallow and cuckoo) of the Austrian phenological observational network were related to each other and to mean monthly temperatures over the time period 1951-1998. Insect phases were well correlated with each other (r{sup 2} = 0.4 to 0.6) and with temperature (r{sup 2} = 0.25 to 0.55), whereas both bird phases were only well correlated with each other (r{sup 2} = 0.57), but showed low common variance values with temperature and with other animal phases. The slope of the temperature-pheno regression, also termed as temperature sensitivity of the phenological phase, was high in the case of the insect phases (-3 to -5 days/ C), but low in the cases of both bird phases (about -1 days/ C). All animal phenological time series showed a trend towards later occurrence dates. The trends of the bird phases were even significant (p<0.1). There was a marked discrepancy between the trends of all animal phenological and temperature time series, especially between the insects and temperature: the mean temperature time series of February, March and April with the highest common variance with the insect phases showed a strongly increasing trend (0.027 C/year), whereas the first appearance dates of the insects tended to occur later (0.06 to 0.15 days/year). Both bird phases correlated weakly with the mean April temperature (r{sup 2} about 0.1). The temperature trend of April was 0.0003 C/year, whereas the trend of the bird phases was 0.2 days/year for the cuckoo and 0.25 days/year for the swallow. From these observations we conclude that a strong temperature sensitivity of the phenological phase based on the year to year variability (in days/ C) does not necessarily result in corresponding trends of temperature and phenological phase. A strong trend of non-atmospheric factors such as population density influencing the animal phases is suspected. Factors other than local

  13. Continuous monitoring of a mountain snowpack in the Austrian Alps by above-ground neutron sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schattan, Paul; Baroni, Gabriele; Oswald, Sascha E.; Schöber, Johannes; Fey, Christine; Francke, Till; Huttenlau, Matthias; Achleitner, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    In alpine catchments the knowledge of the spatially and temporally heterogeneous dynamics of snow accumulation and depletion is crucial for modelling and managing water resources. While snow covered area can be retrieved operationally from remote sensing data, continuous measurements of other snow state variables like snow depth (SD) or snow water equivalent (SWE) remain challenging. Existing methods of retrieving both variables in alpine terrain face severe issues like a lack of spatial representativeness, labour-intensity or discontinuity in time. Recently, promising new measurement techniques combining a larger support with low maintenance cost like above-ground gamma-ray scintillators, GPS interferometric reflectometry or above-ground cosmic-ray neutron sensors (CRNS) have been suggested. While CRNS has proven its potential for monitoring soil moisture in a wide range of environments and applications, the empirical knowledge of using CRNS for snowpack monitoring is still very limited and restricted to shallow snowpacks with rather uniform evolution. The characteristics of an above-ground cosmic-ray neutron sensor (CRNS) were therefore evaluated for monitoring a mountain snowpack in the Austrian Alps (Kaunertal, Tyrol) during three winter seasons. The measurement campaign included a number of measurements during the period from 03/2014 to 06/2016: (i) neutron count measurements by CRNS, (ii) continuous point-scale SD and SWE measurements from an automatic weather station and (iii) 17 Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) with simultaneous SD and SWE surveys. The highest accumulation in terms of SWE was found in 04/2014 with 600 mm. Neutron counts were compared to all available snow data. While previous studies suggested a signal saturation at around 100 mm of SWE, no complete signal saturation was found. A strong non-linear relation was found for both SD and SWE with best fits for spatially distributed TLS based snow data. Initially slightly different shapes were

  14. Formalizing the Austrian Procedure Catalogue: A 4-step methodological analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neururer, Sabrina Barbara; Lasierra, Nelia; Peiffer, Karl Peter; Fensel, Dieter

    2016-04-01

    Due to the lack of an internationally accepted and adopted standard for coding health interventions, Austria has established its own country-specific procedure classification system - the Austrian Procedure Catalogue (APC). Even though the APC is an elaborate coding standard for medical procedures, it has shortcomings that limit its usability. In order to enhance usability and usefulness, especially for research purposes and e-health applications, we developed an ontologized version of the APC. In this paper we present a novel four-step approach for the ontology engineering process, which enables accurate extraction of relevant concepts for medical ontologies from written text. The proposed approach for formalizing the APC consists of the following four steps: (1) comparative pre-analysis, (2) definition analysis, (3) typological analysis, and (4) ontology implementation. The first step contained a comparison of the APC to other well-established or elaborate health intervention coding systems in order to identify strengths and weaknesses of the APC. In the second step, a list of definitions of medical terminology used in the APC was obtained. This list of definitions was used as input for Step 3, in which we identified the most important concepts to describe medical procedures using the qualitative typological analysis approach. The definition analysis as well as the typological analysis are well-known and effective methods used in social sciences, but not commonly employed in the computer science or ontology engineering domain. Finally, this list of concepts was used in Step 4 to formalize the APC. The pre-analysis highlighted the major shortcomings of the APC, such as the lack of formal definition, leading to implicitly available, but not directly accessible information (hidden data), or the poor procedural type classification. After performing the definition and subsequent typological analyses, we were able to identify the following main characteristics of

  15. Radon measurements in Austrian buildings and estimation of collective doses for the population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steger, F.

    1988-07-01

    Nuclear track etch detectors were used for the determination of radon and radon daughter levels in Austrian dwelling houses. A diffusion chamber, developed at Karlsruhe, FRG, was used to construct a passive radon detector. It consists of a plastic beaker covered with a glass fibre filter. It is shielded by a cover which has openings on the side so that air can diffuse through and on the top there is a mounted thermoluminescent detector card. The TLD dosimeter was used to determine beta and gamma radiation levels. A polycarbonate foil was placed at the bottom of the diffusion chamber which served as a detector for the alphas emitted by radon daughters. The dosimeters were exposed for a period of three months. The mean concentration of radon in all rooms in dwelling houses in Austria were clearly higher in winter than in summer time. This was interpreted as the effect of reduced ventilation rates in winter time. This effect of ventilation on radon concentration is more significant in living and sleeping rooms than in the cellar. Compared to all rooms in a dwelling house the level of radon concentration was distinctly higher in the cellar. Higher values of radon concentration were found in famous radon spa of Gastein and in the Waldviertel and in a landscape near the Czechoslovakian border. In Vienna a mean value for radon concentration in the living and sleeping rooms was found to be 47 bq/m 3 which corresponds to an estimated effective dose equivalent to the lung of 10.7 mSv per annum. The whole body effective dose equivalent was estimated to be 1.27 mSv per annum. These estimations were based on the radon equilibrium factor of 0.5. The exposure to radon at such concentration is estimated to cause 3-4% incidence of excess lung cancer in Vienna within the next 20 years. The value of 47 bq/m 3 of radon in Vienna and its surrounding areas corresponds well with the mean values in Switzerland and Germany, but it is lower than those found in Great Britain, Canada, Sweden

  16. Connectedness to Nature and Public (Skin) Health Perspectives: Results of a Representative, Population-Based Survey among Austrian Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluza, Daniela; Simic, Stana; Höltge, Jan; Cervinka, Renate; Moshammer, Hanns

    2014-01-01

    Connectedness to nature (CN) influences motivation to have contact with outdoor natural environments. Spending leisure time in natural environments is beneficial for human health and well-being. Besides these positive effects, health risks of open-air activities are mainly related to unprotected sun light exposure-associated acute and chronic skin hazards. Thus, we conducted a cross-sectional, representative telephone survey among Austrian residents to study the association of perceived CN level with sun-exposure knowledge, tanning habits, and sun protective behaviour. In total, 1,500 study subjects (50.5% females) participated in this questionnaire survey. Although knowledge about tanning and motives to tan were similar among genders, females performed more photoprotective measures and were more connected to nature (all p < 0.001) compared to males. Older age and outdoor sport were significant gender-independent predictor variables influencing perceived CN level. Additionally, level of education was relevant in male CN, whereas non-smoking and higher knowledge were predictive of female CN. This survey provides so far unreported empirical data on the relationship between nature connectedness and skin health-relevant recreational habits of Austrian residents. The findings suggest to integrate hitherto neglected gender-specific Public (Skin) Health promotion when counselling on the manifold health advantages of outdoor activities. PMID:24448634

  17. Digital age and the public eHealth perspective: Prevailing health app use among Austrian Internet users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naszay, Marlene; Stockinger, Andreas; Jungwirth, David; Haluza, Daniela

    2017-12-19

    New technological developments affect almost every sector of our daily lives including the healthcare sector. Successful adoption and sustainable integration of eHealth and telemedicine in Public Health strategies (also known as Public eHealth) depend on knowledge and constant evaluation of consumers' needs, proficiencies, and preferences. We therefore assessed how the general Austrian population perceived innovative Public eHealth solutions. The online survey on 562 Austrian adults (58.9% females) collected self-reported data on current and expected use of smartphone-based health applications (apps) of digital natives (35 years and younger) and digital immigrants (aged 35+). In total, 26.7% (95% CI 23.0-30.4) of participants already used health apps, especially lifestyle-associated apps for monitoring exercise habits and nutritional habits. We found substantial digital age group differences; compared to digital immigrants digital natives were more likely to use mobile devices and health apps. Health apps have the potential to improve community health and prevent lifestyle diseases cost-effectively and efficiently, and thus build an important pillar of Public eHealth. With regard to aging societies, healthcare providers could take advantage of consumer-oriented health apps by assessing individual needs of specific target groups such as elderly people.

  18. Helicobacter pylori type I strains among Austrian and Portuguese patients with gastritis, peptic ulcer or gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, S; Makristathis, A; Pinto, A; Quina, M; Rotter, M; Hirschl, A M

    1999-11-01

    The frequency of occurrence of Helicobacter pylori type I strains in isolates from Austria and Portugal and different polymerase chain reaction-based approaches to detect the cag pathogenicity island were assessed. Of the 41 Austrian strains, eight of 14 (57.2%) isolated from patients with gastritis, 14 of 19 (73.7%) from patients with peptic ulcer and eight of eight (100%) from patients with gastric cancer were type I strains. Among the Portuguese strains, eight of 14 (57.2%) isolated from patients with gastritis, ten of 12 (83.3%) from patients with peptic ulcer and five of 13 (38.5%) from patients with gastric cancer were classified as type I. Thus, Helicobacter pylori type I strains occur frequently in both populations but show no significant correlation with peptic ulcer disease. The prevalence of the type Igenotype in Austrian cancer patients, however, was significantly higher (P=0.007). The cagE-specific polymerase chain reaction was found to be a reliable and efficient method for detection of the cag pathogenicity island.

  19. ... AND HERE COMES THE WEATHER - Austrian TV and radio weather news in the eye of the public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keul, A.; Holzer, A. M.; Wostal, T.

    2010-09-01

    Media weather reports as the main avenue of meteorological and climatological information to the general public have always been in the focus of critical investigation. Former research found that although weather reports are high-interest topics, the amount of information recalled by non-experts is rather low, and criticized this. A pilot study (Keul et al., 2009) by the Salzburg University in cooperation with ORF, the Austrian Broadcasting Corporation, used historic radio files on a fair-weather and a storm situation. It identified the importance of intelligible wording of the weather forecast messages for lay people. Without quality control, weather information can stimulate rumours, false comfort or false alarms. More qualitative and experimental research, also on TV weather, seems justified. This need for further research was addressed by a second and larger field experiment in the spring of 2010. The survey took place in Salzburg City, Austria, with a quota sample of about 90 lay persons. This time TV and radio weather reports were used and a more realistic listening and viewing situation was created by presenting the latest weather forecasts of the given day to the test persons in the very next hours after originally broadcasting them. It asked lay people what they find important in the weather reports and what they remember for their actual next-day use. Reports of a fairweather prognosis were compared with a warning condition. The weather media mix of the users was explored. A second part of the study was a questionnaire which tested the understanding of typical figures of speech used in weather forecasts or even meteorological terms, which might also be important for fully understanding the severe weather warnings. This leads to quantitative and qualitative analysis from which the most important and unexpected results are presented. Short presentation times (1.5 to 2 minutes) make Austrian radio and TV weather reports a narrow compromise between general

  20. Modelling site-specific N2O emission factors from Austrian agricultural soils for targeted mitigation measures (NitroAustria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, Barbara; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Kasper, Martina; Foldal, Cecilie; Schiefer, Jasmin; Kitzler, Barbara; Schwarzl, Bettina; Zethner, Gerhard; Anderl, Michael; Sedy, Katrin; Gaugitsch, Helmut; Dersch, Georg; Baumgarten, Andreas; Haas, Edwin; Kiese, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    Results from a previous project "FarmClim" highlight that the IPCC default emission factor is not able to reflect region specific N2O emissions from Austrian arable soils. The methodology is limited in identifying hot spots and hot moments of N2O emissions. When estimations are based on default emission factors no recommendations can be given on optimisation measures that would lead to a reduction of soil N2O emissions. The better the knowledge is about Nitrogen and Carbon budgets in Austrian agricultural managed soils the better the situation can be reflected in the Austrian GHG emission inventory calculations. Therefore national and regionally modelled emission factors should improve the evidence for national deviation from the IPCC default emission factors and reduce the uncertainties. The overall aim of NitroAustria is to identify the drivers for N2O emissions on a regional basis taking different soil types, climate, and agricultural management into account. We use the LandscapeDNDC model to update the N2O emission factors for N fertilizer and animal manure applied to soils. Key regions in Austria were selected and region specific N2O emissions calculated. The model runs at sub-daily time steps and uses data such as maximum and minimum air temperature, precipitation, radiation, and wind speed as meteorological drivers. Further input data are used to reflect agricultural management practices, e.g., planting/harvesting, tillage, fertilizer application, irrigation and information on soil and vegetation properties for site characterization and model initialization. While at site scale, arable management data (crop cultivation, rotations, timings etc.) is obtained by experimental data from field trials or observations, at regional scale such data need to be generated using region specific proxy data such as land use and management statistics, crop cultivations and yields, crop rotations, fertilizer sales, manure resulting from livestock units etc. The farming

  1. Quality perception of organically grown tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. in Vienna, Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PK Ng’ang’a

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Austria is one of the major organic tomato producing countries for local and export marketing. These tomatoes are produced in parts of Austria especially around Vienna where their production system has to meet stringent organic quality standards in both local and international markets. These quality standards may put considerable strain on farmers and are normally formulated without famers’ participation so may not be wholly representative of the farmers’ quality interpretation. The aim of this paper is therefore to determine the Austrian organic tomatoes growers’ perception and practice of quality and challenges. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were carried out among 28 organic tomatoes farmers in Vienna, Austria. Findings suggest that quality of organic tomatoes is mainly perceived in terms of both informal values (big fruit size, long shelf life, food security and amount of income received from tomato sales as well as formal norms (non- application of chemicals, human health, damage free, sweet taste, red colour, and juiciness. There were no gendered differences in quality perception among the growers. High costs of production inputs were identified as the main challenge to attaining quality in organic tomatoes. Following these findings, there is need for effective participation of growers in formulation of standards as well as subsidizing of production inputs by the government. The Austrian tomato growers as well as local and international retailers should work closely to increase the price received by the Austrian organic tomato growers so that it more adequately covers their production costs.

  2. Acute die-off of chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) in the Eastern Austrian Alps due to bacterial bronchopneumonia with Pasteurellaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posautz, Annika; Loncaric, Igor; Kübber-Heiss, Anna; Knoll, Alexander; Walzer, Christian

    2014-07-01

    Monitoring circulating pathogens in wildlife populations is important in evaluating causes and sources of disease as well as understanding transmission between wild and domestic animals. In spring 2010, a sudden die-off in a chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) population sharing habitat with livestock occurred in northeastern Austria. Nineteen animals were submitted for examination. Necropsy and pathohistologic and bacteriologic results yielded lesions associated with Pasteurellaceae species. Additional testing included enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus and random amplification of polymorphic DNA PCR analysis to evaluate the circulating strains. The isolated strains were most closely related to Mannheimia glucosida and Bibersteinia trehalosi. Reports of mass mortalities in chamois due to pneumonia have been reported previously in the northern Alpine area of Italy. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of acute mortality due to strains of Mannheimia and Bibersteinia in Austrian chamois.

  3. Vienna international summer school on experimental and clinical oncology for medical students: an Austrian cancer education project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromm-Haidenberger, Sabine; Pohl, Gudrun; Widder, Joachim; Kren, Gerhard; Fitzal, Florian; Bartsch, Rupert; de Vries, Jakob; Zielinski, Christoph; Pötter, Richard

    2010-03-01

    The "International Summer School on Experimental and Clinical Oncology for Medical Students" is organised at the Medical University of Vienna to teach a multidisciplinary approach to oncology to medical students in the final phase of their studies. The program includes biology, diagnosis, clinical and psycho-oncology. Lectures are given by medical, radiation and surgical oncologists. Teaching includes case reports, poster presentations and role-play. As part of the organising committee, Austrian students organise a social program. Since 1999, six courses have been held (147 students from 19 countries). Students recorded high satisfaction with organisation, scientific content and topic range. Case presentations, poster presentations and role-play were very useful. Early criticism that the program was too intense (long lectures and little interaction) has been answered. The summer school has a high degree of acceptance and is a very useful tool to teach medical students about oncology and approaching a cancer patient.

  4. IMPACT OF ROMANIA’S ACCESSION TO THE EUROPEAN UNION ON THE AUSTRIAN TRADE, FDI AND LABOUR MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Hunya

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the potential impact of Romania’s accession to the European Union on Austria in three major fields: foreign trade, FDI and labour market. While conditions of doing business in Romania have improved in recent years, they are still more complicated than in old and new EU member states. Romania remains a rapidly growing market for investment goods, consumer goods and services alike providing good opportunities for Austrian companies. While the effect of Eastern European labour immigration to Austria can be expected to be marginal on total employment and wages, it may affect specific segments of the labour market. Overall, labour immigration from Romania will remain relatively unproblematic.

  5. Mental health problems in Austrian adolescents: a nationwide, two-stage epidemiological study applying DSM-5 criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Gudrun; Zeiler, Michael; Waldherr, Karin; Philipp, Julia; Truttmann, Stefanie; Dür, Wolfgang; Treasure, Janet L; Karwautz, Andreas F K

    2017-12-01

    This is a nationwide epidemiological study using DSM-5 criteria to assess the prevalence of mental disorders in a large sample of Austrian adolescents between 10 and 18 years including hard-to-reach samples. A sample of 3615 adolescents from four cohorts (school grades 5, 7, 9, 11; age range 10-18 years) was recruited from 261 schools, samples of unemployed adolescents (n = 39) and adolescents from mental health institutions (n = 137) were added. The Youth Self-Report and SCOFF were used to screen for mental health problems. In a second phase, the Childrens' Diagnostic Interview for Mental Disorders was used to make point and lifetime psychiatric diagnoses. Mental health service use was also assessed. Point prevalence and lifetime prevalence rates for at least one psychiatric disorder were 23.9% and 35.8%. The highest lifetime prevalence rates were found for anxiety disorders (15.6%), neurodevelopmental disorders (9.3%; ADHD 5.2%) and depressive disorders (6.2%). Forty-seven percent of adolescents with a lifetime psychiatric disorder had a second diagnosis. Internalising disorders were more prevalent in girls, while neurodevelopmental disorders and disruptive, impulse control and conduct disorders were more prevalent in boys. Of those with a lifetime psychiatric disorder, 47.5% had contacted mental health services. Of the residual 52.5% who had not contacted mental health services, 18.1% expressed an interest in treatment. DSM-5 mental health disorders are highly prevalent among Austrian adolescents. Over 50% had or were interested in accessing treatment. Early access to effective interventions for these problems is needed to reduce burden due to mental health disorders.

  6. Influence of toltrazuril treatment on parasitological parameters and health performance of piglets in the field--an Austrian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiner, Tanja; Worliczek, Hanna Lucia; Tichy, Alexander; Joachim, Anja

    2011-12-29

    Porcine coccidiosis caused by Isospora suis is one of the leading causes of neonatal diarrhea in suckling piglets. Currently the only registered drug for metaphylaxis is toltrazuril. To evaluate the effect of treatment on piglets from 7 Austrian farms without and 8 Austrian farms with toltrazuril application we examined oocyst excretion (including determination of oocysts per gram of feces; OPG), diarrhea (fecal score FS 1-4 with 3 and 4 being diarrhea), and general health (health score HS 1-4 with 3 and 4 describing poor health). Both groups included farms with different levels of hygiene. Samples from 265 litters without treatment, comprising 1588 individual samples, and 1548 samples from 258 treated litters were taken twice (around the 14th and the 21st day of life, respectively), examined by autofluorescence and, if positive, by McMaster counting. In both groups animals had less diarrhea and lower health scores during the second sampling but the treated piglets were always significantly healthier and had less diarrhea. The percentage of weaned piglets was higher in treated animals although this was not significant (p=0.052). In the first round of sampling 17.8% of the individual samples from untreated piglets were positive for oocysts (with a maximum prevalence on the 12-15th day of life) while in the treated piglets only 0.4% shed oocysts ptoltrazuril, so both metaphylaxis of coccidiosis and good hygiene are necessary to effectively control neonatal diarrhea. The costs of treatment are considerably lower than the estimated financial production losses. Therefore, treatment is recommended for farms where clinical coccidiosis is diagnosed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. 11 June 2012 - Austrian Federal Minister of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection R. Hundstorfer signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Ambassador to the UN C. Strohal (CERN-HI-120611334)

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    11 June 2012 - Austrian Federal Minister of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection R. Hundstorfer signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Ambassador to the UN C. Strohal (CERN-HI-120611334)

  8. 4 August 2011 - Austrian Head of Protocol, Directorate General III, Federal Ministry of Science and Research I. Friedrich (3rd from left) in the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with M. Benedkit, C. Wulz and C. Fabjan.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    4 August 2011 - Austrian Head of Protocol, Directorate General III, Federal Ministry of Science and Research I. Friedrich (3rd from left) in the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with M. Benedkit, C. Wulz and C. Fabjan.

  9. Austrian Lipid Consensus on the management of metabolic lipid disorders to prevent vascular complications: A joint position statement issued by eight medical societies. 2016 update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toplak, Hermann; Ludvik, Bernhard; Lechleitner, Monika; Dieplinger, Hans; Föger, Bernhard; Paulweber, Bernhard; Weber, Thomas; Watschinger, Bruno; Horn, Sabine; Wascher, Thomas C; Drexel, Heinz; Brodmann, Marianne; Pilger, Ernst; Rosenkranz, Alexander; Pohanka, Erich; Oberbauer, Rainer; Traindl, Otto; Roithinger, Franz Xaver; Metzler, Bernhard; Haring, Hans-Peter; Kiechl, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    In 2010, eight Austrian medical societies proposed a joint position statement on the management of metabolic lipid disorders for the prevention of vascular complications. An updated and extended version of these recommendations according to the current literature is presented, referring to the primary and secondary prevention of vascular complications in adults, taking into consideration the guidelines of other societies. The "Austrian Lipid Consensus - 2016 update" provides guidance for individualized risk stratification and respective therapeutic targets, and discusses the evidence for reducing vascular endpoints with available lipid-lowering therapies. Furthermore, specific management in key patient groups is outlined, including subjects presenting with coronary, cerebrovascular, and/or peripheral atherosclerosis; diabetes mellitus and/or metabolic syndrome; nephropathy; and familial hypercholesterolemia.

  10. Use of the Oral Contraceptive Pill by Austrian Adolescents with Emphasis on the Age of Onset, Side Effects, Compliance and Lifestyle

    OpenAIRE

    Brunnhuber, S.; Kirchengast, S.

    2002-01-01

    The present study investigated the use of the oral contraceptive pill in 880 Austrian high school girls. All participants filled in a questionnaire on lifestyle and menarche. Furthermore, subjects on the pill were asked about their preparation, age at first use, reasons why they take it, side effects and oral contraceptive compliance. All 139 subjects on the pill used low dose monophasic preparations. The girls started the pill at a mean age of 16.0 0.9 years for contraceptive ...

  11. The Most Frequent Lophodermium spp. on Scots Pine and Austrian Pine and Their Role in the Appearance of Other Fungi on the Needles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAZAREV, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Different critical periods for infection, the difference in morphological-anatomical and eco-physiological characteristics and other distinguish support the taxonomic concept on the existence of several Lophodemium spp. on pines. In addition to the study of Lophodemium spp. on secondary needles, the study was extended also to primary needles. The results of our long-term research, compared to the results obtained by other researchers in Europe, show that in Serbia there are at least two widely distributed Lophodemium species infecting Scots pine and Austrian pine needles. This study is supporting with identification of L. seditiosum and L. pinastri using species-specific PCR primers from the ribosomal ITS region. In pine plantations were established connection between Lophodemium species and other fungi on needles Scots and Austrian pine. On needles of Scots pine, except L. pinastri and L. seditiosum mostly were established following more important fungi: Sphaeropsis sapinea, Cyclaneusma minus and Sclerophoma pythiophylla. On needles of Austrian pine, except L. pinastri, were established following more important fungi: Dothistroma pini, Sphaeropsis sapinea, Cyclaneusma niveum and Cytospora friesii.

  12. Ecological effects and chemical composition of fine sediments in Upper Austrian streams and resulting implications for river management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfler, Sarah; Pichler-Scheder, Christian; Gumpinger, Clemens

    2017-04-01

    In the current scientific discussion high loads of fine sediments are considered one of the most important causes of river ecosystem degradation worldwide. Especially in intensively used catchment areas changes in the sediment household must be regarded as a reason, which prevents the achievement of the objectives of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). Therefore, the Upper Austrian Water Authorities have launched two comprehensive studies on the topic. The first one was a survey on the current siltation status of river courses in Upper Austria. The second study deals with two selected catchments in detail, in order to get a clear picture of the impacts of the fines on the aquatic fauna (trout eggs, benthic invertebrates), the chemical composition of these fractions, the crucial hydrogeological processes and to develop possible role models for measures both in the catchments and in the streams. At eight sites within the two catchments sediment and water samples were collected at two dates for detailed chemical analysis. On one date additionally the benthic invertebrate fauna was investigated on the microhabitat level. Thereby it was possible to enhance the understanding of the range of ecological impacts caused by silting-up in different hydro-morphological circumstances and with different fine sediment loads. The water samples as well as the sediment fraction samples water decomposition products of pesticides, remains of medical drugs, sweeteners, hormonally active substances and water-soluble elements were analysed. Furthermore, a GIS-based analysis was carried out for the two examined catchments. The model included data gained from a digital elevation model, land use data and digital soil classification maps. This led to findings concerning the main sources and processes, which are responsible for anthropogenically induced high fine sediment loads in the streams. According to these results a GIS-based risk assessment tool for all Upper Austrian

  13. Attitudes of Austrian veterinarians towards euthanasia in small animal practice: impacts of age and gender on views on euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnack, Sonja; Springer, Svenja; Pittavino, Marta; Grimm, Herwig

    2016-02-04

    Euthanasia of pets has been described by veterinarians as "the best and the worst" of the profession. The most commonly mentioned ethical dilemmas veterinarians face in small animal practice are: limited treatment options due to financial constraints, euthanizing of healthy animals and owners wishing to continue treatment of terminally ill animals. The aim of the study was to gain insight into the attitudes of Austrian veterinarians towards euthanasia of small animals. This included assessing their agreement with euthanasia in exemplified case scenarios, potentially predicted by demographic variables (e.g. gender, age, working in small animal practice, employment, working in a team, numbers of performed euthanasia). Further describing the veterinarians' agreement with a number of different normative and descriptive statements, including coping strategies. A questionnaire with nine euthanasia scenarios, 26 normative and descriptive statements, and demographic data were sent to all members of the Austrian Chamber of Veterinary Surgeons (n = 2478). In total, 486 veterinarians answered sufficiently completely to enable analyses. Responses were first explored descriptively before being formally analysed using linear regression and additive Bayesian networks - a multivariate regression methodology - in order to identify joint relationships between the demographic variables, the statements and each of the nine euthanasia scenarios. Mutual dependencies between the demographic variables were found, i.e. female compared to male veterinarians worked mostly in small animal practice, and working mostly in small animal practice was linked to performing more euthanasia per month. Gender and age were found to be associated with views on euthanasia: female veterinarians and veterinarians having worked for less years were more likely to disagree with euthanasia in at least some of the convenience euthanasia scenarios. The number of veterinarians working together was found to be

  14. The effectiveness of the Austrian disease management programme for type 2 diabetes: a cluster-randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klima Gert

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disease management programmes (DMPs are costly and impose additional work load on general practitioners (GPs. Data on their effectiveness are inconclusive. We therefore conducted a cluster-randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of the Austrian DMP for diabetes mellitus type 2 on HbA1c and quality of care for adult patients in primary care. Methods All GPs of Salzburg-province were invited to participate. After cluster-randomisation by district, all patients with diabetes type 2 were recruited consecutively from 7-11/2007. The DMP, consisting mainly of physician and patient education, standardised documentation and agreement on therapeutic goals, was implemented in the intervention group while the control group received usual care. We aimed to show superiority of the intervention regarding metabolic control and process quality. The primary outcome measure was a change in HbA1c after one year. Secondary outcomes were days in the hospital, blood pressure, lipids, body mass index (BMI, enrolment in patient education and regular guideline-adherent examination. Blinding was not possible. Results 92 physicians recruited 1489 patients (649 intervention, 840 control. After 401 ± 47 days, 590 intervention-patients and 754 controls had complete data. In the intention to treat analysis (ITT of all 1489 patients, HbA1c decreased 0.41% in the intervention group and 0.28% in controls. The difference of -0.13% (95% CI -0.24; -0.02 was significant at p = 0.026. Significance was lost in mixed models adjusted for baseline value and cluster-effects (adjusted mean difference -0.03 (95% CI -0.15; 0.09, p = 0.607. Of the secondary outcome measures, BMI and cholesterol were significantly reduced in the intervention group compared to controls in ITT after adjustments (-0.53 kg/m²; 95% CI -1.03;-0.02; p = 0.014 and -0.10 mmol/l; 95% CI -0.21; -0.003; p = 0.043. Additionally, more patients received patient education (49.5% vs. 20

  15. Austrian Capital Theory and the Link Between Entrepreneurship and the Theory of the Firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.

    2005-01-01

    tangible and intangible,are heterogeneous; arranging these assets to minimize contractual hazards, toprovide efficient investment incentives, or to exploit competitive advantage isconceived as the prime task of economic organization. None of these approaches,however, is based on a systematic theory......Several writers link entrepreneurship to asset ownership, trying to incorporatethe theory of entrepreneurship into the theory of the firm. The critical link, weargue, is capital heterogeneity. Transaction cost, property rights, and resourcebasedapproaches to the firm assume that assets, both......, the functions, characteristics, and uses ofcapital assets. Such attributes are not given, but have to be discovered by meansof entrepreneurial action. Thinking of entrepreneurship as the organization ofheterogeneous capital provides new insights into the emergence, boundaries,and internal organization...

  16. [Paskal Joseph Ritter von Ferro, the Reformer of the Austrian Public Health. On the occasion of the 200th anniversary of his death in consequence of the battle of Wagram against Napoleon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamm, Heinz

    2009-01-01

    Paskal Joseph Ferro, born on June 5th, 1753 in Bonn, Germany, in the course of his military service as a surgeon graduated medicine in 1777 in Strasbourg and Vienna. Here initially he worked as a private physician in a hospital. In 1785 he became an assistant to the leading municipal physician, in 1793 he was appointed director of the district hospitals and in 1793 medical official in charge of Lower Austria. In 1795 Ferro was the first on the now created position of "Protomedicus" (director of the health administration) of an Austrian country. His most important acts were the creation of the first medical cold water bath in Austria, the foundation of institutions for the salvation of casualties, the introduction of rooms to lay out the dead in the communities, the organization of dispersed health regulations and their publications for common knowledge and especially the introduction of the smallpox vaccination in 1799 first time outside the UK. After the battle of Wagram (north to Vienna) in the Napoleonic war (July 6th, 1809) he had to care for the wounded and 56,000 dead soldiers on the battle field. In this action he contracted typhoid fever and consequently died on August 21st, 1809.

  17. Weight and body mass index (BMI): current data for Austrian boys and girls aged 4 to under 19 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Michael; Gleiss, Andreas; Häusler, Gabriele; Borkenstein, Martin; Kapelari, Klaus; Köstl, Gerhard; Lassi, Michael; Schemper, Michael; Schmitt, Klaus; Blümel, Peter

    2015-01-01

    BMI reference charts are widely used to diagnose overweight, obesity and underweight in children and adolescents. To provide up-to-date national reference values for Austria. A cross-sectional sample of over 14 500 children and adolescents (4-19 years) stratified by provinces according to age- and sex-specific population proportions was drawn via schooling institutions (kindergartens, schools and vocational colleges). The generalized additive models for location, scale and shape were used for a flexible estimation of percentile curves. Austrian boys and girls have higher average weight compared with previous prevalence data. BMI centiles matching BMI values at age 18 years, which are used for defining thinness, overweight and obesity in adults, were calculated. In Austria, using reference values as thresholds, ∼18% of boys and 12% of girls are overweight (with thresholds passing through BMI 25.00-29.99 kg/m(2) in adults) and 5% of boys and 3% of girls are obese (with thresholds passing through BMI ≥30.00 kg/m(2) in adults). Overweight and obesity are common in Austria and their prevalence is increasing (using the same IOTF reference for international comparison). Up-to-date national BMI reference values are provided to classify children and adolescents according to the proposed overweight and obesity thresholds.

  18. RDA Europe Workshop – From Planning to Action. Towards the Establishment of an Austrian Research Infrastructure (Wien, 23. November 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Budroni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Im November 2017 fand an der Universität Wien der RDA Europe Workshop „From Planning to Action. Towards the Establishment of an Austrian Research Infrastructure“ mit Unterstützung von RDA Europe, der Technischen Universität Wien und der Universität Wien statt. Es war der erste in Österreich abgehaltene Workshop in einer Reihe von europaweiten RDA Veranstaltungen. Ziel war es, über praktische Umsetzungen von RDA Empfehlungen, Implementierungsmaßnahmen der European Open Science Cloud und andere bedeutende Dateninitiativen zu diskutieren, um europäische Forschende und die Entwicklung von Infrastrukturen bestmöglich zu unterstützen. Die unterschiedlichen Themenbereiche bezogen sich auf transversale und disziplinspezifische Projekte, Datenzentren und Repositorien in Österreich. Die Vorträge reflektierten auch die europäische Perspektive von Forschungsdatenmanagement sowie politische und wissenschaftliche Initiativen von internationalen Organisationen. Ebenso wurden Empfehlungen von einzelnen Working Groups dargestellt und anhand von Projekten gezeigt, wie diese bereits lokal Anwendung finden. In der Veranstaltung wurde schließlich eine neu gegründete RDA Gruppe für Österreich angekündigt. Dieser RDA Austria Node wird, nach der formalen Konstituierungsphase, die österreichische Community innerhalb der neuen administrativen RDA-Strukturen repräsentieren.

