WorldWideScience

Sample records for austrian organizations

  1. Austrian results from Matroshka poncho and organ dose determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, M.; Bergmann, R.; Fugger, M.; Vana, N.

    Cosmic rays in low-earth orbits LEO primarily consist of high-energy charged particles originating from galactic cosmic radiation GCR energetic solar particle events SPE and trapped radiation belts These radiations of high linear energy transfer LET generally inflict greater biological damage than that resulting from typical terrestrial radiation hazards Particle and energy spectra are attenuated in interaction processes within shielding structures and within the human body Reliable assessment of health risks to astronaut crews is pivotal in the design of future expeditions into interplanetary space and requires knowledge of absorbed radiation doses in critical radiosensitive organs and tissues The European Space Agency ESA Matroshka experiment---conducted under the aegis of the German Aerospace Center DLR ---is aimed at simulating an astronaut s body during extravehicular activities EVA Matroshka basically consists of a human phantom torso attached to a base structure and covered with a protective carbon-fibre container acting as a spacesuit model The phantom is divided into 33 tissue-equivalent polyurethane slices of specific density for tissue and organs Natural bones are embedded Channels and cut-outs enable accommodation of active and passive radiation monitors The torso is dressed by a skin-equivalent poncho which is also designed for dosimeter integration The phantom houses in total 7 active and more than 6000 passive radiation sensors Thereof the Atomic Institute of the Austrian Universities ATI provided more than

  2. Praxeology and the firm: a contribution to the Austrian redefinition of the economic organization problem

    OpenAIRE

    Janković Ivan

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to syntetize theory of entrepreneurship of the Austrian School of economics with the contractual theory of the firm. Transaction cost theory of Ronald Coase and his followers holds that the firm is the organization with dominant component of ordering, while market is defined by competition and rivalry. But, market also includes interdependency and cooperation, such as in the case of cartel. Therefore non-competitive forms of economic coordination are not specificity f...

  3. Praxeology and the firm: a contribution to the Austrian redefinition of the economic organization problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Ivan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to syntetize theory of entrepreneurship of the Austrian School of economics with the contractual theory of the firm. Transaction cost theory of Ronald Coase and his followers holds that the firm is the organization with dominant component of ordering, while market is defined by competition and rivalry. But, market also includes interdependency and cooperation, such as in the case of cartel. Therefore non-competitive forms of economic coordination are not specificity for the firm, and can be observed in the open market as well. Agency theory rejects the notion of the firm as a hierarchy, and it is based on completeness of knowledge and contract. Theory of entrepreneurship and monetary calculation of Austrian School enables us to integrate contractual theory into the theoretical setting characterized by uncertainty, information asymmetry and positive transaction costs.

  4. Austrian natural scientists in exile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This text was written by E. Broda for the international symposium for exploration of the Austrian exile from 1934 to 1945 (“Internationales Symposiums zur Erforschung des österreichischen Exils von 1934 bis 1945”) in the year 1978. The article is about the specific problems of the Austrian scientific landscape, caused by the political events in the first half of the 20th century. The focus is primarily on the enormous ‘brain drain’, triggered by political repression in the period of Nazi rule (1938 - 1945), the Austro-fascism period (1934 - 1938) and the economic regression, anti-intellectual and anti-Semitic sentiment in the Country since 1918. The article emphasizes the importance of exile organizations, such as the ‘Free Austrian Movement’ or the ‘Association of Austrian Engineers, Chemists and Scientific Workers in Great Britain’ for the reconstruction of a scientific culture in Austria, after the Second World War. (rössner)

  5. On Austrian regional economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijman, W.J.M.; Leen, A.R.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this research note is two-fold, firstly, to clarify the growing interaction between regional science and Austrian economics and their awareness of each other. We elucidate the Austrian methodology, called praxeology, which is especially misunderstood in regional science. Secondly, we tent

  6. Anarchism and Austrian economics

    OpenAIRE

    Boettke, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In the 2011 Franz Cuhel Memorial Lecture, I argue that the study of endogenous rule formation in economic life (what I term the positive political economy of anarchism) should be studied in-depth and that the economic analysis of the Austrian school of economics provides many of the key analytical insights necessary for such study.

  7. Organizations and Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.; Linder, Stefan

    Austrian economics focuses on markets, but has much to say about organizations. In particular, Austrian insights on the structure of production, the heterogeneity and subjectivity of resources, the nature of uncertainty, the role of monetary calculation, and the function of the entrepreneur provide...... solid foundations for a distinctly Austrian theory of organizations. We review these insights, discuss recent literature on Austrian economics and the theory of the firm, and suggest new directions for developing and extending an Austrian approach to organizations....

  8. Visit of the Austrian Ambassador

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    The Austrian Ambassador Wolfgang Petritsch (light raincoat) learns about superconducting magnets at the LHC magnet test facility in building SM18 during a visit to CERN. The blue pipe-like structure in the left background is String 2: the 120-m long full-scale model of an LHC cell, which is used to test LHC systems.

  9. Austrian Carbon Calculator (ACC) - modelling soil carbon dynamics in Austrian soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedy, Katrin; Freudenschuss, Alexandra; Zethner, Gehard; Spiegel, Heide; Franko, Uwe; Gründling, Ralf; Xaver Hölzl, Franz; Preinstorfer, Claudia; Haslmayr, Hans Peter; Formayer, Herbert

    2014-05-01

    Austrian Carbon Calculator (ACC) - modelling soil carbon dynamics in Austrian soils. The project funded by the Klima- und Energiefonds, Austrian Climate Research Programme, 4th call Authors: Katrin Sedy, Alexandra Freudenschuss, Gerhard Zethner (Environment Agency Austria), Heide Spiegel (Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety), Uwe Franko, Ralf Gründling (Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research) Climate change will affect plant productivity due to weather extremes. However, adverse effects could be diminished and satisfying production levels may be maintained with proper soil conditions. To sustain and optimize the potential of agricultural land for plant productivity it will be necessary to focus on preserving and increasing soil organic carbon (SOC). Carbon sequestration in agricultural soils is strongly influenced by management practice. The present management is affected by management practices that tend to speed up carbon loss. Crop rotation, soil cultivation and the management of crop residues are very important measures to influence carbon dynamics and soil fertility. For the future it will be crucial to focus on practical measures to optimize SOC and to improve soil structure. To predict SOC turnover the existing humus balance model the application of the "Carbon Candy Balance" was verified by results from Austrian long term field experiments and field data of selected farms. Thus the main aim of the project is to generate a carbon balancing tool box that can be applied in different agricultural production regions to assess humus dynamics due to agricultural management practices. The toolbox will allow the selection of specific regional input parameters for calculating the C-balance at field level. However farmers or other interested user can also apply their own field data to receive the result of C-dynamics under certain management practises within the next 100 years. At regional level the impact of predefined changes in agricultural management

  10. Mr. Wolfgang Petritsch, Austrian Ambassador

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    Dr.Peter Schmid/CERN/EP, Dr.Wolfgang Petritsch, Austrian Ambassador, Permanent representative at UN, Mrs.Nora Petritsch, Dr.Kurt Hubner/CERN/AC, Mrs. Frederike Klaus-Salesin, Adviser, Mrs.Andrea Strohmeier, Secretary of the Ambassador, Mr.Heinz Klaus, Attaché, Dr.Theodor Tortschanoff/CERN/LHC, Mr.Peter Storer, Advisor. Dr.Peter Schmid/CERN/EP, Dr.Wolfgang Petritsch, Austrian Ambassador, Permanent representative at UN, Mrs.Nora Petritsch, Dr.Kurt Hubner/CERN/AC, Mrs. Frederike Klaus-Salesin, Adviser, Mrs.Andrea Strohmeier, Secretary of the Ambassador, Mr.Heinz Klaus, Attaché, Dr.Theodor Tortschanoff/CERN/LHC, Mr.Peter Storer, Advisor.

  11. Austrian Economics, Neoclassicism, and the Market Test

    OpenAIRE

    Leland B. Yeager

    1997-01-01

    Professor Sherwin Rosen correctly suggests that the Austrian and neoclassical schools can be complementary, each accepting much from the other. However his recognition of Austrian strengths needs to be amplified and his criticisms need softening. His appeal to the market test risks encouraging anti-intellectual attitudes and practices

  12. The Forgotten Austrian Economics Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bianca Vieru

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In light of the current events, namely the crisisthat economy has to face for quite someyears now, plenty of questions are raised, not only among specialists in the field but also amongordinary people as they prove to be most impoverished by these imbalances. Thus, this paper aims, asa first objective, to explain, froma general perspective and using an inductive-subjectivemethodology based on a brief survey as well as on observation, two of the most important causes that,according to the Austrian Business Cycle Theory, are the leading motives for triggering crises. Weare referring particularly to an excessivestate interventionismmanifested throughout itsexpansionary monetary policy.Secondly, we seek to establish the interconnections between theseelements and the case of the Great Depression as well as the current recession. The results we cameacross point out towards the same pattern designed by the Austrian economists, although thecircumstances are, each time, different. Hence, the contribution of this paper consists of handling thedetails that surround the subject by extracting only the essential aspects regarding the triggering ofcrises; we refer to the main ideas that need to be underlined for a better comprehension of the topic.

  13. 57. annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society. Conference programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This annual symposium was devoted to present advances in physics research performed in Austrian scientific organizations. It covered a variety of physical topics as well as the 'symposium on carbon nanophysics'. The contributions were speeches and poster sessions on the research fields of acoustics; atoms, molecules, quantum optics and plasma; solid state physics; polymer physics; physics history; nuclear and particle physics; medical, bio- and environmental physics; neutrons and synchrotron radiation physics; and surfaces and thin films. Specific topics such as the application of accelerator mass spectrometry, age dating, ATLAS experiment, electron detachment, electronic structure calculation, nanostructures, international linear collider, isobar suppression, magnetic field analysis, neutron interferometry, neutron experiments, neutron sources, nTOF project results, pionic atoms, quantum simulation, quantum well, quantum dots, quantum entanglement, quark confinement, quark gluon, quantum optics, silicon detectors, string theory development, synchrotron radiation, Austria UV indexing, Austrian radon potential, UV dosimetry were addressed. Those contributions which are in the INIS subject scope are indexed individually. (nevyjel)

  14. Schumpeter and Mises as 'Austrian Economists'

    OpenAIRE

    Vanberg, Viktor J.

    2008-01-01

    "Whether and, if so, in what sense Joseph A. Schumpeter (1883-1950) and Ludwig von Mises (1881-1973) may both be classified as ‘Austrian economists’ is a controversial issue. In terms of their biographical background they were, of course, Austrian nationals, and as students of Böhm-Bawerk and von Wieser both qualify in a formal sense as third-generation members of the Austrian School. Yet, whether they so qualify in a substantive sense as well is much more questionable. Apparen...

  15. Síndrome de Austrian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Estevão Midon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste relato, é descrito o caso de um paciente masculino, 64 anos, sem história de etilismo, que se apresentou com a Tríade de Osler, que consiste no desenvolvimento de endocardite, pneumonia e meningite, por um mesmo agente. A síndrome é denominada síndrome de Austrian, quando a infecção for por Streptococcus pneumoniae. Serão discutidas as manifestações clínicas, fisiopatológicas e a terapêutica mais adequada para esse quadro. Tendo em vista a raridade do caso e a elevada morbimortalidade, serão enfatizadas a importância do diagnóstico precoce e o tratamento adequado, visando reduzir as complicações inerentes a essa doença.

  16. Austrian emission inventory for dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the first time, Austrian emissions of anthropogenic particulate matter emissions to the atmosphere have been estimated. Results have been reported as total suspended particles (TSP) as well as for the fractions of particles smaller than 10 μm or 2.5 μm aerodynamic diameter (PM10, PM2.5), respectively. Base years for the inventory were 1990, 1995 and 1999. Excluded from this assessment is wind blown dust, which has been considered a natural source here. National statistics have been applied, specifically those also used previously in the Austrian air pollution inventory (OLI). Emission factors have been taken from literature compilations, only for exceptional cases specific Austrian assessments were performed or original literature on emission measurements was consulted. Resuspension of dust by road traffic emerged as the most important source. For the size fraction of PM10 this source contributed about half of the emissions, when applying the calculation scheme by the U.S. EPA. While this scheme is widely used and well documented, its validity is currently subject of intense scientific debate. As these results do not seem to coincide with ambient air measurements, resuspension of road dust is considered separately and not now included in the national total. The sum of all other sources increases from 75,000 t of TSP in 1990 and 1995 to 77,000 t in 1999, while both PM10 and PM2.5 exhibit decreasing tendency (at 45,000 t and 26,000 t in 1999, respectively). The increase in TSP derives from increasing traffic and friction related emissions (tire wear, break wear), decrease of the finer particulate matter is due to reductions in firewood consumption for domestic heating. Most important source sectors are fugitive emissions from material transfer in industry as well as the building industry and the tilling of agricultural land. Common to these sources is the high uncertainty of available data. Wood combustion is the most important of the non-fugitive emissions

  17. The Consumer in Austrian Economics and the Austrian Perspective on Consumer Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Leen, A.R.

    1999-01-01

    In this thesis I examined the place of the competitive-entrepreneurial consumer in Austrian economic thought. For a neoclassical economist, competition among consumers is hard to find. For an Austrian economist, however, it is a necessity. The introduction puts forward the problem that although an Austrian economist believes that everyone -the consumer included- acts entrepreneurially, in his elucidation of the market process he gives the role of entrepreneur to the producer only.In Part I, "...

  18. The Consumer in Austrian Economics and the Austrian Perspective on Consumer Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leen, A.R.

    1999-01-01

    In this thesis I examined the place of the competitive-entrepreneurial consumer in Austrian economic thought. For a neoclassical economist, competition among consumers is hard to find. For an Austrian economist, however, it is a necessity. The introduction puts forward the problem that although an A

  19. Treatment of liquid wastes at the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a review of the different categories, ammounts, types and sources of liquid wastes, arising at the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf, the collection and distribution of these wastes are described. The treatment of these effluents in the categories Cooling Water, Faeces, Inactive Line, Active Line and Alpha Line is shown in several examples. Special attention is given on the treatment of wastes containing organic liquids. A review of the release rates shows the efficiency of the treatment system. A short view on future installations closes the paper. (author)

  20. President Hans Ager of Austrian Federal Council Visits China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>An Austrian goodwill delegation led by Hans . Ager, president of the Austrian Federal Coun-cil and board member of the Austrian Association for Promotion of Friendship and Cultural Relations with China (AAPFCRC), paid a friendly visit to China in November, 2003 at the invitation of the CPAFFC. On the delegation were Dietmar Bachmann, president of the Industrial Federation of

  1. Austrian Philosophy. The Legacy of Franz Brentano

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Barry

    1994-01-01

    This book is a survey of the most important developments in Austrian philosophy in its classical period from the 1870s to the Anschluss in 1938. But I hope that the volume will be seen also as a contribution to philosophy in its own right as an attempt to philosophize in the spirit of those, above all Roderick Chisholm, Rudolf Haller, Kevin Mulligan and Peter Simons, who have done so much to demonstrate the continued fertility of the ideas and methods of the Austrian philosophers in our own d...

  2. The Continuing Relevance of Austrian Capital Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2012-01-01

    The article presents a speech by Professor Nicolai J. Foss of Copenhagen Business School, delivered at the Austrian Scholars Conference held on March 8, 2012 in Auburn, Alabama, in which he discussed the knowledge essays by economist Friedrich A. von Hayek, the concept of capital theory and the w......The article presents a speech by Professor Nicolai J. Foss of Copenhagen Business School, delivered at the Austrian Scholars Conference held on March 8, 2012 in Auburn, Alabama, in which he discussed the knowledge essays by economist Friedrich A. von Hayek, the concept of capital theory...... and the works of Hayek on political philosophy and cultural evolution....

  3. Welcome address: Alois Posch on behalf of the Austrian presidency for the European Union (A)

    OpenAIRE

    Posch, Dipl.-Ing. Alois

    2006-01-01

    In Austria, organic farming has been playing an important role in the national agricultural policy. Thus, Austria has advocated to foster the development of organic farming also at the level of the EU. It is the aim of the Austrian Presidency to support the European Commission in its actions. Like other EU countries, Austria is trying to make use of the Action programme for organic farming in the best possible way for the further development of organic farming. The rural development p...

  4. Networking for Education for Sustainable Development in Austria: The Austrian ECOLOG-Schools Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Franz

    2016-01-01

    This case describes networking for education for sustainable development within the Austrian ECOLOG-schools network. The article presents theoretical concepts of networks in education in general, and the organization of the ECOLOG-network in particular. Based upon these foundations, the concept and results of a participatory evaluation study are…

  5. Austrian Airlines:Safety is our Business!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Mighty Capacity Managed "Although Austrian Airlines is a middle-sized company, it has a mighty capacity of over 10 million customers every year. Because it has an extensive European service network." G(o)tz stressed to China's Foreign Trade.

  6. Investigations of biological processes in Austrian MBT plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanical biological treatment (MBT) of municipal solid waste (MSW) has become an important technology in waste management during the last decade. The paper compiles investigations of mechanical biological processes in Austrian MBT plants. Samples from all plants representing different stages of degradation were included in this study. The range of the relevant parameters characterizing the materials and their behavior, e.g. total organic carbon, total nitrogen, respiration activity and gas generation sum, was determined. The evolution of total carbon and nitrogen containing compounds was compared and related to process operation. The respiration activity decreases in most of the plants by about 90% of the initial values whereas the ammonium release is still ongoing at the end of the biological treatment. If the biogenic waste fraction is not separated, it favors humification in MBT materials that is not observed to such extent in MSW. The amount of organic carbon is about 15% dry matter at the end of the biological treatment.

  7. Investigations of biological processes in Austrian MBT plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tintner, J; Smidt, E; Böhm, K; Binner, E

    2010-10-01

    Mechanical biological treatment (MBT) of municipal solid waste (MSW) has become an important technology in waste management during the last decade. The paper compiles investigations of mechanical biological processes in Austrian MBT plants. Samples from all plants representing different stages of degradation were included in this study. The range of the relevant parameters characterizing the materials and their behavior, e.g. total organic carbon, total nitrogen, respiration activity and gas generation sum, was determined. The evolution of total carbon and nitrogen containing compounds was compared and related to process operation. The respiration activity decreases in most of the plants by about 90% of the initial values whereas the ammonium release is still ongoing at the end of the biological treatment. If the biogenic waste fraction is not separated, it favors humification in MBT materials that is not observed to such extent in MSW. The amount of organic carbon is about 15% dry matter at the end of the biological treatment. PMID:20580543

  8. The voice of Austrians at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    On 7 May the Austrian Minister for Science announced that, after over 50 years of membership, Austria would withdraw from CERN. By 18 May the Austrian Chancellor had reversed the decision. The Bulletin spoke to some of the Austrian community at CERN about the rollercoaster of events in between. var flash_video_player=get_video_player_path(); insert_player_for_external('Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056-0753-kbps-640x360-25-fps-audio-64-kbps-44-kHz-stereo', 'mms://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056-Multirate-200-to-753-kbps-640x360-25-fps.wmv', 'false', 533, 300, 'https://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056-posterframe-640x360-at-10-percent.jpg', '1180837', true, 'Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056-0600-kbps-maxH-360-25-fps-audio-128-kbps-48-kHz-stereo.mp4'); To watch this video in German click here. There was jubil...

  9. Foreign Identities in the Austrian E-Government

    OpenAIRE

    Ivkovic, Mario; Stranacher, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    With the revision of the Austrian E-Government Act [8] in the year 2008, the legal basis for a full integration of foreign persons in the Austrian e-government, has been created. Additionally, the E-Government Equivalence Decree [1] has been published in June 2010. This decree clarifies which foreign electronic identities are considered to be equivalent to Austrian identities and can be electronically registered within the Austrian identity register. Based on this legal framework a concept ha...

  10. Organic Agriculture in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Vogl, C. R.; Darnhofer, I.

    2004-01-01

    Organic farming has a long history in Austria, not least due to the fact that Rudolf Steiner, the founder of the bio-dynamic farming movement, was an Austrian. Currently approximately 10% of Austrian farms are certified organic, the highest percentage in the EU.

  11. Network Topology of the Austrian Airline Flights

    CERN Document Server

    Han, D D; Qian, J H

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the directed, weighted and evolutionary Austrian airline flight network. It is shown that such a specific airline flight network displays features of small-world networks, namely large clustering coefficient and small average shortest-path length. We study the detailed flight information both in a week and on a whole. In both cases, the degree distributions reveal power law with exponent value of 2 $\\sim$ 3 for the small degree branch and a flat tail for the large degree branch. Similarly, the flight weight distributions have power-law for the small weight branch. The degree-degree correlation analysis shows the network has disassortative behavior, i.e. the large airports are likely to link to smaller airports.

  12. The Austrian Approach: Entering the World of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feistritzer, Patricia; Balcerack, Carl

    1979-01-01

    This photo-essay describes a Waldorf School. Developed by Austrian Rudolf Steiner, the Waldorf plan is dedicated to allowing the child a childlike environment. It emphasizes storytelling, creative dramatics, flexibility, improvisation, crafts, and movement. (SJL)

  13. Capital Market-Oriented Financing Prospects for Austrian SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Halling; Josef Zechner

    2005-01-01

    The performance and growth of the Austrian economy largely depend on small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Despite their diminutive size, SMEs offer attractive investment opportunities that are, however, financed primarily by debt for a variety of reasons. The financing concept presented in this study adopts an innovative approach to provide access to quasi-equity forms of financing to Austrian SMEs, which have successfully and responsibly generated business in recent years and which cur...

  14. Publications of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf 1976-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About 3000 publications, written by staff members of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf (OEFZS) within the period 1976-1985 are cited. The bibliography includes citations of journal articles, proceedings, books, technical reports as well as dissertations and diploma works, carried out in Seibersdorf by students of Austrian universities. It covers the subject areas of chemistry, physics, biology, radiation protection, reactor safety, isotope applications, materials technology, environmental research, mathematics and information, electronics and agriculture. 10 refs. (Author)

  15. Acidification and Nitrogen Eutrophication of Austrian Forest Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Jandl; Stefan Smidt; Franz Mutsch; Alfred Fürst; Harald Zechmeister; Heidi Bauer; Thomas Dirnböck

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of acidic deposition and nitrogen on Austrian forests soils. Until thirty years ago air pollution had led to soil acidification, and concerns on the future productivity of forests were raised. Elevated rates of nitrogen deposition were believed to cause nitrate leaching and imbalanced forest nutrition. We used data from a soil monitoring network to evaluate the trends and current status of the pH and the C : N ratio of Austrian forest soils. Deposition measurements and...

  16. The Meaning of Market : Comparing Austrian and Institutional Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Dulbecco, Philippe; DUTRAIVE

    1997-01-01

    Our contribution aims at revealing the terms of a confrontation between Austrian and Institutional schools concerning the nature and the role of markets. Such an approach is justified by, on the one hand, the characteristics shared by both theoretical traditions, and on the other by the existence of complementarity, which founds a representation of market mechanisms in terms of process. The point is that if the economic analysis of institutions constitutes an essential link in the Austrian pr...

  17. PEGASUS - An Austrian Nanosatellite for QB50

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharlemann, Carsten; Seifert, Bernhard; Kohl, Dominik; Birschitzky, David; Gury, Lionel; Kerschbaum, Franz; Obertscheider, Christof; Ottensamer, Roland; Reissner, Alexander; Riel, Thomas; Sypniewski, Richard; Taraba, Michael; Trausmuth, Robert; Turetschek, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    PEGASUS - An Austrian Nanosatellite for QB50 C. Scharlemann* David Birschitzky* Lionel Gury*, Franz Kerschbaum~, Dominik Kohl#, Christof Obertscheider*, Roland Ottensamer~, Alexander Reissner+, Thomas Riel#, B. Seifert+, Richard Sypniewski*, Michael Taraba?, Robert Trausmuth*, Thomas Turetschek?, …. (*)University of Applied Sciences Wiener Neustadt, Austria (+)FOTEC GmbH, Wiener Neustadt, Austria (+) Spaceteam, TU Wien, Austria (~) University Wien, Wien, Austria The QB50 project is an international project with the goal to send up to 50 Nanosatellites, a.k.a. CubeSat, into the Thermosphere. The scientific goal of this mission is to monitor over a period of up to nine months the prevailing conditions in this rather unknown part of Earth's atmosphere. Each of the 50 nanosatellites will be equipped with one of three possible scientific instruments: (i) a set of Langmuir probes, (ii) atomic oxygen measurement device, (iii) ion/neutral mass spectrometer. All satellites will be launched together and released in a string-of-pearls type fashion. It is predicted that the satellites will drift apart rather rapidly following the release. Therefore, the QB50 missions offers the possibility of a measurement grid in the thermosphere of unprecedented scope and accuracy. One of the satellites, named PEGASUS, is designed and build by a team of Austrian researches and students. PEGASUS will be equipped with the aforementioned Langmuir probes and will provide information about essential properties of the plasma in the thermosphere such as the electrontemperature and -density. In order to ensure the capability to collect and downlink the data over several months, PEGASUS requires about the same types of subsystems as one would find on large-scale satellites. This includes an attitude control system, an on-board computer, telecommunication devices, an electrical power systems allowing to harvest the solar power and either distribute or store it for later use, a thermal control system

  18. Austrian Business Cycle Theory: Did Iceland go through an Austrian Business Cycle?

    OpenAIRE

    Ragnar Haukur Ragnarsson 1978

    2012-01-01

    The question this research tries to answer is if an artificial credit expansion caused the Icelandic economy to go into an Austrian style business cycle in the first decade of this century. To answer that question data from the Statistic of Iceland and the Central Bank of Iceland will be studied. The period that will be looked at is the years from 2001 until 2010. The framework that is used is taken from Jesús Huerta de Soto´s book “Money, Bank Credit, and Economic Cycles”, in that book d...

  19. Cornerstones of the Austrian radon risk communication strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On behalf of the Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management (BMLFUW), the National Radon Centre of Austria developed the National Radon Risk Communication Strategy. The superior goal is the reduction of the radon exposure of Austrian citizens as well as the reduction of radon-related lung cancer deaths. Austria, like many other countries, follows the approach to raise awareness and to inform the public to achieve this goal. The presented strategy deals with the question of how radon protection issues can be communicated to the public, existing fears can be reduced and affected people can be motivated to take action (perform a radon test, if necessary, mitigate or install preventive measures in new buildings). The cornerstones of the National Radon Risk Communication Strategy can be summarized as follows: - Definition of communication goals - Identification and categorization of target groups - Development of specific key messages for each of the target groups - Determination of communication channels and assessment of their efficiency - Integration of the radon issue in education and training - Cooperation with relevant organizations and platforms. The communication objectives, target groups and communication paths (and their evaluation) will be discussed during the presentation in detail.

  20. 52. Annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 52th Symposium of the Austrian Physical Society was held from 23.-26. September 2002 at the Montan University of Leoben (Austria). The papers presented were organized under the following sessions: main session (intermetallic materials, nanostructures as sensors, volcanic products as dating materials); Fritz-Kohlrausch-price 2002 (electronic structure and charge transfer in doped single-walled carbon nanotubes), Max-Auwaerter-price 2002 ( growth phenomena of thin overlayers on semiconductor surfaces), Viktor-Hess-price 2002 (analysis of rare Ke4 - decays), Roman-Ulrich-Sexl-price 2002 (experienced physics); acoustics; atomic-, molecular- and plasma physics (plasma ion mass spectrometers, proton-transfer-reaction-mass-spectrometry, radiation damage, electron-molecule interactions, decay); solid physics (nanoopticcs, nanocrystalline magnetic materials, nanostructure, nanoelectronics); nuclear and particle physics (CP-violations, neutral kaons, quark-antiquark systems, QCD, kaonic atoms spectroscopy, hadronic decay, long-lived radionuclides); medical-, bio-and environmental physics (biological radiation damage, photons therapy, Med-AUSTRON, doses rate, endovascular brachytherapy); physics-industry-energy (ski-simulation, acoustic surface wave); neutrons and synchrotron radiation physics (neutron quantum interferometry, AUSTRON, synchrotron-induced x-ray analysis); polymer physics(micro-Raman spectroscopy, x-ray analysis); quantum electronics, electrodynamics and optics (solid-state lasers, doped lasers, quantum purification and teleportation, Bose-Einstein condensates, quantum optics, Talbot-Lau interferometry, neutron quantum phases) and two poster sessions with topics dealing with the subjects above mentioned. Those contributions which are in the INIS subject scope are indexed separately. (nevyjel)

  1. Distribution of radiocaesium in an Austrian forest stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within an Austrian spruce stand, vertical distribution of radiocaesium in soil as well as 137Cs concentration in different forest ecosystem compartments including spruce and surface water were investigated 10 years after the Chernobyl accident. The total 137Cs inventory in the forest was estimated to be 46 kBq m-2 (ref. date: 86-05-01). From the collected data annual input rates via litterfall of 0.48% per year and output rates through waterflows of only 0.02% per year were derived. The results identify the high importance of forest soils as a sink for radiocaesium. The estimated ecological residence half-times turned out to be highest in the organic soil horizons (1-3 years per cm), whereas in mineral horizons the values decrease significantly. As a consequence, soil inventory represents more than 95% of the total, whereas only approximately 3.3% of the 137Cs inventory is stored in the living biomass of spruce trees and a further 0.5% in the phytomass of understorey vegetation

  2. HORA - an Austrian platform for natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlatky, T.

    2009-04-01

    HORA - an Austrian platform for natural hazards as a new way in risk communication One initiatives launched in Austria demonstrate that public participation not only bears the risk of a partial transfer of responsibility by the authorities; it may above all prepare the ground for entirely new approaches and create new links. The recent installation of the first internet risk zoning system in Austria underscores the importance of involving private parties in natural disaster protection. This public-private partnership (PPP) between the Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management (BMLFUW) and the Austrian Insurance Association (VVO) was launched in the wake of the 2002 flood disaster. The first project phase, the Austrian flood risk zoning system called HORA (screenshot see fig. 1), has now been accessible on the Web since 1st June 2006. In accordance with a risk partnership concluded between federal government, insurance companies and private parties, the project initiators seek to offer the public a preliminary risk assessment tool for evaluation of their home, industrial enterprise, of infrastructure. Digital risk maps shall provide information on 30-year, 100-year and 200-year flood events as they occur alongside the 26.000-km-long domestic river network. The probability with which a certain block of land is immersed in water during a flood event can be calculated by means of hydraulic engineering methods. These have traditionally relied on statistical figures, which are known to be very inaccurate, especially when major events such as flooding are concerned. The Vienna University of Technology (TU) (Institute of Hydraulic and Water Resources Engineering) has dedicated many years to developing more accurate, process oriented risk assessment techniques. The starting points was to identify different flood-triggering processes and to divide them into specific categories as long-duration rainfalls, short-duration rainfalls, storms

  3. Natural radionuclides in Austrian bottled mineral waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All commercially available mineral waters of Austrian origin were investigated with regard to the natural radionuclides 228Ra, 226Ra, 210Pb, 210Po, 238U and 234U. From 1 to 1.5 L of sample the nuclides were extracted and measured sequentially: the radium isotopes as well as 210Pb were measured by liquid scintillation counting after separation on a membrane loaded with element-selective particles (Empore Radium Disks), 210Po was determined by α-particle spectroscopy after spontaneous deposition onto a copper planchette and uranium was determined also by α-particle spectroscopy after anion separation and microprecipitation with NdF3. The calculated committed effective doses for adults, teens and babies were compared to the total indicative dose of 0.1 mSv/year given in the EC Drinking Water Directive. The dominant portion of the committed effective dose was due to 228Ra. Highly mineralised waters showed also higher 226Ra and 228Ra levels. (author)

  4. [Fight against epidemics: Austrian prisoners in Troyes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzel, Géraldine

    2014-01-01

    The victories near Ulm and Elchingen, where the Napoleonic army took 60000 prisoners between 15th and 20th of October 1805, lead to the arrival at Troyes (county "Aube") of nearly 2000 Austrian soldiers to be held inside former monasteries among whose, mainly the Jacobinians casern where more than half of them stayed. At the beginning of 1806, the government sent the epidemics medical practitioner Dr Desgenettes on an inspection tour to control the state of health of the populations of places where foreign prisoners were held, which lead him through several counties of the North-eastern part of France, where he surveyed several diseases ranging from all kinds offevers up to dysentery, scabies or gangrenes. With the means of acid fumigations invented by the chemist Guyton Morveau from Dijon, the authorities took care of combating and preventing the epidemics in the caserns. As soon as October 1805, the epidemics medical practitioner Dr Pigeotte from Troyes wrote to the county governor his observations recommending a better diet, airing of the rooms and also calls to take some exercise. All these precepts showed an astonishing modernity.

  5. Assessment of sustainability in Austrian wine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosner Franz Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the project was to find out whether environmental sustainability can be measured not only with regard to climate change and carbon consumption but also as to other criteria concerning material consumption, energy, soil, biodiversity and water. We investigated which measures in the vineyard and wine cellar can lead to “better” sustainability while ensuring a high quality standard. 343 activities were identified to fulfill 61 quality objectives. Of the 2,191 sustainability assessments that were determined the measurements of the individual sustainability criteria vary and are in some cases even negatively correlated. Nevertheless, it was still possible to differentiate sustainably managed wineries from others in all of the Austrian wine producing areas. In our approach, a specifically developed online tool can calculate the expression of ecological, economic and social sustainability and show the effects in a spider diagram in the form of a traffic light rating system. Moreover, an algorithm suggests adequately which quality improvements can be achieved. If part of the management system is changed the online tool will show the positive and negative sustainability effects.

  6. Austrian Economics and the Transaction Cost Approach to the Firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai J. Foss

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available As the transaction cost theory of the firm was taking shape in the 1970s, another important movement in economics was emerging: a revival of the ‘Austrian’ tradition in economic theory associated with such economists as Ludwig von Mises and F. A. Hayek (1973; Dolan, 1976; Spadaro, 1978. As Oliver Williamson has pointed out, Austrian economics is among the diverse sources for transaction cost economics. In particular, Williamson frequently cites Hayek (e.g., Williamson, 1985, p. 8; 1991, p. 162, particularly Hayek’s emphasis on adaptation as a key problem of economic organisation (Hayek, 1945. Following Williamson’s lead, a reference to Hayek’s ‘The Use of Knowledge in Society’ (Hayek, 1945 has become almost mandatory in discussions of economic organisation (e.g., Ricketts, 1987, p. 59; Milgrom and Roberts, 1992, p. 56; Douma and Schreuder 1991, p. 9. However, there are many other potential links between Austrian and transaction cost economics that have not been explored closely and exploited.This article argues that characteristically Austrian ideas about property, entrepreneurship, economic calculation, tacit knowledge, and the temporal structure of capital have important implications for theories of economic organisation, transaction cost economics in particular. Austrian economists have not, however, devoted substantial attention to the theory of the firm, preferring to focus on business-cycle theory, welfare economics, political economy, comparative economic systems, and other areas. Until recently the theory of the firm was an almost completely neglected area in Austrian economics, but over the last decade, a small Austrian literature on the firm has emerged. While these works cover a wide variety of theoretical and applied topics, their authors share the view that Austrian insights have something to offer students of firm organisation.

  7. This year the CERN Accelerator School returned to Austria after an interval of ten years and organized its Basic Accelerator Physics course together with the Austrian Academy of Sciences (HEPHY) in Baden, near Vienna, from 12-24 September, 2004.

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The school was a resounding success with 95 students of more than 20 different nationalities attending. This particularly high attendance is very satisfying and confirms the strong interest in accelerator physics among young scientists. Feedback from the students praised the expertise of the lecturers, the high standard of the lectures as well as the pleasant environment and excellent organization.

  8. Austrian Books Online. Das Google Books-Projekt an der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiser, Max

    2012-01-01

    Austrian Books Online. The Austrian National Library’s Google Books Project (Translation of the title). In cooperation with Google, the Austrian National Library is digitising its historical, public-domain book holdings. Some 600,000 volumes from the sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries will be digitised. The project "Austrian Books Online" demonstrates that public-private partnerships can be successful in enabling heritage institutions to provide large-scale access to their holdings, provid...

  9. The Austrian Business Cycle Theory: Validity and Implications

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis the Austrian business cycle theory is analyzed. Based on the work of Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk (1959[1889]), Knut Wicksell (1962[1898]) and Ludwig von Mises (1953[1912]), the theory was further developed and made famous by Friedrich von Hayek in the 1930s. Arguably, Hayek was the main rival of Keynes during this decade, but after heavy criticism and the publication of the General Theory (Keynes, 1936), the Austrian business cycle theory was left with few advocates by the end of Wor...

  10. Old Monarchy in the New Cyberspace: Empirical Examination of Information Security Awareness among Austrian and Hungarian Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Sasvari, Peter; Nemeslaki, Andras; Rauch, Wolf

    2015-01-01

    Information security awareness is part of organizational culture, a way of thinking and be-havior which ensures that the employees of the organizations are committed to acknowledging the legitimacy of security measures, they abide by them and they also make them known to others and enforce their application. After collecting empirical data from 280 Austrian and 470 Hungarian employees of different companies we concluded that the level of information security awareness of managers and employee...

  11. THE HUNGARIAN CRISIS: AN AUSTRIAN SCHOOL EXPLANATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Toth

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Hungarian model was heralded as one of the most successful post-socialist way of integration into the globalised world economy and European economic area in the nineties. Currently, Hungary is suffering from a full-blown crisis 1996 onwards. Increasingly large number of Hungarians is losing their faith in political parties, institutions, democracy and in market economy. The government, elected in 2010 by supermajority and still enjoying a broad support despite the deepening recession, condemns the development path taken after 1989 and openly rejects the wrong model of the last 20 years. The government intends to build a new economic model following a model, which one can call a model of economic nationalism as the only way out of the crisis. The paper intends to portray, through the case of Hungary, how economy and politics is interconnected, and why political elites are choosing a credit fuelled development path. The paper intends to portray how a credit fuelled growth was induced by politics and ended up in tears. Moreover, the paper describes the consequences of pro-etatist shift in the public sentiment due to the alleged “market-failure”, which was in reality a crisis, at first place, created for political purposes by political means. This article, based on the Austrian business cycle theory, argues that the tragedy of Hungary was that it went through a government inspired spending binge in the first half of the 2000s. The deficit spending of the government was accompanied by the expansion of credit by the commercial banks, mostly denominated in Swiss francs. The combined effect of deficit spending and credit expansion was the build-up of debt and loss of cost competitiveness. The 2008 crisis ended the credit fuelled development path and has started the long and painful period of deleveraging crisis. On the other hand, the Hungarian crisis is a post-Keynesian crisis. It had broken out when the state was already heavily indebted and

  12. 48. annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains short communications of lectures and posters of the 48th Symposium of the Austrian Physical Society which had been held at the University of Graz (Austria) in 1998. The following topics are included: atomic physics, molecular physics, plasma physics, solid state physics, nuclear and particle physics, polymer physics, biophysics, environmental physics, quantum electronics and quantum optics. (Suda)

  13. 45. Annual Convention of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains lectures of the 45th symposium of the Austrian Physical Society which had been held in Leoben, Austria in 1995. The following topics are included: Atomic physics, molecular physics, plasma physics, solid state physics, nuclear and particle physics, biophysics, environmental physics, quantum electronics and quantum optics. (Suda)

  14. Acidification and Nitrogen Eutrophication of Austrian Forest Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Jandl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of acidic deposition and nitrogen on Austrian forests soils. Until thirty years ago air pollution had led to soil acidification, and concerns on the future productivity of forests were raised. Elevated rates of nitrogen deposition were believed to cause nitrate leaching and imbalanced forest nutrition. We used data from a soil monitoring network to evaluate the trends and current status of the pH and the C : N ratio of Austrian forest soils. Deposition measurements and nitrogen contents of Norway spruce needles and mosses were used to assess the nitrogen supply. The pH values of soils have increased because of decreasing proton depositions caused by reduction of emissions. The C : N ratio of Austrian forest soils is widening. Despite high nitrogen deposition rates the increase in forest stand density and productivity has increased the nitrogen demand. The Austrian Bioindicator Grid shows that forest ecosystems are still deficient in nitrogen. Soils retain nitrogen efficiently, and nitrate leaching into the groundwater is presently not a large-scale problem. The decline of soil acidity and the deposition of nitrogen together with climate change effects will further increase the productivity of the forests until a limiting factor such as water scarcity becomes effective.

  15. 47. annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains lectures (short communications) of the 47. symposium of the Austrian Physical Society which had been held at the University of Vienna (Austria) in 1997. The following topics are included: atomic physics, molecular physics, plasma physics, solid state physics, nuclear and particle physics, biophysics, environmental physics, quantum electronics and quantum optics. (Suda)

  16. English, French, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese? Code Choice and Austrian Export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavric, Eva; Back, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    This article deals with how "export oriented Austrian companies effect code choice in their business relationships with customers from Romance language speaking countries". The focus lies on the most widespread Romance languages, therefore on French, Spanish, Italian and Portuguese speaking customers.The question of code choice in export should be…

  17. 50. Annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference held from 25. - 29. 9. 2000 at the University of Graz was elaborated by the Austrian society of physics in the fields of solid state physics, polymers physics, quantum electronics, electrodynamics, optics, nuclear and particle physics, atomic, molecules and plasma physics, acoustics, physics - industry - energy and physics teaching. (botek)

  18. 49. annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains short communications of lectures and poster sessions of the 49th symposium of the Austrian Physical Society which has been held at the University of Innsbruck (Austria) in 1999. The following topics are included: atomic physics, molecular physics, plasma physics, solid state physics, nuclear and particle physics, polymer physics, biophysics, environmental physics, quantum electronics and quantum optics. (Suda)

  19. Report 1985 of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf. Abridged version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report gives a short survey of the work carried out by the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf in 1985. The working programme comprises five main areas: Energy and safety; Materials research, isotope and radiation techniques; Measuring techniques and information processing; Environmental protection, health and food; Industrial consulting. (Author)

  20. Occupational incidents with self-propelled machinery in Austrian agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrhofer, Hannes; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery, and material handling machinery are the most commonly used self-propelled machineries in Austrian agriculture, and they have similarities in main accident scenarios. Statistical data of all occupational incidents with these machines reported between 2008 and 2010 were analyzed to obtain information about the circumstances of the incidents, and about the victims and their work environments. Criteria of recognized occupational incidents provided by the Austrian Social Insurance Institution for Farmers were analyzed according to machinery category by means of cross-tabulation and chi-square tests. The results were discussed and evaluated in the context of the literature. The results of the analysis of the databases show that 786 occupational incidents with tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery, and material handling machinery occurred in Austrian agriculture between 2008 and 2010. There were 231 occupational incidents in 2008; the number rose to 268 in 2009 and to 286 in 2010. A total of 41 incidents were fatal. For the machinery categories analyzed, the majority of injured victims were male, older than 40 years, Austrian citizens, and managers of a mixed-agricultural farm. A large number of the incidents occurred in all machinery categories by loss of control during operating a vehicle.

  1. Chinese President Hu Jintao and Austrian President Heinz Fischer Send Messages of Congratulations on 2006 China Year in Austria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>Editor’s note: In January 2004, Benita Ferrero-Waldner, Austrian foreign minister at the time, announced that China Year would be held in Austria in 2006 to mark the 35th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between Austria and China and to promote understanding of China and bilateral cooperation. The two sides decided after consultation that the activities for the China Year would be jointly organized by the Austria-China Friendship Association and the Chinese People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries. The governments of the two countries attach great importance to the holding of the China Year. Chinese President Hu Jintao, Austrian President Heinz Fischer and Federal Chancellor Wolfgang Schussel and other state leaders

  2. Two centuries of the Austrian Civil code (1811-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Dušan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Austrian civil code (Allgemeines bürgerliches Gesetzbuch - ABGB, ACC succeeded in resisting the challenges of time for two centuries. A number of factors influenced it's longevity. First of all, prior to adoption of the law, a long lasting and well designed work, which has been described in greater detail in this article, was done. The Code was written gradually, with lots of recalculations, checks and public debates. In legal literature, it is often written about a unique lawmaking experiment, which Austrian authorities made by implementing the Code in one part of the state territory. The Code was written for feudal order, but according to principles of natural law. This second thing has, in addition to widely formulated and flexible legal norms, left enough space for extensive interpretation of outdated rules, and filling in the legal lacunas, whose number was increasing as the time passed. Courts often used this opportunity in a creative manner, contributing to survival of the Code. Many additions and changes were made to the Code, but there were few of those who thought that it should be changed by a new one Code. Austrians are preparing a more detailed revision of the ACC, which will allow modernization of the national law and it's synchronization with trends in current European law, but on the other hand, to preserve the two century old legal heritage. The second part of this article is dedicated to the influence of the Austrian Civil Code on the development of civil law in the former Yugoslavia and Serbia. ACC served as model for adoption of the Serbian Civil Code of 1844. It was applied as a positive law in the first half of XX century, in one part of the territory of today's Autonomous Province of Vojvodina. Formally, legal rules of the Austrian Civil Code can even be applied today, according to the Law on Nullity of Legal Regulations Enacted Prior to 6th of April 1941, and During the Enemy Occupation. However, that possibility is more

  3. Some specific Austrian insights on markets and the "new economy"

    OpenAIRE

    Arena, Richard; Festré, Agnès

    2004-01-01

    In section 1 of this contribution, we will recall the usual arguments which are put forward to analyze the New Economy (NE) as the empirical realization of the Competitive Economic Equilibrium (CEE) model. After having stressed the limits of these arguments, we will try to show that some Austrian concepts and developments better fit to explain the economic impact of Information Technologies on present markets. This purpose is characterized in section 2 of this contribution. Finally, in sectio...

  4. Austrian Economics, Evolutionary Psychology and Methodological Dualism: Subjectivism Reconsidered

    OpenAIRE

    Vanberg, Viktor J.

    2004-01-01

    The methodological individualism and subjectivism of the Austrian tradition in economics is often associated with a methodological dualism, i.e. the claim that the nature of its subject matter, namely purposeful and intentional human action, requires economics to adopt a methodology that is fundamentally different from the causal explanatory approach of the natural sciences. This paper critically examines this claim and advocates an alternative, explicitly naturalistic and empiricist outlook ...

  5. Austrian Science Fund (FWF) Open Access Compliance Monitoring 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Kunzmann, Martina; Reimann, Ralph; Rieck, Katharina; Reckling, Falk

    2016-01-01

    Since 2008 the Austrian Science Fund (FWF), Austria's central funding organisation for basic research, requires from and supports all project leaders and project staff members to make their peer-reviewed research results freely available through the Internet. All principal investigators of FWF funded projects are obliged to submit a final report three months after the project is finished. The average duration of an FWF funded project from the beginning to the delivery of the final pro...

  6. Austrian meat: Authenticity control by stable isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The EU has declared that all foodstuff must be able to be traced back from 'fork to farm' to increase the safety of food and the confidence of the consumers in food quality and safety. Additionally, several incidents of 'food diseases and scandals' related with meat (e.g.: BSE, foot and mouth disease, antibiotics abuse, avian flu, etc.) have demonstrated the necessity to trace back the origin of meat, to be able to locate sources of infection/mismanagement. Besides the conventional method of the control of documentation there is the possibility of control of origin by analysing the isotopic composition of meat and herewith controlling the questioned good itself. Stable isotope ratios of the elements HCNOS are varying geographically due to different environmental conditions (e.g.: climate, geology, soil, altitude, geography, etc.) thus every region possesses an individual pattern. The isotopic pattern is imprinted on plants and animals growing in a certain region, and therefore analysis of the stable isotope pattern can allow the identification of agricultural goods from different regions. For the control of origin of Austrian meat about 500 beef and 500 pork samples have been collected from slaughterhouses and were analysed for the isotopic composition of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulphur and compared with the isotopic composition of meat samples from neighbouring countries. As Austria, despite being a small country, is very heterogeneous in its environmental conditions, thus there are significant differences in the isotopic patterns of individual Austrian provinces. The isotopic signature of meat samples from neighbouring countries can overlap with the 'Austrian isotope pattern' due to similar environmental conditions. However, a correct statistical classification has been achieved for 80% and 84% of the analysed beef and pork samples, respectively. If the declared origin of meat can be pinned down to an Austrian province, the discrimination power of

  7. THE AUSTRIAN SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS AND MARKET INSTABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Peptine

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Market equilibrium is an illusion. The economic reality shows us that the main characteristic of the markets is the state of instability. The complexity of the phenomenon and the strong implications engendered by the economic fluctuations in the macro system, justify the rich scientific research activity of the main schools of economic thought to explain it. The Austrian school of economic thought has one of the most realistic analyses of the factors who generate the market instability.

  8. Austrian Economics - The Ultimate Achievement of an Intellectual Journey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Salin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this lecture delivered November 2008 on the occasion of the presentation of the Mises Institute’s Gary G. Schlarbaum Prize for lifetime achievement in the cause of liberty, Professor Salin discusses his discovery of Austrian economics and his involvement in “the world of individual liberty,” and draws various lessons from his intellectual journey. The coherence of Austrian economics appealed to Salin—it is not a patchwork of partial theories, but a logical process of thought founded on realistic assumptions about individual action. Salin also discusses differences between the Chicago and Austrian approaches, and his views about monetary systems.The financial crisis beginning in late 2008 is not a crisis of capitalism, but of state intervention, caused by the expansionary monetary policy of the Fed. Capitalism is the solution, not the cause. There is no need to create money. There is never any balance of payments problem. What is required is tax systems more friendly to capital accumulation, a decrease in the role of the state, the end of monetary policy and, if possible, the disappearing of central banks and the IMF.

  9. The emergence, development and demilitarization of the military border of the Austrian Monarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Kulauzov Maša

    2008-01-01

    Military border of the Austrian Monarchy was formed gradually in border areas for the purpose of defending the border from Turkish invasions. In time, as the international political circumstances have changed, the Border itself also modified its primary function. From the beginning of the 18th century soldiers of the Military Border together with the regular troops of Austrian army participate in all wars in which Austria took part. Thanks to those soldiers the military force of the Austrian ...

  10. A Contribution to the Austrian Business Cycle Theory: Uncertainty and Price Expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Frömmel, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Common critique of the Austrian business cycle theory states that the Austrian cycle could not be initiated under the rational expectations hypothesis. This thesis therefore investigates the role of price expectations of entrepreneurs in the Austrian cycle theory. We conclude that this theory might be compatible with rational expectations only under several assumptions. The rational expectations hypothesis is, however, evaluated rather critically concluding it is quite strong and unrealistic ...

  11. State aid in the Austrian electricity industry law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work deals with the existence of State aid in the Austrian electricity industry and focuses on three selected areas of the Austrian legal system, which are examined for their compatibility with Community law. Subject of the first part of this work is a representation of the article 87 ff Treaty of Rome and its impact on Austrian provisions on the promotion of electricity from renewable energies or on the promotion of cogeneration energy. In this context, the first principles of the European state aid law and in particular the European Court are presented regarding the existence of State aid. Here, the Rsp of the Court in connection with the use of State resources in the Rs PreussenElektra Stardust Marine and Pearle is paid in connection with para-fiscal levies special attention. The evaluation of the Austrian support model is based on PreussenElektra, Stardust Marine and Pearle. Then the system of green electricity production in Austria represented. In addition to the Community law principles (green power directive, frameworks and guidelines for environmental aid) is here in particular the 'Oekostromgesetz' and treated it's novellas. It is an intensive discussion with the Commission's decisions on the compatibility of the green power and CHP funding and the funding of the countries with state aid rules. As part of this analysis is to attempt a classification of the Commission's practice in the Community legal system. The second part of the work deals with the determination of absorbed. System utilization rates and their distribution to the network operator. After a presentation of the Community legislation (EC regulations, the internal electricity market directives) and Rsp of the European Court of Justice (Case ADBHu, Ferring, Altmark Trans) to services of general economic interest is first attempted to determine the presence of these services in the 216 Austrian legislation. Here, the question will be, entrusted with services of general economic

  12. Assessment of climate change impact on SOM balance with the Austrian Carbon Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franko, Uwe; Gründling, Ralf; Sedy, Katrin; Zethner, Gerhard; Formayer, Herbert

    2015-04-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) balance depends on climate and climate change due to the impact on SOM turnover conditions as well as on cropping and crop yields. The Austrian Carbon calculator (ACC) is a tool for the comparison of future land use scenarios with the current agriculture in order to identify opportunities to sustain the SOM balance. The ACC can be used in a regional mode as well as in local mode for the assessment of single farm fields. The assessment is based on the concept of Biologic Active Time (BAT). BAT is calculated based on soil data from the Austrian eBod map and climate data for past and future on a 1 km grid. The ACC was implemented for the regions Mühlviertel and Marchfeld. Crop yields are calculated based on statistics from the Austrian agricultural sub regions "Kleinproduktionsgebiet" for the most common crops. The regional scenarios consist of the abundance of crops, the part of nitrogen added as mineral fertilizer and the part of irrigation. The local soil management is calculated based on crop rotations with yields, organic amendments, irrigation and the tillage system (ploughed or not ploughed). The SOM balance is assessed with the reproduction index (REP_IX) that is calculated as the quotient from carbon reproduction (Carbon flux into SOM) and the BAT value. This way REP_IX includes the impact from management as well as from climate. If the future management will not change REP_IX the SOM balance will be the same as well. This methodology helps to adapt the management to future conditions to sustain the current SOM conditions without an absolute assessment if the current SOM state is optimal or not. The regional results of ACC will be made available as thematic maps on the project web site. For local applications farmer can use the tool to analyze their special site conditions and management plans to assess the management options under climate change conditions. The described concept can be improved if reliable information about the

  13. European Publication issues from an Austrian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUS-CHRISTIAN CARBON

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Publishing in Austria faces several barriers: Austria (1 has a small number of scientists compared with the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD average and only recently benefited from higher research intensities, (2 it has not yet made the full switch to English as lingua franca, (3 it has not yet developed an efficient Open-Access strategy, (4 it has a lower number of journal gatekeepers than expected by publication output, (5 it faces several legal barriers which interfere with scientific publications. The present article describes the publication situation in Austria in detail and develops strategies for successful publishing in the highly competitive scientific community of future Europe.

