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Sample records for austrian fleckvieh dual-purpose

  1. Short communication: Genotyping of cows to speed up availability of genomic estimated breeding values for direct health traits in Austrian Fleckvieh (Simmental) cattle--genetic and economic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger-Danner, C; Schwarzenbacher, H; Willam, A

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the impact of genotyping cows with reliable phenotypes for direct health traits on annual monetary genetic gain (AMGG) and discounted profit. The calculations were based on a deterministic approach using ZPLAN software (University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany). It was assumed that increases in reliability of the total merit index (TMI) of 5, 15, and 25 percentage points were achieved through genotyping 5,000, 25,000, and 50,000 cows, respectively. Costs for phenotyping, genotyping, and genomic estimated breeding values vary between €150 and €20 per cow. The gain in genotyping cows for traits with medium to high heritability is more than for direct health traits with low heritability. The AMGG is increased by 1.5% if the reliability of TMI is 5 percentage points higher (i.e., 5,000 cows genotyped) and 6.53% higher AMGG can be expected when the reliability of TMI is increased by 25 percentage points (i.e., 50,000 cows genotyped). The discounted profit depends not only on the costs of genotyping but also on the population size. This study indicates that genotyping cows with reliable phenotypes is feasible to speed up the availability of genomic estimated breeding values for direct health traits. But, because of the huge amount of valid phenotypes and genotypes needed to establish an efficient genomic evaluation, it is likely that financial constraints will be the main limiting factor for implementation into breeding program such as Fleckvieh Austria. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparative study on production, reproduction and functional traits between Fleckvieh and Braunvieh cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic-Toma Cziszter

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective Aim of the current comparative study was to evaluate production outputs, reproduction efficiency and functional traits in dual-purpose Fleckvieh and Braunvieh cows, reared under temperate European conditions. Methods A data-set from 414 Fleckvieh and 42 Braunvieh cows and 799 lactations was analysed. ID tag number, milk yield per milking session, number of steps/interval and milk conductivity were recorded and collected daily using AfiMilk 3.076 A-DU software (Afimilk Ltd., Kibbutz, Israel. Production and milk quality data were taken from the results of the official performance recordings and the reproductive outputs of cows were recorded by the research stations veterinarians. Comparisons between the two genotypes were carried out using the one way analysis of variance protocol, with categorical factor being considered the breed of cows. All the statistical inferences were carried out using Statistica software (StatSoft Inc., Tulsa, OK, USA. Results Fleckvieh cows significantly outperformed (p≤0.05 the Braunvieh herd, with average milk yields of 5,252.1±35.79 kg and 4,897.6±128.94 kg, respectively. Age at first calving was significantly (p≤0.01 influenced by the breed, with Fleckvieh heifers being more precocious (32.8±0.29 mo compared to those of Braunvieh breed (35.7±0.84 mo. Reproduction efficiency as defined by the number of inseminations per gestation, calving interval, dystocia, days dry and days open, was not influenced by genotype (p>0.05. Incidences of sub-clinical mastitis, clinical mastitis, lameness and abortions were not influenced by the breed factor (p>0.05. Stayability of cows was significantly (p≤0.001 influenced by genotype, with Braunvieh cows having an average age at culling of 117.88±11.78 months compared to 90.88±2.89 months in Fleckvieh. Conclusion Overall, results have shown that genotype significantly influenced milk yield, age at first calving and longevity.

  3. Structural dimensioning of dual purpose cask prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Luiz Leite da; Mourao, Rogerio Pimenta; Lopes, Claudio Cunha

    2005-01-01

    The structural dimensioning of a Type B(U) dual purpose cask prototype is part of the scope of work of the Brazilian institute CDTN in the IAEA regional project involving Latin American countries which operate research reactors (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico and Peru). In order to meet the dimensional and operational characteristics of the reactor facilities in these countries, a maximum weight of 10.000 kgf and a maximum dimension of 1 m in at least one direction were set for the cask. With these design restrictions, the cask's payload is either 21 MTR or 78 TRIGA fuel elements. The cask's most important components are main body, primary and secondary lids, basket and impact limiters. The main body has a sandwich-like wall with internal and external layers made of AISI 304 stainless steel with lead in-between. The lead provides biological shielding. The primary lid is similarly layered, but in the axial direction. It is provided with a double system of metallic rings and has ports for pressurization, sampling and containment verification. The secondary lid has the main function of protecting the primary lid against mechanical impacts. The basket structure is basically a tube array reinforced by bottom plate, feet and spacers. Square tubes are used for MTR elements and circular tubes for TRIGA elements. Finally, the impact limiters are structures made of an external stainless steel thin covering and a filling made of the wood composite OSB - Oriented Strand Board. The prototype is provided with bottom and top impact limiters, which are attached to each other by means of four threaded rods. The limiters are not rigidly attached to the cask body. A half scale cask model was designed to be submitted to a testing program. As its volume scales down to 1:8, the model weight is 1,250 kgf. This paper presents the methodology for the preliminary structural dimensioning of the critical parameters of the cask prototype. Both normal conditions of operation and hypothetical

  4. Relationship between energy status and fertility in Czech Fleckvieh cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaromír Ducháček

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to confirm that a negative energy balance expressed by declining body condition score (BCS can lead to the deterioration of fertility results of Czech Fleckvieh cows. The BCS of cows was evaluated before calving and during the first five weeks of lactation. The evaluation was based on 338 Czech Fleckvieh cows calved between the October 13th, 2009 and April 27th, 2010 at one dairy farm. Analysis of relationships between the energy balance results and fertility score expressed by the reproduction results (pregnancy rate after the first and all inseminations, the insemination interval, service period, insemination index, calving period of the observed group were performed. The higher body condition score of the Czech Fleckvieh cows before calving turned out advantageously regarding the energy source during the postpartal period. No negative effect of higher BCS in cows before calving was confirmed. The best reproduction parameters were attained in the group of cows with no change or marked increase of body condition after calving recorded. However, statistically significant differences between the groups were detected only in the third week of lactation. Significant differences in the level of body condition were detected in relation to the length and type of oestrus onset.

  5. Austrian highlights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Simon

    2001-01-01

    An overview of recent development in the Austrian hydroelectric industry is presented, and details of the installed capacity, the Austrian government's power market reform package, and the promotion of small-scale hydroelectric power plants are given. The operation of Verbund - Austria's largest power generator and distributor - and the restructuring of the Verbund's main Austrian Hydro Power (AHP) generating group are discussed. The export of power, the joint venture of Verbund with CIR Energia in Italy to market power to commercial and industrial users, and the controversy surrounding the Freudenau run-of-the river plant which successfully tested a matrix turbine are reported

  6. Molecular diversity analysis in selected fodder and dual purpose oat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic variability among 15 oat genotypes comprising fodder and dual purpose oat varieties from different geographical regions was analyzed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker method in Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture, Pant University of Agriculture and Technology ...

  7. Performance test of a dual-purpose disc agrochemical applicator ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance test of a dual-purpose disc agrochemical applicator for field crop was conducted with view to assess the distribution patterns/droplet sizes and uniformity of spreading and or spraying for the agrochemical application. The equipment performances for both granular and liquid chemical application were ...

  8. Coupling technology for dual-purpose nuclear-desalting plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.E. Jr.; Anderson, T.D.; Reed, S.A.

    1976-11-01

    Although the basic technology for the various components of nuclear dual-purpose plants is reasonably well developed, the techniques of coupling the elements together to form a reliable, economical system that will satisfy the diverse operating requirements are not well established. The purpose of the study reported is to examine the technical, economic, and safety considerations in coupling nuclear power plants with distillation units to form a dual-purpose power and water distillation plant. The basic coupling arrangement required to provide a large-scale dual-purpose water plant is to supply steam to the water plant from the exhaust of a back-pressure turbine. The principal component at the interface that may require major research and development is the back-pressure turbine. To satisfy the operational requirements, two major auxiliary systems will be needed. These are: (1) a prime-steam bypass system, and (2) auxiliary condensers. These systems will provide a degree of independence between water and power production and can be justified economically

  9. Epistatic interactions on chromosome 14 influencing stillbirth in Fleckvieh cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Mészáros

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP data of 7384 Fleckvieh bulls was analyzed to identify epistatic interactions influencing stillbirth. Deregressed breeding values were used as phenotypes. The epistatic effects were identified as significant interaction terms from pairwise linear regressions performed for each SNP after accounting for multiple testing. Majority of the detected epistatic effects were located in the 9-31Mb region of chromosome 14, corresponding to the most significant region from the genome wide association. Additional epistatic SNPs at 50.5Mb and 80.5 Mb at the same chromosome were detected. The region around 25 Mb contained genes connected to height and body size such as PLAG1, CHCHD7, LYN, RDHE2 (SDR16C5 and PENK. The other interesting region at 50.5Mb contained the TRPS1 gene influencing bone malformations. Both regions have been identified as candidates influencing stillbirth.

  10. Optimal selection of major equipment in dual purpose plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabbrielli, E.

    1981-01-01

    Simulation of different operational conditions with the aid of a computer program is one of the best ways of assisting decision-makers in the selection of the most economic mix of equipment for a dual purpose plant. Using this approach this paper deals with the economic comparison of plants consisting of MSF desalinators and combustion gas or back pressure steam turbines coupled to low capacity electric power generators. The comparison is performed on the basis of the data made available by the OPTDIS computer program and the results are given in terms of yearly cost of production as the sum of capital, manpower, maintenance, fuel and chemical costs. (orig.)

  11. Dual purpose wheat production with different levels of nitrogen topdressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éderson Luis Henz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the practice of Crop-Livestock Integration is stimulated as a way of increasing the generation of foreign exchange for Brazil. Integrated systems improve land use efficiency as well as preserve, recover and increment or soil fertility. The aim of this research was to evaluate how different doses of nitrogen fertilization can affect production and quality of dual purpose wheat submitted to grazing. The experimental designed was randomized block with five treatments (0, 75, 150, 225 and 300 Kg N ha-1, like ammonium nitrate and four repetitions. The forage yield, the percentage crude protein (P=.0001 and acid detergent insoluble protein (P=.0054 had a linear increased because of the nitrogen addition doses. The crude protein percentage changed the estimate of all soluble carbohydrates (P=.0001 and non-fibrous carbohydrates (P=.0186, but did not influence the, nitrogen detergent fiber corrected with ash and proteins percentage contributing for content cell. The crops production (P=.0001 and the number of kernels per ear (P=.0001 showed significantly difference because of the nitrogen additions dose, increasing the number of fertile flowers. The nitrogen topdressing alters forage production, the chemical composition and the production of dual purpose wheat grains subjected to grazing.