  19. Time trends (1986-2003) of radiocesium transfer to roe deer and wild boar in two Austrian forest regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strebl, F. [Austrian Research Centers GmbH - ARC, Radiation Safety and Applications, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)], E-mail: friederike.strebl@arcs.ac.at; Tataruch, F. [Research Institute of Wildlife Ecology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Savoyenstr.1, A 1160 Vienna (Austria)

    2007-11-15

    Starting shortly after the Chernobyl accident, samples of roe deer and wild boar from two comparatively highly contaminated Austrian forest stands have been regularly analysed for {sup 137}Cs. Until 1995 average {sup 137}Cs concentrations exceeded 1000 Bq kg{sup -1} in both roe deer and wild boar. Long-term and seasonal trends are similar in both investigation sites. While {sup 137}Cs aggregated transfer factor (T{sub ag}) values show a significant decreasing trend in roe deer (ecological half-time 8.6 and 7.2 years, respectively), T{sub ag}-values in wild boar are highly variable, but rather increasing values are observed over the last years. T{sub ag}-values for roe deer are between 0.04 and 0.008 m{sup 2} kg{sup -1} fresh weight (1987-2003); values for wild boar are between 0.008 m{sup 2} kg{sup -1} (1988) and 0.046 m{sup 2} kg{sup -1} (1996) fresh weight. Seasonal trends for both species are in good agreement with observations from German forests: increased mushroom ingestion leads to higher {sup 137}Cs T{sub ag}-values for roe deer in the second half of the year (August-December) compared to the first half (January-July). T{sub ag}-values for wild boar are highest in the first half of the year.

  20. Association between Health Behaviours and Religion in Austrian High School Pupils—A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Gäbler

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of risk factors for chronic diseases such as smoking, alcohol abuse, low fruit and vegetable consumption, and lack of physical activity is high among young adults. Health behaviours are influenced by many factors and also by religious orientation, as American studies show. The aim of the present study was to explore whether a similar association with religion exists in Austria (Europe. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in seven randomly selected high schools, whereby a total of 225 11th-grade pupils (64% girls, 36% boys; average age 16.4 years were surveyed by means of an online questionnaire. The study reveals a positive association between religion and healthy food choices as well as meal patterns. Smoking (number of cigarettes smoked daily and alcohol consumption (getting drunk was negatively associated with religion. These negative associations remained after adjusting for confounding factors using logistic regression analysis. Thus, the study showed that religion is associated with a reduction in these risky health behaviours in Austrian high school pupils. However, due to the limitations of the study design, causality cannot be inferred.

  1. Spatial and seasonal variations in mobile carbohydrates in Pinus cembra in the timberline ecotone of the Central Austrian Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, A; Pirkebner, D; Oberhuber, W; Wieser, G

    2011-03-01

    To test whether the altitudinal limit of tree growth is determined by carbons shortage or by a limitation in growth we investigated non structural carbohydrates and their components starch and total soluble sugars in Pinus cembra trees along an elevational gradient in the timberline ecotone of the Central Austrian Alps. NSC contents in needles, branches, stems, and coarse roots were measured throughout an entire growing season. At the tissue level NSC contents were not significantly more abundant in treeline trees as compared to trees at lower elevations. Along our 425 m elevational transect from the closed forest to the treeline we failed to find a stable elevational trend in the total NSC pool of entire trees and observed within season increases in the tree's NSC pool that can be attributed to an altitudinal increase in leaf mass as needles contained the largest NSC fraction of the whole tree NSC pool. Furthermore, whole tree NSC contents were positively correlated with net photosynthetic capacity. Although our observed NSC characteristics do not support the hypothesis that tree life at their upper elevational limit is determined by an insufficient carbon balance we found no consistent confirmation for the sink limitation hypothesis.

  2. Fish remains as a source to reconstruct long-term changes of fish communities in the Austrian and Hungarian Danube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galik, Alfred; Haidvogl, Gertrud; Bartosiewicz, Laszlo; Guti, Gabor; Jungwirth, Mathias

    The main objective of this paper is to investigate how archaeological fish remains and written historical records can contribute to the reconstruction of long-term developments of fish communities along the Austrian and Hungarian Danube. Although such approaches are sensitive to various factors, the chronological subdivision and relative quantification of proxy data demonstrate environmental and faunal changes from Prehistory onwards. Intensification of fisheries, decline of large specimens and massive exploitation of small and young fish point to increasing pressure along the chronological sequence towards Early Modern times. One result of this impact was the establishment of regulations and laws to protect such fish. At the same time, the rise of aquaculture and common carp cultivation can be viewed as another upshot of human impact on the Danube's environment. Finally, the massive import of salted marine fish reflects a compensation for the undersupply caused by overexploitation of the Danube fish fauna and points to the growing demand for fish as food in late medieval and Early Modern times.

  3. Landfill mining: Resource potential of Austrian landfills--Evaluation and quality assessment of recovered municipal solid waste by chemical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfsberger, Tanja; Aldrian, Alexia; Sarc, Renato; Hermann, Robert; Höllen, Daniel; Budischowsky, Andreas; Zöscher, Andreas; Ragoßnig, Arne; Pomberger, Roland

    2015-11-01

    Since the need for raw materials in countries undergoing industrialisation (like China) is rising, the availability of metal and fossil fuel energy resources (like ores or coal) has changed in recent years. Landfill sites can contain considerable amounts of recyclables and energy-recoverable materials, therefore, landfill mining is an option for exploiting dumped secondary raw materials, saving primary sources. For the purposes of this article, two sanitary landfill sites have been chosen for obtaining actual data to determine the resource potential of Austrian landfills. To evaluate how pretreating waste before disposal affects the resource potential of landfills, the first landfill site has been selected because it has received untreated waste, whereas mechanically-biologically treated waste was dumped in the second. The scope of this investigation comprised: (1) waste characterisation by sorting analyses of recovered waste; and (2) chemical analyses of specific waste fractions for quality assessment regarding potential energy recovery by using it as solid recovered fuels. The content of eight heavy metals and the net calorific values were determined for the chemical characterisation tests. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF AN APPROXIMATE MULTIVARIATE TWO-STEP APPROACH FOR THE JOINT GENETIC EVALUATION OF AUSTRIAN AND GERMAN DAIRY CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Pfeiffer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate genetic evaluation in modern dairy cattle breeding programs became important in the last decades. The simultaneous estimation of all production and functional traits is still demanding. Different meta-models are used to overcome several constraints. The aim of this study was to conduct an approximate multivariate two-step procedure applied to de-regressed breeding values and yield deviations of five fertility traits of Austrian Pinzgau cattle and to compare results with routinely estimated breeding values. The approximate two-step procedure applied to de-regressed breeding values performed better than the procedure applied to yield deviations. Spearman rank correlations for all animals, sires and cows were between 0.996 and 0.999 for the procedure applied to de-regressed breeding values and between 0.866 and 0.995 for the procedure applied to yield deviations. The results are encouraging to move from the currently used selection index in routine genetic evaluation towards an approximate two-step procedure applied to de-regressed breeding values.

  5. [Outbreak of subclinical mastitis due to beta hemolytic group L streptococci (S. dysgalactiae ssp. equisimilis) in an Austrian dairy herd].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Martina; Giffinger, Friederike; Hoppe, Jan Christoph; Spergser, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    This study is reporting an outbreak of subclinical mastitis due to beta-hemolytic group L streptococci in an Austrian dairy herd with a history of high somatic cell count. At the first survey 16 of 33 lactating cows (28 quarters of 132) were cultured positive for beta-hemolytic, CAMP and esculin negative cocci that grew on Columbia blood agar with small grey catalase negative colonies. With the commercial API 20 Strep system (bioMerieux, F) isolates were classified as members of streptococci group L. All tested strains (eight of 28) produced acid from ribose, lactose, trehalose, amidon and glycogen; they hydrolysed hippurate and showed beta-glucuronidase, beta-galactosidase, alkaline phosphatase, leucinaminopeptidase and arginindehydrolase activity. Isolates were sensitive to bacitracin but resistant to tetracycline. Using phenotypic characterisation as well as sequence analysis of the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region of a representative strain, recovered isolates were identified as Streptococcus (S.) dysgalactiae ssp. equisimilis. Mastitis was characterized by normal milk secretions and absence of clinical abnormalities but high elevations of somatic cell count. Based on the characteristics of the strains and on the observations during the first herd survey, contagious transmission during milking as a result of poor milking hygiene was assumed. The mastitis was controlled through implementation of a strict hygiene protocol including use of single-use udder towels, post milking teat desinfection and cluster disinfection between milking cows in combination with antibiotic treatment of infected udders.

  6. Necrotizing fasciitis due to Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139 after exposure to Austrian bathing sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirk, Sonja; Huhulescu, Steliana; Allerberger, Franz; Lepuschitz, Sarah; Rehak, Sonja; Weil, Sandra; Gschwandtner, Elisabeth; Hermann, Michael; Neuhold, Stephanie; Zoufaly, Alexander; Indra, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    We report on two cases of necrotizing fasciitis of the lower leg due to nontoxigenic Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae). A 73-year-old woman (case 1) and an 80-year-old man (case 2) were hospitalized with symptoms of necrotizing fasciitis on July 18 and August 15, 2015, respectively. In both cases, symptoms started the day after swimming in local ponds. Swabs gained intraoperatively and a blood culture from the male patient, yielded V. cholerae non-O1/non-O139, negative for cholera toxin gene ctx and positive for hemolysin genes hlyA and hlyB. Water samples taken from pond A on August 17, 2015 (32 days after exposure of case 1) and from pond B on August 20, 2015 (7 days after exposure of case 2) yielded non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae in most-probable numbers of > 11,000 per 100 ml each. The occurrence of two cases of necrotizing fasciitis within a 1 month period related to two Austrian non-saline bathing waters, previously not known to harbor V. cholerae, is probably linked to the prevailing extreme weather conditions (heat wave, drought) this summer in Austria. While case 1 was discharged in good clinical condition after 73 days, case 2 died after four months of hospitalization. Public health authorities are challenged to assess the effects of long-term climate change on pathogen growth and survival in continental bodies of fresh water.

  7. Added Values of Time Series in Material Flow Analysis: The Austrian Phosphorus Budget from 1990 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoboli, Ottavia; Laner, David; Zessner, Matthias; Rechberger, Helmut

    2016-12-01

    Material flow analysis is a tool that is increasingly used as a foundation for resource management and environmental protection. This tool is primarily applied in a static manner to individual years, ignoring the impact of time on the material budgets. In this study, a detailed multiyear model of the Austrian phosphorus budget covering the period 1990-2011 was built to investigate its behavior over time and test the hypothesis that a multiyear approach can also contribute to the improvement of static budgets. Further, a novel method was applied to investigate the quality and characteristics of the data and quantify the uncertainty. The degree of change between the budgets was assessed and showed that approximately half of the flows have changed significantly and, at times, abruptly since 1990, but it is not possible to distinguish unequivocally between constant and moderately changing flows given their uncertainty. The study reveals that the phosphorus transported in waste flows has increased more rapidly than its recovery, which accounted for 55% to 60% of the total waste phosphorus in 1990 and only 40% in 2011. The loss ratio in landfills and cement kilns has oscillated in the range of 40% to 50%. From a methodological point of view, the multiyear approach has broadened the conceptual model of the budget, making it more suitable as a basis for material accounting and monitoring. Moreover, the analysis of the data reconciliation process over a long period of time proved to be a useful tool for identifying systematic errors in the model.

  8. Comprehensive studies on the trans fatty acid content of Austrian foods: Convenience products, fast food and fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Plasser, Elisabeth; Proell, Christiana; Kanzler, Sonja

    2008-06-01

    Due to reported detrimental health effects of diets high in trans fatty acids (TFA) in particular on blood lipids, convenience products, trade margarines, fats for cooking and frying and fast food products available on the Austrian market were comprehensively investigated on TFA, using gas chromatography. About half of the tested convenience products contained less than 1% TFA, one third less than 5%, but almost 5% of the tested products more than 20% TFA. A similar allocation could be found in fast food products, with the highest TFA level of 8.9%. Total TFA of household fats were lower (1.45±1.99%) than fats of industrial use (7.83±10.0%, pfoods had decreased significantly. About half of the investigated products contained less than 1% TFA/total fatty acids, however, very high amounts of TFA (>15%) can still be detected and an intake of more that 5g TFA/portion, which has been shown to significantly increase the risk for cardiovascular disease, is easily possible. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Autochthonous facility-specific microbiota dominates washed-rind Austrian hard cheese surfaces and its production environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijada, Narciso M; Mann, Evelyne; Wagner, Martin; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David; Hernández, Marta; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan

    2018-02-21

    Cheese ripening involves the succession of complex microbial communities that are responsible for the organoleptic properties of the final products. The food processing environment can act as a source of natural microbial inoculation, especially in traditionally manufactured products. Austrian Vorarlberger Bergkäse (VB) is an artisanal washed-rind hard cheese produced in the western part of Austria without the addition of external ripening cultures. Here, the composition of the bacterial communities present on VB rinds and on different processing surfaces from two ripening cellars was assessed by near full length 16S rRNA gene amplification, cloning and sequencing. Non-inoculated aerobic bacteria dominated all surfaces in this study. VB production conditions (long ripening time, high salt concentration and low temperatures) favor the growth of psychro- and halotolerant bacteria. Several bacterial groups, such as coryneforms, Staphylococcus equorum and Halomonas dominated VB and were also found on most environmental surfaces. Analysis of OTUs shared between different surfaces suggests that VB rind bacteria are inoculated naturally during the ripening from the processing environment and that cheese surfaces exert selective pressure on these communities, as only those bacteria better adapted flourished on VB rinds. This study analyzed VB processing environment microbiota and its relationship with VB rinds for the first time, elucidating that the processing environment and the cheese microbiota should be considered as microbiologically linked ecosystems with the goal of better defining the events that take place during cheese maturation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Labour and Childbirth After Previous Caesarean Section: Recommendations of the Austrian Society of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (OEGGG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, P; Brezinka, C; Fischer, T; Husslein, P; Lang, U; Ramoni, A; Zeisler, H; Klaritsch, P

    2016-12-01

    The new expert recommendation from the Austrian Society of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (OEGGG) comprises an interpretation and summary of guidelines from the leading specialist organisations worldwide (RCOG, ACOG, SOGC, CNGOF, WHO, NIH, NICE, UpToDate). In essence it outlines alternatives to the direct pathway to elective repeat caesarean section (ERCS). In so doing it aligns with international trends, according to which a differentiated, individualised clinical approach is recommended that considers benefits and risks to both mother and child, provides detailed counselling and takes the patient's wishes into account. In view of good success rates (60-85 %) for vaginal birth after caesarean section (VBAC) the consideration of predictive factors during antenatal birth planning has become increasingly important. This publication provides a compact management recommendation for the majority of standard clinical situations. However it cannot and does not claim to cover all possible scenarios. The consideration of all relevant factors in each individual case, and thus the ultimate decision on mode of delivery, remains the discretion and responsibility of the treating obstetrician.

  11. Support for health promoting schools: a typology of supporting strategies in Austrian provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugglberger, Lisa

    2011-12-01

    Schools that want to implement health promotion (HP) are often confronted with obstacles that they cannot overcome by themselves and therefore need support from their environment. However, the issue of which kind of support is needed for HP implementation is complex. A systems approach suggests that the individual logic of each school be considered and that supporting strategies be flexible to specific needs. This article pursues the question which types of support for health promoting schools are offered on a provincial level in Austria. Using a grounded theory approach, 18 in-depth interviews with representatives of provincial organizations and 26 documents relevant for school HP were analysed. As a result, five different strategies of supporting health promoting schools have been identified in Austria: (i) organize exchange among schools, (ii) establish certification and quality control of school health efforts, (iii) offer consultation and information, (iv) carry out a specific HP programme and (v) coordinate HP actors and information. These strategies are usually combined and rarely occur in their pure form. It was also determined that the coordination of the different strategies and human resources for HP are missing for schools in Austria. It is argued that each of these supporting strategies has benefits and limitations for schools and the providers, and that they all have the potential to respond to the school as a complex social system.

  12. The Role of the Photogeologic Mapping in the Morocco 2013 Mars Analog Field Simulation (Austrian Space Forum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losiak, Anna; Orgel, Csilla; Moser, Linda; MacArthur, Jane; Gołębiowska, Izabela; Wittek, Steffen; Boyd, Andrea; Achorner, Isabella; Rampey, Mike; Bartenstein, Thomas; Jones, Natalie; Luger, Ulrich; Sans, Alejandra; Hettrich, Sebastian

    2013-04-01

    The MARS2013 mission: The Austrian Space Forum together with multiple scientific partners will conduct a Mars analog field simulation. The project takes place between 1st and 28th of February 2013 in the northern Sahara near Erfoud. During the simulation a field crew (consisting of suited analog astronauts and a support team) will conduct several experiments while being managed by the Mission Support Center (MSC) located in Innsbruck, Austria. The aim of the project is to advance preparation of the future human Mars missions by testing: 1) the mission design with regard to operational and engineering challenges (e.g., how to work efficiently with introduced time delay in communication between field team and MSC), 2) scientific instruments (e.g., rovers) and 3) human performance in conditions analogous to those that will be encountered on Mars. The Role of Geological Mapping: Remote Science Support team (RSS) is responsible for processing science data obtained in the field. The RSS is also in charge of preparing a set of maps to enable planning activities of the mission (including the development of traverses) [1, 2]. The usage of those maps will increase the time-cost efficiency of the entire mission. The RSS team members do not have any prior knowledge about the area where the simulation is taking place and the analysis is fully based on remote sensing satellite data (Landsat, GoogleEarth) and a digital elevation model (ASTER GDEM)from the orbital data. The maps design: The set of maps (covering area 5 km X 5 km centered on the Mission Base Camp) was designed to simplify the process of site selection for the daily traverse planning. Additionally, the maps will help to accommodate the need of the field crew for the increased autonomy in the decision making process, forced by the induced time delay between MSC and "Mars". The set of provided maps should allow the field team to orientate and navigate in the explored areas as well as make informed decisions about

  13. The legal protections form emission under the aspect of section 364/2 ABGB of the Austrian Civil Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woerndl, E.

    1991-05-01

    The legal protections from emissions caused by industries, car and public transportation traffic are one of the most important cases of defending real property. Due to the fact, that the mass media report international cases like 'Wackersdorf', there can be stated a general interest in the subject. Through section 364/2 of the 'Allgemeines Buergerliches Gesetzbuch' the Austrian Civil Law lifts its limits for property in consideration of emissions. The main reasons for the unsatisfying status quo must be related to the misinterpretation of imponderables as the key of emissions in section 364/2 ABGB. In fact section 364 lists a number of possible emissions, one of them considers sewage, which hardly can be declared as an imponderable one. This secures the position that all sorts of different kinds of emissions quoted in section 364/2 as far as 'others' gain civil presentation in case of infringing anybody's property. Another aspect must be referred to the influence of Public Law towards Civil Law and pollution control in particular: In Austria there exists a law (sections 47 and 56/1 Forstgesetz 1975) concerning the damage of forests (there to a great extent the interests of the state are touched because of the position as its land owner), where the legislator has no samples about determinating the terms - what the Civil Law calls 'customary in a place' to the extent of measurable damage. Due to this fact and in order to beware a homogenous legal order 'measurable damage' in general should substitute the inaccurate terms, that one has to relate to in use of section 364/2 ABGB. (author)

  14. Energy efficiency actions related to the rollout of smart meters for small consumers, application to the Austrian system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmos, Luis; Ruester, Sophia; Liong, Siok-Jen; Glachant, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    Smart meters (SM) may provide large benefits to all stakeholders by providing the information required to implement certain sets of demand response actions. Benefits produced by SM related actions depend on the features of these actions, the system and the targeted consumer group. We first lay out an analytical framework to analyze the application of Demand Response (DR) actions. Based on this framework, we describe a way to determine the response of domestic load in a system to the implementation of DR actions. We propose determining the overall change in the consumption behavior of domestic load based on previously obtained estimates of the peak load and overall consumption reduction for different types of consumers in different types of systems resulting from the application of each set of actions. We have carried out a comprehensive literature review to provide here such estimates. We apply the analytical framework and methodology developed to characterize the reaction of consumers in the Austrian system to different SM related actions. Finally, we provide guidelines on which DR actions to implement in this system and how to implement them. The use of advanced indirect feedback on consumption behavior, critical peak prices and simple time-of-use tariffs is advocated. -- Highlights: → System and consumer features determine households' potential benefits from a Demand Response (DR) action. → Consumers' perception of the net benefits of actions determines their actual reaction. → Consumers' reaction can be characterized by their peak load and consumption reduction. → DR actions implemented should be accepted and understood by all stakeholders involved.

  15. A survey of visual function in an Austrian population of school-age children with reading and writing difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McClelland Julie F

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To describe and compare visual function measures of two groups of school age children (6-14 years of age attending a specialist eyecare practice in Austria; one group referred to the practice from educational assessment centres diagnosed with reading and writing difficulties and the other, a clinical age-matched control group. Methods Retrospective clinical data from one group of subjects with reading difficulties (n = 825 and a clinical control group of subjects (n = 328 were examined. Statistical analysis was performed to determine whether any differences existed between visual function measures from each group (refractive error, visual acuity, binocular status, accommodative function and reading speed and accuracy. Results Statistical analysis using one way ANOVA demonstrated no differences between the two groups in terms of refractive error and the size or direction of heterophoria at distance (p > 0.05. Using predominately one way ANOVA and chi-square analyses, those subjects in the referred group were statistically more likely to have poorer distance visual acuity, an exophoric deviation at near, a lower amplitude of accommodation, reduced accommodative facility, reduced vergence facility, a reduced near point of convergence, a lower AC/A ratio and a slower reading speed than those in the clinical control group (p Conclusions This study highlights the high proportions of visual function anomalies in a group of children with reading difficulties in an Austrian population. It confirms the importance of a full assessment of binocular visual status in order to detect and remedy these deficits in order to prevent the visual problems continuing to impact upon educational development.

  16. Individual Cognitive Social Capital and Its Relationship with Pain and Sick Leave Due to Pain in the Austrian Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Muckenhuber

    Full Text Available Individual cognitive social capital has repeatedly been shown to be linked to health disparities in many dimensions. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between social capital and pain-related measures.15,474 subjects older than 15 years were personally interviewed on subjective health, quality of life, health behaviour, and utilisation of healthcare in the Austrian Health Interview Survey. An indicator for cognitive social capital at the individual level consisting of nine questions targeted at different social resources was built and its association with pain-related items analysed.Odds ratios, adjusted for age, chronic diseases, and educational level for having suffered from severe pain in the last 12 months were 2.02 (95% CI 1.77-2.03 in the lowest tertile and 1.30 (95% CI 1.14-1.47 in the middle tertile of social capital for men. The corresponding odds ratios for women were 2.28 (95% CI 2.01-2.59 and 1.30 (95% CI 1.15-1.46. In both sexes, pain intensity increased significantly with decreasing level of social capital. The proportion of subjects that have been on sick leave in the last 12 months due to pain were 16.3%, 12.0%, and 7.7% (P<0.001 from lowest to highest tertile of social capital in men, and 16.5%, 12.3%, and 6.7%, respectively (P<0.001 in women.Our findings indicate that low cognitive social capital at individual level is significantly associated not only with higher prevalence of pain and higher pain intensity, but also with a higher chance for sick leave due to pain in employed subjects.

  17. Individual Cognitive Social Capital and Its Relationship with Pain and Sick Leave Due to Pain in the Austrian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muckenhuber, Johanna; Pollak, Lorenz; Stein, Katharina Viktoria; Dorner, Thomas Ernst

    2016-01-01

    Background Individual cognitive social capital has repeatedly been shown to be linked to health disparities in many dimensions. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between social capital and pain-related measures. Methods 15,474 subjects older than 15 years were personally interviewed on subjective health, quality of life, health behaviour, and utilisation of healthcare in the Austrian Health Interview Survey. An indicator for cognitive social capital at the individual level consisting of nine questions targeted at different social resources was built and its association with pain-related items analysed. Results Odds ratios, adjusted for age, chronic diseases, and educational level for having suffered from severe pain in the last 12 months were 2.02 (95% CI 1.77–2.03) in the lowest tertile and 1.30 (95% CI 1.14–1.47) in the middle tertile of social capital for men. The corresponding odds ratios for women were 2.28 (95% CI 2.01–2.59) and 1.30 (95% CI 1.15–1.46). In both sexes, pain intensity increased significantly with decreasing level of social capital. The proportion of subjects that have been on sick leave in the last 12 months due to pain were 16.3%, 12.0%, and 7.7% (Psocial capital in men, and 16.5%, 12.3%, and 6.7%, respectively (Psocial capital at individual level is significantly associated not only with higher prevalence of pain and higher pain intensity, but also with a higher chance for sick leave due to pain in employed subjects. PMID:27322649

  18. Animal health and welfare planning improves udder health and cleanliness but not leg health in Austrian dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremetsberger, Lukas; Leeb, Christine; Winckler, Christoph

    2015-10-01

    Animal health and welfare planning is considered an important tool for herd management; however, its effectiveness is less well known. The aim of this study was to conduct animal health and welfare planning on 34 Austrian dairy farms and to evaluate changes in health and welfare after 1 yr. After an initial assessment using the Welfare Quality protocol (Welfare Quality Consortium, Lelystad, the Netherlands), results were reported back to the farmers. Health and welfare area(s) in which both the farmer and the researcher regarded improvement as important were discussed. Management practices and husbandry measures were chosen according to the respective farm situation. One year after interventions had been initiated, farms were reassessed, and the degree of implementation of improvement measures was recorded. The average implementation rate was 57% and thus relatively high when compared with other studies. High degrees of implementation were achieved related to cleanliness and udder health, at 77 and 63%, respectively. Intervention measures addressing udder health were mostly easy to incorporate in the daily routine and led to a reduced somatic cell score, whereas this score increased in herds without implementation of measures. The decrease in cows with dirty teats was more pronounced when measures were implemented compared with control farms. The implementation rate regarding leg health (46%) was comparably low in the present study, and leg health did not improve even when measures were implemented. Lying comfort, social behavior, and human-animal relationship did not require interventions and were therefore seldom chosen by farmers as part of health and welfare plans. In conclusion, the structured, participatory process of animal health and welfare planning appears to be a promising way to improve at least some animal health and welfare issues. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) in Juvenile and Adult Type 1 Diabetes in a German/Austrian Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinauer, Christina; Bollow, Esther; Fröhlich-Reiterer, Elke; Laubner, Katharina; Bergis, Dominik; Schöfl, Christof; Kempe, Hans-Peter; Hummel, Michael; Hennes, Pia; Gollisch, Katja; Haberland, Holger; Datz, Nicolin; Meissner, Thomas; Holl, Reinhard W

    2017-11-01

    Context While an association between PCOS and type 2 diabetes is well established, to date there have been few data on clinical care of type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients with PCOS. Objective The aim of our study was to characterize T1D patients with the comorbidity of PCOS within the DPV cohort with regard to diabetes phenotype, therapy and metabolic control. Design and Setting Clinical data from the prospective German/Austrian DPV cohort on patients with T1D and documented PCOS (n=76) were compared to female T1D controls (n=32,566) in reproductive age. Results The age at T1D manifestation in PCOS patients was later than in the control group (14.9±8.2 vs. 11.8±7.0 years, pPCOS patients had higher BMI-SDS (0.92±0.11 vs. 0.38±0.01, pPCOS group, higher rates of dyslipidemia (63.4 vs. 48.7%, p =0.032) and thyroid disorders (42.2% vs. 21.2%, pPCOS showed features of a "type 1.5 diabetes" phenotype, insulin requirements per kg body weight were not higher and metabolic control was better, which could be explained only partially by additional metformin therapy. A more precise genetic and metabolic characterisation of these patients is needed to answer open questions on the underlying autoimmune process and residual ß-cell function. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. 'klima:aktiv energieeffiziente betriebe' (climate:active energy efficient companies) - the Austrian climate change program for industry. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattler, Peter; Sampl, Martin; Fuchsberger, Karin

    2007-01-01

    'klima:aktiv' is the climate change program of the Austrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management. The aim of 'klima:aktiv' is to reduce CO 2 emissions as well as reinforce renewable energy in Austria. To achieve these goals more than 20 programs for renewable energies and energy efficiency were created - 'energy efficient companies' being one of them. 'klima:aktiv' was created in order to identify and furthermore realise energy saving and CO 2 reducing measures. To build an active and effective network, regional programs, local consultants and companies on the energy-market are encouraged to become partners of the program to be multipliers.One focus of the program is the support of consultants which are acting as mediators to the companies. A step by step model was developed for companies to help them realise the goals of the program. To ensure the highest service efficiency from the first contact with companies, consultants were furthermore provided with special 'k:a eeb Pro-Tools', which include a wide variety of tools from analysis and development to financing advise.The program started in October 2005. Its mission statement for the first year was to reduce CO 2 emission at 45.000 t or 60 GWh of primarily electrical energy. To reach this goal, single regional agencies were committed to individual objectives. After one year, a detailed evaluation of the program was carried out with the aim to show the areas of success but also to highlight areas that will need adjustments for optimal results

  1. Retrospective Analysis of Bacterial and Viral Co-Infections in Pneumocystis spp. Positive Lung Samples of Austrian Pigs with Pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Weissenbacher-Lang

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was the retrospective investigation of viral (porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV, torque teno sus virus type 1 and 2 (TTSuV1, TTSuV2 and bacterial (Bordetella bronchiseptica (B. b., Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. h., and Pasteurella multocida (P. m. co-infections in 110 Pneumocystis spp. positive lung samples of Austrian pigs with pneumonia. Fifty-one % were positive for PCV2, 7% for PRRSV, 22% for TTSuV1, 48% for TTSuV2, 6% for B. b., 29% for M. h., and 21% for P. m. In 38.2% only viral, in 3.6% only bacterial and in 40.0% both, viral and bacterial pathogens were detected. In 29.1% of the cases a co-infection with 1 pathogen, in 28.2% with 2, in 17.3% with 3, and in 7.3% with 4 different infectious agents were observed. The exposure to Pneumocystis significantly decreased the risk of a co-infection with PRRSV in weaning piglets; all other odds ratios were not significant. Four categories of results were compared: I = P. spp. + only viral co-infectants, II = P. spp. + both viral and bacterial co-infectants, III = P. spp. + only bacterial co-infectants, and IV = P. spp. single infection. The evaluation of all samples and the age class of the weaning piglets resulted in a predomination of the categories I and II. In contrast, the suckling piglets showed more samples of category I and IV. In the group of fattening pigs, category II predominated. Suckling piglets can be infected with P. spp. early in life. With increasing age this single infections can be complicated by co-infections with other respiratory diseases.

  2. Association between population structure and allele frequencies of the glycogen synthase 1 mutation in the Austrian Noriker draft horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druml, T; Grilz-Seger, G; Neuditschko, M; Brem, G

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the allele frequency of the glycogen synthase 1 (GYS1) mutation associated with polysaccharide storage myopathy type 1 in the Austrian Noriker horse. Furthermore, we examined the influence of population substructures on the allele distribution. The study was based upon a comprehensive population sample (208 breeding stallions and 309 mares) and a complete cohort of unselected offspring from the year 2014 (1553 foals). The mean proportion of GYS1 carrier animals in the foal cohort was 33%, ranging from 15% to 50% according to population substructures based on coat colours. In 517 mature breeding horses the mutation carrier frequency reached 34%, ranging on a wider scale from 4% to 62% within genetic substructures. We could show that the occurrence of the mutated GYS1 allele is influenced by coat colour; genetic bottlenecks; and assortative, rotating and random mating strategies. Highest GYS1 carrier frequencies were observed in the chestnut sample comprising 50% in foals, 54% in mares and 62% in breeding stallions. The mean inbreeding of homozygous carrier animals reached 4.10%, whereas non-carrier horses were characterized by an inbreeding coefficient of 3.48%. Lowest GYS1 carrier frequencies were observed in the leopard spotted Noriker subpopulation. Here the mean carrier frequency reached 15% in foals, 17% in mares and 4% in stallions and inbreeding decreased from 3.28% in homozygous non-carrier horses to 2.70% in heterozygous horses and 0.94% in homozygous carriers. This study illustrates that lineage breeding and specified mating strategies result in genetic substructures, which affect the frequencies of the GYS1 gene mutation. © 2016 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  3. Prevalence of integrase inhibitor resistance mutations in Austrian patients recently diagnosed with HIV from 2008 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoufaly, A; Kraft, C; Schmidbauer, C; Puchhammer-Stoeckl, E

    2017-04-01

    Treatment guidelines often do not advocate testing for integrase inhibitor resistance associated mutations (IRAM) before initiation of first line ART given the extremely low prevalence of mutations found in older surveillance studies. We aimed to describe the prevalence of IRAM in Austrian patients recently diagnosed with HIV in the 5 years following introduction of integrase inhibitors and to analyse trends and factors associated with their detection. Samples of antiretroviral treatment (ART) naïve patients recently diagnosed with HIV in Austria between 2008 and 2013 were analysed for the existence of IRAM and drug penalty scores were calculated to estimate response to drugs. Demographic and virological data were extracted from a database. Descriptive and comparative statistics were used. A total of 303 samples were analysed. 78 % were male and mean age was 38 years. Overall prevalence of IRAM was 2.3 %. Six percent had at least potentially low-level resistance to raltegravir or elvitegravir, versus 1 % for dolutegravir. One primary mutation was observed (F121Y) in a patient sample from 2012 leading to 5-10-fold reduced susceptibility to raltegravir and elvitegravir. Two patients carried the accessory mutations E138K and G140A, respectively, where both lie on the Q148 pathway. No temporal trend of IRAM prevalence was observed (p = 0.16). Primary IRAM are still rarely found despite the increasing use of INSTI in Austria, but there is a potential for reduced susceptibility to these drugs in selected patients. Routine resistance testing seems prudent to avoid the consequences including accumulation of further mutations and therapeutic failure.