  14. Hydrogeological interpretation of natural radionuclide contents in Austrian groundwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Gerhard; Berka, Rudolf; Hörhan, Thomas; Katzlberger, Christian; Landstetter, Claudia; Philippitsch, Rudolf

    2010-05-01

    The Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety (AGES) stores comprehensive data sets of radionuclide contents in Austrian groundwater. There are several analyses concerning Rn-222, Ra-226, gross alpha and gross beta as well as selected analyses of Ra-228, Pb-210, Po-210, Uranium and U-234/U-238. In a current project financed by the Austrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management, AGES and the Geological Survey of Austria (GBA) are evaluating these data sets with regard to the geological backgrounds. Several similar studies based on groundwater monitoring have been made in the USA (for instance by Focazio, M.J., Szabo, Z., Kraemer, T.F., Mullin, A.H., Barringer, T.H., De Paul, V.T. (2001): Occurrence of selected radionuclides in groundwater used for drinking water in the United States: a reconnaissance survey, 1998. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 00-4273). The geological background for the radionuclide contents of groundwater will be derived from geological maps in combination with existing Thorium and Uranium analyses of the country rocks and stream-sediments and from airborne radiometric maps. Airborne radiometric data could contribute to identify potential radionuclide hot spot areas as only airborne radiometric mapping could provide countrywide Thorium and Uranium data coverage in high resolution. The project will also focus on the habit of the sampled wells and springs and the hydrological situation during the sampling as these factors can have an important influence on the Radon content of the sampled groundwater (Schubert, G., Alletsgruber, I., Finger, F., Gasser, V., Hobiger, G. and Lettner, H. (2010): Radon im Grundwasser des Mühlviertels (Oberösterreich) Grundwasser. - Springer (in print). Based on the project results an overview map (1:500,000) concerning the radionuclide potential should be produced. The first version should be available in February 2011.

  15. Religion and suicide risk in lesbian, gay and bisexual Austrians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralovec, Karl; Fartacek, Clemens; Fartacek, Reinhold; Plöderl, Martin

    2014-04-01

    Religion is known to be a protective factor against suicide. However, religiously affiliated sexual minority individuals often report a conflict between religion and sexual identity. Therefore, the protective role of religion against suicide in sexual minority people is unclear. We investigated the effect of religion on suicide risk in a sample of 358 lesbian, gay and bisexual Austrians. Religion was associated with higher scores of internalized homophobia, but with fewer suicide attempts. Our data indicate that religion might be both a risk and a protective factor against suicidality in religiously affiliated sexual minority individuals.

  16. Austrian diplomacy in a changing global and European context: Between innovation, adaptation and resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maurer, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years after Austria joining the EU, this contribution investigates how Austrian diplomacy has been adjusting to the changing European demands and opportunities next to global and domestic pressures for adaptation. Austrian diplomatic adaptation has predominantly been reactive. EU membership a

  17. Regional Networks in Education: A Case Study of an Austrian Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Franz

    2013-01-01

    This case study presents the development of networks in education, using the Austrian IMST (Innovations Make Schools Top) project as illustration. The regional networks are coordinated in every Austrian federal province by groups made up of teachers, representatives of the educational authorities, and members of academia. In the framework of the…

  18. Scientific support, soil information and education provided by the Austrian Soil Science Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Sigbert; Baumgarten, Andreas; Birli, Barbara; Englisch, Michael; Tulipan, Monika; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie

    2015-04-01

    The Austrian Soil Science Society (ASSS), founded in 1954, is a non-profit organisation aiming at furthering all branches of soil science in Austria. The ASSS provides information on the current state of soil research in Austria and abroad. It organizes annual conferences for scientists from soil and related sciences to exchange their recent studies and offers a journal for scientific publications. Annually, ASSS awards the Kubiena Research Prize for excellent scientific studies provided by young scientists. In order to conserve and improve soil science in the field, excursions are organized, also in cooperation with other scientific organisations. Due to well-established contacts with soil scientists and soil science societies in many countries, the ASSS is able to provide its members with information about the most recent developments in the field of soil science. This contributes to a broadening of the current scientific knowledge on soils. The ASSS also co-operates in the organisation of excursions and meetings with neighbouring countries. Several members of the ASSS teach soil science at various Austrian universities. More detail on said conferences, excursions, publications and awards will be given in the presentation. Beside its own scientific journal, published once or twice a year, and special editions such as guidebooks for soil classification, the ASSS runs a website providing information on the Society, its activities, meetings, publications, awards and projects. Together with the Environment Agency Austria the ASSS runs a soil platform on the internet. It is accessible for the public and thus informs society about soil issues. This platform offers a calendar with national and international soil events, contacts of soil related organisations and networks, information on national projects and publications. The society has access to products, information material and information on educational courses. Last but not least information on specific soil

  19. First annual report of the Austrian CML registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stefan; Wolf, Dominik; Thaler, Josef; Burgstaller, Sonja; Linkesch, Wolfgang; Petzer, Andreas; Fridrik, Michael; Lang, Alois; Agis, Hermine; Valent, Peter; Krieger, Otto; Walder, Alois; Korger, Markus; Schlögl, Ernst; Sliwa, Tamer; Wöll, Ernst; Mitterer, Manfred; Eisterer, Wolfgang; Pober, Michael; Gastl, Günther

    2010-10-01

    The Austrian chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) registry monitors individual disease courses, treatments applied, clinical outcome, and side effects of CML patients on a nationwide basis to provide data on the "real-life" situation and to complement the information and interpretation gained from the selected patient population observed in clinical trials. This report summarizes the Austrian CML registry data as of March 2009. A total of 179 patients have been registered with a median number of 1012 follow-up visits and median observation duration of 20 months. At diagnosis most patients (n = 163) were in chronic phase (early, late, and secondary), whereas only 4 were in advanced phase. A total of 137 patients were treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), of which 14 received first and second generation TKIs sequentially. Other treatment modalities included chemotherapy or interferon and stem cell transplantation (SCT). Cumulative incidence rates for complete hematological responses (CHR) were 91.6% and 94.4% at 12 and 24 months, respectively, compared to cumulative incidence rates of complete cytogenetical response rates of 64% and 80% at these timepoints. A total of 5 patients progressed from chronic phase to accelerated (n = 3) and blastic phase (n = 2) while receiving imatinib standard dose. Estimated overall survival (OS) rate at 60 months was 90% and progression free survival (PFS) according to European Leukemia Net (ELN) failure definition was 58%. PMID:20936366

  20. 69 The Multicultural Education in Bucovina during the Austrian Domination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Baltag

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1775, the territory of Bucovina became part of the Habsburg monarchy and it stayed like that for 143 years. All throughout this period when the Romanians lived here next to Ukrainians, Germans, Jews and other nationalities, the Austrian government took into consideration their need for culture, which resulted in the development of a multicultural teaching system. This implied that the languages of teaching in the Bukovinian schools were: Latin, Greek, Romanian, Ukrainian and, more often than not, German. Although the weighty presence of the German language in the academic institutions limited the number of young Romanians in schools, the teaching in German enabled the access of the Bukovinian students to the great European universities from Vienna, Salzburg, Lemberg, Kraków or Prague, before the founding of the Chernivtsi University (1875. Thus, beyond the negative aspects of the separation of this territory from Romania, the Austrian occupation represented an effervescent period from a cultural viewpoint, which lent a specific identity to the teaching system in Bukovina.

  1. Radiation dosimetry and standards at the austrian dosimetry laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Austrian Dosimetry Laboratory, established and operated in cooperation between the Austrian Research Center Seibersdorf and the Federal Office of Metrology and Surveying (Bundesamt and Eich- und Vermessungswesen) maintains the national primary standards for radiation dosimetry. Furthermore its tasks include routine calibration of dosemeters and dosimetric research. The irradiation facilities of the laboratory comprise three X-ray machines covering the voltage range from 5 kV to 420 kV constant potential, a 60Co teletherapy unit, a circular exposure system for routine batch calibration of personnel dosemeters with four gamma ray sources (60Co and 137Cs) and a reference source system with six gamma ray sources (60Co and 137Cs). In addition a set of calibrated beta ray sources are provided (147Pm, 204Tl and 90Sr). The dosimetric equipment consists of three free-air parallelplate ionization chambers serving as primary standards of exposure for the X-ray energy region, graphite cavity chambers with measured volume as primary standards for the gamma radiation of 137Cs and 60Co as well as different secondary standard ionization chambers covering the dose rate range from the natural background level up to the level of modern therapy accelerators. In addition for high energy photon and electron radiation a graphite calorimeter is provided as primary standard of absorbed dose. The principle experimental set-ups for the practical use of the standards are presented and the procedures for the calibration of the different types of dosemeters are described. (Author)

  2. 4th February 2011 - Austrian Academy of Sciences President H. Denk visiting CMS underground area with Collaboration Spokesperson G. Tonelli, Austrian Academy of Sciences Secretary General A. Suppan, CERN Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Director, High Energy Physics Laboratory, Austrian Academy of Sciences C Fabjan.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    4th February 2011 - Austrian Academy of Sciences President H. Denk visiting CMS underground area with Collaboration Spokesperson G. Tonelli, Austrian Academy of Sciences Secretary General A. Suppan, CERN Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Director, High Energy Physics Laboratory, Austrian Academy of Sciences C Fabjan.

  3. Information systems for administration, clinical documentation and quality assurance in an Austrian disease management programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Peter; Truskaller, Thomas; Rakovac, Ivo; Bruner, Fritz; Zanettin, Dominik; Pieber, Thomas R

    2009-01-01

    5.9% of the Austrian population is affected by diabetes mellitus. Disease Management is a structured treatment approach that is suitable for application to the diabetes mellitus area and often is supported by information technology. This article describes the information systems developed and implemented in the Austrian disease management programme for type 2 diabetes. Several workflows for administration as well as for clinical documentation have been implemented utilizing the Austrian e-Health infrastructure. De-identified clinical data is available for creating feedback reports for providers and programme evaluation.

  4. A fractal comparison of real and Austrian business cycle models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Robert F.

    2010-06-01

    Rescaled range and power spectral density analysis are applied to examine a diverse set of macromonetary data for fractal character and stochastic dependence. Fractal statistics are used to evaluate two competing models of the business cycle, Austrian business cycle theory and real business cycle theory. Strong evidence is found for antipersistent stochastic dependence in transactions money (M1) and components of the monetary aggregates most directly concerned with transactions, which suggests an activist monetary policy. Savings assets exhibit persistent long memory, as do those monetary aggregates which include savings assets, such as savings money (M2), M2 minus small time deposits, and money of zero maturity (MZM). Virtually all measures of economic activity display antipersistence, and this finding is invariant to whether the measures are adjusted for inflation, including real gross domestic product, real consumption expenditures, real fixed private investment, and labor productivity. This strongly disconfirms real business cycle theory.

  5. 51. Annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 51th Symposium of the Austrian Physical Society was held from 17-21 September 2001 at the Technical University of Vienna (Austria). The topics covered deal with: energy (greenhouse effect, climatic change, environment protection, energy system transformation, innovative energy technologies), neutrons and synchrotron radiation, quantum mechanics, microscopy, accelerator-driven systems, physics aspects of radiotherapy, nano world, micro cosmos, modern physics, life in the universe, x-ray fluorescence, heavy-ion accelerator mass spectrometry, acoustics, atomic-, molecular- and plasma physics, solid-state physics, nuclear and particle physics, medical-, bio-and environmental physics, quantum electronics, electrodynamics and optics. Those contributions which are in the INIS subject scope are indexed separately. (nevyjel)

  6. 1993 energy report and energy concept of the Austrian government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ''1993 Energy Report'' and the ''1993 Energy Concept'' were drawn up by the Federal Minister of Economics and published by the Austrian government. Earlier reports were published in 1986 and 1990. The 1990 energy report covered the period of 1970 through 1988, the new update the years 1989 through 1991. The section on useful energy is supplemented by a coloured representation of the 1990 energy flow chart for Austria. Appendices 1 to 3 present the development of the energy economy in 1992, the publication ''Development and situation of energy research in Austria'', which was compiled in May 1993 by the Federal Minister of Science and Research, and the ''Reports on the decision of the National Council of 19 January 1993. (orig.)

  7. A Thought Experiment Comparing Austrian and Keynesian Stimulus Packages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir Kraus

    Full Text Available Essentially, there are two competing views of how to overcome an economy-wide recession/depression. The Austrian view understands the free-play of competition as the most potent means to overcome the short-run mismatch between an excessive boom-level of nominal wages/prices and depressed crisis-level volume of aggregate spending. In the Keynesian view, the disastrous mismatch between desired saving and planned investment inherent in capitalist economies requires the government to step in and take up the burden of spending to infuse the lacking demand for products and labor.The thought experiment presented in the paper is designed to provide the reader with a direct comparison of major analytical claims of the two competing approaches to assess the ability of each of the two to affect, positively or negatively, employment, capital accumulation, and the general standard of living/real wages.

  8. The Herschel space telescope and the Austrian participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The biggest space telescope ever, Herschel was successfully launched on May 14, 2009. ESA's Space Horizon 2000 cornerstone mission will perform imaging photometry and spectroscopy in the 60-670 micron range and will address astrophysical questions ranging from our planetary system, the galaxy, the local universe out to cosmological distances. The Austrian participation in one of Herschels instruments, namely PACS is lead by the Institute for Astronomy at the University Vienna and carried out in collaboration with partners at the Technical University, Vienna and Joanneum Research, Graz in the framework of an European consortium. Both the technical contributions in the field of the on-board data reduction and compression as well as the scientific projects in the fields of late stages of stellar evolution and astro-mineralogy are outlined in the contribution. First prospective space based data sets will be available in the late August 2009 timeframe well timed for the conference. (author)

  9. 64th Annual Meeting of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 64th Annual Meeting of the Austrian physical society, including a special topical Energy Day. was held at the Echophysics – European Centre for the History of Physics, Schloss Pöllau 1, 8225 Pöllau, Austria. The plenary sessions gave an overview of the present status of research in quantum mechanics, particle physics and solid state physics.The topical sessions were dedicated to: nuclear and particle physics; atoms, molecules, quantum optics and plasmas; solid state physics and research with neutron and synchrotron radiation; history of physics; surfaces, interfaces and thin films; nanostructures; fundamental interactions; gravity, quantum chromodynamics; particle theory and collider physics; detectors and methods. Those contributions which are in the INIS subject scope are indexed individually

  10. Flood Change Assessment and Attribution in Austrian alpine Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claps, Pierluigi; Allamano, Paola; Como, Anastasia; Viglione, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The present paper aims to investigate the sensitivity of flood peaks to global warming in the Austrian alpine basins. A group of 97 Austrian watersheds, with areas ranging from 14 to 6000 km2 and with average elevation ranging from 1000 to 2900 m a.s.l. have been considered. Annual maximum floods are available for the basins from 1890 to 2007 with two densities of observation. In a first period, until 1950, an average of 42 records of flood peaks are available. From 1951 to 2007 the density of observation increases to an average amount of contemporary peaks of 85. This information is very important with reference to the statistical tools used for the empirical assessment of change over time, that is linear quantile regressions. Application of this tool to the data set unveils trends in extreme events, confirmed by statistical testing, for the 0.75 and 0.95 empirical quantiles. All applications are made with specific (discharges/area) values . Similarly of what done in a previous approach, multiple quantile regressions have also been applied, confirming the presence of trends even when the possible interference of the specific discharge and morphoclimatic parameters (i.e. mean elevation and catchment area). Application of a geomorphoclimatic model by Allamano et al (2009) can allow to mimic to which extent the empirically available increase in air temperature and annual rainfall can justify the attribution of change derived by the empirical statistical tools. An comparison with data from Swiss alpine basins treated in a previous paper is finally undertaken.

  11. Between resentment and aid: German and Austrian psychiatrist and neurologist refugees in Great Britain since 1933.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenau, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    This article is a historiographical exploration of the experiences that German and Austrian émigré psychiatrists and neurologists made in Great Britain since 1933, after the Nazi Governments in Central Europe had ousted them from their positions. When placing these occurrences in a wider historiographical perspective, the in-depth analysis provided here also describes the living and working conditions of the refugee neuroscientists on the British Isles. In particular, it looks at the very elements and issues that influenced the international forced migration of physicians and psychiatrists during the 1930s and 1940s. Only a fraction of refugee neuroscientists had however been admitted to Britain. Those lucky ones were assisted by a number of charitable, local, and academic organizations. This article investigates the rather lethargic attitude of the British government and medical circles towards German-speaking Jewish refugee neuroscientists who wished to escape Nazi Germany. It will also analyze the help that those refugees received from the academic establishment and British Jewish organizations, while likewise examining the level and extent of the relationship between social and scientific resentments in Great Britain. A special consideration will be given to the aid programs that had already began in the first year after the Nazis had seized power in Germany, with the foundation of the British Assistance Council by Sir William Henry Beveridge (1879-1963) in 1933.

  12. Between resentment and aid: German and Austrian psychiatrist and neurologist refugees in Great Britain since 1933.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenau, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    This article is a historiographical exploration of the experiences that German and Austrian émigré psychiatrists and neurologists made in Great Britain since 1933, after the Nazi Governments in Central Europe had ousted them from their positions. When placing these occurrences in a wider historiographical perspective, the in-depth analysis provided here also describes the living and working conditions of the refugee neuroscientists on the British Isles. In particular, it looks at the very elements and issues that influenced the international forced migration of physicians and psychiatrists during the 1930s and 1940s. Only a fraction of refugee neuroscientists had however been admitted to Britain. Those lucky ones were assisted by a number of charitable, local, and academic organizations. This article investigates the rather lethargic attitude of the British government and medical circles towards German-speaking Jewish refugee neuroscientists who wished to escape Nazi Germany. It will also analyze the help that those refugees received from the academic establishment and British Jewish organizations, while likewise examining the level and extent of the relationship between social and scientific resentments in Great Britain. A special consideration will be given to the aid programs that had already began in the first year after the Nazis had seized power in Germany, with the foundation of the British Assistance Council by Sir William Henry Beveridge (1879-1963) in 1933. PMID:27388257

  13. Edaphic characteristics of Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) forests in the Višegrad area

    OpenAIRE

    Blagojević Velibor D.; Knežević Milan N.; Košanin Olivera D.; Kapović-Solomun Marijana B.; Lučić Radovan J.; Eremija Saša M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of soil research in Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) forest communities in the Višegrad area, carried out to determine the basic soil characteristics and eco-production potential of forest habitats as an important basis and framework for the successful management of these forests on the principles of sustainable development. Austrian pine forests in this region are an important and ecologically valuable community. The complex...

  14. From retreating to resisting How Austrian-Turkish women deal with experiences of racism

    OpenAIRE

    Katharina Hametner

    2014-01-01

    Recent European integration discourses are increasingly structured by neo-racist topoi based on orientalist markers of difference. In the Austrian debate, people of Turkish origin are particularly affected by such ascriptions. They are marked as a group not willing to integrate and culturally not fitting into Austrian society. In this discursive conglomerate, women are identified as oppressed victims, lacking education and being in need of help. Using the biographical narratives of young Aust...

  15. On nonneutral relative price effects in monetarist thought : some Austrian misconceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas M. Humphrey

    1984-01-01

    The rise in the rate of inflation during the 1970s was paralleled by a rise in interest in monetarism, which offered the means for controlling inflation. Despite the increased interest, monetarism is still often misunderstood, as Thomas M. Humphrey points out in “On Nonneutral Relative Price Effects in Monetarist Thought: Some Austrian Misconceptions.” Economists of the Austrian school have portrayed monetarism as oblivious to the effects of monetary disturbances on the real economy of output...

  16. Direct investment strategies of Austrian companies in Romania.A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Arjoca

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Austrian companies present in Romania have learned their lessons after the subprime crisis started in year 2008 and although operating in various industrial areas and therefore being differently affected by the crisis, they have followed rather a similar strategy. Despite the unfavourable economic circumstances in Romania, all Austrian investors still recognise the country’s potential and have started consolidating their position on the market.

  17. New Promotion of Austrian Airlines to Celebrate the 10th Anniversary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      2005 marks the 10th Anniversary of Austrian Airlines' flight operations to China. Austrian Airlines kicks off the celebration year with super attractive roundtrip fares from Beijing and Shanghai to Europe starting at RMB4,500 (excluding taxes and surcharges). The earlier the tickets are booked and purchased,the lower the airfares are for travel during the period from February 13 to April 15,2005.……

  18. New Promotion of Austrian Airlines to Celebrate the 10th Anniversary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ 2005 marks the 10th Anniversary of Austrian Airlines' flight operations to China. Austrian Airlines kicks off the celebration year with super attractive roundtrip fares from Beijing and Shanghai to Europe starting at RMB4,500 (excluding taxes and surcharges). The earlier the tickets are booked and purchased,the lower the airfares are for travel during the period from February 13 to April 15,2005.

  19. Assessing the Relevance of Austrian Investment Companies and Mutual Funds for Financial Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Kavan; Günther Sedlacek; Reinhardt Seliger; Eva Ubl

    2010-01-01

    This paper looks at the role Austrian investment companies and the mutual funds managed by them play in the context of financial stability. At the end of the third quarter 2009, the 30 Austrian investment companies (of which 5 manage real estate funds) had invested around EUR 114 billion in the market. Given the repercussions arising from interlocks between investment companies and other financial intermediaries (such as credit institutions, insurance companies, pension funds and severance fu...

  20. [Recommendations of the Austrian Society of Rheumatology/Austrian Radiology-Rheumatology Initiative for Musculoskeletal Ultrasound for the application of ultrasound in rheumatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duftner, Christina; Dejaco, Christian; Kainberger, Franz; Machold, Klaus; Mandl, Peter; Nothnagl, Thomas; DeZordo, Tobias; Husic, Rusmir; Schüller-Weidekamm, Claudia; Schirmer, Michael

    2014-12-01

    It is the current goal in rheumatology to diagnose and treat inflammatory rheumatic diseases early in order to avoid structural damage. Functional imaging methods such as musculoskeletal sonography are increasingly used to support the clinical diagnosis. To ascertain the quality of ultrasound assessments performed by rheumatologists in Austria, the Austrian Radiology-Rheumatology Initiative for Musculoskeletal Ultrasound (ARRIMUS) proposed recommendations for a training curriculum, technical standards for ultrasound equipment, minimum requirements for documentation, indications for sonography and the use of ultrasound for interventions. These recommendations have been endorsed by the Austrian Society of Rheumatology and should aid rheumatologists to perform high quality ultrasound assessment in clinical practice.

  1. Potentials to mitigate climate change using biochar - the Austrian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckman, Viktor J.; Klinglmüller, Michaela; Liu, Jay; Uzun, Basak B.; Varol, Esin A.

    2015-04-01

    Biomass utilization is seen as one of various promising strategies to reduce additional carbon emissions. A recent project on potentials of biochar to mitigate climate change (FOREBIOM) goes even a step further towards bioenergy in combination of CCS or "BECS" and tries to assess the current potentials, from sustainable biomass availability to biochar amendment in soils, including the identification of potential disadvantages and current research needs. The current report represents an outcome of the 1st FOREBIOM Workshop held in Vienna in April, 2013 and tries to characterize the Austrian perspective of biochar for climate change mitigation. The survey shows that for a widespread utilization of biochar in climate change mitigation strategies, still a number of obstacles have to be overcome. There are concerns regarding production and application costs, contamination and health issues for both producers and customers besides a fragmentary knowledge about biochar-soil interactions specifically in terms of long-term behavior, biochar stability and the effects on nutrient cycles. However, there are a number of positive examples showing that biochar indeed has the potential to sequester large amounts of carbon while improving soil properties and subsequently leading to a secondary carbon sink via rising soil productivity. Diversification, cascadic utilization and purpose designed biochar production are key strategies overcoming initial concerns, especially regarding economic aspects. A theoretical scenario calculation showed that relatively small amounts of biomass that is currently utilized for energy can reduce the gap between Austria's current GHG emissions and the Kyoto target by about 30% if biomass residues are pyrolized and biochar subsequently used as soil amendment. However, by using a more conservative approach that is representing the aims of the underlying FOREBIOM project (assuming that 10% of the annual biomass increment from forests is used for biochar

  2. Propositions for the Building of a Quantitative Austrian Modelling: An Answer to Prof. Rizzo and to Prof. Vriend

    OpenAIRE

    Rodolphe Buda

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we try to promote the building of a Quantitative Austrian Modelling (QAM). QAM must be viewed as a complementary quantitative prolongation of the Austrian methods and as a complementary approach to the already existing quantitative approaches - especially we would like here to answer to the appeal of Prof. N.J.Vriend [61]. As we explain it in the first part, our approach resulted from a critical view of the econometric procedures by Austrian methods and, from a theoretical inst...

  3. Cornerstones of the Austrian radon risk communication strategy; Eckpfeiler der oesterreichischen Radonrisikokommunikationsstrategie (OeRRKS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunte, A.; Ringer, W. [AGES, Linz (Austria). Oesterreichische Fachstelle fuer Radon

    2015-07-01

    On behalf of the Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management (BMLFUW), the National Radon Centre of Austria developed the National Radon Risk Communication Strategy. The superior goal is the reduction of the radon exposure of Austrian citizens as well as the reduction of radon-related lung cancer deaths. Austria, like many other countries, follows the approach to raise awareness and to inform the public to achieve this goal. The presented strategy deals with the question of how radon protection issues can be communicated to the public, existing fears can be reduced and affected people can be motivated to take action (perform a radon test, if necessary, mitigate or install preventive measures in new buildings). The cornerstones of the National Radon Risk Communication Strategy can be summarized as follows: - Definition of communication goals - Identification and categorization of target groups - Development of specific key messages for each of the target groups - Determination of communication channels and assessment of their efficiency - Integration of the radon issue in education and training - Cooperation with relevant organizations and platforms. The communication objectives, target groups and communication paths (and their evaluation) will be discussed during the presentation in detail.

  4. Severe Mycoplasma bovis outbreak in an Austrian dairy herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothmann, Harald; Spergser, Joachim; Elmer, Josef; Prunner, Isabella; Iwersen, Michael; Klein-Jöbstl, Daniela; Drillich, Marc

    2015-11-01

    A conventional dairy farm, housing 19 Austrian Simmental cows, experienced a spontaneous outbreak of a Mycoplasma bovis infection, showing severe clinical signs of respiratory tract disease, clinical mastitis, and tremendous drop in milk production. Despite intensive therapy, 5 cows died within 2 weeks or were euthanized. From the remaining cows, bacteriological culture and polymerase chain reaction revealed M. bovis in 10 of 14 milk samples. Mycoplasma bovis was found in 1 of 5 randomly collected nasal swabs. Autopsy of 1 cow revealed infection of the lungs and the udder with M. bovis. The 13 M. bovis isolates from milk samples, nasal swabs, lungs, and udder were genotyped by multilocus variable number of tandem-repeat analysis, and indicated that described infections were caused by a single M. bovis strain. The virulent M. bovis strain resulted in dramatic economic loss to the farmer. To control the disease, culling of all animals, including heifers and calves, was recommended, and strict hygienic measures were implemented before introducing new animals to the farm. PMID:26450838

  5. The new Austrian tunnelling method in coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thierse, D.

    1987-12-03

    The new Austrian tunnelling method (NATM), as a composite support and lining system of bolts, steel mats and shotcrete, prevents the deconsolidation of the strata and activates the self-supporting properties of the strata envelope. By bringing in the strata for support it provides an exceptionally high support resistance, which outdoes steel supports and which is needed at increasing depths with their predictable high rock pressures and with large cross-sections in rooms where the limits of conventional steel arches are exceeded. Even thin shotcrete casing has a high support resistance. Where effects of other workings are present the NATM can be relied upon to have good stability over a long period and to be repair-friendly, as flaking off the casing can be made good by re-bolting and re-spraying. In contrast with the costly changing of entire support arches, partial surfaces can be repaired as required. The NATM is particularly cost-effective in the construction of drainage roads, which have to be lined against aggressive water, shaft porches, branch-offs, large rooms such as workshops, landings, belt drive rooms with internal cross-sections of 25 to 30 m/sup 2/ and shaft widening and traversing with irregular cross-sections. In geologically extremely difficult levels, such as those of the Laura and Zollverein 7/8 seams, the NATM has also been successfully used to construct drainage roads, branch-offs and shaft traverses. 30 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Structures and perspectives of the Austrian energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical tools for projecting future energy demand can be grouped into two broad categories: Firstly, time series or cross section data based econometric models which contain information about customers' past behavior and thus enable to judge the causal effects of economic factors like incomes and prices on energy demand (passive forecasting). Secondly, structural simulation models which indicate how energy services transform to flows of useful, final and primary energy. These models enable to estimate the technical potential of improving the energy application and energy transformation systems (active scenario approach). Comparison of the two approaches with respect to projections for future energy demand yields that, typically, in the short run of econometric approach will dominate the structural simulation model. In the long run, however, this relation will be reversed. The econometric models suffer lack of technical information necessary to describe the demand for energy. The structural simulation model enables an incorporation of technical factors like efficiencies and fuel shares. An application of the structural model is a simulation run describing a scenario in order to reduce the Austrian CO2-emissions according to the recommendations of the conference of Toronto

  7. France and the Austrian Empire 1815-1918

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horel Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Relations between France and the Habsburg Empire during the long nineteenth century went through several phases bounded by the events crucial not just to the two countries' mutual relations but to all of Europe. The Congress of Vienna defined their mutual relations for the next thirty years. The Habsburgs and their omnipresent minister Metternich were fearful of revolutionary and liberal movements traditionally having their origins in France. And it was the revolutionary events of 1848 that brought about a change in the balance of power and their mutual relations. Metternich's retirement and, more importantly, the arrival of the Russian armies in Central Europe and the subsequent strengthening of Prussia, conferred a new importance to the role of the Habsburg Monarchy as a bulwark against the advancement of Russia and a vital counterweight to Prussia. With the defeat of Napoleon III and the creation of Germany with Alsace and Lorraine Franco-Austrian relations entered a new phase. The destiny of the two provinces alienated the Habsburgs from the French Republic, especially after the reorganization of Europe into two confronting blocs. The logic of alliances led to their being adversaries in the world conflict, although Napoleon III's geo-strategic analyses remained present almost to its very end, when Clemenceau's government gave support to the nationality principle thereby crucially contributing to the collapse of the Habsburg Monarchy.

  8. Holocaust Studies in Austrian Elementary and Secondary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Mittnik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents arguments in support of teaching about the Holocaust and Nazism in Austria at an early age. To accomplish this, Austrian and German elementary school textbooks were analyzed for the amount of content dealing with the Holocaust and Jews; the results showed that since 1980 the amount of content on the Holocaust increased in Germany, and to a lesser extent in Austria. The article reviews some of the criticism in Europe of the term Holocaust Education and explores some of arguments about why that is. The author argues that moral education and teaching of Human Rights are important components of, but ought not be the main goal of teaching about the Holocaust. The role of Austria after World War II, and exploration of the so called victim myth, prevalent until the 1990s are important to understanding history and to how history textbooks were created. After a discussion of how the Holocaust can be taught to elementary and early secondary school aged children, some suggestions are made about approaches to teaching the Holocaust to students in these age groups.

  9. Assessment of radiocaesium behaviour in an Austrian forest ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A monitoring program has been carried out since 1988 in Weinsberger Wald, an Austrian forest stand severely affected by the Chernobyl plume. Analyses of forest soils, understorey vegetation and mushrooms showed that 137Cs values decreased significantly between 1988 and 1993. In ferns, mosses and bilberry sprouts the concentrations did decrease to about 35% of the concentrations measured in 1988, however, seven years after the deposition event, the 137Cs contamination of edible forest products and game browse is still considerable. Derived ecological half-times are the longest in mushrooms (5.8 years), followed by values between 3.1-3.7 years in mosses, ferns and dwarf shrubs. Ecological half-times of 2.1 years were determined in grasses and the shortest values (1.9 years) were found in herbs (Oxalis acetosella). Annual measurements of 137Cs content in soil samples from different layers showed that the 137Cs values decreased in the litter layer, whereas they increased in mineral strata between 1988 and 1993. (author)

  10. The Enterprise and the Management. An Austrian Approach Empresa y administración.Una aproximación a la visión austriaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Jaramillo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Austrian stream of economic thought has theorized, taking into account Karl Menger’s social sciences method, about social and business human organizations based on the existence of disperse and scattered knowledge in all individuals that make part of such organizations.   This obliges to define mechanisms of governability and management for both the society and the companies. This article concentrates on describing the nature and possibilities of management of business organizations according to the Austrian stream.A partir de las reflexiones de Karl Menger sobre el método de las ciencias sociales, la Escuela  Austriaca ha desarrollado una teoría sobre las organizaciones humanas, tanto sociales como  empresariales,  basada  en  la  existencia  de  un  conocimiento  disperso  y  fragmentado  entre todos los individuos que participan en ella. Tal situación ha obligado a definir mecanismos de gobernabi l i dad y de admi ni s traci ón para l a soci edad y para l as empres as. El artí cul o se concentra en describir la naturaleza y posibilidades de gestión de las organizaciones empresariales de acuerdo con el pensamiento austriaco.   ABSTRACT The  Austrian  stream  of  economic  thought  has  theorized,  taking  into  account  Karl  Menger’s social sciences method, about social and business human organizations based on the existence of disperse and scattered knowledge in all individuals that make part of such organizations. This obliges to define mechanisms of governability and management for both the society and the companies. This article concentrates on describing the nature and possibilities of management of business organizations according to the Austrian stream

  11. Climate Modeling at the Austrian Weather Service (ZAMG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matulla, C.; Anders, I.; Auer, I.

    2009-05-01

    In later 2007 the Austrian Weather Service (ZAMG) established a group that shall deal with climate change modeling. Two of the group's main goals are to provide climate change scenarios for the assessment of the impact on ecosystems and to reconstruct past climate states along with their change. The former aim is to derive estimates of might happen to our ecosystems under different emission-pathways, whilst the latter goal is to better understand what has caused characteristical changes, which are to be found in proxies. Both aims can be achieved by empirical or dynamical downscaling models, which are ultimately based on the reliability of the driving GCMs results. It is well known that empirical and dynamical downscaling models do have advantages and disadvantages, which are different. As such it appears reasonable to use the approach which is better adapted to the considered question. It may be meaningful to apply empirical downscaling if long periods of time (such as substantial parts of the Holocene) are in the center of attention, whereas dynamical downscaling may be better suited to address questions that are related to decades. Up to now we were more involved with empirical downscaling that helped us to work together with scientists assessing the impact on ecosystems, as for instance, fish in a river (Matulla et al. 2007), forests (Lexer et al. 2002) or phenological phases (Scheifinger et al. 2007). After catching a glimpse of those results, we will turn to dynamical modeling. Here we would like to present findings from case studies, which are related to the more recent past. Our next target is the modelling of possible future climate conditions within the Greater Alpine Region (GAR, see e.g. Auer et al. 2007) as well as some characteristical periods throughout the Holocene as for instance the 8.2k event. This event is to be found in a variety of proxies within and also outside GAR. Auer I., Boehm R., Jurkovic A., Lipa W., Orlik A., Potzmann R., Schoener W

  12. An inventory of glacial lakes in the Austrian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckel, Johannes; Otto, Jan-Christoph; Keuschnig, Markus; Götz, Joachim

    2016-04-01

    The formation of lakes is one of the consequences of glacier retreat due to climate change in mountain areas. Numerous lakes have formed in the past few decades in many mountain regions around the globe. Some of these lakes came into focus due to catastrophic hazard events especially in the Himalayas and the Andes. Glacial lake development and lifetime is controlled by the complex interplay of glacier dynamics, geomorphological process activity and geological boundary conditions. Besides the hazard potential new lakes in formerly glaciated areas will significantly contribute to a new landscape setting and to changing geomorphologic, hydrologic and ecologic conditions at higher alpine altitudes. We present an inventory of high alpine lakes in the Austrian Alps located above an altitude of 1700 m asl. Most of these lakes are assumed to be of glacial origin, but other causes for development, like mass movements are considered as well. The inventory is a central part of the project FUTURELAKES that aims at modelling the potential development of glacial lakes in Austria (we refer to the presentation by Helfricht et al. during the conference for more details on the modelling part). Lake inventory data will serve as one basis for model validation since modelling is performed on different time steps using glacier inventory data. The purpose of the lake inventory is to get new insights into boundary conditions for lake formation and evolution by analysing existing lake settings. Based on these information the project seeks to establish a model of lake sedimentation after glacier retreat in order to assess the potential lifetime of the new lakes in Austria. Lakes with a minimum size of 1000 m² were mapped using multiple aerial imagery sources. The dataset contains information on location, geometry, dam type, and status of sedimentation for each lake. Additionally, various geologic, geomorphic and morphometric parameters describe the lake catchments. Lake data is related to

  13. What did we learn from the Austrian radon project?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximately 40000 measurements of indoor radon concentrations were performed in randomly selected homes during the Austrian Radon Project. These measurements were carried out by using long-term measuring devices (SSNTD and Electret detectors) and short-term charcoal detectors with liquid scintillation counting as the method of analysis. In addition to the equilibrium factor, soil gas measurements and quasi-continuous indoor measurements, parallel-measurements with different detector systems in randomly selected homes were also performed. Very different results were occasionally obtained for one and the same room at the same time. This was so not only when comparing the long-term and short-term measuring devices; actually, different long-term detector systems also often showed significant discrepancies in results, although all detector systems had been carefully calibrated and tested in laboratories. The essential conclusion was that during a longer exposure in randomly selected homes, the detectors may be moved, opened, or handled in other unfavourable ways which introduce additional uncertainties in the measuring results. The aim of the Austrian Radon Project was to estimate the radon risk for geographic areas (municipalities). This task is different from the evaluation of the mean radon concentration in a single home. Generally, while long-term measurements (a year or even longer) are necessary to get reliable results for a particular house, this is not so where only the mean indoor radon concentrations for an area are of interest. Observed indoor radon concentrations give information about the actual radon exposures of the inhabitants but not about the radon risk from the ground. The house type, the way the house is constructed, the storey where people live, and some living patterns (ventilation rate etc.) modify the geological risk significantly, although it is the geological situation that has to be primarily taken into account when planning and constructing

  14. Occupational accidents with mowing machines in Austrian agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kogler

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The number of recognized accidents during agricultural work is still very high in Austria. In the years 2008 to 2009, there occurred 84 approved work accidents with mowing machines. The main causes of accidents were the loss of control of machines, transportations or conveyances, hand tools, objects or animals. In the literature, numerous studies of general agricultural and forestry accident situations are available. Detailed studies on specific types of agricultural machines, which describe concrete circumstances and causes of accidents, are in limited numbers. The accident database from the General Accident Insurance Institution and the Austrian Social Insurance Institution of Farmers, with personal and accidental data information about mowing machine accidents, were analyzed. The results showed that most accidents occurred on mixed agricultural farms (68%. The majority of the injured persons were male (86%, over 40-years-old (86% with an agricultural or forestry education (91%. The most common accidents occurred in the summer months (69% and on afternoons during the working week (79%. The majority of accidents were caused by contact with the machine (55% and the loss of control (73% during their operation (60% and harvesting work (63%. The most frequently injuries were wounds, fractures and superficial injuries (81% to the upper and lower extremities (66%. The results of the chi-square test showed significant correlations between the specific task with the form of contact, the working process, the day and season. Results of the odds ratio determination showed an increased risk of suffering serious injury for men in the first half of the year and half of the day due to loss of control over the machine during agricultural harvesting work.

  15. Impacts of Austrian Climate Variability on Honey Bee Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switanek, Matt; Brodschneider, Robert; Crailsheim, Karl; Truhetz, Heimo

    2015-04-01

    Global food production, as it is today, is not possible without pollinators such as the honey bee. It is therefore alarming that honey bee populations across the world have seen increased mortality rates in the last few decades. The challenges facing the honey bee calls into question the future of our food supply. Beside various infectious diseases, Varroa destructor is one of the main culprits leading to increased rates of honey bee mortality. Varroa destructor is a parasitic mite which strongly depends on honey bee brood for reproduction and can wipe out entire colonies. However, climate variability may also importantly influence honey bee breeding cycles and bee mortality rates. Persistent weather events affects vegetation and hence foraging possibilities for honey bees. This study first defines critical statistical relationships between key climate indicators (e.g., precipitation and temperature) and bee mortality rates across Austria, using 6 consecutive years of data. Next, these leading indicators, as they vary in space and time, are used to build a statistical model to predict bee mortality rates and the respective number of colonies affected. Using leave-one-out cross validation, the model reduces the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) by 21% with respect to predictions made with the mean mortality rate and the number of colonies. Furthermore, a Monte Carlo test is used to establish that the model's predictions are statistically significant at the 99.9% confidence level. These results highlight the influence of climate variables on honey bee populations, although variability in climate, by itself, cannot fully explain colony losses. This study was funded by the Austrian project 'Zukunft Biene'.

  16. No Austrians in South Tyrol? Why the German-speaking community in Italy’s South Tyrol (Alto Adige province is not usually called an Austrian minority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Julian Emanuel Volkmer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available No Austrians in South Tyrol? Why the German-speaking community in Italy’s South Tyrol (Alto Adige province is not usually called an Austrian minority The article discusses the question why the German-speakers in Northern Italy’s South Tyrol province are only very rarely referred to as an Austrian minority, in spite of the fact that they were split off from Austria, and not Germany, in the aftermath of World War I. An analysis of the naming of German-speaking South Tyroleans in German, Austrian, Italian and English-speaking news media, which demonstrates a preference for terms such as “German-speaking minority” or “German minority” over “Austrian minority and equivalents, is followed by a discussion of three hypotheses to account for the situation. The author shows how the question of how to name the German-speaking South Tyroleans is closely intertwined with the issue of Austrian national identity and its re-orientation away from Germany in the aftermath of the Second World War. The author comes to the conclusion that the minority is not usually referred to as Austrian both due to the fact that it is difficult to include them in the young (civic Austrian nation in a logically consistent manner, and due to the German-speaking South Tyroleans’ own inconsistent self-identification as Austrians.   Nie ma Austriaków w Tyrolu Południowym? Dlaczego niemieckojęzyczna wspólnota we włoskiej prowincji Tyrol Południowy (Alto Adige zwykle nie jest nazywana mniejszością austriacką Artykuł podejmuje kwestię, dlaczego niemieckojęzyczna ludność północnowłoskiej prowincji Tyrol Południowy rzadko bywa nazywana mniejszością austriacką, pomimo tego że w efekcie I wojny światowej odłączona została ona od Austrii, a nie od Niemiec. Analiza nazewnictwa odnoszonego do niemieckojęzycznej ludności Tyrolu Południowego, które występuje w informacyjnych środkach przekazu: niemiecko-, austriacko-, włosko- i angloj

  17. On the way to an Austrian radon action plan; Auf dem Weg zum oesterreichischen Radonaktionsplan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, V.; Ringer, W.; Wurm, G. [Oesterreichische Agentur fuer Gesundheit und Ernaehrungssicherheit (AGES), Linz (Austria). Oesterreichische Fachstelle fuer Radon; Haider, W. [Bundesministerium fuer Land- und Forstwirtschaft, Umwelt und Wasserwirtschaft (BMLFUW), Wien (Austria). Abt. Strahlenschutz

    2013-07-01

    According to the draft of the new European Basic Safety Standards (EU-BSS) all member states are obliged to develop a national radon action plan, to control the long term risks from radon exposure in dwellings, public buildings and workplaces. The National Radon Centre, embedded in the Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety (AGES), was assigned by the Ministry for Environment (BMLFUW) to develop this Austrian action plan and the strategy behind. This conference contribution discusses where we still have a need for actions and how the new BSS will influence the Austrian radon legislation (reference levels, responsibilities, standards, building law). Currently running and planned projects regarding the radon action plan like developing a national radon data base, definition of radon prone areas by improving the radon map and strategies to increase public radon awareness and involve the building sector are presented. (orig.)

  18. Joint Annual Meeting of the Swiss Physical Society and the Austrian Physical Society together with the Swiss and Austrian Societies for Astronomy and Astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual meeting 2011 which took place at the EPFL in Lausanne on June 15-17, was organized jointly with the Austrian Physical Society OePG, and both national societies of Astronomy and Astrophysics (SSAA and OeGAA), as a successful follow-up of the Innsbruck meeting in 2009. With 10 parallel sessions, more than 470 submitted abstracts and nearly 650 participants, one can claim that our goal to make our meeting more attractive to the physics community was achieved. The commercial exhibition with the presence of 22 companies was the largest ever organized by our society. The 10 plenary talks of the three morning sessions covered a broad spectrum of modern physics from condensed matter physics (Bose Einstein condensation of photons, Quantum cascade lasers, 2D electron gas between insulators, stretchable electronics, superconductivity) to large scale physics (LHC at CERN, the ITER project at Cadarache) without forgetting Earth and planetary science (high velocity impacts in the solar system) and simulation of the universe by computational astrophysics. The presence of our Austrian colleagues had also an impact on the parallel sessions. For example a session 'Surfaces, Interfaces and Thin films' was organized as a complement to the Condensed Matter one. To our great pleasure a session on 'Theory and Simulations', composed of the three suptopics 'Large Scale Computing', 'Theoretical Physics Today' and 'Computational Astrophysics' was part of the program. Another novelty was the session on Geophysics which covered topics like geophysical fluid dynamics, Earth and planetary magnetism or even the safety assessment of deep geological nuclear waste depositories. On the first evening, a public lecture given in the Polydome by M. Marthaler and colleagues on the topic 'Le Cervin est-il africain? Une histoire de la derive des oceans et continents' unravelled the mystery of the origin of our most famous Swiss mountain, the Matterhorn. For the second time a successful series of

  19. Long-Term Socio-Ecological Research in Practice: Lessons from Inter- and Transdisciplinary Research in the Austrian Eisenwurzen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Gingrich

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Long-Term Socio-Ecological Research (LTSER is an inter- and transdisciplinary research field addressing socio-ecological change over time at various spatial and temporal scales. In the Austrian Eisenwurzen region, an LTSER platform was founded in 2004. It has fostered and documented research projects aiming at advancing LTSER scientifically and at providing regional stakeholders with relevant information for sustainable regional development. Since its establishment, a broad range of research activities has been pursued in the region, integrating information from long-term ecological monitoring sites with approaches from social sciences and the humanities, and in cooperation with regional stakeholders. Based on the experiences gained in the Eisenwurzen LTSER platform, this article presents current activities in the heterogeneous field of LTSER, identifying specific (inter-disciplinary contributions of three research strands of LTSER: long-term ecological research, socio-ecological basic research, and transdisciplinary research. Given the broad array of diverse contributions to LTSER, we argue that the platform has become a relevant “boundary organization,” linking research to its regional non-academic context, and ensuring interdisciplinary exchange among the variety of disciplines. We consider the diversity of LTSER approaches an important resource for future research. Major success criteria of LTSER face specific challenges: (1 existing loose, yet stable networks need to be maintained and extended; (2 continuous generation of and access to relevant data needs to be secured and more data need to be included; and (3 consecutive research projects that have allowed for capacity building in the past may be threatened in the future if national Austrian research funders cease to provide resources.

  20. PCDD/F and PCB levels in Austrian cow's milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanner, G.; Moche, W. [Umweltbundesamt Wien (Austria)

    2004-09-15

    In 2003 the Federal Environment Agency carried out a first Austrian wide milk monitoring study with the objective to get an overview of average PCDD/F levels in cow's milk, additionally dioxinlike PCBs, according to WHO, and indicator PCBs, as listed by national regulations, were analysed.

  1. Minority Schools in the South Tyrol and in the Austrian Burgenland: A Comparison of Two Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, A. R.

    1986-01-01

    Presents findings from an empirical study comparing the status of the German minority in the Italian South Tyrol and the Croatian minority in the Austrian Burgenland. The article analyzes observations of actual language use in schools and compares school authorities, curricula, and employment opportunities of the two minorities. (SED)

  2. Monitoring Language Skills in Austrian Primary (Elementary) Schools: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangl, Renate

    2000-01-01

    Provides an overview of how language skills in young learners have been assessed in two primary school contexts, carried out in a total of seven Austrian primary schools. The schools took part in an initiative where the integration of a foreign language was introduced when children entered primary school at the age of six. (Author/VWL)

  3. Progress Report 1985 of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf. Abridged version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report gives a short survey of the work carried out by the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf in 1985. The working programme comprises five main areas: Energy and safety; Materials research, isotope and radiation techniques; Measuring techniques and information processing; Environmental protection, health and food; Industrial consulting. (Author)

  4. 1983 Annual convention of the Austrian Physical Society, University of Linz, 28 - 30 September 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proceedings of lectures and poster presentations given at the 1983 convention of the Austrian Physical Society, with (German) abstracts only. The four topical sessions were: 1) electrodynamics and optics 2) solid state physics 3) nuclear and particle physics 4) physics of high polymers Only part of the presentations pertain to the subject scope of INIS. (G.Q.)

  5. Quality of Austrian and Dutch Falls-Prevention Information: A Comparative Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoberer, Daniela; Mijnarends, Donja M.; Fliedner, Monica; Halfens, Ruud J. G.; Lohrmann, Christa

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the quality of written patient information material available in Austrian and Dutch hospitals and nursing homes pertaining to falls prevention. Design: Comparative descriptive study design Setting: Hospitals and nursing homes in Austria and the Netherlands. Method: Written patient…

  6. Pragmatics of Content-Based Instruction: Teacher and Student Directives in Finnish and Austrian Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton-Puffer, Christiane; Nikula, Tarja

    2006-01-01

    Using a pragmatic framework, this paper examines how directives are performed by teachers and students in Finnish and Austrian CLIL classrooms, that is settings where a foreign language (in this case English) is used as the medium of instruction in non-language subjects such as history or chemistry. We explore how interpersonal aspects of…

  7. Progress Report 1984 of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf. Abridged version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report gives a short survey of the work carried out by the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf in 1984. The working programme comprises five main areas: Energy and safety; Materials research, isotope and radiation techniques; Measuring techniques and information processing; Environmental protection, health and food; Industrial consulting. (Author)

  8. Experience in the operation and maintenance of the Austrian TRIGA Mark II reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Austrian TRIGA Mark II reactor ia in operation since March 1962. The reactor instrumentation, core design and irradiation facilities and operation are described. Besides steady state power and pulse operation, square wave operation has been installed 1968, allowing power squares up to 750 kW. A Survey of reactor operation and experiments is given

  9. 46th annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society. Programme and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains lectures (short communications) of the 46th symposium of the Austrian Physical Society which had been held at the University of Linz (Austria) in 1996. The following topics are included: atomic physics, molecular physics, plasma physics, solid state physics, nuclear and particle physics, biophysics, environmental physics, quantum electronics and quantum optics. (Suda)

  10. Overt and Disguised Discrimination against Women in Collective Agreements: Findings of an Austrian Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzker, Maria

    1980-01-01

    An Austrian survey of discriminatory practices in the texts of all collective agreements in force in March 1978 (except those covering public employees) identified six main forms of potential discrimination. Examples found among white-collar workers in the private sector and among textile, clothing, and leather workers are cited. (CT)

  11. Mars Analog Mission: Glacier Simulation AMADEE-15 by Austrian Space Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groemer, Gernot; Losiak, Anna; Soucek, Alexander; Plank, Clemens; Zanardini, Laura; Sejkora, Nina; Sams, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    Austrian Space Forum: The Austrian Space Forum (OeWF, Österreichisches Weltraum Forum) is a non-profit, citizen-science organization of aerospace specialists and enthusiasts. One of its specialisations is Mars analog research. Analog studies and analog instrument validation supported all planetary surface missions so far [1] and are considered as an effective tool to prepare for future missions to Mars [2,3,4,5,6,7]. Since 2006, OeWF has conducted 11 Mars analog field campaigns in diverse locations that represented: 1) average current Mars conditions (the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) in Utah in 2006 [8] and the Northern Sahara near Erfoud, Morocco in 2013 [9]); 2) the early and wet Mars (analog site of Rio Tinto Spain in 2011 [10]); and 3) subsurface exploration (Dachstein Ice Caves in 2012). During these campaigns, 68 experiments and major engineering tests were performed, whichwere mostly focused on astrobiology, robotics, human factors, geoscience and spacesuit operations. Major assets of OeWF include two advanced spacesuit simulators Aouda [11], an increasingly evolving Mission Support Center, a dedicated Remote Science Support team [12], and a growing set of Standard Operating Procedures defining major workflows within a mission team. The spacesuit simulators were operated by a total of 18 analog astronauts, who were selected and trained during a >6 month program. Total EVA time is nearly 600 hours, leading to a significant experience in analog field simulations. AMADEE-15: The mission took place between August 2nd and 14th 2015 at the Kaunertal Glacier in Tyrol, Austria. This glacier was selected as a study site because of its accessibility and high number of micro-landscapes analogous to those expected on Mars in locations where abundant water ice is present. As such it is considered a first-tier Mars analog [13]. The Base station was located at N 46.86320, E 10.71401 at 2800 masl, the highest reached location was on elevation of 2887 m. Eleven

  12. Austrian Daily Climate Data Rescue and Quality Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkovic, A.; Lipa, W.; Adler, S.; Albenberger, J.; Lechner, W.; Swietli, R.; Vossberg, I.; Zehetner, S.