  12. Nuclear dual-purpose plants for industrial energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepper, O.H.

    1976-01-01

    One of the major obstacles to extensive application of nuclear power to industrial heat is the difference between the relatively small energy requirements of individual industrial plants and the large thermal capacity of current power reactors. A practical way of overcoming this obstacle would be to operate a centrally located dual-purpose power plant that would furnish process steam to a cluster of industrial plants, in addition to generating electrical power. The present study indicates that even relatively remote industrial plants could be served by the power plant, since it might be possible to convey steam economically as much as ten miles or more. A survey of five major industries indicates a major potential market for industrial steam from large nuclear power stations

  13. Implication of dual-purpose nuclear desalination plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutbi, I.I.

    1983-01-01

    Available dual purpose nuclear desalination schemes are reviewed. Three specific issues namely, impact of availability and reliability of the desalination stage of the plant, integration of the desalination and power production stages and new safety concerns of dual system, relating to desalination schemes are discussed. Results of operational and reliability studies of nuclear power stations, reverse osmosis and multistage flash distillation desalination plants are considered. Operational aspects of nuclear-multistage flash distillation, nuclear-reverse osmosis and nuclear-multistage flash distillation-reverse osmosis are compared. Concludes that the combined nuclear-multistage flash distillation-reverse osmosis plant arrangement permits very large production capacity, high availability, improvement of plant reliability and proovision of savings on the cost of water and power produced. 23 Ref

  14. A MITF mutation associated with a dominant white phenotype and bilateral deafness in German Fleckvieh cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Philipp

    Full Text Available A dominantly inherited syndrome associated with hypopigmentation, heterochromia irides, colobomatous eyes and bilateral hearing loss has been ascertained in Fleckvieh cattle (German White Fleckvieh syndrome. This syndrome has been mapped to bovine chromosome (BTA 22 using a genome-wide association study with the bovine high density single nucleotide polymorphism array. An R210I missense mutation has been identified within microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF as responsible for this syndrome. The mutation is located in the highly conserved basic region of the protein and causes a negative-dominant effect. SOX10 and PAX3 promoter binding site mutations in MITF could be ruled out as causative for the German White Fleckvieh syndrome. Molecular characterization of this newly detected bovine syndrome means a large animal model is now available for the Tietz syndrome in humans.

  15. Optimum size determination of nuclear dual-purpose desalination plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaussens, J.

    1966-01-01

    The economics of dual-purpose desalination plants is presented from a general standpoint. The concept of demand curves for water and electricity is introduced, which leads to a rational sharing of production costs between both commodities within the framework of a market. The purpose of the study, which is based upon the principles of classical economics, is to develop objective criteria for the design of desalination plants and to derive from these a normative method for pricing both joint products, water and electricity, following as much as possible the structure of the demand. Such criteria are in particular either the maximization of benefit for the operator or the maximum welfare for the community. They involve either equality between marginal costs and revenues, or equality between marginal costs and marginal satisfactions (theory of surplus). As the size of the plant is often the predominant factor in selecting the process to be used, it follows from the above considerations that this selection is closely related to: (a) The shape of the demand curve for water; (b) The economic criterion selected and the relevant constraints (public or private ownership, limitation of the investments, etc). This makes market surveys and a rather refined economic analysis indispensable before any decision is taken on the desalination technique to be adopted. (author). Abstract only

  16. Production indices for dual purpose cattle in central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepta McManus

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of crossbreeding low genetic potential cows of Bos indicus origin characterized by Gyr crossed with Holstein-Friesian and Simmental bulls to produce animals in a low input dual purpose system. The farm is situated near Brasilia, in the savannah region of Brazil. The climate of the region is classified as Aw by Köppen. Data was available on 1580 calvings and completed lactations of cows with three genetic types: Gyr, Holstein-Friesian × Gyr and Simmental × Gyr. The bulls ran with the cows all year round and the diet comprised of pasture (mainly Brachiaria and Andropogon during the summer (rainy season and milled sugar cane with added urea during the winter (dry season. A mineral salt mixture was available ad libitum. Data was analysed using Statistical Analysis System. The results show that, under low input management conditions, the crossbred cows produce approximately twice the volume of milk per lactation, calve at a younger age and have a shorter open period, but there are no significant differences between crosses for growth rates of the calves or body condition of the cows. In this system, crossbred cows had production higher indices than zebu cattle. The best indices were found for cows calving in the rainy season (September to December and thinner cows (with body condition 3-5 on a scale of 9.

  17. Technical issues affecting the transport of dual purpose casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, T.L.; Ottinger, C.A.; Brimhall, J.L.; Gilbert, E.R.; Jones, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    Spent fuel storage pools at many nuclear reactors in the US have already or will soon be filled to maximum capacity. Approximately 50,000 metric tons of uranium (MTU) spent fuel will be discharged by the projected 2003 start-up date of a federal disposal system. Of this, approximately 6,000 MTU will require storage outside existing or projected pool storage capabilities (DOE, 1988). At-reactor dry storage of spent fuel, including vault, caisson, and cask systems, is being considered as an alternative to accommodate this excess fuel. Two dry storage cask concepts are among those under consideration. One involves placing spent fuel in storage-only casks (SOC) until a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility or repository is open when the spent fuel would be transferred to a transport-only cask (TOC) for shipment. The second option, the dual purpose or transportable storage cask (TSC), is a system that would serve for both storage and later transport without requiring the spent fuel to be unloaded. To carry out its purpose, a TSC must be shipped directly from a storage facility to a disposal facility without first being opened to evaluate the cask or the fuel. To assure that both the fuel and the cask are in a transportable condition after 20 to 40 years of storage requires: (1) a definition of expected storage conditions; (2) an assessment of the impact of expected storage conditions on the reliability of the components and functions of the TSC during transport; and (3) the development of an overall TSC system design and operational strategy which ensures that TSC transport reliability meets or exceeds that of a transport-only cask. The later requirement is related to defining what appropriate design features, pre-shipment inspections, and/or alternative fuel and cask monitoring requirements are necessary during long-term storage to ensure the cask will meet transport requirements during later transport

  18. Technical issues affecting the transport of dual purpose casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, T.L.; Ottinger, C.A.; Brimhall, J.L.; Gilbert, E.R.; Jones, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    Approximately 60,000 metric tons of uranium (MTU) spent fuel will be discharged by the projected 2003 startup date of a federal disposal system. Of this, approximately 15,000 MTU will require storage outside existing or projected pool storage capabilities (Orvis et al., 1984). At-reactor dry storage of spent fuel, including vault, caisson, and cask systems, is being considered as an alternative to accommodate this excess fuel. Two dry storage cask concepts are among those under consideration. One involves placing spent fuel in storage-only casks (SOC) until a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility or repository is open, when the spent fuel would be transferred to a transport-only cask (TOC) for shipment. The second option, the dual purpose or transportable storage cask (TSC), is a system that would serve for both storage and later transport. To carry out its purpose, a TSC must be shipped directly from a storage facility to a disposal facility without first being opened to evaluate the cask or the fuel. To assure that both the fuel and the cask are in a transportable condition after 20 to 40 years of storage requires: (1) a definition of expected storage conditions; (2) an assessment of the impact of expected storage conditions on the reliability of the components and functions of the TSC during transport; and (3) the development of an overall TSC system design and operational strategy which ensures that TSC transport reliability compares to that of a transport-only cask. The later requirement is related to defining what appropriate design features, pre-shipment inspection, and/or alternative fuel and cask monitoring requirements are necessary during long-term storage to ensure the cask will meet transport performance requirements during later transport. 8 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  19. The Potentials for the Use of Single- versus Dual-Purpose Officers in Firms:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theotokas, Ioannis; Wagtmann, Maria Anne

    2010-01-01

    In the article, we will focus on economic issues concerning the favourability of employing dual pur­pose officers, given that national dual-purpose educational programs exist; we will thus delimit us from discussing potential advantages and disadvantages of firm-specific educational investments...... of employing dual-purpose officers....

  20. A frameshift mutation in GON4L is associated with proportionate dwarfism in Fleckvieh cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarzenbacher, Hermann; Wurmser, Christine M.; Flisikowski, Krzysztof; Misurova, Lubica; Jung, Simone; Langenmayer, Martin C.; Schnieke, Angelika; Knubben-Schweizer, Gabriela; Fries, Ruedi; Pausch, Hubert

    2016-01-01

    Background Low birth weight and postnatal growth restriction are the most evident symptoms of dwarfism. Accompanying skeletal aberrations may compromise the general condition and locomotion of affected individuals. Several paternal half-sibs with a low birth weight and a small size were born in 2013 in the Fleckvieh cattle population. Results Affected calves were strikingly underweight at birth in spite of a normal gestation length and had craniofacial abnormalities such as elongated narrow h...

  1. On Austrian regional economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijman, W.J.M.; Leen, A.R.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this research note is two-fold, firstly, to clarify the growing interaction between regional science and Austrian economics and their awareness of each other. We elucidate the Austrian methodology, called praxeology, which is especially misunderstood in regional science. Secondly, we

  2. Source book for planning nuclear dual-purpose electric/distillation desalination plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, S.A.

    1981-02-01

    A source book on nuclear dual-purpose electric/distillation desalination plants was prepared to assist government and other planners in preparing broad evaluations of proposed applications of dual-purpose plants. The document is divided into five major sections. Section 1 presents general discussions relating to the benefits of dual-purpose plants, and spectrum for water-to-power ratios. Section 2 presents information on commercial nuclear plants manufactured by US manufacturers. Section 3 gives information on distillation desalting processes and equipment. Section 4 presents a discussion on feedwater pretreatment and scale control. Section 5 deals with methods for coupling the distillation and electrical generating plants to operate in the dual mode

  3. Source book for planning nuclear dual-purpose electric/distillation desalination plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, S.A.

    1981-02-01

    A source book on nuclear dual-purpose electric/distillation desalination plants was prepared to assist government and other planners in preparing broad evaluations of proposed applications of dual-purpose plants. The document is divided into five major sections. Section 1 presents general discussions relating to the benefits of dual-purpose plants, and spectrum for water-to-power ratios. Section 2 presents information on commercial nuclear plants manufactured by US manufacturers. Section 3 gives information on distillation desalting processes and equipment. Section 4 presents a discussion on feedwater pretreatment and scale control. Section 5 deals with methods for coupling the distillation and electrical generating plants to operate in the dual mode.

  4. Genetic analysis of efficiency traits in Austrian dairy cattle and their relationships with body condition score and lameness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köck, A; Ledinek, M; Gruber, L; Steininger, F; Fuerst-Waltl, B; Egger-Danner, C

    2018-01-01

    This study is part of a larger project whose overall objective was to evaluate the possibilities for genetic improvement of efficiency in Austrian dairy cattle. In 2014, a 1-yr data collection was carried out. Data from 6,519 cows kept on 161 farms were recorded. In addition to routinely recorded data (e.g., milk yield, fertility, disease data), data of novel traits [e.g., body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS), lameness score, body measurements] and individual feeding information and feed quality were recorded on each test-day. The specific objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for efficiency (related) traits and to investigate their relationships with BCS and lameness in Austrian Fleckvieh, Brown Swiss, and Holstein cows. The following efficiency (related) traits were considered: energy-corrected milk (ECM), BW, dry matter intake (DMI), energy intake (INEL), ratio of milk output to metabolic BW (ECM/BW 0.75 ), ratio of milk output to DMI (ECM/DMI), and ratio of milk energy output to total energy intake (LE/INEL, LE = energy in milk). For Fleckvieh, the heritability estimates of the efficiency (related) traits ranged from 0.11 for LE/INEL to 0.44 for BW. Heritabilities for BCS and lameness were 0.19 and 0.07, respectively. Repeatabilities were high and ranged from 0.30 for LE/INEL to 0.83 for BW. Heritability estimates were generally lower for Brown Swiss and Holstein, but repeatabilities were in the same range as for Fleckvieh. In all 3 breeds, more-efficient cows were found to have a higher milk yield, lower BW, slightly higher DMI, and lower BCS. Higher efficiency was associated with slightly fewer lameness problems, most likely due to the lower BW (especially in Fleckvieh) and higher DMI of the more-efficient cows. Body weight and BCS were positively correlated. Therefore, when selecting for a lower BW, BCS is required as additional information because, otherwise, no distinction between large animals with low BCS and smaller animals

  5. Effects of a dual-purpose bacterial inoculant on the fermentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of a dual-purpose bacterial inoculant on the fermentation characteristics of high-moisture maize silage and dairy cattle performance. ... Inoculation did not affect the nutritive value or the aerobic stability of the maize silage, but increased the neutral detergent and acid detergent fibre fractions of the silage. However ...