  4. School reform during the second Austrian administration in Dalmatia, and primary school libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanka Kuić

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The history of school libraries in Dalmatia dates back to the 19th century, when they were established as differentiated and defined subjects within the education system in the Austro-Hungarian monarchy. The important heritage of the reform of primary and secondary schools organized by the Austro-Hungarian authorities was the creation of the library network within the education system.This paper describes the situation in the Dalmatian primary school education prior to the 1869 reform, and the institutional framework for the primary school libraries following the reform. It also conceptualizes the social dimension of their work. We have also shown the social, cultural, and economic framework for the reforms, implementation of laws and regulations that focused on their work, and tried to estimate the cultural situation in Dalmatian villages before and after the reform. We have shown the reform of secondary education and the development of secondary school libraries. The libraries were founded after the adoption of the 1871 Act on Principles of Primary School Education, temporary school and teaching regulation of 1870, and the 1871 Regulations on School Libraries. This is the time when regional teacher libraries were established as a tool for the further education of teachers. We have also described the Regulations for both school and teachers’ libraries. Our hypothesis is that schools, including school libraries, are modernizing institutions. As such, school libraries had a wider range of tasks defined within the modernizing transition of Dalmatia in the late 19th century. The basis for such an approach was the analysis of selected reference texts in periodicals and the literature on the history of school education in Dalmatia. Many papers on the reform of primary schools in Dalmatia have been published, but the organization and activities of school libraries has received little attention. This paper focuses on the institutional frameworks for

  5. Genotyping of German and Austrian Taylorella equigenitalis isolates using repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP) PCR and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sting, Reinhard; Seeh, Christoph; Mauder, Norman; Maurer, Michaela; Loncaric, Igor; Stessl, Beatrix; Kopp, Peter; Banzhaf, Klaus; Martin, Brigitte; Melzer, Falk; Raßbach, Astrid; Spergser, Joachim

    2016-12-01

    A total of 124 Taylorella (T.) equigenitalis and five T. asinigenitalis field isolates collected between 2002 and 2014 were available for genotyping using REP- (repetitive extragenic palindromic) PCR and PFGE (pulsed-field gel electrophoresis). The study comprised 79 T. equigenitalis field isolates originating from ten defined breeds of German horses and revealed a spectrum of five REP (rep-E1-E4, rep-E3a) and 15 PFGE (TE-A1-A9, TE-B1-B3, TE-C, TE-E1, and TE-E2) genotypes. T. equigenitalis field isolates (n=40) obtained from Austrian Lipizzaner horses were differentiated into three REP (rep-E1, rep-E3a, and rep-E4) and three PFGE genotypes (TE-A2, TE-A5, and TE-D); those isolated from four Austrian Trotters belonged to the REP/PFGE genotype rep-E2/TE-A1. Interestingly, a T. equigenitalis isolate recovered from a Holsteiner stallion living in South Africa revealed the REP/PFGE genotype rep-E1/TE-A5 which was otherwise exclusively present in the majority of Austrian Lipizzaner horses in our study. The type strain included in this study revealed the genotype REP/PFGE rep-E1/TE-F. Six strains of T. asinigenitalis including the type strain were separated into three REP (rep-A1-A3) and six PFGE genotypes (TA-A1, TA-A2, TA-A3, TA-B, TA-C, TA-D). Overall, the generated REP and PFGE genotypes showed a good correlation, whereas REP-PCR proved to be a suitable method for molecular epidemiological screening of T. equigenitalis and T. asinigenitalis isolates that should be differentiated in detail by genotyping using PFGE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Adult and His Other: Conceptualization of the Childhood in the Austrian Modernist Fiction (On the Example of R.M. Rilke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera V. Kotelevskaya

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The childhood as the subject of psychology, philosophy, and art is object of intensive study in the 20 th century Austrian culture. Childhood is seen as the origin of personhood, its “code” that calls for interpretation. Psychoanalysis of Freud and Rank, fiction of Rilke, Musil, Kafka, Bernhard, Bachmann, and Handke are the landmarks in the development of the Austrian modernist text on childhood. The study of the conceptualization of childhood in the 20 th century Austrian fiction being part of the modernist project of the independent personality generating autonomous art is of scholarly relevance. Rainer Maria Rilke imparts a confessional tone to the theme as he develops the neo-romantic idea of childhood as the source of artistic personality. The child is conceptualized as the other of the adult whereas art is conceived to compensate the loss of the former. Experience of self-research is undertaken by Rilke in the novel about a fictional Danish poet Malte Laurids Brigge (Notebooks of Malte Laurids Brigge / “Die Aufzeichnungen des Malte Laurids Brigge”, 1910. The author first describes the past of the character, or his “lonely” childhood, and then turns to the historical past of the mankind and evangelical parable from which the narrator draws exemplae as arguments for his juxtaposition of the “mask” and the self. The fragmentariness or dissociation of the adult self becomes partly overcome by means of return to the childhood, a period when the narrator already gains experience of self-loss and self-discovery. Thus, for the modernist artist, the aesthetic project is inseparably interrelated with the “Sisyphean labor” of writing (Albert Camus, loss of the transcendental principles of poetic “labor,” and total experience of despair which, according to Kierkegaard, inspires self-reflection.

  7. The impact of risk and protective factors on mental health and well-being-Austrian adolescents and migrant adolescents from war-affected countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Buchegger-Traxler

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: young persons are most strongly affected by displacement through political/military actions. This is also a European problem as well as an issue for the European Union. Applying the social-ecological model by Bronfenbrenner we concentrated on micro- and mesosystems of Austrian adolescents and migrant adolescents of war-affected countries.

    Methods: a questionnaire was administered to adolescents in Austria attending schools beyond the mandatory school age, yielding a sample of about 1 100 students from Austrian and immigrant background. We used analysis of variance to compare host and immigrant youth as well as regression analysis to assess the impact of risk and protective factors on youth outcomes.

    Results: we do find sex differences for protective factors and youth outcomes but few differences between immigrant and Austrian adolescents. Youth outcomes analysed were somatic symptoms, anxiety, depression, self-esteem, anti-social behaviour, substance use, and academic performance. Important risk factors turned out to be intergenerational conflict, exposure to violence, and social distance. Protective factors include family connectedness, parental monitoring, school connectedness, peer support, and neighbourhood attachment.

    Conclusions: the most important protective factor is school connectsdness. Social distance and intergenerational conflict are the dominant risk factors influencing youth outcomes. Our research leads to a better understanding of factors determining the well-being of adolescents and contributes to finding new approaches to prevent or cope with mental health problems of young immigrants. In particular it appears to be important to keep young persons in education and/or training since school connectedness influences mental health and well-being positively.

  8. Infección invasiva por Streptococcus pneumoniae: reporte de caso de un paciente con síndrome de Austrian

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Echeverri; María de los Ángeles Vargas; Lorena Matta; Fernando Rosso; Janier Daniel Segura

    2015-01-01

    Descrito inicialmente en 1957 por Robert Austrian, el síndrome que lleva su nombre se define como la tríada de neumonía, endocarditis y meningitis secundarias a una infección invasiva por Streptococcus pneumoniae. Desde entonces, y debido a su infrecuencia, se han reportado muy pocos casos en la literatura científica. A continuación se presenta el caso de un paciente de 61 años de edad con un cuadro inicial de meningitis bacteriana por S. pneumoniae, acompañado de neumonía bacteriana e in...

  9. Does management intensity in inter rows effect soil physical properties in Austrian and Romanian vineyards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Thomas; Strauss, Peter; Stiper, Katrin; Klipa, Vladimir; Popescu, Daniela; Winter, Silvia; Zaller, Johann G.

    2016-04-01

    Successful viticulture is mainly influenced by soil and climate. The availability of water during the growing season highly influences wine quality and quantity. To protect soil from being eroded most of the winegrowers keep the inter row zones of the vineyards green. Greening also helps to provide water-stress to the grapes for harvesting high quality wines. However, these greening strategies concerning the intensity of inter row management differ from farm to farm and are mainly based on personal experience of the winegrowers. However to what extent different inter row management practices affect soil physical properties are not clearly understood yet. To measure possible effects of inter row management in vineyards on soil physical parameters we selected paired vineyards with different inter row management in Austria and Romania. In total more than 7000 soil analysis were conducted for saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, soil water retention, water stable aggregates, total organic carbon, cation exchange capacity, potassium, phosphorous, soil texture, bulk density and water infiltration. The comparison between high intensity management with at least one soil disturbance per year, medium intensity with one soil disturbance every second inter row per year and low intensity management with no soil disturbance since at least 5 years indicates that investigated soil physical properties did not improve for the upper soil layer (3-8cm). This is in contrast to general perceptions of improved soil physical properties due to low intensity of inter row management, i.e. permanent vegetated inter rows. This may be attributed to long term and high frequency mechanical stress by agricultural machinery in inter rows.

  10. Exploring Multimodal Registers in and Across Organizations and Institutional Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Renate; Jancsary, Dennis; Höllerer, Markus

    develop codingadvice that aims at facilitating the analysis of larger quantities of visual data while stillacknowledging the particular performativity of the visual mode. We illustrate our ideas withempirical data on the reporting of Austrian publicly traded corporations about Corporate SocialResponsibility...... repertoires of expression that the visualoffers and argue that studying such registers substantially contributes to understanding thedistribution of meanings in and across organizations and institutional fields, but also acrosspoints in time. By drawing on the social semiotic concept of ‘metafunction’, we...... (CSR), a complex and multivocal management idea that touches a variety oftopics and incorporates multiple levels of audience engagement with regard to a substantialdiversity of audiences....

  11. Space Tweetup - from a participant to a Mars Tweetup organizer and a new format of space communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, O.; Groemer, G.

    2014-01-01

    In September 2011, the European Space Agency (ESA) and the German Space Agency (DLR) organized the first European SpaceTweetup during the German Aerospace day. One of the authors was one of 60 participants at this SpaceTweetup in Cologne and experienced the concept of a Tweetup and the engagement of the participants from the inside view. Building upon this experience, the Austrian Space Forum (OeWF) organized the first Austrian MarsTweetup during the “Dachstein Mars analog simulation”. Between 27 Apr,2001 and May,2012, a five day Mars simulation was conducted by the Austrian Space Forum and international research partners at the Giant Ice caves at the Dachstein region in Austria. During this field test, the Aouda.X spacesuit simulator and selected geophysical and life-science related experiments were conducted. In this paper we outline the potential and limitations of social media and how to engage the general public to participate and communicate about space projects through their own experience. We show examples of material SpaceTweetup participants produced e.g. hundreds of tweets during the actual event, blog entries, photo galleries and how space communication can benefit from it. Our considerations on organizing a SpaceTweetup are complemented with a section on lessons learned.

  12. [Prevention of Occupational Injuries Related to Hands: Calculation of Subsequent Injury Costs for the Austrian Social Occupational Insurance Institution (AUVA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauner, M S; Mayer, B; Schaffhauser-Linzatti, M M

    2015-08-01

    Occupational injuries cause short-term, direct costs as well as long-term follow-up costs over the lifetime of the casualties. Due to shrinking budgets accident insurance companies focus on cost reduction programmes and prevention measures. For this reason, a decision support system for consequential cost calculation of occupational injuries was developed for the main Austrian social occupational insurance institution (AUVA) during three projects. This so-called cost calculation tool combines the traditional instruments of accounting with quantitative methods such as micro-simulation. The cost data are derived from AUVA-internal as well as external economic data sources. Based on direct and indirect costs, the subsequent occupational accident costs from the time of an accident and, if applicable, beyond the death of the individual casualty are predicted for the AUVA, the companies in which the casualties are working, and the other economic sectors. By using this cost calculation tool, the AUVA classifies risk groups and derives related prevention campaigns. In the past, the AUVA concentrated on falling, accidents at construction sites and in agriculture/forestry, as well as commuting accidents. Currently, among others, a focus on hand injuries is given and first prevention programmes have been initiated. Hand injuries represent about 38% of all casualties with average costs of about 7,851 Euro/case. Main causes of these accidents are cutting injuries in production, agriculture, and forestry. Beside a low, but costly, number of amputations with average costs of more than 100,000 Euro/case, bone fractures and strains burden the AUVA-budget with about 17,500 and 10,500 € per case, respectively. Decision support systems such as this cost calculation tool represent necessary instruments to identify risk groups and their injured body parts, causes of accidents, and economic activities, which highly burden the budget of an injury company, and help derive

  13. [Results of the Austrian CT dose study 2010: typical effective doses of the most frequent CT examinations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homolka, Peter; Leithner, Robert; Billinger, Jochen; Gruber, Michael

    2014-09-01

    To determine typical doses from common CT examinations of standard sized adult patients and their variability between CT operators for common CT indications. In a nationwide Austrian CT dose survey doses from approx. 10,000 common CT examinations of adults during 2009 and 2010 were collected and "typical" radiation doses to the "average patient", which turned out to have 75.6kg body mass, calculated. Conversion coefficients from DLP to effective dose were determined and effective doses calculated according to ICRP 103. Variations of typically applied doses to the "average patient" were expressed as ratios between 90(th) and 10(th) percentile (inter-percentile width, IPW90/10), 1(st) and 3(rd) quartile (IPW75/25), and Maximum/Minimum. Median effective doses to the average patients for standard head and neck scans were 1.8 mSv (cervical spine), 1.9 mSv (brain: trauma/bleeding, stroke) to 2.2 mSv (brain: masses) with typical variation between facilities of a factor 2.5 (IPW90/10) and 1.7 (IPW75/25). In the thorax region doses were 6.4 to 6.8 mSv (pulmonary embolism, pneumonia and inflammation, oncologic scans), the variation between facilities was by a factor of 2.1 (IPW90/10) and 1.5 (IPW75/25), respectively. In the abdominal region median effective doses from 6.5 mSv (kidney stone search) to 22 mSv (liver lesions) were found (acute abdomen, staging/metastases, lumbar spine: 9-12 mSv; oncologic abdomen plus chest 16 mSv; renal tumor 20 mSv). Variation factors between facilities were on average for abdominal scans 2.7 (IPW90/10) and 1.8 (IPW75/25). Variations between CT operators are generally moderate for most operators, but in some indications the ratio between the minimum and the maximum of average dose to the typical standard patients exceeds a factor of 4 or even 5. Therefore, comparing average doses to Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs) and optimizing protocols need to be encouraged. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  14. German-austrian recommendations for HIV1-therapy in pregnancy and in HIV1-exposed newborn - update 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buchholz Bernd

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract German-Austrian recommendations for HIV1-therapy in pregnancy - Update 2008 Bernd Buchholz (University Medical Centre Mannheim, Pediatric Clinic, Matthias Beichert (Mannheim, Gynecology and Obstetrics Practice, Ulrich Marcus (Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, Thomas Grubert, Andrea Gingelmaier (Gynecology Clinic of the Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Dr. med. Annette Haberl (HIV-Department, J. W. Goethe-University Hospital, Frankfurt, Dr. med. Brigitte Schmied (Otto-Wagner Spital, Wien. In Germany during the last years about 200-250 HIV1-infected pregnant women delivered a baby each year, a number that is currently increasing. To determine the HIV-status early in pregnancy voluntary HIV-testing of all pregnant women is recommended in Germany and Austria as part of prenatal care. In those cases, where HIV1-infection was known during pregnancy, since 1995 the rate of vertical transmission of HIV1 was reduced to 1-2%. This low transmission rate has been achieved by the combination of anti-retroviral therapy of pregnant women, caesarean section scheduled before onset of labour, anti-retroviral post exposition prophylaxis in the newborn and refraining from breast-feeding by the HIV1-infected mother. To keep pace with new results in research, approval of new anti-retroviral drugs and changes in the general treatment recommendations for HIV1-infected adults, in 1998, 2001, 2003 and 2005 an interdisciplinary consensus meeting was held. Gynaecologists, infectious disease specialists, paediatricians, pharmacologists, virologists and members of the German AIDS Hilfe (NGO were participating in this conference to update the prevention strategies. A fifth update became necessary in 2008. The updating process was started in January 2008 and was terminated in September 2008. The guidelines provide new recommendations on the indication and the starting point for HIV-therapy in pregnancies without complications, drugs and drug combinations to be

  15. Typology of historical sources and the reconstruction of long-term historical changes of riverine fish: a case study of the Austrian Danube and northern Russian rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidvogl, Gertrud; Lajus, Dmitry; Pont, Didier; Schmid, Martin; Jungwirth, Mathias; Lajus, Julia

    2014-10-01

    Historical data are widely used in river ecology to define reference conditions or to investigate the evolution of aquatic systems. Most studies rely on printed documents from the 19th century, thus missing pre-industrial states and human impacts. This article discusses historical sources that can be used to reconstruct the development of riverine fish communities from the Late Middle Ages until the mid-20th century. Based on the studies of the Austrian Danube and northern Russian rivers, we propose a classification scheme of printed and archival sources and describe their fish ecological contents. Five types of sources were identified using the origin of sources as the first criterion: (i) early scientific surveys, (ii) fishery sources, (iii) fish trading sources, (iv) fish consumption sources and (v) cultural representations of fish. Except for early scientific surveys, all these sources were produced within economic and administrative contexts. They did not aim to report about historical fish communities, but do contain information about commercial fish and their exploitation. All historical data need further analysis for a fish ecological interpretation. Three case studies from the investigated Austrian and Russian rivers demonstrate the use of different source types and underline the necessity for a combination of different sources and a methodology combining different disciplinary approaches. Using a large variety of historical sources to reconstruct the development of past fish ecological conditions can support future river management by going beyond the usual approach of static historical reference conditions.

  16. The New INTA High-Range Standard Humidity Generator and Its Comparison with the Austrian National Humidity Standard Maintained at BEV/E+E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyon, Robert; Mitter, Helmat

    2008-10-01

    A EUROMET collaborative project has been set up between Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (INTA) and E+E ELEKTRONIK Ges.m.b.H, the two designated laboratories of the Spanish and Austrian National Metrology Institutes, Centro Español de Metrología (CEM) and Bundesamt für Eich- und Vermessungswesen (BEV), respectively. The objective of the project is to provide INTA with a new standard that covers the dew-point temperature range from - 27°C to +90°C with a gas flow up to 5 L· min-1 in the “two-pressure” mode, extended to 95°C when operated as a continuous flow “single-pressure” generator, and investigate the importance of the enhancement factors in the uncertainty estimations used in support of the participants’ calibration and measurement capabilities (CMC) (The CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement, http://www.bipm.fr/en/cipm-mra/ ). The equivalence of the Spanish and Austrian national standards is also to be evaluated, further supporting the outcomes of the Key Comparisons, in which both have already participated. The preliminary results obtained to date are reported and discussed in the context of the project and the consistency of the declared CMC’s.

  17. Policy Reform Efforts and Equal Opportunity – An Evidence-Based Link? An Analysis of Current Sector Reforms in the Austrian School System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Geppert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of the present paper is to answer two different questions: From the perspective of Austrian education policy, which core areas of schooling are linked to the demand for equal opportunity? Can these reform efforts sustain the current state of research, and what are the consequences for schooling? The paper draws on an analysis by Hopmann, Geppert & Bauer (2010. Fifteen official self-presentations (political programmes of Austrian political parties were analysed for statements concerning the improvement of the education system. This resulted in about seventy different statements, which were aggregated into eight core areas.We conducted a systematic analysis of four of these core areas, dealing with the topics of equal opportunity: comprehensive school, all-day schooling, school autonomy and standardisation of students’ achievements. The aim was not to judge the legitimacy or the political content of the claims made. In line with evaluative discourse, we asked whether the combination of political demands and their associated expectations met the current state of research. In many policy programmes, it is assumed that comprehensive schooling, all-day schooling, education standards, standardised general certification for university attendance, school autonomy or language surveys go hand in hand with more equality of opportunity, justice andquality in education, but an analysis of the current state of research could not confirm this. The analysis showed that, with regard to education policy demands, statements having empirically little or nothing to do with each other are often linked.

  18. Competing Victimizations or Multidirectional Soli-daties? Politics of Collective Memory and Solidarity in the Post-National Socialist and Post-Colonial Austrian Left

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Edthofer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article I illustrate “competing victimizations” and propose possible “multidirectional solidarities” regarding inner-left debates about the Middle East conflict, anti-Semitism and racism in Viennese left-wing contexts. The illustrated conflict is specific for radical left-wing politics in a post-National Socialist and post-colonial setting. Debates initially revolve around Israel versus Palestine solidarity. In the wake of the Second Intifada and the September 11 attacks they partly divide anti-fascist and anti-racist political stances. While the pro-Israeli camp focuses on the Holocaust, Austrian guilt-deflection and current anti-Semitism, the pro-Palestinian side condemns the Israeli occupation and fights growing anti-Muslim racism. In this context, opposing perspectives on the relation of new anti-Semitism and anti-Muslim racism are articulated. Such competing dynamics and their interrelation with Austrian memory politics and global politics are illustrated.  Subsequently, they are discussed as being related to conflicting memories and interrelated competing victimizations in migrant societies with a National Socialist history, such as in Austria and Germany. Concluding, the concept of “multidirectional solidarity” is proposed as an alternative approach, transcending competitive views on past and current victimizations.

  19. Current role of MDCT in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (2011). A clinical guideline of the Austrian Societies of Cardiology and Radiology; Aktueller Stellenwert der MSCTA in der Koronargefaessdiagnostik (2011). Klinischer Leitfaden der Oesterreichischen Gesellschaften fuer Kardiologie und Radiologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hergan, K. [Salzburger Landeskliniken, Paracelsus Medizinische Privatuniv. (Austria). Universitaetsinst. fuer Radiologie; Globits, S. [Landesklinikum St. Poelten (Austria). 3. Medizinische Abt./Kardiologie; Loewe, C. [Medizinische Univ. Wien (AT). Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik] (and others)

    2011-10-15

    The clinical guideline of the Austrian Societies for Cardiology and Radiology on the actual role of MDCT in the diagnosis of coronary artery diseases includes the following issues: CT calcium scoring; CT angiography (CTA) of the coronaries; actually recommended application of MDCR; generally inappropriate use of the technique for specific patients; radiation exposure; structural and organizational framework.

  20. Efficiency of the Austrian disease management program for diabetes mellitus type 2: a historic cohort study based on health insurance provider’s routine data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The Austrian diabetes disease management program (DMP) was introduced in 2007 in order to improve health care delivery for diabetics via the promotion of treatment according to guidelines. Considering the current low participation rates in the DMP and the question of further promotion of the program, it is of particular interest for health insurance providers in Austria to assess whether enrollment in the DMP leads to differences in the pattern of the provision of in- and outpatient services, as well as to the subsequent costs in order to determine overall program efficiency. Methods Historic cohort study comparing average annual levels of in- and outpatient health services utilization and its associated costs for patients enrolled and not enrolled in the DMP before (2006) and 2 years after (2009) the implementation of the program in Austria. Data on the use of services and data on costs were extracted from the records of the Austrian Social Insurance Institution for Business. 12,199 persons were identified as diabetes patients treated with anti-diabetic medication or anti-diabetics with insulin throughout the study period. 314 diabetics were enrolled in the DMP. Results Patients enrolled in the diabetes DMP received a more evolved pattern of outpatient care, featuring higher numbers of services provided by general practitioners and specialists (79 vs. 62), more diagnostic services (22 vs. 15) as well as more services provided by outpatient care centers (9 vs. 6) in line with increased levels of participation in medical assessments as recommended by the treatment guideline in 2009. Hospitalization was lower for DMP patients spending 3.75 days in hospital, as compared to 6.03 days for diabetes patients in regular treatment. Overall, increases in costs of care and medication throughout the study period were lower for enrolled patients (€ 718 vs. € 1.684), resulting in overall costs of € 5,393 p.c. for DMP patients and € 6,416 p.c. for the

  1. Risk-based damage potential and loss estimation of extreme flooding scenarios in the Austrian Federal Province of Tyrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Huttenlau

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the last decades serious flooding events occurred in many parts of Europe and especially in 2005 the Austrian Federal Province of Tyrol was serious affected. These events in general and particularly the 2005 event have sensitised decision makers and the public. Beside discussions pertaining to protection goals and lessons learnt, the issue concerning potential consequences of extreme and severe flooding events has been raised. Additionally to the general interest of the public, decision makers of the insurance industry, public authorities, and responsible politicians are especially confronted with the question of possible consequences of extreme events. Answers thereof are necessary for the implementation of preventive appropriate risk management strategies. Thereby, property and liability losses reflect a large proportion of the direct tangible losses. These are of great interest for the insurance sector and can be understood as main indicators to interpret the severity of potential events. The natural scientific-technical risk analysis concept provides a predefined and structured framework to analyse the quantities of affected elements at risk, their corresponding damage potentials, and the potential losses. Generally, this risk concept framework follows the process steps hazard analysis, exposition analysis, and consequence analysis. Additionally to the conventional hazard analysis, the potential amount of endangered elements and their corresponding damage potentials were analysed and, thereupon, concrete losses were estimated. These took the specific vulnerability of the various individual elements at risk into consideration. The present flood risk analysis estimates firstly the general exposures of the risk indicators in the study area and secondly analyses the specific exposures and consequences of five extreme event scenarios. In order to precisely identify, localize, and characterize the relevant risk indicators of buildings

  2. Risk-based damage potential and loss estimation of extreme flooding scenarios in the Austrian Federal Province of Tyrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttenlau, M.; Stötter, J.; Stiefelmeyer, H.

    2010-12-01

    Within the last decades serious flooding events occurred in many parts of Europe and especially in 2005 the Austrian Federal Province of Tyrol was serious affected. These events in general and particularly the 2005 event have sensitised decision makers and the public. Beside discussions pertaining to protection goals and lessons learnt, the issue concerning potential consequences of extreme and severe flooding events has been raised. Additionally to the general interest of the public, decision makers of the insurance industry, public authorities, and responsible politicians are especially confronted with the question of possible consequences of extreme events. Answers thereof are necessary for the implementation of preventive appropriate risk management strategies. Thereby, property and liability losses reflect a large proportion of the direct tangible losses. These are of great interest for the insurance sector and can be understood as main indicators to interpret the severity of potential events. The natural scientific-technical risk analysis concept provides a predefined and structured framework to analyse the quantities of affected elements at risk, their corresponding damage potentials, and the potential losses. Generally, this risk concept framework follows the process steps hazard analysis, exposition analysis, and consequence analysis. Additionally to the conventional hazard analysis, the potential amount of endangered elements and their corresponding damage potentials were analysed and, thereupon, concrete losses were estimated. These took the specific vulnerability of the various individual elements at risk into consideration. The present flood risk analysis estimates firstly the general exposures of the risk indicators in the study area and secondly analyses the specific exposures and consequences of five extreme event scenarios. In order to precisely identify, localize, and characterize the relevant risk indicators of buildings, dwellings and inventory

  3. Achievement of physical activity recommendation and activity levels in students of human medicine compared with the general Austrian population aged between 20 and 29 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackinger, Christian; Dorner, Thomas Ernst

    2015-03-01

    Weekly 150 min of moderate to vigorous physical activity and muscle-strengthening activities are a major public health goal. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire-short form was applied in 467 students of the 4th year at the Medical University of Vienna and compared with subsamples of data from the Austrian Health Interview Survey, 795 subjects with and 1131 subjects without higher education aged 20-29 years. Median values for weekly total energy expenditure were 3083, 3048, and 3816 MET-minutes (P students, higher and lower educated subjects of the general population. Energy expenditure with vigorous intensity was highest in medical students. A total of 39.4 % of medical students reached the minimum requirements of the national physical activity recommendations. Although medical students are taught those recommendation and are aware of their health benefits, only a minority reach them. If medical students engage in physical activity, they do it with higher intensity than the general population.

  4. Development of standard methods for activity measurement of natural radionuclides in waterworks as basis for dose and risk assessment—First results of an Austrian study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stietka, M.; Baumgartner, A.; Seidel, C.; Maringer, F.J.

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive study with the aim to evaluate the risks due to radiation exposure for workers in water supply is conducted in 21 Austrian waterworks. The development of standard methods for the assessment of occupational exposure of water work staff is a part of this study. Preliminary results of this study show a wide range of Rn-222 activity concentration in waterworks with values from (28±10) Bq/m 3 to (38,000±4000) Bq/m 3 . Also seasonal variations of the Rn-222 activity concentration could be observed. - Highlights: • In this study operational exposure of water work staff was evaluated. • The Rn-222 concentration in indoor air in waterworks was measured for 1 year. • Results show a wide range of Rn-222 activity concentration in waterworks. • Seasonal variations of the Rn-222 activity concentration could be observed

  5. To Infinity and Beyond – Are Innovation Contests at Austrian Technical Colleges the Right Tool to Stimulate the Creative and Technical Potential of the Country?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Zafoschnig

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, creativity as it is applied for finding new technologies and making new inventions, is characterised by new unorthodox aspects of and approaches to problem solving. At the same time, innovation uses new scientific, technical and cultural elements to sustainably change the social structure of society. However, creative and innovative ideas are not affluent or ever-lasting resources. They need to be stimulated, elicited and put into realisation. This has to be done through expensive research and development cam-paigns, but may also be achieved at a lower level, namely, for example, at Austrian Technical Colleges. There, students are often encouraged to submit their diploma thesis projects in national and regional competitions and have recently proved to be very successful.

  6. The role of discounts and loss leaders in medicine procurement in Austrian hospitals - a primary survey of official and actual medicine prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Sabine; Zimmermann, Nina; Habl, Claudia; Mazag, Jan

    2013-07-04

    Knowledge about the prices of medicines used in hospitals, particularly the actually achieved ones, is scant. There are indications of large discounts and the provision of medicines cost-free to Austrian hospitals. The study aims to survey the official and actual prices of medicines procured by Austrian hospitals and to compare them to the out-patient prices. Primary price collection of the official hospital list prices and the actually achieved prices for 12 active ingredients as of the end of September 2009 in five general hospitals in Austria and analysis of the 15 most commonly used presentations. The official hospital list prices per unit differed considerably (from 1,500 Euro for an oncology medicine to 0.20 Euro for a generic cardiovascular medicine). For eight on-patent medicines (indications: oncology, anti-inflammatory, neurology-multiple sclerosis and blood) actual hospital medicine prices equaled the list prices (seven medicines) or were lower (one medicine) in four hospitals, whereas one hospital always reported higher actual prices due to the application of a wholesale mark-up. The actual hospital prices of seven medicines (cardiology and immunomodulation) were below the official hospital prices in all hospitals; of these all cardiovascular medicines were provided free-of-charge. Hospital prices were always lower than out-patient prices (pharmacy retail price net and reimbursement price). The results suggest little headroom for hospitals to negotiate price reductions for "monopoly products", i.e. medicines with no therapeutic alternative. Discounts and cost-free provision (loss leaders) appear to be granted for products of strategic importance for suppliers, e.g. cardiovascular medicines, whose treatment tends to be continued in primary care after discharge of the patient.

  7. Influence of department volume on survival for ovarian cancer: results from a prospective quality assurance program of the Austrian Association for Gynecologic Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marth, Christian; Hiebl, Sonja; Oberaigner, Willi; Winter, Raimund; Leodolter, Sepp; Sevelda, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The Austrian Association for Gynecologic Oncology initiated in 1998 a prospective quality assurance program for patients with ovarian cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate factors predicting overall survival especially under consideration of department volume. All Austrian gynecological departments were invited to participate in the quality assurance program. A questionnaire was sent out that included birth date, histology, date of diagnosis, stage, and basic information on primary treatment. Description of comorbidity was not requested. Patient life status was assessed in a passive way. We did record linkage between each patient's name and birth date and the official mortality data set collected by Statistics Austria. No data were available on progression-free survival. Patients treated between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2004 were included in the analysis. Mortality dates were available to December 31, 2006. Data were analyzed by means of classical statistical methods. Cut-off point for departments was 24 patients per year. A total of 1948 patients were evaluable. Approximately 75% of them were treated at institutions with fewer than 24 new patients per year. Patient characteristics were grossly similar for both department types. Multivariate analysis confirmed established prognostic factors such as International Federation of Gynecologists and Obstetricians (FIGO) stage, lymphadenectomy, age, grading, and residual disease. In addition, we found small departments (<24 patients per year) to have a negative effect on overall survival (hazards ratio, 1.38: 95% confidence interval, 1.2-1.7; and P < 0.001). The results indicate that in Austria, rules prescribing minimum department case load can further improve survival for patients with ovarian cancer.

  8. Contrasting clinical evidence for market authorisation of cardio-vascular devices in Europe and the USA: a systematic analysis of 10 devices based on Austrian pre-reimbursement assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Wild, Claudia; Erdös, Judit; Zechmeister, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Background European medical device regulation is under scrutiny and will be re-regulated with stricter rules concerning requirements for clinical evidence for high-risk medical devices. It is the aim of this study to analyse the differences between Europe and USA in dealing with risks and benefits of new cardio-vascular devices. Methods Since no information is available on clinical data used by the Notified Body for CE-marking, data from Austrian pre-reimbursement assessments close to Europea...

  9. Functional Outcomes in Individuals Undergoing Very Early (Spinal Cord Injury: Analysis of Neurological Improvement from the Austrian Spinal Cord Injury Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiassich, Georg; Gollwitzer, Maria; Gaderer, Franz; Blocher, Martina; Osti, Michael; Lill, Markkus; Ortmaier, Reinhold; Haider, Thomas; Hitzl, Wolfgang; Resch, Herbert; Aschauer-Wallner, Stephanie

    2017-12-15

    Our study aim was to assess the neurological outcomes of surgical decompression and stabilization within 5 and 24 h after injury. We performed a multi-center, retrospective cohort study in adolescents and adults 15-85 years of age presenting cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI) at one of 6 Austrian trauma centers participating in the Austrian Spinal Cord Injury Study (ASCIS). Neurological outcomes were measured using the American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) grade according to the International Standards For Neurological Classification Of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) form after at least 6 months of follow-up (FU). Of the 49 enrolled patients with acute CSCI, 33 underwent surgical decompression within 5 h (mean 3.2 h ± 1.1 h; very early group) after injury, and 16 underwent surgical decompression between 5 and 24 h (mean 8.6 h ± 5.5 h; early group). Significant neurological improvement was observed among the entire study population between the preoperative assessment and the FU. We identified a significant difference in the AIS grade at the last FU between the groups the using Jonckheere-Terpstra test for doubly ordered crosstabs (p = 0.011) and significantly different AIS improvement rates in the early group (Poisson model, p = 0.018). Improvement by one AIS grade was observed in 31% and 42% of the patients in the early and very early groups, respectively (p = 0.54). Improvement by two AIS grades was observed in 31% and 6% of the patients in the early and very early groups, respectively (p = 0.03; relative risk [RR], 5.2; 95% CI, 1.1-35). Improvement by three AIS grades was observed in 6% and 3% of patients in the early and very early groups, respectively (p = 1.0). Decompression of the spinal cord within 24 h after SCI was associated with an improved neurological outcome. No additional neurological benefit was observed in patients who underwent decompression within 5 h of injury.