    2010-09-01

    Checked climate datasets are a "conditio sine qua non" for all projects that are relevant for environment and climate. In the framework of climate change studies and analysis it is essential to work with quality controlled and trustful data. Furthermore these datasets are used as input for various simulation models. In regard to investigations of extreme events, like strong precipitation periods, drought periods and similar ones we need climate data in high temporal resolution (at least in daily resolution). Because of the historical background - during Second World War the majority of our climate sheets were sent to Berlin, where the historical sheets were destroyed by a bomb attack and so important information got lost - only several climate sheets, mostly duplicates, before 1939 are available and stored in our climate data archive. In 1970 the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics in Vienna started a first attempt to digitize climate data by means of punch cards. With the introduction of a routinely climate data quality control in 1984 we can speak of high-class-checked daily data (finally checked data, quality flag 6). Our group is working on the processing of digitization and quality control of the historical data for the period 1872 to 1983 for 18 years. Since 2007 it was possible to intensify the work (processes) in the framework of an internal project, namely Austrian Climate Data Rescue and Quality Control. The aim of this initiative was - and still is - to supply daily data in an outstanding good and uniform quality. So this project is a kind of pre-project for all scientific projects which are working with daily data. In addition to routine quality checks (that are running since 1984) using the commercial Bull Software we are testing our data with additional open source software, namely ProClim.db. By the use of this spatial and statistical test procedure, the elements air temperature and precipitation - for several sites in Carinthia - could

  13. Why Credit Deflation Is More Likely than Mass Inflation: An Austrian Overview of the Inflation Versus Deflation Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Boyapati

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an Austrian overview of the inflation versus deflation debate which has captured the attention of the economics profession in the years following the US housing bust. Much of the Austrian analysis of this debate has focused on the massive expansion of the Federal Reserve’s balance sheet and attendant creation of new reserves. Several Austrian economists have predicted that the creation of new reserves will cause a massive increase in inflation. The money multiplier theory, on which these predictions are based, is criticized and an overview of the Austrian business cycle theory is provided to explain why banks are reluctant to issue new credit. Finally, an analysis of the politics of deflation is provided and a class theory is presented to explain why a policy of controlled credit deflation is more likely than a policy that would result in mass inflation or hyperinflation.

  14. The views and motives of environmental ethics in the articles of Austrian nature and environmental protection associations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study deals with the views and motives of environmental ethics in the articles of Austrian nature and environmental protection associations. There are different ways of arguing: In an anthropocentric point of view nature is seen as a resource for man; human life needs protection an cultivation of nature. The non-anthropocentric point of view is more popular. Nature is not only seen as a resource for human needs and interests. It follows its own aims and purposes, seems to be a valuable being and has to be protected for itself. The study presents the two parent organizations 'Umweltdachverband - OeGNU' and 'Oeko-Buero' and their 45 members. The associations mainly argue from an anthropocentric point of view for the protection of nature and environment. Their motives are the care for human health and quality of life, the ensuring of resources, the leisure-time in nature and patriotism. The anthropocentric arguments perfectly fit into the other articles of these organizations: many of them are dealing with economical, scientifical, recreational and pedagogical affairs. And often they represent interests of agriculture, forestry ore trade. Non-anthropocentric statements are of minor importance and seem to be a way to present the seriousness of their demand for protection of nature and environment. (author)

  15. Enhanced analysis of the community structure of a subsurface radioactive thermal spring in the Austrian Central Alps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A molecular analysis of the community structure of the radioactive subsurface thermal spring 'Franz-Josef Quelle' (FJQ) in the Austrian Central Alps was performed. Besides the high microbial diversity, ammonia oxidizing Crenarchaeota and several bacterial species, which were involved in the nitrogen cycle, were also detected. Additionally several sequences were obtained that were related to sequences from locations, which were e.g. contaminated with radioactivity, suggesting the probable presence of organisms that can interact with the Ra, Rn or U in the spring. Furthermore, biofilms were recognized, which had some similarities to the ones described by Holmes and coworkers in the Nullarbor caves. Holmes suggested that a large part (about 12 %) of the microorganisms inhabiting these mats were related to a Nitrospira sp. Besides the mats, which were present in the spring FJQ, sequences of Nitrospira and related species were found. Nitrifiers are known to build biofilms under suboptimal growth conditions, e.g. the water temperature in the spring is 45oC, but the optimum growth temperature of nitrifiers lies between 25 to 30oC. Preliminary DGGE fingerprinting results of the spring showed the dominance of Nitrospira related organisms in biofilms and on glass slides which were placed into the spring for several days. Therefore an extended examination of these natural and artificial biofilms is in progress by addition of DGGE analysis and culturing approaches. (author)

  16. Culture standards and their impact on teamwork: An empirical analysis of Austrian, German, Hungarian and Spanish culture differences

    OpenAIRE

    Dunkel, Amanda; Meierewert, Sylvia

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the impact of different cultural standards on the processes and performances of Austrian, Spanish, German and Hungarian task groups. We therefore analyzed 201 qualitative interviews with Austrians, Spaniards, Germans and Hungarians, which were conducted from 1996 to 2001. This paper uses the cultural standard framework as its theoretical background as well as the concepts of team development. The emphasis of our research is on those culture standards that have been ident...

  17. Manmade radionuclide vector in Austrian soil and vegetation near Temelin nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinojmeri, M.; Ringer, V. [Oesterreichische Agentur fuer Gesundheit und Ernaehrungssicherheit - AGES (Austria)

    2014-07-01

    Since Chernobyl NPP accident an environmental monitoring program concerning the Upper Austrian region near Czech Republic Nuclear Power Plant, NPP Temelin, is in progress between AGES and BMLFUV, the Austrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment, Water and Food, in Austria. This paper presents the results obtained during the sampling campaign over biennial period of 2010-2011. Soil samples, grass and different cereal species were collected. Beside Cs-134, Cs-137 and Sr-89, Sr-90 isotopes, at this phase the number of isotopes determined was extended with plutonium isotopes Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241 and Am-241. A comparison of these results with the existing data so far is presented. New knowledge was obtained related the bio-kinetic parameters of these elements in the environment. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  18. Identification of relevant micropollutants in Austrian municipal wastewater and their behaviour during wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clara, M; Windhofer, G; Weilgony, P; Gans, O; Denner, M; Chovanec, A; Zessner, M

    2012-06-01

    The European Union has defined environmental quality standards (EQSs) for surface waters for priority substances and several other pollutants. Furthermore national EQSs for several chemicals are valid in Austria. The study investigated the occurrence of these compounds in municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents. In a first screening of 15 WWTPs relevant substances were identified, which subsequently were monitored in 9 WWTPs over 1 year (every 2 months). Out of 77 substances or groups of substances (including more than 90 substances) 13 were identified as potentially relevant in respect to water pollution and subjected to the monitoring, whereas most other compounds were detected in concentrations far below the respective EQS for surface waters and therefore not further considered. The preselected 13 compounds for monitoring were cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), diuron, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), di(ethyl-hydroxyl)phthalate (DEHP), tributyltin compounds (TBT), nonylphenoles (NP), adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) and the complexing agents ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as well as nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA). In the effluents of WWTPs the concentrations of the priority substances Cd, NP, TBT and diuron frequently exceeded the respective EQS, whereas the concentrations for DEHP and Ni were below the respective EQS. The effluent concentrations for AOX, EDTA, NTA, Cu, Se and Zn frequently are in the range or above the Austrian EQS for surface waters. Besides diuron and EDTA all compounds are removed at least partially during wastewater treatment and for most substances the removal via the excess sludge is the major removal pathway. For the 13 compounds which were monitored in WWTP effluents population equivalent specific discharges were calculated. Since for many compounds no or only few information is available, these population equivalent specific discharges can be used to assess emissions from

  19. Use of the TRIGA Reactor by the Radiochemistry Group of the Atominstitute of the Austrian Universities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radiochemistry Group of the Atominstitute of the Austrian Universities uses the TRIGA Mark II Reactor mainly for neutron activation analysis. Transport of samples to and from the irradiation positions in the reactor is performed by fast pneumatic transfer systems (transfer time 20 msec and 300 msec) and slow conventional transport facilities. Gamma-spectrometric instrumentation equipped with loss free counting systems is used to handle the high count rates up to 500 000 counts/sec. During the last years neutron activation analysis was applied to investigate environmental samples (soil, dust, incineration ash), geological samples (rocks, sediments, fossils, volcanic gases), biological materials (lichens, mushrooms and other plant materials, human diet, biological reference materials), raw materials (phosphate, coal) and archaeological materials (ancient glass). Lichen analysis was used for environmental monitoring. The content of some of the trace elements can be correlated with industrial activities, like manganese content with steel industry, the occurrence of vanadium and nickel with oil firing plants and stainless steel industry, selenium is found in lichen near coal firing plants. The amount of chlorine and sodium indicates the application of salt for road treatment during winter time, aluminum, scandium and hafnium content depends on the amount of dust in the environment. A further environmental application of neutron activation analysis is the determination of trace elements in volcanic gases. The halogens, arsenic, antimony, selenium, tellurium and mercury were determined and their daily output was calculated. The distribution of trace elements in fossils of known age gives us a geochemical key to condition and development of the paleo-environment. For this purpose we determined rare earth elements in 250 million years old microfossils (conodonts). Neutron activation analysis served also for some non scientific but nevertheless useful purposes: Organic

  20. Out-of-pocket expenditures for pharmaceuticals: Lessons from the Austrian household budget survey

    OpenAIRE

    Sanwald, Alice; Theurl, Engelbert

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Paying pharmaceuticals out-of-pocket is an important source of financing pharmaceutical consumption. Only limited empirical knowledge is available on the determinants of these expenditures. OBJECTIVES: In this paper we analyze which characteristics of private households influence out-of-pocket pharmaceutical expenditure (OOPPE) in Austria. DESIGN & METHODS: We use cross-sectional information on OOPPE and on household characteristics provided by the Austrian household budget survey...

  1. Drugs from nature targeting inflammation (DNTI): a successful Austrian interdisciplinary network project

    OpenAIRE

    Waltenberger, Birgit; Atanasov, Atanas G.; Heiss, Elke H; Bernhard, David; Rollinger, Judith M.; Breuss, Johannes M.; Schuster, Daniela; Bauer, Rudolf; Kopp, Brigitte; Franz, Chlodwig; Bochkov, Valery; Marko D Mihovilovic; Dirsch, Verena M.; Stuppner, Hermann

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Inflammation is part of numerous pathological conditions, which are lacking satisfying treatment and effective concepts of prevention. A national research network project, DNTI, involving scientists from six Austrian universities as well as several external partners aimed to identify and characterize natural products capable of combating inflammatory processes specifically in the cardiovascular system. The combined use of computational techniques with traditional knowledge, high-tech...

  2. Integrating English as a Foreign Language in Austrian primary schools: contextual and participant perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Millonig, Diana Jean

    2015-01-01

    Government guidelines in Austria specify that first and second year primary school pupils (age 6-8 years old) should receive their first teaching of a foreign language integrated into the syllabus subjects. The present study, embedded in the theoretical framework of social constructivist learning and socio-cultural language learning theories, investigated the actual classroom practices of Austrian primary school teachers during the integration of English into the lessons. The main research...

  3. Decision Criteria in Ethical Dilemma Situations: Empirical Examples from Austrian Managers

    OpenAIRE

    Litschka, Michael; Suske, Michaela; Brandtweiner, Roman

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the result of an empirical research project analysing the decision behaviour of Austrian managers in ethical dilemma situations. While neoclassical economic theory would suggest a pure economic rational basis for management decisions, the empirical study conducted by the authors put other concepts to a test, thereby analysing their importance for managerial decision making: specific notions of fairness, reciprocal altruism, and commitment. After reviewing some of ...

  4. Is Bitcoin money? An analysis from the Austrian school of economic thought

    OpenAIRE

    Ísak Andri Ólafsson 1989

    2014-01-01

    This thesis aims to explore whether digital crypto-currencies such as Bitcoin can be considered money from the perspective of the Austrian school of economics. It begins by describing the functions and design of the Bitcoin system in detail. Other innovations that either build on or improve Bitcoin will be explained as well. The functions of money are then defined from the origins of money, providing a categorical approach toward a comparison between Bitcoin and incumbent money. The risks and...

  5. Academic Anti-Semitism and the Austrian School: Vienna, 1918–1945

    OpenAIRE

    Hansjoerg Klausinger

    2013-01-01

    The theme of academic anti-Semitism has been much discussed recently in histories of the interwar period of the University of Vienna, in particular its Faculty of Law and Policy Sciences. This paper complements these studies by focusing in this regard on the economics chairs at this faculty and, more generally, on the fate of the younger generation of the Austrian school of economics. After some introductory remarks the paper concentrates on three case studies: the neglect of Mises in a...

  6. Financial and Economic Education Products and Services of Austrian Institutions and Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Sabine Schlögl

    2007-01-01

    Austrian institutions and enterprises offer a broad range of economic and financial literacy products and services, including online products, brochures, folders, economic simulation games, TV and radio programs, presentations, seminars, company visits and guided tours. On closer inspection, however, it turns out that some areas and target groups remain largely neglected: Education products and services for students attending primary and compulsory school are still scarce, while comprehensive...

  7. Sustainability Management with the Sustainability Balanced Scorecard in SMEs: Findings from an Austrian Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Susanna Falle; Romana Rauter; Sabrina Engert; Rupert J. Baumgartner

    2016-01-01

    Given the economic importance of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) and their need for strategic sustainability management, this paper examines the concept of Sustainability Balanced Scorecard (SBSC) with respect to SMEs. This case study describes the development of an SBSC in a middle-sized Austrian brewery. The existing methods used in SBSC creation were adapted to suit the company’s specific needs. The findings show that when developing an SBSC it is important to take specific SME c...

  8. Revealed comparative advantage index: an analysis of export trade in the Austrian district of Burgerland

    OpenAIRE

    Granabetter, Doris

    2016-01-01

    The Austrian District of Burgenland is located in the eastern part of the country. In the last decade, the region has benefited from different subsidy programs from the European Union. The aim of this paper is to analyze and evaluate the export competitiveness of Burgenland in relation to the foreign trade of Austria as a whole from 2010 to 2014, which is the period showing the highest increase in exports since the Iron Curtain fell. The Revealed Comparative Advantage index (RCA) was used ...

  9. Phylogenetic analysis of Austrian canine distemper virus strains from clinical samples from dogs and wild carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetka, V; Leschnik, M; Affenzeller, N; Möstl, K

    2011-04-01

    Austrian field cases of canine distemper (14 dogs, one badger [Meles meles] and one stone marten [Martes foina]) from 2002 to 2007 were investigated and the case histories were summarised briefly. Phylogenetic analysis of fusion (F) and haemagglutinin (H) gene sequences revealed different canine distemper virus (CDV) lineages circulating in Austria. The majority of CDV strains detected from 2002 to 2004 were well embedded in the European lineage. One Austrian canine sample detected in 2003, with a high similarity to Hungarian sequences from 2005 to 2006, could be assigned to the Arctic group (phocine distemper virus type 2-like). The two canine sequences from 2007 formed a clearly distinct group flanked by sequences detected previously in China and the USA on an intermediate position between the European wildlife and the Asia-1 cluster. The Austrian wildlife strains (2006 and 2007) could be assigned to the European wildlife group and were most closely related to, yet clearly different from, the 2007 canine samples. To elucidate the epidemiological role of Austrian wildlife in the transmission of the disease to dogs and vice versa, H protein residues related to receptor and host specificity (residues 530 and 549) were analysed. All samples showed the amino acids expected for their host of origin, with the exception of a canine sequence from 2007, which had an intermediate position between wildlife and canine viral strains. In the period investigated, canine strains circulating in Austria could be assigned to four different lineages reflecting both a high diversity and probably different origins of virus introduction to Austria in different years.

  10. Towards a Dynamic Resource-Based View Insights from Austrian Capital and Entrepreneurship Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolai J. Foss; Ishikawa, Ibuki

    2006-01-01

    The dominant view in the strategic management field is the resource-based view ("RBV"). It has often been observed that the RBV is lacking in the dynamic dimension. For example, processes of building competitive advantages by means of combining existing complementary resources in novel ways are not inquired into. We argue that the RBV may profitably draw on Austrian (Misesian) and Knightian insights in entrepreneurship and capital theory, particularly in its Lachmannian manifestation, in orde...

  11. Negotiating Partnership: How Serbian Hauzmajstor Established a Business Relationship with Austrian Rustler

    OpenAIRE

    Vesna Vučinić-Nešković

    2016-01-01

    This study is an account of how Serbian Hauzmajstor negotiated and entered into partnership with the Austrian Rustler. The introduction is devoted to the development of Hauzmajstor, a small real estate maintenance firm, founded by a Serbian repatriate in 2004. Beginning with its start up as the first daughter firm of Komon sens, a consulting and project development firm, the study follows its adaptation to the local business environment, concentrating on its organizational and business cultur...

  12. the term structure of interest rates: a first look at the austrian case

    OpenAIRE

    Jäger, Albert

    1985-01-01

    abstract: first, the basic idea of the expectations theory on the term structure of interest rates is sketched. a brief review of empirical evidence on the expectations theory is presented. the paper then derives and estimates a term structure equation for austrian interest rates. the empirical results for this equation seem not to be at variance with the basic idea of the expectations theory, i. e., representing the long term interest rates as a weighted average of expected short rates. a li...

  13. Bioactive Ingredients and Antioxidant Activity of Austrian Wine and Grape Juice

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Navarro, Roser

    2008-01-01

    Wine has already been investigated for its potential nutritional quality, such as high amount of phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds, well-known as natural antioxidants, are reported due their radical scavenging capacity. In the present work, the bioactive ingredients of nine Austrian wines (four red wines: Zweigelt, Blaufränkisch, Syrah and Cuvée; two white wines: Pinot Blanc and Chardonnay; one rosé Blaufränkisch; and two grape juice: red and white) have been quantified an...

  14. Edaphic characteristics of Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn. forests in the Višegrad area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Velibor D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of soil research in Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn. forest communities in the Višegrad area, carried out to determine the basic soil characteristics and eco-production potential of forest habitats as an important basis and framework for the successful management of these forests on the principles of sustainable development. Austrian pine forests in this region are an important and ecologically valuable community. The complexity of the geological structure and relief dynamics are dominant environmental factors that condition the expressed variability of soils in the study area. Forest communities of Austrian pine are formed on the peridotites and serpentinites, eutric ranker (haplic leptosol, eutric cambisol (haplic cambisols and pseudogley (haplic planosol, dense granular and marl limestones calcomelanosol (mollic leptosol, rendzina (rendzic leptosol and calcocambisol (leptic cambisol. The productivity of these soils is highly correlated with depth and texture composition, and the impact of these factors is linked with soil type, climate and other site conditions. In the research area, soil types with low production potential such as rankers, rendzinas, limestone and dolomite calcomelanosol are dominant. Deeper variants of eutric cambisol, pseudogley and calcocambisol can be classified as soils with moderate to high production potential.

  15. Effects of Renal Denervation Documented in the Austrian National Multicentre Renal Denervation Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Thomas; Steinwender, Clemens; Weber, Thomas; Suppan, Markus; Brussee, Helmut; Koppelstätter, Christian; Kerschbaum, Julia; Watschinger, Bruno; Hohenstein-Scheibenecker, Katharina; Reindl-Schwaighofer, Roman; Sturmberger, Thomas; Kindslehner, Claudia; Weiss, Thomas Werner; Rohla, Miklos; Gruener, Peter; Maister, Petra; Auer, Johann; Dechant, Cornelia; Sykora, Josef; Krismer, Christoph; Glaser, Stefan; Zweiker, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Renal denervation (RDN) is a new procedure for treatment-resistant hypertensive patients. In order to monitor all procedures undergone in Austria, the Austrian Society of Hypertension established the investigator-initiated Austrian Transcatheter Renal Denervation (TREND) Registry. From April 2011 to September 2014, 407 procedures in 14 Austrian centres were recorded. At baseline, office and mean 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) were 171/94 and 151/89 mmHg, respectively, and patients were taking a median of 4 antihypertensive medications. Mean 24-h ABP changes after 2–6 weeks, 3, 6 and 12 months were -11/-6, -8/-4, -8/-5 and -10/-6 mmHg (p<0.05 at all measurements), respectively. The periprocedural complication rate was 2.5%. Incidence of long-term complications during follow-up (median 1 year) was 0.5%. Office BP and ABP responses showed only a weak correlation (Pearson coefficient 0.303). Based on the data from the TREND registry, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in addition to office BP should be used for patient selection as well as for monitoring response to RDN. Furthermore, criteria for optimal patient selection are suggested. PMID:27529426

  16. Österreichs Wirtschaftsbeziehungen in Südostasien [Austrian Economic Relations to South-East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhart Zimmermann

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Der süd- und südostasiatische Raum befindet sich im Aufholprozess. Der anhaltende Wachstumstrend geht einher mit der steigenden Nachfrage aus den Industriestaaten sowie dem Binnenmarkt und führt auch zu erhöhtem Bedarf an Infrastruktur. Auch die österreichische Wirtschaft profitiert vom Asien-Boom. Dies zeigt das stete Wachstum österreichischer Warenexporte in die Region, der Anstieg heimischer Direktinvestitionen sowie die wachsende Präsenz österreichischer Firmen. Ziel der österreichischen WirtschaftsvertreterInnen ist es, die Tigerstaaten Südostasiens mehr aus dem Schatten der aufstrebenden Wirtschaftssupermacht China zu holen und die österreichische Wirtschaftsverflechtung mit diesen Ländern zu intensivieren.The South and South East Asian Area has been catching up with the developed world. The sustained economic growth trend goes hand in hand with a higher demand from industrialized nations and a stronger internal demand, pushing for better infrastructure. The Austrian economy is also benefiting from booming Asia, underscored by the steady increase of Austrian exports to this region, the rise of foreign direct investment and companies doing business in these countries. The Austrian business community would like to see the South East Asian tiger states more out of the shadow of the new super power China. The overall objective is to intensify the economic integration with South and South East Asia.

  17. 137Cs-migration in soils and its transfer to roe deer in an Austrian forest stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The depth distribution of 137Cs in an Austrian spruce forest stand was investigated in soil profiles sampled in thin layers (2 cm) and in pooled soil samples over an area of 200 ha. The 137Cs concentrations both from Chernobyl and global fallout decrease exponentially with depth. Forty-six percent of Chernobyl-derived caesium and 26% from global fallout are still to be found in the litter layer; 137Cs content in samples on organic matter as well as cation exchange capacity. Using a compartment model, average residence half-times of 5.3, 9.9, 1.78 and 0.8 years were calculated for the layers litter, 0-5 (Ah1), 5-10 (Ah2) and 10-20 cm (A/B) of mineral soil, respectively. Using the model predictions of soil contamination as a basis and considering that roe deer forage plants' rooting depths, the development of 137Cs contamination of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) (1987-1993) was well described by applying an aggregated transfer factor

  18. "Boden macht Schule" - a soil awareness workshop for Austrian pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foldal, Cecile B.; Aust, Günter; Baumgarten, Andreas; Berthold, Helene; Birli, Barbara; Englisch, Michael; Ferstl, Elsa; Leregger, Florian; Schwarz, Sigrid; Tulipan, Monika

    2014-05-01

    In order to raise awareness and understanding for the importance of soil, we developed a workshop for schoolchildren between the age of nine and thirteen. The workshop focuses on soil formation, soil functions and soil organisms. Guided by young soil scientist the children can actively explore different soil properties. Key elements are studies and identification of soil animals, small physical experiments and several games followed up with creative tasks. Our aim is to make the workshop an attractive tool for environmental education in public schools and by this to increase the interest in soil and soil protection. This poster gives a short overview of the contents of the workshop "Boden macht Schule"

  19. The ACOnet (Austrian Academic Computer Network) is data carrier for teleradiological consultations; Das ACOnet (Austrian Academic Computer Network) als Datentraeger fuer teleradiologische Konsultationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giacomuzzi, S.M. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Innsbruck (Austria)]|[Universitaetsklinik Innsbruck (Austria). Inst. fuer Medizinische Physik; Springer, P.; Dessl, A.; Waldenberger, P.; Buchberger, W.; Bodner, G.; Bale, R.; Jaschke, W. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Innsbruck (Austria); Stoeger, A. [Universitaetsklinik Innsbruck (Austria). Inst. fuer MRI; Schreder, J.G. [Universitaetsklinik Innsbruck (Austria). Inst. fuer Medizinische Physik; Gell, G. [Universitaetsklinik Innsbruck (Austria). Inst. fuer Medizinische Informatik

    1998-04-01

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility of image transfer for teleradiologic consultations using the Austrian Academic Computer Network (ACOnet). The ACOnet corresponds between the main univerisities to a MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) with a transfer rate of 4 Mbps. Its use is free of charge for university institutions. Materials and methods: 1740 test image data sets and 620 image data sets for teleradiological consultations were exchanged without annotations between the Departments of Diagnostic Radiology of the universities of Innsbruck and Graz, using the ACOnet. Results: Data transmission was reliable and fast with an average transfer capacity of 170.2 kBytes/s (94-341 kBytes/s). There were no major problems with image transfer during the test phase. Conclusion: Due to its high transfer capacity, the ACOnet is considered a reasonable alternative to the ISDN service. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Radiologische Bilddatensaetze sollten fuer telemedizinische Konsultationen mittels des Austrian Academic Computer Network (ACOnet) zwischen den Universitaetskliniken Innsbruck und Graz ausgetauscht werden. Das ACOnet, dessen Benutzung fuer Universitaeten frei ist, entspricht zwischen den Landesuniversitaeten einem MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) mit einer Uebertragungsrate von 4 Mbps. Material und Methode: Die Uebertragung von 1740 Testbilddatensaetzen und 12 radiologischen Konsultationen (620 Bilddatensaetze), ohne Annotationen, zwischen den radiologischen Abteilungen der Universitaetskliniken Innsbruck und Graz zum Zwecke teleradiologischer Konsultationen mittels ACOnet. Ergebnisse: Die Uebertragungen ergaben eine hohe durchschnittliche Uebertragungskapazitaet von 170,2 kBytes/s (94-341 kBytes/s). Das ACOnet erwies sich waehrend der gesamten Testphase als zuverlaessig und praktikabel fuer die Uebertragung teleradiologischer Bilddatensaetze. Schlussfolgerungen: Durch die hohe Uebertragungskapazitaet stellt das ACOnet eine erfolgversprechende Alternative zum ISDN-Service dar

  20. Environmental situation in Austria. Seventh state of the environment report of the federal minister of environment to the national assembly of the Austrian parliament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the presentation of the seventh state of the Environment Report, the Umweltbundesamt - Austrian Environment Agency - fulfils its legal obligation of submitting detailed information on the state of the environment in Austria, thus providing the National Assembly of the Austrian Parliament as well as the Federal Government with an objective basis of data and information. It covers the period under review of 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2003 (unless stated otherwise) and is organized in 6 chapters: 1.- Sustainable development; 2.- Man and environment; 3.- Environmental impacts (agriculture, forest management and hunting, water resource management, energy industry, spatial planning, transport, the handling of chemicals, the application of pesticides and biocidal products, the application of genetically modified organisms, industry, waste management, contaminated sites, and noise); 4.- Environmental media (water, air, soil); 5.- Fauna, flora, habitats (biodiversity, nature protection, national parks in Austria, forest, agricultural habitats, Alpine regions) and 6.- Special chapters (greenhouse emissions and climate change, floods). In order to facilitate orientation, chapters 2-5 has been structured as follows: The 'Introduction' gives an overview of the conditions relevant for Austria as well as the current situation - if applicable also in comparison with other countries, the subchapter 'Environmental policy targets' lists the goals relevant for the respective topic specified in or to be derived from national or EU-wide laws, regulations, ordinances, plans or strategies; 'Situation and Trends' describes the current situation as well as future trends as far as they are detectable; the subchapter 'Summary Assessment and Outlook' compares the status quo with the trends contained in the 'Environmental policy targets'; the subchapter 'Recommendations' contains, from a point of view of precautionary environmental protection, recommendations of measures to guarantee

  1. The knowledge balance of the inter- and transdisciplinary Austrian Landscape Research programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Begusch-Pfefferkorn

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Austrian Landscape Research, a programme of the Austrian Ministry of Science, has created scientific foundations for the sustainable development of Austrian landscapes and regions (plus bordering regions. Landscapes and regions were to be explored from different angles; implementing the research findings was to be part of the research work. The programme was designed to make room for science open to society, for unconventional ideas, methods, and courses of action. Programmatic targets and research principles supported this intent. The results of the programme met with national and international approval. The ALR knowledge balance is an attempt at presenting and assessing the achievements of this comprehensive contract research programme.Le programme du Ministère autrichien des Sciences, intitulé « Recherche sur le paysage autrichien », visait à construire les fondements scientifiques d’un développement durable des paysages et des régions de l’Autriche et des territoires limitrophes. Les paysages et les régions ont été étudiés selon différentes approches disciplinaires et la mise en pratique des résultats de cette étude était partie prenante du programme de recherche. La vocation de ce programme était de faire la place à une science ouverte sur la société, à des idées, méthodes et pratiques non conventionnelles. Les objectifs du programme et les principes de recherche vont dans le sens de ces exigences. Les résultats du programme ont été reconnus sur le plan national et international. Le bilan des connaissances du programme de recherche sur le paysage autrichien (KLF a pour but de présenter et d’évaluer les performances de ce vaste programme de recherche.

  2. Austrian dose measurements onboard space station MIR and the International Space Station--overview and comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, T; Hajek, M; Summerer, L; Vana, N; Akatov, Y; Shurshakov, V; Arkhangelsky, V

    2004-01-01

    The Atominstitute of the Austrian Universities has conducted various space research missions in the last 12 years in cooperation with the Institute for Biomedical Problems in Moscow. They dealt with the exact determination of the radiation hazards for cosmonauts and the development of precise measurement devices. Special emphasis will be laid on the last experiment on space station MIR the goal of which was the determination of the depth distribution of absorbed dose and dose equivalent in a water filled Phantom. The first results from dose measurements onboard the International Space Station (ISS) will also be discussed. The spherical Phantom with a diameter of 35 cm was developed at the Institute for Biomedical Problems and had 4 channels where dosimeters can be exposed in different depths. The exposure period covered the timeframe from May 1997 to February 1999. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were exposed inside the Phantom, either parallel or perpendicular to the hull of the spacecraft. For the evaluation of the linear energy transfer (LET), the high temperature ratio (HTR) method was applied. Based on this method a mean quality factor and, subsequently, the dose equivalent is calculated according to the Q(LET infinity) relationship proposed in ICRP 26. An increased contribution of neutrons could be detected inside the Phantom. However the total dose equivalent did not increase over the depth of the Phantom. As the first Austrian measurements on the ISS dosimeter packages were exposed for 248 days, starting in February 2001 at six different locations onboard the ISS. The Austrian dosimeter sets for this first exposure on the ISS contained five different kinds of passive thermoluminescent dosimeters. First results showed a position dependent absorbed dose rate at the ISS.

  3. 54. Annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The papers presented were organized under the following sessions: main session (from attoseconds to RGB to telecom, density functional calculations, magnetic anisotropy of nanostructures, quantum cascade laser, bose-einstein condensates, DNA molecular force sensor); Fritz-Kohlrausch-price 2004 (nanoscale building blocks), Max-Auwaerter-price 2004 (electron emission and nano defects, magnetic rings), AT + S price 2004 (conducting atomic-force microscopy for nanoscale studies), Viktor-Hess-price 2004 (entanglement for meson-antimeson systems), Roman-Ulrich-Sexl-price 2004 (teaching physics ); acoustics; atomic-, molecular- and plasma physics (kinetic electron emission, accelerated-mass spectrometry of molecules, dissociative electron attachment, voc measurements); solid physics (spin relaxation, nano clean room reactor, proton transport through nanotubes); nuclear and particle physics (color reconnection, supersymmetry at Large Hadron Collider, pionic hydrogen, kaonic hydrogen, quantum chaos, quantum dwell time, trigger system simulation, ATLAS initial detector layout, QCD); medical-, bio-and environmental physics (PTR-MS, validation Monte Carlo FLUKA codes, Gamma camera- positron emission tomography); neutrons and synchrotron radiation physics (3D synchrotron micro on human bones); surface and thin film analysis; quantum electronics, electrodynamics and optics (teleportation, optic induced changes in interaction in BEC, electronic feed back cooling single ions) and poster sessions with topics dealing with the subjects above mentioned. This book of abstracts contains their summaries and those contributions which are in the INIS subject scope are indexed individually. (nevyjel)

  4. Progress report 1980/81 of the Austrian Academy of Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the numerous institutes and divisions of the Austrian Academy of Sciences presented in this report the Commission for Arteriosclerosis and Thrombosis Research (application of radioimmunoassay) and the Institute for X-ray Microstructure Research (investigation of biological substances by X-ray and neutron small angle scattering) are partly within the scope of INIS. Fully in scope are short project discriptions of the Institute for Radium Research and Nulear Physics: the Commission for the SIN-project and the Institute for High Energy Physics, completed by publication lists. (G.Q.)

  5. The most important parasitic and saprophytic fungi in Austrian pine and Scots pine plantations in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karadžić Dragan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In Austrian pine plantations in Serbia, the greatest damage is caused by the fungi Mycosphaerella pini, Sphaeropsis sapinea, Cenangium ferruginosum, Germmeniella abietina (in the mountain regions and occasionally Armillaria spp., Lophodermium spp. (seditiosum, conigenum, pinastri and Cyclaneusma niveum. In Scots pine plantations, the greatest damage is caused by the fungi Heterobasidion annosum (especially in plantations on sandy soils, Armillaria spp, Lophodermium seditiosum, L. pinastri, Cyclaneusma minus and Sphaeropsis sapinea. Damage caused by rust fungi (Coleosporium sennecionis, Melampsora pinitorqua and Cronartium flaccidum occurs less frequently. In mountainous regions in Scots pine plantations, great damage is caused by Phacidium infestans, Lophodermella sulcigena and Gremmeniella abietina.

  6. Managing a culturally diverse workforce : Diversity perspectives in organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Podsiadlowski, Astrid; Groeschke, Daniela; Kogler, Marina; Springer, Cornelia; van der Zee, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The authors conducted two studies to analyze why and how organizations approach and manage cultural diversity in the Austrian workplace and to identify organizations' diversity perspectives. In Study 1, 29 interviews revealed insights into organizational approaches to diversity and how these perspec

  7. Austrian's syndrome: The first described case of pneumococcal meningitis pneumonia and endocarditis in an injecting drug user.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beadsworth, Mike B J; Wooton, Dan; Chenzbraun, Adrian; Beeching, Nick J

    2007-12-01

    We describe the first reported case of Austrian's syndrome in an injecting drug user (IDU). The triad of endocarditis, meningitis and pneumonia caused by invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is most commonly associated with excess alcohol. Injecting drug use is a recognised risk factor for IPD, whose prevalence and resistance continue to rise. We propose that injecting drug use is associated with Austrian's syndrome and that it should at least be considered in 'at risk' groups presenting with IPD. Furthermore, IDU presenting with IPD, meningitis and pneumonia should be considered for echocardiography.

  8. The relevance and legibility of radio/TV weather reports to the Austrian public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keul, A. G.; Holzer, A. M.

    2013-03-01

    The communicative quality of media weather reports, especially warnings, can be evaluated by user research. It is an interdisciplinary field, still uncoordinated after 35 years. The authors suggest to shift from a cognitive learning model to news processing, qualitative discourse and usability models as the media audience is in an edutainment situation where it acts highly selective. A series of field surveys 2008-2011 tested the relevance and legibility of Austrian radio and television weather reports on fair weather and in warning situations. 247 laypeople heard/saw original, mostly up-to-date radio/TV weather reports and recalled personally relevant data. Also, a questionnaire on weather knowledge was answered by 237 Austrians. Several research hypotheses were tested. The main results were (a) a relatively high level of meteorological knowledge of the general population, with interest and participation of German-speaking migrants, (b) a pluralistic media usage with TV, radio and internet as the leading media, (c) higher interest and attention (also for local weather) after warnings, but a risk of more false recalls after long warnings, (d) more recall problems with radio messages and a wish that the weather elements should always appear in the same order to faciliate processing for the audience. In their narrow time windows, radio/TV weather reports should concentrate on main features (synoptic situation, tomorrow's temperature and precipitation, possible warnings), keep a verbal “speed limit” and restrict show elements to serve the active, selective, multioptional, multicultural audience.

  9. Renal infarction as a presentation of Austrian syndrome: thromboembolic phenomenon of pneumococcal endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankongpaisarnrung, Charoen; Soontrapa, Suthipong; Nantsupawat, Teerapat; Desai, Vipul; Nugent, Kenneth

    2012-09-01

    A 52-year-old unvaccinated and splenectomized man presented with fever, altered sensorium, bilateral flank pain and chest discomfort accompanied with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation with a rapid ventricular response. An abdominal computed tomography scan was performed, which revealed a right renal infarct and splenosis. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed, which demonstrated an echodense structure on the mitral valve with mitral regurgitation and a vegetation on the aortic valve with aortic regurgitation. Subsequently, he was found to have pneumococcal infective endocarditis, pneumococcal pneumonia and bacterial meningitis, namely Austrian syndrome. He underwent an early aortic valve and mitral valve repair but still had a poor clinical outcome. Renal infarction has a mortality of approximately 13.2%, which is strongly influenced by the underlying diseases and infectious complications. Medical and surgical treatment initiated in a timely manner is often inadequate. The authors report the first case of Austrian syndrome presenting with renal infarction as a clue to an embolic event associated with infective endocarditis in this study.

  10. High concentrations of anthocyanins in genuine cherry-juice of old local Austrian Prunus avium varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüller, Elisabeth; Halbwirth, Heidi; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Slatnar, Ana; Veberic, Robert; Forneck, Astrid; Stich, Karl; Spornberger, Andreas

    2015-04-15

    Antioxidant activity and polyphenols were quantified in vapour-extracted juice of nine Austrian, partially endemic varieties of sweet cherry (Prunus avium): cv. 'Spätbraune von Purbach', cv. 'Early Rivers', cv. 'Joiser Einsiedekirsche', cv. 'Große Schwarze Knorpelkirsche' and four unidentified local varieties. Additionally the effect of storage was evaluated for six of the varieties. A variety showing the highest antioxidant capacity (9.64 μmol Trolox equivalents per mL), total polyphenols (2747 mg/L) and total cyanidins (1085 mg/L) was suitable for mechanical harvest and its juice did not show any losses of antioxidant capacity and total anthocyanin concentration during storage. The juice of cv. 'Große Schwarze Knorpelkirsche' had also high concentrations of total anthocyanins (873 mg/L), but showed substantial losses through storage. The local Austrian sweet cherry varieties from the Pannonian climate zone are particularly suitable for the production of processed products like cherry juice with high content of anthocyanins and polyphenols. PMID:25466109

  11. THE AUSTRIAN VACCINATION PARADOX: TICK-BORNE ENCEPHALITIS VACCINATION VERSUS INFLUENZA VACCINATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, Ursula; Kunze, Michael

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes a paradoxical situation in Austria. The vaccination rate against tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in the general population is 82%, which is the highest worldwide, whereas the vaccination rate against influenza is about 8% and is among the lowest worldwide. A high awareness of TBE among the Austrian population achieved by an annual social marketing programme and the wide use of effective and well-tolerated vaccines have led to a successful containment of that disease. The vaccination coverage increased from 6% in 1980 to 82% in 2013 and exceeds 90% in some high-risk areas. This has led to a steady decline in the number of TBE cases from several hundred cases to 50 to 100 cases per year. The situation in regard to influenza vaccination is the opposite. Although Austria has issued one of the most extensive recommendations for influenza vaccination worldwide, the vaccination rate of the general population is extremely low. The possible reasons for the failure in the implementation of recommendations are ignorance, lack of social marketing and the predominance of a distinct discordance within the health system in general, and the Austrian medical fraternity in particular. PMID:26615654

  12. Integrated environmental protection obligations under European law, survey analysis of Austrian legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work focuses on legal instruments serving integrated environmental protection, especially with respect to administrative procedures concerning plant permits, and their inhorent limits. Initially, the legal and scientific approach pursued under the notion of 'integrated environmental protection' and 'environmental impact assessment' is examined and clarified in chapter A. Based thereon, chapter B deals with the obligations resulting from the EIA-Directive and - compared therewith - from the IPPC-Directive with regard to procedures for plant permits. Further, Austria's delay in fully transposing these directives is examined. When dealing with the constitutional basis for transposing the EIA- and IPPC-D into Austrian administrative law (chapter C), the inherent limits of some competence of legislation are discovered to be too narrow to ensure full compliance with EC law; only with regard to EIA, legistation is based on sound constitutional ground. The second part of the work is devoted to three areas of discussion on EIA- and IPPC-procedures under Austrian law: the scope of their applicability (chapter D), the problems of integrated evaluation and the limits of ecological expertise (chapter E) and aspects of public participation (chapter F). The study is concluded by a summary of the main results (chapter G). (author)

  13. The Austrian health reform 2013 is promising but requires continuous political ambition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmarcher, Maria M

    2014-10-01

    The Austrian health system is much more complex and fragmented than in other OECD countries. In 2013 legislation was adopted to enhance efficiency through better balancing care provision across providers by promoting new primary care models and better coordination of care. Reform objectives should be achieved by cooperative and unified decision making across key stakeholders and by adherence to a budget cap that prescribes fiscal containment on the order of 3.4 billion Euros until 2016. This is priced into the envisaged savings of the current consolidation program. Efforts have been made to bridge the accountability divide by establishing agreements and administrative layers to govern the health system by objectives. Yet, more could have been achieved. For example, cross-stakeholder pooling of funds for better contracting governance and effective purchasing across care settings could have been introduced. This would have required addressing over capacity and fragmentation within social security. At the same time, legal provisions for cooperative governance between Sickness Funds and the governments on the regional level should have been stipulated. The Austrian 2013 reform is interesting to other countries as it aims to ensure better-balanced care at a sustainable path by employing a public management approach to governance relations across key payers of care.

  14. Water demand for ski resort development in the Austrian Alps: an Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiling, M.; Sokratov, S.

    2012-04-01

    Austria has the highest national added value from winter tourism in Europe, as well as worldwide. 15.7 million arrivals were counted in Austrian accommodation establishments in the 2010/11 winter season. There were more than 62 million overnight stays and 51.2 million skier-days were consumed. 588 million transports were carried out by more than 3000 lifts (cable cars, chair lifts and T-bars). Including indirect and induced effects, this resulted in more than 10 billion euros in added value being generated. The lack of snow in many Austrian skiing areas during the 2006/2007 winter season demonstrated the extent to which meteorological conditions influence operations. Declines in the number of skiers transported and total skier days were the result. The cable-car operators also had to struggle with little snow in the 2010/2011 winter. The Austrian Cable Car Operators' Association stated that the opening of 70-80% of all skiing areas outside of the peak season could only be assured through the use of snowmaking equipment. The central criterion for winter sports enthusiasts to make a trip is the guarantee that they will find snow at their destination and Austria's cable-car operators invest more than 100 million euros in the erection and improvement of snowmaking complexes every year to satisfy this deand. In the 2010/2011 season, this provided for 17,800 jobs. Cable car operators set up snowmaking equipment to become independent from meteorological conditions and improve the capacity utilisation of their expensive investments in transport systems in the early winter. Austria has a skiing area of around 25,400 hectares - around 17,000 hectares at altitudes between 600m and 3200m are currently suitable for snowmaking. As much as 70% of the snow is produced immediately before the start of the season. This recent trend is responsible that the irrigation pattern of Austrian land use changed significantly in the last decade. Previously maize fields and low lands in summer

  15. Austrian visit

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Hans Hoffmann, Director for Technology Transfer and Scientific Computing, and Maria Rauch-Kallat, Minister of Health and Women's Issues, Austria, signing the visitors' book.Maria Rauch-Kallat, Minister of Health and Women's Issues, Austria, was welcomed by Hans Hoffmann, Director for Technology Transfer and Scientific Computing, on her visit to CERN on 19 May 2003. The theme of the visit was Technology Transfer and spin-offs from CERN for medical applications. Maria Rauch-Kallat toured also the installations of ATLAS.

  16. 87. Austrian ratification of the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the notification of the Austrian ratification of the Convention, resulting in the entry into force of the Convention for Austria on 22 December 1989. The ratification included a declaration concerning Article 10 paragraph 5(b). The text of the Convention is reproduced in English, French and German. (NEA)

  17. What Does It Take to Be an Adult in Austria? Views of Adulthood in Austrian Adolescents, Emerging Adults, and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirsch, Ulrike; Dreher, Eva; Mayr, Eva; Willinger, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the defining features of emerging adulthood, subjects' conceptions of the transition to adulthood, and the perceived adult status in Austria. The sample consisted of 775 subjects (226 adolescents, 317 emerging adults, 232 adults). Results showed that most Austrian emerging adults feel themselves to be between adolescence…

  18. Combining IPPC and emission trading: An assessment of energy efficiency and CO2 reduction potentials in the Austrian paper industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the frame of an innovative project partnership E.V.A. - the Austrian Energy Agency accompanied the Austrian paper industry for the last 2.5 years in developing a branch specific climate change strategy. Within the scope of this project an assessment of the energy efficiency status of the branch was carried out as well as an evaluation of still realisable energy savings and CO2 reduction potentials. The paper presents the methodology applied, which combines a top down approach (benchmarking and best practice) with a bottom up approach (on-site interviews and energy audits), supported by a huge data collection process. Within the benchmarking process all Austrian paper industry installations affected by the EU emission trading directive were benchmarked against their respective IPPC/BAT values. Furthermore an extensive list of best practice examples derived from existing or ongoing studies was compared with the energy efficiency measures already carried out by the companies ('early actions'). These theory-oriented findings were complemented by several on-site interviews with the respective energy managers as well as by detailed energy audits carried out by a consulting company, covering in total more than 80% of the Austrian paper industry's CO2 emissions. The paper concludes with the main results of the project, presenting the pros and cons of working with IPPC documents and BAT values in terms of energy efficiency assessments. Recommendations are presented on how to improve the allocation exercise for the next emission trading period from 2008 to 2012

  19. Projected Numbers of Ischemic Strokes Recorded in the Austrian Stroke-Unit Registry from 2012 to 2075

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinka, Eugen; Seyfang, Leonard; Mutzenbach, Sebastian; Stadler, Katharina; Pikija, Slaven; Killer, Monika; Broussalis, Erasmia

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose This study analyzed the number of patients with ischemic strokes recorded in the Austrian Stroke-Unit Registry with the aim of projecting this number from 2012 to 2075 and to highlight that the Austrian health system will face a dramatic increase in older patients within the next few decades. Methods Current demographic information was obtained from EUROSTAT, and information on age- and sex-stratified 1-year incidence rates of ischemic stroke were obtained from the Austrian Stroke-Unit Registry. Sensitivity analysis was performed by analyzing the projections based on predicted ageing, main, and growth population scenarios, and with stratification by age and gender. Results The total number of ischemic strokes recorded in the Austrian Stroke-Unit Registry was 8,690 in 2012 and is expected to increase to 15,826, 15,626, or 18,134 in 2075 according to the ageing, main, and growth scenarios, respectively. The corresponding numbers of patients are projected to increase or decrease within different age strata as follows (100%=number of registered ischemic strokes in 2012): 0–40 years, 100%/99% (males/females); 40–50 years, 83%/83%; 50–60 years, 98%/97%; 60–70 years, 126%/119%; 70–80 years, 159%/139%; 80–90 years, 307%/199%; and 90+ years, 894%/413%. Conclusions The ageing population in Austria will result in the number of patients increasing considerably from 2012 to 2075, to 182%, 180%, or 208% (relative to 100% in 2012) according to the ageing, main, and growth scenarios, respectively; the corresponding value among those aged 80+ years is 315%, 290%, or 347%. These figures demonstrated the importance of improving primary preventive measures. The results of this study should provide a basis for discussions among health-care professionals and economists to face the future large financial burden of ischemic stroke on the Austrian health system.

  20. Requirements for Electronic Delivery Systems in eGovernment - An Austrian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, Arne

    Electronic mailing systems are the dominant communication systems in private and business matters. Public administrations deliver documents to citizens and businesses - subpoenas, legal verdicts, notifications, administrative penalties etc. However, official activities are more strongly linked to legal regulations than in civil law. Delivery of crucial and strictly personal documents raises the demand for qualified identification and non-repudiation services as featured by registered mail in the paper world. Legal requirements for electronic delivery carried-out by public administrations (eDelivery) cannot be fulfilled by standard certified mailing systems. Although the requirements for eDelivery systems may differ due to national legal regulations, this paper discusses common requirements and challenges on an abstract level. Moreover, we show how these requirements have been addressed by introducing the Austrian eDelivery system for eGovernment applications.

  1. Case study of a fast propagating bacteriogenically induced concrete corrosion in an Austrian sewer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grengg, Cyrill; Mittermayr, Florian; Baldermann, Andre; Böttcher, Michael; Leis, Albrecht; Koraimann, Günther; Dietzel, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Reaction mechanisms leading to microbially induced concrete corrosion (MICC) are highly complex and often not fully understood. The aim of the present case study is to contribute to a deeper understanding of reaction paths, environmental controls, and corrosion rates related to MICC in a modern Austrian sewer system by introducing an advanced multi proxy approach that comprises gaseous, hydro-geochemical, bacteriological, and mineralogical analyses. Various crucial parameters for detecting alteration features were determined in the field and laboratory, including (i) temperature, pH, alkalinity, chemical compositions of the solutions, (ii) chemical and mineralogical composition of solids, (iii) bacterial analysis, and (iv) concentrations of gaseous H2S, CH4 and CO2 within the sewer pipe atmosphere. An overview of the field site and analytical results, focusing on reaction mechanisms causing the corrosion, as well as possible remediation strategies will be presented.

  2. Austrian Business Cycle Theory: Are 100 Percent Reserves Sufficient to Prevent a Business Cycle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Bagus

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Authors in the Austrian tradition have made the credit expansion of a fractional reserve banking system as the prime cause of business cycles. Authors such as Selgin (1988 and White (1999 have argued that a solution to this problem would be a free banking system. They maintain that the competition between banks would limit the credit expansion effectively. Other authors such as Rothbard (1991 and Huerta de Soto (2006 have gone further and advocated a 100 percent reserve banking system ruling out credit expansion altogether. In this article it is argued that a 100 percent reserve system can still bring about business cycles through excessive maturity mismatching between deposits and loans.

  3. Authority Relationship From a Societal Perspective: Social Representations of Obedience and Disobedience in Austrian Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattori, Francesco; Curly, Simone; Jörchel, Amrei C; Pozzi, Maura; Mihalits, Dominik; Alfieri, Sara

    2015-05-01

    Obedience and disobedience have always been salient issues for both civil society and social psychologists. Since Milgram's first studies on destructive obedience there has not been a bottom-up definition of what obedience and disobedience mean. The current study aimed at investigating the social representations young adults use to define and to co-construct knowledge about obedience and disobedience in Austria. One hundred fifty four (106 females, 68.8%) Austrian young adults (Mean age = 22.9; SD = 3.5) completed a mixed-method questionnaire comprising open-ended questions and free word associations. Overall obedience and disobedience are respectively defined as conformity and non-conformity to regulations, ranging from implicit social norms to explicit formal laws. Authority is multi-faceted and has a central role in orienting obedience and disobedience. Further fundamental determinants of the authority relationship and relevant application of the results are discussed in this paper.

  4. Authority Relationship From a Societal Perspective: Social Representations of Obedience and Disobedience in Austrian Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Fattori

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Obedience and disobedience have always been salient issues for both civil society and social psychologists. Since Milgram’s first studies on destructive obedience there has not been a bottom-up definition of what obedience and disobedience mean. The current study aimed at investigating the social representations young adults use to define and to co-construct knowledge about obedience and disobedience in Austria. One hundred fifty four (106 females, 68.8% Austrian young adults (Mean age = 22.9; SD = 3.5 completed a mixed-method questionnaire comprising open-ended questions and free word associations. Overall obedience and disobedience are respectively defined as conformity and non-conformity to regulations, ranging from implicit social norms to explicit formal laws. Authority is multi-faceted and has a central role in orienting obedience and disobedience. Further fundamental determinants of the authority relationship and relevant application of the results are discussed in this paper.

  5. The archives of the glacier survey of the Austrian Alpine Club

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Andrea; Bendler, Gebhard

    2016-04-01

    The archive of the Austrian Alpine Club holds masses of material on glaciers and their former extent. The material includes descriptions and sketches of the summits conquered by early mountaineers, mapping campaigns and data from early scientific expeditions as well as data on glacier length change. To date a large proportion of the glaciological information in the material has not been catalogued or analysed. As cold ice, containing relevant climate information, might still exist at the highest peaks of Austria, a pilot project was started to collect some of the data of two test sites in Tyrol, in Silvretta and Ötztal Alps, to reveal former summit shapes and glacier tongue positions. Additional information on the number and position of crevasses as well as firn extent is often evident from the material. Challenging tasks not yet tackled are compiling a catalogue of the material and defining an analysis scheme.