  6. The UK approach to desalination and nuclear power dual purpose operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugh, O.

    1974-01-01

    Nuclear desalination is a particular example of dual purpose operation and the majority of desalting units installed around the world are operated in this way. A nuclear dual purpose concept has to be very large if present economic reactor designs are utilised. It is the size which has defeated the concept to date. Present fossil fired dual purpose installations are either in an economic situation (generally low fuel cost) where the inefficiencies introduced by operating away from the optimum water/power ratio are acceptable or, if optimised, the water and power blocks are small enough to allow introduction into the existing utility networks. As part of the United Kingdom, Water Resources Board (WRB) report 'Desalination 1972' the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) and WRB identified nine coastal sites in the United Kingdom where nuclear power stations might be built during the next 15 years. The difficulties of dual purpose operation were recognised in the report, including additional water storage to cover the summer shutdown (turbine overhaul) period, modification of station design to facilitate the extraction of steam, etc. More seriously, as a given power station had higher fuelling costs relative to the newer station, the electrical utility might require compensation for continuing to operate it because of the associated desalting plant. Taking account of these factors and the replacement of the lost electricity production from other, maybe less efficient stations on the system

  7. Basket criticality design of a dual purpose cask for VVER 1000 spent fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezaeian, Mahdi [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kamali, Jamshid [Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Dual purpose cask technology is one of the most prominent options for interim storage of spent fuels following their removal from reactors. Criticality safety of the spent fuel assemblies are ensured by design of the basket within these casks. In this study, a set of criticality design calculations of a dual purpose cask for 12 VVER 1000 spent fuel assemblies of Bushehr nuclear power plant were carried out. The basket material of borated stainless steel with 0.5 to 2.5 wt% of boron and Boral (Al-B{sub 4}C) with 1.5 to 40 wt% of boron carbide, were investigated and the minimum required receptacle pitch of the basket was determined. Using the calculated receptacle pitch of the basket, the minimum required diameter of the cavity could be established.

  8. Systems studies of dual purpose electric/synthetic fuels fusion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beardsworth, E.; Powell, J.

    1975-02-01

    A reactor power plant is proposed that can meet base load electrical demand, while the remainder can generate synthetic fuels and meet intermittent electrical demands. Two principal objectives of this study are: (1) to examine how strongly various economic demand and resource factors affect the amount of installed CTR capacity, and (2) to examine what increase in CTR capacity can be expected with dual purpose electric/synthetic fuel fusion plants, and also the relative importance of the different production modes

  9. New perspectives and opportunities for improving reproduction in dual purpose cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galina, C S; Rubio, I [Departamento de Reproduccion Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2001-05-01

    Traditionally, cattle raised under the tropical conditions of the lowland tropics have been dedicated to beef production. However, in the last years, considerable interest has been given to milk production. Hence, the logical step has been the development of dual purpose cattle, thus avoiding losing the income generated by the sale of beef. This concept is particularly important, as the introduction of specialised dairy breeds has mainly proved an unsatisfactory solution to increase milk production in the area. Dual purpose systems, however, have been limited due to poor reproductive performance and are facing considerable dilemmas such as: a) degree of heterosis needed in the cattle for optimal production and adaptability to the tropics; b) suitable management systems, i.e. dual purpose cattle where the main income is beef and milk production is just an added bonus, or conversely, where milk is the main income for the farmer; c) insufficient economical resources of the farmer, those with only subsistence levels as opposed to farmers with certain investment capacity; d) choice of breeding systems, artificial insemination versus natural mating; e) implementation of feeding practices, capacity to implement strategic supplementation in contrast to cattle raised almost exclusively at pasture; and f) adequate marketing of dairy products in the tropics. These considerations related to the strength and weaknesses of dual systems are discussed in this review. (author)

  10. Nutritional value of dual-purpose wheat genotypes pastures under grazing by dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Pase Quatrin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the south of Brazil, one of the major limitations to milk production is the low forage availability during autumn and early winter. The use of dual-purpose wheat genotypes is one alternative to minimize the impact of low forage availability in addition to produce grains. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the nutritional value of two dual-purpose wheat genotypes (BRS Tarumã and BRS Umbu. Structural composition and forage nitrogen uptake were evaluated. The nutritional value of the forage was analyzed for mineral matter (MM, organic matter (OM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, crude protein (CP, total digestible nutrients (TDN, in situ organic matter digestibility (ISOMD and in situ dry matter digestibility (ISDMD. Differences in NDF (49.03 vs. 46.44%, CP (24.4 vs. 27.4%, ISOMD (83.53 vs. 85.45%, ISDMD (83.59 vs. 86.65% and TDN (75.37 vs. 78.39 for BRS Umbu and BRS Tarumã genotypes were detected, respectively. The BRS Umbu genotype had a lower leaf blade proportion and forage nitrogen uptake. The dual-purpose wheat genotype BRS Tarumã was superior in nutritive value.

  11. New perspectives and opportunities for improving reproduction in dual purpose cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galina, C.S.; Rubio, I.

    2001-01-01

    Traditionally, cattle raised under the tropical conditions of the lowland tropics have been dedicated to beef production. However, in the last years, considerable interest has been given to milk production. Hence, the logical step has been the development of dual purpose cattle, thus avoiding losing the income generated by the sale of beef. This concept is particularly important, as the introduction of specialised dairy breeds has mainly proved an unsatisfactory solution to increase milk production in the area. Dual purpose systems, however, have been limited due to poor reproductive performance and are facing considerable dilemmas such as: a) degree of heterosis needed in the cattle for optimal production and adaptability to the tropics; b) suitable management systems, i.e. dual purpose cattle where the main income is beef and milk production is just an added bonus, or conversely, where milk is the main income for the farmer; c) insufficient economical resources of the farmer, those with only subsistence levels as opposed to farmers with certain investment capacity; d) choice of breeding systems, artificial insemination versus natural mating; e) implementation of feeding practices, capacity to implement strategic supplementation in contrast to cattle raised almost exclusively at pasture; and f) adequate marketing of dairy products in the tropics. These considerations related to the strength and weaknesses of dual systems are discussed in this review. (author)

  12. Biological characteristics that influence the SEUROP system classification for Czech fleckvieh and Holstein bull carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Filipčík

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyse the influence of certain characteristics (aptitude, age, carcass weight, net daily gain, feeding on the final carcass classification in the SEUROP system. 703 Czech Fleckvieh bulls and 642 Holstein bulls were studied. The animals were slaughtered and evaluated at a designated beef processing company. Combine aptitude carcasses shown significant differences between characteristics. Remarkable differences of group averages (P>0, 01 were established between farms and they were due to various rearing conditions. Also the levels of net daily gain between aptitudes were proved significantly. Holstein breed showed significant difference among The net daily gain < 500 g.day–1 and levels 551–600; 601–650 and above 651 g.day–1. The SEUROP system is influenced the most by the feeding regime, which is described by a net daily gain in this work, and farm impact.

  13. A frameshift mutation in GON4L is associated with proportionate dwarfism in Fleckvieh cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzenbacher, Hermann; Wurmser, Christine; Flisikowski, Krzysztof; Misurova, Lubica; Jung, Simone; Langenmayer, Martin C; Schnieke, Angelika; Knubben-Schweizer, Gabriela; Fries, Ruedi; Pausch, Hubert

    2016-03-31

    Low birth weight and postnatal growth restriction are the most evident symptoms of dwarfism. Accompanying skeletal aberrations may compromise the general condition and locomotion of affected individuals. Several paternal half-sibs with a low birth weight and a small size were born in 2013 in the Fleckvieh cattle population. Affected calves were strikingly underweight at birth in spite of a normal gestation length and had craniofacial abnormalities such as elongated narrow heads and brachygnathia inferior. In spite of a normal general condition, their growth remained restricted during rearing. We genotyped 27 affected and 10,454 unaffected animals at 44,672 single nucleotide polymorphisms and performed association tests followed by homozygosity mapping, which allowed us to map the locus responsible for growth failure to a 1.85-Mb segment on bovine chromosome 3. Analysis of whole-genome re-sequencing data from one affected and 289 unaffected animals revealed a 1-bp deletion (g.15079217delC, rs723240647) in the coding region of the GON4L gene that segregated with the dwarfism-associated haplotype. We showed that the deletion induces intron retention and premature termination of translation, which can lead to a severely truncated protein that lacks domains that are likely essential to normal protein function. The widespread use of an undetected carrier bull for artificial insemination has resulted in a tenfold increase in the frequency of the deleterious allele in the female population. A frameshift mutation in GON4L is associated with autosomal recessive proportionate dwarfism in Fleckvieh cattle. The mutation has segregated in the population for more than 50 years without being recognized as a genetic disorder. However, the widespread use of an undetected carrier bull for artificial insemination caused a sudden accumulation of homozygous calves with dwarfism. Our findings provide the basis for genome-based mating strategies to avoid the inadvertent mating of carrier

  14. Nitrogen fertilization for wheat growing in dual purpose integrated system of agricultural production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éderson Luis Henz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there are numerous arrangements of Integrated Systems of Agricultural Production, due, the particularities of each region and/or rural enterprise. The use of dual-purpose species such as, for example, BRS Tarumã® wheat further intensifies the system, because there is plant-animal production in a short time. Study aimed to evaluate the production and chemical composition of dual purpose wheat pastures managed with different DAN during periods of spikelet terminal (ST and anthesis (AN, aiming crop production (pasture and grain and animal (milk and / or meat. The experimental randomized block design with five treatments (0, 75, 150, 225 e 300 Kg de N ha-1, in the form of ammonium nitrate and four replications. The average biomass values before the first and the second grazing were respectively: 2,164 and 2,127 kg DM per hectare and the waste of about 824 and 1,772 kg of DM per hectare and the daily average accumulation rate between the two grazing DM was 86 kg per hectare at 17 day intervals. The variables, number of spikes per square meter, grain number per square meter, thousand grain weight, hectoliter weight and grain yield did not differ (P>0.05 between treatments. Nitrogen fertilization increases linearly (P=0.0017 the size of the spikes depending on nitrogen rates. For the linear variable layering increased (P=0.0001, indicating the susceptibility of the crop to high levels of nitrogen. The application of nitrogen fertilizer levels in dual purpose grazed wheat before the spikelet terminal stage and anthesis does not influence on grain yield variables. The nitrogen fertilization on wheat double purpose must be fractionated at tillering and after each grazing increasing the remobilization rate of nitrogen by culture.

  15. Influence of sowing dates on phenological development and yield of dual purpose wheat cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munsif, F.; Arif, M.; Ali, K.