  10. [How can the impact of Health Technology Assessment (HTA) in the Austrian healthcare system be assessed? Design of a conceptual framework].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, I; Zechmeister, I

    2012-04-01

    In Austria research in Health Technology Assessment (HTA) has been conducted since the 1990s. Research in HTA aims at supporting an adequate and efficient use of health care resources in order to sustain a publicly financed and solidary health care system. Ultimately, HTA research should result in better health of the population. Research results should provide independent information for decision makers. For legitimizing further research resources and for prioritizing future HTA research and guaranteeing the value of future research, HTA research needs itself to undergo evaluation. Aim of the study is to design a conceptual framework for evaluating the impact of HTA research in Austria on the basis of the existing literature. An already existing review which presents methods and concepts how to evaluate HTA-impact was updated by a systematic research including literature of the years 2004-January 2010. Results were analysed in regard to 4 categories: definition of the term impact, target groups and system levels, operationalisation of indicators and evaluation methods. Overall, 19 publications were included. Referring to the 4 categories, an explanation of impact has to take into account HTAs multidisciplinary setting and needs a context related definition. Target groups, system levels, indicators and methods depend on the impact defined. Studies investigated direct and indirect impact and were focused on different target groups like physicians, nurses and decision makers on the micro-, and meso level, as well as politicians and reimbursement institutions on the macro level. Except for one reference all studies applied already known and mostly qualitative methods for measuring the impact of HTA research. Thus, an appropriate pool of instruments seems to be available. There is a lack of information about validity of applied methods and indicators. By adapting adequate methods and concepts a conceptual framework for the Austrian HTA-Impact evaluation has been

  11. The dynamics of germination and morphometrics properties of Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold saplings in terms of early indicators of tolerance toward the drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mataruga Milan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic markers, from morphological to molecular, in function with early indicators of tolerance toward drought, have been an object of research and scientific papers for many years. It starts with the hypothesis that seedlings produced from seeds that were collected from population of extremely different site conditions, on the level of open pollinated families, will have different results concerning drought tolerance. By tracking the dynamics of germination and morphological parameters of saplings, we are researching the interdependence of these parameters with the survival and growth of two-year-old seedlings in conditions where there is a lack of water. Austrian Pine seeds were collected from forty trees, distributed over five provenances on the Balkan Peninsula. Within each provenance a group is assigned to an extremely harsh and dry habitat, while also another group is assigned to prosperous (the most productive habitat. The analysis of the twenty-one-day-old seedlings (saplings is performed in the laboratory, while the tolerance test of the two-year-old seedlings is performed in the field. Seedlings that are exposed to conditions in which there is lack of water, have the coefficient of water formation evaluation 22.59 times bigger than sandy-clay soil with fraction of sand bigger than 60 percent. The results show significant and positive correlation between some parameters of saplings and the dynamics of growth (high increments of the seedlings in drought, but no correlation with the survival of the seedlings.

  12. The influence of sense of coherence and mindfulness on PTSD symptoms and posttraumatic cognitions in a sample of elderly Austrian survivors of World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glück, Tobias M; Tran, Ulrich S; Raninger, Simone; Lueger-Schuster, Brigitte

    2016-03-01

    Sense of Coherence (SOC) and mindfulness are known protective factors against psychopathology, also in older age. We set out to investigate the influence of SOC and mindfulness on posttraumatic symptoms and cognitions in the context of lifetime trauma in elderly persons with a history of childhood war-experiences. Elderly Austrians (N = 97) filled in questionnaires on traumatic lifetime experiences and posttraumatic symptoms (ETI), posttraumatic cognitions (PTCI), SOC (SOC-13) and mindfulness (FFMQ). We expected the influence of SOC scores on posttraumatic symptoms and cognitions to be on one hand influenced by mindfulness. On the other hand, we expected that both aspects would uniquely explain fewer posttraumatic symptoms and cognitions. Participants reported various lifetime traumas (M = 2.42), including experiences during World War II (WWII) as children and adolescents. Mindfulness partially mediated the association of SOC scores with posttraumatic cognitions, but not with posttraumatic symptoms. However, in a two-stage mediation model, mindfulness significantly predicted posttraumatic symptoms via its effects on posttraumatic cognitions. Although SOC was the strongest predictor of posttraumatic symptoms, mindfulness influenced the severity of posttraumatic symptoms via its effects on posttraumatic cognitions. We discuss implications for mindfulness-based interventions on trauma-related cognitions in the elderly.

  13. Women show a closer association between educational level and hypertension or diabetes mellitus than males: a secondary analysis from the Austrian HIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kautzky-Willer Alexandra

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lifestyle diseases and cardiovascular complications are dramatically increasing, but little is known about the impact of educational level and health behaviour in men and women in different populations. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the association between educational level (EL and self-reported chronic diseases and health behaviour in both sexes. Methods Data were derived from the Austrian Health Interview Surveys 2006/2007, which includes 13 558 persons (50.9% females. The associations between EL and the risk of obesity, hypertension, diabetes, myocardial infarction, stroke and anxiety disorders or depression, nutrition, exercise, and smoking were evaluated. University education served as the reference category (EL4, the lowest educational level was required schooling only (EL0. Results Only among women did the risk for diabetes mellitus and hypertension increase with decreasing educational level with the highest rates for EL0 OR [95% CI] adjusted for age, income, family status and lifestyle: 3.7 [1.7-8.0], and 2.5 [1.8-3.5], respectively. Only among the men, however, did the risk for stroke increase with decreasing educational level adjusted OR for EL0: 8.5 [1.7-42.7]. For anthropometric measures and lifestyle factors in both sexes the risk increased with decreasing EL. Conclusion EL affects lifestyle, overweight and obesity in both sexes. The apparent sex-specific differences in the association between the prevalence of some chronic disease with EL call for further investigation.

  14. Wood densitometry in 17th and 18th century Dutch, German, Austrian and French violins, compared to classical Cremonese and modern violins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berend C Stoel

    Full Text Available Classical violins produced by makers such as Antonio Stradivari and Guarneri del Gesu have long been considered the epitome of the luthier's art and the expressive tool of choice for the most celebrated violinists. It has been speculated these makers had access to wood that was unique in some way and that this was responsible for their acclaimed tonal characteristics. In an attempt to discern whether the above conjecture is true, we analyzed 17 modern and classical Dutch, German, Austrian and French violins by wood densitometry using computed tomography and correlated these results with our previous study of modern and Cremonese violins; in all studying 30 instruments of the violin family. In order to make this comparison possible we developed methods to cross calibrate results from different CT manufacturers using calibration wood pieces. We found no significant differences in median densities between modern and classical violins, or between classical violins from different origins. These results suggest that it is unlikely classical Cremonese makers had access to wood with significantly different wood density characteristics than that available to contemporaneous or modern makers.

  15. Acute effects of particulate matter on respiratory diseases, symptoms and functions:. epidemiological results of the Austrian Project on Health Effects of Particulate Matter (AUPHEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, Manfred; Schimek, Michael G.; Horak, Friedrich; Moshammer, Hanns; Kundi, Michael; Frischer, Thomas; Gomiscek, Bostjan; Puxbaum, Hans; Hauck, Helger; Auphep-Team

    To examine hypotheses regarding health effects of particulate matter, we conducted time series studies in Austrian urban and rural areas. Of the pollutants measured, ambient PM 2.5 was most consistently associated with parameters of respiratory health. Time series studies applying semiparametric generalized additive models showed significant increases of respiratory hospital admissions (ICD 490-496) at age 65 and older. The early increase of 5.5% in Vienna at a lag of 2 days in males and of 5.6% per 10 μg/m 3 at a lag of 3 days in females was not observed in a nearby rural area. Another increase of respiratory admissions (mainly COPD) was observed after a lag of 10-11 days. A time series on a panel of 56 healthy preschool children showed a significant impact of the carbonaceous fraction of PM 2.5 on tidal breathing pattern assessed by inductive plethysmography. In repeated oscillometric measurements of respiratory resistance in 164 healthy elementary school children not only immediate responses to fine particulates were found but also latent ones, possibly indicating inflammatory changes in airways. It may be speculated that the improvements of urban air quality prevented measurable effects on respiratory mortality. More sensitive indicators, however, still show acute impairments of respiratory function and health in elderly and children which are associated with fine particulates and subfractions related to motor traffic.

  16. Carbohydrate Malabsorption and Putative Carbohydrate-Specific Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth: Prevalence and Diagnostic Overlap Observed in an Austrian Outpatient Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enko, Dietmar; Kriegshäuser, Gernot; Kimbacher, Christine; Stolba, Robert; Mangge, Harald; Halwachs-Baumann, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    While lactose malabsorption is a well-investigated condition, few epidemiologic data are available for fructose and sorbitol malabsorption. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence rates for primary lactose malabsorption, fructose and sorbitol malabsorption, and carbohydrate-specific small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (cs-SIBO) in an Austrian outpatient center. In total, 306 adult patients, who were primarily referred with suspected carbohydrate malabsorption by general practitioners to our outpatient clinic, underwent genetic testing (C/T-13910 polymorphism) for primary lactose malabsorption, and a combined hydrogen (H2)/methane (CH4) breath test for fructose (25 g) and sorbitol (12.5 g) malabsorption. Cohen's kappa (κ) was calculated for agreement between positive breath test results and self-reported symptoms during the test. Seventy-eight (25.49%) patients were C/C-13910 homozygotes, indicating primary lactose malabsorption. Thirty-four (11.11%) and 57 (18.63%) patients were classified as fructose and sorbitol malabsorbers. Cohen's κ measuring agreements between positive fructose and sorbitol breath test results and self-reported symptoms during the test were 0.33 and 0.49, respectively. Twenty-nine (9.50%) patients with an early H2/CH4 peak (i.e. within 60 minutes after fructose and/or sorbitol ingestion) were diagnosed with cs-SIBO. In Austria, carbohydrate malabsorption is a frequent condition in patients referred by general practitioners to carbohydrate malabsorption testing. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Temporal and spatial distribution of isotopes in river water in Central Europe: 50 years experience with the Austrian network of isotopes in rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rank, Dieter; Wyhlidal, Stefan; Schott, Katharina; Weigand, Silvia; Oblin, Armin

    2018-05-01

    The Austrian network of isotopes in rivers comprises about 15 sampling locations and has been operated since 1976. The Danube isotope time series goes back to 1963. The isotopic composition of river water in Central Europe is mainly governed by the isotopic composition of precipitation in the catchment area; evaporation effects play only a minor role. Short-term and long-term isotope signals in precipitation are thus transmitted through the whole catchment. The influence of climatic changes has become observable in the long-term stable isotope time series of precipitation and surface waters. Environmental 3 H values were around 8 TU in 2015, short-term 3 H pulses up to about 80 TU in the rivers Danube and March were a consequence of releases from nuclear power plants. The complete isotope data series of this network will be included in the Global Network of Isotopes in Rivers database of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in 2017. This article comprises a review of 50 years isotope monitoring on rivers and is also intended to provide base information on the (isotope-)hydrological conditions in Central Europe specifically for the end-users of these data, e.g. for modelling hydrological processes. Furthermore, this paper includes the 2006-2015 supplement adding to the Danube isotope set published earlier.

  18. Model-Based Estimation of Forest Canopy Height in Red and Austrian Pine Stands Using Shuttle Radar Topography Mission and Ancillary Data: a Proof-of-Concept Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown Jr., C G; Sarabandi, K; Pierce, L E

    2007-04-06

    In this paper, accurate tree stand height retrieval is demonstrated using C-band Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) height and ancillary data. The tree height retrieval algorithm is based on modeling uniform tree stands with a single layer of randomly oriented vegetation particles. For such scattering media, the scattering phase center height, as measured by SRTM, is a function of tree height, incidence angle, and the extinction coefficient of the medium. The extinction coefficient for uniform tree stands is calculated as a function of tree height and density using allometric equations and a fractal tree model. The accuracy of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated using SRTM and TOPSAR data for 15 red pine and Austrian pine stands (TOPSAR is an airborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar). The algorithm yields root-mean-square (rms) errors of 2.5-3.6 m, which is a substantial improvement over the 6.8-8.3-m rms errors from the raw SRTM minus National Elevation Dataset Heights.

  19. Organization within Organization Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas

    This paper explores how prevalent contemporary problematizations of organizations coincide with a widespread assessment that Organization Studies (OS) has run out of steam. This impasse, the paper argues, is largely due to the emergence of an organization-phobia that has come to seize several...... strands of theorizing. By attending to the wide-ranging and far-reaching history of this organization-phobia, the paper argues that OS has become increasingly incapable of speaking about its core object. I show how organizations went from being conceptualized as entities of major importance to becoming...... credibility and legitimacy to begin with, the organization-phobia resulting from this history has been implicated in dismantling organizations, and in making OS progressively irrelevant to a wider public....

  20. Reduced soil cultivation and organic fertilization on organic farms: effects on crop yield and soil physical traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surböck, Andreas; Gollner, Gabriele; Klik, Andreas; Freyer, Bernhard; Friedel, Jürgen K.

    2017-04-01

    water. The improvements are attributed to the crop rotation with two-year lucerne and other crops with a dense root system. In autumn 2015, the soil tillage in the trial was converted from an intensive use of the plough to a reduced tillage system with a chisel. With this change, further improvements in soil properties, especially in connection with organic fertilizers, are expected and are further examined. Plots in which the previous tillage with the plough is continued, allow a comparison of the effects of the different soil tillage systems. * The project BIOBO is supported by the Austrian Federal Government, Austrian Federal Provinces and the European Union.

  1. Altheim geothermal plant. Power generation by means of an ORC turbogenerator; Geothermieanlagen Altheim. Stromerzeugung mittels Organic-Rankine-Cycle Turbogenerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pernecker, G. [Marktgemeindeamt Altheim (Austria)

    1997-12-01

    The report describes the project of the Austrian market town of Altheim to generate electricity by means of an ORC turbogenerator using low-temperature thermal water. The project is to improve the technical and economic situation of the existing industrial-scale geothermal project. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Bericht beschreibt das Vorhaben der Marktgemeinde Altheim in Oberoesterreich, Strom mittels eines Organic-Rankine-Cycle-Turbogenerators unter Verwendung niedrig temperierten Thermalwassers zu produzieren. Ziel bzw. der Zweck des Projektes ist es, die technische und wirtschaftliche Situation der bestehenden Grossthermieanlage zu verbessern. (orig.)

  2. Organization within Organization Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas

    strands of theorizing. By attending to the wide-ranging and far-reaching history of this organization-phobia, the paper argues that OS has become increasingly incapable of speaking about its core object. I show how organizations went from being conceptualized as entities of major importance to becoming...

  3. Knowledge Organization = Information Organization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    Are the terms ―information organization‖ (IO), ―organization of information‖ (OI) and ―information architecture‖ (IA) synonyms for knowledge organization (KO)? This study uses bibliometric methods, among others, to determine some relations between these terms and their meanings. Apparently the data...

  4. Infección invasiva por Streptococcus pneumoniae: reporte de caso de un paciente con síndrome de Austrian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Echeverri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Descrito inicialmente en 1957 por Robert Austrian, el síndrome que lleva su nombre se define como la tríada de neumonía, endocarditis y meningitis secundarias a una infección invasiva por Streptococcus pneumoniae. Desde entonces, y debido a su infrecuencia, se han reportado muy pocos casos en la literatura científica. A continuación se presenta el caso de un paciente de 61 años de edad con un cuadro inicial de meningitis bacteriana por S. pneumoniae, acompañado de neumonía bacteriana e insuficiencia mitral grave asociada a cuatro vegetaciones sobre la cara auricular de la valva posterior, con ruptura y prolapso de su festón central posterior. Se aisló S. pneumoniae, serotipo 18C, en líquido cefalorraquídeo y en dos hemocultivos. El paciente recibió antibióticos de amplio espectro y fue sometido a reemplazo valvular temprano con un resultado clínico satisfactorio. El principal factor pronóstico de esta condición lo determina el daño valvular subsecuente, sobre todo en pacientes con compromiso de la válvula aórtica, por lo que es necesario identificar tempranamente la extensión del compromiso valvular y definir oportunamente el tratamiento quirúrgico y antibiótico del paciente. En casos menos frecuentes, en los que solo hay compromiso de la válvula mitral, la evolución clínica es menos aguda y, por lo general, el tratamiento antibiótico dirigido y las medidas de soporte avanzado suelen ser suficientes para su control.

  5. The application of a social cognition model in explaining fruit intake in Austrian, Norwegian and Spanish schoolchildren using structural equation modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Rodrigo Carmen

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this paper was to test the goodness of fit of the Attitude – Social influence – self-Efficacy (ASE model in explaining schoolchildren's intentions to eat fruit and their actual fruit intake in Austria, Norway and Spain; to assess how well the model could explain the observed variance in intention to eat fruit and in reported fruit intake and to investigate whether the same model would fit data from all three countries. Methods Samples consisted of schoolchildren from three of the countries participating in the cross-sectional part of the Pro Children project. Sample size varied from 991 in Austria to 1297 in Spain. Mean age ranged from 11.3 to 11.4 years. The initial model was designed using items and constructs from the Pro Children study. Factor analysis was conducted to test the structure of the measures in the model. The Norwegian sample was used to test the latent variable structure, to make a preliminary assessment of model fit, and to modify the model to increase goodness of fit with the data. The original and modified models were then applied to the Austrian and Spanish samples. All model analyses were carried out using structural equation modelling techniques. Results The ASE-model fitted the Norwegian and Spanish data well. For Austria, a slightly more complex model was needed. For this reason multi-sample analysis to test equality in factor structure and loadings across countries could not be used. The models explained between 51% and 69% of the variance in intention to eat fruit, and 27% to 38% of the variance in reported fruit intake. Conclusion Structural equation modelling showed that a rather parsimonious model was useful in explaining the variation in fruit intake of 11-year-old schoolchildren in Norway and Spain. For Austria, more modifications were needed to fit the data.

  6. Millennial scale variability of denudation rates for the last 15 kyrs inferred from the detrital 10Be record of lake Stappitz in the Hohe Tauern massif, Austrian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grischott, Reto; Kober, Florian; Lupker, Maarten; Reitner, Jürgen M.; Drescher-Schneider, Ruth; Hajdas, Irka; Christl, Marcus

    2017-04-01

    Reconstructing paleo-denudation rates over Holocene time-scales in an Alpine catchment provides an excellent opportunity to isolate and test the climatic forcing of denudation, disentangling its effects from tectonics or anthropogenic effects. We measured cosmogenic 10Be on two sediment cores from Lake Stappitz (Austrian Alps) to derive a 15-kyr long record of the upstream Seebach Valley. Our study provides quantitative estimates of catchment denudation for the Holocene in an unprecedented temporal resolution. Due to the existence of the lake over the Holocene, the upstream Seebach Valley was isolated from baselevel (tectonic) changes and the high elevation minimizes anthropogenic impacts. The 10Be record indicates significant, but temporally decreasing, mixing with low-dosed paraglacial sediments from 15 to 7 kyr cal BP. In the absence of perturbing glacial sediments after 7 kyr cal BP, the 10Be concentrations can be converted to denudation rates. Denudation rates significantly fluctuated over this time period and are related to the hillslope response of climate forcing. Lower hillslope erosion rates of ca. 0.4 mm/yr found between 5 to 7 kyr cal BP correlate with a stable climate, infrequent flood events and higher temperatures that favoured the widespread growth of stabilizing soils and vegetation. Higher hillslope erosion rates of ca. 0.8 mm/yr for the last 4 kyr correlate with a variable, cooler climate where frequent flood events increase denudation of the less protected hillslopes. Overall our results suggest a tight coupling of climate and hillslope erosion in alpine landscapes as it has been observed in other parts of the Alps.

  7. Outcome and molecular characteristics of adolescent and young adult patients with newly diagnosed primary glioblastoma: a study of the Society of Austrian Neurooncology (SANO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibetseder, Annette; Ackerl, Michael; Flechl, Birgit; Wöhrer, Adelheid; Widhalm, Georg; Dieckmann, Karin; Kreinecker, Sabine-Spiegl; Pichler, Josef; Hainfellner, Johannes; Preusser, Matthias; Marosi, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Young age is a favorable prognostic factor for patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). We reviewed the outcomes and molecular tumor characteristics of adolescent and young adult patients with GBM treated in 2 Austrian centers. Data on patients with histologically proven primary GBM diagnosed from 18 through 40 years of age were retrospectively analyzed. All patients were treated with standard first-line therapy. The primary end points were overall survival (OS) and time to progression (TTP). IDH1-R132H mutation status was analyzed using immunohistochemistry, and MGMT promoter methylation was assessed using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. We included 70 patients (36 men and 34 women) with a median age of 33 years. IDH1-R132H mutations were detected in 22 (39.3%) of 56 cases and MGMT promoter methylation in 33 (61.1%) of 54 cases with available tissue samples. In patients with wild-type IDH, median TTP was 8.2 months and median OS was 24 months, compared with 18 months and 44 months, respectively, observed in patients with mutated IDH. Neither IDH1 nor MGMT status showed a statistically significant association with TTP or OS. Of note, the social and economical situation of the young patients with GBM was alarming, because only 17% succeeded in staying employed after receiving the diagnosis. We found a high frequency of IDH1 mutations and MGMT promoter methylation among young adult patients with primary GBM that may contribute to the generally favorable outcome associated with young age. The social and economic coverage of patients with glioma remains an unsolved socio-ethical problem.

  8. Policies to Accelerate Fuel, Technology andBehavioural Change in Transport - Results and Success of the Austrian Climate: Active Mobile Programme after the First Seven Years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelinek, R.

    2012-01-01

    There is plenty of concepts and strategies on almost all administrative levels to reduce carbon emissions and boost energy efficiency in transport. But it usually takes a long time to adapt national and regional legislation to these strategies with considerable loss of valuable time. Furthermore some of the defined measures will never find the necessary ''political will'' for implementation. To bridge this gap Austria's Environmental ministry supported by the Austrian Energy Agency, got into action 2005 and set up an action programme, condensing all so called ''soft'' and ''voluntary'' measures in transport (''mobility management''), that do not necessarily need to wait for legislation or specific administrative framework conditions. In its comprehensive approach - not only transport is targeted, but also buildings, renewables and energy saving - and also in its effects regarding the reduction of GHG emissions, Climate:active and especially climate:active mobile seems to be one-of-a-kind in Europe. Climate-active mobile set-up: free-of-charge consulting programmes addressing specific target groups (companies, cites andmunicipalities, real estate developers, schools andyouth, tourism); a financial support programme with 51 Mio Euro since 2007 for mobility management measures, fleet conversions to low-carbon technologies, work travel plans etc.; an EcoDriving training programme with up to now 20,000 trainees and educating all novice drivers in Austria in a smart driving style; a broad awareness raising campaign; about 2,900 klima:aktiv mobil partners among the target groups implementing sustainable transport measures and therewith reduces more than 530,000 tons of CO 2 emissions every year, created or saved 4300 ''green jobs'' in transport and induced ''green'' investments by companies and administrations 7 to 8 times higher as the funding. Climate-active mobile is one of the main drivers in Austria to accelerate fuel, technology andbehavioural change in transport

  9. Influence of gender, working field and psychosocial factors on the vulnerability for burnout in mental hospital staff: results of an Austrian cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schadenhofer, Petra; Kundi, Michael; Abrahamian, Heidemarie; Stummer, Harald; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra

    2018-03-01

    According to the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (EU-OSHA), hospitals represent a work environment with high job strain. Prolonged perceived occupational stress may result in symptoms of burnout, such as emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalisation (DP) and reduced personal accomplishment (PA). Understanding which factors may reduce vulnerability for burnout is an important requirement for well-targeted occupational stress prevention in mental hospital staff. To identify the influence of gender, age, working field, family structure, education, voluntarily occupational training during holidays and length of stay on job on occupational stress perception. In a cross-sectional design, 491 employees (311 female, 180 male) of an Austrian mental health centre participated in the study. The extent of perceived occupational stress was assessed by the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) with the scales for emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and personal accomplishment. Participants were divided according to their working field in those working with/without patients. Prevalence of emotional exhaustion was higher in women working with patients compared to men working with patients (25% vs. 18%, p = 0.003). Age above 45 years was significantly associated with decreased vulnerability for burnout in men (EE p = 0.040, DP p = 0.010, PA p = 0.007), but not in women. A lower level of education had a significant impact on depersonalisation in both sexes (p = 0.001 for men, p = 0.048 for women). Length of stay on job showed a significant influence on emotional exhaustion. No significant relationship was found between family structure and vulnerability for burnout. Gender had a differential effect on perceived occupational stress indicating a need for gender-tailored preventive strategies. Age, working field, education, voluntarily occupational training during holidays and length of stay on job affect vulnerability for burnout in mental hospital staff.

  10. Socio-economic factors associated with the 1‑year prevalence of severe pain and pain-related sickness absence in the Austrian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor; Dorner, Thomas Ernst

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to (1) investigate the relation of socio-economic status (SES), measured as education, occupation, and income, with the 12-month prevalence of severe pain and with pain-related sickness absence, and (2) analyse to what extent sociodemographic and medical factors influence these associations. The study population comprised 8084 subjects aged between 15 and 65 years from the Austrian Health Interview Survey in 2006/07. Associations of SES with the 1‑year prevalence of severe pain and sickness absence due to pain in those with severe pain was assessed with logistic regression analysis and adjusted for socio-demographic and chronic medical conditions. The 1‑year prevalence of severe pain was 33.7%. Among those with severe pain, 32.9% were on sickness absence due to pain. SES was significantly associated with the prevalence of severe pain and even more strongly with sickness absence due to pain. Stepwise adjustment for socio-demographics and medical factors had only marginal effects on these associations. Multivariate odds ratios (ORs) for severe pain were 1.14; 1.18 and 1.32 for low income, blue-collar workers, and low education, respectively. Related ORs for sickness absence due to pain were 1.52; 1.14 and 2.05. There was an association between SES, particularly measured as educational level, and the prevalence of severe pain, which was even stronger with sickness absence due to pain.

  11. Management of chronic immune thrombocytopenia in children and adolescents: lessons from an Austrian national cross-sectional study of 81 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipurzynski, J; Fahrner, B; Kerbl, R; Crazzolara, R; Jones, N; Ebetsberger, G; Jauk, B; Strenger, V; Wohlmuther, B; Schwinger, W; Lackner, H; Urban, C; Holter, W; Minkov, M; Kager, L; Benesch, M; Seidel, M G

    2016-04-01

    Chronic immune thrombocytopenia (cITP) is often associated with an underlying predisposition towards autoimmunity, recognition of which is relevant to guide treatment. International recommendations on diagnostic steps and therapeutic measures of cITP in childhood exist. However, due to the low prevalence (1-2/100,000) and a variation of availability of immunological and hematological tests and treatments across pediatric units, we postulated that these guidelines are not uniformly adhered to and that immune dysregulation syndromes remained undiscovered. To delineate the current management of children and adolescents with cITP in Austria, we performed a nationwide cross-sectional study. Between 2011 and 2014, 81 children with cITP were seen at seven centers (median age 8.75 years; range 1-17; female:male ratio 47:34) at 641 visits during 180 patient years after diagnosis of cITP (>12 months ITP duration). Additional diagnoses were noted, most frequently immune or autoimmune disorders, hematologic diseases, or infections (in 37.3%, including Evans syndrome, autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, and Fanconi anemia), or other symptoms like bi- or pancytopenia (n=9), lymphoproliferation or granulomatous inflammation (n = 3). Both decision to treat as well as choice of treatment varied: smaller centers tended to observe more frequently, larger centers applied a pattern of treatment modalities that appeared to depend less on bleeding tendency than on center policy. More than 50% of therapeutic interventions occurred in bleedings scores ≤2 (of 5), suggesting a strong psychosocial intention to treat. Platelet increment upon 479 therapeutic interventions of eight types was evaluated, with multiple treatment approaches being pursued sequentially in refractory patients. These data confirm the hypothesis of heterogeneous diagnostic and therapeutic management of cITP in Austrian children and corroborate the need for (1) a precise panel of

  12. Long-term measurements of biogenic VOCs in an Austrian valley - discussion of seasonal fluctuations of isoprene and monoterpene concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunkl, J.; Schnitzhofer, R.; Beauchamp, J.; Wisthaler, A; Hansel, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: A proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) was set up at a monitoring station in the river Inn valley (Vomp, Tirol, Austria) for a year-long measurement (February 2004-May 2005) of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the local valley air. Measurements of PM 10 , NO x and CO, and certain meteorological parameters were additionally made. Together, these data-sets enabled relationships between VOC abundances, meteorological conditions and anthropogenic emissions (primarily from automobile emissions) to be examined. The work presented here focuses on the biogenic VOCs measured under these real-world outdoor conditions. Initially, data needed to be separated between VOCs of anthropogenic and of biogenic origin. This was achieved by generating a model for the PTR-MS VOC data-set. A clear correlation between benzene and CO concentrations - indicating benzene's predominance from anthropogenic sources - allowed benzene to be used as a tracer for anthropogenic compounds. The model thus allowed a regression to be made whereby the maximum anthropogenic contributions of almost all VOCs could be established relative to benzene. The maximum contribution from biogenic emissions to each VOC could thus be determined as the difference between the total individual VOC signal and the corresponding maximum anthropogenic share. The two biogenic VOCs of principle interest here were isoprene and the monoterpenes (detected by PTR-MS at masses 69 amu and 137 amu, respectively). As expected, abundances of isoprene and the monoterpenes displayed a late-summer maximum (despite good vertical valley air dilution that acts to reduce VOC levels) when temperatures were high and sunlight hours long. Preliminary results will be presented and discussed. (author)

  13. Azacitidine for Front-Line Therapy of Patients with AML: Reproducible Efficacy Established by Direct Comparison of International Phase 3 Trial Data with Registry Data from the Austrian Azacitidine Registry of the AGMT Study Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Pleyer

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We recently published a clinically-meaningful improvement in median overall survival (OS for patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML, >30% bone marrow (BM blasts and white blood cell (WBC count ≤15 G/L, treated with front-line azacitidine versus conventional care regimens within a phase 3 clinical trial (AZA-AML-001; NCT01074047; registered: February 2010. As results obtained in clinical trials are facing increased pressure to be confirmed by real-world data, we aimed to test whether data obtained in the AZA-AML-001 trial accurately represent observations made in routine clinical practice by analysing additional AML patients treated with azacitidine front-line within the Austrian Azacitidine Registry (AAR; NCT01595295; registered: May 2012 and directly comparing patient-level data of both cohorts. We assessed the efficacy of front-line azacitidine in a total of 407 patients with newly-diagnosed AML. Firstly, we compared data from AML patients with WBC ≤ 15 G/L and >30% BM blasts included within the AZA-AML-001 trial treated with azacitidine (“AML-001” cohort; n = 214 with AAR patients meeting the same inclusion criteria (“AAR (001-like” cohort; n = 95. The current analysis thus represents a new sub-analysis of the AML-001 trial, which is directly compared with a new sub-analysis of the AAR. Baseline characteristics, azacitidine application, response rates and OS were comparable between all patient cohorts within the trial or registry setting. Median OS was 9.9 versus 10.8 months (p = 0.616 for “AML-001” versus “AAR (001-like” cohorts, respectively. Secondly, we pooled data from both cohorts (n = 309 and assessed the outcome. Median OS of the pooled cohorts was 10.3 (95% confidence interval: 8.7, 12.6 months, and the one-year survival rate was 45.8%. Thirdly, we compared data from AAR patients meeting AZA-AML-001 trial inclusion criteria (n = 95 versus all AAR patients with World Health Organization (WHO-defined AML (

  14. Azacitidine for Front-Line Therapy of Patients with AML: Reproducible Efficacy Established by Direct Comparison of International Phase 3 Trial Data with Registry Data from the Austrian Azacitidine Registry of the AGMT Study Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleyer, Lisa; Döhner, Hartmut; Dombret, Hervé; Seymour, John F.; Schuh, Andre C.; Beach, CL; Swern, Arlene S.; Burgstaller, Sonja; Stauder, Reinhard; Girschikofsky, Michael; Sill, Heinz; Schlick, Konstantin; Thaler, Josef; Halter, Britta; Machherndl Spandl, Sigrid; Zebisch, Armin; Pichler, Angelika; Pfeilstöcker, Michael; Autzinger, Eva M.; Lang, Alois; Geissler, Klaus; Voskova, Daniela; Sperr, Wolfgang R.; Hojas, Sabine; Rogulj, Inga M.; Andel, Johannes; Greil, Richard

    2017-01-01

    We recently published a clinically-meaningful improvement in median overall survival (OS) for patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), >30% bone marrow (BM) blasts and white blood cell (WBC) count ≤15 G/L, treated with front-line azacitidine versus conventional care regimens within a phase 3 clinical trial (AZA-AML-001; NCT01074047; registered: February 2010). As results obtained in clinical trials are facing increased pressure to be confirmed by real-world data, we aimed to test whether data obtained in the AZA-AML-001 trial accurately represent observations made in routine clinical practice by analysing additional AML patients treated with azacitidine front-line within the Austrian Azacitidine Registry (AAR; NCT01595295; registered: May 2012) and directly comparing patient-level data of both cohorts. We assessed the efficacy of front-line azacitidine in a total of 407 patients with newly-diagnosed AML. Firstly, we compared data from AML patients with WBC ≤ 15 G/L and >30% BM blasts included within the AZA-AML-001 trial treated with azacitidine (“AML-001” cohort; n = 214) with AAR patients meeting the same inclusion criteria (“AAR (001-like)” cohort; n = 95). The current analysis thus represents a new sub-analysis of the AML-001 trial, which is directly compared with a new sub-analysis of the AAR. Baseline characteristics, azacitidine application, response rates and OS were comparable between all patient cohorts within the trial or registry setting. Median OS was 9.9 versus 10.8 months (p = 0.616) for “AML-001” versus “AAR (001-like)” cohorts, respectively. Secondly, we pooled data from both cohorts (n = 309) and assessed the outcome. Median OS of the pooled cohorts was 10.3 (95% confidence interval: 8.7, 12.6) months, and the one-year survival rate was 45.8%. Thirdly, we compared data from AAR patients meeting AZA-AML-001 trial inclusion criteria (n = 95) versus all AAR patients with World Health Organization (WHO)-defined AML (“AAR (WHO

  15. Predictors of and attitudes toward counseling about SUDEP and other epilepsy risk factors among Austrian, German, and Swiss neurologists and neuropediatricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzelczyk, Adam; Zschebek, Gerda; Bauer, Sebastian; Baumgartner, Christoph; Grond, Martin; Hermsen, Anke; Kieslich, Matthias; Krämer, Günter; Kurlemann, Gerhard; May, Theodor W; Mayer, Thomas; Neubauer, Bernd A; Pfäfflin, Margarete; Plecko, Barbara; Ryvlin, Philippe; Schubert-Bast, Susanne; Stefan, Hermann; Trinka, Eugen; Knake, Susanne; Seifart, Carola; Rosenow, Felix

    2016-04-01

    To examine the attitudes toward counseling about sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) and other epilepsy risk factors among Austrian, German, and Swiss neurologists and neuropediatricians, and to determine factors associated with not discussing SUDEP. Questionnaires were sent to approximately 5,000 neurologists and neuropediatricians in 2014 regarding respondents' demographics, their working environments, and how often they discussed SUDEP, suicidal ideations on anticonvulsive medication, driving restrictions, and risks in daily life activities. In total, 519 surveys were completed (respondents' mean age: 45.5 years, 41.6% female, 66.9% adult neurologists, 31.0% neuropediatricians). A minority of 2.7% reported that they counseled all of their patients on SUDEP, 8.7% counseled most of the time (50-90%), 20.8% sometimes (10-49%), 44.5% rarely (1-9%), and 23.3% reported not counseling about SUDEP at all. In contrast, 92.9% reported that they counseled all patients about driving restrictions and 81.5% about risks in daily life activities. Suicidal ideations were discussed in 59.0% for some and in 3.3% for all patients, whereas 35.1% of respondents reported never discussing suicidal ideations. Independent predictors of not discussing SUDEP were no additional epilepsy training, no or uncertain SUDEP cases in the past, <10 years in practice, <25 epilepsy patients seen per quarter, and the opinion of a lack of consequences in SUDEP prevention. The opinion that SUDEP is a risk factor in particular patient groups and the attitude that all risks should be discussed predicted counseling on SUDEP. Our findings show a discrepancy between guidelines and practice regarding the discussion of premature mortality due to SUDEP or suicidality. Both are not discussed at all by a substantial proportion of neurologists and neuropediatricians. This is in contrast to ubiquitous education about driving restrictions. Dissemination of knowledge among physicians about potential

  16. Eberhard Widmann (Stefan Meyer Institute, Vienna) and Silke Federmann (Ph.D. Student from Vienna in the CERN-Austrian Ph.D. program) together with a microwave cavity developed by Silke at CERN. The cavity will be used for the first time to look for spin-flip transitions of antihydrogen atoms later this year.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    Eberhard Widmann (Stefan Meyer Institute, Vienna) and Silke Federmann (Ph.D. Student from Vienna in the CERN-Austrian Ph.D. program) together with a microwave cavity developed by Silke at CERN. The cavity will be used for the first time to look for spin-flip transitions of antihydrogen atoms later this year.