  6. The radiation protection units of the Austrian fire brigades; Die Strahlenschutz-Einheiten der oesterreichischen Feuerwehren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aspek, W. [Oesterreichischer Bundesfeuerwehr, Wien (Austria); Schoenhacker, S. [WIRK.ZONE, Wien (Austria)

    2009-07-01

    Since the 1960s, Austrian fire brigades have been involved in radiation protection. With the preparations for the NPP Zwentendorf and the building of the research reactor in Seibersdorf, the first radiation protection units of the fire brigade were founded. 45 years later: The NPP Zwentendorf never saw its start-up, the use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity is prohibited by a constitutional law, and the research reactor is being decommissioned. What's left are the radiation protection units of the fire brigades. The contribution gives an overview of similarities and differences of the radiation protection units in the nine federal states of Austria, with a special focus on equipment, training and organisation. Nation-wide guidelines and regulations for the tactics of first responders at radiological emergencies are presented and a couple of incidents will be analysed. (orig.)

  7. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of Austrian wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of major, minor and trace elements in Austrian wine was determined by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence using gallium as internal standard. A multi-elemental analysis was possible by pipetting 6 μl of wine directly on the reflector and drying. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis was performed with Atomika EXTRA II A (Cameca) X-rays from a Mo tube with a high-energy cut-off at 20 keV in total-reflection geometry. The results showed that it was possible to identify only by the elemental analysis as fingerprint the vineyards and year of vintage among 11 different wines

  8. Development of soil taxation and soil classification as furthered by the Austrian Soil Science Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Soil taxation and soil classification are important drivers of soil science in Austria. However, the tasks are quite different: whereas soil taxation aims at the evaluation of the productivity potential of the soil, soil classification focusses on the natural development and - especially nowadays - on functionality of the soil. Since the foundation of the Austrian Soil Science Society (ASSS), representatives both directions of the description of the soil have been involved in the common actions of the society. In the first years it was a main target to improve and standardize field descriptions of the soil. Although both systems differ in the general layout, the experts should comply with identical approaches. According to this work, a lot of effort has been put into the standardization of the soil classification system, thus ensuring a common basis. The development, state of the art and further development of both classification and taxation systems initiated and carried out by the ASSS will be shown.

  9. Building positive nature awareness in pupils using the "Rainforest of the Austrians" in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrecht, Margit; Hölzl, Irmgard; Huber, Werner; Weissenhofer, Anton

    2013-04-01

    20 years ago, Michael Schnitzler founded the NGO "Rainforest of the Austrians" to help save one of the most diverse rainforests in Central America, the Esquinas rainforest on the Pacific coast of SW Costa Rica, from being destroyed through logging. In this abstract we present an interdisciplinary upper Austrian school project aiming at building positive awareness in pupils towards rainforest conservation by fund-raising to help purchase endangered forest areas. The acquired rainforest was donated to the Costa Rican government and became part of the National Park "Piedras Blancas". In the following, we present a chronology of events and actions of the school project. We started our rainforest project by face-to-face encounters, letting involved persons speak directly to the pupils. Dr. Huber, coordinator of the tropical rainforest station La Gamba in Costa Rica (www.lagamba.at), together with Dr. Weissenhofer, presented an introductory slide show about the "Rainforest of the Austrians". With rainforest images and sounds in their mind the pupils wrote "trips of a lifetime" stories, thus creating idyllic images of rainforest habitats. Following up on that, we visited the exhibition "Heliconia and Hummingbirds" at the Biology Center in Linz. Reports about the slide show and the exhibition followed. Tropical sites were compared by producing climate graphs of La Gamba, Costa Rica, and Manaus in Brazil. The global distribution and the decrease of rainforests were also analyzed. In biology lessons the symbiosis between plants and animals of the rainforest were worked out by searching the Internet. Flyers with profiles of rainforest animals were produced. We also discussed the ecotourism project "RICANCIE" in Ecuador using fact sheets. "RICANCIE" is a Spanish acronym standing for "Indigenous Community Network of the Upper Napo for Intercultural Exchange and Ecotourism". It was founded in 1993 aiming to improve the quality of life for some 200 indigenous Kichwa families

  10. The Austrian radon activities on the way to the national radon action plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, V; Ringer, W; Wurm, G; Haider, W

    2014-07-01

    Based on the new Euratom Basic Safety Standards (BSS), all EU member states will be obliged to design a strategy to address long-term risks from radon exposure, which is laid down in the 'national radon action plan'. In Austria, the National Radon Centre is responsible for the development of the action plan. This paper presents the current and planned radon protection activities on the way to establish the radon action plan--like the national radon database, the definition of radon risk areas by improving the existing radon map, as well as strategies and activities to increase the radon awareness of the public and decision-makers and to involve the building sector. The impact of and the need for actions caused by the BSS requirements on the Austrian radon legislation, strategy and programme are discussed.

  11. The Austrian social festival Keep the Ball Rolling in a peripheral region of Upper Styria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gstach Isabell

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The “Steirische Eisenstraße” is a region located in the province of Styria in Austria, which has been struggling with a massive shift in population and age structure for some time. In 2012/13 the Austrian social festival Keep the Ball Rolling is taking place in this region. Over a period of 18 months, the social festival is providing opportunities to think of their own environment. Consequently, they can develop and implement ideas for good cohabitation and put these into practice. The main focus of this article is the demographic presentation of the “Steirische Eisenstraße” region, according to population, employment and age structure. The introduction of the social festival is fundamental in initiating successful change processes.

  12. Cultivation-independent analysis of microbial communities on Austrian raw milk hard cheese rinds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schornsteiner, Elisa; Mann, Evelyne; Bereuter, Othmar; Wagner, Martin; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan

    2014-06-16

    "Vorarlberger Bergkäse" (VB) is an Austrian artisanal hard cheese produced from raw cow's milk. The composition of its rind microbiota and the changes in the microbial communities during ripening have not previously been investigated. This study used 16S and 18S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing to characterize the bacterial and fungal communities of seven pooled cheese rind samples taken in seven different ripening cellars of three Austrian dairy facilities. A total of 408 clones for 16S and 322 clones for 18S rRNA gene libraries were used for taxonomic classification, revealing 39 bacterial and seven fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Bacterial OTUs belonged to four different phyla. Most OTUs were affiliated to genera often found in cheese, including high numbers of coryneforms. The most abundant OTU from 16S rRNA gene libraries showed highest similarity to Halomonas. Young cheese rinds were dominated by Actinobacteria or Proteobacteria, particularly by Halomonas and Brevibacterium aurantiacum, while Staphyloccocus equorum was most abundant in old cheeses. The most abundant 18S rRNA OTU had highest similarity to the filamentous fungus Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. Pairwise correlation analyses revealed putative co-occurrences between a number of OTUs. It was possible to discriminate the different cheese rind microbiota at the community-level by facility affiliation and ripening time. This work provides insights into the microbial composition of VB cheese rinds and might allow the processing- and ripening conditions to be improved to enhance the quality of the product. PMID:24794620

  13. Risk factors for lameness in cubicle housed Austrian Simmental dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dippel, Sabine; Dolezal, Marlies; Brenninkmeyer, Christine; Brinkmann, Jan; March, Solveig; Knierim, Ute; Winckler, Christoph

    2009-07-01

    Austrian dairy farming is characterised by predominant use of Simmental cows on small-scale farms. Our aim was to identify lameness risk factors related to housing and management in cubicle housed Austrian dairy cows. Furthermore, we used animal-based parameters (ABP) as integrated measures of cubicle quality and feeding management. The first author visited 30 farms in eastern Austria with 24-54 cows (mean=35) in the milking herd during winter housing period, and collected data on housing, management, behaviour, and lameness via direct observations and an interview (part of Welfare Quality project). Mean lameness prevalence was 31% (range 6-70%). Data were analysed using logistic regression with generalised estimating equations (GEE). The final model was based on 832 cows and included six risk variables, five ABP, and the significant confounders 'county' and 'lactation number'. Odds for lameness increased with decreasing lying comfort, except for cubicle width. The following lying-related factors were significant in the final model (odds ratios (OR) in brackets): mats/mattresses as opposed to deep bedded cubicle base (1.61), length of lying area (OR 186-191 vs. loafing area (0.57). Regarding metabolic parameters, cows with a body condition score >3.5 had at least 0.39 lower odds of being lame, while cows with suboptimal milk protein content (3.8%) had 1.37 times higher odds. Odds for lameness clearly increased with age (OR lactation > or =4 vs. 1=3.38). In sum, lying comfort and nutrition are key areas for lameness prevention on modern dairy farms in Austria with herd sizes above 30 cows. PMID:19409629

  14. Connectedness to nature and public (skin) health perspectives: results of a representative, population-based survey among Austrian residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluza, Daniela; Simic, Stana; Höltge, Jan; Cervinka, Renate; Moshammer, Hanns

    2014-01-20

    Connectedness to nature (CN) influences motivation to have contact with outdoor natural environments. Spending leisure time in natural environments is beneficial for human health and well-being. Besides these positive effects, health risks of open-air activities are mainly related to unprotected sun light exposure-associated acute and chronic skin hazards. Thus, we conducted a cross-sectional, representative telephone survey among Austrian residents to study the association of perceived CN level with sun-exposure knowledge, tanning habits, and sun protective behaviour. In total, 1,500 study subjects (50.5% females) participated in this questionnaire survey. Although knowledge about tanning and motives to tan were similar among genders, females performed more photoprotective measures and were more connected to nature (all p nature connectedness and skin health-relevant recreational habits of Austrian residents. The findings suggest to integrate hitherto neglected gender-specific Public (Skin) Health promotion when counselling on the manifold health advantages of outdoor activities.

  15. Education Standards and Competence-oriented Curricula - The Austrian Technical Colleges Take a New Approach to Excellence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Pachatz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In Austria, Technical Colleges are those educational institutions that train and educate the skilled technical staff required by the Austrian labour market and the universities. These colleges have contributed a lot to Austria’s economic success and every year about 8,000 young engineers leave the technical schools to form a powerful work and study force. Therefore, it is particularly important that the education they receive meets the requirements of prospective employers and that innovative developments are anticipated. As a consequence, the Austrian Technical Colleges have developed curricula that rely on learning outcomes and competence-based results. This new orientation towards skills, knowledge and competences shall be achieved through learning objectives that precisely describe the education chosen. How these standards have been designed, matched with the curricula, and implemented at the Colleges will be described in this paper.

  16. Connectedness to nature and public (skin) health perspectives: results of a representative, population-based survey among Austrian residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluza, Daniela; Simic, Stana; Höltge, Jan; Cervinka, Renate; Moshammer, Hanns

    2014-01-01

    Connectedness to nature (CN) influences motivation to have contact with outdoor natural environments. Spending leisure time in natural environments is beneficial for human health and well-being. Besides these positive effects, health risks of open-air activities are mainly related to unprotected sun light exposure-associated acute and chronic skin hazards. Thus, we conducted a cross-sectional, representative telephone survey among Austrian residents to study the association of perceived CN level with sun-exposure knowledge, tanning habits, and sun protective behaviour. In total, 1,500 study subjects (50.5% females) participated in this questionnaire survey. Although knowledge about tanning and motives to tan were similar among genders, females performed more photoprotective measures and were more connected to nature (all p habits of Austrian residents. The findings suggest to integrate hitherto neglected gender-specific Public (Skin) Health promotion when counselling on the manifold health advantages of outdoor activities. PMID:24448634

  17. German-austrian recommendations for HIV1-therapy in pregnancy and in HIV1-exposed newborn - update 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Buchholz Bernd; Beichert Matthias; Marcus Ulrich; Grubert Thomas; Gingelmaier Andrea; Haberl Annette; Schmied Brigitte

    2009-01-01

    Abstract German-Austrian recommendations for HIV1-therapy in pregnancy - Update 2008 Bernd Buchholz (University Medical Centre Mannheim, Pediatric Clinic), Matthias Beichert (Mannheim, Gynecology and Obstetrics Practice), Ulrich Marcus (Robert Koch Institute, Berlin), Thomas Grubert, Andrea Gingelmaier (Gynecology Clinic of the Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich), Dr. med. Annette Haberl (HIV-Department, J. W. Goethe-University Hospital, Frankfurt), Dr. med. Brigitte Schmied (Otto-Wagner...

  18. Modelling technical snow production for skiing areas in the Austrian Alps with the physically based snow model AMUNDSEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzer, F.; Marke, T.; Steiger, R.; Strasser, U.

    2012-04-01

    Tourism and particularly winter tourism is a key factor for the Austrian economy. Judging from currently available climate simulations, the Austrian Alps show a particularly high vulnerability to climatic changes. To reduce the exposure of ski areas towards changes in natural snow conditions as well as to generally enhance snow conditions at skiing sites, technical snowmaking is widely utilized across Austrian ski areas. While such measures result in better snow conditions at the skiing sites and are important for the local skiing industry, its economic efficiency has also to be taken into account. The current work emerges from the project CC-Snow II, where improved future climate scenario simulations are used to determine future natural and artificial snow conditions and their effects on tourism and economy in the Austrian Alps. In a first step, a simple technical snowmaking approach is incorporated into the process based snow model AMUNDSEN, which operates at a spatial resolution of 10-50 m and a temporal resolution of 1-3 hours. Locations of skiing slopes within a ski area in Styria, Austria, were digitized and imported into the model environment. During a predefined time frame in the beginning of the ski season, the model produces a maximum possible amount of technical snow and distributes the associated snow on the slopes, whereas afterwards, until to the end of the ski season, the model tries to maintain a certain snow depth threshold value on the slopes. Due to only few required input parameters, this approach is easily transferable to other ski areas. In our poster contribution, we present first results of this snowmaking approach and give an overview of the data and methodology applied. In a further step in CC-Snow, this simple bulk approach will be extended to consider actual snow cannon locations and technical specifications, which will allow a more detailed description of technical snow production as well as cannon-based recordings of water and energy

  19. Connectedness to Nature and Public (Skin) Health Perspectives: Results of a Representative, Population-Based Survey among Austrian Residents

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Haluza; Stana Simic; Jan Höltge; Renate Cervinka; Hanns Moshammer

    2014-01-01

    Connectedness to nature (CN) influences motivation to have contact with outdoor natural environments. Spending leisure time in natural environments is beneficial for human health and well-being. Besides these positive effects, health risks of open-air activities are mainly related to unprotected sun light exposure-associated acute and chronic skin hazards. Thus, we conducted a cross-sectional, representative telephone survey among Austrian residents to study the association of perceived CN le...

  20. Putting 600,000 Books Online: the Large-Scale Digitisation Partnership between the Austrian National Library and Google

    OpenAIRE

    Max Kaiser

    2012-01-01

    In a public-private partnership with Google, the Austrian National Library is digitising its historical book holdings. Some 600,000 volumes from the sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries will be digitised and made available free of charge. The project demonstrates that public-private partnerships can be successful in enabling our heritage institutions to provide large-scale access to their holdings, provided that such partnerships are not exclusive and free access is ensured. The article outl...

  1. Normal weight estonian prepubertal boys show a more cardiovascular-risk-associated adipose tissue distribution than austrian counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra J; Moeller, Reinhard; Horejsi, Renate; Jürimäe, Toivo; Jürimäe, Jaak; Mäestu, Jarek; Purge, Priit; Saar, Meeli; Tafeit, Erwin; Kaimbacher, Petra; Kruschitz, Renate; Weghuber, Daniel; Schnedl, Wolfgang J; Mangge, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Risk phenotypes for cardiovascular disease (CVD) differ markedly between countries, like the reported high difference in CVD mortality in Austria and Estonia. Hitherto, the goal of this study was to find out risk profiles in body fat distribution yet present in childhood, paving the way for later clinical end points. Methods. he subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) distribution patterns in 553 Austrian (A) and Estonian (E) clinically healthy normal weight boys aged 11.1 (±0.8) years were analysed. We applied the patented optical device Lipometer which determines the individual subcutaneous adipose tissue topography (SAT-Top). Results. Total body fat did not differ significantly between E and A boys. A discriminant analysis using all Lipometer data, BMI, and the total body fat (TBF) yielded 84.6% of the boys correctly classified in Estonians and Austrians by 9 body sites. A factor analysis identified the SAT distribution of E as critically similar to male adult patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Conclusions. We show in normal weight Estonian boys a highly significant decreased fat accumulation on the lower body site compared to age matched Austrian males. This SAT-Top phenotype may play an important role for the increased cardiovascular risk seen in the Estonian population.

  2. Sun Exposure Prevalence and Associated Skin Health Habits: Results from the Austrian Population-Based UVSkinRisk Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluza, Daniela; Simic, Stana; Moshammer, Hanns

    2016-01-01

    Recreational sun exposure accounts for a large number of acute and chronic dermatological diseases, including skin cancer. This study aimed at estimating the one-year prevalence of sun exposure and skin health-associated knowledge and attitudes among Austrian citizens. The population-based UVSkinRisk survey investigated a representative sample of Austrian adults using a structured questionnaire. In total, 1500 study subjects (median age 33.0 years, 50.5% females) participated in this questionnaire survey. Among study participants, prevalence of sun exposure was 47%, with slightly higher rates in males (48%) compared to females (46%). Younger age, lower professional category, darker skin type, motives to tan, sunbed use, sunburn, and outdoor sport activity increased the odds for prevalent sun exposure. This is the first population-based study evaluating the prevailing sun exposure and recreational habits influencing skin health among Austrian citizens. Despite public media campaigns educating on the harmful effects of sunlight exposure, we found a high prevalence of self-reported sunlight exposure. The results suggest that multifaceted socio-cultural characteristics stimulate recreational sun exposure and tanning habits. Communicating individualized Public (Skin) Health messages might be the key to prevent photo-induced skin health hazards in light-skinned populations. The practical and theoretical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:26797627

  3. Rise, use and treatment of works in Austria. Compiled for the Austrian Federal Waste Management Plan 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Austrian Waste Management Act (AWG) entered into force on 1 July 1990. Paragraph 1 of the act defines the following objectives: to keep detrimental, unbeneficial or otherwise unhealthy influences on man, as well as on animals, plants, their living conditions and their natural environment as low as possible; to preserve raw material and energy resources; to keep the demand for landfill capacities as low as possible; to ensure that only such materials should remain as waste, the dumping of which does not present any potential hazard for future generations (precautionary principle). The waste management act thus places the highest priority on the protection of human beings and the environment and upon the preservation of natural resources. Accordingly, it must be the aim of waste management to handle waste in such a way that environmental pollution is kept as low as possible by prevention, recovery and disposal. Paragraph 5 of the Austrian waste management act stipulates that the Federal Minister of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management has to issue the Federal Waste Management Plan in order to reach the objectives and observing the rules of modern waste management. Following the first waste management plan in 1992 an amendment is required every three years. This is why the Austrian Federal Environment Agency elaborated the following studies: waste generation, recovery and disposal in Austria; hazardous waste and waste oils in Austria; non-hazardous waste in Austria. Further information on waste management facilities in Austria is presented on our homepage (http://www.ubavie.gv.at). (author)

  4. Analysis of ERT data of geoelectrical permafrost monitoring on Hoher Sonnblick (Austrian Central Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiler, Stefan; Schöner, Wolfgang; Reisenhofer, Stefan; Ottowitz, David; Jochum, Birgit; Kim, Jung-Ho; Hoyer, Stefan; Supper, Robert; Heinrich, Georg

    2016-04-01

    In the Alps infrastructure facilities such as roads, routes or buildings are affected by the changes of permafrost, which often cause enormous reparation costs. Investigation on degradation of Alpine Permafrost in the last decade has increased, however, the understanding of the permafrost changes inducing its atmospheric forcing processes is still insufficient. Within the project ATMOperm the application of the geoelectrical method to estimate thawing layer thickness for mountain permafrost is investigated near the highest meteorological observatory of Austria on the Hoher Sonnblick. Therefore, it is necessary to further optimize the transformation of ERT data to thermal changes in the subsurface. Based on an innovative time lapse inversion routine for ERT data (Kim J.-H. et al 2013) a newly developed data analysis software tool developed by Kim Jung-Ho (KIGAM) in cooperation with the Geophysics group of the Geological Survey of Austria allows the statistical analysis of the entire sample set of each and every data point measured by the geoelectrical monitoring instrument. This gives on the one hand of course an enhanced opportunity to separate between „good" and „bad" data points in order to assess the quality of measurements. On the other hand, the results of the statistical analysis define the impact of every single data point on the inversion routine. The interpretation of the inversion results will be supplemented by temperature logs from selected boreholes along the ERT profile as well as climatic parameters. KIM J.-H., SUPPER R., TSOURLOS P. and YI M.-J.: Four-dimensional inversion of resistivity monitoring data through Lp norm minimizations. - Geophysical Journal International, 195(3), 1640-1656, 2013. Doi: 10.1093/gji/ggt324. (No OA) Acknowledgments: The geoelectrical monitoring on Hoher Sonnblick has been installed and is operated in the frame of the project ATMOperm (Atmosphere - permafrost relationship in the Austrian Alps - atmospheric extreme

  5. Modeling glacier beds in the Austrian Alps: How many lakes will form in future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Dominik; Geilhausen, Martin; Linsbauer, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Glacial retreat exposes landscapes with relief characteristics greatly differing from the former ice covered surfaces. If glacial retreat exposes natural basins capable of forming proglacial lakes, then the downstream hydrologic and geomorphic systems in such catchments will be significantly altered due to discharge modifications, sediment trapping, decoupling effects and long term sediment storage (e.g. Geilhausen et al. 2013). Further implications are related to hydropower management, tourism and natural hazards. Consequently, sound knowledge of present day glacier beds ("proglacial zones of tomorrow") and in particular the total number, locations and characteristics of overdeepenings are of importance. For Austria, however, this important information about significant future changes of high alpine regions is yet missing. An interdisciplinary research project is currently in preparation to close this gap. This paper presents results of a pilot study. We used a novel GIS-based approach (GlabTop, cf. Linsbauer et al. 2012) to compute approximate glacier beds in the Austrian Alps. GlabTop ('Glacier bed Topography') is based on an empirical relation between average basal shear stress and elevation range of individual glaciers and makes use of digital elevation models (DEM), glacier outlines and branch lines (i.e. a set of lines covering all important glacier branches). DEMs and glacier outlines were derived from the Austrian glacier inventory (1998) and branch lines were manually digitized. The inventory includes 911 glaciers of which 876 (96%) were considered and 35 were excluded due to size restrictions ( 0.01 km²) with the potential of forming proglacial lakes when glacier retreat reveals the bed. The total area and volume of all overdeepenings is approx. 10 km² and 236 Mio m³ respectively and 33 lakes will be larger than 1 km³. A total glacier volume of 16 ± 5 km³ with an average ice thickness of 36 ± 11 m was calculated for 1998. Comparisons with

  6. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... and considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  7. Natural radionuclides in Austrian mineral water and their sequential measurement by fast methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten samples of Austrian mineral water were investigated with regard to the natural radionuclides 228Ra, 226Ra, 210Pb, 210Po, 238U and 234U. The radium isotopes as well as 210Pb were measured by liquid scintillation counting (LSC) after separation on a membrane loaded with element-selective particles (EmporeTM Radium Disks) and 210Po was determined by α-spectroscopy after spontaneous deposition onto a copper planchette. Uranium was determined by ICP-MS as well as by α-spectroscopy after ion separation and microprecipitation with NdF3. From the measured activity concentrations the committed effective doses for adults and babies were calculated and compared to the total indicative dose of 0.1 mSv/a given in the EC Drinking Water Directive as a maximum dose. The dominant portion of the committed effective dose was due to the radium isotopes; the dose from 228Ra in most samples clearly exceeded the dose from 226Ra

  8. Success Factors for an E-Government Strategy: Austrian Experiences, Indonesian Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Behrens

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Focus of this paper are success factors for the implementation of an E-Government strategy. While concepts for a sophisticated strategy process in Public Sector are delivered on a regular basis, the gap between ambitious planning and its implementation seems to get wider. Authors seek to define what makes a “good strategy” in order to enhance management capacity. Meanwhile some scholars from Political Science see limitation of Governments on announcements which are not followed up by sufficient action rather as systematic problems, challenging concept and rules of liberal western democracy, or owed to growing complexity of Governance under the conditions of globalization. In context of the introduction of New Public Management and its perception of citizens as customers and on the basis of new available technical options in Information Society, a key Governance reform project in European and other Countries over the last fifteen years has been the introduction of E-Government. European market leader in this field is Austria. The author reviews concept and implementation experiences of the Austrian E-Government strategy, analyzes key success factors and opens a discussion, under which conditions a successful implementation of E-Government can take place in Indonesia.

  9. Inbreeding and its Effect on Performance Traits in Austrian Meat Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Maximini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of inbreeding of meat performance tested herd book sheep in Austria and to evaluate the effect of individual inbreeding on growth and CT (computer tomography scan carcass traits. Performance data (13,614 records, five breeds: Merinoland, Suff olk, Texel, German Blackheaded Meat sheep, Jura were collected in the years 2000-2010. The traits analysed were live weight and average daily gain, as well as traits of body frame, back fat and eye muscle area, all measured on live animals with CT. Inbreeding coefficients (F were calculated with the soft ware PEDIG. F was nested within breed and tested in a mixed model using ASReml. Levels of inbreeding were low with O F of 1.5-3.1%. Only few traits were significantly affected by inbreeding. Both positive and negative effects were found. The effects were small, most oft en nonlinear and vary across breeds. Inbreeding and its effects on performance traits do not seem to be an issue in Austrian meat sheep populations at the moment. However, monitoring and further analyses are recommended.

  10. Inbreeding and its Effect on Performance Traits in Austrian Meat Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Maximini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of inbreeding of meat performance tested herd book sheep in Austria and to evaluate the effect of individual inbreeding on growth and CT (computer tomography scan carcass traits. Performance data (13,614 records, five breeds: Merinoland, Suff olk, Texel, German Blackheaded Meat sheep, Jura were collected in the years 2000-2010. The traits analysed were live weight and average daily gain, as well as traits of body frame, back fat and eye muscle area, all measured on live animals with CT. Inbreeding coefficients (F were calculated with the soft ware PEDIG. F was nested within breed and tested in a mixed model using ASReml. Levels of inbreeding were low with O F of 1.5-3.1%. Only few traits were significantly affected by inbreeding. Both positive and negative effects were found. The effects were small, most oft en nonlinear and vary across breeds. Inbreeding and its effects on performance traits do not seem to be an issue in Austrian meat sheep populations at the moment. However, monitoring and further analyses are recommended.

  11. Enduring Power of Attorney (EPoA – comparison between Austrian and German Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ganner

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ENGLISH: With the establishment of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD the treatment of people with disabilities is changing from a protective perspective to a rights - based approach. The Enduring Power of Attorney (EPoA is an important instrument, which helps with the implementation of the CRPD into national law. As an instrument of self - determined substituted decision - making it is recognised as the best practice model to safeguard the autonomy of people suffering the deprivations of age and other disabilities. This article touches briefly on general supported and substituted decision - making instruments and then goes on to examine the differences and similarities, advantages and disadvantages b e- tween Austrian and German laws concerning EPoAs. DEUTSCH: Mit der Umsetzung der UN-Behindertenrechtskonvention findet ein Paradigmenwechsel und Umdenken im Umgang mit Personen mit Behinderungen statt. Der Primat der Fürsorge weicht einem liberalen, auf Menschenrechten basierenden Ansatz. In diesem Kontext ist die Vorsorgevollmacht ein effektives Mittel, das die Implementation der UN-Behindertenrechtskonvention in nationales Recht vorantreibt und die Selbstbestimmung und Eigenständigkeit altersbedingt eingeschränkter Menschen und von Menschen mit Behinderungen gewährleistet. Dieser Artikel beschäftigt sich einleitend mit allgemeinen Rechtsinstrumenten der (unterstützten Entscheidungsfindung bei nicht selbst entscheidungsfähigen Personen und analysiert in weiterer Folge Gemeinsamkeiten und Unterschiede sowie Vor- und Nachteile der Vorsorgevollmacht nach österreichischem und deutschem Recht.

  12. Influences of updated land-use datasets on WRF simulations for two Austrian regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schicker, Irene; Arnold Arias, Dèlia; Seibert, Petra

    2016-06-01

    Numerical simulations were carried out with the weather research and forecasting model to study the influence of different land-use datasets for two Austrian regions, the high-alpine Inn Valley area and the hilly Vienna Basin area. The three land-use datasets used were USGS, MODIS and a reclassified European dataset based on the CORINE CLC06 data. Simulations covered an episode in July 2007 applying a resolution of 0.8 km. Results were compared with surface observation data, radiosoundings, and satellite data. It was found that land-use both in the original CLC06 and the version where it had been reclassified to USGS classes for use in WRF was significantly more realistic than the built-in land-use datasets (USGS and MODIS). Synoptic processes during the episode considered were reproduced well by all simulations, where CLC06 and MODIS improved the model performance in both regions in terms of the surface temperatures and other meteorological parameters.

  13. The Austrian Botanic Gardens Work Group, an Example of Active Networking to Promote Small Botanic Gardens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Roland K. EBERWEIN

    2011-01-01

    The continuously increasing demands on botanic gardens during the last few decades have led to a huge in increase administration and an urgent need for additional specialized personnel, especially botanists, teachers, database specialists and administrative staff. Instead of meeting these requirements, many botanic gardens are faceing a severe decrease in funding and personnel. Larger gardens provide the opportunity to distribute several tasks to different employees, whereas small gardens are short staffed and often nn by a single curator who has to fulfill all functions. In order to meet actual demands more easily, the Austrian botanic gardens are linked nationally via an active workgroup.This network not only allows the distribution of information but also facilitates the sharing of duties. A listserver speeds up the communication and correspondence within the workgroup, collection priorities and projects (e. g., GSPC) are coordinated, seedbanking becomes decentralized, printedmatters are shared and distributed, etc. Small gardens with only few employees can participate in projects by taking on small-ideally using with their special resources-in order not to fall behind. In addition, there is also an urgent need for international networking by means of plant and seed exchange (Index Semihum), BGCI membership, discussion groups, personal contacts and projects. Mission statements,special marketing strategies for public relations, integrating projects of other workgroup members and adapted public awareness programs are important to focus attention to small gardens and to help them keep alive.

  14. Teleconsultation 2001 - working group report of the Austrian Roentgen Society (OeRG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1997, the working group ''Teleconsultation'' of the Austrian Roentgen Society (OeRG) has performed a first survey about the status of teleradiological applications in Austria. Now, in 2001, a second survey was performed in order to adapt the OeRG's approach in this field to the most actual needs. Most of the 38 teleradiological projects in Austria already working or shortly before inauguration are aiming at an improvement of the medical service in favour of our patients (expert consultation, image transfer to doctors requesting radiological examinations, clinical case discussion). However, a small but not unimportant fraction of teleradiology projects in Austria (11%) is performed for replacement of radiologists on duty, therefore for reasons mainly directed to minimising costs for the hospital administration. Other purposes of teleradiology projects, like quality assurance and medical education have even lost their small importance the 1997 survey already has shown. This paper discusses the professional implications from the results of the 2001 survey and the legal framework for the application of telecommunication in diagnostic radiology. The most important goal of all professional activities in radiology is the well-being of our patients, based on the immediacy of the medical profession in accordance with the ''physician law''. (orig.)

  15. Sustainability Management with the Sustainability Balanced Scorecard in SMEs: Findings from an Austrian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Falle

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the economic importance of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs and their need for strategic sustainability management, this paper examines the concept of Sustainability Balanced Scorecard (SBSC with respect to SMEs. This case study describes the development of an SBSC in a middle-sized Austrian brewery. The existing methods used in SBSC creation were adapted to suit the company’s specific needs. The findings show that when developing an SBSC it is important to take specific SME characteristics into account and apply methods that allow for adaptation to the prevailing conditions, such as strategic management, organizational structure and resources. In the case study special attention was paid to strategy analysis and thereby the creation of a solid basis for the SBSC. Furthermore, the results show SBSC development is not a process of distinct consecutive steps, as it is often suggested in the literature, but rather that it is a complex process marked by iterative steps. Moreover, the paper highlights the supporting factors and challenges experienced. Whereas top management support, the presence of a project team and high employee involvement were identified as key supporting factors, a lack of specific resources and blurry strategy formulation exert negative influence on the development process. The results presented here should help other SMEs in their development of an SBSC. The paper stimulates scientific discourse on sustainability and strategic management by highlighting the relevant supporting factors and challenges.

  16. [Burnout symptoms in Austrian student nurses in their third year of training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Clemens

    2009-08-01

    Burnout is considered a major negative outcome of work related distress in social and health care services, especially in nursing. In the present study 179 student nurses in their third year of training and 47 registered nurses, all working in the Austrian province of Salzburg, were examined with the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Satisfaction With Life Scale. Compared on a regional and national level, burnout scores of student nurses were equal to those of registered nurses and workers in social and nursing professions. The specific stressors of education and training lead to strain comparable to years of professional experience and exposure to stressors. The relatively high level of satisfaction with life in student nurses may be due to specific resources and ways of compensation, that require further examination. Differences between urban and rural districts (with lower burnout scores and higher satisfaction with life sores in rural districts) were strong in student nurses. Compared with international nurse and health care samples, burnout is relatively low in the examined groups. Registered nurses and student nurses in rural districts show the lowest scores of all in emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, respectively.

  17. Photosynthetic temperature adaptation of Pinus cembra within the timberline ecotone of the Central Austrian Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Gerhard; Oberhuber, Walter; Walder, Lisa; Spieler, Daniela; Gruber, Andreas

    2010-04-01

    Temperature is suggested to determine the upper limit of tree life. Therefore, future climate warming may be of importance for tree distribution within the European Alps, where low temperatures limit carbon metabolism.We focused on the effects of air and soil temperature on net photosynthesis (P(n)) of Pinus cembra an evergreen climax species of the timberline ecotone of the Central Austrian Alps. Light response and temperature response curves were estimated along an altitudinal gradient ranging from the forest limit up to the krummholz limit in both summer and fall.In general, P(n) was significantly lower in fall as compared to summer. Nevertheless, independent from season mean P(n) values tended to increase with elevation and were positively correlated with root zone temperatures. The specific leaf area by contrast declined with increasing elevation. Furthermore, the temperature optimum of net photosynthesis declined with increasing elevation and was positively correlated with the mean maximum air temperature of the 10 days prior the date of measurement.Thus, our findings appear to reflect a long-term adaptation of the photosynthetic apparatus of Pinus cembra to the general temperature conditions with respect to elevation combined with a short term acclimation to the prevailing temperature regime. PMID:21379394

  18. Haunted Encounters: Exile and Holocaust Literature in German and Austrian Post-war Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Lang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In an essay titled ‘The Exiled Tongue’ (2002, Nobel Prize winner Imre Kertész develops a genealogy of Holocaust and émigré writing, in which the German language plays an important, albeit contradictory, role. While the German language signified intellectual independence and freedom of self-definition (against one’s roots for Kertész before the Holocaust, he notes (based on his engagement with fellow writer Jean Améry that writing in German created severe difficulties in the post-war era. Using the examples of Hilde Spiel and Friedrich Torberg, this article explores this notion and asks how the loss of language experienced by Holocaust survivors impacted on these two Austrian-Jewish writers. The article argues that, while the works of Spiel and Torberg are haunted by the Shoah, the two writers do not write in the post-Auschwitz language that Kertész delineates in his essays, but are instead shaped by the exile experience of both writers. At the same time though, Kertész’ concept seems to be haunted by exile, as his reception of Jean Améry’s works, which form the basis of his linguistic genealogies, shows an inability to integrate the experience of exile.

  19. Natural radionuclides in Austrian mineral water and their sequential measurement by fast methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallner, Gabriele [University of Vienna, Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie, Waehringerstrasse 42, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: gabriele.wallner@univie.ac.at; Wagner, Rosmarie [University of Vienna, Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie, Waehringerstrasse 42, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Katzlberger, Christian [Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety, CC Radiation Protection and Radiochemistry, Spargelfeldstrasse 191, A-1226 Vienna (Austria)

    2008-07-15

    Ten samples of Austrian mineral water were investigated with regard to the natural radionuclides {sup 228}Ra, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Po, {sup 238}U and {sup 234}U. The radium isotopes as well as {sup 210}Pb were measured by liquid scintillation counting (LSC) after separation on a membrane loaded with element-selective particles (Empore{sup TM} Radium Disks) and {sup 210}Po was determined by {alpha}-spectroscopy after spontaneous deposition onto a copper planchette. Uranium was determined by ICP-MS as well as by {alpha}-spectroscopy after ion separation and microprecipitation with NdF{sub 3}. From the measured activity concentrations the committed effective doses for adults and babies were calculated and compared to the total indicative dose of 0.1 mSv/a given in the EC Drinking Water Directive as a maximum dose. The dominant portion of the committed effective dose was due to the radium isotopes; the dose from {sup 228}Ra in most samples clearly exceeded the dose from {sup 226}Ra.

  20. Runs of Homozygosity Reveal Genome-wide Autozygosity in the Austrian Fleckvieh Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Ferencakovic

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Runs of homozygosity (ROH are recognized as potential inbreeding measure in studies on humans. Inbreeding coefficients derived from ROH (FROH measure proportion of the genome arranged in long homozygous segments and highly correlate with those derived from pedigree (Fped. From that we assumed that ROH represent an alternative to pedigree inbreeding levels in studies on animals too, because pedigree can be incorrect, incomplete and can not fully explain what happened in meiosis. To confirm our premise we used pedigree and genotype data from 500 Austrian dual purpose Simmental bulls to determine correlation between FROH and Fped. ROH were obtainedusing Fortran 90 soft ware created by the authors. Proportions of genome in ROH were calculated for lengths of ROH of >1, >2, >4, >8 and >16 Mb. Pedigree data were analyzed and inbreeding coefficients for complete pedigree (FpedT and five generations (Fped5 were calculated using ENDOG soft ware. We found low FpedT and Fped5 (means of 1.5% and 0.9% while FROH for segments >1Mb suggested much higher values (9.0% indicating old inbreeding that can not be traced using pedigree. The highest correlations were found between FROH calculated from ROH of length >4Mb and FpedT (0.68 that is consistent with studies on humans. We conclude that inbreeding coefficients derived from ROH are useful for measuring levels of inbreeding in cattle, because ROH are not subject to mistakes as pedigrees and calculations made from those.

  1. From the new Austrian tunneling method to the geoengineering condition evaluation and dynamic controlling method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Shang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The new Austrian tunneling method (NATM is widely applied in design and construction of underground engineering projects. When the type and distribution of unfavorable geological bodies (UGBs associated with their influences on geoengineering are complicated or unfortunately are overlooked, we should pay more attentions to internal features of rocks grades IV and V (even in local but mostly controlling zones. With increasing attentions to the characteristics, mechanism and influences of engineering construction-triggered geohazards, it is crucial to fully understand the disturbance of these geohazards on project construction. A reasonable determination method in construction procedure, i.e. the shape of working face, the type of engineering support and the choice of feasible procedure, should be considered in order to mitigate the construction-triggered geohazards. Due to their high sensitivity to groundwater and in-situ stress, various UGBs exhibit hysteretic nature and failure modes. To give a complete understanding on the internal causes, the emphasis on advanced comprehensive geological forecasting and overall reinforcement treatment is therefore of more practical significance. Comprehensive evaluation of influential factors, identification of UGB, and measures of discontinuity dynamic controlling comprises the geoengineering condition evaluation and dynamic controlling method. In a case of a cut slope, the variations of UGBs and the impacts of key environmental factors are presented, where more severe construction-triggered geohazards emerged in construction stage than those predicted in design and field investigation stages. As a result, the weight ratios of different influential factors with respect to field investigation, design and construction are obtained.

  2. From the new Austrian tunneling method to the geoengineering condition evaluation and dynamic controlling method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanjun Shang; Kun Li; Wantong He; Chunbo Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The new Austrian tunneling method (NATM) is widely applied in design and construction of under-ground engineering projects. When the type and distribution of unfavorable geological bodies (UGBs) associated with their influences on geoengineering are complicated or unfortunately are overlooked, we should pay more attentions to internal features of rocks grades IV and V (even in local but mostly controlling zones). With increasing attentions to the characteristics, mechanism and influences of en-gineering construction-triggered geohazards, it is crucial to fully understand the disturbance of these geohazards on project construction. A reasonable determination method in construction procedure, i.e. the shape of working face, the type of engineering support and the choice of feasible procedure, should be considered in order to mitigate the construction-triggered geohazards. Due to their high sensitivity to groundwater and in-situ stress, various UGBs exhibit hysteretic nature and failure modes. To give a complete understanding on the internal causes, the emphasis on advanced comprehensive geological forecasting and overall reinforcement treatment is therefore of more practical significance. Compre-hensive evaluation of influential factors, identification of UGB, and measures of discontinuity dynamic controlling comprises the geoengineering condition evaluation and dynamic controlling method. In a case of a cut slope, the variations of UGBs and the impacts of key environmental factors are presented, where more severe construction-triggered geohazards emerged in construction stage than those pre-dicted in design and field investigation stages. As a result, the weight ratios of different influential factors with respect to field investigation, design and construction are obtained.

  3. Mapping the value of ecosystem services: A case study from the Austrian Alps

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    Alessandro Paletto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem services (ES are considered the conditions and processes through which natural ecosystems sustain and fulfil human life. In the decision making process related to the natural resources management, two key-aspects must be taken into account: the economic value of the benefits provided by ES (provisioning, regulating and cultural services and the spatial distribution of these benefits. The purpose of the paper is to develop a method aimed to capture the economic value of the benefits provided by ES, in order to support the decision makers in the natural resources management. ES are not homogeneous across landscapes nor in space. Consequently, gaining knowledge on the spatial distribution of the economic relevance of ES is a fundamental information to target management actions. This method was tested in a case study in the Austrian Alps (Leiblachtal area in Vorarlberg region, characterized by a high importance of forests and grasslands. The results show that the highest economic values could be achieved for the provisioning services with a range between 200 €/ha year and 1,400€/ha year. The regulating services have also important economic values, but strongly localized in specific areas (i.e. protective forests against natural hazards. The economic values of the cultural services are influenced by the preferences of tourists and varies between 5 €/ha year to 60 €/ha year. The method allowed us to reveal the spatial heterogeneity of provisioning, regulating and cultural ES, depending on the ecological characteristics of the site.

  4. The Austrian radiation monitoring network ARAD - best practice and added value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olefs, Marc; Baumgartner, Dietmar; Obleitner, Friedrich; Bichler, Christoph; Foelsche, Ulrich; Pietsch, Helga; Rieder, Harald; Weihs, Philipp; Geyer, Florian; Haiden, Thomas; Schöner, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    The Austrian RADiation monitoring network (ARAD) has been established to advance the national climate monitoring and to support satellite retrieval, atmospheric modelling and solar energy techniques development. Measurements cover the downwelling solar and thermal infrared radiation using instruments according to Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) standards. A unique feature of ARAD is its vertical dimension of five stations, covering an air column between about 200 m a.s.l. (Vienna) and 3100 m a.s.l. (BSRN site Sonnblick). The contribution outlines the aims and scopes of ARAD, its measurement and calibration standards, methods, strategies and station locations. ARAD network operation uses innovative data processing for quality assurance and quality control, applying manual and automated control algorithms. A combined uncertainty estimate for the broadband shortwave radiation fluxes at all five ARAD stations indicates that accuracies range from 1.5 to 23 %. If a directional response error of the pyranometers and the temperature response of the instruments and the data acquisition system (DAQ) is corrected, this expanded uncertainty reduces to 1.4 to 5.2 %. Thus, for large signals (global: 1000 W m-2, diffuse: 500 W m-2) BSRN target accuracies are met or closely met for 70 % of valid measurements at the ARAD stations after this correction. For small signals (50 W m-2), the targets are not achieved as a result of uncertainties associated with the DAQ or the instrument sensitivities. Additional accuracy gains can be achieved in future by additional measurements and corrections. However, for the measurement of direct solar radiation improved instrument accuracy is needed. ARAD could serve as a powerful example for establishing state-of-the-art radiation monitoring at the national level with a multiple-purpose approach. Instrumentation, guidelines and tools (such as the data quality control) developed within ARAD are best practices which could be adopted in other

  5. Economic Evaluation of Longevity in Organic Dairy Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Horn, Marco; Knaus, Wilhelm; Kirner, Leopold; Steinwidder, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to highlight the economic importance of longevity in organic dairy cattle husbandry. Performance and reproductive data of 44,976 Austrian organic Simmental dairy cows were analysed by applying a bio-economic model. A farm scenario as well as different market situations were modelled. Overall costs declined with increasing longevity, due to dropping replacement costs. Annual profit was influenced considerably by milk yield and longevity. Short-lived animals needed sub...

  6. The evolutionary history of the rediscovered Austrian population of the giant centipede Scolopendra cingulata Latreille 1829 (Chilopoda, Scolopendromorpha.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Philip Oeyen

    Full Text Available The thermophilous giant centipede Scolopendra cingulata is a voracious terrestrial predator, which uses its modified first leg pair and potent venom to capture prey. The highly variable species is the most common of the genus in Europe, occurring from Portugal in the west to Iran in the east. The northernmost occurrences are in Hungary and Romania, where it abides in small isolated fringe populations. We report the rediscovery of an isolated Austrian population of Scolopendra cingulata with the first explicit specimen records for more than 80 years and provide insights into the evolutionary history of the northernmost populations utilizing fragments of two mitochondrial genes, COI and 16S, comprising 1,155 base pairs. We test the previously proposed hypothesis of a speciation by distance scenario, which argued for a simple range expansion of the species from the southeast, via Romania, Hungary and finally to Austria, based on a comprehensive taxon sampling from seven countries, including the first European mainland samples. We argue that more complex patterns must have shaped the current distribution of S. cingulata and that the Austrian population should be viewed as an important biogeographical relict in a possible microrefugium. The unique haplotype of the Austrian population could constitute an important part of the species genetic diversity and we hope that this discovery will initiate protective measures not only for S. cingulata, but also for its habitat, since microrefugia are likely to host further rare thermophilous species. Furthermore, we take advantage of the unprecedented sampling to provide the first basic insights into the suitability of the COI fragment as a species identifying barcode within the centipede genus Scolopendra.

  7. Interaction with customers: The Application of Social Media within the Austrian Supply Chain for Food and Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Meixner

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Social media marketing has become a powerful tool of interaction with stakeholders. An increasing number of companies are using social media platforms to initiate active interaction and communication with current and prospective customers. Within this study, certain content and contact features, as well as social media activities of companies of the Austrian food and beverage industry were evaluated. Empirical findings concerning the threats, risks, and opportunities connected with the application of social media are presented. The results imply that social media applications are innovative alternatives for customer relationship management. However, more knowledge on how to properly use social media marketing seems to be necessary.

  8. Development of Investment Activities of Commercial Insurance Companies in Slovak, Czech and Austrian Insurance Markets in 2004-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Meheš

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with investments of commercial insurance companies operating in Slovak, Czech and Austrian insurance market in the period of 2004–2009. First of all, development of technical reserves volume as an important prerequisite of investing of commercial insurance companies will be characterized. After that, we evaluate financial placements and investment activities – ratio of total investments and technical reserves. We also present statistical tests by means of which we examine the existence of the relation between the volume of technical reserves and the volume of investments of commercial insurance companies.

  9. Putting 600,000 Books Online: the Large-Scale Digitisation Partnership between the Austrian National Library and Google

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Kaiser

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In a public-private partnership with Google, the Austrian National Library is digitising its historical book holdings. Some 600,000 volumes from the sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries will be digitised and made available free of charge. The project demonstrates that public-private partnerships can be successful in enabling our heritage institutions to provide large-scale access to their holdings, provided that such partnerships are not exclusive and free access is ensured. The article outlines the preparatory phase and work flows established in the project.

  10. Joint annual meeting of the Austrian physical society, Swiss physical society, Austrian society of astronomy and astrophysics in Innsbruck. Bulletin SPG / SSP Vol 26, 2009; OEPG Tagungsband Nr. 59

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This was the first joint annual meeting of the Austrian physical society, the Swiss physical society and the Austrian society of astronomy and astrophysics with the participation of the Swiss society for astrophysics and astronomy. Its objective was to improve the scientific communication and cooperation of researchers of both countries in all fields of physics and astronomy. The plenary sessions gave an overview of the present status from topics such as atomic clusters interactions to nuclear physics and physics of nanostructures. The topical sessions were dedicated to: atomic- and molecular physics and quantum optics; applied physics (medical physics, thin films, molecular physics and materials); nuclear and particle physics (nuclear physics, colliders (LHCb, Belle, CMS I, CMS II and HERA, ATLAS I and II, PANDA), low and medium energy (UCN, OPERA), astrophysics and particle physics; plasma physics; solid state physics (x-rays and neutrons, spins, magnetism, nano and photonics); surfaces, boundary layers and thin films; history of physics and physics in the school. Those contributions which are in the INIS subject scope are indexed individually. (nevyjel)

  11. The discharge of certain amounts of industrial microplastic from a production plant into the River Danube is permitted by the Austrian legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Aaron; Ramler, David

    2015-05-01

    Numerous studies have quantified the amount of plastic litter in aquatic ecosystems and tried to assess its impacts and threats. This reflects a rising awareness of plastic as an environmental problem. As a next logical step, identifying and regulating the sources must be in the focus of scientific efforts. We report on a spillage of industrial microplastic (IMP) from a production plant situated at an Austrian Danube tributary. This is the first identified point source of IMP litter in freshwater systems. However, due to generous thresholds established by the Austrian government substantial amounts of IMP are legally introduced into running waters. PMID:25734504

  12. Application of various statistical methods to analyze genetic diversity of Austrian (Pinus nigra Arn. and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. based on protein markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lučić Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of studies on protein polymorphism in seeds of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn. as the most important economic species of the genus Pinus in Serbia. Polymorphism of protein markers was determined in selected genotypes originating from seven populations (Scots pine and six populations (Austrian pine. Analysis of protein markers was performed using two statistical methods, NTSYS and correspondence analysis. Both methods give the same arrangement of the analyzed populations, whereby, because of a different view of genetic distances, they can and should be combined, enabling easier and more precise understanding of mutual relationships of the observation units.

  13. Results of a first look into the Austrian animal phenological records

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheifinger, H.; Koch, E. [Central Inst. for Meteorology and Geodynamics, Vienna (Austria); Winkler, H. [Konrad Lorenz Inst. for Ethology, Vienna (Austria)

    2005-04-01

    The year to year variability and trends of animal phenological phases (honey bee, cockchafer, 3 butterfly species, swallow and cuckoo) of the Austrian phenological observational network were related to each other and to mean monthly temperatures over the time period 1951-1998. Insect phases were well correlated with each other (r{sup 2} = 0.4 to 0.6) and with temperature (r{sup 2} = 0.25 to 0.55), whereas both bird phases were only well correlated with each other (r{sup 2} = 0.57), but showed low common variance values with temperature and with other animal phases. The slope of the temperature-pheno regression, also termed as temperature sensitivity of the phenological phase, was high in the case of the insect phases (-3 to -5 days/ C), but low in the cases of both bird phases (about -1 days/ C). All animal phenological time series showed a trend towards later occurrence dates. The trends of the bird phases were even significant (p<0.1). There was a marked discrepancy between the trends of all animal phenological and temperature time series, especially between the insects and temperature: the mean temperature time series of February, March and April with the highest common variance with the insect phases showed a strongly increasing trend (0.027 C/year), whereas the first appearance dates of the insects tended to occur later (0.06 to 0.15 days/year). Both bird phases correlated weakly with the mean April temperature (r{sup 2} about 0.1). The temperature trend of April was 0.0003 C/year, whereas the trend of the bird phases was 0.2 days/year for the cuckoo and 0.25 days/year for the swallow. From these observations we conclude that a strong temperature sensitivity of the phenological phase based on the year to year variability (in days/ C) does not necessarily result in corresponding trends of temperature and phenological phase. A strong trend of non-atmospheric factors such as population density influencing the animal phases is suspected. Factors other than local

  14. Modelling tunnel jet emissions with LASAT: evaluation study with two Austrian data sets (Ehrentalerbergtunnel and Kaisermuhlentunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Hirtl

    2011-02-01

    model parameters derived for the Ehrentalerbergtunnel are also applied to this site. It is shown that LASAT is able to simulate the position of the plume and that the modelled and the measured concentration values do not deviate more than 30 %. This study reveals that LASAT can be applied to tunnel portal emissions. The model simulations for both the Ehrentalerbergtunnel and Kaisermühlentunnel meet the requirements specified in the Austrian design guideline RVS 9.263 “Ventilation Systems - Pollutant burden at portals”.