    2015-01-01

    Dual-purpose wheat is getting recognition among community in diverse farming systems. Success of the system depends on management decisions regarding appropriate sowing dates, choice of cultivars, harvesting time and stage. A comprehensive understanding of how these factors influence the growth and phenology of dual purpose wheat is needed for comparison of grain only wheat to dual purpose system to feed the ever increasing population under this system. The existing higher yielding varieties (Saleem-2000, Bathoor-2007, Fakhre Sarhad-99, Uqab-2000, Siran-2008, and Ghaznavi-98) of wheat were sown on various planting dates from early to normal (15th, 30th October and 14th November) and were given cut after 70 days of sowing. The experiment was arranged in randomized complete block design having split plot arrangement with three replications. Results of the study indicated that booting, heading and physiological maturity were significantly influenced by planting dates, among the cultivars and cutting imposed 70 days after sowing. Mid October sowing prolonged booting, heading, anthesis, maturity and had long stature plants and higher grain yield than sowing in mid November. Uqab-2000 booted, headed and reached to anthesis and maturity earlier followed by Ghaznavi-98, Bathoor-2007 and Saleem-2000. Uqab-2000 and Siran-2008 had higher grain yield than other cultivars. Booting, heading, anthesis and maturity were significantly delayed in cutting as compared to no cut plots. Wheat varieties Bathoor-2007, Uqab-2000 and Fakhre Sarhad-99 produced taller plants compared to Saleem-2000. It is concluded that early sowing on mid October had prolonged phenological traits and higher yield of wheat with long stature plants than later sowing (15th November) and variety Fakhre Sarhad-99 unlike Uqab-2000 was late with respect to phenological development. Cutting prior to stem elongation had not delayed the maturity from three days without substantial yield reduction which revealed that

  16. The Austrian Space Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseiner, K.; Balogh, W.

    2002-01-01

    After several years of preparation and discussion among the involved players, the Austrian Space Plan was approved for implementation in November 2001. Based on careful benchmarking and analysis of the capabilities of the Austrian space sector it aims to create excellent conditions for the sector's further development. The new space strategy embraces Austria's participation in the mandatory and optional programmes of the European Space Agency and establishes a National Space Programme supported by separate funding opportunities. A set of clearly-defined indicators ensures that the progress in implementing the Space Plan can be objectively judged through independent, annual reviews. The National Space Programme promotes international cooperation in space research and space activities with the aim to strengthen the role of space science and to better prepare Austrian space industry for the commercial space market. In the framework of the Space Plan the Austrian Space Agency has been tasked with integrating the industry's growing involvement in aeronautics activities to better utilize synergies with the space sector. This paper reviews the various steps leading to the approval of the new space strategy and discusses the hurdles mastered in this process. It reports on the Space Plan's first results, specifically taking into account projects involving international cooperation. For the first the Austria aerospace-sector can rely on an integrated strategy for aeronautics- and space activities which is firmly rooted in the efforts to enhance the country's R&D activities. It may also act as a useful example for other small space- using countries planning to enhance their involvement in space activities.

  17. Distribution pattern assessment of a dual-purpose disc agrochemical applicator for field crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Abubakar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A dual-purpose disc agrochemical applicator for field crops was developed to boost agricultural mechanization in crop production and also to overcome the safety concern of hazardous spray drift during agrochemical application by the field crop farmers. The dual purpose agrochemical applicator was mounted on a high clearance tractor and tested with respect to the granular fertilizer distribution patterns uniformity/liquid chemical uniformity of droplet sizes in spraying of the agrochemical. Results for NPK granular chemical indicated that, at low (50 kg/ha and high (150 kg/ha application rates with 550 rpm disc speed, distribution patterns skewed to the left whereas the distribution pattern at medium (100 kg/ha application rates was good flattop. Also at high application rate with 1000 rpm disc speed, mean distribution pattern became poor (W-shape. For the liquid chemical herbicide HC 48 amine liquid, the mean values of volume median diameter (VMD and number median diameter (NMD were 108 µm and 80 µm at 90 lt/ha application rate at 5000 rpm rotary disc speed, and also 344 and 222 µm at 30 lt/ha application rate with 2000 rpm rotary disc speed. The mean values of coefficient of uniformity for droplet sizes expressed as VMD/NMD found in this study were in the range of 1.35 to 1.55 for HC amine 48 liquid chemical.

  18. The effect of MSF operating conditions in a dual purpose plant on the system flexibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedrose, S.D.

    1997-01-01

    Methods used to combine MSF (Multistage Flash Evaporator) to a nuclear power plant are studied and evaluated. While the back pressure turbine scheme is better for base load, the ''steam extraction in condensing turbine'' scheme is more flexible with partial load. Simple thermodynamic relations are used to study the effect of changing the water demand and the top brine temperature (TBT) on the specific energy consumption per ton of product water. The energy cost of product water in a typical dual purpose plant design is calculated for each scheme using recirculation type MSF. In the calculations, it is assumed that the energy consumed in the MSF is compensated by additional steam supplied to the turbine from the Nuclear Steam Supply Steam (NSSS). The cost of energy consumed by recirculation pumps and air ejectors is taken into consideration. (author). 18 refs, 6 figs

  19. Post-partum ovarian activity in adult and first-calf dual purpose cows in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordonez, H.; Gatica, A.; Miranda, J.; Matamoros, R.

    1990-01-01

    Progesterone (P 4 ) levels in skin milk were determined in two groups of dual purpose cows from farms in the Department of Escuintla on the south coast of Guatemala. Fifteen adult cows (crosses of Criollo with Zebu and Brown Swiss) were selected on the first farm and ten first-calf heifers (crosses of Criollo with Zebu and Holstein) on the second; both groups were considered to be representative of dual purpose livestock (milk and meat producers) in the country. To study the resumption of ovarian activity post-partum, milk samples were taken once a week from 10 days after calving until the first natural service; thereafter, sampling continued twice-weekly for 60 more days when the animals were rectally palpated for pregnancy diagnosis. On farm 1, the mean interval from calving to first rise in P 4 levels indicative of ovarian function was 42±16.7 days; all the study cows were at third calving and resumed cyclicity. On farm 2, only 30% of the study heifers resumed cyclicity and these had an interval from calving to first rise in P 4 of 80±28.9 days; all were at first calving. On farm 1, 73% of cows were served during first oestrus, 13% at second oestrus and 13% at the third. On farm 2, only 30% (3/10) of cows were served at first oestrus; the other 70% did not show signs of ovarian activity during the trial period which lasted until day 129 post-partum. Palpation of the cows 60 days post-service showed that all cows had conceived on farm 1 but only 20% on farm 2. (author). 9 refs, 3 figs

  20. Estimation of terrorist attack resistibility of dual-purpose cask TP-117 with DU (depleted uranium) gamma shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, O.G.; Matveev, V.Z.; Morenko, A.I.; Il'kaev, R.I.; Shapovalov, V.I.

    2004-01-01

    Report is devoted to numerical research of dual-purpose unified cask (used for SFA transportation and storage) resistance to terrorist attacks. High resistance of dual-purpose unified cask has been achieved due to the unique design-technological solutions and implementation of depleted uranium in cask construction. In suggested variant of construction depleted uranium fulfils functions of shielding and constructional material. It is used both in metallic and cermet form (basing on steel and depleted uranium dioxide). Implementation of depleted uranium in cask construction allows maximal load in existing overall dimensions of the cask. At the same time: 1) all safety requirements (IAEA) are met, 2) dual-purpose cask with SFA has high resistance to terrorist attacks

  1. Estimation of terrorist attack resistibility of dual-purpose cask TP-117 with DU (depleted uranium) gamma shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, O.G.; Matveev, V.Z.; Morenko, A.I.; Il' kaev, R.I.; Shapovalov, V.I. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center - All-Russian Research Inst. of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Report is devoted to numerical research of dual-purpose unified cask (used for SFA transportation and storage) resistance to terrorist attacks. High resistance of dual-purpose unified cask has been achieved due to the unique design-technological solutions and implementation of depleted uranium in cask construction. In suggested variant of construction depleted uranium fulfils functions of shielding and constructional material. It is used both in metallic and cermet form (basing on steel and depleted uranium dioxide). Implementation of depleted uranium in cask construction allows maximal load in existing overall dimensions of the cask. At the same time: 1) all safety requirements (IAEA) are met, 2) dual-purpose cask with SFA has high resistance to terrorist attacks.

  2. Economic evaluation of dual purpose desalination plants by fuel type in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seung-Su, Kim; Man-Ki, Lee

    2007-01-01

    In light of the recent rapid increase in the fossil fuel prices it is meaningful to evaluate the impact of these price changes in the economics of dual-purpose desalination projects producing electricity and fresh water simultaneously. The price of crude oil and LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) has increased by about 200% and 100% during the past three or four years. The uranium price has also increased by nearly 500% during the same period. The purpose of this paper is to analyze and compare the economics of SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) which is being developed as a small size PWR type and the LNG Combine Cycle coupled with MED (Multi-Effect Distillation) which are being acknowledged as promising energy sources for the future in Korea. The methods of analysis used in this paper are the lifetime leveled cost method for the power and water cost calculation and the power credit method for the total cost allocation. DEEP (Devaluation Economic Evaluation Program) developed by IAEA was used to perform an economic comparison between the two dual-purpose desalination projects. From the results of the analysis it is found that the desalination by SMART-MED is much superior to that of LNG CC-MED under the current economic and technical situations. It is also shown that the relative superiority of SMART-MED to LNG CC-MED will be maintained even in case where an increase in the uranium price and the SMART construction cost would reach a maximum in the sensitivity analysis. In the case that the discount rate declines to 5% per year, the relative attractiveness of SMART-MED which is a capital intensive plant will be enhanced when compared to that for a 7% discount rate. In addition to this, it is thought that a nuclear energy source will be favored much more than now in the field of desalination if the regulations for the emission of greenhouse gases are to be strengthened. (authors)

  3. A commentary on domestic animals as dual-purpose models that benefit agricultural and biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, J J; Roberts, R M; Palmer, G H; Bauman, D E; Bazer, F W

    2008-10-01

    Research on domestic animals (cattle, swine, sheep, goats, poultry, horses, and aquatic species) at land grant institutions is integral to improving the global competitiveness of US animal agriculture and to resolving complex animal and human diseases. However, dwindling federal and state budgets, years of stagnant funding from USDA for the Competitive State Research, Education, and Extension Service National Research Initiative (CSREES-NRI) Competitive Grants Program, significant reductions in farm animal species and in numbers at land grant institutions, and declining enrollment for graduate studies in animal science are diminishing the resources necessary to conduct research on domestic species. Consequently, recruitment of scientists who use such models to conduct research relevant to animal agriculture and biomedicine at land grant institutions is in jeopardy. Concerned stakeholders have addressed this critical problem by conducting workshops, holding a series of meetings with USDA and National Institutes of Health (NIH) officials, and developing a white paper to propose solutions to obstacles impeding the use of domestic species as dual-purpose animal models for high-priority problems common to agriculture and biomedicine. In addition to shortfalls in research support and human resources, overwhelming use of mouse models in biomedicine, lack of advocacy from university administrators, long-standing cultural barriers between agriculture and human medicine, inadequate grantsmanship by animal scientists, and a scarcity of key reagents and resources are major roadblocks to progress. Solutions will require a large financial enhancement of USDA's Competitive Grants Program, educational programs geared toward explaining how research using agricultural animals benefits both animal agriculture and human health, and the development of a new mind-set in land grant institutions that fosters greater cooperation among basic and applied researchers. Recruitment of

  4. Overlap in genomic variation associated with milk fat composition in Holstein Friesian and Dutch native dual-purpose breeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maurice - Van Eijndhoven, M.H.T.; Bovenhuis, H.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Calus, M.P.L.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify if genomic variations associated with fatty acid (FA) composition are similar between the Holstein-Friesian (HF) and native dual-purpose breeds used in the Dutch dairy industry. Phenotypic and genotypic information were available for the breeds Meuse-Rhine-Yssel