  17. 19 September 2011 - Austrian State Secretary for European and International Affairs W. Waldner, signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss; visiting CMS service cavern with Collaboration Spokesperson G. Tonelli and the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with M. Zerlauth.

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoît Jeannet

    2011-01-01

    Austrian state secretary for foreign affairs, Wolfgang Waldner, left, was welcomed to CERN by Felicitas Pauss, head of international relations at CERN, on 19 September. While at CERN, he toured the CMS control room and underground experimental service cavern, the LHC superconducting magnet test hall, and the Universe of Particles exhibition in the Globe of Science and Innovation.

  18. Austrian decision strenghtens Baltic Unity

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Euroopa Liidu välisministrite kohtumisel Brüsselis tänas Eesti välisminister Urmas Paet kolleege pantvangide vabastamisel osutatud abi eest ning avaldas toetust Leedule Mihhail Golovatovi vabastamisega vallandunud diplomaatilises konfliktis Austriaga

  19. Modality-dependent dose requirements in the Austrian breast cancer early detection program. First results from technical quality assurance; Geraeteabhaengiger Dosisbedarf im Oesterreichischen Brustkrebsfrueherkennungsprogramm. Erste Ergebnisse aus der technischen Qualitaetssicherung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osanna-Elliott, A.; Semturs, F.; Menhart, S.; Schloegl, C.; Wildner, S.; Zwettler, G. [AGES, Wien (Austria). Referenzzentrum fuer technische Qualitaetssicherung im Brustkrebsfrueherkennungsprogramm

    2015-07-01

    The Austrian Breast Cancer Early Detection Program (BKFP) has officially started in January 2014. In order to ensure that all participating women can rely on a sufficient cancer detection rate while at the same time the required dose is as low as reasonably achievable, all participating radiology institutes (approx. 200) have to fulfill strict quality assurance requirements. The control and certification is performed by the Reference Center for Technical Quality Assurance (RefZQS), which has been developing the methods and tolerances in a pilot project since 2007. The limits are defined in the EUREF-Oeprotocol which is based on the European EPQC guidelines. From the requirement for optimized image quality while simultaneously following the ALARA principle, we found modality-dependent dose requirements, which we had expected but which have now been compiled for the first time for Austria.

  20. Identification of a rare COCH mutation by whole-exome sequencing : Implications for personalized therapeutic rehabilitation in an Austrian family with non-syndromic autosomal dominant late-onset hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parzefall, Thomas; Frohne, Alexandra; Koenighofer, Martin; Kirchnawy, Andreas; Streubel, Berthold; Schoefer, Christian; Gstoettner, Wolfgang; Frei, Klemens; Lucas, Trevor

    2017-07-21

    Non-syndromic autosomal dominant hearing impairment is characteristically postlingual in onset. Genetic diagnostics are essential for genetic counselling, disease prognosis and understanding of the molecular mechanisms of disease. To date, 36 causative genes have been identified, many in only individual families. Gene selection for genetic screening by traditional methods and genetic diagnosis in autosomal dominant patients has therefore been fraught with difficulty. Whole-exome sequencing provides a powerful tool to analyze all protein-coding genomic regions in parallel, thus allowing the comprehensive screening of all known genes and associated alterations. In this study, a previously undiagnosed late-onset progressive autosomal dominant hearing loss in an Austrian family was investigated by means of whole-exome sequencing. Results were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. A previously described c.151C>T missense (p.Pro51Ser) mutation in the LCCL (limulus factor C, cochlin, late gestation lung protein Lgl1) domain of the cochlin gene (COCH) was identified as causative and segregated with disease in five members of the family. Molecular diagnostics led to the decision to perform cochlear implantation in an index patient who subsequently showed excellent postoperative auditory performance. The c.151C>T mutation was not found in 18 screened Austrian families with autosomal dominant hearing loss but was represented alongside other known pathogenic mutant COCH alleles in the Genome Aggregation Database (gnomAD) in European populations. A combined allele frequency of 0.000128 implies an orphan disease frequency for COCH-induced hearing loss of 1:3900 in Europe. Exome sequencing successfully resolved the genetic diagnosis in a family suffering from autosomal dominant hearing impairment and allowed prediction of purported auditory outcome after cochlear implantation in an index patient. Personalized treatment approaches based on the molecular mechanisms of disease may

  1. 29 March 2012 - Austrian Niederösterreich Governor E. Pröll with Klubobmann and Chairman of EBG MedAustron GmbH Council K. Schneeberger, Director General for Cultural Policy Amabssador M.Eichtinger and Permanent Representative of Austria to the UNO and Austrian Delegate to CERN Council Ambassador C. Strohal in the MedAustron facility at CERN building 184.

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2012-01-01

    CERN-HI-1203078 01 - 13: visit of LINAC 3 with M. Benedikt CERN-HI-1203078 14 - 20: in the Roy Billinge room CERN-HI-1203078 21- 22: visit of the LEIR accelerator in building 354 CERN-HI-1203078 23 - 55: signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer and Head of International Relations F. Pauss CERN-HI-1203078 56 - 99: in building 184, Governor Pröll and CERN Director-General R. Heuer switch on the MedAustron ion source to produce the proton beam; visit MedAustron facility. CERN-HI-1203078 32:from left to right: Klubobmann and Chairman of EBG MedAustron GmbH Council K. Schneeberger; Director-General R. Heuer;Niederösterreich Governor E. Pröll;Head of International Relations F. Pauss;Permanent Representative of Austria to the UNO and Austrian Delegate to CERN Council Ambassador C. Strohal.

  2. Effects of financial incentives on the intention to consent to organ donation: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrhofer-Reinhartshuber, D; Fitzgerald, A; Benetka, G; Fitzgerald, R

    2006-11-01

    Shortage of donor organs is a serious problem for transplantation medicine. One controversial suggestion to increase the number of organ donors is financial incentives for consent. The aim of this study was to test whether different forms and amounts of financial incentives were apt to increase the consent to organ donation. Data were collected via questionnaires in urban and rural regions of Austria and randomly assigned to settings with three different amounts of financial incentives. The questionnaire was designed by using the theory of planned behaviour of Ajzen. Parents 69 mothers and 35 fathers; ages 25 to 65 years were evaluated for intention to consent to organ donation, perceived social norm, and positive/ negative aspects of organ donation without and with various financial incentives. The intention to consent to organ donation dropped highly significantly (Z = -7.556 P = .000) from the basic condition (M = 1.13; confidence interval [CIs] 0.78 to 1.51) to the condition with financial incentives (M = -1.58; CI, 1.96 to -1.15). No influence of the amount of financial incentive was observed. Highly significant differences were measured between both conditions for the social norm (Z = -5.638; P organ donation (Z = -1.962; P organ donation seems to be a strict taboo for most people in Austrian society.

  3. Airborne measurements of reactive organic trace gases in the atmosphere - with a focus on PTR-MS measurements onboard NASA's flying laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisthaler, Armin; Mikoviny, Tomas; Müller, Markus; Schiller, Sven Arne; Feil, Stefan; Hanel, Gernot; Jordan, Alfons; Mutschlechner, Paul; Crawford, James H.; Singh, Hanwant B.; Millet, Dylan

    2017-04-01

    Reactive organic gases (ROGs) play an important role in atmospheric chemistry as they affect the rates of ozone production, particle formation and growth, and oxidant consumption. Measurements of ROGs are analytically challenging because of their large variety and low concentrations in the Earth's atmosphere, and because they are easily affected by measurement artefacts. On aircraft, ROGs are typically measured by canister sampling followed by off-line analysis in the laboratory, fast online gas chromatography or online chemical ionization mass spectrometry. In this work, we will briefly sum up the state-of-the-art in this field before focusing on proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and its deployment onboard NASA's airborne science laboratories. We will show how airborne PTR-MS was successfully used in NASA missions for characterizing emissions of ROGs from point sources, for following the photochemical evolution of ROGs in a biomass burning plume, for determining biosphere-atmosphere fluxes of selected ROGs and for validating satellite data. We will also present the airborne PTR-MS instrument in its most recent evolution which includes a radiofrequency ion funnel and ion guide combined with a compact time-of-flight mass spectrometer and discuss its superior performance characteristics. The development of the airborne PTR-MS instrument was supported by the Austrian Federal Ministry for Transport, Innovation and Technology (bmvit) through the Austrian Space Applications Programme (ASAP) of the Austrian Research Promotion Agency (FFG) (grants #833451, #847967). This work was also partly supported by NASA under grant #NNX14AP89G.

  4. Organic chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    This book with sixteen chapter explains organic chemistry on linkage isomerism such as alkane, cycloalkane, alkene, aromatic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, aromatic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, organic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, organic halogen compound, alcohol, ether, aldehyde and ketone, carboxylic acid, dicarboxylic acid, fat and detergent, amino, carbohydrate, amino acid and protein, nucleotide and nucleic acid and spectroscopy, a polymer and medical chemistry. Each chapter has introduction structure and characteristic and using of organic chemistry.

  5. Organic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankamah Yeboah, Isaac; Nielsen, Max; Nielsen, Rasmus

    . This study identifies the price premium on organic salmon in the Danish retail sale sector using consumer panel scanner data for households by applying the hedonic price model while permitting unobserved heterogeneity between households. A premium of 20% for organic salmon is found. Since this premium...... is closer to organic labeled agriculture products than to ecolabelled capture fisheries products, it indicates that consumers value organic salmon as an agriculture product more than fisheries product....

  6. Government Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans; Salskov-Iversen, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    This entry is concerned with demonstrating the increasingly important interface between government organization and communication. Government organization can be approached in terms of state centrism, where the emphasis is on government organization understood as state authority and power......, with clearly defined boundaries between the public and private; and in terms of polycentrism, where power and authority are seen as dispersed among state and nonstate organizations, including business and civil society organizations. Globalization and new media technologies imply changes in the relationship...... between power, communication, and organizational forms, and suggest the usefulness of viewing government organization in terms of polycentrism, highlighting communication and organizing processes in a wider perspective. The entry focuses particularly on two major strands of literature: deliberative...

  7. Organic spintronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naber, W J M; Faez, S; Wiel, W G van der

    2007-01-01

    We review the emerging field of organic spintronics, where organic materials are applied as a medium to transport and control spin-polarized signals. The contacts for injecting and detecting spins are formed by ferromagnetic metals, oxides, or inorganic semiconductors. First, the basic concepts of spintronics and organic electronics are addressed, and phenomena which are in particular relevant for organic spintronics are highlighted. Experiments using different organic materials, including carbon nanotubes, organic thin films, self-assembled monolayers and single molecules are then reviewed. Observed magnetoresistance points toward successful spin injection and detection, but spurious magnetoresistance effects can easily be confused with spin accumulation. A few studies report long spin relaxation times and lengths, which forms a promising basis for further research. We conclude with discussing outstanding questions and problems. (topical review)

  8. Organic electroluminescence

    CERN Document Server

    Kafafi, Zakya H

    2005-01-01

    Organic light-emitting diode(OLED) technology has achieved significant penetration in the commercial market for small, low-voltage and inexpensive displays. Present and future novel technologies based on OLEDs involve rigid and flexible flat panel displays, solid-state lighting, and lasers. Display applications may range from hand-held devices to large flat panel screens that can be rolled up or hung flat on a wall or a ceiling. Organic Electroluminescence gives an overview of the on-going research in the field of organic light-emitting materials and devices, covering the principles of electroluminescence in organic thin films, as well as recent trends, current applications, and future potential uses. The book begins by giving a background of organic electroluminescence in terms of history and basic principles. It offers details on the mechanism(s) of electroluminescence in thin organic films. It presentsin-depth discussions of the parameters that control the external electroluminescence quantum efficien...

  9. [Organ donation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hömme, R; Neeser, G

    2007-12-01

    For patients with end-stage organ disease transplantation of human organs is a well-established therapy, and in most cases it is the only life-saving one. But the lack of available organs is a big problem. The legal basis in Germany is the transplantation law (TPG). According to this law, every ventilated patient with diagnosed brain death is a potential organ donor. However, brain death may lead to strong reactions in the patient's cardiovascular system as well as disturbances in thermoregulation, water and electrolyte balance, and the endocrine and haemostatic systems. Thus, protecting the organs of the organ donor and, furthermore, caring for his or her relatives are great challenges for every physician and nurse in the intensive care unit.

  10. Transnational Organizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lasse Folke; Seabrooke, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    should be treated and governed by organizations. Using network and career sequences methods, we provide a case of transnational organizing through professionals who attempt issue control and network management on transnational environmental sustainability certification. The article questions how......An ongoing question for institutional theory is how organizing occurs transnationally, where institution building occurs in a highly ambiguous environment. This article suggests that at the core of transnational organizing is competition and coordination within professional and organizational...... networks over who controls issues. Transnational issues are commonly organized through professional battles over how issues are treated and what tasks are involved. These professional struggles are often more important than what organization has a formal mandate over an issue. We highlight how ‘issue...

  11. Organic optoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Wenping; Gong, Xiong; Zhan, Xiaowei; Fu, Hongbing; Bjornholm, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Written by internationally recognized experts in the field with academic as well as industrial experience, this book concisely yet systematically covers all aspects of the topic.The monograph focuses on the optoelectronic behavior of organic solids and their application in new optoelectronic devices. It covers organic electroluminescent materials and devices, organic photonics, materials and devices, as well as organic solids in photo absorption and energy conversion. Much emphasis is laid on the preparation of functional materials and the fabrication of devices, from materials synthesis a

  12. Organic synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lallemand, J.Y.; Fetizon, M.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Organic Synthesis Chemistry laboratory (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The laboratory activities are centered on the chemistry of natural products, which have a biological activity and on the development of new reactions, useful in the organic synthesis. The research works involve the following domains: the natural products chemistry which are applied in pharmacology, the plants and insects chemistry, the organic synthesis, the radical chemistry new reactions and the bio-organic physicochemistry. The published papers, the congress communications and the thesis are listed [fr

  13. Organic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankamah Yeboah, Isaac; Nielsen, Max; Nielsen, Rasmus

    The year 2016 is groundbreaking for organic aquaculture producers in EU, as it represents the deadline for implementing a full organic life cycle in the aquaculture production. Such a shift induces production costs for farmers and if it should be profitable, they must receive higher prices....... This study identifies the price premium on organic salmon in the Danish retail sale sector using consumer panel scanner data for households by applying the hedonic price model while permitting unobserved heterogeneity between households. A premium of 20% for organic salmon is found. Since this premium...

  14. Organ Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to know FAQ Living donation What is living donation? Organs Types Being a living donor First steps Being ... brochures What Every Patient Needs to Know Living Donation Multiple Listing Visit UNOS Store Learn more How organs are matched How to become a living donor ...

  15. Matching Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to know FAQ Living donation What is living donation? Organs Types Being a living donor First steps Being ... brochures What Every Patient Needs to Know Living Donation Multiple Listing Visit UNOS Store Learn more How organs are matched How to become a living donor ...

  16. Organic aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penner, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    Organic aerosols scatter solar radiation. They may also either enhance or decrease concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei. This paper summarizes observed concentrations of aerosols in remote continental and marine locations and provides estimates for the sources of organic aerosol matter. The anthropogenic sources of organic aerosols may be as large as the anthropogenic sources of sulfate aerosols, implying a similar magnitude of direct forcing of climate. The source estimates are highly uncertain and subject to revision in the future. A slow secondary source of organic aerosols of unknown origin may contribute to the observed oceanic concentrations. The role of organic aerosols acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) is described and it is concluded that they may either enhance or decrease the ability of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols to act as CCN

  17. HbA1c variability as an independent risk factor for diabetic retinopathy in type 1 diabetes: a German/Austrian multicenter analysis on 35,891 patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia M Hermann

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to analyze the effect of HbA1c variability on the occurrence of diabetic retinopathy in type 1 diabetes patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 35,891 patients with childhood, adolescent or adult onset of type 1 diabetes from a large multicentre survey, the German/Austrian prospective documentation system (DPV, were analysed. Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine whether intra-individual HbA1c variability expressed as variation coefficient is an independent risk factor for the occurrence of diabetic retinopathy. RESULTS: Kaplan-Meier curves stratified by median HbA1c and variation coefficient revealed that retinopathy-free survival probability is lower when both median HbA1c and HbA1c variability are above the 50th percentile. Cox regression models confirmed this finding: After adjustment for age at diabetes onset, gender and median HbA1c, HbA1c variability was independently associated with the occurrence of diabetic retinopathy. Time-covariate interactions used to model non-proportionality indicated an effect decreasing with duration of diabetes for both median HbA1c and HbA1c variability. Predictive accuracy increased significantly when adding HbA1c variability to the Cox regression model. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with type 1 diabetes, HbA1c variability adds to the risk of diabetic retinopathy independently of average metabolic control.

  18. Designing Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Book Description The design of organizations has been an ongoing concern of management theory and practice over the past several decades. Over this time, there has been little change in the fundamental theory, principles and concepts of Organization Design (OD). Recently organizational life has...... changed dramatically with the advent of: new communication systems, adaptive mechanisms, information technology, knowledge management systems, innovation processes and more. This book systemically examines these developments and their impact on OD with contributions from leading scholars in the area...... threefold theme: (1) core issues in organization design, (2) emerging perspectives in OD, and (3) new developments and directions in organizational design. A special feature of each chapter is: 1) implications for theory, and 2) implications for practice. DESIGNING ORGANIZATIONS: 21st Century Approaches...

  19. Organic Conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jan Rud; Jacobsen, Claus S.; Rindorf, Grethe

    1975-01-01

    2,3,6,7-Tetramethyl-1,4,5,8-tetraselenafulvalene reacts with 2,5-dimethyl-7,7′,8,8′-tetracyano-p-quinodi-methane to give a highly conducting organic solid.......2,3,6,7-Tetramethyl-1,4,5,8-tetraselenafulvalene reacts with 2,5-dimethyl-7,7′,8,8′-tetracyano-p-quinodi-methane to give a highly conducting organic solid....

  20. Multicultural organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan

    2011-01-01

    In recent years the attention towards demographic diversity has increased among academics and practitioners dealing with organization management. Finding a possible connection between diversity and group performance has been the objective of much extant research. Still, however, results are incon......In recent years the attention towards demographic diversity has increased among academics and practitioners dealing with organization management. Finding a possible connection between diversity and group performance has been the objective of much extant research. Still, however, results...

  1. Colloidal organization

    CERN Document Server

    Okubo, Tsuneo

    2015-01-01

    Colloidal Organization presents a chemical and physical study on colloidal organization phenomena including equilibrium systems such as colloidal crystallization, drying patterns as an example of a dissipative system and similar sized aggregation. This book outlines the fundamental science behind colloid and surface chemistry and the findings from the author's own laboratory. The text goes on to discuss in-depth colloidal crystallization, gel crystallization, drying dissipative structures of solutions, suspensions and gels, and similar-sized aggregates from nanosized particles. Special emphas

  2. Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms on a question from the Commission related to the Austrian notification of national legislation governing GMOs under article 95(5) of the Treaty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, H. C.; Bartsch, D.; Buhk, H.-J.

    2003-01-01

    Opinion adopted on 4 July 2003 (Question No EFSA-Q-2003-001); EFSA=European Food Safety Authority......Opinion adopted on 4 July 2003 (Question No EFSA-Q-2003-001); EFSA=European Food Safety Authority...

  3. The concept of animal welfare at the interface between producers and scientists: the example of organic pig farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeb, Christine

    2011-06-01

    In organic farming animal welfare is one important aspect included in the internationally agreed organic principles of health, ecology, fairness and care (IFOAM 2006), reflecting expectation of consumers and farmers. The definition of organic animal welfare includes-besides traditional terms of animal welfare-'regeneration' and 'naturalness'. Organic animal welfare assessment needs to reflect this and use complex parameters, include natural behaviour and a systemic view. Furthermore, various parties with seemingly conflicting interests are involved, causing ethical dilemmas, such as the use of nose rings for outdoor sows (impaired animal welfare vs. destruction of humus). Solutions can only be found when foundational concepts are translated and applied to practical situations. On-farm animal welfare assessment and implementation of improvement strategies are increasingly relevant scientific areas. They combine on-farm welfare assessment, identification of key problem areas and connected risk factors. Constant communication between all parties is crucial for success. Animal health and welfare planning is one application of this approach, which was carried out on Austrian organic pig farms as well as organic dairy farms in seven European countries. The projects included welfare assessment, feedback and benchmarking as a tool for communication between farmers, advisors and scientists. Finally goals were set by the farmer and improvement strategies applicable to organic farming were implemented. This included prevention of disease by management strategies instead of routine treatment with pharmaceutical products. It appeared that next to problem structuring, multidisciplinary problem solving demands good communications skills to relate animal welfare science to value reflections.

  4. Organic Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Würtz, Rolf P

    2008-01-01

    Organic Computing is a research field emerging around the conviction that problems of organization in complex systems in computer science, telecommunications, neurobiology, molecular biology, ethology, and possibly even sociology can be tackled scientifically in a unified way. From the computer science point of view, the apparent ease in which living systems solve computationally difficult problems makes it inevitable to adopt strategies observed in nature for creating information processing machinery. In this book, the major ideas behind Organic Computing are delineated, together with a sparse sample of computational projects undertaken in this new field. Biological metaphors include evolution, neural networks, gene-regulatory networks, networks of brain modules, hormone system, insect swarms, and ant colonies. Applications are as diverse as system design, optimization, artificial growth, task allocation, clustering, routing, face recognition, and sign language understanding.

  5. Safety organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, M.

    1984-06-01

    After a rapid definition of a nuclear basis installation, the national organization of nuclear safety in France is presented, as also the main organizations concerned and their functions. This report shows how the licensing procedure leading to the construction and exploitation of such installations is applied in the case of nuclear laboratories of research and development: examinations of nuclear safety problems are carried out at different levels: - centralized to define the frame out of which the installation has not to operate, - decentralized to follow in a more detailed manner its evolution [fr

  6. Entangling Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Anete Mikkala Camille

    2018-01-01

    The chapter accounts for the process of becoming of a changed practice within the area of disability care in the Municipality of Aalborg in Denmark. Across a period of a few months in the fall of 2015 a group of employees across the organization and an action researcher from Aalborg University (the...... author) met and formed a research- practice group and across this period a revised model for cooperation emerged that – upon realization – would reconfigure the intra-play of all relevant areas of the organization involved in disability care. The model included the grasping of disability as dis...

  7. Organizing Valuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Amalie Martinus

    With this dissertation I take up a problem currently traversing popular, political and academic arenas, namely the potential demise of values in public organizations allegedly instigated by management tools deriving from industrial sectors. Taking a pragmatic stance, inspired by John Dewey......, this dissertation sets out to develop a practical and situation-based understanding of the relationship between these management tools, values and organizations, which can contribute to pushing forward the currently detached and polarized debates over New Public Management. In this endeavor the dissertation engages...

  8. Designing Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DESIGNING ORGANIZATIONS: 21st Century Approaches er en vigtig publikation inden for organisationsdesign. Fokus ligger på nye udviklinger inden for organisationsdesign og bogen hjælper med at skabe mere reflekterende forskining og stærkere empiriske analyser inden for dette vigtige felt inden...

  9. Contrasting clinical evidence for market authorisation of cardio-vascular devices in Europe and the USA: a systematic analysis of 10 devices based on Austrian pre-reimbursement assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Claudia; Erdös, Judit; Zechmeister, Ingrid

    2014-11-04

    European medical device regulation is under scrutiny and will be re-regulated with stricter rules concerning requirements for clinical evidence for high-risk medical devices. It is the aim of this study to analyse the differences between Europe and USA in dealing with risks and benefits of new cardio-vascular devices. Since no information is available on clinical data used by the Notified Body for CE-marking, data from Austrian pre-reimbursement assessments close to European market approval were used as proxy and compared with clinical data available at time of market approval by FDA in the USA. 10 cardio-vascular interventions with 27 newly CE approved medical devices were analysed. The time lag between market authorisation in Europe and in the USA is 3 to 7 years. Only 7 CE-marked devices also hold a FDA market approval, 7 further devices are in FDA approved ongoing efficacy trials. For 4 of the CE-marked devices the FDA market application or the approval-trial was either suspended due to efficacy or safety concerns or the approval was denied. Evidence available at time of CE-marking are most often case-series or small feasibility RCTs, while large RCTs and only in rare cases prospective cohort studies are the basis of FDA approvals. Additionally, the FDA often requires post-approval studies for high-risk devices. Market authorisation based on mature clinical data deriving from larger RCTs and longer follow-ups do not only change the perspective on the risk-benefit ratio, but also secures real patient benefit and safety and assures payers of investing only in truly innovative devices.

  10. Long-term Study of Tubeless Insulin Pump Therapy Compared to Multiple Daily Injections in Youth with Type 1 Diabetes: Data from the German/Austrian DPV-Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danne, Thomas; Schwandt, Anke; Biester, Torben; Heidtmann, Bettina; Rami-Merhar, Birgit; Haberland, Holger; Müther, Silvia; Khodaverdi, Semik; Haak, Thomas; Holl, Reinhard W

    2018-02-15

    To examine glycemic control in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) who switched from multiple daily injections (MDI) to a tubeless insulin pump (Omnipod ® Insulin Management System, Insulet Corp., Billerica, MA) compared to patients who continued MDI therapy over a 3-year time period. This retrospective analysis of the German/Austrian Diabetes Patienten Verlaufsdokumentation (DPV) registry included data from 263 centers and 2529 patients insulin pump; n=1869 MDI) who initiated treatment on a tubeless insulin pump as of January 1, 2013 and had 1 year of data pre-switch from MDI and 3 years of data post-switch to a tubeless pump. Outcomes included the change in HbA1c, insulin dose and BMI standard deviation score (SDS). Youth with T1D who switched from MDI therapy to a tubeless insulin pump showed better glycemic control at 1 year compared to patients who continued MDI treatment, adjusted mean±SE: 7.5%±0.03 (58 mmol/mol) vs. 7.7%±0.02 (61 mmol/mol); pinsulin dose was lower (pinsulin pump group, 0.80±0.01, 0.81±0.01 and 0.85±0.01 U/kg vs. the MDI group 0.89±0.01, 0.94±0.01 and 0.97±0.01 U/kg, at 1-, 2- and 3-years, respectively (all pinsulin pump in youth with T1D was associated with improvements in glycemic control compared to MDI after 1 year and appears to be an effective alternative to MDI. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Beyond and between academia and business: How Austrian biotechnology researchers describe high-tech startup companies as spaces of knowledge production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fochler, Maximilian

    2016-04-01

    Research and innovation policy has invested considerable effort in creating new institutional spaces at the interface of academia and business. High-tech startups founded by academic entrepreneurs have been central to these policy imaginaries. These companies offer researchers new possibilities beyond and between academia and larger industry. However, the field of science and technology studies has thus far shown only limited interest in understanding these companies as spaces of knowledge production. This article analyses how researchers working in small and medium-sized biotechnology companies in Vienna, Austria, describe the cultural characteristics of knowledge production in this particular institutional space. It traces how they relate these characteristics to other institutional spaces they have experienced in their research biographies, such as in academia or larger corporations. It shows that the reasons why researchers decide to work in biotechnology companies and how they organize their work are deeply influenced by their perception of deficiencies in the conditions for epistemic work in contemporary academia and, to a lesser degree, in industry.

  12. Lifetime accumulation of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K in the ribs and sternum of an Austrian 'mountain pasture' cow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabitsch, Herbert [Institut fuer Materialphysik, AG Strahlenphysik, Technische Universitaet Graz, Steyrergasse 17, A-8010 Graz (Austria)], E-mail: rabitsch@tugraz.at; Pichl, Elke [Strahlenmesstechnik Graz, Steyrergasse 17, A-8010 Graz (Austria)

    2008-12-15

    The accumulation of natural and artificial radionuclides in humans and domestic animals is of interest in estimating effective doses of exposed humans and to decide whether animal products can be used for nutrition of the population. In this paper we present an investigation of the {sup 137}Cs- and {sup 40}K-activity levels of the ribs and sternum of a 'mountain pasture' cow, born in a highly contaminated region of Styria, Austria, at the time of the radioactive fallout following the Chernobyl accident. This is the first systematic investigation of the variation in activity levels of a contaminated animal. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) assumes that cesium and potassium are homogenously distributed throughout the whole body of an organism. However, the presented results show that there is a non-uniform distribution of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K in different skeletal bones and their adherent tissues of a dairy cattle. We found that activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K varied up to a factor 2.5 in different components of the ribs. The minimum values of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K in the ribs were 29.9 and 21 Bq kg{sup -1} fresh mass for trabecular bone in the vertebral half of asternal ribs, and the maximum values 332 and 132 Bq kg{sup -1} fresh mass for a mixed sample composed of a cartilaginous tissue layer and parts of the perichondrium, both originating from asternal costal cartilages, respectively.

  13. Influence of large wood on channel hydraulics, sediment (dis-)connectivity and channel morphology in a medium-sized mixed-load Austrian stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchardt, Anne; Pöppl, Ronald; Morche, David

    2017-04-01

    It is widely known that large wood (LW) in rivers alters channel hydraulics, channel morphology and sediment transport. Channel spanning LW can create blocking barriers, steps and dams which store sediment and organic material in small reservoirs for the lifetime of the damming structure. Otherwise, the breach of LW key logs and jams makes the long term stored sediment available for fluvial transport. However, detailed field measurements on the distribution of LW and its influence on hydraulic variables, channel morphology and (especially) sediment connectivity are still rare, thus further constituting the major aim of this study. The study was performed along the lower reaches ( 6 km) of the Fugnitz River, a mixed-load, medium-sized (catchment area 130 km2) single-thread perennial stream, located in the Bohemian Massif, Austria. The spatial distribution and characterization of LW (>1 m in length and >10 cm in diameter) was examined along the main stem via field mapping and dGPS measurements. Hydraulic channel parameters (e.g. channel gradient, cross-sectional profiles) and volumes of retained sediment were determined via field measurements, while channel morphology incl. indications of LW-induced geomorphic processes (e.g. bank undercutting, scouring) was obtained via geomorphic mapping. Flow characteristics and bed load transport rates were measured using an Ott-Nautilus and a portable Helley-Smith bed load sampler during different water stages. Additionally, bed sediment textures were examined by performing pebble count analyses. In-channel LW accumulations (total volume of 588 m3) were primarily observed in meandering river reaches as well as in reaches with steep hillslopes. 36% of all LW accumulations were classified as dams, steps or deflectors altering flow conditions or creating backwater areas decreasing sediment connectivity. Highest volumes of sediment storage (total volume of 26 m3) have been primarily recorded at locations where bank erosion processes

  14. Performance and completion assessment of an in-situ aerated municipal solid waste landfill - Final scientific documentation of an Austrian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrad, Marlies; Huber-Humer, Marion

    2017-05-01

    By converting anaerobic landfills into a biologically stabilized state through accelerating aerobic organic matter degradation, the effort and duration necessary for post-closure procedures can be shortened. In Austria, the first full-scale application of in-situ landfill aeration by means of low pressure air injection with simultaneous off-gas collection and treatment was implemented on an old MSW-landfill and operated between 2007 and 2013. Besides complementary laboratory investigations, which included waste sampling from the landfill site prior to aeration start, a comprehensive field monitoring program was conducted to assess the influence of the aeration measure on the emission behavior of the landfilled waste during the aeration period as well as after aeration completion. Although the initial waste material was described as rather stable, the lab-scale aeration tests indicated a significant improvement of the leachate quality and even the biological solid waste stability. However, the aeration success was less pronounced for the application at the landfill site, mainly due to technical limitations in the full-scale operation. In this paper main performance data of the field investigation are compared to four other scientifically documented case studies along with stability indicators for solid waste and leachate characteristics in order to evaluate the success of aeration as well as the progress of a landfill towards completion and end of post-closure care. A number of quantitative benchmarks and relevant context information for the performance assessment of the five hitherto conducted international aeration projects are proposed aiming to support the systematization and harmonization of available results from diverse field studies and full-scale applications in future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Organic superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerome, D.