  15. Wood pellet production costs under Austrian and in comparison to Swedish framework conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thek, Gerold [Bios Bioenergiesysteme GmbH, Graz (Austria); Obernberger, Ingwald [Bios Bioenergiesysteme GmbH, Graz (Austria); Graz Univ. of Technology, Inst. for Resource Efficient and Sustainable Systems, Graz (Austria)

    2004-12-01

    pellet production costs to be considerably lower due to larger plant capacities, the combination of pellet production and biomass CHP or biomass district heating plants and the implementation of technologies which allow an efficient heat recovery from the dryers. Moreover, another difference between the Austrian and the Swedish framework conditions is the price of electricity, which is much lower in Sweden. (Author)

  16. The Austrian radiation monitoring network ARAD - best practice and added value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olefs, Marc; Baumgartner, Dietmar J.; Obleitner, Friedrich; Bichler, Christoph; Foelsche, Ulrich; Pietsch, Helga; Rieder, Harald E.; Weihs, Philipp; Geyer, Florian; Haiden, Thomas; Schöner, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    The Austrian RADiation monitoring network (ARAD) has been established to advance the national climate monitoring and to support satellite retrieval, atmospheric modeling and the development of solar energy techniques. Measurements cover the downward solar and thermal infrared radiation using instruments according to Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) standards. A unique feature of ARAD is its vertical dimension of five stations, covering an altitude range between about 200 m a.s.l (Vienna) and 3100 m a.s.l. (BSRN site Sonnblick). The paper outlines the aims and scopes of ARAD, its measurement and calibration standards, methods, strategies and station locations. ARAD network operation uses innovative data processing for quality assurance and quality control, utilizing manual and automated control algorithms. A combined uncertainty estimate for the broadband shortwave radiation fluxes at all five ARAD stations, using the methodology specified by the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement indicates that relative accuracies range from 1.5 to 2.9 % for large signals (global, direct: 1000 W m-2, diffuse: 500 W m-2) and from 1.7 to 23 % (or 0.9 to 11.5 W m-2) for small signals (50 W m-2) (expanded uncertainties corresponding to the 95 % confidence level). If the directional response error of the pyranometers and the temperature response of the instruments and the data acquisition system (DAQ) are corrected, this expanded uncertainty reduces to 1.4 to 2.8 % for large signals and to 1.7 to 5.2 % (or 0.9-2.6 W m-2) for small signals. Thus, for large signals of global and diffuse radiation, BSRN target accuracies are met or nearly met (missed by less than 0.2 percentage points, pps) for 70 % of the ARAD measurements after this correction. For small signals of direct radiation, BSRN targets are achieved at two sites and nearly met (also missed by less than 0.2 pps) at the other sites. For small signals of global and diffuse radiation, targets are achieved

  17. Derivation of GNSS derived station velocities for a surface deformation model in the Austrian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umnig, Elke; Weber, Robert; Maras, Jadre; Brückl, Ewald

    2016-04-01

    This contribution deals with the first comprehensive analysis of GNSS derived surface velocities computed within an observation network of about 100 stations covering the whole Austrian territory and parts of the neighbouring countries. Coordinate time series are available now, spanning a period of 5 years (2010.0-2015.0) for one focus area in East Austria and one and a half year (2013.5-2015.0) for the remaining part of the tracking network. In principle the data series are stemming from two different GNSS campaigns. The former was set up to investigate intra plate tectonic movements within the framework of the project ALPAACT (seismological and geodetic monitoring of ALpine-PAnnonian ACtive Tectonics), the latter was designed to support a number of various requests, e.g. derivation of GNSS derived water vapour fields, but also to expand the foresaid tectonic studies. In addition the activities within the ALPAACT project supplement the educational initiative SHOOLS & QUAKES, where scholars contribute to seismological research. For the whole period of the processed coordinate time series daily solutions have been computed by means of the Bernese software. The processed coordinate time series are tied to the global reference frame ITRF2000 as well as to the frame ITRF2008. Due to the transition of the reference from ITRF2000 to ITRF2008 within the processing period, but also due to updates of the Bernese software from version 5.0 to 5.2 the time series were initially not fully consistent and have to be re-aligned to a common frame. So the goal of this investigation is to derive a nationwide consistent horizontal motion field on base of GNSS reference station data within the ITRF2008 frame, but also with respect to the Eurasian plate. In this presentation we focus on the set-up of the coordinate time series and on the problem of frame alignment. Special attention is also paid to the separation into linear and periodic motion signals, originating from tectonic or non

  18. Connectedness to Nature and Public (Skin Health Perspectives: Results of a Representative, Population-Based Survey among Austrian Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Haluza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Connectedness to nature (CN influences motivation to have contact with outdoor natural environments. Spending leisure time in natural environments is beneficial for human health and well-being. Besides these positive effects, health risks of open-air activities are mainly related to unprotected sun light exposure-associated acute and chronic skin hazards. Thus, we conducted a cross-sectional, representative telephone survey among Austrian residents to study the association of perceived CN level with sun-exposure knowledge, tanning habits, and sun protective behaviour. In total, 1,500 study subjects (50.5% females participated in this questionnaire survey. Although knowledge about tanning and motives to tan were similar among genders, females performed more photoprotective measures and were more connected to nature (all p < 0.001 compared to males. Older age and outdoor sport were significant gender-independent predictor variables influencing perceived CN level. Additionally, level of education was relevant in male CN, whereas non-smoking and higher knowledge were predictive of female CN. This survey provides so far unreported empirical data on the relationship between nature connectedness and skin health-relevant recreational habits of Austrian residents. The findings suggest to integrate hitherto neglected gender-specific Public (Skin Health promotion when counselling on the manifold health advantages of outdoor activities.

  19. Modelling site-specific N2O emission factors from Austrian agricultural soils for targeted mitigation measures (NitroAustria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, Barbara; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Kasper, Martina; Foldal, Cecilie; Schiefer, Jasmin; Kitzler, Barbara; Schwarzl, Bettina; Zethner, Gerhard; Anderl, Michael; Sedy, Katrin; Gaugitsch, Helmut; Dersch, Georg; Baumgarten, Andreas; Haas, Edwin; Kiese, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    Results from a previous project "FarmClim" highlight that the IPCC default emission factor is not able to reflect region specific N2O emissions from Austrian arable soils. The methodology is limited in identifying hot spots and hot moments of N2O emissions. When estimations are based on default emission factors no recommendations can be given on optimisation measures that would lead to a reduction of soil N2O emissions. The better the knowledge is about Nitrogen and Carbon budgets in Austrian agricultural managed soils the better the situation can be reflected in the Austrian GHG emission inventory calculations. Therefore national and regionally modelled emission factors should improve the evidence for national deviation from the IPCC default emission factors and reduce the uncertainties. The overall aim of NitroAustria is to identify the drivers for N2O emissions on a regional basis taking different soil types, climate, and agricultural management into account. We use the LandscapeDNDC model to update the N2O emission factors for N fertilizer and animal manure applied to soils. Key regions in Austria were selected and region specific N2O emissions calculated. The model runs at sub-daily time steps and uses data such as maximum and minimum air temperature, precipitation, radiation, and wind speed as meteorological drivers. Further input data are used to reflect agricultural management practices, e.g., planting/harvesting, tillage, fertilizer application, irrigation and information on soil and vegetation properties for site characterization and model initialization. While at site scale, arable management data (crop cultivation, rotations, timings etc.) is obtained by experimental data from field trials or observations, at regional scale such data need to be generated using region specific proxy data such as land use and management statistics, crop cultivations and yields, crop rotations, fertilizer sales, manure resulting from livestock units etc. The farming

  20. IT adoption of clinical information systems in Austrian and German hospitals: results of a comparative survey with a focus on nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaubmayr Christine

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background IT adoption is a process that is influenced by different external and internal factors. This study aimed 1. to identify similarities and differences in the prevalence of medical and nursing IT systems in Austrian and German hospitals, and 2. to match these findings with characteristics of the two countries, in particular their healthcare system, and with features of the hospitals. Methods In 2007, all acute care hospitals in both countries received questionnaires with identical questions. 12.4% in Germany and 34.6% in Austria responded. Results The surveys revealed a consistent higher usage of nearly all clinical IT systems, especially nursing systems, but also PACS and electronic archiving systems, in Austrian than in German hospitals. These findings correspond with a significantly wider use of standardised nursing terminologies and a higher number of PC workstations on the wards (average 2.1 PCs in Germany, 3.2 PCs in Austria. Despite these differences, Austrian and German hospitals both reported a similar IT budget of 2.6% in Austria and 2.0% in Germany (median. Conclusions Despite the many similarities of the Austrian and German healthcare system there are distinct differences which may have led to a wider use of IT systems in Austrian hospitals. In nursing, the specific legal requirement to document nursing diagnoses in Austria may have stimulated the use of standardised terminologies for nursing diagnoses and the implementation of electronic nursing documentation systems. Other factors which correspond with the wider use of clinical IT systems in Austria are: good infrastructure of medical-technical devices, rigorous organisational changes which had led to leaner processes and to a lower length of stay, and finally a more IT friendly climate. As country size is the most pronounced difference between Germany and Austria it could be that smaller countries, such as Austria, are more ready to translate innovation into

  1. Human Nature, Flourishing, and Happiness: Toward a Synthesis of Aristotelianism, Austrian Economics, Positive Psychology, and Ayn Rand’s Objectivism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward W. Younkins

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a skeleton of a potential paradigm of human flourishing and happiness in a free society. It is an exploratory attempt to construct an understanding from various disciplines and to integrate them into a clear, consistent, coherent, and systematic whole. Holding that there are essential interconnections among objective ideas, the article specifically emphasizes the compatibility of Aristotelianism, Austrian Economics, Positive Psychology, and Ayn Rand’s Objectivism arguing that particular ideas from these areas can be integrated into a paradigm of human flourishing and happiness based on the nature of man and the world. Such a paradigm will help people to understand the world and to survive and flourish in it. It is hoped that the paradigm will grow and evolve as scholars engage, question, critique, interpret, and extend its ideas. Our goal is to have a paradigm that accords with reality and there is always more to learn from reality.

  2. LC-MS/MS analysis of neonicotinoid insecticides in honey: methodology and residue findings in Austrian honeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Gina; Czerwenka, Christoph

    2011-12-14

    An analytical method for the simultaneous determination of residues of eight neonicotinoid insecticides and two metabolites in honey using LC-MS/MS was developed and validated. Two approaches of sample preparation were investigated, with the final method involving acetonitrile extraction and subsequent cleanup by dispersive solid-phase extraction (QuEChERS type). Validation was based on quintuplicate analysis at three fortification levels and showed satisfactory recoveries (60-114%) and high precision (RSDs between 2.7 and 12.8%). Low limits of detection and quantification could be achieved for all analytes ranging from 0.6 to 5 μg/kg and from 2 to 10 μg/kg, respectively. Investigations of Austrian honey samples revealed the presence of acetamiprid, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam residues in honey; however, no sample exceeded the maximum residue limits. On average, flower honey samples contained neonicotinoid residues in higher quantities compared to forest honey samples.

  3. Modality-dependent dose requirements in the Austrian breast cancer early detection program. First results from technical quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Austrian Breast Cancer Early Detection Program (BKFP) has officially started in January 2014. In order to ensure that all participating women can rely on a sufficient cancer detection rate while at the same time the required dose is as low as reasonably achievable, all participating radiology institutes (approx. 200) have to fulfill strict quality assurance requirements. The control and certification is performed by the Reference Center for Technical Quality Assurance (RefZQS), which has been developing the methods and tolerances in a pilot project since 2007. The limits are defined in the EUREF-Oeprotocol which is based on the European EPQC guidelines. From the requirement for optimized image quality while simultaneously following the ALARA principle, we found modality-dependent dose requirements, which we had expected but which have now been compiled for the first time for Austria.

  4. Hygiene of Raw Milk from Austrian Spotted, Holstein and Romanian Spotted Breeds, in Three Farms from Central Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Ștețca

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Analysis strictly medical, objective and impartial demonstrate that none of the foods considered to be basic, it is an ideal food, and milk can have some adverse effects on consumers, if the product is subject to changes caused by the improper welfare and health of the animals, but not least the processing technology. This study aimed the analyzing of raw cow milk related to the quality indicators on hygiene. There were considered the samples collected from three farms of the Central part of Romania, each of 24 samples of raw milk. The cows breed were farm A - Austrian spotted, farm B - Holstein and farm C - Romanian spotted. The parameters investigated here were total bacteria count and somatic cell count. The range of the non-conforming milk samples was 1:5.

  5. Test of Compound-Specific Stable Isotope (CSSI) Technique to Investigate Sediment Provenance in a Small Austrian Watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Soil erosion is a threat to the sustainable production of food crops through the loss of arable land and pollution of water bodies. Climate change driven extreme weather events are predicted to increase soil degradation processes, and water erosion risk is expected to increase by about 80% in the agricultural areas of the European Union by the year 2050. For the sustainable use and management of natural resources, there is an urgent need for reliable quantitative data on the extent and actual rates of soil erosion and a better understanding of the key driving processes. Traditional monitoring and modelling techniques for soil erosion and sedimentation that can discriminate between different sources of sediment within a watershed have certain limitations in terms of validation at a sub-watershed scale, where pedogenic differences are minimal. Alternative fingerprinting techniques using fallout radionuclides (FRN) such as 137Cs, 210Pb and 7Be can complement existing traditional methods, but these techniques are limited to providing accurate and quantitative information about the contribution of different sources of sediment from complex landscapes at the watershed scale. A new forensic stable isotope technique, using the compound specific stable isotope (CSSI) signatures of inherent organic biomarkers in the soil, can discriminate and apportion the source soil contribution from different land-uses to complement the information provided by FRN data. The CSSI technique was developed at NIWA in New Zealand and is based on the concept of land-use, which is typically defined by the plant community growing on the land. These plant communities label the soil where they grow by exuding organic biomarkers. Although all plants produce the same biomarkers, the stable isotopic signature of those biomarkers is different for each plant species. Using the CSSI technique, the isotopic signatures of soil biomarkers from each sedimentation zone can be used to determine the

  6. Attrition in the Austrian Generations and Gender Survey: Is there a bias by fertility-relevant aspects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Buber-Ennser

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: In longitudinal research the loss of sample members between waves is a possible source of bias. It is therefore crucial to analyse attrition. Objective: This paper analyses attrition in a longitudinal study on family and fertility, by distinguishing between attrition due to non-contact and attrition due to non-cooperation. Methods: Based on the first two waves of the Austrian Generations and Gender Survey, the two components of attrition are studied separately by using bivariate as well as multivariate methods. Moreover, overall dropout - the combination of both components - isanalysed. Apart from various socio-economic characteristics and data collection information, the study focuses on fertility-relevant variables such as fecundity, fertility intentions, sexual orientation, and traditional attitudes. Results: Fecundity, fertility intentions, and homosexual relationships are associated with higher attrition due to non-cooperation in bivariate analyses, but have no explanatory power inthe multivariate model. Pregnancy and traditional attitudes towards marriage are associated with significantly lower attrition due to non-cooperation in the multivariate context. Overall dropout is significantly lower only among persons with traditionalattitudes towards marriage, although small in size and statistical significance. Moreover, various individual and regional characteristics are significantly associated with dropout, with differences between attrition due to non-contact and attrition due to non-cooperation. Conclusions: Detailed insights into attrition are not only important when using longitudinal data and interpreting results, but also for the design of future data collections. The Austrian GGS panel has a relatively low dropout (22Š and is affected by a small bias towards familyoriented persons as well as less-educated respondents and persons with migrationbackgrounds, but the data can be used without concern about selectivity.

  7. Determination of eye lens doses and identification of risk groups among radiation exposed workers. An Austrian pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On European level, in 2014 the dose limit for the lens of the eye of radiation exposed workers has been reduced from 150 to 20 mSv per year (2013/59/Euratom). Data about eye lens exposition measured under realistic operational conditions of Austrian radiation exposed workers is sparse and there is no information to verify, if all professional groups identified to be at risk for elevated eye doses will remain below the new annual dose limit. Therefore, financed by the Austrian Workers Compensation Board, AUVA, a pilot study has been initiated to answer this question. Based on published information professional groups of radiation exposed workers and operational tasks with an enhanced risk of elevated eye lens doses have been identified. By dosimetric measurements with volunteers (forehead dose meters and parallel measurements with whole-body TL-dose meters above and under the lead apron) realistic lens doses will be estimated during selected radiation exposed tasks. Comparison of yielded doses will show whether a TLD outside the apron could serve as an alternative to forehead dose meters dedicated to measure eye lens doses. Measurements with leaded protective eyewear based on IEC61331 yield results for lead equivalent in good agreement with manufacturers' information. Results for eye lens doses determined by use of a RANDO head phantom and a standardized phantom simulating a body in a typical exposition situation for interventional radiologists show that wearing of leaded goggles allows for a 90% dose reduction. Under such conditions the eye lens dose is dominated by backscatter and stray radiation from the operator's head and patient body. This has to be considered for the evaluation of protective effectiveness for leaded eye wear.

  8. Austrian Capital Theory and the Link Between Entrepreneurship and the Theory of the Firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.;

    2005-01-01

    , the functions, characteristics, and uses ofcapital assets. Such attributes are not given, but have to be discovered by meansof entrepreneurial action. Thinking of entrepreneurship as the organization ofheterogeneous capital provides new insights into the emergence, boundaries,and internal organization...... of the firm, and it suggests testable implications abouthow and where entrepreneurship is manifested.Keywords: Entrepreneurship, heterogeneous assets, judgment, ownership, firmboundaries, internal organization.JEL Codes: B53, D23, L2...

  9. Quality perception of organically grown tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. in Vienna, Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PK Ng’ang’a

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Austria is one of the major organic tomato producing countries for local and export marketing. These tomatoes are produced in parts of Austria especially around Vienna where their production system has to meet stringent organic quality standards in both local and international markets. These quality standards may put considerable strain on farmers and are normally formulated without famers’ participation so may not be wholly representative of the farmers’ quality interpretation. The aim of this paper is therefore to determine the Austrian organic tomatoes growers’ perception and practice of quality and challenges. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were carried out among 28 organic tomatoes farmers in Vienna, Austria. Findings suggest that quality of organic tomatoes is mainly perceived in terms of both informal values (big fruit size, long shelf life, food security and amount of income received from tomato sales as well as formal norms (non- application of chemicals, human health, damage free, sweet taste, red colour, and juiciness. There were no gendered differences in quality perception among the growers. High costs of production inputs were identified as the main challenge to attaining quality in organic tomatoes. Following these findings, there is need for effective participation of growers in formulation of standards as well as subsidizing of production inputs by the government. The Austrian tomato growers as well as local and international retailers should work closely to increase the price received by the Austrian organic tomato growers so that it more adequately covers their production costs.

  10. 4 August 2011 - Austrian Head of Protocol, Directorate General III, Federal Ministry of Science and Research I. Friedrich (3rd from left) in the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with M. Benedkit, C. Wulz and C. Fabjan.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    4 August 2011 - Austrian Head of Protocol, Directorate General III, Federal Ministry of Science and Research I. Friedrich (3rd from left) in the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with M. Benedkit, C. Wulz and C. Fabjan.

  11. 11 June 2012 - Austrian Federal Minister of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection R. Hundstorfer signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Ambassador to the UN C. Strohal (CERN-HI-120611334)

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    11 June 2012 - Austrian Federal Minister of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection R. Hundstorfer signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Ambassador to the UN C. Strohal (CERN-HI-120611334)

  12. High Performance Work Systems as an Enabling Structure for Self-organized Learning Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Wallner; Martin Menrad

    2012-01-01

    High Performance Work Systems (HPWSs) as a new way of organizing work in general and of production work in particular provide an environment, where self-organized learning processes are enabled and fostered. In an extensive research project in 2 major Austrian manufacturing companies we currently investigate the applicability and the effects of HPWS including issues of learning and knowledge management. In this contribution we present the results of the first phase of this project discussing ...

  13. Possible solutions for replant problems caused by soil-borne pathogens in organic strawberry production

    OpenAIRE

    Spornberger, A.; Steffek, R.; Stich, K.; Scheiblauer, J.; Altenburger, J.; Gosch, C.; Halbwirth, H.; Jezik, K.

    2006-01-01

    Soil-borne pathogens, above all Verticillium sp. cause plant losses and yield decreases in many Austrian strawberry fields, also in organic farming systems; in a research project possibilities to resolve this problem were examined. In a field trial, which was started 1998, organically managed and differently fertilized plots (green compost, manure, hornchips) were compared to an unfertilised control plot and to two mineral fertilized and conventionally treated plots; the differenc...

  14. The Austrian Biosphere Reserves. A (connoisseur’s) world beyond the cookery book. eco.mont (Journal on Protected Mountain Areas Research)|eco.mont Vol. 5 No. 2 5 2|

    OpenAIRE

    Diry, Christian; Köck, Günter (Hrsg.); Umhack, Martha

    2013-01-01

    In many instances the Austrian UNESCO Biosphere Reserves as model regions of sustainable development are outshone by other conservation categories, such as national parks or world heritage sites, and are largely unknown to the wider population. This shadowy existence is ill deserved. The modern concept of biosphere reserves (BRs) is more important today than it ever was if we want to maintain valuable cultural landscapes for later generations. The Austrian MAB National Committee therefore mad...

  15. Leadership for Primary Schools: An Examination of Innovation within an Austrian Educational Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heißenberger, Petra

    2016-01-01

    This study examined relationships between the work of innovative school principals and innovative primary schools determined by defining eight areas of school leadership: Instructional Development, Classroom Management, School Organization, Social Interaction, Personnel Development, Cooperation, Infrastructure and School Marketing. A questionnaire…

  16. Modeling of Nitrogen Dynamics in an Austrian Alpine Forest Ecosystem on Calcareous Soils: A Scenario-Based Risk Assessment under Changing Environmental Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Friedl Herman; Stefan Smidt; Klaus Butterbach-Bahl; Michael Englisch; Ernst Gebetsroither; Robert Jandl; Klaus Katzensteiner; Manfred Lexer; Friederike Strebl; Sophie Zechmeister-Boltenstern

    2007-01-01

    We modeled the behavior of an Austrian alpine forest ecosystem on calcareous soils under changing climate and atmospheric nitrogen deposition scenarios. The change of nitrate leaching, emission rates of nitrogen compounds, and forest productivity were calculated using four process-oriented models for the periods 1998–2002 and 2048–2052. Each model reflects with high detail a segment of the ecosystem: PnET-N-DNDC (photosynthesis-evapotranspiration-nitrification-denitrification-decomposition; s...

  17. The impact of risk and protective factors on mental health and well-being-Austrian adolescents and migrant adolescents from war-affected countries

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Buchegger-Traxler; Ulrike Sirsch

    2012-01-01

    Background: young persons are most strongly affected by displacement through political/military actions. This is also a European problem as well as an issue for the European Union. Applying the social-ecological model by Bronfenbrenner we concentrated on micro- and mesosystems of Austrian adolescents and migrant adolescents of war-affected countries.

    Methods: a questionnaire was administered to adolescents in...

  18. Impact of depression and anxiety on burden and management of episodic and chronic headaches – a cross-sectional multicentre study in eight Austrian headache centres

    OpenAIRE

    Zebenholzer, Karin; Lechner, Anita; Broessner, Gregor; Lampl, Christian; Luthringshausen, Gernot; Wuschitz, Albert; Obmann, Sonja-Maria; Berek, Klaus; Wöber, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Background Recurrent and especially chronic headaches are associated with psychiatric comorbidities such as depression and anxiety. Only few studies examined the impact of depression and anxiety on episodic (EH) and chronic headache (CH), and data for Austria are missing at all. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the impact of depression and anxiety on burden and management of EH and CH in patients from eight Austrian headache centres. Methods We included 392 patients (84.1...

  19. Prevalence, management and burden of episodic and chronic headaches—a cross-sectional multicentre study in eight Austrian headache centres

    OpenAIRE

    Zebenholzer, Karin; Andree, Colette; Lechner, Anita; Broessner, Gregor; Lampl, Christian; Luthringshausen, Gernot; Wuschitz, Albert; Obmann, Sonja-Maria; Berek, Klaus; Wöber, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Background Episodic and chronic headaches (EH, CH) are highly prevalent disorders. Severely affected patients are usually referred to headache centres. In Austria, at least one headache centre is available in seven of nine states, but detailed multicentre data are missing. Therefore we studied prevalence rates, use of medication and health care services, impact of headaches, and comorbid depression and anxiety. Methods We included consecutive patients from eight Austrian outpatient headache c...

  20. Management Effects On Quality of Organically Grown Winter Wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Schweinzer, A.; Friedel, J. K.;

    2013-01-01

    The potential for improving wheat grain quality by management strategies involving crop rotation, catch crops, and organic manure was tested in organic long-term experiments in Denmark and Austria. Growing grass clover in a four-year rotation resulted in a higher wheat yield increase that could...... following pre-crop pea. Danish grains generally contained more soluble polymers of less interest for the baking process than the Austrian ones. The study emphasizes the challenges in improving the quality of organically grown wheat beyond what is predetermined by environmental growth conditions and cultivar....... However, baking quality appeared better than could be expected from the quality parameters determined....

  1. Changes in equipment and image quality. Impact of one year Austrian breast cancer early detection programme; Aenderungen in der Geraetelandschaft und Bildqualitaet. Auswirkungen nach einem Jahr Oesterreichischem Brustkrebsfrueherkennungsprogramm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menhart, S.; Osanna-Elliott, A.; Semturs, F.; Schloegl, C.; Wildner, S.; Zwettler, G. [AGES, Wien (Austria). Referenzzentrum fuer technische Qualitaetssicherung im Brustkrebsfrueherkennungsprogramm

    2015-07-01

    The nationwide Austrian Breast Cancer Early Detection Programme (''BKFP'') started in January 2014. The Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety Ltd. was entrusted with running the reference center for technical quality control (''RefZQS'') on April 1, 2014. The quality of the radiologists' equipment is evaluated against the standards described in the EUREF-Oeprotocol, which is based on the European guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening and diagnosis (EPQC V4, 2006) and has been optimized for Austrian requirements. In its first year of operation the RefZQS has controlled the entire equipment (mammography, periphery and ultrasound system) of all participating radiologists. A significant number of systems had to be adjusted to meet the EUREF-Oecriteria. Some of the systems could not be adjusted accordingly, and had to be replaced. In the wake of the start of the screening programme, several sites switched from CR to more modern DR systems, yielding a significant benefit by reduction of radiation burden. The most important data after one year of RefZQS, especially according to adjustments and replacements, are presented.

  2. The effectiveness of the Austrian disease management programme for type 2 diabetes: a cluster-randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klima Gert

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disease management programmes (DMPs are costly and impose additional work load on general practitioners (GPs. Data on their effectiveness are inconclusive. We therefore conducted a cluster-randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of the Austrian DMP for diabetes mellitus type 2 on HbA1c and quality of care for adult patients in primary care. Methods All GPs of Salzburg-province were invited to participate. After cluster-randomisation by district, all patients with diabetes type 2 were recruited consecutively from 7-11/2007. The DMP, consisting mainly of physician and patient education, standardised documentation and agreement on therapeutic goals, was implemented in the intervention group while the control group received usual care. We aimed to show superiority of the intervention regarding metabolic control and process quality. The primary outcome measure was a change in HbA1c after one year. Secondary outcomes were days in the hospital, blood pressure, lipids, body mass index (BMI, enrolment in patient education and regular guideline-adherent examination. Blinding was not possible. Results 92 physicians recruited 1489 patients (649 intervention, 840 control. After 401 ± 47 days, 590 intervention-patients and 754 controls had complete data. In the intention to treat analysis (ITT of all 1489 patients, HbA1c decreased 0.41% in the intervention group and 0.28% in controls. The difference of -0.13% (95% CI -0.24; -0.02 was significant at p = 0.026. Significance was lost in mixed models adjusted for baseline value and cluster-effects (adjusted mean difference -0.03 (95% CI -0.15; 0.09, p = 0.607. Of the secondary outcome measures, BMI and cholesterol were significantly reduced in the intervention group compared to controls in ITT after adjustments (-0.53 kg/m²; 95% CI -1.03;-0.02; p = 0.014 and -0.10 mmol/l; 95% CI -0.21; -0.003; p = 0.043. Additionally, more patients received patient education (49.5% vs. 20

  3. [Paskal Joseph Ritter von Ferro, the Reformer of the Austrian Public Health. On the occasion of the 200th anniversary of his death in consequence of the battle of Wagram against Napoleon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamm, Heinz

    2009-01-01

    Paskal Joseph Ferro, born on June 5th, 1753 in Bonn, Germany, in the course of his military service as a surgeon graduated medicine in 1777 in Strasbourg and Vienna. Here initially he worked as a private physician in a hospital. In 1785 he became an assistant to the leading municipal physician, in 1793 he was appointed director of the district hospitals and in 1793 medical official in charge of Lower Austria. In 1795 Ferro was the first on the now created position of "Protomedicus" (director of the health administration) of an Austrian country. His most important acts were the creation of the first medical cold water bath in Austria, the foundation of institutions for the salvation of casualties, the introduction of rooms to lay out the dead in the communities, the organization of dispersed health regulations and their publications for common knowledge and especially the introduction of the smallpox vaccination in 1799 first time outside the UK. After the battle of Wagram (north to Vienna) in the Napoleonic war (July 6th, 1809) he had to care for the wounded and 56,000 dead soldiers on the battle field. In this action he contracted typhoid fever and consequently died on August 21st, 1809.

  4. Proteins in seed and seedlings of selected Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold trees as genetic markers tolerant to drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mataruga Milan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A precondition necessary for creation and selection of genotypes tolerant of stress conditions is a study of physiological, biochemical and molecular bases of their adaptive reaction to stress. The study includes 40 lines of free pollination originating from 5 provenances: Sutjeska, Višegrad, Tara, Teslić and Durmitor (B&H, Serbia and Montenegro. Two populations were selected from each provenance, i.e.: 5 lines of free pollination represent the population growing on the cliffs and 3 lines of free pollination represent the population growing at the best site of Austrian pine. Specific characteristics of the studied provenances, populations, and free pollination lines were confirmed by the analyses in the salt-soluble proteins. The identical protein composition was proved in a small number of cases in the replicates of the same free pollination line, which indicates a high intra-line variability, which can be the result of the effect of father, as well as of heterozygosity of mother trees. The analyses of protein composition of seed showed considerable differences at provenance level. Inter-line, population and provenance differences, and also, the interaction between the origin and drought factor, were recorded for 9-day-old seedlings germinated in induced drought conditions and in normal conditions.

  5. [Outbreak of subclinical mastitis due to beta hemolytic group L streptococci (S. dysgalactiae ssp. equisimilis) in an Austrian dairy herd].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Martina; Giffinger, Friederike; Hoppe, Jan Christoph; Spergser, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    This study is reporting an outbreak of subclinical mastitis due to beta-hemolytic group L streptococci in an Austrian dairy herd with a history of high somatic cell count. At the first survey 16 of 33 lactating cows (28 quarters of 132) were cultured positive for beta-hemolytic, CAMP and esculin negative cocci that grew on Columbia blood agar with small grey catalase negative colonies. With the commercial API 20 Strep system (bioMerieux, F) isolates were classified as members of streptococci group L. All tested strains (eight of 28) produced acid from ribose, lactose, trehalose, amidon and glycogen; they hydrolysed hippurate and showed beta-glucuronidase, beta-galactosidase, alkaline phosphatase, leucinaminopeptidase and arginindehydrolase activity. Isolates were sensitive to bacitracin but resistant to tetracycline. Using phenotypic characterisation as well as sequence analysis of the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region of a representative strain, recovered isolates were identified as Streptococcus (S.) dysgalactiae ssp. equisimilis. Mastitis was characterized by normal milk secretions and absence of clinical abnormalities but high elevations of somatic cell count. Based on the characteristics of the strains and on the observations during the first herd survey, contagious transmission during milking as a result of poor milking hygiene was assumed. The mastitis was controlled through implementation of a strict hygiene protocol including use of single-use udder towels, post milking teat desinfection and cluster disinfection between milking cows in combination with antibiotic treatment of infected udders.

  6. Landfill mining: Resource potential of Austrian landfills--Evaluation and quality assessment of recovered municipal solid waste by chemical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfsberger, Tanja; Aldrian, Alexia; Sarc, Renato; Hermann, Robert; Höllen, Daniel; Budischowsky, Andreas; Zöscher, Andreas; Ragoßnig, Arne; Pomberger, Roland

    2015-11-01

    Since the need for raw materials in countries undergoing industrialisation (like China) is rising, the availability of metal and fossil fuel energy resources (like ores or coal) has changed in recent years. Landfill sites can contain considerable amounts of recyclables and energy-recoverable materials, therefore, landfill mining is an option for exploiting dumped secondary raw materials, saving primary sources. For the purposes of this article, two sanitary landfill sites have been chosen for obtaining actual data to determine the resource potential of Austrian landfills. To evaluate how pretreating waste before disposal affects the resource potential of landfills, the first landfill site has been selected because it has received untreated waste, whereas mechanically-biologically treated waste was dumped in the second. The scope of this investigation comprised: (1) waste characterisation by sorting analyses of recovered waste; and (2) chemical analyses of specific waste fractions for quality assessment regarding potential energy recovery by using it as solid recovered fuels. The content of eight heavy metals and the net calorific values were determined for the chemical characterisation tests. PMID:26347181

  7. KNOWLEDGE BASED VIEW OF STRATEGY: STRATEGIC COMPLEMENTARITIES FROM AN AUSTRIAN ECONOMIC AND STRATEGIC NETWORK PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Desmond W.

    2002-01-01

    The concept of knowledge and its related dimensions of information and learning have traditionally received considerable research attention by scholars of organization and strategic management theorists. The increasing role of knowledge as defining characteristic of the modern knowledge economy has renewed an interest to the importance of knowledge to a firm's competitive advantage. Such interest has raised a significant conceptual issue as to whether the new knowledge economy warrants an alt...

  8. School reform during the second Austrian administration in Dalmatia, and primary school libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanka Kuić

    2008-01-01

    The history of school libraries in Dalmatia dates back to the 19th century, when they were established as differentiated and defined subjects within the education system in the Austro-Hungarian monarchy. The important heritage of the reform of primary and secondary schools organized by the Austro-Hungarian authorities was the creation of the library network within the education system.This paper describes the situation in the Dalmatian primary school education prior to the 1869 reform, and th...

  9. Organic Farming and Social-Ecological Resilience: the Alpine Valleys of Sölktäler, Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Sonja K. Hadatsch; Rebecka Milestad

    2003-01-01

    Farming in the Austrian Alps is small in scale and involves a high degree of manual labor. In the face of structural changes in agriculture, alpine farms are finding it increasingly difficult to remain economically viable. Organic farming presents a promising alternative for alpine farmers because it receives considerable financial support under the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union. Recent years have seen an increase in the number of organic farms in Austria in general, and in...

  10. Messages of Congratulation from Friendship-with-China Organizations and Personages on CPAFFC 50th Anniversary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>The CPAFFC greeted its 50th birthday on May 3, 2004. Friendship-with-China organizations and friendly personages of many countries sent messages of congratulation to the CPAFFC. They include Martti Ahtisaari, former Finnish president; Gough Whitlam and Robert J. L. Hawke, former prime ministers of Australia; Thomas Klestil, president of Austria; Heinz Fischer, president elect of Austria; Wolfgang Schussel, federal chancellor of Austria; Benita Ferrero-Waldner, Austrian foreign minister; Mag. Barbara Prammer, first vice presi-

  11. The Role of the Photogeologic Mapping in the Morocco 2013 Mars Analog Field Simulation (Austrian Space Forum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losiak, Anna; Orgel, Csilla; Moser, Linda; MacArthur, Jane; Gołębiowska, Izabela; Wittek, Steffen; Boyd, Andrea; Achorner, Isabella; Rampey, Mike; Bartenstein, Thomas; Jones, Natalie; Luger, Ulrich; Sans, Alejandra; Hettrich, Sebastian

    2013-04-01

    The MARS2013 mission: The Austrian Space Forum together with multiple scientific partners will conduct a Mars analog field simulation. The project takes place between 1st and 28th of February 2013 in the northern Sahara near Erfoud. During the simulation a field crew (consisting of suited analog astronauts and a support team) will conduct several experiments while being managed by the Mission Support Center (MSC) located in Innsbruck, Austria. The aim of the project is to advance preparation of the future human Mars missions by testing: 1) the mission design with regard to operational and engineering challenges (e.g., how to work efficiently with introduced time delay in communication between field team and MSC), 2) scientific instruments (e.g., rovers) and 3) human performance in conditions analogous to those that will be encountered on Mars. The Role of Geological Mapping: Remote Science Support team (RSS) is responsible for processing science data obtained in the field. The RSS is also in charge of preparing a set of maps to enable planning activities of the mission (including the development of traverses) [1, 2]. The usage of those maps will increase the time-cost efficiency of the entire mission. The RSS team members do not have any prior knowledge about the area where the simulation is taking place and the analysis is fully based on remote sensing satellite data (Landsat, GoogleEarth) and a digital elevation model (ASTER GDEM)from the orbital data. The maps design: The set of maps (covering area 5 km X 5 km centered on the Mission Base Camp) was designed to simplify the process of site selection for the daily traverse planning. Additionally, the maps will help to accommodate the need of the field crew for the increased autonomy in the decision making process, forced by the induced time delay between MSC and "Mars". The set of provided maps should allow the field team to orientate and navigate in the explored areas as well as make informed decisions about

  12. Individual Cognitive Social Capital and Its Relationship with Pain and Sick Leave Due to Pain in the Austrian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muckenhuber, Johanna; Pollak, Lorenz; Stein, Katharina Viktoria; Dorner, Thomas Ernst

    2016-01-01

    Background Individual cognitive social capital has repeatedly been shown to be linked to health disparities in many dimensions. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between social capital and pain-related measures. Methods 15,474 subjects older than 15 years were personally interviewed on subjective health, quality of life, health behaviour, and utilisation of healthcare in the Austrian Health Interview Survey. An indicator for cognitive social capital at the individual level consisting of nine questions targeted at different social resources was built and its association with pain-related items analysed. Results Odds ratios, adjusted for age, chronic diseases, and educational level for having suffered from severe pain in the last 12 months were 2.02 (95% CI 1.77–2.03) in the lowest tertile and 1.30 (95% CI 1.14–1.47) in the middle tertile of social capital for men. The corresponding odds ratios for women were 2.28 (95% CI 2.01–2.59) and 1.30 (95% CI 1.15–1.46). In both sexes, pain intensity increased significantly with decreasing level of social capital. The proportion of subjects that have been on sick leave in the last 12 months due to pain were 16.3%, 12.0%, and 7.7% (P<0.001) from lowest to highest tertile of social capital in men, and 16.5%, 12.3%, and 6.7%, respectively (P<0.001) in women. Conclusion Our findings indicate that low cognitive social capital at individual level is significantly associated not only with higher prevalence of pain and higher pain intensity, but also with a higher chance for sick leave due to pain in employed subjects. PMID:27322649

  13. Institutional abuse of children in the Austrian Catholic Church: types of abuse and impact on adult survivors' current mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueger-Schuster, Brigitte; Kantor, Viktoria; Weindl, Dina; Knefel, Matthias; Moy, Yvonne; Butollo, Asisa; Jagsch, Reinhold; Glück, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the nature and dimensions of institutional child abuse (IA) by the Austrian Catholic Church and to investigate the current mental health of adult survivors. Data were collected in two steps. First, documents of 448 adult survivors of IA (M=55.1 years, 75.7% men) who had disclosed their abuse history to a victim protection commission were collected. Different types of abuse, perpetrator characteristics, and family related risk factors were investigated. Second, a sample of 185 adult survivors completed the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL-C) and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Participants reported an enormous diversity of acts of violent physical, sexual, and emotional abuse that had occurred in their childhood. The majority of adult survivors (83.3%) experienced emotional abuse. Rates of sexual (68.8%) and physical abuse (68.3%) were almost equally high. The prevalence of PTSD was 48.6% and 84.9% showed clinically relevant symptoms in at least one 1 of 10 symptom dimensions (9 BSI subscales and PTSD). No specific pre-IA influence was found to influence the development of PTSD in later life (e.g. poverty, domestic violence). However, survivors with PTSD reported a significantly higher total number of family related risk factors (d=0.33). We conclude that childhood IA includes a wide spectrum of violent acts, and has a massive negative impact on the current mental health of adult survivors. We address the long-term effects of these traumatic experiences in addition to trauma re-activation in adulthood as both bear great challenges for professionals working with survivors. PMID:24018068

  14. A survey of visual function in an Austrian population of school-age children with reading and writing difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McClelland Julie F

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To describe and compare visual function measures of two groups of school age children (6-14 years of age attending a specialist eyecare practice in Austria; one group referred to the practice from educational assessment centres diagnosed with reading and writing difficulties and the other, a clinical age-matched control group. Methods Retrospective clinical data from one group of subjects with reading difficulties (n = 825 and a clinical control group of subjects (n = 328 were examined. Statistical analysis was performed to determine whether any differences existed between visual function measures from each group (refractive error, visual acuity, binocular status, accommodative function and reading speed and accuracy. Results Statistical analysis using one way ANOVA demonstrated no differences between the two groups in terms of refractive error and the size or direction of heterophoria at distance (p > 0.05. Using predominately one way ANOVA and chi-square analyses, those subjects in the referred group were statistically more likely to have poorer distance visual acuity, an exophoric deviation at near, a lower amplitude of accommodation, reduced accommodative facility, reduced vergence facility, a reduced near point of convergence, a lower AC/A ratio and a slower reading speed than those in the clinical control group (p Conclusions This study highlights the high proportions of visual function anomalies in a group of children with reading difficulties in an Austrian population. It confirms the importance of a full assessment of binocular visual status in order to detect and remedy these deficits in order to prevent the visual problems continuing to impact upon educational development.

  15. Individual Cognitive Social Capital and Its Relationship with Pain and Sick Leave Due to Pain in the Austrian Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Muckenhuber

    Full Text Available Individual cognitive social capital has repeatedly been shown to be linked to health disparities in many dimensions. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between social capital and pain-related measures.15,474 subjects older than 15 years were personally interviewed on subjective health, quality of life, health behaviour, and utilisation of healthcare in the Austrian Health Interview Survey. An indicator for cognitive social capital at the individual level consisting of nine questions targeted at different social resources was built and its association with pain-related items analysed.Odds ratios, adjusted for age, chronic diseases, and educational level for having suffered from severe pain in the last 12 months were 2.02 (95% CI 1.77-2.03 in the lowest tertile and 1.30 (95% CI 1.14-1.47 in the middle tertile of social capital for men. The corresponding odds ratios for women were 2.28 (95% CI 2.01-2.59 and 1.30 (95% CI 1.15-1.46. In both sexes, pain intensity increased significantly with decreasing level of social capital. The proportion of subjects that have been on sick leave in the last 12 months due to pain were 16.3%, 12.0%, and 7.7% (P<0.001 from lowest to highest tertile of social capital in men, and 16.5%, 12.3%, and 6.7%, respectively (P<0.001 in women.Our findings indicate that low cognitive social capital at individual level is significantly associated not only with higher prevalence of pain and higher pain intensity, but also with a higher chance for sick leave due to pain in employed subjects.

  16. Institutional abuse of children in the Austrian Catholic Church: types of abuse and impact on adult survivors' current mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueger-Schuster, Brigitte; Kantor, Viktoria; Weindl, Dina; Knefel, Matthias; Moy, Yvonne; Butollo, Asisa; Jagsch, Reinhold; Glück, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the nature and dimensions of institutional child abuse (IA) by the Austrian Catholic Church and to investigate the current mental health of adult survivors. Data were collected in two steps. First, documents of 448 adult survivors of IA (M=55.1 years, 75.7% men) who had disclosed their abuse history to a victim protection commission were collected. Different types of abuse, perpetrator characteristics, and family related risk factors were investigated. Second, a sample of 185 adult survivors completed the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL-C) and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Participants reported an enormous diversity of acts of violent physical, sexual, and emotional abuse that had occurred in their childhood. The majority of adult survivors (83.3%) experienced emotional abuse. Rates of sexual (68.8%) and physical abuse (68.3%) were almost equally high. The prevalence of PTSD was 48.6% and 84.9% showed clinically relevant symptoms in at least one 1 of 10 symptom dimensions (9 BSI subscales and PTSD). No specific pre-IA influence was found to influence the development of PTSD in later life (e.g. poverty, domestic violence). However, survivors with PTSD reported a significantly higher total number of family related risk factors (d=0.33). We conclude that childhood IA includes a wide spectrum of violent acts, and has a massive negative impact on the current mental health of adult survivors. We address the long-term effects of these traumatic experiences in addition to trauma re-activation in adulthood as both bear great challenges for professionals working with survivors.

  17. School reform during the second Austrian administration in Dalmatia, and primary school libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanka Kuić

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The history of school libraries in Dalmatia dates back to the 19th century, when they were established as differentiated and defined subjects within the education system in the Austro-Hungarian monarchy. The important heritage of the reform of primary and secondary schools organized by the Austro-Hungarian authorities was the creation of the library network within the education system.This paper describes the situation in the Dalmatian primary school education prior to the 1869 reform, and the institutional framework for the primary school libraries following the reform. It also conceptualizes the social dimension of their work. We have also shown the social, cultural, and economic framework for the reforms, implementation of laws and regulations that focused on their work, and tried to estimate the cultural situation in Dalmatian villages before and after the reform. We have shown the reform of secondary education and the development of secondary school libraries. The libraries were founded after the adoption of the 1871 Act on Principles of Primary School Education, temporary school and teaching regulation of 1870, and the 1871 Regulations on School Libraries. This is the time when regional teacher libraries were established as a tool for the further education of teachers. We have also described the Regulations for both school and teachers’ libraries. Our hypothesis is that schools, including school libraries, are modernizing institutions. As such, school libraries had a wider range of tasks defined within the modernizing transition of Dalmatia in the late 19th century. The basis for such an approach was the analysis of selected reference texts in periodicals and the literature on the history of school education in Dalmatia. Many papers on the reform of primary schools in Dalmatia have been published, but the organization and activities of school libraries has received little attention. This paper focuses on the institutional frameworks for

  18. The impact of risk and protective factors on mental health and well-being-Austrian adolescents and migrant adolescents from war-affected countries

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    Anita Buchegger-Traxler

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: young persons are most strongly affected by displacement through political/military actions. This is also a European problem as well as an issue for the European Union. Applying the social-ecological model by Bronfenbrenner we concentrated on micro- and mesosystems of Austrian adolescents and migrant adolescents of war-affected countries.

    Methods: a questionnaire was administered to adolescents in Austria attending schools beyond the mandatory school age, yielding a sample of about 1 100 students from Austrian and immigrant background. We used analysis of variance to compare host and immigrant youth as well as regression analysis to assess the impact of risk and protective factors on youth outcomes.

    Results: we do find sex differences for protective factors and youth outcomes but few differences between immigrant and Austrian adolescents. Youth outcomes analysed were somatic symptoms, anxiety, depression, self-esteem, anti-social behaviour, substance use, and academic performance. Important risk factors turned out to be intergenerational conflict, exposure to violence, and social distance. Protective factors include family connectedness, parental monitoring, school connectedness, peer support, and neighbourhood attachment.

    Conclusions: the most important protective factor is school connectsdness. Social distance and intergenerational conflict are the dominant risk factors influencing youth outcomes. Our research leads to a better understanding of factors determining the well-being of adolescents and contributes to finding new approaches to prevent or cope with mental health problems of young immigrants. In particular it appears to be important to keep young persons in education and/or training since school connectedness influences mental health and well-being positively.

  19. Dynamics of Vibrio cholerae abundance in Austrian saline lakes, assessed with quantitative solid-phase cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Sonja; Jakwerth, Stefan; Bliem, Rupert; Baudart, Julia; Lebaron, Philippe; Huhulescu, Steliana; Kundi, Michael; Herzig, Alois; Farnleitner, Andreas H; Sommer, Regina; Kirschner, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    In order to elucidate the main predictors of Vibrio cholerae dynamics and to estimate the risk of Vibrio cholera-related diseases, a recently developed direct detection approach based on fluorescence in situ hybridization and solid-phase cytometry (CARD-FISH/SPC) was applied in comparison to cultivation for water samples from the lake Neusiedler See, Austria and three shallow alkaline lakes over a period of 20 months. Vibrio cholerae attached to crustacean zooplankton was quantified via FISH and epifluorescence microscopy. Concentrations obtained by CARD-FISH/SPC were significantly higher than those obtained by culture in 2011, but were mostly of similar magnitude in 2012. Maximum cell numbers were 1.26 × 10(6) V. cholerae per L in Neusiedler See and 7.59 × 10(7) V. cholerae per L in the shallow alkaline lakes. Only on a few occasions during summer was the crustacean zooplankton the preferred habitat for V. cholerae. In winter, V. cholerae was not culturable but could be quantified at all sites with CARD-FISH/SPC. Beside temperature, suspended solids, zooplankton and ammonium were the main predictors of V. cholerae abundance in Neusiedler See, while in the shallow alkaline lakes it was organic carbon, conductivity and phosphorus. Based on the obtained concentrations a first estimation of the health risk for visitors of the lake could be performed.

  20. Does management intensity in inter rows effect soil physical properties in Austrian and Romanian vineyards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Thomas; Strauss, Peter; Stiper, Katrin; Klipa, Vladimir; Popescu, Daniela; Winter, Silvia; Zaller, Johann G.

    2016-04-01

    Successful viticulture is mainly influenced by soil and climate. The availability of water during the growing season highly influences wine quality and quantity. To protect soil from being eroded most of the winegrowers keep the inter row zones of the vineyards green. Greening also helps to provide water-stress to the grapes for harvesting high quality wines. However, these greening strategies concerning the intensity of inter row management differ from farm to farm and are mainly based on personal experience of the winegrowers. However to what extent different inter row management practices affect soil physical properties are not clearly understood yet. To measure possible effects of inter row management in vineyards on soil physical parameters we selected paired vineyards with different inter row management in Austria and Romania. In total more than 7000 soil analysis were conducted for saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, soil water retention, water stable aggregates, total organic carbon, cation exchange capacity, potassium, phosphorous, soil texture, bulk density and water infiltration. The comparison between high intensity management with at least one soil disturbance per year, medium intensity with one soil disturbance every second inter row per year and low intensity management with no soil disturbance since at least 5 years indicates that investigated soil physical properties did not improve for the upper soil layer (3-8cm). This is in contrast to general perceptions of improved soil physical properties due to low intensity of inter row management, i.e. permanent vegetated inter rows. This may be attributed to long term and high frequency mechanical stress by agricultural machinery in inter rows.

  1. German-austrian recommendations for HIV1-therapy in pregnancy and in HIV1-exposed newborn - update 2008

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    Buchholz Bernd

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract German-Austrian recommendations for HIV1-therapy in pregnancy - Update 2008 Bernd Buchholz (University Medical Centre Mannheim, Pediatric Clinic, Matthias Beichert (Mannheim, Gynecology and Obstetrics Practice, Ulrich Marcus (Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, Thomas Grubert, Andrea Gingelmaier (Gynecology Clinic of the Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Dr. med. Annette Haberl (HIV-Department, J. W. Goethe-University Hospital, Frankfurt, Dr. med. Brigitte Schmied (Otto-Wagner Spital, Wien. In Germany during the last years about 200-250 HIV1-infected pregnant women delivered a baby each year, a number that is currently increasing. To determine the HIV-status early in pregnancy voluntary HIV-testing of all pregnant women is recommended in Germany and Austria as part of prenatal care. In those cases, where HIV1-infection was known during pregnancy, since 1995 the rate of vertical transmission of HIV1 was reduced to 1-2%. This low transmission rate has been achieved by the combination of anti-retroviral therapy of pregnant women, caesarean section scheduled before onset of labour, anti-retroviral post exposition prophylaxis in the newborn and refraining from breast-feeding by the HIV1-infected mother. To keep pace with new results in research, approval of new anti-retroviral drugs and changes in the general treatment recommendations for HIV1-infected adults, in 1998, 2001, 2003 and 2005 an interdisciplinary consensus meeting was held. Gynaecologists, infectious disease specialists, paediatricians, pharmacologists, virologists and members of the German AIDS Hilfe (NGO were participating in this conference to update the prevention strategies. A fifth update became necessary in 2008. The updating process was started in January 2008 and was terminated in September 2008. The guidelines provide new recommendations on the indication and the starting point for HIV-therapy in pregnancies without complications, drugs and drug combinations to be

  2. Difference in factors associated with low-level viraemia and virological failure: results from the Austrian HIV Cohort Study

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    Gisela Leierer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: For some patients, it remains a challenge to achieve complete virological suppression which is the goal of antiretroviral therapy (ART. Identifying factors associated with low-level viraemia (LLV and virological failure (VF under ART might help to optimize management of these patients. Materials and Methods: We investigated patients from the Austrian HIV Cohort Study receiving unmodified ART for >6 months with two nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs with either a non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI or a boosted protease inhibitor (PI or an integrase inhibitor (INSTI between 1 July 2012 and 1 July 2013 with at least one viral load (VL measurement below the limit of detection (BLD or below level of quantification (BLQ in their treatment history. VF was defined as HIV-RNA levels ≥200 copies/mL and all other quantifiable measurements were classified as LLV. Factors associated with LLV and VF compared to BLD and BLQ were identified by using logistic regression models. Results: Of the 2,276 patients analyzed, 1,972 (86.6% were BLD or BLQ, 222 (9.8% showed LLV and 82 (3.6% had VF. A higher risk for LLV and VF was found in patients with ART interruptions and in patients with boosted PI therapy. The risk for LLV and VF was lower in patients from a centre which uses Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay compared to the other centres measuring VL by the Roche Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan 2.0. A higher risk for LLV but not for VF was found in patients with a higher VL before ART and shorter ART duration. A higher risk for VF but not for LLV was found in patients of younger age, originating from a high prevalence country, with a lower CD4 count and in male injecting drug users. Conclusions: This study of well-defined patients on stable ART over a period of more than six months gives insights into the different factors associated with LLV and VF. In patients with VF, factors associated with adherence play a prominent

  3. Fuel efficiency of the Austrian passenger vehicle fleet-Analysis of trends in the technological profile and related impacts on CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyzes trends in the technological profile of the Austrian personnel vehicle fleet from 1990 to 2007. This includes the parameters of power, engine size and weight, which beyond the technological efficiency of the motor engine itself, are considered to be the main determinants of the fuel efficiency of the average car stock. Investigating the drivers of ever rising transport related greenhouse gas emissions is crucial in order to derive policies that strive towards more energy-efficient on-road passenger mobility. We focus on the efficacy of technological efficiency improvements in mitigating climate-relevant emissions from car use in light of shifting demand patterns towards bigger, heavier and more powerful cars. The analysis is descriptive in nature and based on a bottom-up database that was originally collated for the purpose of the present study. Technological data on car models, which includes tested fuel consumption, engine size, power and weight, is related to registered car stock and, in parts, to newly registered cars. From this, we obtain an original database of the Austrian passenger car fleet, i.e. information on consumer choice of specific car models, segregated by gasoline and diesel fuelled engines. Conclusions are derived for policies aimed at reducing the fossil fuel consumption of the moving vehicle fleet in order to contribute to a low carbon society.