  5. Improving productivity through the use of artificial insemination in dual purpose farms in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada, S.; Perez, E.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify the major causes of inefficiency in the AI services provided to dual-purpose farms in the region of Tilaran, Guanacaste. The study included four representative farms from the region, where AI was done on a routine basis in which 80 to 100 first services were done annually. The overall conception rate (CR) was 42.7% (271/635) and was significantly influenced by three variables: lactation, oestrus signs and technician. Cows that were inseminated during their lactation number 5 had 2.17 times greater chance of getting pregnant (P<0.001) than cows inseminated during any other lactation. Cows inseminated after detecting oestrus because they were mounting others had 1.2 less chance to get pregnant than those detected by standing heat, but those cows detected by other signs such as restlessness or bellowing had 1.8 more opportunity to get pregnant than those detected by standing heat. The interval from calving to first service was 114.1 days and three variables had significant (P<0.05) effects on this interval: farm, calving season and lactation. Cows calving during the rainy season had a shorter interval than those calving in the dry season. There was a significant difference between the first lactation and the others. Only lactation had significant effect on first service CR. It was concluded that farm type, lactation, season, and heat signs were the most important factors having an influence on the efficiency of AI. Variables involved are closely related to management and should be targeted in future work aimed at improving reproductive efficiency. (author)

  6. Safety analysis of dual purpose metal cask subjected to impulsive loads due to aircraft engine crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, Koji; Namba, Kosuke; Saegusa, Toshiari

    2009-01-01

    In Japan, the first Interim Storage Facility of spent nuclear fuel away from reactor site is being planned to start its commercial operation around 2010, in use of dual-purpose metal cask in the northern part of Main Japan Island. Business License Examination for safety design approval has started since March, 2007. To demonstrate the more scientific and rational performance of safety regulation activities on each phase for the first license procedure, CREPEI has executed demonstration tests with full scale casks, such as drop tests onto real targets without impact limiters and seismic tests subjected to strong earthquake motions. Moreover, it is important to develop the knowledge for the inherent security of metal casks under extreme mechanical-impact conditions, especially for increasing interest since the terrorist attacks from 11th September 2001. This paper presents dynamic mechanical behavior of the metal cask lid closure system caused by direct aircraft engine crash and describes calculated results (especially, leak tightness based on relative dynamic displacements between metallic seals). Firstly, the local penetration damage of the interim storage facility building by a big passenger aircraft engine research (diameter 2.7m, length 4.3m, weight 4.4ton, impact velocity 90m/s) has been examined. The reduced velocity is calculated by the local damage formula for concrete structure with its thickness of 70cm. The load vs. time function for this reduced velocity (60m/s) is estimated by the impact analysis using Finite Element code LS-DYNA with the full scale engine model onto a hypothetically rigid target. Secondly, as the most critical scenarios for the metal cask, two impact scenarios (horizontal impact hitting the cask and vertical impact onto the lid metallic seal system) are chosen. To consider the geometry of all bolts for two lids, the gasket reaction forces and the inner pressure of the cask cavity, the detailed three dimensional FEM models are developed

  7. Economic values for health and feed efficiency traits of dual-purpose cattle in marginal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupová, Z; Krupa, E; Michaličková, M; Wolfová, M; Kasarda, R

    2016-01-01

    Economic values of clinical mastitis, claw disease, and feed efficiency traits along with 16 additional production and functional traits were estimated for the dairy population of the Slovak Pinzgau breed using a bioeconomic approach. In the cow-calf population (suckler cow population) of the same breed, the economic values of feed efficiency traits along with 15 further production and functional traits were calculated. The marginal economic values of clinical mastitis and claw disease incidence in the dairy system were -€ 70.65 and -€ 26.73 per case per cow and year, respectively. The marginal economic values for residual feed intake were -€ 55.15 and -€ 54.64/kg of dry matter per day for cows and breeding heifers in the dairy system and -€ 20.45, -€ 11.30, and -€ 6.04/kg of dry matter per day for cows, breeding heifers, and fattened animals in the cow-calf system, respectively, all expressed per cow and year. The sums of the relative economic values for the 2 new health traits in the dairy system and for residual feed intake across all cattle categories in both systems were 1.4 and 8%, respectively. Within the dairy production system, the highest relative economic values were for milk yield (20%), daily gain of calves (20%), productive lifetime (10%), and cow conception rate (8%). In the cow-calf system, the most important traits were weight gain of calves from 120 to 210 d and from birth to 120 d (19 and 14%, respectively), productive lifetime (17%), and cow conception rate (13%). Based on the calculation of economic values for traits in the dual-purpose Pinzgau breed, milk production and growth traits remain highly important in the breeding goal, but their relative importance should be adapted to new production and economic conditions. The economic importance of functional traits (especially of cow productive lifetime and fertility) was sufficiently high to make the inclusion of these traits into the breeding goal necessary. An increased interest

  8. Activation analysis of dual-purpose metal cask after the end of design lifetime for decommission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Man; Ku, Ji Young; Dho Ho Seog; Cho, Chun Hyung [Korea Radioactive Waste Agency, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Jae Hun [Korea Nuclear Engineering and Service Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The Korea Radioactive Waste Agency (KORAD) has developed a dual-purpose metal cask for the dry storage of spent nuclear fuel that has been generated by domestic light-water reactors. The metal cask was designed in compliance with international and domestic technology standards, and safety was the most important consideration in developing the design. It was designed to maintain its integrity for 50 years in terms of major safety factors. The metal cask ensures the minimization of waste generated by maintenance activities during the storage period as well as the safe management of the waste. An activation evaluation of the main body, which includes internal and external components of metal casks whose design lifetime has expired, provides quantitative data on their radioactive inventory. The radioactive inventory of the main body and the components of the metal cask were calculated by applying the MCNP5·ORIGEN-2 evaluation system and by considering each component's chemical composition, neutron flux distribution, and reaction rate, as well as the duration of neutron irradiation during the storage period. The evaluation results revealed that 10 years after the end of the cask's design life, {sup 60}Co had greater radioactivity than other nuclides among the metal materials. In the case of the neutron shield, nuclides that emit high-energy gamma rays such as {sup 28}Al and {sup 24}Na had greater radioactivity immediately after the design lifetime. However, their radioactivity level became negligible after six months due to their short half-life. The surface exposure dose rates of the canister and the main body of the metal cask from which the spent nuclear fuel had been removed with expiration of the design lifetime were determined to be at very low levels, and the radiation exposure doses to which radiation workers were subjected during the decommissioning process appeared to be at insignificant levels. The evaluations of this study strongly suggest that

  9. IAEA'S International Working Group on Integrated Transport and Storage Safety case for Dual Purpose Casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumano, Yumiko; Varley, Kasturi; ); Droste, Bernhard; Wolff, Dietmar; Hirose, Makoto; Harvey, John; Reiche, Ingo; McConnell, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Spent nuclear fuel is generated from the operation of nuclear reactors and it is imperative that it is safely managed following its removal from reactor cores. Reactor pools are usually designed based on the assumption that the fuel will be removed after a short period of time either for reprocessing, disposal, or further storage. As a result of storing higher burn-up fuel, significantly increased time-frame till disposal solutions are prepared, and delays in decisions on strategies for spent fuel management, the volume of spent fuel discharged from reactors which needs to be managed and stored is on the increase. Consequently, additional storage capacity is needed following the initial storage in reactor pools. Options for additional storage include wet storage or dry storage in a dedicated facility or in storage casks. One of these options is the use of a Dual Purpose Cask (DPC), which is a specially designed cask for both storage and transport. The management of spent fuel using a DPC generally involves on-site and off-site transportation before and after storage. Most countries require package design approval for the DPC to be transported. In addition, it is required in many countries to have a licence for storage of the spent fuel in the DPC or a licence for a storage facility that contains DPCs. Therefore, demonstration of compliance of the DPC with national and international transport regulations as well as with the storage requirements is necessary. In order to address this increasing need among Member States, the IAEA established an international working group in 2010 to develop a guidance for integrating safety cases for both storage and transport in a holistic manner. The working group consists of experts from regulatory bodies, Technical Support Organizations, operators for both transportation and storage, and research institutes. This activity is planned to be completed by 2013. Currently, a technical report has been drafted and is expected to be

  10. Structural dimensioning of dual purpose cask prototype; Dimensionamento estrutural de prototipo de casco de duplo proposito

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Luiz Leite da; Mourao, Rogerio Pimenta; Lopes, Claudio Cunha [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: silvall@cdtn.br; mouraor@cdtn.br; ccl@cdtn.br

    2005-07-01

    The structural dimensioning of a Type B(U) dual purpose cask prototype is part of the scope of work of the Brazilian institute CDTN in the IAEA regional project involving Latin American countries which operate research reactors (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico and Peru). In order to meet the dimensional and operational characteristics of the reactor facilities in these countries, a maximum weight of 10.000 kgf and a maximum dimension of 1 m in at least one direction were set for the cask. With these design restrictions, the cask's payload is either 21 MTR or 78 TRIGA fuel elements. The cask's most important components are main body, primary and secondary lids, basket and impact limiters. The main body has a sandwich-like wall with internal and external layers made of AISI 304 stainless steel with lead in-between. The lead provides biological shielding. The primary lid is similarly layered, but in the axial direction. It is provided with a double system of metallic rings and has ports for pressurization, sampling and containment verification. The secondary lid has the main function of protecting the primary lid against mechanical impacts. The basket structure is basically a tube array reinforced by bottom plate, feet and spacers. Square tubes are used for MTR elements and circular tubes for TRIGA elements. Finally, the impact limiters are structures made of an external stainless steel thin covering and a filling made of the wood composite OSB - Oriented Strand Board. The prototype is provided with bottom and top impact limiters, which are attached to each other by means of four threaded rods. The limiters are not rigidly attached to the cask body. A half scale cask model was designed to be submitted to a testing program. As its volume scales down to 1:8, the model weight is 1,250 kgf. This paper presents the methodology for the preliminary structural dimensioning of the critical parameters of the cask prototype. Both normal conditions of operation and

  11. Safety Analysis of Dual Purpose Metal Cask Subjected to Impulsive Loads due to Aircraft Engine Crash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Koji; Namba, Kosuke; Saegusa, Toshiari

    In Japan, the first Interim Storage Facility of spent nuclear fuel away from reactor site is being planned to start its commercial operation around 2010, in use of dual-purpose metal cask in the northern part of Main Japan Island. Business License Examination for safety design approval has started since March, 2007. To demonstrate the more scientific and rational performance of safety regulation activities on each phase for the first license procedure, CREPEI has executed demonstration tests with full scale casks, such as drop tests onto real targets without impact limiters(1) and seismic tests subjected to strong earthquake motions(2). Moreover, it is important to develop the knowledge for the inherent security of metal casks under extreme mechanical-impact conditions, especially for increasing interest since the terrorist attacks from 11th September 2001(3)-(6). This paper presents dynamic mechanical behavior of the metal cask lid closure system caused by direct aircraft engine crash and describes calculated results (especially, leak tightness based on relative dynamic displacements between metallic seals). Firstly, the local penetration damage of the interim storage facility building by a big passenger aircraft engine crash (diameter 2.7m, length 4.3m, weight 4.4ton, impact velocity 90m/s) has been examined. The reduced velocity is calculated by the local damage formula for concrete structure with its thickness of 70cm. The load vs. time function for this reduced velocity (60m/s) is estimated by the impact analysis using Finite Element code LS-DYNA with the full scale engine model onto a hypothetically rigid target. Secondly, as the most critical scenarios for the metal cask, two impact scenarios (horizontal impact hitting the cask and vertical impact onto the lid metallic seal system) are chosen. To consider the geometry of all bolts for two lids, the gasket reaction forces and the inner pressure of the cask cavity, the detailed three dimensional FEM models are

  12. Austrian emission under international comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderl, M.; Gager, M.; Gugele, B.; Huttunen, K.; Kurzweil, A.; Poupa, S.; Ritter, M.; Wappel, D.; Wieser, M.