    1980-01-01

    We present the experimental evidences for the existence of a superconducting state in the Quasi One Dimensional organic conductor (TMTSF) 2 PF 6 . Superconductivity occuring at 1 K under 12 kbar is characterized by a zero resistance diamagnetic state. The anistropy of the upper critical field of this type II superconductor is consistent with the band structure anistropy. We present evidences for the existence of large superconducting precursor effects giving rise to a dominant paraconductive contribution below 40 K. We also discuss the anomalously large pressure dependence of T sb(s), which drops to 0.19 K under 24 kbar in terms of the current theories. (author)

  16. Organic Nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balzer, Frank; Schiek, Manuela; Al-Shamery, Katharina

    Single crystalline nanowires from fluorescing organic molecules like para-phenylenes or thiophenes are supposed to become key elements in future integrated optoelectronic devices [1]. For a sophisticated design of devices based on nanowires the basic principles of the nanowire formation have...... to be well understood [2]. Nanowires from para-phenylenes, from ®-thiophenes, and from phenylene/thiophene co-oligomers, Fig. 1, are investigated exemplarily. Epitaxy and electrostatic interactions determine the microscopic growth mechanism, whereas kinetics ascertains the macroscopic habit. Results from...

  17. Organizing Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Bojesen, Anders

    This paper invites to discuss the processes of individualization and organizing being carried out under what we might see as an emerging regime of change. The underlying argumentation is that in certain processes of change, competence becomes questionable at all times. The hazy characteristics...... of this regime of change are pursued through a discussion of competencies as opposed to qualifications illustrated by distinct cases from the Danish public sector in the search for repetitive mechanisms. The cases are put into a general perspective by drawing upon experiences from similar change processes...

  18. Organic photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna; Krebs, Frederik C.; Chen, Hongzheng

    2013-12-01

    Energy inflation, the constant encouragement to economize on energy consumption and the huge investments in developing alternative energy resources might seem to suggest that there is a global shortage of energy. Far from it, the energy the Sun beams on the Earth each hour is equivalent to a year's supply, even at our increasingly ravenous rate of global energy consumption [1]. But it's not what you have got it's what you do with it. Hence the intense focus on photovoltaic research to find more efficient ways to harness energy from the Sun. Recently much of this research has centred on organic solar cells since they offer simple, low-cost, light-weight and large-area flexible photovoltaic structures. This issue with guest editors Frederik C Krebs and Hongzheng Chen focuses on some of the developments at the frontier of organic photovoltaic technology. Improving the power conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaic systems, while maintaining the inherent material, economic and fabrication benefits, has absorbed a great deal of research attention in recent years. Here significant progress has been made with reports now of organic photovoltaic devices with efficiencies of around 10%. Yet operating effectively across the electromagnetic spectrum remains a challenge. 'The trend is towards engineering low bandgap polymers with a wide optical absorption range and efficient hole/electron transport materials, so that light harvesting in the red and infrared region is enhanced and as much light of the solar spectrum as possible can be converted into an electrical current', explains Mukundan Thelakkat and colleagues in Germany, the US and UK. In this special issue they report on how charge carrier mobility and morphology of the active blend layer in thin film organic solar cells correlate with device parameters [2]. The work contributes to a better understanding of the solar-cell characteristics of polymer:fullerene blends, which form the material basis for some of the most

  19. Organizing Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Bojesen, Anders

    This paper invites to discuss the processes of individualization and organizing being carried out under what we might see as an emerging regime of change. The underlying argumentation is that in certain processes of change, competence becomes questionable at all times. The hazy characteristics...... of this regime of change are pursued through a discussion of competencies as opposed to qualifications illustrated by distinct cases from the Danish public sector in the search for repetitive mechanisms. The cases are put into a general perspective by drawing upon experiences from similar change processes...... in MNCs. The paper concludes by asking whether we can escape from a regime of competence in a world defined by a rhetoric of change and create a more promising world in which doubt and search serve as a strategy for gaining knowledge and professionalism that improve on our capability for mutualism....

  20. Organic photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demming, Anna; Krebs, Frederik C; Chen, Hongzheng

    2013-01-01

    spectrum as possible can be converted into an electrical current', explains Mukundan Thelakkat and colleagues in Germany, the US and UK. In this special issue they report on how charge carrier mobility and morphology of the active blend layer in thin film organic solar cells correlate with device...... and solar energy, what a source of power! I hope we don't have to wait until oil and coal run out, before we tackle that'. Born in the wake of the industrial revolution when coal was king, the words seem strangely anachronistic and ahead of his time. As an undisputed genius of inventions it should...... not surprise us that he had such remarkable foresight, nor that the present generation of innovators are 'tackling' the opportunity with such promise and success, as the work in this special issue clearly demonstrates. References [1] http...

  1. Alpine meadows and pastures after abandonment. Results of the Austrian MaB-programme and the EC-STEP project INTEGRALP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tappeiner, Ulrike

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of a study on the behaviour of alpine ecosystems after the abandon of farming practices. The work has been carried out in Gastein Valley (Austria, the High Tauern National Park (Austria and the Mt. Bondone (Italy. In the three places different phases of plant succession have been studied, and several ecologic parameters, such as the energy budget, the carbon budget, the canopy structure and many interactions between organisms were measured. Over 20 specialists have worked on the data gathering and analysis. Among the main observed results we can count the relative instability of abandoned plots; the diversity and the specific richness decrease; light becomes there a limiting factor because of the canopy growth; the degradation of litterfall becomes slower than in grazed plots; surface erosion and runoff decrease strongly, and so on. Commonly, the abandoned alpine pastures show a transition situation between the artificial equilibrium status kept by livestock and the natural equilibrium corresponding to climatic communities.

    [es] Se presentan los resultados de un análisis sobre el comportamiento de los ecosistemas alpinos durante el abandono de las prácticas agrícolas en los mismos. Los trabajos se han llevado a cabo en el valle de Gastein (Austria, en el Parque Nacional del Alto Tauern (Austria y en el Monte Bondone (Italia. En los tres lugares se han estudiado distintas fases de la sucesión vegetal, midiéndose numerosos parámetros ecológicos, como el balance de carbono, el balance energético, la estructura de la cubierta vegetal y distintas interacciones entre organismos. Más de 20 especialistas han intervenido en la toma y análisis de los datos. Entré los principales resultados observados se cuentan el aumento de diversidad en las áreas abandonadas y su relativa inestabilidad; en ellas la luz se convierte en un factor limitante; la degradación de la hojarasca y la materia muerta se hace más lenta; la

  2. Results of the Austrian CT dose study 2010. Typical effective doses of the most frequent CT examinations; Ergebnisse der Oesterreichischen CT-Dosisstudie 2010. Effektive Dosen der haeufigsten CT-Untersuchungen und Unterschiede zwischen Anwendern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homolka, Peter; Leithner, Robert; Billinger, Jochen [Medizinische Universitaet Wien (Austria). Zentrum fuer Medizinische Physik und Biomedizinische Technik; Gruber, Michael [Medizinische Universitaet Wien (Austria). Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: To determine typical doses from common CT examinations of standard sized adult patients and their variability between CT operators for common CT indications. Materials and Methods: In a nationwide Austrian CT dose survey doses from approx. 10,000 common CT examinations of adults during 2009 and 2010 were collected and 'typical' radiation doses to the 'average patient', which turned out to have 75.6 kg body mass, calculated. Conversion coefficients from DLP to effective dose were determined and effective doses calculated according to ICRP 103. Variations of typically applied doses to the 'average patient' were expressed as ratios between 90{sup th} and 10{sup th} percentile (inter-percentile width, IPW90/10), 1st and 3{sup rd} quartile (IPW75/25), and Maximum/Minimum. Results: Median effective doses to the average patients for standard head and neck scans were 1.8 mSv (cervical spine), 1.9 mSv (brain: trauma/bleeding, stroke) to 2.2 mSv (brain: masses) with typical variation between facilities of a factor 2.5 (IPW90/10) and 1.7 (IPW75/25). In the thorax region doses were 6.4 to 6.8 mSv (pulmonary embolism, pneumonia and inflammation, oncologic scans), the variation between facilities was by a factor of 2.1 (IPW90/10) and 1.5 (IPW75/25), respectively. In the abdominal region median effective doses from 6.5 mSv (kidney stone search) to 22 mSv (liver lesions) were found (acute abdomen, staging/metastases, lumbar spine: 9-12 mSv; oncologic abdomen plus chest 16 mSv; renal tumor 20 mSv). Variation factors between facilities were on average for abdominal scans 2.7 (IPW90/10) and 1.8 (IPW75/25). Conclusion: Variations between CT operators are generally moderate for most operators, but in some indications the ratio between the minimum and the maximum of average dose to the typical standard patients exceeds a factor of 4 or even 5. Therefore, comparing average doses to Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs) and optimizing protocols need to

  3. Deregulated expression of EVI1 defines a poor prognostic subset of MLL-rearranged acute myeloid leukemias: a study of the German-Austrian Acute Myeloid Leukemia Study Group and the Dutch-Belgian-Swiss HOVON/SAKK Cooperative Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröschel, Stefan; Schlenk, Richard F; Engelmann, Jan; Rockova, Veronika; Teleanu, Veronica; Kühn, Michael W M; Eiwen, Karina; Erpelinck, Claudia; Havermans, Marije; Lübbert, Michael; Germing, Ulrich; Schmidt-Wolf, Ingo G H; Beverloo, H Berna; Schuurhuis, Gerrit J; Ossenkoppele, Gert J; Schlegelberger, Brigitte; Verdonck, Leo F; Vellenga, Edo; Verhoef, Gregor; Vandenberghe, Peter; Pabst, Thomas; Bargetzi, Mario; Krauter, Jürgen; Ganser, Arnold; Valk, Peter J M; Löwenberg, Bob; Döhner, Konstanze; Döhner, Hartmut; Delwel, Ruud

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the prognostic value of ecotropic viral integration 1 gene (EVI1) overexpression in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with MLL gene rearrangements. We identified 286 patients with AML with t(11q23) enrolled onto German-Austrian Acute Myeloid Leukemia Study Group and Dutch-Belgian-Swiss Hemato-Oncology Cooperative Group prospective treatment trials. Material was available from 177 AML patients for EVI1 expression analysis. We divided 286 MLL-rearranged AMLs into three subgroups: t(9;11)(p22;q23) (44.8%), t(6;11)(q27;q23) (14.7%), and t(v;11q23) (40.5%). EVI1 overexpression (EVI1(+)) was found in 45.8% of all patients with t(11q23), with t(6;11) showing the highest frequency (83.9%), followed by t(9;11) at 40.0%, and t(v;11q23) at 34.8%. Concurrent gene mutations were rare or absent in all three subgroups. Within all t(11q23) AMLs, EVI1(+) was the sole prognostic factor, predicting for inferior overall survival (OS; hazard ratio [HR], 2.06; P = .003), relapse-free survival (HR, 2.28; P = .002), and event-free survival (HR, 1.79; P = .009). EVI1(+) AMLs with t(11q23) in first complete remission (CR) had a significantly better outcome after allogeneic transplantation compared with other consolidation therapies (5-year OS, 54.7% v 0%; Mantel-Byar, P = .0006). EVI1(-) t(9;11) AMLs had lower WBC counts, more commonly FAB M5 morphology, and frequently had additional trisomy 8 (39.6%; P < .001). Among t(9;11) AMLs, EVI1(+) again was the sole independent adverse prognostic factor for survival. Deregulated EVI1 expression defines poor prognostic subsets among AML with t(11q23) and AML with t(9;11)(p22;q23). Patients with EVI1(+) MLL-rearranged AML seem to benefit from allogeneic transplantation in first CR.

  4. Hierarchical organization versus self-organization

    OpenAIRE

    Busseniers, Evo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we try to define the difference between hierarchical organization and self-organization. Organization is defined as a structure with a function. So we can define the difference between hierarchical organization and self-organization both on the structure as on the function. In the next two chapters these two definitions are given. For the structure we will use some existing definitions in graph theory, for the function we will use existing theory on (self-)organization. In the t...

  5. Integration of refugees in Austrian universities

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa, Ola

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The flow of migration recently in Europe with high numbers of asylum-seekers influenced not only the demographic scale of the European countries, but also the governmental instrumentality through which the crisis can be tackled. In regards to higher education sector, the social dimension of higher educational institutions has consequential responsibility in response to the refugee crisis in Europe. In this study, the amplitude of the research is to investigate the various integration...

  6. Annual report 1992 - Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillebrand, G.

    1994-01-01

    This is a non-technical progress report (in German) of the activities of the Research Centre Seibersdorf in the fields of energy and safety, materials research, isotope and radiation techniques, environment protection, health and food and industrial consulting. Within other non nuclear related highlights the newly built radio-pharmaceutical laboratory is described, which will guarantee the reliable supply of products and develop new diagnostic and therapeutic preparations. A newly developed whole-body counter for measuring internal radiation is in use in the Vienna General Hospital to obtain better information of the patient's metabolism and can thus assess the efficiency of pharmaceuticals. The research in the field of toxicology and carcinogenicity was intensified. Geological dating was performed for the 'Continental Deep-Drilling Programme' on behalf of the Max Planck Institute. Environmental data acquisition was mainly conducted in the field of ozone, water quality, air pollution and electro-smog (quittner, rieger)

  7. Annual report 1992 - Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillebrand, G.

    1994-01-01

    This is a non-technical progress report (in English) of the activities of the Research Centre Seibersdorf in the fields of energy and safety, materials research, isotope and radiation techniques, environment protection, health and food and industrial consulting. Within other non nuclear related highlights the newly built radio-pharmaceutical laboratory is described, which will guarantee the reliable supply of products and develop new diagnostic and therapeutic preparations. A newly developed whole-body counter for measuring internal radiation is in use in the Vienna General Hospital to obtain better information of the patient's metabolism and can thus assess the efficiency of pharmaceuticals. The research in the field of toxicology and carcinogenicity was intensified. Geological dating was performed for the 'Continental Deep-Drilling Programme' on behalf of the Max Planck Institute. Environmental data acquisition was mainly conducted in the field of ozone, water quality, air pollution and electro-smog (quittner, rieger)

  8. MedAustron - Austrian Hadron Therapy Centre

    CERN Document Server

    Benedikt, M; 10.1109/NSSMIC.2008.4774090

    2009-01-01

    MedAustron is a synchrotron based accelerator facility for cancer treatment with proton and carbon ion beams. In addition to the clinical application, the accelerator will also provide beams for non-clinical research, in the fields of medical radiation physics, radiation biology and experimental physics.

  9. The Austrian prize list; Le palmares autrichien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonas, A.; Gortler, F. [LK Oberosterreich (Austria)

    1999-06-01

    The Austria took stock on the wood furnaces from 1983 to 1997. Many tables present the annual power of automatic installations and networks, the installations number and their localization. Facing the fossil energies competition, the development of this energy needs a government financial assistance to keep its increase. (A.L.B.)

  10. Institutional patterns in the Austrian space sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Annie; Burg, Elco van; Giannopapa, Christina

    2018-01-01

    This paper employs the institutional logics perspective to understand how space policies and regulations influences entrepreneurship and innovation. We conducted interviews with entrepreneurs, ESA policy makers and governmental representatives in Austria and identified six prevailing institutional practices: geographical return, the SME-initiatives, the national support pattern, the size pattern, the consortium pattern and the experience pattern. Together, these patterns make up the semi-governmental logic of the space sector. We find that space actors adhere to these patterns to earn legitimacy, which is a condition for support and access to resources. This study adds to our understanding in the consequences of policies and contributes to the design of new space policies and programmes.

  11. Austrian Students and Smoking: Prevalence and Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glawischnig, Markus; Reichmann, Gerhard; Sommersguter-Reichmann, Margit

    2009-01-01

    There is little data on the smoking behaviour of the population of Austria. The available information hardly goes beyond some figures on the number of regular smokers and the amount of cigarettes consumed per person per year. Equally, statutory anti-smoking measures in Austria lag considerably behind those of other countries, especially the U.S.…

  12. The position of the Austrian electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fremuth, W.

    1986-01-01

    A review is made of the position of the electricity supply industry in Austria and its comparison with that of other countries. Hydraulic, thermal, and nuclear power sources are considered and it is shown that the policy has followed to some extent a zig-zag course. The educational system is discussed in its relation to the electrical industry, and it is emphasised that every effort is necessary to advance the electrical economy on which living standards so largely depend. (A.G.P.)

  13. Entrepreneurship and the Firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.

    While characteristically "Austrian" themes such as entrepreneurship, economic calculation, tacit knowledge and the temporal structure of capital are clearly relevant to the business firm, Austrian economists have said relatively little about management, organization and strategy. This work features...

  14. The Long-Term Effectiveness and Cost Effectiveness of Organized versus Opportunistic Screening for Breast Cancer in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller-Fruehwirth, Irmgard; Jahn, Beate; Einzinger, Patrick; Zauner, Günther; Urach, Christoph; Siebert, Uwe

    2017-09-01

    In 2014, Austrian health authorities implemented an organized breast cancer screening program. Until then, there has been a long-standing tradition of opportunistic screening. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of organized screening compared with opportunistic screening, as well as to identify factors influencing the clinical and economic outcomes. We developed and validated an individual-level state-transition model and assessed the health outcomes and costs of organized and opportunistic screening for 40-year-old asymptomatic women. The base-case analysis compared a scenario involving organized biennial screening with a scenario reflecting opportunistic screening practice for an average-risk woman aged 45 to 69 years. We applied an annual discount rate of 3% and estimated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio in terms of the cost (2012 euros) per life-year gained (LYG) from a health care perspective. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to assess uncertainty. Compared with opportunistic screening, an organized program yielded on average additional 0.0118 undiscounted life-years (i.e., 4.3 days) and cost savings of €41 per woman. In the base-case analysis, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of organized screening was approximately €20,000 per LYG compared with no screening. Assuming a willingness-to-pay threshold of €50,000 per LYG, there was a 70% probability that organized screening would be considered cost-effective. The attendance rate, but not the test accuracy of mammography, was an influential factor for the cost-effectiveness. The decision to adopt organized screening is likely an efficient use of limited health care resources in Austria. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. РОЗВИТОК ПСИХІАТРИЧНОЇ ДОПОМОГИ НА ПІВНІЧНІЙ БУКОВИНІ ПІД ВЛАДОЮ АВСТРІЙСЬКОЇ МОНАРХІЇ / DEVELOPMENT OF PSYCHIATRIC CARE AT THE NORTHERN BUKOVINA UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF THE AUSTRIAN MONARCHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталія ВАСИЛЬЄВА

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vasylieva N., Yaremchuk O. Development of psychiatpsychiatric care at the Northern Bukovina under the authauthority of the Austrian monarchy. Medicine has always based its development on certain Medicine has always based its development on certain theoretical postulates that have been the basis for the creation of practical measures to improve health. Formulation of theoretical postulates always begins with a study of the stages of their development, achievements and mistakes. In other words, an expert on higher education, which represents modern medicine, can not know its history. History of medicine helps to understand the current state of the healthcare industry and provide prospects for its development. However, it is understood that the development of medicine affect a variety of factors, such as socio-political processes, state of the regional economy and others. Analyzing the literature on the history of health, including mental (psychiatric health care in Northern Bukovina, concludes that in this issue there are some contradictions and inaccuracies, including at the mention of the names of which was found as a result of the search operation. This is probably due to the large number of publications is journalistic nature and insufficient analysis of the works of historians and documents from the collections of the State Archives of Chernivtsi region. The article deals with the questions of establishment and development of medical, particularly psychiatric health care organization principles in the territory of Northern Bukovina during her time under the rule of the Austrian monarchy. According to historical documents into development of psychiatric health care has been amended. Characteristic of administration staff, changes in the structure, material and technical conditions of regional psychiatric hospital was described. Opening a separate hospital for patients with psychiatric diseases was in 1902. Until 1902, patients with psychiatric

  16. Soil CO2 response to organic and amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil samples were obtained from under actively growing Austrian winter peas and from 2 m away in a plot that had no winter peas or other legumes growing in its cover crop mix. Soils were treated with 5 carbon compounds (oxalic, malic, citric, glycine and arginine) including a control (DI water) and...

  17. Towards a Sustainable Spatial Organization of the Energy System: Backcasting Experiences from Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Knoflacher

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The transition to a sustainable energy system faces more challenges than a simple replacement of fossil energy sources by renewable ones. Since current structures do not favor sustainable energy generation and use, it is indispensable to change the existing infrastructure. A fundamental change of the energy system also requires re-organizing spatial structures and their respective institutions and governance structures. Especially in Austria, urban sprawl and unsustainable settlement structures are regarded as one of the main developments leading to increased energy demand. One of the aims within the project E-Trans 2050 was to identify socio-economic constellations that are central to the further transformation of the energy system and to focus on actors and their socio-technical framework conditions. Based on a sustainable future vision for the year 2050 a backcasting workshop was conducted to identify necessary steps for the envisaged transition to a more sustainable energy system. The results shed light on the necessary changes for a transformation towards sustainability in the specific Austrian situation. Critical issues are region-specific production of energy and its use, settlement and regional structures and values and role models, which all have a determining influence on energy demand. Combining the knowledge of extensive energy use with available energy resources in spatial planning decisions is a main challenge towards a long term sustainable energy system.

  18. Ordered organic-organic multilayer growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Stephen R; Lunt, Richard R

    2015-01-13

    An ordered multilayer crystalline organic thin film structure is formed by depositing at least two layers of thin film crystalline organic materials successively wherein the at least two thin film layers are selected to have their surface energies within .+-.50% of each other, and preferably within .+-.15% of each other, whereby every thin film layer within the multilayer crystalline organic thin film structure exhibit a quasi-epitaxial relationship with the adjacent crystalline organic thin film.

  19. Influence of Selected Organic Micropollutants on Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarczyk-Makuła, Maria

    2017-03-01

    This article describes the toxicity of organic micropollutants on tested microorganisms. Itis a current issue because organic micropollutants are identified in all elements of environmental (surface water, ground water, soils) and in food products. The organic micropollutants include: polychlorinated dibenzodioxyns PCDD, polychlorinated dibenzofurans PCDF, polychlorinated biphenyls PCB, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAH, halogenated compounds and by-products of water treatment. Some organic compounds cause hazard for health and human life due to their estrogenic biological activity, carcinogenic, mutagenic or teratogenic activity. The influence on organisms indicators of these compounds based on literature data were presented. The level of TEQ (toxic equivalency) in response to organic chlorine derivatives (PCDDs, PCDF, PCBs) is usually determined by toxic equivalency factor (TEF). The International Agency for Research on Cancer classifies organic micropollutants as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1), possibly carcinogenic (Group 2A) or probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B).

  20. Agriculture: Organic Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic Farming - Organically grown food is food grown and processed using no synthetic fertilizers or pesticides. Pesticides derived from natural sources (such as biological pesticides) may be used in producing organically grown food.

  1. A Scarcity of Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areen, Judith

    1988-01-01

    Resistance to organ donation and the continuing shortage of donated organs is discussed and four legal approaches to organ acquisition are examined. A fifth, based on the principle of supported individual autonomy, is proposed. (MSE)

  2. Evolving Procurement Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Laiho, Aki; Laine, Jari

    in future studies in the fields of hybrid procurement organizations, global sourcing organizations as well as international procurement offices (IPOs). From a practical standpoint, an assessment of external and internal contingencies provides the opportunity to consciously match organization to its...

  3. Organic poultry farming

    OpenAIRE

    Hermansen, John E.; Horsted, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    The development in organic livestock production can be attributed to an increased consumer inter-est in organic products while, at the same time, farmers are interested in converting to organic pro-duction methods – often stimulated by governmental support or subsidies. It is important that the organic production systems can fulfil the expectations of each of these stakeholders if the organic livestock production is to increase further. This is in particular important if the organic poultry p...

  4. Ashes for organic farming

    OpenAIRE

    Kousa, T.; Heinonen, M.; Suoniitty, T.; Peltonen, K.

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays only eight percent of the cultivated field area is used for organic farming. The Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry has published the guidelines for the program of organic farming to diversify the supply and the consumption of organic food. The aim is to increase organically arable land to 20% by the year 2020.The demand of organic fertilizer products is strongly increasing. Interest in forestry by-products (ash, bark, zero fiber, etc.) for use in organic production has recently be...

  5. Functional organic thin films

    OpenAIRE

    Scharnberg, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Organic thin films are used in many technological and engineering applications nowadays. They find use as coatings, sensors, detectors, as matrix materials in nanocomposites, as self-assembled monolayers for surface functionalization, as low-k dielectrics in integrated circuits and in advanced organic electronic applications like organic light emitting diodes, organic field effect transistors and organic photovoltaics (esp. organic solar cells) and many other applications. OLED displays are n...

  6. Organizations Utilize Lateral Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Jacqueline C.

    2017-01-01

    The structures that subscribe to different organization play a major role and determine how information flows throughout an organization as well as the reporting structure within the organization. In some organization, decision making rely with the top management, and in other organizations, decision making responsibilities may be distributed within the organization. The latter part is what mainly constitutes a lateral structural arrangement where various departments work hand in hand in achi...

  7. Yersinia enterocolitica organism (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This picture shows the organism Yersinia enterocolitica . Yersinia organisms cause a wide range of disease but are most often associated with diarrhea or gastrointestinal symptoms. Yersinia infection is ...

  8. Österreichischer Muster-Leistungskatalog Physikalische Medizin – empirische Grundlagen zur Wirksamkeit der Inhalte [Austrian catalogue of services of physical medicine – empirical basis of the effectiveness of the contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilbacher, Ingrid

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: An existing catalogue of services of physical medicine as a basic guideline for contracts with physicians and institutes in the Austrian Social Health Insurance Setting was checked for the evidence of the services. The main focus for this is the outpatient setting.Method: Based on the level of services (not indications nine systematic literature reviews were done using the databases Pubmed, PEDRO and Cochrane and were concluded in this overview-report. Results: More than 180 studies were included in the several literature reviews. There is good evidence for active exercises like aerobic, strengthening, stretching, graded activity, training of the back muscles and coordination training. Positive results are reported for pain decrease and functional increase especially for chronic musculoskeletal disorders. However, exercise is not a universal remedy: there are negative results for the effectiveness of exercise for indications like asthma, dysmenorrheal, epilepsy and psychiatric disorders.Limited evidence was found for exercise supported by mechanical devices, the studies found mainly focus on traction. Manual therapies and mobilization do not show clear evidence for a recommendation, and they have an unclear potential of harm. There is fair positive evidence for electro physical therapy (TENS for indications connected with pain and conflicting evidence for middle- and high frequent electro therapy modalities. Thermotherapy does not show clear advantages over placebo.Conclusion: There is positive evidence for the effectiveness of active exercises and conflicting evidence for passive treatment modalities for musculoskeletal conditions. There are methodical limitations due to the comparability in many of the studies using different outcomes, different scores for outcome measurement, subjective outcome indicators and a huge range of different indications where physical therapy modalities are done. Additional therapies, like pain

  9. Soluble organic nutrient fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Qualls; Bruce L. Haines; Wayne Swank

    2014-01-01

    Our objectives in this study were (i) compare fluxes of the dissolved organic nutrients dissolved organic carbon (DOC), DON, and dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) in a clearcut area and an adjacent mature reference area. (ii) determine whether concentrations of dissolved organic nutrients or inorganic nutrients were greater in clearcut areas than in reference areas,...

  10. China's Organic Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Paull, John

    2008-01-01

    Agriculture in China is at the onset of an Organic Revolution. From 2000 to 2006, China has moved from 45th to 2nd position in the world in number of hectares under organic management. China now has more land under organic horticulture than any other country. In the year 2005/2006, China added 12% to the world’s organic area. This accounted for 63% of the world’s annual increase in organic land, and China now has 11% of the world’s organically managed land. The antecedents to China’s Organic ...

  11. Assessment of Soil Organic Carbon Stability in Agricultural Systems by Using Natural Abundance Signals of Stable Carbon and Nitrogen Isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Clercq, Tim; Heiling, Maria; Aigner, Martina

    2013-01-01

    Information on the stability and age of soil organic matter (SOM) pools is of vital importance for assessing the impact of soil management and environmental factors on SOM, an important part of the global carbon (C) cycle. The terrestrial soil organic C pool, up to a depth of 1 m, contains about 1500 Pg C (Batjes, 1996). This is about 2.5 times more organic C than the vegetation (650 Pg C) and about twice as much as in the atmosphere (750 Pg C) (Batjes, 1998), but the assessment of the stability and age of SOM using 14 C radio carbon technique are expensive. Conen et al. (2008) developed a model to estimate the SOM stability based on the isotopic discrimination of 15 N natural abundance by soil micro-organisms and the change in C/N ratio during organic matter decomposition, for steady state, Alpine and permanent grasslands. In the framework of the IAEA funded coordinated research project (CRP) on Soil Quality and Nutrient Management for Sustainable Food Production in Mulch based Cropping Systems in sub-Saharan Africa, research was initiated to use this model in agricultural systems for developing a cost effective and affordable technique for Member States to determine the stability of SOM. As part of this research, soil samples were taken and analysed in four long term field experiments, established on soils with low and high SOM, in Austria and Belgium. The participating institutions are the Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety (AGES), the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences in Vienna (BOKU), the University of Leuven (KUL), the Soil Service of Belgium (BDB) and the Centre Wallon de Recherches Agronomiques (CRA-W)

  12. Nitrogen-rich higher-molecular soil organic compounds patterned by lignin degradation products: Considerations on the nature of soil organic nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebner, Falk; Bertoli, Luca; Pour, Georg; Klinger, Karl; Ragab, Tamer; Rosenau, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    and NMR spectroscopy (1H, 13C, 15N), respectively. The reactions of hydroquinone, methyl hydroquinone and p-benzoquinone with ammonia and dimethyl-ammonium dimethylcarbamate - a source of dimethyl amine - affording the respective (substituted) 2,5-diamino-[1,4]benzoquinones under aerobic conditions have been studied by EPR spectroscopy for both oxygen-free and oxygen-rich conditions. 15N CPMAS NMR and XPS spectra of ammoxidized technical lignins and of ammoxidized low-molecular polyphenolic and quinoid products of the aerobic, microbial lignin degradation using 15N labeled aqueous ammonium hydroxide share many similarities, highly indicative for reaction sequences proceeding via common key intermediates. It has been demonstrated that 2,5-dihydroxy-[1,4]benzoquinone which can be surprisingly formed from both lignin and cellulose reacts with N nucleophiles to the respective 2,5-amino derivatives. The latter are semi-stable and react further to nitrogenous compounds of higher molecular weight. Hydroquinone and methoxy hydroquinone react even faster affording the respective 2,5-diamino-[1,4]benzoquinones. EPR experiments revealed that the reaction of hydroquinone with dimethyl amine proceed via radical intermediates. The results of this study strongly support the polyphenol theory and is hoped to contribute to a better understanding of nitrogen accumulation in soil organic matter. Acknowledgement The financial support by the Austrian Research Promotion Agency FFG (project FLIPPR: Future Lignin and Pulp Processing Research, 836650) and by The Austrian Science Fund FWF (project I154-N19) is gratefully acknowledged.

  13. Theology and Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier Sørensen, Bent; Spoelstra, Sverre; Höpfl, Heather

    2012-01-01

    of religious practices in organizations. Instead, theology of organization recognizes that the way we think about and act in organizations is profoundly structured by theological concepts. In this editorial to the special issue we have three aims: to outline what theology of organization is, to show how......This Introduction argues for the importance of theology for the study of organization. It also draws the contours of a possible ‘theology of organization’. Theology of organization, as we use it here, does not refer to a study of organization that is rooted in faith, nor does it refer to a study...... it builds upon Carl Schmitt’s ‘political theology’ and Giorgio Agamben’s ‘economic theology’ and finally to propose three different forms that theology of organization can take. These forms of theology of organization respectively (1) analyse organizational concepts as secularized theological concepts, (2...

  14. 11 June 2013- Autrian Federal President Dr Heinz Fischer and Federal Minister Prof. Dr Karlheinz Töchterle visit CMS cavern and LHC tunnel at Point 5 and the ASACUSA and AEGIS experiments on the AD. Signature of the guest book in the Globe of Science and Innovation after a round table with 10 young austrian scientists. Family photograph in front of an LHC magnet.

    CERN Multimedia

    TEAM VMO

    2013-01-01

    Welcome line: on French territory by the Representative of the French Republic S. Donnot, Sous-Préfet de Gex; CERN Director-General R. Heuer; Director for Research and Scientific Computing S. Bertolucci; Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers; Director for Administration and general Infrastructure S. Lettow; Head of Technology Department F. Bordry; CERN Austrian Circle Spokesperson F. Eder and CERN Protocol S. Molinari. First Lady and Federal Minister Töchterle follow. CERN-HI-1306154 19-32: in CMS conference room, building 3562: general presentation of the Laboratory by the DG; CERN-HI-1306154 33-43: visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5 with Head of Technology Department F. Bordry CERN-HI-1306154 44-64: in the CMS cavern with Collaboration Spokesperson J. Incandela and CMS and Austrian Academy of Sciences C. Wulz; CERN-HI-1306154 65-90: ASACUSA with E. Widmann and AEGIS with M. Doser. CERN-HI-1306154 91-115: round table, signatures and exchange of gifts in the Globe of Science and Innovation; fa...