  4. Review: Natural tracers in fractured hard-rock aquifers in the Austrian part of the Eastern Alps—previous approaches and future perspectives for hydrogeology in mountain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilberg, Sylke

    2016-08-01

    Extensive in-depth research is required for the implementation of natural tracer approaches to hydrogeological investigation to be feasible in mountainous regions. This review considers the application of hydrochemical and biotic parameters in mountain regions over the past few decades with particular reference to the Austrian Alps, as an example for alpine-type mountain belts. A brief introduction to Austria's hydrogeological arrangement is given to show the significance of fractured hard-rock aquifers for hydrogeological science as well as for water supply purposes. A literature search showed that research concerning fractured hard-rock aquifers in Austria is clearly underrepresented to date, especially when taking the abundance of this aquifer type and the significance of this topic into consideration. The application of abiotic natural tracers (hydrochemical and isotope parameters) is discussed generally and by means of examples from the Austrian Alps. The potential of biotic tracers (microbiota and meiofauna) is elucidated. It is shown that the meiofauna approach to investigating fractured aquifers has not yet been applied in the reviewed region, nor worldwide. Two examples of new approaches in mountainous fractured aquifers are introduced: (1) use of CO2 partial pressure and calcite saturation of spring water to reconstruct catchments and flow dynamics (abiotic approach), and, (2) consideration of hard-rock aquifers as habitats to reconstruct aquifer conditions (biotic approach).

  5. Policy Reform Efforts and Equal Opportunity – An Evidence-Based Link? An Analysis of Current Sector Reforms in the Austrian School System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Geppert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of the present paper is to answer two different questions: From the perspective of Austrian education policy, which core areas of schooling are linked to the demand for equal opportunity? Can these reform efforts sustain the current state of research, and what are the consequences for schooling? The paper draws on an analysis by Hopmann, Geppert & Bauer (2010. Fifteen official self-presentations (political programmes of Austrian political parties were analysed for statements concerning the improvement of the education system. This resulted in about seventy different statements, which were aggregated into eight core areas.We conducted a systematic analysis of four of these core areas, dealing with the topics of equal opportunity: comprehensive school, all-day schooling, school autonomy and standardisation of students’ achievements. The aim was not to judge the legitimacy or the political content of the claims made. In line with evaluative discourse, we asked whether the combination of political demands and their associated expectations met the current state of research. In many policy programmes, it is assumed that comprehensive schooling, all-day schooling, education standards, standardised general certification for university attendance, school autonomy or language surveys go hand in hand with more equality of opportunity, justice andquality in education, but an analysis of the current state of research could not confirm this. The analysis showed that, with regard to education policy demands, statements having empirically little or nothing to do with each other are often linked.

  6. Space Tweetup - from a participant to a Mars Tweetup organizer and a new format of space communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, O.; Groemer, G.

    2014-01-01

    In September 2011, the European Space Agency (ESA) and the German Space Agency (DLR) organized the first European SpaceTweetup during the German Aerospace day. One of the authors was one of 60 participants at this SpaceTweetup in Cologne and experienced the concept of a Tweetup and the engagement of the participants from the inside view. Building upon this experience, the Austrian Space Forum (OeWF) organized the first Austrian MarsTweetup during the “Dachstein Mars analog simulation”. Between 27 Apr,2001 and May,2012, a five day Mars simulation was conducted by the Austrian Space Forum and international research partners at the Giant Ice caves at the Dachstein region in Austria. During this field test, the Aouda.X spacesuit simulator and selected geophysical and life-science related experiments were conducted. In this paper we outline the potential and limitations of social media and how to engage the general public to participate and communicate about space projects through their own experience. We show examples of material SpaceTweetup participants produced e.g. hundreds of tweets during the actual event, blog entries, photo galleries and how space communication can benefit from it. Our considerations on organizing a SpaceTweetup are complemented with a section on lessons learned.

  7. Risk-based damage potential and loss estimation of extreme flooding scenarios in the Austrian Federal Province of Tyrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Huttenlau

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the last decades serious flooding events occurred in many parts of Europe and especially in 2005 the Austrian Federal Province of Tyrol was serious affected. These events in general and particularly the 2005 event have sensitised decision makers and the public. Beside discussions pertaining to protection goals and lessons learnt, the issue concerning potential consequences of extreme and severe flooding events has been raised. Additionally to the general interest of the public, decision makers of the insurance industry, public authorities, and responsible politicians are especially confronted with the question of possible consequences of extreme events. Answers thereof are necessary for the implementation of preventive appropriate risk management strategies. Thereby, property and liability losses reflect a large proportion of the direct tangible losses. These are of great interest for the insurance sector and can be understood as main indicators to interpret the severity of potential events. The natural scientific-technical risk analysis concept provides a predefined and structured framework to analyse the quantities of affected elements at risk, their corresponding damage potentials, and the potential losses. Generally, this risk concept framework follows the process steps hazard analysis, exposition analysis, and consequence analysis. Additionally to the conventional hazard analysis, the potential amount of endangered elements and their corresponding damage potentials were analysed and, thereupon, concrete losses were estimated. These took the specific vulnerability of the various individual elements at risk into consideration. The present flood risk analysis estimates firstly the general exposures of the risk indicators in the study area and secondly analyses the specific exposures and consequences of five extreme event scenarios. In order to precisely identify, localize, and characterize the relevant risk indicators of buildings

  8. Modeling of Nitrogen Dynamics in an Austrian Alpine Forest Ecosystem on Calcareous Soils: A Scenario-Based Risk Assessment under Changing Environmental Conditions

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    Friedl Herman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We modeled the behavior of an Austrian alpine forest ecosystem on calcareous soils under changing climate and atmospheric nitrogen deposition scenarios. The change of nitrate leaching, emission rates of nitrogen compounds, and forest productivity were calculated using four process-oriented models for the periods 1998–2002 and 2048–2052. Each model reflects with high detail a segment of the ecosystem: PnET-N-DNDC (photosynthesis-evapotranspiration-nitrification-denitrification-decomposition; shortterm nitrogen cycling, BROOK90 (water balance for small and homogenous forest watersheds, HYDRUS (water flux in complex and heterogenous soils, and PICUS v1.3 (forest productivity. The nitrogen balance model (NBM combines the individual results into a comprehensive picture and extends the specific values beyond the limits of the individual models. The evaluation of the findings was outlined with TRACE, a model enabling a long-term prognosis of nitrogen cycling in annual time steps.

  9. To Infinity and Beyond – Are Innovation Contests at Austrian Technical Colleges the Right Tool to Stimulate the Creative and Technical Potential of the Country?

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    Axel Zafoschnig

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, creativity as it is applied for finding new technologies and making new inventions, is characterised by new unorthodox aspects of and approaches to problem solving. At the same time, innovation uses new scientific, technical and cultural elements to sustainably change the social structure of society. However, creative and innovative ideas are not affluent or ever-lasting resources. They need to be stimulated, elicited and put into realisation. This has to be done through expensive research and development cam-paigns, but may also be achieved at a lower level, namely, for example, at Austrian Technical Colleges. There, students are often encouraged to submit their diploma thesis projects in national and regional competitions and have recently proved to be very successful.

  10. Genetic and phenotypic analysis of Vibrio cholerae non-O1, non-O139 isolated from German and Austrian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmeister, F; Dieckmann, R; Bechlars, S; Bier, N; Faruque, S M; Strauch, E

    2014-05-01

    Vibrio cholerae belonging to the non-O1, non-O139 serogroups are present in the coastal waters of Germany and in some German and Austrian lakes. These bacteria can cause gastroenteritis and extraintestinal infections, and are transmitted through contaminated food and water. However, non-O1, non-O139 V. cholerae infections are rare in Germany. We studied 18 strains from German and Austrian patients with diarrhea or local infections for their virulence-associated genotype and phenotype to assess their potential for infectivity in anticipation of possible climatic changes that could enhance the transmission of these pathogens. The strains were examined for the presence of genes encoding cholera toxin and toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP), as well as other virulence-associated factors or markers, including hemolysins, repeats-in-toxin (RTX) toxins, Vibrio seventh pandemic islands VSP-1 and VSP-2, and the type III secretion system (TTSS). Phenotypic assays for hemolysin activity, serum resistance, and biofilm formation were also performed. A dendrogram generated by incorporating the results of these analyses revealed genetic differences of the strains correlating with their clinical origin. Non-O1, non-O139 strains from diarrheal patients possessed the TTSS and/or the multifunctional autoprocessing repeats-in-toxin (MARTX) toxin, which were not found in the strains from ear or wound infections. Routine matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of all strains provided reliable identification of the species but failed to differentiate between strains or clusters. The results of this study indicate the need for continued surveillance of V. cholerae non-O1, non-O139 in Germany, in view of the predicted increase in the prevalence of Vibrio spp. due to the rise in surface water temperatures.

  11. Austrian Vocational Teachers' Training and Its Enlightenment to China%奥地利职教教师培养及对我国的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李赟; 林祝亮; 曹振新; 王泽文

    2015-01-01

    奥地利在职教师资培养方面特色鲜明,为解决青年就业和促进经济发展做出了突出贡献。从学徒制学校、中级职业学校、高级职业学校以及专科院校四个阶段入手,分阶段深入研究奥地利职教师资培养模式,总结奥地利不同阶段职教师资培养模式的特点,分析我国职教师资培养的发展现状及存在的问题,有助于借鉴奥地利职教师资培养的成功经验,促进我国职教师资培养的良性发展,更好地为经济发展和青年就业服务。%In terms of vocational teachers' training, Austria has its own distinctive features, which has made contribution to youth employment and economic development. With the four stages a starting point, such as apprenticeship schools, secondary vocational schools, higher vocational schools and vocational colleges, Austrian vocational teachers' training mode in higher vocational schools is analyzed in depth. The characteristics of different stages for teachers training in Australia are summarized. The current situation of vocational teachers' training in our country and the problems are analyzed, which is helpful to learn the successful experience of Austrian teachers training from to improve healthy development of China's vocational teachers training and to make more contribution to our economic and youth employment.

  12. High Performance Work Systems as an Enabling Structure for Self-organized Learning Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Wallner

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available High Performance Work Systems (HPWSs as a new way of organizing work in general and of production work in particular provide an environment, where self-organized learning processes are enabled and fostered. In an extensive research project in 2 major Austrian manufacturing companies we currently investigate the applicability and the effects of HPWS including issues of learning and knowledge management. In this contribution we present the results of the first phase of this project discussing early empirical findings of an exploratory nature.

  13. Evolution of the eastern Austrian Molasse Basin: The Lower Miocene (Burdigalian) as a key to the understanding of the Eastern Alps - Molasse Basin system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palzer, Markus; Knierzinger, Wolfgang; Wagreich, Michael; Meszar, Maria E.; Gier, Susanne; Soliman, Ali; -Elena Kallanxhi, Mǎdǎlina

    2016-04-01

    The eastern Austrian Molasse Basin is situated between the Bohemian Massif, the Waschberg-Zone and the Alps. There, sands of the Lower Miocene (Upper Ottnangian) Traisen Formation represent a clastic interval at the top of pelitic Schlier successions, which is correlated with the global sea level drop Bur3 (Burdigalian). North of the Danube River, the continuation of the Traisen-Formation is overlain by the Karpatian Laa-Formation. Drill cores from OMV-wells predominantly from the continuation of the Traisen Formation in deep parts in the NE of the basin show hundreds of meters of pelites with intersections of sands. Contrary to the exposed, mainly brackish TF, a turbiditic and predominantly fully marine deep-water environment is inferred from the cores. Profiles of carbonate content, XRD, XRF, whole rock chemistry, clay minerals, calcareous nannoplankton and dinoflagellate cysts of 7 wells were investigated representing a NE-SW transect through the LAMB. Based on these data, a new stratigraphy for the Burdigalian distal parts of the LAMB can be defined and correlated with the proximal units. The Traisen Formation and its equivalents are characterized at their base by an increased clastic input in the south and by increasing mica content in the northern parts. The complete interval is characterized by the decreased carbonate content. The XRD data show strongly reduced calcite contents which goe hand in hand with the absence of nannoplankton. Whether the signal is related to a crisis in primary production or to carbonate dissolution remains unclear. The absence of dinoflagellate cysts and the chemical data (reduced B/Al* ratios indicate reduced salinity) are considered as an argument for an environmental crisis. However, the absence of resedimented Cretaceous to Paleocene nannofossils, which usually occur together with the autochthonous NN4-nannofossils, indicates carbonate dissolution. These results enable us to define a basinal interval as equivalent to the

  14. Use of local anaesthetics and adjuncts for spinal and epidural anaesthesia and analgesia at German and Austrian University Hospitals: an online survey to assess current standard practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roewer Norbert

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present anonymous multicenter online survey was conducted to evaluate the application of regional anaesthesia techniques as well as the used local anaesthetics and adjuncts at German and Austrian university hospitals. Methods 39 university hospitals were requested to fill in an online questionnaire, to determine the kind of regional anaesthesia and preferred drugs in urology, obstetrics and gynaecology. Results 33 hospitals responded. No regional anaesthesia is conducted in 47% of the minor gynaecological and 44% of the urological operations; plain bupivacaine 0.5% is used in 38% and 47% respectively. In transurethral resections of the prostate and bladder no regional anaesthesia is used in 3% of the responding hospitals, whereas plain bupivacaine 0.5% is used in more than 90%. Regional anaesthesia is only used in selected major gynaecological and urological operations. On the contrary to the smaller operations, the survey revealed a large variety of used drugs and mixtures. Almost 80% prefer plain bupivacaine or ropivacaine 0.5% in spinal anaesthesia in caesarean section. Similarly to the use of drugs in major urological and gynaecological operations a wide range of drugs and adjuncts is used in epidural anaesthesia in caesarean section and spontaneous delivery. Conclusions Our results indicate a certain agreement in short operations in spinal anaesthesia. By contrast, a large variety concerning the anaesthesiological approach in larger operations as well as in epidural analgesia in obstetrics could be revealed, the causes of which are assumed to be primarily rooted in particular departmental structures.

  15. Seroprevalence for Coxiella burnetii, Francisella tularensis, Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis in Austrian adults: a cross-sectional survey among military personnel and civilians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobudic, Selma; Nedomansky, Klara; Poeppl, Wolfgang; Müller, Maria; Faas, Angelus; Mooseder, Gerhard; Allerberger, Franz; Stanek, Gerold; Burgmann, Heinz

    2014-04-01

    The prevalence of Coxiella burnetii, Francisella tularensis, Brucella abortus, and Brucella melitensis infections in Austria and the exposure risk of military personnel were assessed in an exploratory nationwide cross-sectional seroprevalence survey in 526 healthy adult individuals, 222 of which were soldiers and 304 were civilians. Screening for IgA/IgG antibodies to C. burnetii (Phase I) and IgG/IgM antibodies to C. burnetii (Phase II), and to F. tularensis was done with commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. To detect antibodies against B. abortus and B. melitensis, an in-house complement fixation test was used. Overall, 11 individuals (2.0%) showed antibodies to C. burnetii, 3 individuals (0.5%) were seropositive for F. tularensis, and one (0.3%) individual was borderline positive. All individuals positive or borderline for F. tularensis tested negative for antibodies against C. burnetii. All individuals tested negative for antibodies against B. melitensis/B. abortus. There were no significant differences between the seroprevalence of C. burnetii and F. tularensis among military personnel and civilians. Our data demonstrate serological evidence of a low rate of exposure to C. burnetii and F. tularensis among the Austrian adult population and military personnel.

  16. Acute effects of particulate matter on respiratory diseases, symptoms and functions:. epidemiological results of the Austrian Project on Health Effects of Particulate Matter (AUPHEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, Manfred; Schimek, Michael G.; Horak, Friedrich; Moshammer, Hanns; Kundi, Michael; Frischer, Thomas; Gomiscek, Bostjan; Puxbaum, Hans; Hauck, Helger; Auphep-Team

    To examine hypotheses regarding health effects of particulate matter, we conducted time series studies in Austrian urban and rural areas. Of the pollutants measured, ambient PM 2.5 was most consistently associated with parameters of respiratory health. Time series studies applying semiparametric generalized additive models showed significant increases of respiratory hospital admissions (ICD 490-496) at age 65 and older. The early increase of 5.5% in Vienna at a lag of 2 days in males and of 5.6% per 10 μg/m 3 at a lag of 3 days in females was not observed in a nearby rural area. Another increase of respiratory admissions (mainly COPD) was observed after a lag of 10-11 days. A time series on a panel of 56 healthy preschool children showed a significant impact of the carbonaceous fraction of PM 2.5 on tidal breathing pattern assessed by inductive plethysmography. In repeated oscillometric measurements of respiratory resistance in 164 healthy elementary school children not only immediate responses to fine particulates were found but also latent ones, possibly indicating inflammatory changes in airways. It may be speculated that the improvements of urban air quality prevented measurable effects on respiratory mortality. More sensitive indicators, however, still show acute impairments of respiratory function and health in elderly and children which are associated with fine particulates and subfractions related to motor traffic.

  17. Women show a closer association between educational level and hypertension or diabetes mellitus than males: a secondary analysis from the Austrian HIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kautzky-Willer Alexandra

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lifestyle diseases and cardiovascular complications are dramatically increasing, but little is known about the impact of educational level and health behaviour in men and women in different populations. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the association between educational level (EL and self-reported chronic diseases and health behaviour in both sexes. Methods Data were derived from the Austrian Health Interview Surveys 2006/2007, which includes 13 558 persons (50.9% females. The associations between EL and the risk of obesity, hypertension, diabetes, myocardial infarction, stroke and anxiety disorders or depression, nutrition, exercise, and smoking were evaluated. University education served as the reference category (EL4, the lowest educational level was required schooling only (EL0. Results Only among women did the risk for diabetes mellitus and hypertension increase with decreasing educational level with the highest rates for EL0 OR [95% CI] adjusted for age, income, family status and lifestyle: 3.7 [1.7-8.0], and 2.5 [1.8-3.5], respectively. Only among the men, however, did the risk for stroke increase with decreasing educational level adjusted OR for EL0: 8.5 [1.7-42.7]. For anthropometric measures and lifestyle factors in both sexes the risk increased with decreasing EL. Conclusion EL affects lifestyle, overweight and obesity in both sexes. The apparent sex-specific differences in the association between the prevalence of some chronic disease with EL call for further investigation.

  18. Model-Based Estimation of Forest Canopy Height in Red and Austrian Pine Stands Using Shuttle Radar Topography Mission and Ancillary Data: a Proof-of-Concept Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown Jr., C G; Sarabandi, K; Pierce, L E

    2007-04-06

    In this paper, accurate tree stand height retrieval is demonstrated using C-band Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) height and ancillary data. The tree height retrieval algorithm is based on modeling uniform tree stands with a single layer of randomly oriented vegetation particles. For such scattering media, the scattering phase center height, as measured by SRTM, is a function of tree height, incidence angle, and the extinction coefficient of the medium. The extinction coefficient for uniform tree stands is calculated as a function of tree height and density using allometric equations and a fractal tree model. The accuracy of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated using SRTM and TOPSAR data for 15 red pine and Austrian pine stands (TOPSAR is an airborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar). The algorithm yields root-mean-square (rms) errors of 2.5-3.6 m, which is a substantial improvement over the 6.8-8.3-m rms errors from the raw SRTM minus National Elevation Dataset Heights.

  19. Humus characteristics and seasonal changes of soil arthropod communities in a natural sessile oak (Quercus petraea L.) stand and adjacent Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Meric; Makineci, Ender

    2013-11-01

    In order to assess the effects of conversion of natural stands into plantations, soil invertebrate micro- and macroarthropod communities were evaluated for their abundance and richness in a sessile oak (SO; Quercus petraea L.) stand and adjacent Austrian pine (AP; Pinus nigra Arnold) plantation. Sites were sampled four times a year in 3-month intervals from May 2009 to February 2010. Humus characteristics such as total mass; carbon, lignin, and cellulose contents; and C/N ratio were significantly different between SO and AP. Statistically significant differences were detected on soil pH, carbon and nitrogen contents, and electrical conductivity between the two sites. The number of microarthropods was higher in AP than in the SO site. The annual mean abundance values of microarthropods in a square meter were 67,763 in AP and 50,542 in SO, and the annual mean abundance values of macroarthropods were 921 m(-2) in AP and 427 m(-2) in SO. Among the soil microarthropods, Acari and Collembola were the dominant groups. Shannon's diversity index was more affected by evenness than species number despite the species diversity (H') of soil arthropods being generally higher in the SO stand. The abundance of microarthropods showed clear seasonal trends depending upon the humidity of the soil.

  20. [Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic characteristics of pain therapy in neonates: Austrian interdisciplinary recommendations on pediatric perioperative pain management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaksch, W; Messerer, B; Keck, B; Lischka, A; Urlesberger, B

    2014-02-01

    The false assumption that neonates are less sensitive to pain than adults led to a long delay in the introduction of a reasonable pain therapy for children. Even if the basic principles of the development, transmission and perception of pain in premature infants and neonates are not completely understood, the results of studies have clearly shown that pain can be perceived from 22 weeks of gestation onwards. This knowledge results in the necessity to also administer an adequate pain therapy to premature and newly born infants. However, for the use of pharmaceuticals in neonates and infants the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic characteristics must also be considered. The immaturity of the organs liver and kidneys limits the metabolism and also excretion processes. The different physical proportions also modify the dosing of pharmaceuticals. Children in the first year of life differ substantially from adults in physiology, pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. The care of neonates and infants requires specialist knowledge which is described in this article. PMID:24550024

  1. Management of chronic immune thrombocytopenia in children and adolescents: lessons from an Austrian national cross-sectional study of 81 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipurzynski, J; Fahrner, B; Kerbl, R; Crazzolara, R; Jones, N; Ebetsberger, G; Jauk, B; Strenger, V; Wohlmuther, B; Schwinger, W; Lackner, H; Urban, C; Holter, W; Minkov, M; Kager, L; Benesch, M; Seidel, M G

    2016-04-01

    Chronic immune thrombocytopenia (cITP) is often associated with an underlying predisposition towards autoimmunity, recognition of which is relevant to guide treatment. International recommendations on diagnostic steps and therapeutic measures of cITP in childhood exist. However, due to the low prevalence (1-2/100,000) and a variation of availability of immunological and hematological tests and treatments across pediatric units, we postulated that these guidelines are not uniformly adhered to and that immune dysregulation syndromes remained undiscovered. To delineate the current management of children and adolescents with cITP in Austria, we performed a nationwide cross-sectional study. Between 2011 and 2014, 81 children with cITP were seen at seven centers (median age 8.75 years; range 1-17; female:male ratio 47:34) at 641 visits during 180 patient years after diagnosis of cITP (>12 months ITP duration). Additional diagnoses were noted, most frequently immune or autoimmune disorders, hematologic diseases, or infections (in 37.3%, including Evans syndrome, autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, and Fanconi anemia), or other symptoms like bi- or pancytopenia (n=9), lymphoproliferation or granulomatous inflammation (n = 3). Both decision to treat as well as choice of treatment varied: smaller centers tended to observe more frequently, larger centers applied a pattern of treatment modalities that appeared to depend less on bleeding tendency than on center policy. More than 50% of therapeutic interventions occurred in bleedings scores ≤2 (of 5), suggesting a strong psychosocial intention to treat. Platelet increment upon 479 therapeutic interventions of eight types was evaluated, with multiple treatment approaches being pursued sequentially in refractory patients. These data confirm the hypothesis of heterogeneous diagnostic and therapeutic management of cITP in Austrian children and corroborate the need for (1) a precise panel of

  2. Integrating field measurements, a geomorphological map and stochastic modelling to estimate the spatially distributed rockfall sediment budget of the Upper Kaunertal, Austrian Central Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckmann, Tobias; Hilger, Ludwig; Vehling, Lucas; Becht, Michael

    2016-05-01

    The estimation of catchment-scale rockfall rates relies on the regionalisation of local measurements. Here, we propose a new framework for such a regionalisation by the example of a case study in the Upper Kaunertal, Austrian Central Alps (62.5 km2). Measurements of rockfall deposition during 12 months onto six collector nets within the study area were combined with published mean annual rates from the literature, and a probability density function was fitted to these data. A numerical model involving a random walk routing scheme and a one-parameter friction model was used to simulate rockfall trajectories, starting from potential rockfall source areas that were delineated from a digital elevation model. Rockfall rates sampled from the fitted probability density function were assigned to these trajectories in order to model the spatial distribution and to estimate the amount of rockfall deposition. By recording all trajectories as edges of a network of raster cells, and by aggregating the latter to landforms (or landform types) as delineated in a geomorphological map of the study area, rockfall sediment flux from sources to different landforms could be quantified. Specifically, the geomorphic coupling of rockfall sources to storage landforms and the glacial and fluvial sediment cascade was investigated using this network model. The total rockfall contribution to the sediment budget of the Upper Kaunertal is estimated at c. 8000 Mg yr- 1, 16.5% of which is delivered to the glaciers, and hence to the proglacial zone. The network approach is favourable, for example because multiple scenarios (involving different probability density functions) can be calculated on the basis of the same set of trajectories, and because deposits can be back-linked to their respective sources. While the methodological framework constitutes the main aim of our paper, we also discuss how the estimation of the budget can be improved on the basis of spatially distributed production rates.

  3. The application of a social cognition model in explaining fruit intake in Austrian, Norwegian and Spanish schoolchildren using structural equation modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Rodrigo Carmen

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this paper was to test the goodness of fit of the Attitude – Social influence – self-Efficacy (ASE model in explaining schoolchildren's intentions to eat fruit and their actual fruit intake in Austria, Norway and Spain; to assess how well the model could explain the observed variance in intention to eat fruit and in reported fruit intake and to investigate whether the same model would fit data from all three countries. Methods Samples consisted of schoolchildren from three of the countries participating in the cross-sectional part of the Pro Children project. Sample size varied from 991 in Austria to 1297 in Spain. Mean age ranged from 11.3 to 11.4 years. The initial model was designed using items and constructs from the Pro Children study. Factor analysis was conducted to test the structure of the measures in the model. The Norwegian sample was used to test the latent variable structure, to make a preliminary assessment of model fit, and to modify the model to increase goodness of fit with the data. The original and modified models were then applied to the Austrian and Spanish samples. All model analyses were carried out using structural equation modelling techniques. Results The ASE-model fitted the Norwegian and Spanish data well. For Austria, a slightly more complex model was needed. For this reason multi-sample analysis to test equality in factor structure and loadings across countries could not be used. The models explained between 51% and 69% of the variance in intention to eat fruit, and 27% to 38% of the variance in reported fruit intake. Conclusion Structural equation modelling showed that a rather parsimonious model was useful in explaining the variation in fruit intake of 11-year-old schoolchildren in Norway and Spain. For Austria, more modifications were needed to fit the data.

  4. Policies to Accelerate Fuel, Technology andBehavioural Change in Transport - Results and Success of the Austrian Climate: Active Mobile Programme after the First Seven Years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is plenty of concepts and strategies on almost all administrative levels to reduce carbon emissions and boost energy efficiency in transport. But it usually takes a long time to adapt national and regional legislation to these strategies with considerable loss of valuable time. Furthermore some of the defined measures will never find the necessary ''political will'' for implementation. To bridge this gap Austria's Environmental ministry supported by the Austrian Energy Agency, got into action 2005 and set up an action programme, condensing all so called ''soft'' and ''voluntary'' measures in transport (''mobility management''), that do not necessarily need to wait for legislation or specific administrative framework conditions. In its comprehensive approach - not only transport is targeted, but also buildings, renewables and energy saving - and also in its effects regarding the reduction of GHG emissions, Climate:active and especially climate:active mobile seems to be one-of-a-kind in Europe. Climate-active mobile set-up: free-of-charge consulting programmes addressing specific target groups (companies, cites andmunicipalities, real estate developers, schools andyouth, tourism); a financial support programme with 51 Mio Euro since 2007 for mobility management measures, fleet conversions to low-carbon technologies, work travel plans etc.; an EcoDriving training programme with up to now 20,000 trainees and educating all novice drivers in Austria in a smart driving style; a broad awareness raising campaign; about 2,900 klima:aktiv mobil partners among the target groups implementing sustainable transport measures and therewith reduces more than 530,000 tons of CO2 emissions every year, created or saved 4300 ''green jobs'' in transport and induced ''green'' investments by companies and administrations 7 to 8 times higher as the funding. Climate-active mobile is one of the main drivers in Austria to accelerate fuel, technology andbehavioural change in transport and

  5. Free-living amoebae and their associated bacteria in Austrian cooling towers: a 1-year routine screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheikl, Ute; Tsao, Han-Fei; Horn, Matthias; Indra, Alexander; Walochnik, Julia

    2016-09-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) are widely spread in the environment and known to cause rare but often serious infections. Besides this, FLA may serve as vehicles for bacterial pathogens. In particular, Legionella pneumophila is known to replicate within FLA thereby also gaining enhanced infectivity. Cooling towers have been the source of outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease in the past and are thus usually screened for legionellae on a routine basis, not considering, however, FLA and their vehicle function. The aim of this study was to incorporate a screening system for host amoebae into a Legionella routine screening. A new real-time PCR-based screening system for various groups of FLA was established. Three cooling towers were screened every 2 weeks over the period of 1 year for FLA and Legionella spp., by culture and molecular methods in parallel. Altogether, 83.3 % of the cooling tower samples were positive for FLA, Acanthamoeba being the dominating genus. Interestingly, 69.7 % of the cooling tower samples were not suitable for the standard Legionella screening due to their high organic burden. In the remaining samples, positivity for Legionella spp. was 25 % by culture, but overall positivity was 50 % by molecular methods. Several amoebal isolates revealed intracellular bacteria.

  6. Model aided quantification of dissolved carbon and nitrogen release after windthrow disturbance in an Austrian karst system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hartmann

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Karst systems are important for drinking water supply. Future climate projections indicate increasing temperature and a higher frequency of strong weather events. Both will influence the availability and quality of water provided from karst regions. Forest disturbances such as windthrow can disrupt ecosystem cycles and cause pronounced nutrient losses from the ecosystems. In this study, we consider the time period before and after the wind disturbance period (2007/08 to identify impacts on DIN (dissolved inorganic nitrogen and DOC (dissolved organic carbon with a process-based flow and solute transport simulation model. Calibrated and validated before the disturbance the model disregards the forest disturbance and its consequences on DIN and DOC production and leaching. It can therefore be used as a base-line for the undisturbed system and as a tool for the quantification of additional nutrient production. Our results indicate that the forest disturbance by windthrow results in a significant increase of DIN production lasting ∼3.7 years and exceeding the pre-disturbance average by 2.7 kg ha−1 a−1 corresponding to an increase of 53 %. There were no significant changes of DOC concentrations. With simulated transit time distributions we show that the impact on DIN travels through the hydrological system within some months. But a small fraction of the system outflow ( 1 year.

  7. Altheim geothermal plant. Power generation by means of an ORC turbogenerator; Geothermieanlagen Altheim. Stromerzeugung mittels Organic-Rankine-Cycle Turbogenerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pernecker, G. [Marktgemeindeamt Altheim (Austria)

    1997-12-01

    The report describes the project of the Austrian market town of Altheim to generate electricity by means of an ORC turbogenerator using low-temperature thermal water. The project is to improve the technical and economic situation of the existing industrial-scale geothermal project. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Bericht beschreibt das Vorhaben der Marktgemeinde Altheim in Oberoesterreich, Strom mittels eines Organic-Rankine-Cycle-Turbogenerators unter Verwendung niedrig temperierten Thermalwassers zu produzieren. Ziel bzw. der Zweck des Projektes ist es, die technische und wirtschaftliche Situation der bestehenden Grossthermieanlage zu verbessern. (orig.)

  8. Repositorien: Der grüne Weg zu Open Access Publishing aus der Perspektive einer Forschungsförderungsorganisation: 10 Fragen von Bruno Bauer an Falk Reckling, Mitarbeiter des FWF Der Wissenschaftsfonds / Repository: The Green Road to Open Access Publishing and the FWF Austrian Science Fund's point of view: 10 questions to Falk Reckling, Austrian Science Fund, by Bruno Bauer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer, Bruno

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Advocates of Open Access call to substitute the established scholarly publication model, in particular subscriptions and licences, by an Open Access Publishing model. Scholarly papers should be immediately accessible without paying and leave the copyright to the author. At the beginning the Open Access movement focused on and demanded for the publication of original scientific articles in Open Access journals. Meanwhile they moved on to support a form of secondary publication, the self-archiving of sholarly papers in institutional repositories. The current interview with Falk Reckling gives an account of the FWF Austrian Science Fund (http://www.fwf.ac.at and their point of view towards Open Access. The interview hits the Golden Road as well as the Green Road to open access and their costs. Preconditions for a paradigm shift towards Open Access Publishing are brought up and prospects of sholarly publishing in 2020 were discussed with a look on libraries and their possible role within this setting

  9. [Non-invasive and invasive out of hospital ventilation in chronic respiratory failure : Consensus report of the working group on ventilation and intensive care medicine of the Austrian Society of Pneumology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Peter; Eber, Ernst; Funk, Georg-Christian; Fritz, Wilfried; Hartl, Sylvia; Heininger, Peter; Kink, Eveline; Kühteubl, Gernot; Oberwaldner, Beatrice; Pachernigg, Ulrike; Pfleger, Andreas; Schandl, Petra; Schmidt, Ingrid; Stein, Markus

    2016-02-01

    The current consensus report was compiled under the patronage of the Austrian Society of Pneumology (Österreichischen Gesellschaft für Pneumologie, ÖGP) with the intention of providing practical guidelines for out-of-hospital ventilation that are in accordance with specific Austrian framework parameters and legal foundations. The guidelines are oriented toward a 2004 consensus ÖGP recommendation concerning the setup of long-term ventilated patients and the 2010 German Respiratory Society S2 guidelines on noninvasive and invasive ventilation of chronic respiratory insufficiency, adapted to national experiences and updated according to recent literature. In 11 chapters, the initiation, adjustment, and monitoring of out-of-hospital ventilation is described, as is the technical equipment and airway access. Additionally, the different indications-such as chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, thoracic restrictive and neuromuscular diseases, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, and pediatric diseases-are discussed. Furthermore, the respiratory physiotherapy of adults and children on invasive and noninvasive long-term ventilation is addressed in detail. PMID:26837865

  10. Factors affecting long-term outcome after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for acute myelogenous leukaemia: a retrospective study of 172 adult patients reported to the Austrian Stem Cell Transplantation Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greinix, Hildegard T; Nachbaur, David; Krieger, Otto; Eibl, Margit; Knöbl, Paul; Kalhs, Peter; Lutz, Dieter; Linkesch, Werner; Niederwieser, Dietger; Hinterberger, Wolfgang; Lechner, Klaus; Rosenmayr, Agathe; Gritsch, Beate

    2002-06-01

    Between 1982 and 2000, 172 patients with acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML) received haematopoietic stem cell transplants (SCT) from related (n = 132) or unrelated (n = 40) donors at four Austrian transplant centres and their results were reported to the Austrian Stem Cell Transplantation Registry. Conditioning for SCT consisted of cyclophosphamide and total body irradiation in 156 (91%) patients. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was with standard cyclosporine and methotrexate in 95 (55%) patients. Median post-transplant follow-up was 5.6 years (range, 0.2--16.7). Multivariate analysis of transplant-related mortality (TRM) identified four variables associated with a lower risk: disease status of first complete remission (CR) at SCT, patient age of 45 years and younger, transplant performed during or after 1995, and lack of acute GVHD. Variables associated with significantly improved leukaemia-free survival were: bone marrow as the stem cell source, disease status of first CR at SCT, and occurrence of chronic GVHD. In multivariate analysis, transplantation performed during or after 1995, first CR at SCT, occurrence of limited chronic GVHD and lack of acute GVHD grades III to IV were associated with increased overall survival. Based on these analyses, options for the improvement of results obtained with allogeneic SCT in patients with AML could be defined. PMID:12060131

  11. Organization within Organization Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas

    This paper explores how prevalent contemporary problematizations of organizations coincide with a widespread assessment that Organization Studies (OS) has run out of steam. This impasse, the paper argues, is largely due to the emergence of an organization-phobia that has come to seize several...... strands of theorizing. By attending to the wide-ranging and far-reaching history of this organization-phobia, the paper argues that OS has become increasingly incapable of speaking about its core object. I show how organizations went from being conceptualized as entities of major importance to becoming...... associated with all kinds of ills. Through this history, organizations as distinct entities have been rendered so problematic that they have gradually come to be removed from the center of OS. The costs of this have been rather significant. Besides undermining the grounds that gave OS intellectual...

  12. Knowledge Organization = Information Organization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    Are the terms ―information organization‖ (IO), ―organization of information‖ (OI) and ―information architecture‖ (IA) synonyms for knowledge organization (KO)? This study uses bibliometric methods, among others, to determine some relations between these terms and their meanings. Apparently the data...

  13. Austrian decision strenghtens Baltic Unity

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Euroopa Liidu välisministrite kohtumisel Brüsselis tänas Eesti välisminister Urmas Paet kolleege pantvangide vabastamisel osutatud abi eest ning avaldas toetust Leedule Mihhail Golovatovi vabastamisega vallandunud diplomaatilises konfliktis Austriaga

  14. National Austrian PTCA Registry 1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mühlberger V

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Eine komplette und kontrollierte Nationale Datenbank, offen für einen Auditor, ist die Voraussetzung für Qualitätskontrolle, Qualitätsmanagement und Verbesserungen. Wir vergleichen in Österreich invasive (Koronarangiographie und interventionelle (PTCA = PCI Resultate von Jahr zu Jahr und von Region zu Region seit dem Jahr 1990. Gleichzeitig führen wir Monitorvisiten (Audits durch und nehmen an der Europäischen Datensammlung teil. 31.419 diagnostische Koronarangiographien (CA und 8.559 PTCA (= PCI wurden an 27 Erwachsenenzentren (22 davon führen PTCA durch während des Jahres 1998 in Österreich durchgeführt. Das entspricht einer Zunahme von 5,4 % bei Angiographien (CA und 11,1 % bei PTCA (= PCI gegenüber 1997. 70 % der PTCA (allerdings nur in jenen Zentren, welche dies berichten werden während der diagnostischen Angiographie (CA ausgeführt, eine direkte PTCA wegen oder während eines Myokardinfarktes in 5,5 %. Insgesamt 5.838 Stents (bei 68 % der PTCA-Fälle wurden implantiert. Der internationale Vergleich zeigt Österreich unter den Spitzenreitern mit 3927 CA und 1070 PTCA pro Million Einwohner. Als Konsequenz aus einer diagnostischen Angiographie resultiert in 39 von 100 Fällen eine Revaskularisation, sei es durch PTCA oder durch Operation. Die Spitalssterblichkeit betrug nach PTCA 0,5 %, die Rate notfallmäßiger Operationen 0,15 % nach PTCA, während ein Myokardinfarkt im Herzkatheterlabor als Folge des Eingriffes in 0,9 % auftrat. In den Jahren 1993 bis 1996 stieg die Mortalität infolge notfallmäßiger Bypassoperationen nach fehlgeschlagener PTCA von 3,3 über 8,3 und 18,3 auf 28,6 %, fiel dann auf 8,3 % im Jahr 1997 und stieg 1998 wieder auf 15,4 % (das sind 2 von 13 Fällen. Ähnlich wie in den Vorjahren wurde auch 1998 innerhalb jener 22 Zentren mit PTCA-Aktivität der Ischämienachweis vor PTCA in 3.644 Fällen (15 Zentren, die Primärerfolgsrate in 6.390 Fällen (18 Zentren sowie eine Kontrollergometrie innerhalb drei Monaten nach PTCA bei 1.524 Fällen (9 Zentren dokumentiert. Leicht zunehmend ist der Anteil der Typ B-Läsionen von 34 über 37 auf 47 % von 1996 bis 1998, bei gleichzeitiger Zunahme der Typ C-Läsionen auf 24 %. Die mittlere Fallbelastung für alle 141 Ärzte, die diagnostische Koronarangiographien 1998 durchführten, betrug 222 Fälle im Jahr. Die 81 "PTCA-Ärzte" führten durchschnittlich 106 Interventionen aus. Ärzte mit überdurchschnittlicher Fallzahl befürworten die Dokumentation der Fallbelastung. Österreich scheint eine jener Nationen weltweit zu sein, die seit Jahren eine komplette und kontrollierte nationale Datenbank für invasive und interventionelle Kardiologie unterhält. Darüberhinaus veranstalten wir Monitorvisiten und Rückantworten mit Diskussion der Ergebnisse, wie bei einem Audit-Verfahren. Höhere Fallzahlen bei geringeren Komplikationsraten trotz eher schwerwiegenderen Krankengutes sprechen für eine gleichzeitige Qualitätsverbesserung. Damit ist allerdings nicht erwiesen, daß das eine (Qualitätsverbesserung ursächliche Folge des anderen (Audit ist.

  15. The Forgotten Austrian Economics Language

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Bianca Vieru

    2013-01-01

    In light of the current events, namely the crisis that economy has to face for quite some years now, plenty of questions are raised, not only among specialists in the field but also among ordinary people as they prove to be most impoverished by these imbalances. Thus, this paper aims, as a first objective, to explain, from a general perspective and using an inductive-subjective methodology based on a brief survey as well as on observation, two of the most important causes that, according to t...

  16. 19 September 2011 - Austrian State Secretary for European and International Affairs W. Waldner, signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss; visiting CMS service cavern with Collaboration Spokesperson G. Tonelli and the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with M. Zerlauth.

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoît Jeannet

    2011-01-01

    Austrian state secretary for foreign affairs, Wolfgang Waldner, left, was welcomed to CERN by Felicitas Pauss, head of international relations at CERN, on 19 September. While at CERN, he toured the CMS control room and underground experimental service cavern, the LHC superconducting magnet test hall, and the Universe of Particles exhibition in the Globe of Science and Innovation.

  17. Eberhard Widmann (Stefan Meyer Institute, Vienna) and Silke Federmann (Ph.D. Student from Vienna in the CERN-Austrian Ph.D. program) together with a microwave cavity developed by Silke at CERN. The cavity will be used for the first time to look for spin-flip transitions of antihydrogen atoms later this year.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    Eberhard Widmann (Stefan Meyer Institute, Vienna) and Silke Federmann (Ph.D. Student from Vienna in the CERN-Austrian Ph.D. program) together with a microwave cavity developed by Silke at CERN. The cavity will be used for the first time to look for spin-flip transitions of antihydrogen atoms later this year.

  18. Modality-dependent dose requirements in the Austrian breast cancer early detection program. First results from technical quality assurance; Geraeteabhaengiger Dosisbedarf im Oesterreichischen Brustkrebsfrueherkennungsprogramm. Erste Ergebnisse aus der technischen Qualitaetssicherung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osanna-Elliott, A.; Semturs, F.; Menhart, S.; Schloegl, C.; Wildner, S.; Zwettler, G. [AGES, Wien (Austria). Referenzzentrum fuer technische Qualitaetssicherung im Brustkrebsfrueherkennungsprogramm

    2015-07-01

    The Austrian Breast Cancer Early Detection Program (BKFP) has officially started in January 2014. In order to ensure that all participating women can rely on a sufficient cancer detection rate while at the same time the required dose is as low as reasonably achievable, all participating radiology institutes (approx. 200) have to fulfill strict quality assurance requirements. The control and certification is performed by the Reference Center for Technical Quality Assurance (RefZQS), which has been developing the methods and tolerances in a pilot project since 2007. The limits are defined in the EUREF-Oeprotocol which is based on the European EPQC guidelines. From the requirement for optimized image quality while simultaneously following the ALARA principle, we found modality-dependent dose requirements, which we had expected but which have now been compiled for the first time for Austria.

  19. Determination of eye lens doses and identification of risk groups among radiation exposed workers. An Austrian pilot study; Bestimmung der Augenlinsen-Dosis und Identifizierung von Risikogruppen bei beruflich strahlenexponierten Personen. Eine Pilotstudie in Oesterreich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadtmann, H.; Hranitzky, C.; Willer, H. [Seibersdorf Labor GmbH, Seibersdorf (Austria). Radiation Protection Dosimetry; Strebl, F.; Ernst, G. [Seibersdorf Labor GmbH, Seibersdorf (Austria). Radiation Safety and Applications; Aspek, W. [Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt (AUVA), Wien (Austria). Abt. Unfallverhuetung und Berufskrankheitenbekaempfung (HUB)

    2015-07-01

    On European level, in 2014 the dose limit for the lens of the eye of radiation exposed workers has been reduced from 150 to 20 mSv per year (2013/59/Euratom). Data about eye lens exposition measured under realistic operational conditions of Austrian radiation exposed workers is sparse and there is no information to verify, if all professional groups identified to be at risk for elevated eye doses will remain below the new annual dose limit. Therefore, financed by the Austrian Workers Compensation Board, AUVA, a pilot study has been initiated to answer this question. Based on published information professional groups of radiation exposed workers and operational tasks with an enhanced risk of elevated eye lens doses have been identified. By dosimetric measurements with volunteers (forehead dose meters and parallel measurements with whole-body TL-dose meters above and under the lead apron) realistic lens doses will be estimated during selected radiation exposed tasks. Comparison of yielded doses will show whether a TLD outside the apron could serve as an alternative to forehead dose meters dedicated to measure eye lens doses. Measurements with leaded protective eyewear based on IEC61331 yield results for lead equivalent in good agreement with manufacturers' information. Results for eye lens doses determined by use of a RANDO head phantom and a standardized phantom simulating a body in a typical exposition situation for interventional radiologists show that wearing of leaded goggles allows for a 90% dose reduction. Under such conditions the eye lens dose is dominated by backscatter and stray radiation from the operator's head and patient body. This has to be considered for the evaluation of protective effectiveness for leaded eye wear.

  20. 29 March 2012 - Austrian Niederösterreich Governor E. Pröll with Klubobmann and Chairman of EBG MedAustron GmbH Council K. Schneeberger, Director General for Cultural Policy Amabssador M.Eichtinger and Permanent Representative of Austria to the UNO and Austrian Delegate to CERN Council Ambassador C. Strohal in the MedAustron facility at CERN building 184.

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2012-01-01

    CERN-HI-1203078 01 - 13: visit of LINAC 3 with M. Benedikt CERN-HI-1203078 14 - 20: in the Roy Billinge room CERN-HI-1203078 21- 22: visit of the LEIR accelerator in building 354 CERN-HI-1203078 23 - 55: signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer and Head of International Relations F. Pauss CERN-HI-1203078 56 - 99: in building 184, Governor Pröll and CERN Director-General R. Heuer switch on the MedAustron ion source to produce the proton beam; visit MedAustron facility. CERN-HI-1203078 32:from left to right: Klubobmann and Chairman of EBG MedAustron GmbH Council K. Schneeberger; Director-General R. Heuer;Niederösterreich Governor E. Pröll;Head of International Relations F. Pauss;Permanent Representative of Austria to the UNO and Austrian Delegate to CERN Council Ambassador C. Strohal.

  1. Matching Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Donor Organs With Transplant Candidates When a deceased organ donor is identified, a transplant coordinator from an organ ... transplant candidate, you are registered on the national organ transplant waiting list. A living donor may also be identified and evaluated for living ...

  2. Stable Isotope Signatures of Carbon and Nitrogen to Characterize Exchange Processes and Their Use for Restoration Projects along the Austrian Danube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The size and composition of an organic matter pool and its sources is a fundamental ecosystem property of river networks. River ecosystems are known to receive large amounts of terrestrial organic matter from catchments, still the question is to what extent aquatic sources influence riverine food webs or at least some components of these food webs. To identify different sources and their potential biological availability at the ecosystem level, we propose using stable isotope signatures of carbon and nitrogen and their respective elemental ratios. In this study, we used these parameters to evaluate river restoration measures. The target of the restoration was to improve surface connectivity between the main channel of the Danube downstream from Vienna and a side arm system within a floodplain. Analyses of the natural abundance of stable isotopes revealed that the restored side arm system showed distinct differences in the particulate organic matter pool in relation to hydrological connectivity. At low water levels, aquatic sources dominate in the side arm system, while at high water levels riverine organic matter is the dominating source. At medium connectivity levels aquatic sources also prevail in the side arm, thus an export of bio-available organic matter into the main channel can be expected. Based on these measurements, the increased - but hydrologically controlled - phytoplankton production was assessed and through this information, changes in ecosystem function were evaluated. (author)

  3. 新奥法在核电厂盾构法隧道取水工程中的应用%Application of New Austrian Method in Shield Tunneling Water Intake Project in Nuclear Power Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤雪娣

    2014-01-01

    A nuclear power station used water-intake shield tunnel, thetunnel’s inner diameter is 6200mm which is largest in power station. The soil stratums are very complex, especially at the initial segment in local bedrock. It’s the ifrst time to introduce New Austrian Method into the construction technology of water-intake shield tunnel in power station, successfully resolved the problem that the general shield machine is not suitable for local bedrock. This method can provide reference for similar projects in future power stations.%A核电厂采用盾构法隧道取水,隧道内径达6200mm,为电力行业之最。盾构法取水隧道所穿越的土层相当复杂,尤其是起始段为局部基岩。A核电厂首次将新奥法引进到电厂取水盾构法隧道施工工艺中,成功地解决了土压平衡盾构机不适用于穿越局部岩基的难题,为今后电厂类似工程提供借鉴。

  4. HbA1c variability as an independent risk factor for diabetic retinopathy in type 1 diabetes: a German/Austrian multicenter analysis on 35,891 patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia M Hermann

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to analyze the effect of HbA1c variability on the occurrence of diabetic retinopathy in type 1 diabetes patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 35,891 patients with childhood, adolescent or adult onset of type 1 diabetes from a large multicentre survey, the German/Austrian prospective documentation system (DPV, were analysed. Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine whether intra-individual HbA1c variability expressed as variation coefficient is an independent risk factor for the occurrence of diabetic retinopathy. RESULTS: Kaplan-Meier curves stratified by median HbA1c and variation coefficient revealed that retinopathy-free survival probability is lower when both median HbA1c and HbA1c variability are above the 50th percentile. Cox regression models confirmed this finding: After adjustment for age at diabetes onset, gender and median HbA1c, HbA1c variability was independently associated with the occurrence of diabetic retinopathy. Time-covariate interactions used to model non-proportionality indicated an effect decreasing with duration of diabetes for both median HbA1c and HbA1c variability. Predictive accuracy increased significantly when adding HbA1c variability to the Cox regression model. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with type 1 diabetes, HbA1c variability adds to the risk of diabetic retinopathy independently of average metabolic control.

  5. Organic chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-08-15

    This book with sixteen chapter explains organic chemistry on linkage isomerism such as alkane, cycloalkane, alkene, aromatic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, aromatic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, organic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, organic halogen compound, alcohol, ether, aldehyde and ketone, carboxylic acid, dicarboxylic acid, fat and detergent, amino, carbohydrate, amino acid and protein, nucleotide and nucleic acid and spectroscopy, a polymer and medical chemistry. Each chapter has introduction structure and characteristic and using of organic chemistry.

  6. Transnational Organizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lasse Folke; Seabrooke, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    networks over who controls issues. Transnational issues are commonly organized through professional battles over how issues are treated and what tasks are involved. These professional struggles are often more important than what organization has a formal mandate over an issue. We highlight how ‘issue...... should be treated and governed by organizations. Using network and career sequences methods, we provide a case of transnational organizing through professionals who attempt issue control and network management on transnational environmental sustainability certification. The article questions how...... transnational organizing happens, and how we can best identify attempts at issue control....

  7. Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms on a question from the Commission related to the Austrian notification of national legislation governing GMOs under article 95(5) of the Treaty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, H. C.; Bartsch, D.; Buhk, H.-J.;

    2003-01-01

    Opinion adopted on 4 July 2003 (Question No EFSA-Q-2003-001); EFSA=European Food Safety Authority......Opinion adopted on 4 July 2003 (Question No EFSA-Q-2003-001); EFSA=European Food Safety Authority...

  8. Organic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankamah Yeboah, Isaac; Nielsen, Max; Nielsen, Rasmus

    The year 2016 is groundbreaking for organic aquaculture producers in EU, as it represents the deadline for implementing a full organic life cycle in the aquaculture production. Such a shift induces production costs for farmers and if it should be profitable, they must receive higher prices....... This study identifies the price premium on organic salmon in the Danish retail sale sector using consumer panel scanner data for households by applying the hedonic price model while permitting unobserved heterogeneity between households. A premium of 20% for organic salmon is found. Since this premium...... is closer to organic labeled agriculture products than to ecolabelled capture fisheries products, it indicates that consumers value organic salmon as an agriculture product more than fisheries product....

  9. Organic electroluminescence

    CERN Document Server

    Kafafi, Zakya H

    2005-01-01

    Organic light-emitting diode(OLED) technology has achieved significant penetration in the commercial market for small, low-voltage and inexpensive displays. Present and future novel technologies based on OLEDs involve rigid and flexible flat panel displays, solid-state lighting, and lasers. Display applications may range from hand-held devices to large flat panel screens that can be rolled up or hung flat on a wall or a ceiling. Organic Electroluminescence gives an overview of the on-going research in the field of organic light-emitting materials and devices, covering the principles of electroluminescence in organic thin films, as well as recent trends, current applications, and future potential uses. The book begins by giving a background of organic electroluminescence in terms of history and basic principles. It offers details on the mechanism(s) of electroluminescence in thin organic films. It presentsin-depth discussions of the parameters that control the external electroluminescence quantum efficien...