    2004-01-01

    A comparison between anthropogenic emissions of CO 2 , CH 4 , N 2 O, SO 2 , NO x , volatile organic compounds (NMVOC), NH 3 and CO from the European Union, European Union candidate countries and Austria is presented. Data covers the years 1999-2001 and the emissions values per habitant are provided as well as a comparison against the Kyoto goals. In the middle of the European mean values are the austrian emissions values, austrian SO 2 emissions are the smallest, however CH 4 , CO and NMVOC emissions are over the European mean values. 8 figs., 6 tabs. (nevyjel)

  13. The evaluation of minimum cooling period for loading of PWR spent nuclear fuel of a dual purpose metal cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dho, Ho Seog; Kim, Tae Man; Cho, Chun Hyung [Korea Radioactive Waste Agency, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Recently, because the wet pool storage facilities of NPPs in Korea has become saturated, there has been much active R and D on an interim dry storage system using a transportation and storage cask. Generally, the shielding evaluation for the design of a spent fuel transportation and storage cask is performed by the design basis fuel, which selects the most conservative fuel among the fuels to be loaded into the cask. However, the loading of actual spent fuel into the transportation metal cask is not limited to the design basis fuel used in the shielding evaluation; the loading feasibility of actual spent fuel is determined by the shielding evaluation that considers the characteristics of the initial enrichment, the maximum burnup and the minimum cooling period. This study describes a shielding analysis method for determining the minimum cooling period of spent fuel that meets the domestic transportation standard of the dual purpose metal cask. In particular, the spent fuel of 3.0-4.5wt% initial enrichment, which has a large amount of release, was evaluated by segmented shielding calculations for efficient improvement of the results. The shielding evaluation revealed that about 81% of generated spent fuel from the domestic nuclear power plants until 2008 could be transported by the dual purpose metal cask. The results of this study will be helpful in establishing a technical basis for developing operating procedures for transportation of the dual purpose metal cask.

  14. The evaluation of minimum cooling period for loading of PWR spent nuclear fuel of a dual purpose metal cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dho, Ho Seog; Kim, Tae Man; Cho, Chun Hyung

    2016-01-01

    Recently, because the wet pool storage facilities of NPPs in Korea has become saturated, there has been much active R and D on an interim dry storage system using a transportation and storage cask. Generally, the shielding evaluation for the design of a spent fuel transportation and storage cask is performed by the design basis fuel, which selects the most conservative fuel among the fuels to be loaded into the cask. However, the loading of actual spent fuel into the transportation metal cask is not limited to the design basis fuel used in the shielding evaluation; the loading feasibility of actual spent fuel is determined by the shielding evaluation that considers the characteristics of the initial enrichment, the maximum burnup and the minimum cooling period. This study describes a shielding analysis method for determining the minimum cooling period of spent fuel that meets the domestic transportation standard of the dual purpose metal cask. In particular, the spent fuel of 3.0-4.5wt% initial enrichment, which has a large amount of release, was evaluated by segmented shielding calculations for efficient improvement of the results. The shielding evaluation revealed that about 81% of generated spent fuel from the domestic nuclear power plants until 2008 could be transported by the dual purpose metal cask. The results of this study will be helpful in establishing a technical basis for developing operating procedures for transportation of the dual purpose metal cask

  15. COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT SORTING OF FATTY ACID IN BOVINE MILK IN RELATION TO BODY CONDITION OF CZECH FLECKVIEH DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaromir DUCHACEK

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids in milk are one of the most important components of milk. The aim of this study was to determinate relationships between groups of fatty acids and body condition score change in Czech Fleckvieh cows. Fatty acids were classification along its length of chain and its source of creation. To analysis was included total of 50 Czech Fleckvieh cows with different order of lactation. During the first 4 weeks of lactation, milk samples were collected at a weekly interval and body condition score was assessed. Statistical analyses were performed using Microsoft Office Excel and the procedures MEANS and GLM of SAS 9.1. During the first four week of lactation, the proportions of short- and medium-chain fatty acids as well as de novo synthesised fatty acids increased. Moreover the cows with a greater body condition score change mobilized storage depot fat more intensively, which resulted in higher proportions of dietary and depot fatty acids since week 1 of lactation, and long-chain fatty acids since week 2 of lactation. On the contrary, the animals with only a small body condition score change exhibited high proportions of short- and medium-fatty acids as well as de novo synthesised fatty acids in the most part of the period analysed. This indicates abut negative energy balance in early part of lactation and its compensation. The results also confirm the relationships between different groups of fatty acids, body condition score and negative energy balance. As more accurate for evaluation of intensity of negative energy balance was confirmed rather classification along source of creation. These results further emphasize importance the monitoring of body condition, milk composition and good herd management in first part of lactation.

  16. Zinc Deficiency‐Like Syndrome in Fleckvieh Calves: Clinical and Pathological Findings and Differentiation from Bovine Hereditary Zinc Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, S.; Majzoub‐Altweck, M.; Trefz, F.M.; Seifert, C.; Knubben‐Schweizer, G.; Fries, R.; Hermanns, W.; Gollnick, N.S.

    2018-01-01

    Background Zinc deficiency‐like (ZDL) syndrome is an inherited defect of Fleckvieh calves, with striking similarity to bovine hereditary zinc deficiency (BHZD). However, the causative mutation in a phospholipase D4 encoding gene (PLD4) shows no connection to zinc metabolism. Objectives To describe clinical signs, laboratory variables, and pathological findings of ZDL syndrome and their utility to differentiate ZDL from BHZD and infectious diseases with similar phenotype. Animals Nine hospitalized calves with crusting dermatitis and confirmed mutation in PLD4 and medical records from 25 calves with crusting dermatitis or suspected zinc deficiency. Methods Prospective and retrospective case series. Results The 9 calves (age: 5–53 weeks) displayed a moderate to severe crusting dermatitis mainly on the head, ventrum, and joints. Respiratory and digestive tract inflammations were frequently observed. Zinc supplementation did not lead to remission of clinical signs in 4 calves. Laboratory variables revealed slight anemia in 8 calves, hypoalbuminemia in 6 calves, but reduced serum zinc concentrations in only 3 calves. Mucosal erosions/ulcerations were present in 7 calves and thymus atrophy or reduced thymic weights in 8 calves. Histologically, skin lesions were indistinguishable from BHZD. Retrospective analysis of medical records revealed the presence of this phenotype since 1988 and pedigree analysis revealed a common ancestor of several affected calves. Conclusions and Clinical Importance ZDL syndrome should be suspected in Fleckvieh calves with crusting dermatitis together with diarrhea or respiratory tract inflammations without response to oral zinc supplementation. Definite diagnosis requires molecular genetic confirmation of the PLD4 mutation. PMID:29424482

  17. Zinc Deficiency-Like Syndrome in Fleckvieh Calves: Clinical and Pathological Findings and Differentiation from Bovine Hereditary Zinc Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenmayer, M C; Jung, S; Majzoub-Altweck, M; Trefz, F M; Seifert, C; Knubben-Schweizer, G; Fries, R; Hermanns, W; Gollnick, N S

    2018-03-01

    Zinc deficiency-like (ZDL) syndrome is an inherited defect of Fleckvieh calves, with striking similarity to bovine hereditary zinc deficiency (BHZD). However, the causative mutation in a phospholipase D4 encoding gene (PLD4) shows no connection to zinc metabolism. To describe clinical signs, laboratory variables, and pathological findings of ZDL syndrome and their utility to differentiate ZDL from BHZD and infectious diseases with similar phenotype. Nine hospitalized calves with crusting dermatitis and confirmed mutation in PLD4 and medical records from 25 calves with crusting dermatitis or suspected zinc deficiency. Prospective and retrospective case series. The 9 calves (age: 5-53 weeks) displayed a moderate to severe crusting dermatitis mainly on the head, ventrum, and joints. Respiratory and digestive tract inflammations were frequently observed. Zinc supplementation did not lead to remission of clinical signs in 4 calves. Laboratory variables revealed slight anemia in 8 calves, hypoalbuminemia in 6 calves, but reduced serum zinc concentrations in only 3 calves. Mucosal erosions/ulcerations were present in 7 calves and thymus atrophy or reduced thymic weights in 8 calves. Histologically, skin lesions were indistinguishable from BHZD. Retrospective analysis of medical records revealed the presence of this phenotype since 1988 and pedigree analysis revealed a common ancestor of several affected calves. ZDL syndrome should be suspected in Fleckvieh calves with crusting dermatitis together with diarrhea or respiratory tract inflammations without response to oral zinc supplementation. Definite diagnosis requires molecular genetic confirmation of the PLD4 mutation. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  18. Visit of the Austrian Ambassador

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    The Austrian Ambassador Wolfgang Petritsch (light raincoat) learns about superconducting magnets at the LHC magnet test facility in building SM18 during a visit to CERN. The blue pipe-like structure in the left background is String 2: the 120-m long full-scale model of an LHC cell, which is used to test LHC systems.

  19. Austrian natural scientists in exile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1978-01-01

    This text was written by E. Broda for the international symposium for exploration of the Austrian exile from 1934 to 1945 (“Internationales Symposiums zur Erforschung des österreichischen Exils von 1934 bis 1945”) in the year 1978. The article is about the specific problems of the Austrian scientific landscape, caused by the political events in the first half of the 20th century. The focus is primarily on the enormous ‘brain drain’, triggered by political repression in the period of Nazi rule (1938 - 1945), the Austro-fascism period (1934 - 1938) and the economic regression, anti-intellectual and anti-Semitic sentiment in the Country since 1918. The article emphasizes the importance of exile organizations, such as the ‘Free Austrian Movement’ or the ‘Association of Austrian Engineers, Chemists and Scientific Workers in Great Britain’ for the reconstruction of a scientific culture in Austria, after the Second World War. (rössner) [de

  20. Overlap in genomic variation associated with milk fat composition in Holstein Friesian and Dutch native dual-purpose breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice-Van Eijndhoven, M H T; Bovenhuis, H; Veerkamp, R F; Calus, M P L

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify if genomic variations associated with fatty acid (FA) composition are similar between the Holstein-Friesian (HF) and native dual-purpose breeds used in the Dutch dairy industry. Phenotypic and genotypic information were available for the breeds Meuse-Rhine-Yssel (MRY), Dutch Friesian (DF), Groningen White Headed (GWH), and HF. First, the reliability of genomic breeding values of the native Dutch dual-purpose cattle breeds MRY, DF, and GWH was evaluated using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) effects estimated in HF, including all SNP or subsets with stronger associations in HF. Second, the genomic variation of the regions associated with FA composition in HF (regions on Bos taurus autosome 5, 14, and 26), were studied in the different breeds. Finally, similarities in genotype and allele frequencies between MRY, DF, GWH, and HF breeds were assessed for specific regions associated with FA composition. On average across the traits, the highest reliabilities of genomic prediction were estimated for GWH (0.158) and DF (0.116) when the 8 to 22 SNP with the strongest association in HF were included. With the same set of SNP, GEBV for MRY were the least reliable (0.022). This indicates that on average only 2 (MRY) to 16% (GWH) of the genomic variation in HF is shared with the native Dutch dual-purpose breeds. The comparison of predicted variances of different regions associated with milk and milk fat composition showed that breeds clearly differed in genomic variation within these regions. Finally, the correlations of allele frequencies between breeds across the 8 to 22 SNP with the strongest association in HF were around 0.8 between the Dutch native dual-purpose breeds, whereas the correlations between the native breeds and HF were clearly lower and around 0.5. There was no consistent relationship between the reliabilities of genomic prediction for a specific breed and the correlation between the allele frequencies of this breed

  1. QTL-Kartierung und funktionelle Kandidatengenanalyse für das Merkmal Totgeburt in einer fortgeschrittenen Fleckvieh- x Red-Holstein-Rückkreuzungspopulation

    OpenAIRE

    Gomeringer, Verena

    2007-01-01

    Das Ziel dieser Arbeit war die Kartierung eines QTL mit Effekt auf paternalen Kalbeverlauf und paternale Totgeburt auf Bos Taurus Autosom 9 (BTA09) in einer fortgeschrittenen Fleckvieh x Red-Holstein Rückkreuzungspopulation mit positioneller und funktioneller Kandidatengenanalyse. Dazu wurden Untersuchungen mit verschiedenen Kartierungsdesigns in Granddaughter und Daughter Designs durchgeführt. Intervallkartierung und Linkage / Linkage-Disequilibrium-Kartierung wurden verwendet um den QTL ...