  15. The Visual Dimension in Organizing, Organization, and Organization Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Renate E.; Höllerer, Markus A.; Jancsary, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    With the unprecedented rise in the use of visuals, and its undeniable omnipresence in organizational contexts, as well as in the individual's everyday life, organization and management science has recently started to pay closer attention to the to date under-theorized “visual mode” of discourse...... and meaning construction. Building primarily on insights from the phenomenological tradition in organization theory and from social semiotics, this article sets out to consolidate previous scholarly efforts and to sketch a fertile future research agenda. After briefly exploring the workings of visuals, we...... introduce the methodological and theoretical “roots” of visual studies in a number of disciplines that have a long-standing tradition of incorporating the visual. We then continue by extensively reviewing work in the field of organization and management studies: More specifically, we present five distinct...

  16. The Visual Dimension in Organizing, Organization and Organization Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Theo; Meyer, Renate; Hollerer, Markus

    2013-01-01

    With the unprecedented rise in the use of visuals, and its undeniable omnipresence in organizational contexts, as well as in the individual's everyday life, organization and management science has recently started to pay closer attention to the to date under-theorized "visual mode" of discourse...... and meaning constriction, Building primarily on insights from the phenomenological tradition in organization theory and from social semiotics, this article sets out to consolidate previous scholarly efforts and to sketch a fertile future research agenda, After briefly exploring the working of visuals, we...... introduce the methodological and theoretical roots of visual studies in a number of disciplines that have a long-standing tradition of incorporating the visual. We then continue by extensively reviewing work in the field of organization and management studies: More specifically, we present five distinct...

  17. MARKETING ORGANIZATION ACTIVITY IN SPORTS ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Župljanin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sports organizations as "sui generis" organizations inevitably have to adopt the concept of marketing as a business philosophy, if you want to survive and develop its activities in the modern business environment. Supply and demand as the market, and psychological phenomena are inherent in sports organizations. Sport is a special area of human activity in which marketing has a specific place and role. Sports and sporting events are also a massive public and media events and high level of interest involving multi-million audience. Between direct and indirect participants of these events takes place appropriate communication sociological, psychological and marketing character. The aim of this paper is to present the possibility of more efficient operation of sports organizations using and adopting the marketing concept as a philosophy of action.

  18. Organics in radwaste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, N.K.

    1988-10-01

    Seventeen papers, each processed separately cover the types of organic materials in radioactive wastes, their effect on repository performance and destruction of organics, including incineration, peroxide and wet oxidation and acid and biological digestion. (U.K.)

  19. Understanding Identity and Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger

    2013-01-01

    The article reviews the book "Understanding Identity and Organizations," by Kate Kenny, Andrea Whitle, and Hugh Wilmott.......The article reviews the book "Understanding Identity and Organizations," by Kate Kenny, Andrea Whitle, and Hugh Wilmott....

  20. Organic optoelectronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yongfang

    2015-01-01

    This volume reviews the latest trends in organic optoelectronic materials. Each comprehensive chapter allows graduate students and newcomers to the field to grasp the basics, whilst also ensuring that they have the most up-to-date overview of the latest research. Topics include: organic conductors and semiconductors; conducting polymers and conjugated polymer semiconductors, as well as their applications in organic field-effect-transistors; organic light-emitting diodes; and organic photovoltaics and transparent conducting electrodes. The molecular structures, synthesis methods, physicochemical and optoelectronic properties of the organic optoelectronic materials are also introduced and described in detail. The authors also elucidate the structures and working mechanisms of organic optoelectronic devices and outline fundamental scientific problems and future research directions. This volume is invaluable to all those interested in organic optoelectronic materials.

  1. Transparency in Organizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albu, Oana Brindusa

    to being a solution for efficiency and democratic organizing, is a communicatively contested process which may lead to unintended consequences. The dissertation shows that transparency is performative: it can impact authority by de/legitimating action, shape the processes of organizational identity co......This dissertation provides a critical analysis of transparency in the context of organizing. The empirical material is based on qualitative studies of international cooperative organizations. The dissertation seeks to contribute to transparency and organizing scholarship by adopting a communication...

  2. Motivated Self-Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Rougier, Nicolas,; Boniface, Yann

    2017-01-01

    International audience; We present in this paper a variation of the self-organizing map algorithm where the original time-dependent (learning rate and neighborhood) learning function is replaced by a time-invariant one. The resulting self-organization does not fit the magnification law and the final vector density is not directly proportional to the density of the distribution. This lead us to introduce the notion of motivated self-organization where the self-organization is biased toward som...

  3. The Matrix Organization Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gattiker, Urs E.; Ulhøi, John Parm

    1999-01-01

    This paper gives a short overview of matrix structure and technology management. It outlines some of the characteristics and also points out that many organizations may actualy be hybrids (i.e. mix several ways of organizing to allocate resorces effectively).......This paper gives a short overview of matrix structure and technology management. It outlines some of the characteristics and also points out that many organizations may actualy be hybrids (i.e. mix several ways of organizing to allocate resorces effectively)....

  4. Organ Harvesting and Transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskette, Kimberly G.; Ritz, John M.

    2010-01-01

    Humans and animals need healthy organs to live. Due to medical conditions and accidents, some organs fail to function properly. For these reasons, the medical community has experimented and can now perform successful organ transplants, allowing patients to continue to live their lives. Many countries have medical programs where individuals can…

  5. Organic consumption behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, Shuili; Bartels, Jos; Reinders, Machiel; Sen, Sankar

    2017-01-01

    Consumer demand for organic food and non-food products has been growing dramatically. This study examines organic consumption behavior from a social identification perspective. Focusing on the central role of organic consumer identification (OCI), or the extent to which individuals categorize

  6. Values in Organic Farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgård, Bente; Pedersen, Kirsten Bransholm; Land, Birgit

    The study focuses on the recent debate about what is, or what constitutes, organic farming and what is the right path for organic farming in the future. The study is based on a critical discourse analysis of the controversy about suspending the private standard for organic farming adopted by the ...

  7. Organ mass measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, H.

    1998-01-01

    The term, anatomical measurements, in the context of this Co-ordinated Research Programme refers to measurements of masses of internal organs, although the human body is composed of internal organs and tissues such as skeleton, muscle, skin and adipose. The mass of an organ containing a radionuclide (source organ), and the mass of a target organ which absorbs energy of the radiation, are essential parameters in the ICRP dosimetric model derived from the MIRD method. Twelve specific organs of interest were proposed at the Coordinated Research Programme Project Formulation Meeting (PFM) in 1988. A slightly different set of thirteen organs with potential significance for radiation protection were selected for study at the Research Co-ordination Meeting held at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre in 1991. The dimensions of the organs could also be useful information, but were considered unimportant for internal dose assessment. Due to the strong concern about the unified method for collecting organ mass data at the PFM, a guide-line was established stressing the need for organ data from subjects that were healthy and normal, at least until shortly before death, or from sudden death cases, following the Japanese experience. In this report, masses of nine to thirteen organs are presented from seven participating countries. Three participants have also reported the organ masses as fractions of the total body mass

  8. Nanostructured Organic Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radziwon, Michal Jędrzej; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Madsen, Morten

    Recent forecasts for alternative energy generation predict emerging importance of supporting state of art photovoltaic solar cells with their organic equivalents. Despite their significantly lower efficiency, number of application niches are suitable for organic solar cells. This work reveals...... the principles of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells fabrication as well as summarises major differences in physics of their operation....

  9. Organizing design work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, John Damm

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of the kind of understanding of organizing that is implied by design theories for project managers' understanding and organizing of design work. Five theories and their organizing consequences for project managers organizing of design work...... design theories. The selected theories of design thus represent different views on what design is, address different design areas and are based on different ontological and epistemological assumptions that influence their views on how design processes should be organized....

  10. Sustainability & Organization Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Bygvraa; Obel, Børge; Kallehave, Pernille

    is an important driver in organizations and its impact and effect on organization design is critical. Development of organization design, structure, processes, and human skills and values are needed to create the sustainable organization for the future. This paper discusses the requirements to be a sustainable...... organization. Here we follow the Global Compact criteria. The consequences for processes, structure, and human skills and values are analyzed. In particular the analysis will investigate exploration and exploitation from a holistic perspective using the principles of requisite variety and information...

  11. Doing language: Narratives from an activist world in the Austrian art-world of the 1990s: the Art Activism of WochenKlausur, Martin Krenn, Oliver Ressler and maiz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fotiadi, E.

    2012-01-01

    The article refers to the political art scene in Austria during the 1990s and early 2000s. Participatory art-activism projects by the group WochenKlausur and by Martin Krenn and Oliver Ressler are juxtaposed to artistic work used for political activism by the women migrants' organization maiz. All

  12. Organic 'Plastic' Optoelectronic Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sariciftci, N.S.

    2006-01-01

    Recent developments on conjugated polymer based photovoltaic diodes and photoactive organic field effect transistors (photOFETs) are discussed. The photophysics of such devices is based on the photoinduced charge transfer from donor type semiconducting conjugated polymers onto acceptor type conjugated polymers or acceptor molecules such as Buckminsterfullerene, C 6 0. Potentially interesting applications include sensitization of the photoconductivity and photovoltaic phenomena as well as photoresponsive organic field effect transistors (photOFETs). Furthermore, organic polymeric/inorganic nanoparticle based 'hybrid' solar cells will be discussed. This talk gives an overview of materials' aspect, charge-transport, and device physics of organic diodes and field-effect transistors. Furthermore, due to the compatibility of carbon/hydrogen based organic semiconductors with organic biomolecules and living cells there can be a great opportunity to integrate such organic semiconductor devices (biOFETs) with the living organisms. In general the largely independent bio/lifesciences and information technology of today, can be thus bridged in an advanced cybernetic approach using organic semiconductor devices embedded in bio-lifesciences. This field of bio-organic electronic devices is proposed to be an important mission of organic semiconductor devices

  13. Challenges in Organ Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Beyar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Organ transplantation has progressed tremendously with improvements in surgical methods, organ preservation, and pharmaco-immunologic therapies and has become a critical pathway in the management of severe organ failure worldwide. The major sources of organs are deceased donors after brain death; however, a substantial number of organs come from live donations, and a significant number can also be obtained from non-heart-beating donors. Yet, despite progress in medical, pharmacologic, and surgical techniques, the shortage of organs is a worldwide problem that needs to be addressed internationally at the highest possible levels. This particular field involves medical ethics, religion, and society behavior and beliefs. Some of the critical ethical issues that require aggressive interference are organ trafficking, payments for organs, and the delicate balance in live donations between the benefit to the recipient and the possible harm to the donor and others. A major issue in organ transplantation is the definition of death and particularly brain death. Another major critical factor is the internal tendency of a specific society to donate organs. In the review below, we will discuss the various challenges that face organ donation worldwide, and particularly in Israel, and some proposed mechanisms to overcome this difficulty.

  14. Challenges in organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyar, Rafael

    2011-04-01

    Organ transplantation has progressed tremendously with improvements in surgical methods, organ preservation, and pharmaco-immunologic therapies and has become a critical pathway in the management of severe organ failure worldwide. The major sources of organs are deceased donors after brain death; however, a substantial number of organs come from live donations, and a significant number can also be obtained from non-heart-beating donors. Yet, despite progress in medical, pharmacologic, and surgical techniques, the shortage of organs is a worldwide problem that needs to be addressed internationally at the highest possible levels. This particular field involves medical ethics, religion, and society behavior and beliefs. Some of the critical ethical issues that require aggressive interference are organ trafficking, payments for organs, and the delicate balance in live donations between the benefit to the recipient and the possible harm to the donor and others. A major issue in organ transplantation is the definition of death and particularly brain death. Another major critical factor is the internal tendency of a specific society to donate organs. In the review below, we will discuss the various challenges that face organ donation worldwide, and particularly in Israel, and some proposed mechanisms to overcome this difficulty.

  15. Challenges in Organ Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyar, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Organ transplantation has progressed tremendously with improvements in surgical methods, organ preservation, and pharmaco-immunologic therapies and has become a critical pathway in the management of severe organ failure worldwide. The major sources of organs are deceased donors after brain death; however, a substantial number of organs come from live donations, and a significant number can also be obtained from non-heart-beating donors. Yet, despite progress in medical, pharmacologic, and surgical techniques, the shortage of organs is a worldwide problem that needs to be addressed internationally at the highest possible levels. This particular field involves medical ethics, religion, and society behavior and beliefs. Some of the critical ethical issues that require aggressive interference are organ trafficking, payments for organs, and the delicate balance in live donations between the benefit to the recipient and the possible harm to the donor and others. A major issue in organ transplantation is the definition of death and particularly brain death. Another major critical factor is the internal tendency of a specific society to donate organs. In the review below, we will discuss the various challenges that face organ donation worldwide, and particularly in Israel, and some proposed mechanisms to overcome this difficulty. PMID:23908807

  16. Organic food processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahl, Johannes; Alborzi, Farnaz; Beck, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In 2007 EU Regulation (EC) 834/2007 introduced principles and criteria for organic food processing. These regulations have been analysed and discussed in several scientific publications and research project reports. Recently, organic food quality was described by principles, aspects and criteria....... These principles from organic agriculture were verified and adapted for organic food processing. Different levels for evaluation were suggested. In another document, underlying paradigms and consumer perception of organic food were reviewed against functional food, resulting in identifying integral product...... identity as the underlying paradigm and a holistic quality view connected to naturalness as consumers' perception of organic food quality. In a European study, the quality concept was applied to the organic food chain, resulting in a problem, namely that clear principles and related criteria were missing...

  17. Immunity of international organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Schrijver, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Immunity rules are part and parcel of the law of international organizations. It has long been accepted that international organizations and their staff need to enjoy immunity from the jurisdiction of national courts. However, it is the application of these rules in practice that increasingly causes controversy. Claims against international organizations are brought before national courts by those who allegedly suffer from their activities. These can be both natural and legal persons such as companies. National courts, in particular lower courts, have often been less willing to recognize the immunity of the organization concerned than the organization s founding fathers. Likewise, public opinion and legal writings frequently criticize international organizations for invoking their immunity and for the lack of adequate means of redress for claimants. It is against this background that an international conference was organized at Leiden University in June 2013. A number of highly qualified academics and practit...

  18. Needle pollutant concentrations in Austrian long-term observation sites (spruce), 1968-1987 - (a contribution to the discussion of increased pollutant deposition and washout effects); Nadelnaehrstoffgehalte auf oesterreichischen Dauerbeobachtungsflaechen (Fichte) von 1968 bis 1987 - (ein Beitrag zur Diskussion erhoehter Schadstoffeintraege bzw. Auswaschungseffekten)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan, K.

    1992-12-31

    In order to obtain information on the nutrient supply prior to the establishment of the Austrian biological indicator grid in 1983, needle data of long-term observation areas were analyzed in order to find out whether, and from when on, changes occurred in the course of 20 years, and whether the nutrient supply (in particular of N and Mg) differs since 1983 as compared to former years. According to the results of the long-term experimental areas, one may assume the following: an increase of the N-concentrations has taken place only locally and with different onset; indeed, the magnesium concentrations have been increasing again scince the establishment of the biological indicator grid. (orig.) [Deutsch] Um Anhaltspunkte ueber die Naehrelementversorgung vor Bearbeitung des oesterreichischen Bioindikatornetzes ab 1983 zu erhalten, wurden die nadelanalytischen Daten von Dauerbeobachtungsflaechen dahingehend ausgewertet, ob und ab wann Veraenderungen im Verlauf von 20 Jahren eingetreten sind und ob sich die Naehrelementversorgung (insbesondere von N und Mg) seit 1983 gegenueber frueheren Jahren unterscheidet. Nach den Ergebnissen der Dauerversuchsflaechen darf angenommen werden, dass eine Anhebung der N-Gehalte nur lokal und mit zeitlich unterschiedlichem Beginn vorhanden ist und die Magnesiumgehalte seit der Bearbeitung des Bioindikatornetzes eher wieder anstiegen. (orig.)

  19. Focus on Organic Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Uji, Takehiko Mori and Toshihiro Takahashi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic materials are usually thought of as electrical insulators. Progress in chemical synthesis, however, has brought us a rich variety of conducting organic materials, which can be classified into conducting polymers and molecular crystals. Researchers can realize highly conducting molecular crystals in charge-transfer complexes, where suitable combinations of organic electron donor or acceptor molecules with counter ions or other organic molecules provide charge carriers. By means of a kind of chemical doping, the charge-transfer complexes exhibit high electrical conductivity and, thanks to their highly crystalline nature, even superconductivity has been observed. This focus issue of Science and Technology of Advanced Materials is devoted to the research into such 'organic conductors'The first organic metal was (TTF(TCNQ, which was found in 1973 to have high conductivity at room temperature and a metal–insulator transition at low temperatures. The first organic superconductor was (TMTSF2PF6, whose superconductivity under high pressures was reported by J´erome in 1980. After these findings, the research on organic conductors exploded. Hundreds of organic conductors have been reported, among which more than one hundred exhibit superconductivity. Recently, a single-component organic conductor has been found with metallic conductivity down to low temperatures.In these organic conductors, in spite of their simple electronic structures, much new physics has arisen from the low dimensionality. Examples are charge and spin density waves, characteristic metal–insulator transitions, charge order, unconventional superconductivity, superconductor–insulator transitions, and zero-gap conductors with Dirac cones. The discovery of this new physics is undoubtedly derived from the development of many intriguing novel organic conductors. High quality single crystals are indispensable to the precise measurement of electronic states.This focus issue

  20. Organic photosensitive devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peumans, Peter; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2013-01-22

    A photoactive device is provided. The device includes a first electrode, a second electrode, and a photoactive region disposed between and electrically connected to the first and second electrodes. The photoactive region further includes an organic donor layer and an organic acceptor layer that form a donor-acceptor heterojunction. The mobility of holes in the organic donor region and the mobility of electrons in the organic acceptor region are different by a factor of at least 100, and more preferably a factor of at least 1000. At least one of the mobility of holes in the organic donor region and the mobility of electrons in the organic acceptor region is greater than 0.001 cm.sup.2/V-sec, and more preferably greater than 1 cm.sup.2/V-sec. The heterojunction may be of various types, including a planar heterojunction, a bulk heterojunction, a mixed heterojunction, and a hybrid planar-mixed heterojunction.

  1. Evolving Procurement Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Laiho, Aki; Laine, Jari

    Procurement has to find further levers and advance its contribution to corporate goals continuously. This places pressure on its organization in order to facilitate its performance. Therefore, Procurement organizations constantly have to evolve in order to match these demands. A conceptual model...... is presented and results of a first case study discussed. The findings highlight the importance of taking a contingency perspective on Procurement organization, understanding the internal and internal contingency factors. From a theoretical perspective, it opens up insights that can be furthermore leveraged...... in future studies in the fields of hybrid procurement organizations, global sourcing organizations as well as international procurement offices (IPOs). From a practical standpoint, an assessment of external and internal contingencies provides the opportunity to consciously match organization to its...

  2. The Expressive Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    branding on organizational structures and processes? How do organizations discover their identities? These are some of the vexing problems addressed in this book by a diverse international team of contributors. According to the authors, the future lies with "the expressive organization". Such organizations......This text challenges beliefs about organizational identity, reputation, and branding. It contains a wealth of new ideas for finding the elusive answers to questions troubling contemporary organizations. How does an organization create a strong reputation? What are the implications of corporate...... not only understand their distinct identity and their brands, but are also able to express these externally and internally. In order to thrive in an era of transparency and customer choice, the authors argue, organizations will have to be expressive. This book is intended for undergraduate and postgraduate...

  3. The Expressive Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    branding on organizational structures and processes? How do organizations discover their identities? These are some of the vexing problems addressed in this book by a diverse international team of contributors. According to the authors, the future lies with "the expressive organization". Such organizations...... not only understand their distinct identity and their brands, but are also able to express these externally and internally. In order to thrive in an era of transparency and customer choice, the authors argue, organizations will have to be expressive. This book is intended for undergraduate and postgraduate......This text challenges beliefs about organizational identity, reputation, and branding. It contains a wealth of new ideas for finding the elusive answers to questions troubling contemporary organizations. How does an organization create a strong reputation? What are the implications of corporate...

  4. The Expressive Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    not only understand their distinct identity and their brands, but are also able to express these externally and internally. In order to thrive in an era of transparency and customer choice, the authors argue, organizations will have to be expressive. This book is intended for undergraduate and postgraduate......This text challenges beliefs about organizational identity, reputation, and branding. It contains a wealth of new ideas for finding the elusive answers to questions troubling contemporary organizations. How does an organization create a strong reputation? What are the implications of corporate...... branding on organizational structures and processes? How do organizations discover their identities? These are some of the vexing problems addressed in this book by a diverse international team of contributors. According to the authors, the future lies with "the expressive organization". Such organizations...

  5. Organic Molecular Solids

    CERN Document Server

    Schwoerer, Marcus

    2007-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive textbook on the physical aspects of organic solids. All phenomena which are necessary in order to understand modern technical applications are being dealt with in a way which makes the concepts of the topics accessible for students. The chapters - from the basics, production and characterization of organic solids and layers to organic semiconductors, superconductors and opto-electronical applications - have been arranged in a logical and well thought-out order.

  6. Public Sector Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Renate; Leixnering, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    and private sectors as well as the boundaries of single organizations. In addition, the complexity of the interlocking arrangements and relationships in this public organizational landscape has resulted in considerable governance problems with serious implications for coordination and policy coherence.......New public management-inspired reforms created numerous autonomous units with many different faces and labels. This variety of organizations and organizational forms precludes a straightforward definition of what constitutes a public sector organization and blurs the boundaries between the public...

  7. Management of information organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Afzal, Waseem

    2012-01-01

    This book is a significant step towards developing a body of management knowledge pertinent to the context of Library Information Science (LIS) and provides a succinct but deep account of management and information organizations. Management of Information Organizations presents a broad view of the information organizations and the nature of management in these organizations, and how information professionals are affected by such management systems. The book equips the reader with the knowledge that will enable them to develop a strong intellectual foundation relating to management and its mani

  8. Organizations in Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book brings together leading organization scholars and business historians to examine the opportunities and challenges of incorporating historical research into the study of firms and markets. It examines the reasons for the growing interest in historically grounded research in management...... section, Sources and Methods, the contributors explicate historical methodologies within the context of other approaches to studying organizations and provide concrete suggestions for researchers in the field. The introduction places these issues within the broader context of developments in the fields...... of business history and organization studies, and orients readers to the ‘future of the past in management and organization studies.’...

  9. Colour and Organization Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyes, Timon

    2017-01-01

    Colour is inescapable. It fills and forms the world, shaping what can be felt and known, desired and expressed. It thus becomes social technology and organizational tool. At the same time, however, colour betrays, undermines and subverts the attempts to manage it. Based on an understanding...... of colour as aesthetic force and medium of transformation, the essay presents a montage of scenes that set up encounters with what colour does: how it affects organization, and how it is affected by organization; how it organizes what is given to perception, knowledge and organization itself, and how...

  10. Titan's organic chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, C.; Thompson, W. R.; Khare, B. N.

    1985-01-01

    Voyager discovered nine simple organic molecules in the atmosphere of Titan. Complex organic solids, called tholins, produced by irradiation of the simulated Titanian atmosphere, are consistent with measured properties of Titan from ultraviolet to microwave frequencies and are the likely main constituents of the observed red aerosols. The tholins contain many of the organic building blocks central to life on earth. At least 100-m, and possibly kms thicknesses of complex organics have been produced on Titan during the age of the solar system, and may exist today as submarine deposits beneath an extensive ocean of simple hydrocarbons.

  11. Physics of Organic Semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Brütting, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    Filling the gap in the literature currently available, this book presents an overview of our knowledge of the physics behind organic semiconductor devices. Contributions from 18 international research groups cover various aspects of this field, ranging from the growth of organic layers and crystals, their electronic properties at interfaces, their photophysics and electrical transport properties to the application of these materials in such different devices as organic field-effect transistors, photovoltaic cells and organic light-emitting diodes. From the contents:. * Excitation Dynamics in O

  12. Organizing for Global Sourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Turkulainen, Virpi

    Research on Purchasing Organization is dominated by studies on centralization versus decentralization. While global sourcing relates to the integrated activities of purchasing and other functions in line with the company’s strategic objectives and while it has been put forward that hybrid...... organizations are on the rise, the exact ways in which companies employ hybrid organizations in this context have not been studied in further detail. By presenting a multi-year case study from 2010 to 2013 at a pharmaceutical company, we elaborate on the existing knowledge regarding hybrid organizations...

  13. The organization of thanatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doka, Kenneth J; Heflin-Wells, E Neil; Martin, Terry L; Redmond, Lula M; Schachter, Sherry R

    2011-01-01

    This article explores, using Wilensky's Model of Professionalization, the emergence of professional organizations within the thanatology. The authors review the history of four organizations--The Foundation of Thanatology, Ars Moriendi, The Forum for Death Education and Counseling (now the Association for Death Education and Counseling: A Thanatology Organization [ADEC]), and The International Work Group on Death, Dying, and Bereavement (IWG). The authors speculate on some of the reasons that the first two failed while IWG and ADEC remain viable-while noting challenges that these remaining thanatological organizations will experience as they seek to continue to stay relevant.

  14. Organic food and farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kledal, Paul Rye

    The paper is based on research conducted for DARCOF II (Danish Research Centre for Organic Farming, www.darcof.dk). The aim of the research project is to analyze the future development of the Danish organic food sector through focusing on two agro-commodities: vegetables and pork. Emphasis...... is placed on identification of economic forces within the supply chains. The main conclusions of the paper – being the results from the organic vegetable chain – are that the rules and regulations, and the development of alternative transaction processes in organic food and farming have so far been founded...

  15. Formal Transition in Agent Organizations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matson, Eric; DeLoach, Scott

    2005-01-01

    ... capable of taking on problems that require self-organization, adaptation, and recovery. To capture and understand the concept of organization and reorganization, we must define organization transition...

  16. The Expressive Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This text challenges beliefs about organizational identity, reputation, and branding. It contains a wealth of new ideas for finding the elusive answers to questions troubling contemporary organizations. How does an organization create a strong reputation? What are the implications of corporate br...... students of management, business strategy, accounting, marketing, and communication studies; MBA students; Managers and consultants....

  17. Creating spatial organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lekanne Deprez, F.R.E.; Tissen, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the spatial design of modern organizations in the context of a fundamental change which is currently taking place in the way companies view their organizations and the inherent performance expectations, requirements and results underlying these. This change involves a managerial

  18. Communicative Constitution of Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeneborn, Dennis; Vasquez, Consuelo

    2017-01-01

    The notion of the communicative constitution of organizations (CCO) is at the center of a growing theoretical development within organizational communication studies. CCO scholarship is based on the idea that organization emerges in and is sustained and transformed by communication. This entry...

  19. Computer-Assisted Organizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, David James

    2009-01-01

    Organizing refers to methods of distributing physical and symbolic tasks among multiple agents in order to achieve goals. My dissertation investigates the dynamics of organizing in hybrid information processing systems that incorporate both humans and computers. To explain the behavior of these hybrid systems, I develop and partially test a theory…

  20. Evolving Procurement Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Laine, Jari; Mugurusi, Godfrey

    in future studies in the fields of hybrid procurement organizations, global sourcing organizations as well as international procurement offices (IPOs). From a practical standpoint, an assessment of external and internal contingencies and their relation to specific structural dimensions that can be chosen...

  1. ORGANIC REACTION MECHANISM CONTROVERSY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    However, there are so many chemical reactions notably in organic chemistry where reactions may not directly lead to products. ... There are concepts that support these ideas but can they be proven to the ... Reaction mechanism is one such issue in organic chemistry that has attracted a lot of controversial comments from ...

  2. Person-Organization Pairing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scirotino, P. T.; Madden, Denis

    1973-01-01

    Malfunctioning organizations do not facilitate the accomplishment of the purposes of their members in a number of ways and for a number of reasons. This paper used Maslow's hierarchy of needs model in an attempt to describe one view of that malfunction. Leadership is examined briefly as a functioning organization's facilitating arrangement.…

  3. Sustainable Learning Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Luis E.; Esquer, Javier; Munguia, Nora E.; Moure-Eraso, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to debate how companies may better become a sustainable learning organization by offering the most used and insightful concepts of sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: Through literature review, learning organization and sustainability perspectives are explored and compared. Findings: Learning…

  4. Liver sharing and organ procurement organization performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Sommer E; Chow, Eric K H; Massie, Allan; Luo, Xun; Zaun, David; Snyder, Jon J; Israni, Ajay K; Kasiske, Bert; Segev, Dorry L

    2015-03-01

    Whether the liver allocation system shifts organs from better performing organ procurement organizations (OPOs) to poorer performing OPOs has been debated for many years. Models of OPO performance from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients make it possible to study this question in a data-driven manner. We investigated whether each OPO's net liver import was correlated with 2 performance metrics [observed to expected (O:E) liver yield and liver donor conversion ratio] as well as 2 alternative explanations [eligible deaths and incident listings above a Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score of 15]. We found no evidence to support the hypothesis that the allocation system transfers livers from better performing OPOs to centers with poorer performing OPOs. Also, having fewer eligible deaths was not associated with a net import. However, having more incident listings was strongly correlated with the net import, both before and after Share 35. Most importantly, the magnitude of the variation in OPO performance was much lower than the variation in demand: although the poorest performing OPOs differed from the best ones by less than 2-fold in the O:E liver yield, incident listings above a MELD score of 15 varied nearly 14-fold. Although it is imperative that all OPOs achieve the best possible results, the flow of livers is not explained by OPO performance metrics, and instead, it appears to be strongly related to differences in demand. © 2015 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  5. Evolving Procurement Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Laine, Jari; Mugurusi, Godfrey

    Procurement has to find further levers and advance its contribution to corporate goals continuously. This places pressure on its organization in order to facilitate its performance. Therefore, procurement organizations constantly have to evolve in order to match these demands. A conceptual model...... putting the structural elements in focus is derived from the analysis of two case companies, which extends the existing literature and opens new avenues for future research. The findings highlight the importance of taking a contingency perspective on procurement organization, understanding the internal...... in future studies in the fields of hybrid procurement organizations, global sourcing organizations as well as international procurement offices (IPOs). From a practical standpoint, an assessment of external and internal contingencies and their relation to specific structural dimensions that can be chosen...

  6. Feed and organic matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang

    2011-01-01

    originates from undigested feed, but also metabolic losses, mucus, dead tissue, feed waste and intake water may contribute. The nutrient composition of the feed affects the quantity and composition of the organic (undigested) waste, and including for example plant protein ingredients may affect......Organic waste from fish production is conventionally measured as BOD5 (biological oxygen demand measured during 5 days) and COD (chemical oxygen demand (includes BOD5)). Organic waste is of particular concern for several reasons. The easily degradable part (BOD5) may have an immediate, negative......, reduction of dissolved oxygen concentrations, etc.). In recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS), a high organic load caused by limited water exchange may affect biofilter performance by favouring heterotrophic bacteria at the expense of autotrophic, nitrifying bacteria. Organic waste in RAS primarily...

  7. Organic semiconductor crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengliang; Dong, Huanli; Jiang, Lang; Hu, Wenping

    2018-01-22

    Organic semiconductors have attracted a lot of attention since the discovery of highly doped conductive polymers, due to the potential application in field-effect transistors (OFETs), light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and photovoltaic cells (OPVs). Single crystals of organic semiconductors are particularly intriguing because they are free of grain boundaries and have long-range periodic order as well as minimal traps and defects. Hence, organic semiconductor crystals provide a powerful tool for revealing the intrinsic properties, examining the structure-property relationships, demonstrating the important factors for high performance devices and uncovering fundamental physics in organic semiconductors. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the molecular packing, morphology and charge transport features of organic semiconductor crystals, the control of crystallization for achieving high quality crystals and the device physics in the three main applications. We hope that this comprehensive summary can give a clear picture of the state-of-art status and guide future work in this area.

  8. Organ donations after death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernarda Logar

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses public opinion on post-mortem organ donation, especially the difference between high support of public opinion to transplant activity, its general readiness to donate organs and the low number of signed organ donor cards. Through different approaches the article tries to point out possible factors relevant to the decision to donate organs. Early studies showed demographic variables and information as significant factors when deciding to donate organs after death. As there was not enough evidence that long-term effect through these factors is significant, the need for new investigation has grown. Social cognition theories helped understanding the difference mentioned above. It seems that the use of this approach might contribute to the understanding the problem and to delimit most useful factors when working with public.

  9. Self-organizing plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, T.; Sato, T.

    1999-01-01

    The primary purpose of this paper is to extract a grand view of self-organization through an extensive computer simulation of plasmas. The assertion is made that self-organization is governed by three key processes, i.e. the existence of an open complex system, the existence of information (energy) sources and the existence of entropy generation and expulsion processes. We find that self-organization takes place in an intermittent fashion when energy is supplied continuously from outside. In contrast, when the system state is suddenly changed into a non-equilibrium state externally, the system evolves stepwise and reaches a minimum energy state. We also find that the entropy production rate is maximized whenever a new ordered structure is created and that if the entropy generated during the self-organizing process is expelled from the system, then the self-organized structure becomes more prominent and clear. (author)

  10. The discipline of organizing

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Organizing is such a common activity that we often do it without thinking much about it. In our daily lives we organize physical things--books on shelves, cutlery in kitchen drawers--and digital things--Web pages, MP3 files, scientific datasets. Millions of people create and browse Web sites, blog, tag, tweet, and upload and download content of all media types without thinking "I'm organizing now" or "I'm retrieving now." This book offers a framework for the theory and practice of organizing that integrates information organization (IO) and information retrieval (IR), bridging the disciplinary chasms between Library and Information Science and Computer Science, each of which views and teaches IO and IR as separate topics and in substantially different ways. It introduces the unifying concept of an Organizing System--an intentionally arranged collection of resources and the interactions they support--and then explains the key concepts and challenges in the design and deployment of Organizing Systems in many do...