  10. Organic optoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Wenping; Gong, Xiong; Zhan, Xiaowei; Fu, Hongbing; Bjornholm, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Written by internationally recognized experts in the field with academic as well as industrial experience, this book concisely yet systematically covers all aspects of the topic.The monograph focuses on the optoelectronic behavior of organic solids and their application in new optoelectronic devices. It covers organic electroluminescent materials and devices, organic photonics, materials and devices, as well as organic solids in photo absorption and energy conversion. Much emphasis is laid on the preparation of functional materials and the fabrication of devices, from materials synthesis a

  11. Organic Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Romea, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Organic Synthesis is a one-semester course of the fourth year of the Chemistry Degree at the Universitat de Barcelona. This course covers the most important transformations in Organic Chemistry, including a short introduction to the Retrosynthetic Analysis. The aim is to provide a solid knowledge of the main reactions and their mechanism, which could later be improved during Master studies.

  12. Organ Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... recipients to reduce the risk of transplant rejection. Rejection happens when your immune system attacks the new organ. If you have a transplant, you must take drugs the rest of your life to help keep your body from rejecting the new organ.

  13. Organic spintronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naber, W.J.M.; Faez, S.; Wiel, van der W.G.

    2007-01-01

    We review the emerging field of organic spintronics, where organic materials are applied as a medium to transport and control spin-polarized signals. The contacts for injecting and detecting spins are formed by ferromagnetic metals, oxides, or inorganic semiconductors. First, the basic concepts of s

  14. Organ Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in certain types of transplants. Discover data and statistics for each center. Visit the OPTN's Organ DataSource now > I am looking for >> About organ allocation About UNOS Being a living donor Calculator - CPRA Calculator - KDPI Calculator - LAS Calculator - MELD ...

  15. Organ Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... must be just and fair. Value judgments and economic considerations affect who is admitted to waiting lists and who gets available organs, calling into question the justice and fairness of the allocation system. It is essential to increase the supply of donated organs; one ...

  16. Organic aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic aerosols scatter solar radiation. They may also either enhance or decrease concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei. This paper summarizes observed concentrations of aerosols in remote continental and marine locations and provides estimates for the sources of organic aerosol matter. The anthropogenic sources of organic aerosols may be as large as the anthropogenic sources of sulfate aerosols, implying a similar magnitude of direct forcing of climate. The source estimates are highly uncertain and subject to revision in the future. A slow secondary source of organic aerosols of unknown origin may contribute to the observed oceanic concentrations. The role of organic aerosols acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) is described and it is concluded that they may either enhance or decrease the ability of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols to act as CCN

  17. Beyond and between academia and business: How Austrian biotechnology researchers describe high-tech startup companies as spaces of knowledge production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fochler, Maximilian

    2016-04-01

    Research and innovation policy has invested considerable effort in creating new institutional spaces at the interface of academia and business. High-tech startups founded by academic entrepreneurs have been central to these policy imaginaries. These companies offer researchers new possibilities beyond and between academia and larger industry. However, the field of science and technology studies has thus far shown only limited interest in understanding these companies as spaces of knowledge production. This article analyses how researchers working in small and medium-sized biotechnology companies in Vienna, Austria, describe the cultural characteristics of knowledge production in this particular institutional space. It traces how they relate these characteristics to other institutional spaces they have experienced in their research biographies, such as in academia or larger corporations. It shows that the reasons why researchers decide to work in biotechnology companies and how they organize their work are deeply influenced by their perception of deficiencies in the conditions for epistemic work in contemporary academia and, to a lesser degree, in industry.

  18. Beyond and between academia and business: How Austrian biotechnology researchers describe high-tech startup companies as spaces of knowledge production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fochler, Maximilian

    2016-04-01

    Research and innovation policy has invested considerable effort in creating new institutional spaces at the interface of academia and business. High-tech startups founded by academic entrepreneurs have been central to these policy imaginaries. These companies offer researchers new possibilities beyond and between academia and larger industry. However, the field of science and technology studies has thus far shown only limited interest in understanding these companies as spaces of knowledge production. This article analyses how researchers working in small and medium-sized biotechnology companies in Vienna, Austria, describe the cultural characteristics of knowledge production in this particular institutional space. It traces how they relate these characteristics to other institutional spaces they have experienced in their research biographies, such as in academia or larger corporations. It shows that the reasons why researchers decide to work in biotechnology companies and how they organize their work are deeply influenced by their perception of deficiencies in the conditions for epistemic work in contemporary academia and, to a lesser degree, in industry. PMID:27263239

  19. Lifetime accumulation of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K in the ribs and sternum of an Austrian 'mountain pasture' cow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabitsch, Herbert [Institut fuer Materialphysik, AG Strahlenphysik, Technische Universitaet Graz, Steyrergasse 17, A-8010 Graz (Austria)], E-mail: rabitsch@tugraz.at; Pichl, Elke [Strahlenmesstechnik Graz, Steyrergasse 17, A-8010 Graz (Austria)

    2008-12-15

    The accumulation of natural and artificial radionuclides in humans and domestic animals is of interest in estimating effective doses of exposed humans and to decide whether animal products can be used for nutrition of the population. In this paper we present an investigation of the {sup 137}Cs- and {sup 40}K-activity levels of the ribs and sternum of a 'mountain pasture' cow, born in a highly contaminated region of Styria, Austria, at the time of the radioactive fallout following the Chernobyl accident. This is the first systematic investigation of the variation in activity levels of a contaminated animal. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) assumes that cesium and potassium are homogenously distributed throughout the whole body of an organism. However, the presented results show that there is a non-uniform distribution of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K in different skeletal bones and their adherent tissues of a dairy cattle. We found that activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K varied up to a factor 2.5 in different components of the ribs. The minimum values of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K in the ribs were 29.9 and 21 Bq kg{sup -1} fresh mass for trabecular bone in the vertebral half of asternal ribs, and the maximum values 332 and 132 Bq kg{sup -1} fresh mass for a mixed sample composed of a cartilaginous tissue layer and parts of the perichondrium, both originating from asternal costal cartilages, respectively.

  20. Organic photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Karl

    2016-08-01

    Organic photovoltaics are on the verge of revolutionizing building-integrated photovoltaics. For other applications, however, several basic open scientific questions need answering to, in particular, further improve energy-conversion efficiency and lifetime.

  1. Multicultural organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan

    2011-01-01

    In recent years the attention towards demographic diversity has increased among academics and practitioners dealing with organization management. Finding a possible connection between diversity and group performance has been the objective of much extant research. Still, however, results are...

  2. Organization Design

    OpenAIRE

    Milton Harris; Artur Raviv

    2002-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain organization structure based on optimal coordination of interactions among activities. The main idea is that each manager is capable of detecting and coordinating interactions only within his limited area of expertise. Only the CEO can coordinate company wide interactions. The optimal design of the organization trades off the costs and benefits of various configurations of managers. Our results consist of classifying the characteristics of activities and manager...

  3. Colloidal organization

    CERN Document Server

    Okubo, Tsuneo

    2015-01-01

    Colloidal Organization presents a chemical and physical study on colloidal organization phenomena including equilibrium systems such as colloidal crystallization, drying patterns as an example of a dissipative system and similar sized aggregation. This book outlines the fundamental science behind colloid and surface chemistry and the findings from the author's own laboratory. The text goes on to discuss in-depth colloidal crystallization, gel crystallization, drying dissipative structures of solutions, suspensions and gels, and similar-sized aggregates from nanosized particles. Special emphas

  4. Organic Conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jan Rud; Jacobsen, Claus S.; Rindorf, Grethe;

    1975-01-01

    2,3,6,7-Tetramethyl-1,4,5,8-tetraselenafulvalene reacts with 2,5-dimethyl-7,7′,8,8′-tetracyano-p-quinodi-methane to give a highly conducting organic solid.......2,3,6,7-Tetramethyl-1,4,5,8-tetraselenafulvalene reacts with 2,5-dimethyl-7,7′,8,8′-tetracyano-p-quinodi-methane to give a highly conducting organic solid....

  5. Virtual Organizations: Beyond Network Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Gabriel CRETU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most used buzz-words in (e-business literature of the last decade is virtual organization. The term "virtual" can be identified in all sorts of combinations regarding the business world. From virtual products to virtual processes or virtual teams, everything that is “touched” by the computer’s processing power instantly becomes virtual. Moreover, most of the literature treats virtual and network organizations as being synonyms. This paper aims to draw a much more distinctive line between the two concepts. Providing a more coherent description of what virtual organization might be is also one of our intentions.

  6. Entangled Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Anete Mikkala Camille

    The paper accounts for the process of becoming of a changed practice within the area of disability care in the Municipality of Aalborg in Denmark. Across a period of a few months in the fall of 2015 a group of employees across the organization and an action researcher from Aalborg University (the...... author) met and formed a research group and across this period a revised model for cooperation emerged that – upon realization – would reconfigure the intra-play of all relevant areas of the organization involved in disability care. The model included the grasping of disability as dis/ability and thereby...... for the employees and thereby support the bringing about of a cultural transformation. A changed relationality indeed brought about though reworking the binary dis/able. From the standpoint of a diffractive methodology (Barad 2007) the paper accounts for this project by being organized in four parts that together...

  7. Organ culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alm, Rikard; Edvinsson, Lars; Malmsjö, Malin

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endothelium dysfunction is believed to play a role in the development of cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the suitability of organ culture as a model for endothelium dysfunction. METHODS: The isometric tension was recorded in isolated segments...... of the rat mesenteric artery branch, before and after organ culture for 20 h. Vasodilatation was expressed as % of preconstriction with U46619. The acetylcholine (ACh) induced nitric oxide (NO) mediated dilatation was studied in the presence of 10 microM indomethacin, 50 nM charybdotoxin and 1 microM apamin....... Endothelium-derived hyperpolarising factor (EDHF) was studied in the presence of 0.1 mM L-NOARG and indomethacin. Prostaglandins were studied in the presence of L-NOARG, charybdotoxin and apamin. RESULTS: The ACh-induced NO and prostaglandin-mediated dilatations decreased significantly during organ culture...

  8. Organic Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Würtz, Rolf P

    2008-01-01

    Organic Computing is a research field emerging around the conviction that problems of organization in complex systems in computer science, telecommunications, neurobiology, molecular biology, ethology, and possibly even sociology can be tackled scientifically in a unified way. From the computer science point of view, the apparent ease in which living systems solve computationally difficult problems makes it inevitable to adopt strategies observed in nature for creating information processing machinery. In this book, the major ideas behind Organic Computing are delineated, together with a sparse sample of computational projects undertaken in this new field. Biological metaphors include evolution, neural networks, gene-regulatory networks, networks of brain modules, hormone system, insect swarms, and ant colonies. Applications are as diverse as system design, optimization, artificial growth, task allocation, clustering, routing, face recognition, and sign language understanding.

  9. Alpine meadows and pastures after abandonment. Results of the Austrian MaB-programme and the EC-STEP project INTEGRALP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tappeiner, Ulrike

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of a study on the behaviour of alpine ecosystems after the abandon of farming practices. The work has been carried out in Gastein Valley (Austria, the High Tauern National Park (Austria and the Mt. Bondone (Italy. In the three places different phases of plant succession have been studied, and several ecologic parameters, such as the energy budget, the carbon budget, the canopy structure and many interactions between organisms were measured. Over 20 specialists have worked on the data gathering and analysis. Among the main observed results we can count the relative instability of abandoned plots; the diversity and the specific richness decrease; light becomes there a limiting factor because of the canopy growth; the degradation of litterfall becomes slower than in grazed plots; surface erosion and runoff decrease strongly, and so on. Commonly, the abandoned alpine pastures show a transition situation between the artificial equilibrium status kept by livestock and the natural equilibrium corresponding to climatic communities.

    [es] Se presentan los resultados de un análisis sobre el comportamiento de los ecosistemas alpinos durante el abandono de las prácticas agrícolas en los mismos. Los trabajos se han llevado a cabo en el valle de Gastein (Austria, en el Parque Nacional del Alto Tauern (Austria y en el Monte Bondone (Italia. En los tres lugares se han estudiado distintas fases de la sucesión vegetal, midiéndose numerosos parámetros ecológicos, como el balance de carbono, el balance energético, la estructura de la cubierta vegetal y distintas interacciones entre organismos. Más de 20 especialistas han intervenido en la toma y análisis de los datos. Entré los principales resultados observados se cuentan el aumento de diversidad en las áreas abandonadas y su relativa inestabilidad; en ellas la luz se convierte en un factor limitante; la degradación de la hojarasca y la materia muerta se hace más lenta; la

  10. Entangling Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Anete Mikkala Camille

    2016-01-01

    The chapter accounts for the process of becoming of a changed practice within the area of disability care in the Municipality of Aalborg in Denmark. Across a period of a few months in the fall of 2015 a group of employees across the organization and an action researcher from Aalborg University (the...... author) met and formed a research- practice group and across this period a revised model for cooperation emerged that – upon realization – would reconfigure the intra-play of all relevant areas of the organization involved in disability care. The model included the grasping of disability as dis...

  11. An ecosystem approach to assess soil quality in organically and conventionally managed farms in Iceland and Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, J. P.; Lehtinen, T.; Lair, G. J.; Bloem, J.; Hemerik, L.; Ragnarsdóttir, K. V.; Gísladóttir, G.; Newton, J. S.; de Ruiter, P. C.

    2015-01-01

    Intensive agricultural production can be an important driver for the loss of long-term soil quality. For this reason, the European Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) network adopted four pairs of agricultural CZO sites that differ in their management: conventional or organic. The CZO sites include two pairs of grassland farms in Iceland and two pairs of arable farms in Austria. Conventional fields differed from the organic fields in the use of artificial fertilisers and pesticides. Soils of these eight farms were analysed in terms of their physical, chemical, and biological properties, including soil aggregate size distribution, soil organic matter contents, abundance of soil microbes and soil fauna, and taxonomic diversity of soil microarthropods. In Icelandic grasslands, organically farmed soils had larger mean weight diameters of soil aggregates than the conventional farms, while there were no differences on the Austrian farms. Organic farming did not systematically influence organic matter contents or composition, nor soil carbon and nitrogen contents. Also, soil food web structures, in terms of presence of trophic groups of soil organisms, were highly similar among all farms, indicating a low sensitivity of trophic structure to land use or climate. However, soil organism biomass, especially of bacteria and nematodes, was consistently higher on organic farms than on conventional farms. Within the microarthropods, taxonomic diversity was systematically higher in the organic farms compared to the conventional farms. This difference was found across countries and farm, crop, and soil types. The results do not show systematic differences in physical and chemical properties between organic and conventional farms, but confirm that organic farming can enhance soil biomass and that microarthropod diversity is a sensitive and consistent indicator for land management.

  12. Results of the Austrian CT dose study 2010. Typical effective doses of the most frequent CT examinations; Ergebnisse der Oesterreichischen CT-Dosisstudie 2010. Effektive Dosen der haeufigsten CT-Untersuchungen und Unterschiede zwischen Anwendern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homolka, Peter; Leithner, Robert; Billinger, Jochen [Medizinische Universitaet Wien (Austria). Zentrum fuer Medizinische Physik und Biomedizinische Technik; Gruber, Michael [Medizinische Universitaet Wien (Austria). Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: To determine typical doses from common CT examinations of standard sized adult patients and their variability between CT operators for common CT indications. Materials and Methods: In a nationwide Austrian CT dose survey doses from approx. 10,000 common CT examinations of adults during 2009 and 2010 were collected and 'typical' radiation doses to the 'average patient', which turned out to have 75.6 kg body mass, calculated. Conversion coefficients from DLP to effective dose were determined and effective doses calculated according to ICRP 103. Variations of typically applied doses to the 'average patient' were expressed as ratios between 90{sup th} and 10{sup th} percentile (inter-percentile width, IPW90/10), 1st and 3{sup rd} quartile (IPW75/25), and Maximum/Minimum. Results: Median effective doses to the average patients for standard head and neck scans were 1.8 mSv (cervical spine), 1.9 mSv (brain: trauma/bleeding, stroke) to 2.2 mSv (brain: masses) with typical variation between facilities of a factor 2.5 (IPW90/10) and 1.7 (IPW75/25). In the thorax region doses were 6.4 to 6.8 mSv (pulmonary embolism, pneumonia and inflammation, oncologic scans), the variation between facilities was by a factor of 2.1 (IPW90/10) and 1.5 (IPW75/25), respectively. In the abdominal region median effective doses from 6.5 mSv (kidney stone search) to 22 mSv (liver lesions) were found (acute abdomen, staging/metastases, lumbar spine: 9-12 mSv; oncologic abdomen plus chest 16 mSv; renal tumor 20 mSv). Variation factors between facilities were on average for abdominal scans 2.7 (IPW90/10) and 1.8 (IPW75/25). Conclusion: Variations between CT operators are generally moderate for most operators, but in some indications the ratio between the minimum and the maximum of average dose to the typical standard patients exceeds a factor of 4 or even 5. Therefore, comparing average doses to Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs) and optimizing protocols need to

  13. Designing Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DESIGNING ORGANIZATIONS: 21st Century Approaches er en vigtig publikation inden for organisationsdesign. Fokus ligger på nye udviklinger inden for organisationsdesign og bogen hjælper med at skabe mere reflekterende forskining og stærkere empiriske analyser inden for dette vigtige felt inden...

  14. Organic photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demming, Anna; Krebs, Frederik C; Chen, Hongzheng

    2013-01-01

    Energy inflation, the constant encouragement to economize on energy consumption and the huge investments in developing alternative energy resources might seem to suggest that there is a global shortage of energy. Far from it, the energy the Sun beams on the Earth each hour is equivalent to a year......'s supply, even at our increasingly ravenous rate of global energy consumption [1]. But it's not what you have got it's what you do with it. Hence the intense focus on photovoltaic research to find more efficient ways to harness energy from the Sun. Recently much of this research has centred on organic...... solar cells since they offer simple, low-cost, light-weight and large-area flexible photovoltaic structures. This issue with guest editors Frederik C Krebs and Hongzheng Chen focuses on some of the developments at the frontier of organic photovoltaic technology. Improving the power conversion efficiency...

  15. Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankland, Kenneth

    For many years, powder X-ray diffraction was used primarily as a fingerprinting method for phase identification in the context of molecular organic materials. In the early 1990s, with only a few notable exceptions, structures of even moderate complexity were not solvable from PXRD data alone. Global optimisation methods and highly-modified direct methods have transformed this situation by specifically exploiting some well-known properties of molecular compounds. This chapter will consider some of these properties.

  16. Organic superconductors

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Michael; Mueller, Jens

    2003-01-01

    This article will give an overview on the normal- and superconducting-state properties of organic superconductors. There are a number of review articles on this subject - most of them focus on either the quasi-one-dimensional or two-dimensional materials. The intention of the present review is therefore to provide a discussion which covers aspects common to both families on the same footing. Instead of reviewing the whole diversity of behaviors found among the various compounds with all their...

  17. LEARNING ORGANIZATIONS: PREREQUISITE FOR SUCCESSFUL TOURISM ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasa Kraleva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, each and every organization, including the tourism organizations should be learning organizations. The globalization and the competition affect the process of working of tourism organizations, where only the organizations which have knowledge, and are learning organizations can succeed. In a time of constant change, tourism organizations can have a competitive advantage only if they can do something or offer something different than their competitors. Many organizations in order to enable the learning process, should firstly undertake changes in the organization design, the organizational culture and the leadership style. The paper discusses the relevance of implementing the process of learning organizations as a concept for successful tourism organizations.

  18. LEARNING ORGANIZATIONS: PREREQUISITE FOR SUCCESSFUL TOURISM ORGANIZATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Natasa Kraleva

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, each and every organization, including the tourism organizations should be learning organizations. The globalization and the competition affect the process of working of tourism organizations, where only the organizations which have knowledge, and are learning organizations can succeed. In a time of constant change, tourism organizations can have a competitive advantage only if they can do something or offer something different than their competitors. Many organizations in order to ...

  19. Badgastein spa—Austrian central Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zötl, J. G.

    1995-12-01

    The Badgastein spa shows almost all the special geological and hydrological features existing in the northeastern central Alps. Situated within the Tauern window, the open joint system enables the infiltration of surface water to great depths. There it becomes heated and loaded with radon and trace elements such as fluor. The water discharges as thermal water springs at the steep right flank of the cascade of the Gastein-Ache. This hydraulic process occurs during a span of 3600 3800 years. The springs are captured in galleries, and the largest discharge is in gallery IX (2518 m3/d-1). The spa became known worldwide in the 19th century by visiting aristocrats from Central and Eastern Europe. The most important event in the 20th century was the discovery of the heat joint in the Böckstein gallery. In 1940 an effort to reactivate gold mining in the Radhausberg near Böckstein south of Badgastein failed. However, the miners had the unexpected experience of being cured of rheumatism. A connection between the great depth and high temperature in the gallery was made by the discovery of the joint set with heat and radon emanation. In the medical stations of the Böckstein gallery treatment of polyarthritis has become especially successful.

  20. Annual report 1992 - Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a non-technical progress report (in English) of the activities of the Research Centre Seibersdorf in the fields of energy and safety, materials research, isotope and radiation techniques, environment protection, health and food and industrial consulting. Within other non nuclear related highlights the newly built radio-pharmaceutical laboratory is described, which will guarantee the reliable supply of products and develop new diagnostic and therapeutic preparations. A newly developed whole-body counter for measuring internal radiation is in use in the Vienna General Hospital to obtain better information of the patient's metabolism and can thus assess the efficiency of pharmaceuticals. The research in the field of toxicology and carcinogenicity was intensified. Geological dating was performed for the 'Continental Deep-Drilling Programme' on behalf of the Max Planck Institute. Environmental data acquisition was mainly conducted in the field of ozone, water quality, air pollution and electro-smog (quittner, rieger)

  1. 32nd International Austrian Winter Symposium

    OpenAIRE

    Rezaee, A.; Loidl, W; Geinitz, HS; Fitz, F; Broinger, G; Pallwien-Prettner, L; Imamovic, L.; M. Beheshti.; Rendl, G; Hackl, D; Tsybrovsky, O; Steinmair, M; Emmanuel, K; Moinfar, F; Langsteger, W

    2016-01-01

    Table of contents A1 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT in staging and restaging of Prostate Cancer Patients: comparative study with 18F-Choline PET/CT W Langsteger, A Rezaee, W Loidl, HS Geinitz, F Fitz, M Steinmair, G Broinger, L Pallwien-Prettner, M Beheshti A2 F18 Choline PET – CT: an accurate diagnostic tool for the detection of parathyroid adenoma? L Imamovic, M Beheshti, G Rendl, D Hackl, O Tsybrovsky, M Steinmair, K Emmanuel, F Moinfar, C Pirich, W Langsteger A3 [18F]Fluoro-DOPA-PET/CT in the primary d...

  2. The Austrian prize list; Le palmares autrichien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonas, A.; Gortler, F. [LK Oberosterreich (Austria)

    1999-06-01

    The Austria took stock on the wood furnaces from 1983 to 1997. Many tables present the annual power of automatic installations and networks, the installations number and their localization. Facing the fossil energies competition, the development of this energy needs a government financial assistance to keep its increase. (A.L.B.)

  3. MedAustron - Austrian Hadron Therapy Centre

    CERN Document Server

    Benedikt, M; 10.1109/NSSMIC.2008.4774090

    2009-01-01

    MedAustron is a synchrotron based accelerator facility for cancer treatment with proton and carbon ion beams. In addition to the clinical application, the accelerator will also provide beams for non-clinical research, in the fields of medical radiation physics, radiation biology and experimental physics.

  4. Organic photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna; Krebs, Frederik C.; Chen, Hongzheng

    2013-12-01

    Energy inflation, the constant encouragement to economize on energy consumption and the huge investments in developing alternative energy resources might seem to suggest that there is a global shortage of energy. Far from it, the energy the Sun beams on the Earth each hour is equivalent to a year's supply, even at our increasingly ravenous rate of global energy consumption [1]. But it's not what you have got it's what you do with it. Hence the intense focus on photovoltaic research to find more efficient ways to harness energy from the Sun. Recently much of this research has centred on organic solar cells since they offer simple, low-cost, light-weight and large-area flexible photovoltaic structures. This issue with guest editors Frederik C Krebs and Hongzheng Chen focuses on some of the developments at the frontier of organic photovoltaic technology. Improving the power conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaic systems, while maintaining the inherent material, economic and fabrication benefits, has absorbed a great deal of research attention in recent years. Here significant progress has been made with reports now of organic photovoltaic devices with efficiencies of around 10%. Yet operating effectively across the electromagnetic spectrum remains a challenge. 'The trend is towards engineering low bandgap polymers with a wide optical absorption range and efficient hole/electron transport materials, so that light harvesting in the red and infrared region is enhanced and as much light of the solar spectrum as possible can be converted into an electrical current', explains Mukundan Thelakkat and colleagues in Germany, the US and UK. In this special issue they report on how charge carrier mobility and morphology of the active blend layer in thin film organic solar cells correlate with device parameters [2]. The work contributes to a better understanding of the solar-cell characteristics of polymer:fullerene blends, which form the material basis for some of the most

  5. Organizing Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Bojesen, Anders

    This paper invites to discuss the processes of individualization and organizing being carried out under what we might see as an emerging regime of change. The underlying argumentation is that in certain processes of change, competence becomes questionable at all times. The hazy characteristics...... of this regime of change are pursued through a discussion of competencies as opposed to qualifications illustrated by distinct cases from the Danish public sector in the search for repetitive mechanisms. The cases are put into a general perspective by drawing upon experiences from similar change processes...

  6. Soil warming affects soil organic matter chemistry of all density fractions of a mountain forest soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnecker, Jörg; Wanek, Wolfgang; Borken, Werner; Schindlbacher, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Rising temperatures enhance microbial decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) and increase thereby the soil CO2 efflux. Elevated microbial activity might differently affect distinct SOM pools, depending on their stability and accessibility. Soil fractions derived from density fractionation have been suggested to represent SOM pools with different turnover times and stability against microbial decomposition. We here investigated the chemical and isotopic composition of bulk soil and three different density fractions of forest soils from a long term warming experiment in the Austrian Alps. At the time of sampling the soils in this experiment had been warmed during the snow-free period for 8 consecutive years. During that time no thermal adaptation of the microbial community could be identified and CO2 release from the soil continued to be elevated by the warming treatment. Our results which included organic C content, total N content, δ13C, δ 14C, δ 15N and the chemical composition, identified by pyrolysis-GC/MS, showed no significant differences in bulk soil between warming treatment and control. The differences in the three individual fractions (free particulate organic matter, occluded particulate organic matter and mineral associated organic matter) were mostly small and the direction of warming induced change was variable with fraction and sampling depth. We did however find statistically significant effects of warming in all density fractions from 0-10 cm depth, 10-20 cm depth or both. Our results also including significant changes in the supposedly more stable mineral associated organic matter fraction where δ 13C values decreased at both sampling depths and the relative proportion of N-bearing compounds decreased at a sampling depth of 10-20 cm. All the observed changes can be attributed to an interplay of enhanced microbial decomposition of SOM and increased root litter input. This study suggests that soil warming destabilizes all density fractions of

  7. History of deceased organ donation, transplantation, and organ procurement organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Richard J; Cornell, Danielle L; Cochran, Larry

    2012-03-01

    The historical development of deceased organ donation, transplantation, and organ procurement organizations is reviewed. The concept of transplantation, taking parts from one animal or person and putting them into another animal or person, is ancient. The development of organ transplantation brought on the need for a source of organs. Although many early kidney transplants used kidneys from living donors, these donors could not satisfy the ever-growing need for organs, and extrarenal organs were recovered only from deceased donors. This need for organs to satisfy the great demand led to specialized organizations to identify deceased donors, manage them until recovery occurred, and to notify transplant centers that organs were available for their patients. The functions of these organ procurement organizations expanded to include other required functions such as education, accounting, and compliance with state and federal requirements. Because of the shortage of organs relative to the demand, lack of a unified organ allocation system, the perception that organs are a national resource and should be governed by national regulations, and to improve results of organ procurement organizations and transplant centers, the federal government has regulated virtually all phases of organ procurement and transplantation. PMID:22489438

  8. Organic photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna; Krebs, Frederik C.; Chen, Hongzheng

    2013-12-01

    Energy inflation, the constant encouragement to economize on energy consumption and the huge investments in developing alternative energy resources might seem to suggest that there is a global shortage of energy. Far from it, the energy the Sun beams on the Earth each hour is equivalent to a year's supply, even at our increasingly ravenous rate of global energy consumption [1]. But it's not what you have got it's what you do with it. Hence the intense focus on photovoltaic research to find more efficient ways to harness energy from the Sun. Recently much of this research has centred on organic solar cells since they offer simple, low-cost, light-weight and large-area flexible photovoltaic structures. This issue with guest editors Frederik C Krebs and Hongzheng Chen focuses on some of the developments at the frontier of organic photovoltaic technology. Improving the power conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaic systems, while maintaining the inherent material, economic and fabrication benefits, has absorbed a great deal of research attention in recent years. Here significant progress has been made with reports now of organic photovoltaic devices with efficiencies of around 10%. Yet operating effectively across the electromagnetic spectrum remains a challenge. 'The trend is towards engineering low bandgap polymers with a wide optical absorption range and efficient hole/electron transport materials, so that light harvesting in the red and infrared region is enhanced and as much light of the solar spectrum as possible can be converted into an electrical current', explains Mukundan Thelakkat and colleagues in Germany, the US and UK. In this special issue they report on how charge carrier mobility and morphology of the active blend layer in thin film organic solar cells correlate with device parameters [2]. The work contributes to a better understanding of the solar-cell characteristics of polymer:fullerene blends, which form the material basis for some of the most

  9. Organic Nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balzer, Frank; Schiek, Manuela; Al-Shamery, Katharina;

    Single crystalline nanowires from fluorescing organic molecules like para-phenylenes or thiophenes are supposed to become key elements in future integrated optoelectronic devices [1]. For a sophisticated design of devices based on nanowires the basic principles of the nanowire formation have...... to be well understood [2]. Nanowires from para-phenylenes, from ®-thiophenes, and from phenylene/thiophene co-oligomers, Fig. 1, are investigated exemplarily. Epitaxy and electrostatic interactions determine the microscopic growth mechanism, whereas kinetics ascertains the macroscopic habit. Results from...... atomic force microscopy and from polarized far-field optical microscopy for various prototypical molecules are reproduced by electrostatic and Monte Carlo calculations. Based on the crystal structure, predictions on the growth habit from other conjugated molecules become in reach....

  10. 企业家行为:误导还是主动--兼论奥地利学派的企业家精神理论%The Entrepreneurial Behavior:Misled or Active---Discussion on the Entrepreneurial Spirit in Austrian Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玲; 雷良海

    2013-01-01

    The entrepreneurial spirit theory in Austrian considers that entrepreneurs are the most important participators in the market. The standard account of Austrian Business Cycle theory posits that central bank manipulations of interest rates fool entrepreneurs into believing that there has been an increase in the real supply of funds. This induces the liqui-dation and recession at last. We use the prisoner's dilemma framework to reanalyse the profit maximizing behavior of entrepreneurs under the maximin criteria. We see that profit maximization behavior on the part of individual entrepre-neurs can explain the start of the economic boom under credit expansion.%奥地利学派的企业家精神理论认为企业家是市场中最重要的参加者。企业家是市场过程的驱动力量。奥地利商业周期理论中认为正是由于企业家受到了中央银行信贷扩张的诱导才导致集体投资不当,最后导致对不当投资的清算和萧条。本文从企业家追逐利润的本质出发,运用“囚徒困境”方法和最大最小化原则解释企业家充分考虑其他竞争者时的投资策略选择,重新对企业家行为做出分析。认为企业家追求利润最大化的目的导致了信贷扩张下经济繁荣。

  11. Hierarchical organization versus self-organization

    OpenAIRE

    Busseniers, Evo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we try to define the difference between hierarchical organization and self-organization. Organization is defined as a structure with a function. So we can define the difference between hierarchical organization and self-organization both on the structure as on the function. In the next two chapters these two definitions are given. For the structure we will use some existing definitions in graph theory, for the function we will use existing theory on (self-)organization. In the t...

  12. Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Procedures Implants and Prosthetics Urogynecologic Surgical Mesh Implants Pelvic Organ Prolapse (POP) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Treatment Options for Pelvic Organ Prolapse? What is Pelvic Organ Prolapse? Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) occurs when the tissue ...

  13. Österreichischer Muster-Leistungskatalog Physikalische Medizin – empirische Grundlagen zur Wirksamkeit der Inhalte [Austrian catalogue of services of physical medicine – empirical basis of the effectiveness of the contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilbacher, Ingrid

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: An existing catalogue of services of physical medicine as a basic guideline for contracts with physicians and institutes in the Austrian Social Health Insurance Setting was checked for the evidence of the services. The main focus for this is the outpatient setting.Method: Based on the level of services (not indications nine systematic literature reviews were done using the databases Pubmed, PEDRO and Cochrane and were concluded in this overview-report. Results: More than 180 studies were included in the several literature reviews. There is good evidence for active exercises like aerobic, strengthening, stretching, graded activity, training of the back muscles and coordination training. Positive results are reported for pain decrease and functional increase especially for chronic musculoskeletal disorders. However, exercise is not a universal remedy: there are negative results for the effectiveness of exercise for indications like asthma, dysmenorrheal, epilepsy and psychiatric disorders.Limited evidence was found for exercise supported by mechanical devices, the studies found mainly focus on traction. Manual therapies and mobilization do not show clear evidence for a recommendation, and they have an unclear potential of harm. There is fair positive evidence for electro physical therapy (TENS for indications connected with pain and conflicting evidence for middle- and high frequent electro therapy modalities. Thermotherapy does not show clear advantages over placebo.Conclusion: There is positive evidence for the effectiveness of active exercises and conflicting evidence for passive treatment modalities for musculoskeletal conditions. There are methodical limitations due to the comparability in many of the studies using different outcomes, different scores for outcome measurement, subjective outcome indicators and a huge range of different indications where physical therapy modalities are done. Additional therapies, like pain

  14. Organic plant breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfe, Martin S.

    2002-01-01

    This report was presented at the UK Organic Research 2002 Conference. To a major extent, organic farming depends currently on plant and animal varieties that have been bred for non-organic farming and that are often not suited to organic production. This position is inconsistent with a holistic approach to organic agriculture. Organically-bred plant varieties are needed to develop both the potential of organic agriculture and its integrity. A first attempt at developing a concept for organic ...

  15. Towards a Sustainable Spatial Organization of the Energy System: Backcasting Experiences from Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Knoflacher

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The transition to a sustainable energy system faces more challenges than a simple replacement of fossil energy sources by renewable ones. Since current structures do not favor sustainable energy generation and use, it is indispensable to change the existing infrastructure. A fundamental change of the energy system also requires re-organizing spatial structures and their respective institutions and governance structures. Especially in Austria, urban sprawl and unsustainable settlement structures are regarded as one of the main developments leading to increased energy demand. One of the aims within the project E-Trans 2050 was to identify socio-economic constellations that are central to the further transformation of the energy system and to focus on actors and their socio-technical framework conditions. Based on a sustainable future vision for the year 2050 a backcasting workshop was conducted to identify necessary steps for the envisaged transition to a more sustainable energy system. The results shed light on the necessary changes for a transformation towards sustainability in the specific Austrian situation. Critical issues are region-specific production of energy and its use, settlement and regional structures and values and role models, which all have a determining influence on energy demand. Combining the knowledge of extensive energy use with available energy resources in spatial planning decisions is a main challenge towards a long term sustainable energy system.

  16. Herzkathetereingriffe in Österreich im Jahr 2014 (mit Audit bis 2015 // Austrian National CathLab Registry (ANCALAR: Cardiac Catheterization, Coronary Angiography (CA and PCI in Austria during the Year 2014 (Registry Data with Audit including 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mühlberger V

    2016-01-01

    .5% occurred during 2010 to 2014, a possible benefit of the radial approach.br Multi-vessel PCI during the same session (n = 3.094 cases in 2013 increased to n = 4.309 cases in 2014, implantation of multiple stents from 5.668 to 8.021 cases as well. Reintervention (REDO – due to restenosis – reporting centres observed a reduction during 2003–2014 from 6.6% to 4.2% in such cases. From 2010 (15.2% to 2014 (16.6% the relative percentage of stent thromboses stayed constant (could not be improved in those REDO cases.br Left ventricular angiography during diagnostic catheterization decreased rapidly and for the first time from 2013 to 2014 (from n = 18.572 to n = 11.834 cases apparently due to multiple other possibilities of left ventricular imaging. Percutaneous Renal Denervation suffered the expected downslope in 2014.br Interestingly, not only in Austria, it is still observed that scientific knowledge, recommended as Class I Indications in the guidelines, takes several years to establish itself nationwide. This is evident 2014 again concerning intra-arterial balloon pump or antithrombotic management in the CathLab.br The data for 2014 are presented in Krems (November 27th–28th, 2015 at the autumn meeting of the working group “Interventional Cardiology of the Austrian Society of Cardiology” (ÖKG, as a basis for discussion. The presentation will also be placed under the website a href="http://iik.i-med.ac.at"http://iik.i-med.ac.at/a.p bKurzfassung:/b Im internationalen Vergleich für das Jahr 2014 liegt Österreich (A/AUT mit 6534 diagnostischen Koronarangiographien (CA, 2686 perkutanen Koronareninterventionen (PCI, 379 elektrophysiologischen Ablationen und 70 transarteriellen Aortenklappenimplantationen (TAVI bezogen auf eine Million Einwohner im europäischen Spitzenfeld. Alle Parameter zeigten eine Zunahme gegenüber dem Vorjahr.br Die erhöhte Mortalität von 31,2 % bei Patienten mit PCI wegen ST-Hebungsinfarkten (STEMI und konsekutivem Schock ist hauptverantwortlich f

  17. 11 June 2013- Autrian Federal President Dr Heinz Fischer and Federal Minister Prof. Dr Karlheinz Töchterle visit CMS cavern and LHC tunnel at Point 5 and the ASACUSA and AEGIS experiments on the AD. Signature of the guest book in the Globe of Science and Innovation after a round table with 10 young austrian scientists. Family photograph in front of an LHC magnet.

    CERN Multimedia

    TEAM VMO

    2013-01-01

    Welcome line: on French territory by the Representative of the French Republic S. Donnot, Sous-Préfet de Gex; CERN Director-General R. Heuer; Director for Research and Scientific Computing S. Bertolucci; Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers; Director for Administration and general Infrastructure S. Lettow; Head of Technology Department F. Bordry; CERN Austrian Circle Spokesperson F. Eder and CERN Protocol S. Molinari. First Lady and Federal Minister Töchterle follow. CERN-HI-1306154 19-32: in CMS conference room, building 3562: general presentation of the Laboratory by the DG; CERN-HI-1306154 33-43: visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5 with Head of Technology Department F. Bordry CERN-HI-1306154 44-64: in the CMS cavern with Collaboration Spokesperson J. Incandela and CMS and Austrian Academy of Sciences C. Wulz; CERN-HI-1306154 65-90: ASACUSA with E. Widmann and AEGIS with M. Doser. CERN-HI-1306154 91-115: round table, signatures and exchange of gifts in the Globe of Science and Innovation; fa...

  18. Organic waste treatment with organically modified clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of organically modified clays in hazardous waste management applications offers a significant new and untapped potential. These clays may be used in the stabilization of organic wastes and organically contaminated soils, for waste water treatment, for oil spill control, for liner systems beneath fuel oil storage tanks, and as a component within liner systems of hazardous waste storage treatment and disposal facilities. Organically modified clays (organophilic clays) may be employed in each of these systems to adsorb organic waste constituents, enhancing the performance of the applications

  19. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Organic Compounds' Impact on Indoor Air Quality Volatile Organic Compounds' Impact on Indoor Air Quality On this page: ... Exposure Standards or Guidelines Additional Resources Introduction Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted as gases from certain solids ...

  20. Assessment of Soil Organic Carbon Stability in Agricultural Systems by Using Natural Abundance Signals of Stable Carbon and Nitrogen Isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information on the stability and age of soil organic matter (SOM) pools is of vital importance for assessing the impact of soil management and environmental factors on SOM, an important part of the global carbon (C) cycle. The terrestrial soil organic C pool, up to a depth of 1 m, contains about 1500 Pg C (Batjes, 1996). This is about 2.5 times more organic C than the vegetation (650 Pg C) and about twice as much as in the atmosphere (750 Pg C) (Batjes, 1998), but the assessment of the stability and age of SOM using 14C radio carbon technique are expensive. Conen et al. (2008) developed a model to estimate the SOM stability based on the isotopic discrimination of 15N natural abundance by soil micro-organisms and the change in C/N ratio during organic matter decomposition, for steady state, Alpine and permanent grasslands. In the framework of the IAEA funded coordinated research project (CRP) on Soil Quality and Nutrient Management for Sustainable Food Production in Mulch based Cropping Systems in sub-Saharan Africa, research was initiated to use this model in agricultural systems for developing a cost effective and affordable technique for Member States to determine the stability of SOM. As part of this research, soil samples were taken and analysed in four long term field experiments, established on soils with low and high SOM, in Austria and Belgium. The participating institutions are the Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety (AGES), the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences in Vienna (BOKU), the University of Leuven (KUL), the Soil Service of Belgium (BDB) and the Centre Wallon de Recherches Agronomiques (CRA-W)

  1. Ashes for organic farming

    OpenAIRE

    Kousa, T.; Heinonen, M; Suoniitty, T.; Peltonen, K

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays only eight percent of the cultivated field area is used for organic farming. The Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry has published the guidelines for the program of organic farming to diversify the supply and the consumption of organic food. The aim is to increase organically arable land to 20% by the year 2020.The demand of organic fertilizer products is strongly increasing. Interest in forestry by-products (ash, bark, zero fiber, etc.) for use in organic production has recently be...

  2. Organic Viticulture in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Willer, Helga; Häseli, Andreas; Levite, Dominique; Tamm, Lucius

    2002-01-01

    Introduction Organic agriculture is a thriving sector in Europe, and in some countries 10 % of the agricultural area is organic. Not so, however, for organic viticulture: the percentage of organic viticulture land compared to all vineyards is lower than for organic agriculture. This is due to several constraints in the sector of production techniques, in marketing, legislation and state support. Material and Methods So far no official data on the current status of organic viticultur...

  3. Nitrogen-rich higher-molecular soil organic compounds patterned by lignin degradation products: Considerations on the nature of soil organic nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebner, Falk; Bertoli, Luca; Pour, Georg; Klinger, Karl; Ragab, Tamer; Rosenau, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    and NMR spectroscopy (1H, 13C, 15N), respectively. The reactions of hydroquinone, methyl hydroquinone and p-benzoquinone with ammonia and dimethyl-ammonium dimethylcarbamate - a source of dimethyl amine - affording the respective (substituted) 2,5-diamino-[1,4]benzoquinones under aerobic conditions have been studied by EPR spectroscopy for both oxygen-free and oxygen-rich conditions. 15N CPMAS NMR and XPS spectra of ammoxidized technical lignins and of ammoxidized low-molecular polyphenolic and quinoid products of the aerobic, microbial lignin degradation using 15N labeled aqueous ammonium hydroxide share many similarities, highly indicative for reaction sequences proceeding via common key intermediates. It has been demonstrated that 2,5-dihydroxy-[1,4]benzoquinone which can be surprisingly formed from both lignin and cellulose reacts with N nucleophiles to the respective 2,5-amino derivatives. The latter are semi-stable and react further to nitrogenous compounds of higher molecular weight. Hydroquinone and methoxy hydroquinone react even faster affording the respective 2,5-diamino-[1,4]benzoquinones. EPR experiments revealed that the reaction of hydroquinone with dimethyl amine proceed via radical intermediates. The results of this study strongly support the polyphenol theory and is hoped to contribute to a better understanding of nitrogen accumulation in soil organic matter. Acknowledgement The financial support by the Austrian Research Promotion Agency FFG (project FLIPPR: Future Lignin and Pulp Processing Research, 836650) and by The Austrian Science Fund FWF (project I154-N19) is gratefully acknowledged.

  4. Doing language: Narratives from an activist world in the Austrian art-world of the 1990s: the Art Activism of WochenKlausur, Martin Krenn, Oliver Ressler and maiz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Fotiadi

    2012-01-01

    The article refers to the political art scene in Austria during the 1990s and early 2000s. Participatory art-activism projects by the group WochenKlausur and by Martin Krenn and Oliver Ressler are juxtaposed to artistic work used for political activism by the women migrants' organization maiz. All c

  5. Needle pollutant concentrations in Austrian long-term observation sites (spruce), 1968-1987 - (a contribution to the discussion of increased pollutant deposition and washout effects); Nadelnaehrstoffgehalte auf oesterreichischen Dauerbeobachtungsflaechen (Fichte) von 1968 bis 1987 - (ein Beitrag zur Diskussion erhoehter Schadstoffeintraege bzw. Auswaschungseffekten)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan, K.

    1992-12-31

    In order to obtain information on the nutrient supply prior to the establishment of the Austrian biological indicator grid in 1983, needle data of long-term observation areas were analyzed in order to find out whether, and from when on, changes occurred in the course of 20 years, and whether the nutrient supply (in particular of N and Mg) differs since 1983 as compared to former years. According to the results of the long-term experimental areas, one may assume the following: an increase of the N-concentrations has taken place only locally and with different onset; indeed, the magnesium concentrations have been increasing again scince the establishment of the biological indicator grid. (orig.) [Deutsch] Um Anhaltspunkte ueber die Naehrelementversorgung vor Bearbeitung des oesterreichischen Bioindikatornetzes ab 1983 zu erhalten, wurden die nadelanalytischen Daten von Dauerbeobachtungsflaechen dahingehend ausgewertet, ob und ab wann Veraenderungen im Verlauf von 20 Jahren eingetreten sind und ob sich die Naehrelementversorgung (insbesondere von N und Mg) seit 1983 gegenueber frueheren Jahren unterscheidet. Nach den Ergebnissen der Dauerversuchsflaechen darf angenommen werden, dass eine Anhebung der N-Gehalte nur lokal und mit zeitlich unterschiedlichem Beginn vorhanden ist und die Magnesiumgehalte seit der Bearbeitung des Bioindikatornetzes eher wieder anstiegen. (orig.)

  6. Comparison of Development of Non-governmental Organizations and the Current State of Their Funding in Slovakia and Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svidroňová Mária

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-governmental organizations play a vital role in the economy of every country. They are not only providers of special type of services that public sector is not capable of providing in full quality and quantity, and private sector is not interested in, but they are also watch dogs of the society and builders of active citizenship. Thus they have become an object of many research studies. The divergence in their goals, sizes, roles, types of services provided, and ways of funding make NGOs an interesting subject. As a goal for our research we therefore chose a comparison of the development and state of the Slovak and Austrian non-profit sector in the view of historical development of both countries. Consequently, we want to evaluate the funding of NGOs in Slovakia and Austria. In the paper we map the development of non-profit sector in Slovakia and Austria and in the context of a common historical development we assess a current state and a potential of economic strength of NGOs in both countries. The output is comparison of funding of NGOs in Slovakia and Austria based on statistical data evaluation. Subsequently, we propose recommendation for suitable diversification of the funding sources.

  7. Theology and Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier Sørensen, Bent; Spoelstra, Sverre; Höpfl, Heather;

    2012-01-01

    of religious practices in organizations. Instead, theology of organization recognizes that the way we think about and act in organizations is profoundly structured by theological concepts. In this editorial to the special issue we have three aims: to outline what theology of organization is, to show how......This Introduction argues for the importance of theology for the study of organization. It also draws the contours of a possible ‘theology of organization’. Theology of organization, as we use it here, does not refer to a study of organization that is rooted in faith, nor does it refer to a study...... it builds upon Carl Schmitt’s ‘political theology’ and Giorgio Agamben’s ‘economic theology’ and finally to propose three different forms that theology of organization can take. These forms of theology of organization respectively (1) analyse organizational concepts as secularized theological concepts, (2...

  8. Organic food processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahl, Johannes; Alborzi, Farnaz; Beck, Alexander;

    2014-01-01

    In 2007 EU Regulation (EC) 834/2007 introduced principles and criteria for organic food processing. These regulations have been analysed and discussed in several scientific publications and research project reports. Recently, organic food quality was described by principles, aspects and criteria....... These principles from organic agriculture were verified and adapted for organic food processing. Different levels for evaluation were suggested. In another document, underlying paradigms and consumer perception of organic food were reviewed against functional food, resulting in identifying integral product...... to evaluate processing methods. Therefore the goal of this paper is to describe and discuss the topic of organic food processing to make it operational. A conceptual background for organic food processing is given by verifying the underlying paradigms and principles of organic farming and organic food as well...

  9. Soil organic matter studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 77 papers were presented and discussed during this symposium, 37 are included in this Volume II. The topics covered in this volume include: biochemical transformation of organic matter in soils; bitumens in soil organic matter; characterization of humic acids; carbon dating of organic matter in soils; use of modern techniques in soil organic matter research; use of municipal sludge with special reference to heavy metals constituents, soil nitrogen, and physical and chemical properties of soils; relationship of soil organic matter and plant metabolism; interaction between agrochemicals and organic matter; and peat. Separate entries have been prepared for those 20 papers which discuss the use of nuclear techniques in these studies

  10. Entrepreneurship and Organizations' Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧

    2013-01-01

    In modern society, the competition has become increasingly fierce. Organizations pay close attention to their manage-ment in order to gain the priority. Under this context, entrepreneurship has been attached great importance to. Entrepreneurship has played an indispensable role in organizations. Compare to those short-lived companies, powerful organizations, such as Google, IBM and P&G has gain great progress in the last decades. Therefore, it is essential to study how the powerful organiza-tion could always be innovative. This paper aims to study the role that entrepreneurship plays in the organizations and take Google as an example. It provides some previous lessons that Chinese organizations could draw from.

  11. Organizing design work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, John Damm

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of the kind of understanding of organizing that is implied by design theories for project managers' understanding and organizing of design work. Five theories and their organizing consequences for project managers organizing of design work...... are analyzed. The paper contributes to design research and organization studies by putting the organizing of design projects on the research agenda. It also contributes by demonstrating the importance of being aware of the ontological and epistemological assumptions and organizing consequences of different...... design theories. The selected theories of design thus represent different views on what design is, address different design areas and are based on different ontological and epistemological assumptions that influence their views on how design processes should be organized....

  12. Soil Organic Carbon Stock

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Soil organic carbon (SOC) is the carbon held within soil organic constituents (i.e., products produced as dead plants and animals decompose and the soil microbial...

  13. Understanding Identity and Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger

    2013-01-01

    The article reviews the book "Understanding Identity and Organizations," by Kate Kenny, Andrea Whitle, and Hugh Wilmott.......The article reviews the book "Understanding Identity and Organizations," by Kate Kenny, Andrea Whitle, and Hugh Wilmott....

  14. Organization of Financial Accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Шпак, Валентин Аркадійович

    2016-01-01

    Organization of financial accounting that is grounded on principles of financial reporting has been considered. The relation between accounting objects and accounts has been researched. Approaches towards solving problems of organization of financial accounting have been described.

  15. Organ Donation: The Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Search Register with your state as an Organ Donor Home Why Donate Becoming a Donor About Donation & ... Plan Your Finances After Your Transplant Contact Your Donor Family Organ Donation: The Process Enrolling as a Donor : The ...

  16. Organics in radwaste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventeen papers, each processed separately cover the types of organic materials in radioactive wastes, their effect on repository performance and destruction of organics, including incineration, peroxide and wet oxidation and acid and biological digestion. (U.K.)

  17. Organic Solvent Tropical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides the basis for closing the organic solvent safety issue. Sufficient information is presented to conclude that risk posed by an unmitigated organic solvent fire is within risk evaluation guidelines

  18. Organic Pesticide Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Control a pest Integrated Pest Management What are pesticides? Herbicides Disinfectants Fungicides Insecticides Natural and Biological Pesticides ... Other types of pesticides Disponible en español Organic Pesticide Ingredients Organic foods are not necessarily pesticide-free. ...

  19. Organization theory. Analyzing health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cors, W K

    1997-02-01

    Organization theory (OT) is a tool that can be applied to analyze and understand health care organizations. Transaction cost theory is used to explain, in a unifying fashion, the myriad changes being undertaken by different groups of constituencies in health care. Agency theory is applied to aligning economic incentives needed to ensure Integrated Delivery System (IDS) success. By using tools such as OT, a clearer understanding of organizational changes is possible. PMID:10164970

  20. Deconstructing the organic movement

    OpenAIRE

    Frost, David

    2002-01-01

    This report was presented at the UK Organic Research 2002 Conference. Organic agriculture has sought to establish its scientific validity and its origins. Conford (2001) claims that these can be traced to the 1920s, and that Anglican Christianity is pivotal to its history. However, organic agriculture takes many forms and the role of religion in society has changed. In the UK, a new incarnation of organic farming occurred in the late twentieth century as part of a wider response to environmen...

  1. Organic for the future

    OpenAIRE

    Rebsdorf, Simon Olling

    2011-01-01

    Organic research and innovation moves the organic food sector from a niche to a general reference model for sustainable agriculture. Europe faces major challenges to conserve biodiversity, secure soil, and promote animal welfare and there is an urgent need to ensure global food security. Organic food and farming paves the way to meet these challenges; but to succeed a further development of organic food and farming is key.