  2. Advanced development in phytochemicals analysis of medicine and food dual purposes plants used in China (2011-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Ge, Li-Ya; Xiong, Wei; Leong, Fong; Huang, Lu-Qi; Li, Shao-Ping

    2016-01-08

    In 2011, we wrote a review for summarizing the phytochemical analysis (2006-2010) of medicine and food dual purposes plants used in China (Zhao et al., J. Chromatogr. A 1218 (2011) 7453-7475). Since then, more than 750 articles related to their phytochemical analysis have been published. Therefore, an updated review for the advanced development (2011-2014) in this topic is necessary for well understanding the quality control and health beneficial phytochemicals in these materials, as well as their research trends. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of Various Morpho-Physiological and Growth Traits of Dual Purpose Wheat under Early Sowing Dates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munsif, F.; Arif, M.; Rasul, F.

    2016-01-01

    The use of wheat as dual purpose crop (for fodder and grain) is considered as promising agronomic management practice fulfilling human and animal need at same time. These expectations are largely found on positive experiences by growing wheat as dual purpose crop throughout the world. However, the validity of these results in Pakistan needs confirmation from field experiments under various sowing date and potential cultivars. The impact of cutting and sowing date on morphological and physiological traits of already existing wheat cultivars was evaluated at Agricultural Research Farm of The University of Agriculture, Peshawar Pakistan in winter 2010-2011 and 2011-2012. Three sowing dates i.e. 15th October, 30th October and 14th November and six wheat cultivars (Ghaznavi-98, Fakhre-Sarhad (FS)-99, Ghaznavi-98, Saleem-2000, Uqab-2000 and Siran-2008) were compared for dual purpose wheat production during the course of experiment. Findings showed that significant reduction were recorded in nodes tiller/sup -1/, plant height, spike weight and grains weight spike/sup -1/ when sowing of wheat delayed from 15th and 30th October to 15th November. Considerable variations were also noted in nodes tiller/sup -1/, internodes length and leaf area index, plant height and lodging score among wheat cultivars but it was mainly due to their genetic characteristic not because of cutting treatment. It was observed that cutting caused 5.5, 12.1, 6.2, 4.1, 25.9, 7.1,6.6% reduction in wheat leaf area, leaf area index, internode length, plant height, lodging score, spike weight and grains weight spike/sup -1/, respectively over non cut plots in both year of the experiment. Interestingly, no-significant change was noted in spike length and number of nodes tiller/sup -1/ under cut and no cut plots. The conclusive findings suggested that optimum sowing date (15th and 30th October) for all wheat cultivars could be utilized as potential source of dual purpose wheat for substantial reduction of

  4. The water treatment in the dual-purpose nuclear plants of Babcock and Wilcox with straight pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martynova, O.I.

    1978-01-01

    A report is given on water processing and water chemistry in the dual-purpose nuclear power plants (as compared to the single-purpose nuclear power plants) of Babcock and Wilcox, with flow steam generators with straight pipes. The most important materials, especially regarding their corrosion resistance, and the water composition during 'hot' start-up of the Okonie-I power plant, the quality factors of the feedwater, the water quality factors of the steam generator with fast start-up and the experience with numerous corrosion-caused defects in steam generator pipes are dealt with from the aspect of optimum water processing and successful continuous operation. (HK) [de

  5. Mr. Wolfgang Petritsch, Austrian Ambassador

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    Dr.Peter Schmid/CERN/EP, Dr.Wolfgang Petritsch, Austrian Ambassador, Permanent representative at UN, Mrs.Nora Petritsch, Dr.Kurt Hubner/CERN/AC, Mrs. Frederike Klaus-Salesin, Adviser, Mrs.Andrea Strohmeier, Secretary of the Ambassador, Mr.Heinz Klaus, Attaché, Dr.Theodor Tortschanoff/CERN/LHC, Mr.Peter Storer, Advisor. Dr.Peter Schmid/CERN/EP, Dr.Wolfgang Petritsch, Austrian Ambassador, Permanent representative at UN, Mrs.Nora Petritsch, Dr.Kurt Hubner/CERN/AC, Mrs. Frederike Klaus-Salesin, Adviser, Mrs.Andrea Strohmeier, Secretary of the Ambassador, Mr.Heinz Klaus, Attaché, Dr.Theodor Tortschanoff/CERN/LHC, Mr.Peter Storer, Advisor.

  6. The reception of Austrian economics in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Magliulo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the Austrian School enjoys high reputation in Italy: books by Mises, Hayek and other Austrian economists are constantly republished and reviewed with great interest, both inside and outside academic circles. The situation was very different decades ago, when just a few Italian economists devoted attention to the Austrian School. This work studies the reception of Austrian Economics in Italy, from the beginning to our days, so as to bring out, by way of comparison, relevant features of Italian economic culture. We will try to offer just an overview of the entire story, in an attempt to provide useful elements for a deeper analysis of further topics and periods.

  7. The Forgotten Austrian Economics Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bianca Vieru

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In light of the current events, namely the crisisthat economy has to face for quite someyears now, plenty of questions are raised, not only among specialists in the field but also amongordinary people as they prove to be most impoverished by these imbalances. Thus, this paper aims, asa first objective, to explain, froma general perspective and using an inductive-subjectivemethodology based on a brief survey as well as on observation, two of the most important causes that,according to the Austrian Business Cycle Theory, are the leading motives for triggering crises. Weare referring particularly to an excessivestate interventionismmanifested throughout itsexpansionary monetary policy.Secondly, we seek to establish the interconnections between theseelements and the case of the Great Depression as well as the current recession. The results we cameacross point out towards the same pattern designed by the Austrian economists, although thecircumstances are, each time, different. Hence, the contribution of this paper consists of handling thedetails that surround the subject by extracting only the essential aspects regarding the triggering ofcrises; we refer to the main ideas that need to be underlined for a better comprehension of the topic.

  8. Austrian emission inventory for dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winiwarter, W.; Trenker, C.; Hoeflinger, W.

    2001-09-01

    For the first time, Austrian emissions of anthropogenic particulate matter emissions to the atmosphere have been estimated. Results have been reported as total suspended particles (TSP) as well as for the fractions of particles smaller than 10 μm or 2.5 μm aerodynamic diameter (PM 10 , PM 2.5 ), respectively. Base years for the inventory were 1990, 1995 and 1999. Excluded from this assessment is wind blown dust, which has been considered a natural source here. National statistics have been applied, specifically those also used previously in the Austrian air pollution inventory (OLI). Emission factors have been taken from literature compilations, only for exceptional cases specific Austrian assessments were performed or original literature on emission measurements was consulted. Resuspension of dust by road traffic emerged as the most important source. For the size fraction of PM 10 this source contributed about half of the emissions, when applying the calculation scheme by the U.S. EPA. While this scheme is widely used and well documented, its validity is currently subject of intense scientific debate. As these results do not seem to coincide with ambient air measurements, resuspension of road dust is considered separately and not now included in the national total. The sum of all other sources increases from 75,000 t of TSP in 1990 and 1995 to 77,000 t in 1999, while both PM 10 and PM 2.5 exhibit decreasing tendency (at 45,000 t and 26,000 t in 1999, respectively). The increase in TSP derives from increasing traffic and friction related emissions (tire wear, break wear), decrease of the finer particulate matter is due to reductions in firewood consumption for domestic heating. Most important source sectors are fugitive emissions from material transfer in industry as well as the building industry and the tilling of agricultural land. Common to these sources is the high uncertainty of available data. Wood combustion is the most important of the non

  9. Dual purpose microalgae-bacteria-based systems that treat wastewater and produce biodiesel and chemical products within a biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olguín, Eugenia J

    2012-01-01

    Excess greenhouse gas emissions and the concomitant effect on global warming have become significant environmental, social and economic threats. In this context, the development of renewable, carbon-neutral and economically feasible biofuels is a driving force for innovation worldwide. A lot of effort has been put into developing biodiesel from microalgae. However, there are still a number of technological, market and policy barriers that are serious obstacles to the economic feasibility and competitiveness of such biofuels. Conversely, there are also a number of business opportunities if the production of such alternative biofuel becomes part of a larger integrated system following the Biorefinery strategy. In this case, other biofuels and chemical products of high added value are produced, contributing to an overall enhancement of the economic viability of the whole integrated system. Additionally, dual purpose microalgae-bacteria-based systems for treating wastewater and production of biofuels and chemical products significantly contribute to a substantial saving in the overall cost of microalgae biomass production. These types of systems could help to improve the competitiveness of biodiesel production from microalgae, according to some recent Life Cycle Analysis studies. Furthermore, they do not compete for fresh water resources for agricultural purposes and add value to treating the wastewater itself. This work reviews the most recent and relevant information about these types of dual purpose systems. Several aspects related to the treatment of municipal and animal wastewater with simultaneous recovery of microalgae with potential for biodiesel production are discussed. The use of pre-treated waste or anaerobic effluents from digested waste as nutrient additives for weak wastewater is reviewed. Isolation and screening of microalgae/cyanobacteria or their consortia from various wastewater streams, and studies related to population dynamics in mixed cultures

  10. Dominance genetic and maternal effects for genetic evaluation of egg production traits in dual-purpose chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasouri, M; Zamani, P; Alijani, S

    2017-10-01

    1. A study was conducted to study direct dominance genetic and maternal effects on genetic evaluation of production traits in dual-purpose chickens. The data set consisted of records of body weight and egg production of 49 749 Mazandaran fowls from 19 consecutive generations. Based on combinations of different random effects, including direct additive and dominance genetic and maternal additive genetic and environmental effects, 8 different models were compared. 2. Inclusion of a maternal genetic effect in the models noticeably improved goodness of fit for all traits. Direct dominance genetic effect did not have noticeable effects on goodness of fit but simultaneous inclusion of both direct dominance and maternal additive genetic effects improved fitting criteria and accuracies of genetic parameter estimates for hatching body weight and egg production traits. 3. Estimates of heritability (h 2 ) for body weights at hatch, 8 weeks and 12 weeks of age (BW0, BW8 and BW12, respectively), age at sexual maturity (ASM), average egg weights at 28-32 weeks of laying period (AEW), egg number (EN) and egg production intensity (EI) were 0.08, 0.21, 0.22, 0.22, 0.21, 0.09 and 0.10, respectively. For BW0, BW8, BW12, ASM, AEW, EN and EI, proportion of dominance genetic to total phenotypic variance (d 2 ) were 0.06, 0.08, 0.01, 0.06, 0.06, 0.08 and 0.07 and maternal heritability estimates (m 2 ) were 0.05, 0.04, 0.03, 0.13, 0.21, 0.07 and 0.03, respectively. Negligible coefficients of maternal environmental effect (c 2 ) from 0.01 to 0.08 were estimated for all traits, other than BW0, which had an estimate of 0.30. 4. Breeding values (BVs) estimated for body weights at early ages (BW0 and BW8) were considerably affected by components of the models, but almost similar BVs were estimated by different models for higher age body weight (BW12) and egg production traits (ASM, AEW, EN and EI). Generally, it could be concluded that inclusion of maternal effects (both genetic and

  11. Choice of optimum size of installations for dual-purpose production of desalted water and electricity, using nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaussens, J.