  11. Organs for transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-03

    The British government has printed 10 million organ donor cards--as well as posters, car stickers, and leaflets--for distribution in a campaign to increase the number of organ transplants in the United Kingdom. Norman Fowler, Secretary of State for Social Services, suggested at a February 22, 1984, press conference that signing of donor cards might become a family occasion, so that all concerned would know of a person's wishes in the event of sudden death. He made it clear that the government has no plans to introduce a system of presumed consent for organ donation. Mr. Fowler also announced a commitment of additional government funds for renal services.

  12. Individual and Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felin, Teppo; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2006-01-01

    Making links between micro and macro levels has been problematic in the social sciences, and the literature in strategic management and organization theory is no exception The purpose of this chapter is to raise theoretical issues in developing micro-foundations for strategic management and organ......Making links between micro and macro levels has been problematic in the social sciences, and the literature in strategic management and organization theory is no exception The purpose of this chapter is to raise theoretical issues in developing micro-foundations for strategic management...

  13. Anchoring visions in organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper

    1999-01-01

    This paper introduces the term 'anchoring' within systems development: Visions, developed through early systems design within an organization, need to be deeply rooted in the organization. A vision's rationale needs to be understood by those who decide if the vision should be implemented as well...... as by those involved in the actual implementation. A model depicting a recent trend within systems development is presented: Organizations rely on purchasing generic software products and/or software development outsourced to external contractors. A contemporary method for participatory design, where...

  14. Cryopreservation of Living Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanasawa, Ichiro; Nagata, Shinichi; Kimura, Naohiro

    Cryopreservation is considered to be the most promising way of preserving living organs or tissues for a long period of time without casuing any damage to their biological functions. However, cryopreservation has been succeeded only for simple and small-size tissues such as spermatozoon, ovum, erythrocyte, bone marrow and cornea. Cryopreservation of more complex and large-scale organs are not yet succssful. The authors have attempted to establish a technique for cryopreservation of larger living organs. An experiment was carried out using daphnia (water flea). The optimum rates of freezing and thawing were determined together with the optimum selection of cryoprotectant. High recovery rate was achieved under these conditions.

  15. Soil organic matter studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A total of 77 papers were presented and discussed during this symposium, 40 are included in Volume I. A number of papers deal with the behaviour and functions of organic matter and make a contribution to increasing agricultural production by proposing improved management practices. Other papers discuss turnover of plant residues, release of plant nutrients through biodegradation of organic compounds, and nitrogen economy and the dynamics of transformation of organic forms of nitrogen. Separate entries have been prepared for those 8 papers which discuss the use of tracer techniques in soil studies

  16. Organic Farming in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Vogl, C. R.; Heß, J.

    1999-01-01

    During the present decade, Austria has experienced a dramatic increase in organic farming among those countries that comprise the European Union (EU). For example, in 1992, approximately 2,000 farms were practicing organic, ecological, or biodynamic farming methodes. By 1997 the number of certified organic farms plus those in transition from conventional farming had increased 10-fold to some 20,000 farms. This represents almost 9% of the total farms in Austria and an area of 345,375 ha, or 10...

  17. Doing Language: Narratives from an Activists' World in the Austrian Art World of the 1990s. The Art Activism of WochenKlausur, Martin Krenn, Oliver Ressler and maiz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotiadi, Eva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article refers to the political art scene in Austria during the 1990s and early 2000s. Participatory art-activism projects by the group WochenKlausur and by Martin Krenn and Oliver Ressler are juxtaposed to artistic work used for political activism by the women migrants' organization maiz. All case-studies engage with issues of immigration in Austria, touching also upon official immigration policies and practices in the European Union after 1989. In the case studies the artists transfer political activism practices (giving people a voice to art practices by means of participatory, public art projects, where, for instance, migrants are interviewed. In reverse, the activists transfer artistic practices (e.g., performance to their political activism practices.

  18. Organized organic ultrathin films fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ariga, Katsuhiko

    2012-01-01

    This handy reference is the first comprehensive book covering both fundamentals and recent developments in the field with an emphasis on nanotechnology. Written by a highly regarded author in the field, the book details state-of-the-art preparation, characterization and applications of thin films of organic molecules and biomaterials fabricated by wet processes and also highlights applications in nanotechnology The categories of films covered include monomolecular films (monolayers) both on a water surface and on a solid plate, Langmuir-Blodgett films (transferred multilayer films on a solid plate from a water surface), layer-by-layer films (adsorbed multilayer films on a solid support), and spontaneously assembled films in solution.

  19. Evaluation of the short- and long-term safety and therapy outcomes of the everolimus-eluting bioresorbable vascular scaffold system in patients with coronary artery stenosis: Rationale and design of the German-Austrian ABSORB RegIstRy (GABI-R).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nef, Holger; Wiebe, Jens; Achenbach, Stefan; Münzel, Thomas; Naber, Christoph; Richardt, Gert; Mehilli, Julinda; Wöhrle, Jochen; Neumann, Till; Biermann, Janine; Zahn, Ralf; Kastner, Johannes; Schmermund, Axel; Pfannebecker, Thomas; Schneider, Steffen; Limbourg, Tobias; Hamm, Christian W

    2016-01-01

    Third-generation drug-eluting metal stents are the gold standard for treatment of coronary artery disease. The permanent metallic caging of the vessel, however, can result in limited vasomotion, chronic inflammation, and late expansive remodeling, conditions that can lead to late and very late stent thrombosis. The development of bioresorbable scaffolds (BRSs) promises advantages over metal stents due to complete biodegradation within 2-4years. Theoretically, since vessel scaffolding is temporary and no permanent implant remains in the vessel, BRSs, as opposed to metal stents, once degraded would no longer be potential triggers for stent-related adverse events or side effects. The short- and long-term outcome after implantation of an everolimus-eluting, poly-L-lactic acid-based bioresorbable scaffold system (ABSORB, Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, CA, USA) in the world-wide greatest all-comers cohort will be evaluated in the prospective, non-interventional, multicenter German-Austrian ABSORB RegIstRy (GABI-R). GABI-R will include over 5000 patients from about 100 study sites in Austria and Germany. Safety endpoints such as cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and clinically driven percutaneous or surgical target lesion and vessel revascularization will be evaluated during hospitalization and in the follow-up period (minimum of 5years). Although two randomized controlled trials and several registries have documented safety and efficacy as well as non-inferiority of this everolimus-eluting ABSORB device compared with drug-eluting metal stents, the current knowledge regarding clinical application, treatment success, and long-term safety of using this BRS in daily routine is limited. Thus, the goal of GABI-R is to address this lack of information. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Organic electrochemical transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Rivnay, Jonathan

    2018-01-16

    Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) make effective use of ion injection from an electrolyte to modulate the bulk conductivity of an organic semiconductor channel. The coupling between ionic and electronic charges within the entire volume of the channel endows OECTs with high transconductance compared with that of field-effect transistors, but also limits their response time. The synthetic tunability, facile deposition and biocompatibility of organic materials make OECTs particularly suitable for applications in biological interfacing, printed logic circuitry and neuromorphic devices. In this Review, we discuss the physics and the mechanism of operation of OECTs, focusing on their identifying characteristics. We highlight organic materials that are currently being used in OECTs and survey the history of OECT technology. In addition, form factors, fabrication technologies and applications such as bioelectronics, circuits and memory devices are examined. Finally, we take a critical look at the future of OECT research and development.

  1. Virtual Organizations: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nami, Mohammad Reza

    The need to remain competitive in the open market forces companies to concentrate on their core competencies while searching for alliances when additional skills or resources are needed to fulfill business opportunities. The changing business situation of companies and customer needs have motivated researchers to introduce Virtual Organization (VO) idea. A Virtual Organization is always a form of partnership and managing partners and handling partnerships are crucial. Virtual organizations are defined as a temporary collection of enterprises that cooperate and share resources, knowledge, and competencies to better respond to business opportunities. This paper presents base concepts of virtual organizations including properties, management concepts, operational concepts, and main issues in collaboration such as security and authentication.

  2. Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Treatment Options for Pelvic Organ Prolapse? After obtaining a detailed medical history and completing a thorough ... Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 1-888-INFO-FDA (1- ...

  3. Vertical organic transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüssem, Björn; Günther, Alrun; Fischer, Axel; Kasemann, Daniel; Leo, Karl

    2015-11-01

    Organic switching devices such as field effect transistors (OFETs) are a key element of future flexible electronic devices. So far, however, a commercial breakthrough has not been achieved because these devices usually lack in switching speed (e.g. for logic applications) and current density (e.g. for display pixel driving). The limited performance is caused by a combination of comparatively low charge carrier mobilities and the large channel length caused by the need for low-cost structuring. Vertical Organic Transistors are a novel technology that has the potential to overcome these limitations of OFETs. Vertical Organic Transistors allow to scale the channel length of organic transistors into the 100 nm regime without cost intensive structuring techniques. Several different approaches have been proposed in literature, which show high output currents, low operation voltages, and comparatively high speed even without sub-μm structuring technologies. In this review, these different approaches are compared and recent progress is highlighted.

  4. Aging of Organic Nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balzer, Frank; Schiek, Manuela; Osadnik, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Organic semiconductors formed by epitaxial growth from small molecules such as the para-phenylenes or squaraines promise a vast application potential as the active ingredient in electric and optoelectronic devices. Their self-organization into organic nanowires or "nanofibers" adds a peculiar...... attribute, making them especially interesting for light generation in OLEDs and for light-harvesting devices such as solar cells. Functionalization of the molecules allows the customization of optical and electrical properties. However, aging of the wires might lead to a considerable decrease in device...... performance over time. In this study the morphological stability of organic nanoclusters and nanowires from the methoxy functionalized quaterphenylene, 4,4'''dimethoxy-1,1':4',1''4'',1'''-quaterphenylene (MOP4), is investigated in detail. Aging experiments conducted by atomic force microscopy under ambient...

  5. Professionalism and nonprofit organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majone, G

    1984-01-01

    Many professionals prefer to work in nonprofit organizations, rather than in either for-profit or bureaucratic organizations. This preference suggests that nonprofits may be successful in reducing the tension between professional principles and institutional requirements. Professionals in for-profit organizations must submit to the control of a manager who is motivated to overrule them whenever their decisions come into conflict with the goal of profit maximization. Bureaucratic organizations stress predictability of results and adherence to rules as the overriding criteria of evaluation and control. This paper argues that nonprofits are on the whole superior from the point of view of professional ideology and practice. Thus, given a commitment to the values of professionalism, the preference for the nonprofit form becomes understandable, even without the usual assumptions about income-maximizing behavior.

  6. Destruction of organics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowlam, S.K.

    1988-01-01

    This paper summarises the processes for the treatment of organic matter in radioactive waste. Pyrolysis, incineration, and digestion, wet oxidation, immobilisation, alkaline hydrolysis and cementation are compared and evaluated. (U.K.)

  7. Campylobacter jejuni organism (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni infection causes cramping, diarrhea, abdominal pain and fever within 2 to 5 days after a person has been exposed to the organism. Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common bacterial ...

  8. Ethics in organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2016-01-01

    It is a fundamental challenge for organizational theory to understand and explain how organizations work: what drives processes of organizational learning and change, and how is coordinated action brought about in organizations? It is well recognized that organizational theory rests...... on – or implicitly presumes – fundamental philosophical assumptions. Organizational theories are based on ontological and epistemological assumptions about what an organization is, how actors act and learn in organizational settings, and how researchers can come to know about organizational phenomena. But it is less...... recognized that organizational theory also presumes and express ethical and normative perspectives on organizations. This is also the case in the new branch of organizational theory that has been developed with an inspiration from theories of practice (e.g. Schatzki 2005, 2006; Nicolini 2013; Gherardi 2015...

  9. Organic electrochemical transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivnay, Jonathan; Inal, Sahika; Salleo, Alberto; Owens, Róisín M.; Berggren, Magnus; Malliaras, George G.

    2018-02-01

    Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) make effective use of ion injection from an electrolyte to modulate the bulk conductivity of an organic semiconductor channel. The coupling between ionic and electronic charges within the entire volume of the channel endows OECTs with high transconductance compared with that of field-effect transistors, but also limits their response time. The synthetic tunability, facile deposition and biocompatibility of organic materials make OECTs particularly suitable for applications in biological interfacing, printed logic circuitry and neuromorphic devices. In this Review, we discuss the physics and the mechanism of operation of OECTs, focusing on their identifying characteristics. We highlight organic materials that are currently being used in OECTs and survey the history of OECT technology. In addition, form factors, fabrication technologies and applications such as bioelectronics, circuits and memory devices are examined. Finally, we take a critical look at the future of OECT research and development.

  10. Small Scale Organic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, V.; Crist, DeLanson R.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of using small scale experimentation in the undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory. Describes small scale filtration techniques as an example of a semi-micro method applied to small quantities of material. (MLH)

  11. Organic Chemistry in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnley, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Astronomical observations, theoretical modeling, laboratory simulation and analysis of extraterrestrial material have enhanced our knowledge of the inventory of organic matter in the interstellar medium (ISM) and on small bodies such as comets and asteroids (Ehrenfreund & Charnley 2000). Comets, asteroids and their fragments, meteorites and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), contributed significant amounts of extraterrestrial organic matter to the young Earth. This material degraded and reacted in a terrestrial prebiotic chemistry to form organic structures that may have served as building blocks for life on the early Earth. In this talk I will summarize our current understanding of the organic composition and chemistry of interstellar clouds. Molecules of astrobiological relevance include the building blocks of our genetic material: nucleic acids, composed of subunits such as N-heterocycles (purines and pyrimidines), sugars and amino acids. Signatures indicative of inheritance of pristine and modified interstellar material in comets and meteorites will also be discussed.

  12. Organizing Core Tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    Civil servants conduct the work which makes welfare states functions on an everyday bases: Police men police, school teachers teach, and tax inspectors inspect. Focus in this paper is on the core tasks of tax inspectors. The paper argues that their core task of securing the collection of revenue...... projects influence the organization of core tasks within the tax administration. The paper shows that the organizational transformations based on the use of these devices have had consequences both for the overall collection of revenue and for the employees’ feeling of “making a difference”. All in all...... has remained much the same within the last 10 years. However, how the core task has been organized has changed considerable under the influence of various “organizing devices”. The paper focusses on how organizing devices such as risk assessment, output-focus, effect orientation, and treatment...

  13. Biotechnology organizations in action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norus, Jesper

    This volume analyzes the dynamics and interactive processes among the players (individuals, institutions, and organizations/firms) that have constituted and legitimized the development of the biotechnology industries. The unit of analysis is small entrepreneurial firms developing biotechnological...

  14. Emotion, Learning and Organizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Yiannis; Griffiths, Dorothy S.

    2002-01-01

    Although organizations are attempting to harness emotional intelligence, social constructivist and psychoanalytic perspectives suggest that this is problematic. Emotions deriving from deep unconscious sources (e.g., anxiety) may be impervious to learning. (Contains 33 references.) (SK)

  15. Organizing for Servitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raja, Jawwad; Chakkol, Mehmet; Johnson, Mark

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Research suggests that to structure for servitization, organizations should separate their front- and back-end units by reference to high vs low contact activities. However, these prescriptions are overly simplistic and largely based on anecdotal evidence that fails to account for context....... The purpose of this paper is to explore the design decisions taken by organizations in support of servitization. Design/methodology/approach: A large-scale exploratory case study was conducted, consisting of embedded cases in three divisions of a UK-based, global manufacturing firm. Findings: Each division...... an organization are not possible. The findings show that underlying contextual factors, such as the complexity and temporality of the offering, as well as the power of the customer, have implications for the structuring of servitizing organizations. Research limitations/implications: This is a context...

  16. Concentrations of Indicator Organisms

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — It is a compilation of organism concentrations of 16 sampling events conducted between July 2015 and February 2016. It also includes statistical analysis such as...

  17. Organizing for Outsourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turkulainen, Virpi; Bals, Lydia

    Outsourcing remains one of the most prevalent business practices. Still, many businesses fail to realize the benefits anticipated from their outsourcing initiative. Research reports that one major reason for these outsourcing challenges are in the design of the focal organization. In this paper, we...... take an organization design view to outsourcing and elaborate on the organizational design implications for outsourcing. We present a multi-year case study from 2010 to 2013 of a global chemical and pharmaceutical company (GCC), which went through an organization redesign and subsequently successfully...... outsourced some organizational tasks. Specifically, we take the case of the Purchasing & Supply Management (PSM) function to illustrate how an activity-based organization design can facilitate outsourcing of some parts of the PSM function....

  18. Organizations, projects and culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van Cleeff; Pieter van Nispen tot Pannerden

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: to explore and demonstrate the effects of organizational culture on projects, in particular project culture and project management style. Methodology/approach: descriptive and explorative; through students’ groups. Findings: the cultural relationship between organizations, their projects

  19. Transparency in Organizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albu, Oana Brindusa

    This dissertation provides a critical analysis of transparency in the context of organizing. The empirical material is based on qualitative studies of international cooperative organizations. The dissertation seeks to contribute to transparency and organizing scholarship by adopting a communication...... centred approach to explore the implications of pursuing ideals of transparency in organizational relationships. The dissertation is comprised of four papers each contributing to extant debates in organizational studies and transparency literature. The findings indicate that transparency, in contrast...... to being a solution for efficiency and democratic organizing, is a communicatively contested process which may lead to unintended consequences. The dissertation shows that transparency is performative: it can impact authority by de/legitimating action, shape the processes of organizational identity co...

  20. Organ Facts: Pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to know FAQ Living donation What is living donation? Organs Types Being a living donor First steps Being ... Nursing Care of the Renal Transplant Recipient." UNOS Donation and Transplantation Nursing Curriculum . 1996 This Web site is intended ...

  1. Stability of Organic Nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balzer, F.; Schiek, M.; Wallmann, I.

    2011-01-01

    atomic force microscopy (AFM). Aging experiments under ambient conditions already show substantial morphological changes. Nanoscopic organic clusters, which initially coexist with the nanowires, vanish within hours. Thermal annealing of nanowire samples leads to even more pronounced morphology changes...

  2. Biomaterials in Artificial Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambic, Helen E.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Biomaterials are substances or combinations of substances that can be used in a system that treats, augments, or replaces any tissue, organ, or body function. The nature and role of these substances, particularly in the cadiovascular system, are discussed. (JN)

  3. Is old organic matter simple organic matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, Naoise; Lerch, Thomas; Pouteau, Valérie; Mora, Philippe; Changey, Fréderique; Kätterer, Thomas; Herrmann, Anke

    2016-04-01

    Bare fallow soils that have been deprived of fresh carbon inputs for prolonged periods contain mostly old, stable organic carbon. In order to shed light on the nature of this carbon, the functional diversity profiles (MicroResp™, Biolog™ and enzyme activity spectra) of the microbial communities of long-term barefallow soils were analysed and compared with those of the microbial communities from their cultivated counterparts. The study was based on the idea that microbial communities adapt to their environment and that therefore the catabolic and enzymatic profiles would reflect the type of substrates available to the microbial communities. The catabolic profiles suggested that the microbial communities in the long-term bare-fallow soil were exposed to a less diverse range of substrates and that these substrates tended to be of simpler molecular forms. Both the catabolic and enzyme activity profiles suggested that the microbial communities from the long-term bare-fallow soils were less adapted to using polymers. These results do not fit with the traditional view of old, stable carbon being composed of complex, recalcitrant polymers. An energetics analysis of the substrate use of the microbial communities for the different soils suggested that the microbial communities from the long-term bare-fallow soils were better adapted to using readily oxidizable,although energetically less rewarding, substrates. Microbial communities appear to adapt to the deprivation of fresh organic matter by using substrates that require little investment.

  4. Organic Poultry Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arda Yıldırım

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Many people have led to the consumption of organic animal products in the event that the increase in sensitivity to a healthy diet in developed countries, and maintaining the safety of food of animal origin. Feeding and breeding in conventional production are emerged some of the negative effects and also it is more in organic production with new restrictions. Organic production is based on animal welfare. On the basis of behaviors such as feather-pecking and cannibalism known to be low in protein level of rations and unbalanced in terms of amino acids or minerals. As of 2015, organic poultry feed provided the appropriate conditions that will be 95% organic certified in Turkey and therefore, to create a balanced ration and feed hygiene in protecting brings serious challenges. Fodder supply of organic poultry feed raw materials that make up the quality, quantity and issue forms a significant effect on the health of the poultry additives permitted. The quality of the feed raw materials that constituent diets, quantity, feed supplying form and permitted feed additives significantly affects the health of poultry. Different physiological stages of the animal's nutritional requirements in order to ensure production of quality poultry products must be met from organically produced and very well-known with the contents of feedstuff digestibility. In this study, the problems encountered in feeding can be eliminated while performing economic production with considering animal welfare, following that balanced and adequate organic ration formulations and issues such as improving the production of feed raw materials are discussed.

  5. Motivation programmes of organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Pízová, Tereza

    2008-01-01

    The Bachelor Thesis "'Motivation Programmes of Organizations" focuses on an extremely important area within personnel management. Employee motivation is crucial to the effective operation of businesses. Motivation programmes assist in increasing and maintaining employee motivation and demonstrate an organization's interest in its employees. This piece is on one hand concerned with theoretical foundations of motivation, describing theories and concepts important to the area of human behaviour ...

  6. Organic magnetic field sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCamey, Dane; Boehme, Christoph

    2017-01-24

    An organic, spin-dependent magnetic field sensor (10) includes an active stack (12) having an organic material with a spin-dependence. The sensor (10) also includes a back electrical contact (14) electrically coupled to a back of the active stack (12) and a front electrical contact (16) electrically coupled to a front of the active stack (12). A magnetic field generator (18) is oriented so as to provide an oscillating magnetic field which penetrates the active stack (12).

  7. Emotions Management within Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Alina Maria ANDRIES

    2009-01-01

    Emotions management in organizations is meant to habilitate the employees in administrating the emotional resources aiming at the correct adaptation to the organizational environment and the necessities in the work activity. The study of emotions in organizations has the purpose to know and optimize the employees’ emotional condition. The efficient leaders are interested in administrating the emotions, being aware of and capable to revaluate the factors which positively activate the employees...

  8. Organic chemistry experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, Seok Sik

    2005-02-01

    This book deals with organic chemistry experiments, it is divided five chapters, which have introduction, the way to write the experiment report and safety in the laboratory, basic experiment technic like recrystallization and extraction, a lot of organic chemistry experiments such as fischer esterification, ester hydrolysis, electrophilic aromatic substitution, aldol reaction, benzoin condensation, wittig reaction grignard reaction, epoxidation reaction and selective reduction. The last chapter introduces chemistry site on the internet and way to find out reference on chemistry.

  9. Interstellar organic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, C.

    1972-01-01

    Most of the interstellar organic molecules have been found in the large radio source Sagittarius B2 toward the galactic center, and in such regions as W51 and the IR source in the Orion nebula. Questions of the reliability of molecular identifications are discussed together with aspects of organic synthesis in condensing clouds, degradational origin, synthesis on grains, UV natural selection, interstellar biology, and contributions to planetary biology.

  10. Marketing of human organs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat, E

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the highly controversial question whether human organs should be allowed to be the object of a contract aimed at profit. The author comes to the conclusion that--seen from a consequentialist viewpoint--the legislature is not well-advised to allow organ donations for consideration. However, it is admitted that a more deontological approach could come to quite the opposite conclusion.

  11. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.

    2010-08-20

    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. The Ladstattschacht cave shaft - tracer hydrological investigation of a site of organic pollution in the Alpine karst system; Der Ladstattschacht - tracerhydrologische Untersuchung einer organischen Altlast im alpinen Karst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldscheider, N. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Angewandte Geologie

    1998-12-31

    The Ladstattschacht is a 47 m deep cave shaft in the Schwarzwasser valley (state of Vorarlberg, Austrian Alps) that was completely filled up with waste from private and communal sewage plants until 1975. A multi tracing experiment using three different fluorescent tracers was carried out in order to evaluate the risk potential of this waste site. The organic shaft fill itself, a pothole nearby the Ladstattschacht and an active swallow hole served as injection points. It could be demonstrated that all karstic springs in the Schwarzwasser valley are affected by seepage water from this waste site. Comparison of breakthrough curves allowed to determine retardation processes in the shaft fill and the unsaturated zone and to characterize the karst groundwater flow system. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Ladstattschacht im Schwarzwassertal (Vorarlberg, Oesterreich) ist ein 47 m tiefer Hoehlenschacht, der bis 1975 als wilde Deponie fuer Klaerschlaemme verwendet wurde. Um das von dieser organischen Altlast ausgehende Gefaehrdungspotential zu bewerten, wurde ein kombinierter Markierungsversuch mit 3 verschiedenen Fluoreszenztracern durchgefuehrt. Dabei dienten die Schachtfuellung, ein benachbarter Naturschacht und eine aktive Schwinde als Eingabestellen. Es konnte belegt werden, dass saemtliche Karstquellen im Schwarzwassertal von Sickerwaessern aus dem Ladstattschacht erreicht werden. Durch den Vergleich der Durchgangskurven konnten sowohl die Retardationsvorgaenge in der Schachtfuellung und in der ungesaettigten Zone, als auch die Abstromverhaeltnisse der Karstentwaesserung charakterisiert werden. (orig.)

  13. Organic bioelectronics in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffler, S; Melican, K; Nilsson, K P R; Richter-Dahlfors, A

    2017-07-01

    A major challenge in the growing field of bioelectronic medicine is the development of tissue interface technologies promoting device integration with biological tissues. Materials based on organic bioelectronics show great promise due to a unique combination of electronic and ionic conductivity properties. In this review, we outline exciting developments in the field of organic bioelectronics and demonstrate the medical importance of these active, electronically controllable materials. Importantly, organic bioelectronics offer a means to control cell-surface attachment as required for many device-tissue applications. Experiments have shown that cells readily attach and proliferate on reduced but not oxidized organic bioelectronic materials. In another application, the active properties of organic bioelectronics were used to develop electronically triggered systems for drug release. After incorporating drugs by advanced loading strategies, small compound drugs were released upon electrochemical trigger, independent of charge. Another type of delivery device was used to achieve well-controlled, spatiotemporal delivery of cationic drugs. Via electrophoretic transport within a polymer, cations were delivered with single-cell precision. Finally, organic bioelectronic materials are commonly used as electrode coatings improving the electrical properties of recording and stimulation electrodes. Because such coatings drastically reduce the electrode impedance, smaller electrodes with improved signal-to-noise ratio can be fabricated. Thus, rapid technological advancement combined with the creation of tiny electronic devices reacting to changes in the tissue environment helps to promote the transition from standard pharmaceutical therapy to treatment based on 'electroceuticals'. Moreover, the widening repertoire of organic bioelectronics will expand the options for true biological interfaces, providing the basis for personalized bioelectronic medicine. © 2017 The

  14. Little effects on soil organic matter chemistry of density fractions after seven years of forest soil warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnecker, Jörg; Borken, Werner; Schindlbacher, Andreas; Wanek, Wolfgang

    2016-12-01

    Rising temperatures enhance microbial decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) and thereby increase the soil CO 2 efflux. Elevated decomposition rates might differently affect distinct SOM pools, depending on their stability and accessibility. Soil fractions derived from density fractionation have been suggested to represent SOM pools with different turnover times and stability against microbial decomposition. To investigate the effect of soil warming on functionally different soil organic matter pools, we here investigated the chemical and isotopic composition of bulk soil and three density fractions (free particulate organic matter, fPOM; occluded particulate organic matter, oPOM; and mineral associated organic matter, MaOM) of a C-rich soil from a long-term warming experiment in a spruce forest in the Austrian Alps. At the time of sampling, the soil in this experiment had been warmed during the snow-free period for seven consecutive years. During that time no thermal adaptation of the microbial community could be identified and CO 2 release from the soil continued to be elevated by the warming treatment. Our results, which included organic carbon content, total nitrogen content, δ 13 C, Δ 14 C, δ 15 N and the chemical composition, identified by pyrolysis-GC/MS, showed no significant differences in bulk soil between warming treatment and control. Surprisingly, the differences in the three density fractions were mostly small and the direction of warming induced change was variable with fraction and soil depth. Warming led to reduced N content in topsoil oPOM and subsoil fPOM and to reduced relative abundance of N-bearing compounds in subsoil MaOM. Further, warming increased the δ 13 C of MaOM at both sampling depths, reduced the relative abundance of carbohydrates while it increased the relative abundance of lignins in subsoil oPOM. As the size of the functionally different SOM pools did not significantly change, we assume that the few and small

  15. Managing mechanistic and organic structure in health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olden, Peter C

    2012-01-01

    Managers at all levels in a health care organization must organize work to achieve the organization's mission and goals. This requires managers to decide the organization structure, which involves dividing the work among jobs and departments and then coordinating them all toward the common purpose. Organization structure, which is reflected in an organization chart, may range on a continuum from very mechanistic to very organic. Managers must decide how mechanistic versus how organic to make the entire organization and each of its departments. To do this, managers should carefully consider 5 factors for the organization and for each individual department: external environment, goals, work production, size, and culture. Some factors may push toward more mechanistic structure, whereas others may push in the opposite direction toward more organic structure. Practical advice can help managers at all levels design appropriate structure for their departments and organization.

  16. Exploring network organization in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Sørensen, Olav Jull

    that there are different logical considerations when designing a network organization to facilitate innovation. I identify three types of network organizations: market-led, directed and culture-led network organizations. Different types of network organizations show that organizations are dual and even ternary systems...

  17. Organic agriculture in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabaković Marijenka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic agriculture, or at least its basic principles, was introduced, as an idea, in the world in the beginning of the 20th century and has been present since. Today's principles of organic agriculture were established in 1972 by founding the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFAOM. The aim of this study was to analyse concept, idea and basic principles of organic agriculture as to give an answer why does it provide chances for the development of agriculture in the world and in our country? In Serbia, organic agriculture has been present for almost 30 years, but it is still seeking its place. It could be said, it is on the very begging in relation to the rest of the world. The reason for this is the specific production technology that increases the price of production inputs, the economic situation in the country, insufficient training of farmers and their inadequate knowledge about importance and benefits of organic agriculture. Great natural potential and unpolluted natural resources are Serbia's potentials for the development of this branch of agriculture. The largest areas with organic farms are in Vojvodina, but under developed rural areas and small farms should also seek their chances in such cultivation. Today, in the world, areas with organic agriculture amount to 0.9% of the total agricultural area. The highest average percentage of these areas is in Europe (6.2%. As many as eight countries have an average over 10%, while there are only 0.44% of such areas in Serbia. Organic agriculture is not just a production method, but also a new way of living of modern man. It is a return to old values and preservation of new ones. Export of such products is the only chance for our farmers, due to the economic situation, but it is necessary to develop the network of extension services that will spread the knowledge and create prerequisites that will provide better access to both the production and the products to an

  18. Thoracic organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Richard N; Barr, Mark L; McCullough, Keith P; Egan, Thomas; Garrity, Edward; Jessup, Mariell; Murray, Susan

    2004-01-01

    This article presents an overview of factors associated with thoracic transplantation outcomes over the past decade and provides valuable information regarding the heart, lung, and heart-lung waiting lists and thoracic organ transplant recipients. Waiting list and post-transplant information is used to assess the importance of patient demographics, risk factors, and primary cardiopulmonary disease on outcomes. The time that the typical listed patient has been waiting for a heart, lung, or heart-lung transplant has markedly increased over the past decade, while the number of transplants performed has declined slightly and survival after transplant has plateaued. Waiting list mortality, however, appears to be declining for each organ and for most diseases and high-severity subgroups, perhaps in response to recent changes in organ allocation algorithms. Based on perceived inequity in organ access and in response to a mandate from Health Resources and Services Administration, the lung transplant community is developing a lung allocation system designed to minimize deaths on the waiting list while maximizing the benefit of transplant by incorporating post-transplant survival and quality of life into the algorithm. Areas where improved data collection could inform evolving organ allocation and candidate selection policies are emphasized.

  19. Organ transplantation in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Wayne; Nour, Bakr

    2010-09-01

    Concern has increasingly been expressed about the growing number of reports of medical personnel participating in the transplantation of human organs or tissues taken from the bodies of executed prisoners, handicapped patients, or poor persons who have agreed to part with their organs for commercial purposes. Such behavior has been universally considered as ethically and morally reprehensible, yet in some parts of the world the practice continues to flourish. The concept of justice demands that every person have an equal right to life, and to protect this right, society has an obligation to ensure that every person has equal access to medical care. Regrettably, the Egyptian system does not legally recognize brain death and continues to allow the buying and selling of organs. For more than 30 years in Egypt, the ability to pay has determined who receives an organ and economic need has determined who will be the donor. As transplant professionals, it is important that we advocate on behalf of all patients, potential recipients, and donors and for those who are left out and not likely to receive a donor organ in an economically based system. Current issues associated with this debate are reviewed and recommendations about how to address them in Egypt are discussed.

  20. Organ Transplants in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baigenzhin, Abay; Doskaliyev, Zhaksylyk; Tuganbekova, Saltanat; Zharikov, Serik; Altynova, Sholpan; Gaipov, Abduzhappar

    2015-11-01

    The Republic of Kazakhstan is one of the fastest developing countries in the world and has a health care system that is unique in Central Asia. Its organ transplant services are also developing rapidly. We aimed to analyze and briefly report on the current status of organ transplant in the Republic of Kazakhstan. We analyzed organ transplant activities in that country for the period 2012 to 2014. All data were collected from the official database of the National Transplant Coordinating Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan. At the end of 2014, the number of transplant centers had increased to 10, three of which could perform multiorgan transplants; during the same period, the number of deceased-donor organ-donating hospitals increased up to 37. By 2013, the transplant activity rate for all centers had reached 9.22 per million population. During the previous 3 years (2012-2014), there was a 3-fold increase in the number of living donors and an 18-fold increase in the number of kidney transplants. Between 2012 and 2014, the number of living-donor liver transplants increased from 17 to 25, and the number of deceased-donor transplants increased from 3 to 7. During the last 3 years (2012-2014), the number of heart transplants increased to 7 cases. During the last 3 years (2012-2014), Kazakhstan achieved a significant improvement in the organization of its transplant services, and a noticeable upward trend in the system continues.