  2. PELVIC ORGAN PROLAPES

    OpenAIRE

    Ketut Yoga Mira Pratiwi; I Gede Mega Putra

    2013-01-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is defined as a decrease in abnormal or herniation of the pelvic organs out of place attached to its normal position or in the pelvic cavity. As for the anatomy of the pelvic organs consists of bones, muscles, and nerves. The presence of damage to the pelvic connective tissue and visceral attachment pelvic organs the cause occurs. The symptoms that appear in patients POP not specific to distinguish prolapse of some compartments but can reflect the degree of prolaps...

  3. The Matrix Organization Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gattiker, Urs E.; Ulhøi, John Parm

    1999-01-01

    This paper gives a short overview of matrix structure and technology management. It outlines some of the characteristics and also points out that many organizations may actualy be hybrids (i.e. mix several ways of organizing to allocate resorces effectively).......This paper gives a short overview of matrix structure and technology management. It outlines some of the characteristics and also points out that many organizations may actualy be hybrids (i.e. mix several ways of organizing to allocate resorces effectively)....

  4. Nanostructured Organic Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radziwon, Michal Jędrzej; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Madsen, Morten

    Recent forecasts for alternative energy generation predict emerging importance of supporting state of art photovoltaic solar cells with their organic equivalents. Despite their significantly lower efficiency, number of application niches are suitable for organic solar cells. This work reveals...... the principles of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells fabrication as well as summarises major differences in physics of their operation....

  5. Organization/Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, Ellen Earle

    Patterns that emerged from reviewing 26 syllabi for courses on organization and administration in higher education are discussed, and six sample syllabi are presented. The syllabi focused more on organization than administration. Of the 26 syllabi, 19 dealt with organization and administration generally; 5 with administration in a specific…

  6. The Semantic Learning Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicilia, Miguel-Angel; Lytras, Miltiadis D.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is introducing the concept of a "semantic learning organization" (SLO) as an extension of the concept of "learning organization" in the technological domain. Design/methodology/approach: The paper takes existing definitions and conceptualizations of both learning organizations and Semantic Web technology to develop…

  7. Organic chemistry in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    Organic cosmochemistry, organic materials in space exploration, and biochemistry of man in space are briefly surveyed. A model of Jupiter's atmosphere is considered, and the search for organic molecules in the solar system and in interstellar space is discussed. Materials and analytical techniques relevant to space exploration are indicated, and the blood and urine analyses performed on Skylab are described.

  8. Organ Harvesting and Transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskette, Kimberly G.; Ritz, John M.

    2010-01-01

    Humans and animals need healthy organs to live. Due to medical conditions and accidents, some organs fail to function properly. For these reasons, the medical community has experimented and can now perform successful organ transplants, allowing patients to continue to live their lives. Many countries have medical programs where individuals can…

  9. Aging of Organic Nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balzer, Frank; Schiek, Manuela; Osadnik, Andreas;

    2012-01-01

    Organic semiconductors formed by epitaxial growth from small molecules such as the para-phenylenes or squaraines promise a vast application potential as the active ingredient in electric and optoelectronic devices. Their self-organization into organic nanowires or "nanofibers" adds a peculiar...

  10. Organic herbicide update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed research is the top research priority among organic producers. Very few chemical weed control options are approved for organic use (corn gluten meal, vinegar, clove oil, and most recently ammonium pelargonate ), but additional compounds are under investigation and pursuing organic approval. C...

  11. Multiple organ procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Milivoje

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Liver transplantation is the most demanding of all solid organ transplantations. It requires perfect organization and motivation of health care professionals, patients and their families. This article deals with the procedure for multiple organ procurement, reviews criteria for organ donation and describes the surgical technique for multiple organ procurement. Discussion. Adequate selection and evaluation of cadaveric donors and of organs for transplantation should include early identification of potential donors, and early diagnosis of brain death. The procurement of the highest number of viable organs for transplantation requires excellence in each of the phases. Early and aggressive physiologic support in the maintenance of potential donors can reduce organ donor loss due to irreversible asystole or multiorgan failure (it is almost always possible to maintain organ perfusion pressure and increase the number of organs without increasing post-transplant morbidity or mortality. The ideal donor is a young, previously healthy, brain dead, victim of an accident. Conclusion. The surgical procedure for multiple organ procurement from brain death donors must be performed without intraopertive organ damage. .

  12. Organic production in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Wibe, Atle

    2005-01-01

    Present status of the Norwegian organic sector: -Official target of 10% organic production in 2010. -Organic production receives public subsidies -Marketing and production of plant products successful and growing -Marketing of livestock products successful and growing -Large portion of ecological products are sold unmarked together with other products

  13. Organic photosensitive devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Barry P; Forrest, Stephen R

    2013-11-26

    The present invention generally relates to organic photosensitive optoelectronic devices. More specifically, it is directed to organic photosensitive optoelectronic devices having a photoactive organic region containing encapsulated nanoparticles that exhibit plasmon resonances. An enhancement of the incident optical field is achieved via surface plasmon polariton resonances. This enhancement increases the absorption of incident light, leading to a more efficient device.

  14. Organ mass measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The term, anatomical measurements, in the context of this Co-ordinated Research Programme refers to measurements of masses of internal organs, although the human body is composed of internal organs and tissues such as skeleton, muscle, skin and adipose. The mass of an organ containing a radionuclide (source organ), and the mass of a target organ which absorbs energy of the radiation, are essential parameters in the ICRP dosimetric model derived from the MIRD method. Twelve specific organs of interest were proposed at the Coordinated Research Programme Project Formulation Meeting (PFM) in 1988. A slightly different set of thirteen organs with potential significance for radiation protection were selected for study at the Research Co-ordination Meeting held at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre in 1991. The dimensions of the organs could also be useful information, but were considered unimportant for internal dose assessment. Due to the strong concern about the unified method for collecting organ mass data at the PFM, a guide-line was established stressing the need for organ data from subjects that were healthy and normal, at least until shortly before death, or from sudden death cases, following the Japanese experience. In this report, masses of nine to thirteen organs are presented from seven participating countries. Three participants have also reported the organ masses as fractions of the total body mass

  15. LEADERSHIP IN VIRTUAL ORGANIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Marian NÃSTASE; Alexandru ROJA

    2013-01-01

    Current economic circumstances, very dynamic and characterized by uncertainty, require organizations to identify new sources of competitive advantage to remain competitive. Collaboration between organizations in collaborative networks are forms and environments in which organizations can use their distinctive potential. Capitalization of organizational potential in isolated manner, will not generate competitive advantage.Also important, the globalization and relocation of business, and integr...

  16. Values in Organic Farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgård, Bente; Pedersen, Kirsten Bransholm; Land, Birgit

    The study focuses on the recent debate about what is, or what constitutes, organic farming and what is the right path for organic farming in the future. The study is based on a critical discourse analysis of the controversy about suspending the private standard for organic farming adopted...

  17. The Visual Dimension in Organizing, Organization and Organization Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Theo; Meyer, Renate; Hollerer, Markus;

    2013-01-01

    and meaning constriction, Building primarily on insights from the phenomenological tradition in organization theory and from social semiotics, this article sets out to consolidate previous scholarly efforts and to sketch a fertile future research agenda, After briefly exploring the working of visuals, we...

  18. The Visual Dimension in Organizing, Organization, and Organization Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Renate E.; Höllerer, Markus A.; Jancsary, Dennis;

    2013-01-01

    and meaning construction. Building primarily on insights from the phenomenological tradition in organization theory and from social semiotics, this article sets out to consolidate previous scholarly efforts and to sketch a fertile future research agenda. After briefly exploring the workings of visuals, we...

  19. Feed and organic matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang

    2011-01-01

    the distribution between particulate and unsedimented (suspended and dissolved) organic waste. Quantifying aquaculture waste, including organic matter, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), into different waste fractions (particulate and unsedimented) is essential for optimising the design of different treatment setups...... it was opposite for BOD5. A BOD5/COD ratio of 0.5 was derived, indicating that unsedimented organic waste is characterized by easily degradable organic matter. In comparison, a solid BOD5/COD ratio of 0.2 indicated that this waste fraction contains high amounts of hard-to-degrade organic matter. The study...

  20. Doing Language: Narratives from an Activists' World in the Austrian Art World of the 1990s. The Art Activism of WochenKlausur, Martin Krenn, Oliver Ressler and maiz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotiadi, Eva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article refers to the political art scene in Austria during the 1990s and early 2000s. Participatory art-activism projects by the group WochenKlausur and by Martin Krenn and Oliver Ressler are juxtaposed to artistic work used for political activism by the women migrants' organization maiz. All case-studies engage with issues of immigration in Austria, touching also upon official immigration policies and practices in the European Union after 1989. In the case studies the artists transfer political activism practices (giving people a voice to art practices by means of participatory, public art projects, where, for instance, migrants are interviewed. In reverse, the activists transfer artistic practices (e.g., performance to their political activism practices.

  1. Challenges in Organ Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Beyar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Organ transplantation has progressed tremendously with improvements in surgical methods, organ preservation, and pharmaco-immunologic therapies and has become a critical pathway in the management of severe organ failure worldwide. The major sources of organs are deceased donors after brain death; however, a substantial number of organs come from live donations, and a significant number can also be obtained from non-heart-beating donors. Yet, despite progress in medical, pharmacologic, and surgical techniques, the shortage of organs is a worldwide problem that needs to be addressed internationally at the highest possible levels. This particular field involves medical ethics, religion, and society behavior and beliefs. Some of the critical ethical issues that require aggressive interference are organ trafficking, payments for organs, and the delicate balance in live donations between the benefit to the recipient and the possible harm to the donor and others. A major issue in organ transplantation is the definition of death and particularly brain death. Another major critical factor is the internal tendency of a specific society to donate organs. In the review below, we will discuss the various challenges that face organ donation worldwide, and particularly in Israel, and some proposed mechanisms to overcome this difficulty.

  2. Challenges in organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyar, Rafael

    2011-04-01

    Organ transplantation has progressed tremendously with improvements in surgical methods, organ preservation, and pharmaco-immunologic therapies and has become a critical pathway in the management of severe organ failure worldwide. The major sources of organs are deceased donors after brain death; however, a substantial number of organs come from live donations, and a significant number can also be obtained from non-heart-beating donors. Yet, despite progress in medical, pharmacologic, and surgical techniques, the shortage of organs is a worldwide problem that needs to be addressed internationally at the highest possible levels. This particular field involves medical ethics, religion, and society behavior and beliefs. Some of the critical ethical issues that require aggressive interference are organ trafficking, payments for organs, and the delicate balance in live donations between the benefit to the recipient and the possible harm to the donor and others. A major issue in organ transplantation is the definition of death and particularly brain death. Another major critical factor is the internal tendency of a specific society to donate organs. In the review below, we will discuss the various challenges that face organ donation worldwide, and particularly in Israel, and some proposed mechanisms to overcome this difficulty. PMID:23908807

  3. Immunity of international organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Schrijver, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Immunity rules are part and parcel of the law of international organizations. It has long been accepted that international organizations and their staff need to enjoy immunity from the jurisdiction of national courts. However, it is the application of these rules in practice that increasingly causes controversy. Claims against international organizations are brought before national courts by those who allegedly suffer from their activities. These can be both natural and legal persons such as companies. National courts, in particular lower courts, have often been less willing to recognize the immunity of the organization concerned than the organization s founding fathers. Likewise, public opinion and legal writings frequently criticize international organizations for invoking their immunity and for the lack of adequate means of redress for claimants. It is against this background that an international conference was organized at Leiden University in June 2013. A number of highly qualified academics and practit...

  4. Do Education Organizations Show Learning Organizations Charecterics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Yumusak,

    Full Text Available Learning, an important element in terms of affecting the change of individual, organizational and social structures, will occur more effectively when the institutions in social structure turn into learning organizations. Senge (1993 concept of learning organization, constantly changing, evolving and renewing itself described as a dynamic structure. This concept has an important place in all institutions is also a separate meaning for educational institutions. In this context, schools training the human resources, appropriate for the aim of being information society, as individuals have taken continuous learning as their principles, teachers providing educational and supporting services and their perceptions of learning organization are of the great importance. In Balıkesir, the study was conducted virtue of this importance has been serving the state and private institutions serving 848 elementary teachers, perceptions of the learning organization and organizational barriers that prevent it is to be determined through a comparative analysis. As a result of the survey, in the framework of the bases in literature, it has been found out that the state primary schools don’t have the features of learning organization, contrary to the private primary schools.

  5. Focus on Organic Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Uji, Takehiko Mori and Toshihiro Takahashi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic materials are usually thought of as electrical insulators. Progress in chemical synthesis, however, has brought us a rich variety of conducting organic materials, which can be classified into conducting polymers and molecular crystals. Researchers can realize highly conducting molecular crystals in charge-transfer complexes, where suitable combinations of organic electron donor or acceptor molecules with counter ions or other organic molecules provide charge carriers. By means of a kind of chemical doping, the charge-transfer complexes exhibit high electrical conductivity and, thanks to their highly crystalline nature, even superconductivity has been observed. This focus issue of Science and Technology of Advanced Materials is devoted to the research into such 'organic conductors'The first organic metal was (TTF(TCNQ, which was found in 1973 to have high conductivity at room temperature and a metal–insulator transition at low temperatures. The first organic superconductor was (TMTSF2PF6, whose superconductivity under high pressures was reported by J´erome in 1980. After these findings, the research on organic conductors exploded. Hundreds of organic conductors have been reported, among which more than one hundred exhibit superconductivity. Recently, a single-component organic conductor has been found with metallic conductivity down to low temperatures.In these organic conductors, in spite of their simple electronic structures, much new physics has arisen from the low dimensionality. Examples are charge and spin density waves, characteristic metal–insulator transitions, charge order, unconventional superconductivity, superconductor–insulator transitions, and zero-gap conductors with Dirac cones. The discovery of this new physics is undoubtedly derived from the development of many intriguing novel organic conductors. High quality single crystals are indispensable to the precise measurement of electronic states.This focus issue

  6. Evolution of genetic organization in digital organisms

    CERN Document Server

    Ofria, C A; Ofria, Charles; Adami, Christoph

    1999-01-01

    We examine the evolution of expression patterns and the organization of genetic information in populations of self-replicating digital organisms. Seeding the experiments with a linearly expressed ancestor, we witness the development of complex, parallel secondary expression patterns. Using principles from information theory, we demonstrate an evolutionary pressure towards overlapping expressions causing variation (and hence further evolution) to sharply drop. Finally, we compare the overlapping sections of dominant genomes to those portions which are singly expressed and observe a significant difference in the entropy of their encoding.

  7. Convergence as Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Yannick Nehemiah Antonio; Risager, Bjarke Skærlund

    2016-01-01

    . The article is based on participant observation of the Blockupy event and interviews with a group of Danish activists who also participated. The article constructs sociospatial narrative that unfolds through three different scales of organization: the Blockupy coalition, the participating formal and informal...... organizations, and the activist subject. This narrative explicates the mode of organization as a ‘convergence space’ (cf. Routledge, 2003), with different ‘roots’ and ‘routes’ of organization (cf. Davies, 2012). Thus, through an analysis of the modes of organization constituting this mass protest event......, this article restates the relevance of the concept of organization, which have recently been ignored or understated in favour of master-narratives of networks or the dichotomy of horizontalism and verticality. It concludes by posing a set of questions for further discussion among both activists...

  8. Nonlinear organic plasmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Fainberg, B D

    2015-01-01

    Purely organic materials with negative and near-zero dielectric permittivity can be easily fabricated. Here we develop a theory of nonlinear non-steady-state organic plasmonics with strong laser pulses. The bistability response of the electron-vibrational model of organic materials in the condensed phase has been demonstrated. Non-steady-state organic plasmonics enable us to obtain near-zero dielectric permittivity during a short time. We have proposed to use non-steady-state organic plasmonics for the enhancement of intersite dipolar energy-transfer interaction in the quantum dot wire that influences on electron transport through nanojunctions. Such interactions can compensate Coulomb repulsions for particular conditions. We propose the exciton control of Coulomb blocking in the quantum dot wire based on the non-steady-state near-zero dielectric permittivity of the organic host medium.

  9. Organic photosensitive devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peumans, Peter; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2013-01-22

    A photoactive device is provided. The device includes a first electrode, a second electrode, and a photoactive region disposed between and electrically connected to the first and second electrodes. The photoactive region further includes an organic donor layer and an organic acceptor layer that form a donor-acceptor heterojunction. The mobility of holes in the organic donor region and the mobility of electrons in the organic acceptor region are different by a factor of at least 100, and more preferably a factor of at least 1000. At least one of the mobility of holes in the organic donor region and the mobility of electrons in the organic acceptor region is greater than 0.001 cm.sup.2/V-sec, and more preferably greater than 1 cm.sup.2/V-sec. The heterojunction may be of various types, including a planar heterojunction, a bulk heterojunction, a mixed heterojunction, and a hybrid planar-mixed heterojunction.

  10. Evolving Procurement Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Laiho, Aki; Laine, Jari

    Procurement has to find further levers and advance its contribution to corporate goals continuously. This places pressure on its organization in order to facilitate its performance. Therefore, Procurement organizations constantly have to evolve in order to match these demands. A conceptual model...... is presented and results of a first case study discussed. The findings highlight the importance of taking a contingency perspective on Procurement organization, understanding the internal and internal contingency factors. From a theoretical perspective, it opens up insights that can be furthermore leveraged...... in future studies in the fields of hybrid procurement organizations, global sourcing organizations as well as international procurement offices (IPOs). From a practical standpoint, an assessment of external and internal contingencies provides the opportunity to consciously match organization to its...

  11. The Adaptive Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul; Hallin, Carina Antonia

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary organizations operate under turbulent business conditions and must adapt their strategies to ongoing changes. This article argues that sustainable organizational performance is achieved when top management directs and coordinates interactive processes anchored in emerging organizatio......Contemporary organizations operate under turbulent business conditions and must adapt their strategies to ongoing changes. This article argues that sustainable organizational performance is achieved when top management directs and coordinates interactive processes anchored in emerging...... the adaptive organization....

  12. Organics on Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Kate, Inge L

    2010-01-01

    Organics are expected to exist on Mars based on meteorite infall, in situ production, and any possible biological sources. Yet they have not been detected on the martian surface; are they there, or are we not capable enough to detect them? The Viking gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer did not detect organics in the headspace of heated soil samples with a detection limit of parts per billion. This null result strongly influenced the interpretation of the reactivity seen in the Viking biology experiments and led to the conclusion that life was not present and, instead, that there was some chemical reactivity in the soil. The detection of perchlorates in the martian soil by instruments on the Phoenix lander and the reports of methane in the martian atmosphere suggest that it may be time to reconsider the question of organics. The high-temperature oxidizing properties of perchlorate will promote combustion of organics in pyrolytic experiments and may have affected the ability of both Phoenix's organic analysis experiment and the Viking mass spectrometer experiments to detect organics. So the question of organics on Mars remains open. A primary focus of the upcoming Mars Science Laboratory will be the detection and identification of organic molecules by means of thermal volatilization, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry--as was done on Viking. However, to enhance organic detectability, some of the samples will be processed with liquid derivatization agents that will dissolve organics from the soil before pyrolysis, which may separate them from the soil perchlorates. Nonetheless, the problem of organics on Mars is not solved, and for future missions other organic detection techniques should therefore be considered as well.

  13. Organic Molecular Solids

    CERN Document Server

    Schwoerer, Marcus

    2007-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive textbook on the physical aspects of organic solids. All phenomena which are necessary in order to understand modern technical applications are being dealt with in a way which makes the concepts of the topics accessible for students. The chapters - from the basics, production and characterization of organic solids and layers to organic semiconductors, superconductors and opto-electronical applications - have been arranged in a logical and well thought-out order.

  14. Attribute coordination in organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Yingyi Qian; Gerard Roland; Chenggang Xu

    2001-01-01

    We study coordination in organizations with a variety of organizational forms. Coordination in organization is modeled as the adjustment of attributes and capacities of tasks when facing external shocks. An M-form (U-form) organization groups complementary (substitutable) tasks together in one unit. In the presence of only attribute shocks, particularly when gains from specialization are small, communication is poor, or shocks are more likely, the expected payoff of the decentralized M-form i...

  15. Organ Donation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maya; Reid

    2011-01-01

    CHINA’S first voluntary organ donation system is in the midst of its trial run. The program is being tested in 11 pilot regions around the country, having harvested organs from more than 100 donors in this inaugural year. Overseen by the Red Cross Society of China and the country’s Ministry of Health, the system follows cardiac death standards in organ donation

  16. Stress Management in Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Roxana Capotescu

    2008-01-01

    Employee stress has increasingly become a concern for many organizations. Although it is not possible to eliminate stress entirely, people can learn to manage it. Many organizations have adopted occupational stress management programs to try and reduce the stress levels of their workforce. The high cost of work stress related problems highlights the need to spend more time evaluating work stress interventions and publishing the findings so that other organizations can gain insight into progra...

  17. Fostering values in organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Argandoña, Antonio

    2002-01-01

    Today, values hold a prominent place both in business ethics and in organization theory. However, there persists considerable confusion about what these values are and what role they play in these theories and, therefore, how they can be developed both within the individual and within the organization. Therefore, this paper seeks to define a conception of values based on a theory of human action that can provide a basis for an organization theory, and to propose a series of ideas about how pe...

  18. Physics of Organic Semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Brütting, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    Filling the gap in the literature currently available, this book presents an overview of our knowledge of the physics behind organic semiconductor devices. Contributions from 18 international research groups cover various aspects of this field, ranging from the growth of organic layers and crystals, their electronic properties at interfaces, their photophysics and electrical transport properties to the application of these materials in such different devices as organic field-effect transistors, photovoltaic cells and organic light-emitting diodes. From the contents:. * Excitation Dynamics in O

  19. Organizing for Global Sourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Turkulainen, Virpi

    Research on Purchasing Organization is dominated by studies on centralization versus decentralization. While global sourcing relates to the integrated activities of purchasing and other functions in line with the company’s strategic objectives and while it has been put forward that hybrid...... organizations are on the rise, the exact ways in which companies employ hybrid organizations in this context have not been studied in further detail. By presenting a multi-year case study from 2010 to 2013 at a pharmaceutical company, we elaborate on the existing knowledge regarding hybrid organizations...

  20. Management of information organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Afzal, Waseem

    2012-01-01

    This book is a significant step towards developing a body of management knowledge pertinent to the context of Library Information Science (LIS) and provides a succinct but deep account of management and information organizations. Management of Information Organizations presents a broad view of the information organizations and the nature of management in these organizations, and how information professionals are affected by such management systems. The book equips the reader with the knowledge that will enable them to develop a strong intellectual foundation relating to management and its mani

  1. Organic food and farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kledal, Paul Rye

    is placed on identification of economic forces within the supply chains. The main conclusions of the paper – being the results from the organic vegetable chain – are that the rules and regulations, and the development of alternative transaction processes in organic food and farming have so far been founded......The paper is based on research conducted for DARCOF II (Danish Research Centre for Organic Farming, www.darcof.dk). The aim of the research project is to analyze the future development of the Danish organic food sector through focusing on two agro-commodities: vegetables and pork. Emphasis...

  2. The MDT Barrel Organ

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni de Oliveira

    Have you ever looked for an interesting use for the spare detector parts once the construction phase was finished? Henk Tiecke, with the help of Oscar van Petten and Marco Kraan, all from NIKHEF, came up with a great idea for leftover MDT tubes. They simply built a pipe organ! See the MDT Barrel Organ in action, as recorded during a party thrown on the occasion of the first shipment of MDT chambers from NIKHEF to CERN. Want to know more about the organ? Please contact Henk Tiecke. Henk Tiecke playing the MDT Barrel Organ.

  3. Titan's organic chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, C.; Thompson, W. R.; Khare, B. N.

    1985-01-01

    Voyager discovered nine simple organic molecules in the atmosphere of Titan. Complex organic solids, called tholins, produced by irradiation of the simulated Titanian atmosphere, are consistent with measured properties of Titan from ultraviolet to microwave frequencies and are the likely main constituents of the observed red aerosols. The tholins contain many of the organic building blocks central to life on earth. At least 100-m, and possibly kms thicknesses of complex organics have been produced on Titan during the age of the solar system, and may exist today as submarine deposits beneath an extensive ocean of simple hydrocarbons.

  4. Education within the organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlata Kastelic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: What is the importance of education within the organization? Purpose: The purpose and objective of the research is to examine and present education within the organization and how to education affects on the performance and on the profits of the company. The objective of the task is to examine the education of employees for achieving business excellence and how the organization meets the needs and expectations of employees, and determine what is the process of acquiring and developing knowledge for the successful operation of the organization. Method: Quantitative - survey, qualitative – interview Results: The concrete examples or development organizations, opinion based on the profession. The results showed that the education within the organization is essential and that the future of companies largely depends on motivated and educated employees, who are able to quickly react and adapt to a changing business environment. Organization: Education is intended to all employees within the organization. Company: By education we want to influence on the entire organization, in terms of development. The originality: Research is original. Restrictions/further research: Limits of the study is that we deal with only a limited number of resources.

  5. Are Learning Organizations Pragmatic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaleri, Steven A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the future prospects of the popular concept known as the learning organization; to trace the influence of philosophical pragmatism on the learning organization and to consider its potential impact on the future; and to emphasize how pragmatic theories have shaped the development of Deming's total…

  6. Sugarcane Pernicious Organisms Hunan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ There are more than 2000 species of sugarcane pernicious organisms in the world, and over 400species axe in China. In order to make sure the sugarcane pernicious organisms in Hunan, we had a detailed investiga tion in several main sugarcane - producing regions during 1996- 1998.

  7. Person-Organization Pairing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scirotino, P. T.; Madden, Denis

    1973-01-01

    Malfunctioning organizations do not facilitate the accomplishment of the purposes of their members in a number of ways and for a number of reasons. This paper used Maslow's hierarchy of needs model in an attempt to describe one view of that malfunction. Leadership is examined briefly as a functioning organization's facilitating arrangement.…

  8. Mintzberg on organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Ph.D. Sorin-George Toma

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Henry Mintzberg is considered as one of the most representative writers in management.Until now,he has written more than 140 monographs and articles, and 13 books,mostly in the management field. On the basis of his research findings, Mintzberg proposed a typology of organizations. Taking into account their structure, he discovered seven major types of organizations

  9. Sustainable Learning Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Luis E.; Esquer, Javier; Munguia, Nora E.; Moure-Eraso, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to debate how companies may better become a sustainable learning organization by offering the most used and insightful concepts of sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: Through literature review, learning organization and sustainability perspectives are explored and compared. Findings: Learning…

  10. Innovation Adoption by Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Paul F.

    1974-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of understanding adaptation or learning by organizations, describes the state of our knowledge as of the late 1960's, and reports both the failure of current models of adaptative change by organizations and some promising findings about a new model. (Author)

  11. Neurology and international organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Mateen, Farrah J.

    2013-01-01

    A growing number of international stakeholders are engaged with neurologic diseases. This article provides a brief overview of important international stakeholders in the practice of neurology, including global disease-specific programs, United Nations agencies, governmental agencies with international influence, nongovernmental organizations, international professional organizations, large private donors, private–public partnerships, commercial interests, armed forces, and universities and c...

  12. SLUDGE ORGANICS BIOAVAILABILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concern over the bioavailability of toxic organics that can occur in municipal sludges threatens routine land application of sludge. vailable data, however, show that concentrations of priority organics in normal sludges are low. ludges applied at agronomic rates yield chemical c...

  13. Public Sector Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Renate; Leixnering, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    New public management-inspired reforms created numerous autonomous units with many different faces and labels. This variety of organizations and organizational forms precludes a straightforward definition of what constitutes a public sector organization and blurs the boundaries between the public...

  14. Organ Facts: Pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in certain types of transplants. Discover data and statistics for each center. Visit the OPTN's Organ DataSource now > I am looking for >> About organ allocation About UNOS Being a living donor Calculator - CPRA Calculator - KDPI Calculator - LAS Calculator - MELD ...

  15. Organ Facts: Kidney / Pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in certain types of transplants. Discover data and statistics for each center. Visit the OPTN's Organ DataSource now > I am looking for >> About organ allocation About UNOS Being a living donor Calculator - CPRA Calculator - KDPI Calculator - LAS Calculator - MELD ...

  16. Creating spatial organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lekanne Deprez, F.R.E.; Tissen, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the spatial design of modern organizations in the context of a fundamental change which is currently taking place in the way companies view their organizations and the inherent performance expectations, requirements and results underlying these. This change involves a managerial

  17. High reliability organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallis, R.; Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    High Reliability Organizations (HRO’s) are organizations that constantly face serious and complex (safety) risks yet succeed in realising an excellent safety performance. In such situations acceptable levels of safety cannot be achieved by traditional safety management only. HRO’s manage safety risk

  18. The Expressive Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This text challenges beliefs about organizational identity, reputation, and branding. It contains a wealth of new ideas for finding the elusive answers to questions troubling contemporary organizations. How does an organization create a strong reputation? What are the implications of corporate br...... students of management, business strategy, accounting, marketing, and communication studies; MBA students; Managers and consultants....

  19. Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Organ Procurement Organizations and Organ Transplant Programs Locator tool is designed to help users find information about the Organ Procurement and...

  20. Organ Type and Waiting Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for an organ due to the shortage of donor organs. Because each candidate's situation is unique, waiting times ... distance between donor and recipient size of the donor organ in relation to the recipient type of organ ...

  1. Organ donations after death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernarda Logar

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses public opinion on post-mortem organ donation, especially the difference between high support of public opinion to transplant activity, its general readiness to donate organs and the low number of signed organ donor cards. Through different approaches the article tries to point out possible factors relevant to the decision to donate organs. Early studies showed demographic variables and information as significant factors when deciding to donate organs after death. As there was not enough evidence that long-term effect through these factors is significant, the need for new investigation has grown. Social cognition theories helped understanding the difference mentioned above. It seems that the use of this approach might contribute to the understanding the problem and to delimit most useful factors when working with public.

  2. Stability of Organic Nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balzer, F.; Schiek, M.; Wallmann, I.;

    2011-01-01

    The morphological stability of organic nanowires over time and under thermal load is of major importance for their use in any device. In this study the growth and stability of organic nanowires from a naphthyl end-capped thiophene grown by organic molecular beam deposition is investigated via...... atomic force microscopy (AFM). Aging experiments under ambient conditions already show substantial morphological changes. Nanoscopic organic clusters, which initially coexist with the nanowires, vanish within hours. Thermal annealing of nanowire samples leads to even more pronounced morphology changes......, such as a strong decrease in nanowire number density, a strong increase in nanowire height, and the formation of new types of crystallites. This happens even before sublimation of organic material starts. These experiments also shine new light on the formation process of the nanowires....

  3. Evolving Procurement Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Laine, Jari; Mugurusi, Godfrey

    Procurement has to find further levers and advance its contribution to corporate goals continuously. This places pressure on its organization in order to facilitate its performance. Therefore, procurement organizations constantly have to evolve in order to match these demands. A conceptual model...... putting the structural elements in focus is derived from the analysis of two case companies, which extends the existing literature and opens new avenues for future research. The findings highlight the importance of taking a contingency perspective on procurement organization, understanding the internal...... in future studies in the fields of hybrid procurement organizations, global sourcing organizations as well as international procurement offices (IPOs). From a practical standpoint, an assessment of external and internal contingencies and their relation to specific structural dimensions that can be chosen...

  4. The Ladstattschacht cave shaft - tracer hydrological investigation of a site of organic pollution in the Alpine karst system; Der Ladstattschacht - tracerhydrologische Untersuchung einer organischen Altlast im alpinen Karst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldscheider, N. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Angewandte Geologie

    1998-12-31

    The Ladstattschacht is a 47 m deep cave shaft in the Schwarzwasser valley (state of Vorarlberg, Austrian Alps) that was completely filled up with waste from private and communal sewage plants until 1975. A multi tracing experiment using three different fluorescent tracers was carried out in order to evaluate the risk potential of this waste site. The organic shaft fill itself, a pothole nearby the Ladstattschacht and an active swallow hole served as injection points. It could be demonstrated that all karstic springs in the Schwarzwasser valley are affected by seepage water from this waste site. Comparison of breakthrough curves allowed to determine retardation processes in the shaft fill and the unsaturated zone and to characterize the karst groundwater flow system. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Ladstattschacht im Schwarzwassertal (Vorarlberg, Oesterreich) ist ein 47 m tiefer Hoehlenschacht, der bis 1975 als wilde Deponie fuer Klaerschlaemme verwendet wurde. Um das von dieser organischen Altlast ausgehende Gefaehrdungspotential zu bewerten, wurde ein kombinierter Markierungsversuch mit 3 verschiedenen Fluoreszenztracern durchgefuehrt. Dabei dienten die Schachtfuellung, ein benachbarter Naturschacht und eine aktive Schwinde als Eingabestellen. Es konnte belegt werden, dass saemtliche Karstquellen im Schwarzwassertal von Sickerwaessern aus dem Ladstattschacht erreicht werden. Durch den Vergleich der Durchgangskurven konnten sowohl die Retardationsvorgaenge in der Schachtfuellung und in der ungesaettigten Zone, als auch die Abstromverhaeltnisse der Karstentwaesserung charakterisiert werden. (orig.)

  5. The discipline of organizing

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Organizing is such a common activity that we often do it without thinking much about it. In our daily lives we organize physical things--books on shelves, cutlery in kitchen drawers--and digital things--Web pages, MP3 files, scientific datasets. Millions of people create and browse Web sites, blog, tag, tweet, and upload and download content of all media types without thinking "I'm organizing now" or "I'm retrieving now." This book offers a framework for the theory and practice of organizing that integrates information organization (IO) and information retrieval (IR), bridging the disciplinary chasms between Library and Information Science and Computer Science, each of which views and teaches IO and IR as separate topics and in substantially different ways. It introduces the unifying concept of an Organizing System--an intentionally arranged collection of resources and the interactions they support--and then explains the key concepts and challenges in the design and deployment of Organizing Systems in many do...

  6. Organic Separation Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Renee L.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2014-09-22

    Separable organics have been defined as “those organic compounds of very limited solubility in the bulk waste and that can form a separate liquid phase or layer” (Smalley and Nguyen 2013), and result from three main solvent extraction processes: U Plant Uranium Recovery Process, B Plant Waste Fractionation Process, and Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Process. The primary organic solvents associated with tank solids are TBP, D2EHPA, and NPH. There is concern that, while this organic material is bound to the sludge particles as it is stored in the tanks, waste feed delivery activities, specifically transfer pump and mixer pump operations, could cause the organics to form a separated layer in the tank farms feed tank. Therefore, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is experimentally evaluating the potential of organic solvents separating from the tank solids (sludge) during waste feed delivery activities, specifically the waste mixing and transfer processes. Given the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) waste acceptance criteria per the Waste Feed Acceptance Criteria document (24590-WTP-RPT-MGT-11-014) that there is to be “no visible layer” of separable organics in the waste feed, this would result in the batch being unacceptable to transfer to WTP. This study is of particular importance to WRPS because of these WTP requirements.

  7. Self-Organizing Robots

    CERN Document Server

    Murata, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    It is man’s ongoing hope that a machine could somehow adapt to its environment by reorganizing itself. This is what the notion of self-organizing robots is based on. The theme of this book is to examine the feasibility of creating such robots within the limitations of current mechanical engineering. The topics comprise the following aspects of such a pursuit: the philosophy of design of self-organizing mechanical systems; self-organization in biological systems; the history of self-organizing mechanical systems; a case study of a self-assembling/self-repairing system as an autonomous distributed system; a self-organizing robot that can create its own shape and robotic motion; implementation and instrumentation of self-organizing robots; and the future of self-organizing robots. All topics are illustrated with many up-to-date examples, including those from the authors’ own work. The book does not require advanced knowledge of mathematics to be understood, and will be of great benefit to students in the rob...

  8. Organic Compounds in Stardust

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, David S.; Clemett. Simon J.; Sandford, Scott A.; Nakamura-Messenger, Keiko; Hoerz, Fredrich

    2011-01-01

    The successful return of the STARDUST spacecraft provides a unique opportunity to investigate the nature and distribution of organic matter in cometary dust particles collected from Comet 81P/Wild-2. Analysis of individual cometary impact tracks in silica aerogel using the technique of two-step laser mass spectrometry (L2MS) demonstrates the presence of complex aromatic organic matter. While concerns remain as to the organic purity of the aerogel collection medium and the thermal effects associated with hypervelocity capture, the majority of the observed organic species appear indigenous to the impacting particles and are hence of cometary origin. While the aromatic fraction of the total organic matter present is believed to be small, it is notable in that it appears to be N-rich. Spectral analysis in combination with instrumental detection sensitivities suggest that N is incorporated predominantly in the form of aromatic nitriles (R-C N). While organic species in the STARDUST samples do share some similarities with those present in the matrices of carbonaceous chondrites, the closest match is found with stratospherically collected interplanetary dust particles. These findings are consistent with the notion that a fraction of interplanetary dust is of cometary origin. The presence of complex organic N-containing species in comets has astrobiological implications since comets are likely to have contributed to the prebiotic chemical inventory of both the Earth and Mars.

  9. Organizing for Asymmetric Collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørn Flohr; Sørensen, Henrik B.

    ' different motives and different situational factors appear in an interorganizational setting. We classify interfaces according to the symmetry/asymmetry in the respective parent organizations' resources, commitment, and control of representatives and indicate how  classification schemes can be used......  The vision of new organizational forms consists of less-organized networks and alliances between organizations, in which collaborative capabilities are assumed to be crucial (Miles et al., 2005). The path to such new forms may go through fragile cooperative efforts. Despite the good will of many...

  10. Hydrothermal organic synthesis experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shock, Everett L.

    1992-01-01

    Ways in which heat is useful in organic synthesis experiments are described, and experiments on the hydrothermal destruction and synthesis of organic compounds are discussed. It is pointed out that, if heat can overcome kinetic barriers to the formation of metastable states from reduced or oxidized starting materials, abiotic synthesis under hydrothermal conditions is a distinct possibility. However, carefully controlled experiments which replicate the descriptive variables of natural hydrothermal systems have not yet been conducted with the aim of testing the hypothesis of hydrothermal organic systems.

  11. Autopoiesis in Virtual Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Malgorzata PAMKOWSKA

    2008-01-01

    Virtual organizations continuously gain popularity because of the benefits created by them. Generally, they are defined as temporal adhocracies, project oriented, knowledge-based network organizations. The goal of this paper is to present the hypothesis that knowledge system developed by virtual organization is an autopoietic system. The term “autopoiesis†was introduced by Maturana for self-productive systems. In this paper, Wikipedia is described as an example of an autopoietic sys...

  12. Soil organic matter studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 77 papers were presented and discussed during this symposium, 40 are included in Volume I. A number of papers deal with the behaviour and functions of organic matter and make a contribution to increasing agricultural production by proposing improved management practices. Other papers discuss turnover of plant residues, release of plant nutrients through biodegradation of organic compounds, and nitrogen economy and the dynamics of transformation of organic forms of nitrogen. Separate entries have been prepared for those 8 papers which discuss the use of tracer techniques in soil studies

  13. Organizing Internet Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsueh-Hua Chen

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Many approaches have been taken by different groups to organize electronic resources on Internet. Some of them purport to index the electronic resources automatically. Search engines are typical in this category. Another category is the traditional library cataloging approach. For example, modified MARC formats are used to catalog the Internet resources. Besides these two, there are also some other ways to organize Internet resources, such as classification number schemes, subject heading systems, and other manual subject guides to provide a central access point for value-added topical guides. This paper introduces different approaches to organize Internet resources and focuses mainly on librarians' efforts.[Article content in Chinese

  14. Microwaves in organic chemistry and organic chemical

    OpenAIRE

    Mijin Dušan Ž.; Petrović Slobodan D.

    2005-01-01

    The usual way of applying heat to a chemical reaction is the use of a Bunsen burner, an oil or some other type of bath, or an electric heater. In inorganic chemistry, microwave technology has been used since the late 1970s while it has been implemented in organic chemistry since the mid-1980s. Microwave heating has been used in the food industry for almost fifty years. The shorter reaction times and expanded reaction range that is offered by microwave technology are suited to the increased de...

  15. Research of the Regulation of Monetary Policy and the Fluctuation of Firm's Investment and Financing---From the Perspectrve of the Austrian School%货币政策调控与企业投融资波动的相关性研究--基于奥地利学派的视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新鹏

    2016-01-01

    Based on the capital structure theory from the Austrian school, an empirical study on the relations between the regula-tion of monetary policy and the fluctuation of firm's investment and financing has been processed. In the expansionary period of monetary policy, the fluctuation of invested firm is larger than consumed firm, and vice versa. As to the regulation's effect on the return of investment and financing of invested firm, there is a remarkable inverted U curve. As to the consumed firm, there is a U curve. The critical level of growth speed of real quantity of money is about 18%. Beyond the level of 18%, the effect on growth of firm would be decreased. The Keynesian expansionary policy would lead to the distortion of production structure.%文章基于奥地利学派的资本结构理论,对中国货币政策调控与企业投融资波动的内在关系进行了实证研究。在货币宽松阶段,投资类企业的投融资波动要显著大于消费类企业;而在货币紧缩阶段,两者的投融资波动发生了逆转。货币政策调控对投资类企业的投融资收益影响存在倒U型特征,而对消费类企业的投融资收益影响存在正U型特征。中国的实证研究显示,货币量增速的临界值在18%左右,超出这一水平,货币政策的刺激作用可能弱化。凯恩斯主义宽松货币政策调控失灵的结构原因在于,李嘉图效应导致劳动替代资本,生产结构的资本化缺乏自愿储蓄的有效支撑,调控导致生产结构的严重扭曲。

  16. Biomaterials in Artificial Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambic, Helen E.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Biomaterials are substances or combinations of substances that can be used in a system that treats, augments, or replaces any tissue, organ, or body function. The nature and role of these substances, particularly in the cadiovascular system, are discussed. (JN)

  17. Sustainability & Organization Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Bygvraa; Obel, Børge; Kallehave, Pernille

    of global governance to match the new dynamics and consequences of globalization. Governments are re-examining corporate accountability to society and how companies earn their license to operate. Furthermore companies are re-examining their code of conduct and leadership values. Thus, sustainability...... is an important driver in organizations and its impact and effect on organization design is critical. Development of organization design, structure, processes, and human skills and values are needed to create the sustainable organization for the future. This paper discusses the requirements to be a sustainable......-processing and how to maintain flexible leadership to fit current challenges as well as be agile in a dynamic world. The result of the analysis will be illustrated by public and private case studies....

  18. Campylobacter jejuni organism (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni infection causes cramping, diarrhea, abdominal pain and fever within 2 to 5 days after a person has been exposed to the organism. Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common bacterial ...

  19. Organic semiconductors: Healing contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risko, Chad; Brédas, Jean-Luc

    2013-12-01

    Traps in organic semiconducting crystals are healed when a perfluoropolyether oil is deposited on the surface of these materials, thus making possible the detection of intrinsic features of charge-carrier transport in rubrene and tetracene.

  20. Organizing Core Tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    Civil servants conduct the work which makes welfare states functions on an everyday bases: Police men police, school teachers teach, and tax inspectors inspect. Focus in this paper is on the core tasks of tax inspectors. The paper argues that their core task of securing the collection of revenue...... has remained much the same within the last 10 years. However, how the core task has been organized has changed considerable under the influence of various “organizing devices”. The paper focusses on how organizing devices such as risk assessment, output-focus, effect orientation, and treatment...... projects influence the organization of core tasks within the tax administration. The paper shows that the organizational transformations based on the use of these devices have had consequences both for the overall collection of revenue and for the employees’ feeling of “making a difference”. All in all...

  1. Professionalism and nonprofit organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majone, G

    1984-01-01

    Many professionals prefer to work in nonprofit organizations, rather than in either for-profit or bureaucratic organizations. This preference suggests that nonprofits may be successful in reducing the tension between professional principles and institutional requirements. Professionals in for-profit organizations must submit to the control of a manager who is motivated to overrule them whenever their decisions come into conflict with the goal of profit maximization. Bureaucratic organizations stress predictability of results and adherence to rules as the overriding criteria of evaluation and control. This paper argues that nonprofits are on the whole superior from the point of view of professional ideology and practice. Thus, given a commitment to the values of professionalism, the preference for the nonprofit form becomes understandable, even without the usual assumptions about income-maximizing behavior. PMID:6699386

  2. Biotechnology organizations in action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norus, Jesper

    This volume analyzes the dynamics and interactive processes among the players (individuals, institutions, and organizations/firms) that have constituted and legitimized the development of the biotechnology industries. The unit of analysis is small entrepreneurial firms developing biotechnological...

  3. World Health Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and wounded from all areas affected by the conflict, including eastern Aleppo, where more than 270 000 people are trapped with dwindling supplies of food, water and fuel. The Organization is also calling for a halt of attacks ...

  4. PELVIC ORGAN PROLAPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketut Yoga Mira Pratiwi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pelvic organ prolapse (POP is defined as a decrease in abnormal or herniation of the pelvic organs out of place attached to its normal position or in the pelvic cavity. As for the anatomy of the pelvic organs consists of bones, muscles, and nerves. The presence of damage to the pelvic connective tissue and visceral attachment pelvic organs the cause occurs. The symptoms that appear in patients POP not specific to distinguish prolapse of some compartments but can reflect the degree of prolapse as a whole. Physical examination focused on pelvic examination, beginning with inspection on the vulva and vagina to identify the presence of erosion, ulceration, or other lesions. As for the existing therapy options include observation, non-operative management, and operative management.

  5. Organic Chemistry in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnley, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Astronomical observations, theoretical modeling, laboratory simulation and analysis of extraterrestrial material have enhanced our knowledge of the inventory of organic matter in the interstellar medium (ISM) and on small bodies such as comets and asteroids (Ehrenfreund & Charnley 2000). Comets, asteroids and their fragments, meteorites and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), contributed significant amounts of extraterrestrial organic matter to the young Earth. This material degraded and reacted in a terrestrial prebiotic chemistry to form organic structures that may have served as building blocks for life on the early Earth. In this talk I will summarize our current understanding of the organic composition and chemistry of interstellar clouds. Molecules of astrobiological relevance include the building blocks of our genetic material: nucleic acids, composed of subunits such as N-heterocycles (purines and pyrimidines), sugars and amino acids. Signatures indicative of inheritance of pristine and modified interstellar material in comets and meteorites will also be discussed.

  6. Virtual Organizations: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nami, Mohammad Reza

    The need to remain competitive in the open market forces companies to concentrate on their core competencies while searching for alliances when additional skills or resources are needed to fulfill business opportunities. The changing business situation of companies and customer needs have motivated researchers to introduce Virtual Organization (VO) idea. A Virtual Organization is always a form of partnership and managing partners and handling partnerships are crucial. Virtual organizations are defined as a temporary collection of enterprises that cooperate and share resources, knowledge, and competencies to better respond to business opportunities. This paper presents base concepts of virtual organizations including properties, management concepts, operational concepts, and main issues in collaboration such as security and authentication.

  7. Underfunding in Terrorist Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Jacob N.; Siegel, David A.

    A review of international terrorist activity reveals a pattern of financially strapped operatives working for organizations that seem to have plenty of money. To explain this observation, and to examine when restricting terrorists’ funds will reduce their lethality, we model a hierarchical terror organization in which leaders delegate financial and logistical tasks to middlemen, but cannot perfectly monitor them for security reasons. These middlemen do not always share their leaders’ interests: the temptation exists to skim funds from financial transactions. When middlemen are sufficiently greedy and organizations suffer from sufficiently strong budget constraints, leaders will not fund attacks because the costs of skimming are too great. Using general functional forms, we find important nonlinearities in terrorists’ responses to government counter-terrorism. Restricting terrorists’ funds may be ineffective until a critical threshold is reached, at which point cooperation within terrorist organizations begins to break down and further government actions have a disproportionately large impact.

  8. Teaching organization: Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Amalia Lorda

    2013-12-01

    In this way, what we try to do is build and strengthen students’ conscious, well-supported thought by means of which they can be enabled to make decisions and organize the teaching and learning task.

  9. Organizing for Outsourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turkulainen, Virpi; Bals, Lydia

    Outsourcing remains one of the most prevalent business practices. Still, many businesses fail to realize the benefits anticipated from their outsourcing initiative. Research reports that one major reason for these outsourcing challenges are in the design of the focal organization. In this paper, we...... take an organization design view to outsourcing and elaborate on the organizational design implications for outsourcing. We present a multi-year case study from 2010 to 2013 of a global chemical and pharmaceutical company (GCC), which went through an organization redesign and subsequently successfully...... outsourced some organizational tasks. Specifically, we take the case of the Purchasing & Supply Management (PSM) function to illustrate how an activity-based organization design can facilitate outsourcing of some parts of the PSM function....

  10. Artificial organisms that sleep.

    OpenAIRE

    Mirolli, Marco; Parisi, Domenico

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Populations of artificial organisms live in an environment in which light is cyclically present (day) or absent (night). Since being active during night is non-adaptive (activity consumes energy which is not compensated by the food found at night) the organisms evolve a sleep/wake behavioral pattern of being active during daytime and sleeping during nighttime. When the population moves to a different environment that contains "caves", they have to get out of a cave although the dark ...

  11. Organizing Internet Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Hsueh-Hua Chen

    1996-01-01

    Many approaches have been taken by different groups to organize electronic resources on Internet. Some of them purport to index the electronic resources automatically. Search engines are typical in this category. Another category is the traditional library cataloging approach. For example, modified MARC formats are used to catalog the Internet resources. Besides these two, there are also some other ways to organize Internet resources, such as classification number schemes, subject heading sys...

  12. The Responsive Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul; Fredens, Kjeld

    they form a dynamic system that enables individuals to respond effectively to changing conditions. We project this dynamic perspective onto human interaction in organizations where observations and experiential insights gained by employees and operating managers are linked to forward-looking planning...... considerations that take place around the top-management echelons. This identifies the responsive organization that is able to observe and react to frequent and often abrupt environmental changes and thereby adapt organizational activities to the changing reality....

  13. Genetically Modified Organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Claro Llaguno

    2001-01-01

    Recent reports have brought to public attention concerns about Bt corn and genetically modified organisms (GMO) in general. The timing, it seems, is most appropriate considering two related developments early this year: the final approval of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety in Montreal on January 29, 2001, and the OECD Edinburgh Conference on GM food safety last February 28- March 1, 2001. The protocol makes clear that GMOs include all living modified organisms (LMO) defined as "any living...

  14. Geothermal Drilling Organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattler, A.R.

    1999-07-07

    The Geothermal Drilling Organization (GDO), founded in 1982 as a joint Department of Energy (DOE)-Industry organization, develops and funds near-term technology development projects for reducing geothermal drilling costs. Sandia National Laboratories administers DOE funds to assist industry critical cost-shared projects and provides development support for each project. GDO assistance to industry is vital in developing products and procedures to lower drilling costs, in part, because the geothermal industry is small and represents a limited market.

  15. Organic chemistry experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mun, Seok Sik

    2005-02-15

    This book deals with organic chemistry experiments, it is divided five chapters, which have introduction, the way to write the experiment report and safety in the laboratory, basic experiment technic like recrystallization and extraction, a lot of organic chemistry experiments such as fischer esterification, ester hydrolysis, electrophilic aromatic substitution, aldol reaction, benzoin condensation, wittig reaction grignard reaction, epoxidation reaction and selective reduction. The last chapter introduces chemistry site on the internet and way to find out reference on chemistry.

  16. Tunnelling in organic superconductors

    OpenAIRE

    Bolech, C. J.; Giamarchi, T.

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of deciding on the symmetry of the superconducting phase in the organic superconductors (Bechgaard salts), using tunnelling experiments. We first briefly review the properties of organic superconductors, and the possibility to have unconventional (triplet) superconductivity in these systems. We then present a simple scheme for computing the full current-voltage characteristics for tunnelling experiments within the framework of the non-equilibrium Keldysh Green funct...

  17. Organic livestock production

    OpenAIRE

    Sundrum, Albert

    2001-01-01

    The development towards a sustainable agriculture has been a main objective of organic agriculture from the beginning (IFOAM, 1978), and a declared objective of the newly applied EC-Regulation (1804/1999) on organic livestock production which provides a clear framework for livestock production. The leading idea is based on the voluntary self-restriction in the use of specific means of production with the objectives to produce food of high quality in an animal appropriate and environmentally f...

  18. Inverted organic photosensitive device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Tong, Xiaoran; Lee, Jun Yeob; Cho, Yong Joo

    2015-09-08

    There is disclosed a method for preparing the surface of a metal substrate. The present disclosure also relates to an organic photovoltaic device including a metal substrate made by such method. Also disclosed herein is an inverted photosensitive device including a stainless steel foil reflective electrode, an organic donor-acceptor heterojunction over the reflective electrode, and a transparent electrode over the donor-acceptor heterojunction.

  19. Spatial Organization of Epigenomes

    OpenAIRE

    Dubé, Jonathan Christopher; Wang, Xue Qing David; Dostie, Josée

    2016-01-01

    The role of genome architecture in transcription regulation has become the focus of an increasing number of studies over the past decade. Chromatin organization can have a significant impact on gene expression by promoting or restricting the physical proximity between regulatory DNA elements. Given that any change in chromatin state has the potential to alter DNA folding and the proximity between control elements, the spatial organization of chromatin is inherently linked to its molecular com...

  20. Interstellar organic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, C.

    1972-01-01

    Most of the interstellar organic molecules have been found in the large radio source Sagittarius B2 toward the galactic center, and in such regions as W51 and the IR source in the Orion nebula. Questions of the reliability of molecular identifications are discussed together with aspects of organic synthesis in condensing clouds, degradational origin, synthesis on grains, UV natural selection, interstellar biology, and contributions to planetary biology.