    1966-01-01

    The author used a method starting with water and power demand curves; this leads to the rational allocation of production costs to water and power within a given market. The power demand curve is needed as it seems improbable to sell at a constant price the enormous quantity of electricity produced by a dual purpose plant. Criteria based on principles of classical economics, help to select objectively desalination methods and plant sizes. On these criteria, normative methods for tariffing action of water and power can be based, while adhering as closely as possible to structure of demand. Examples of such criteria are the maximum profit of the supplier or the maximum satisfaction of the consumers taken collectively. In the first case marginal costs must be equated to marginal revenue, in the second one marginal cost to marginal satisfaction (theory of surpluses). The plant size often determines the choice of desalination process. Therefore the shape of the water demand curve and the economic criterion adopted (public or private ownership, capital restrictions etc.) often determine in this way both size and type of plant. Before deciding on the desalination technique, market surveys and rather subtle economic analyses are therefore necessary. (author) [fr

  12. Development of dual-purpose metal cask for interim storage of spent nuclear fuel (1). Outline of cask structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Masashi; Hayashi, Makoto; Kashiwakura, Jun

    2003-01-01

    Spent fuels discharged from nuclear power plants in Japan are planed to be reprocessed at the nuclear fuel recycle plant under construction at Rokkasho-mura. Since the amount of the spent fuels exceeds that of recycled fuel, the spent fuels have to be properly stored and maintained as recycle fuel resource until the beginning of the reprocessing. For that sake, interim storage installations are being constructed outside the nuclear power plants by 2010. The storage dry casks have been practically used as the interim storage in the nuclear power plants. From this reason, the storage system using the storage dry casks is promising as the interim storage installations away form the reactors, which are under discussion. In the interim storage facilities, the storage using the dry cask of the storage metal cask with business showings, having the function of transportation is now under discussion. By employing transportation and storage dual-purpose cask, the repack equipments can be exhausted, and the reliability of the interim storage installations can be increased. Hitachi, Ltd. has been developing the high reliable and economical transportation and storage dry metal cask. In this report, the outline of our developing transportation and storage dry cask is described. (author)

  13. A New Dual-purpose Quality Control Dosimetry Protocol for Diagnostic Reference-level Determination in Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Mehdi; Parsi, Masoumeh; Sina, Sedigheh

    2018-05-17

    A diagnostic reference level is an advisory dose level set by a regulatory authority in a country as an efficient criterion for protection of patients from unwanted medical exposure. In computed tomography, the direct dose measurement and data collection methods are commonly applied for determination of diagnostic reference levels. Recently, a new quality-control-based dose survey method was proposed by the authors to simplify the diagnostic reference-level determination using a retrospective quality control database usually available at a regulatory authority in a country. In line with such a development, a prospective dual-purpose quality control dosimetry protocol is proposed for determination of diagnostic reference levels in a country, which can be simply applied by quality control service providers. This new proposed method was applied to five computed tomography scanners in Shiraz, Iran, and diagnostic reference levels for head, abdomen/pelvis, sinus, chest, and lumbar spine examinations were determined. The results were compared to those obtained by the data collection and quality-control-based dose survey methods, carried out in parallel in this study, and were found to agree well within approximately 6%. This is highly acceptable for quality-control-based methods according to International Atomic Energy Agency tolerance levels (±20%).

  14. Evaluation of Dual-purpose Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. Varieties for Grain and Fodder Production at Shika, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omokanye, AT.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-year field study of eight new and one check dual-purpose cowpea varieties was carried out to evaluate their grain and fodder production potential. Germination and seedling establishment were both high and greater than 80%.Mean dry fodder and seed yields varied from 1,262 to 3,598 kg/ha and 528 to 1,149 kg/ha respectively, with varieties IAR 4/48/15-1, IAR 72 and TVU 12349 retaining larger amounts (> 50% of fresh green leaves at pod harvest during the dry season. Crude protein (CP content of fodder averaged between 15.2 and 21.6%. There were more pods/plant for varieties IAR 4/48/15-1, IAR 7/180-4-5 and TVU 12349. 100-seed weight was highest with IT89KD-288 and Kananado (check. Fodder yield, pods/plant and leaf content were moderately correlated with seed yield. Results showed that varieties TVU 12349, IT89KD-288, IAR 2/180/4-12 and IAR 4/48/15-1 appeared suitable for both fodder and grain production. The use of appropriate cowpea varieties to enhance farmer income in an integrated production system is suggested.

  15. The consumer in Austrian economics and the Austrian perspective on consumer policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leen, A.R.

    1999-01-01

    In this thesis I examined the place of the competitive-entrepreneurial consumer in Austrian economic thought. For a neoclassical economist, competition among consumers is hard to find. For an Austrian economist, however, it is a necessity. The introduction puts forward the problem that although an

  16. FORAGE OFFER AND INTAKE AND MILK PRODUCTION IN DUAL PURPOSE CATTLE MANAGED UNDER SILVOPASTORAL SYSTEMS IN TEPALCATEPEC, MICHOACAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Manuel Bacab-Pérez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out during the dry season (March to May in three dual-purpose cattle farms located in Tepalcatepec, Michoacan, Mexico, in order to evaluate the forage offer and intake, and milk production in Brown Swiss cows. Two farms had silvopastoral systems with Leucaena leucocephala cv. Cunningham associated with Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania, and one of them also included mango trees (Mangifera indica; the third farm had a traditional system with Cynodon plectostachyus in monoculture. In the traditional system, cows were offered 8 kg animal-1 day-1 of concentrate feed during the milking period, and only 1.5 kg animal-1 day-1 in the silvopastoral systems. Edible forage offer in the silvopastoral farms was 2470 and 2693 kg DM ha-1 grazing-1, and in the traditional system it was 948 kg DM ha-1 grazing-1. Forage intake in the silvopastoral systems was 8.25 and 11.81 kg DM animal-1 day-1, whereas in the traditional system it was 3.63 kg DM animal-1 day-1. Milk production in the silvopastoral system was 9.0 and 9.2 kg animal-1 day-1, while in the traditional system it was 10.4 kg animal-1 day-1. The silvopastoral systems with L. leucocephala cv. Cunningham associated with P. maximum cv. Tanzania produced high edible forage offer and allowed to obtain milk yield similar to that of the traditional system with C. plectostachyus in monoculture, but on a lower concentrate feed intake.

  17. Effects of energy supplementation on productivity of dual-purpose cows grazing in a silvopastoral system in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinoco-Magaña, Juan Carlos; Aguilar-Pérez, Carlos Fernando; Delgado-León, Roger; Magaña-Monforte, Juan Gabriel; Ku-Vera, Juan Carlos; Herrera-Camacho, Jose

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate milk yield, postpartum (pp) ovarian activity and pregnancy rate in dual-purpose cows grazing Cynodon nlemfuensis and browsing L. leucocephala, with or without energy supplementation. Twenty-four Bos taurus × B. indicus cows were divided in two groups from calving to 70 days post-calving: supplemented group (SG) with ground sorghum grain offered at 0.4% of live weight at calving and control group (CG) without supplement. There was a trend for milk yield (kg day(-1)) to be greater (p = 0.08) for SG (10.55 ± 0.51) compared to CG (9.53 ± 0.61), although without differences in fat (0.42 ± 0.02 vs. 0.38 ± 0.03 kg day(-1)), protein (0.29 ± 0.02 vs. 0.29 ± 0.02 kg day(-1)) or lactose (0.49 ± 0.02 vs. 0.49 ± 0.03 kg day(-1)) concentration. Populations of large, medium and small follicles were similar between treatments. Percentage of cows which showed corpus luteum tended to be greater in SG (50%), compared to CG (33%). Supplemented cows tended to have a shorter calving-first corpus luteum interval (40 ± 10 vs. 51 ± 10 days) and had a significantly higher (χ (2) = 0.03) pregnancy rate (42% vs. 0%). It is concluded that energy supplementation helped to improve ovarian activity and pregnancy rate. Since supplementation did not avoid loss of body condition, the higher pregnancy rate in SG suggests beneficial effects of supplementation probably mediated by metabolic hormones.

  18. Experimental assessment on the thermal effects of the neutron shielding and heat-transfer fin of dual purpose casks on open pool fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Kyoung-Sik; Yu, Seung-Hwan; Lee, Ju-Chan; Seo, Ki-Seog; Choi, Woo-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An open pool fire test was performed to estimate not only the combustion effect of the neutron shielding but also the effect of the heat transfer fin of the dual purpose cask. • The heat transfer to the inside of the dual purpose cask was reduced, when the neutron shielding burns. • The surface temperatures are lower in the present of the heat transfer fins. • If inflammable material is used as the components of the cask, evaluating thermal integrity using the thermal test would be desirable. - Abstract: Dual purpose casks are used for storage and transport of spent nuclear fuel assemblies. They must therefore satisfy the requirements prescribed in the Korea Nuclear Safety Security Commission Act 2014-50, the IAEA Safety Standard Series No. SSR-6, and US 10 CFR Part 71. These regulatory guidelines classify the dual purpose cask as a Type B package and state that a Type B package must be able to withstand a temperature of 800 °C for a period of 30 min. NS-4-FR is used as neutron shielding of the dual purpose cask. Heat transfer fins are embedded to enhance heat transfer from the cask body to the outer-shell because the thermal conductivity of NS-4-FR is not good. However, accurately simulating not only the combustion effect of the neutron shielding but also the effect of the heat transfer fin in the thermal analysis is not easy. Therefore, an open pool fire test was conducted using a one-sixth slice of a real cask to estimate these effects at a temperature of 800 °C for a period of 30 min. The temperature at the central portion of the neutron shielding was lower when the neutron shielding in contact with the outer cask burned because the neutron shielding absorbed the surrounding latent heat as the neutron shielding burned. Therefore, the heat transfer to the inside of the dual purpose cask was reduced. The surface temperature was lower when a heat transfer fin was installed because the high heat generated by the flame was transferred to the

  19. Experimental assessment on the thermal effects of the neutron shielding and heat-transfer fin of dual purpose casks on open pool fire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Kyoung-Sik, E-mail: nksbang@kaeri.re.kr; Yu, Seung-Hwan; Lee, Ju-Chan; Seo, Ki-Seog; Choi, Woo-Seok

    2016-08-01

    Highlights: • An open pool fire test was performed to estimate not only the combustion effect of the neutron shielding but also the effect of the heat transfer fin of the dual purpose cask. • The heat transfer to the inside of the dual purpose cask was reduced, when the neutron shielding burns. • The surface temperatures are lower in the present of the heat transfer fins. • If inflammable material is used as the components of the cask, evaluating thermal integrity using the thermal test would be desirable. - Abstract: Dual purpose casks are used for storage and transport of spent nuclear fuel assemblies. They must therefore satisfy the requirements prescribed in the Korea Nuclear Safety Security Commission Act 2014-50, the IAEA Safety Standard Series No. SSR-6, and US 10 CFR Part 71. These regulatory guidelines classify the dual purpose cask as a Type B package and state that a Type B package must be able to withstand a temperature of 800 °C for a period of 30 min. NS-4-FR is used as neutron shielding of the dual purpose cask. Heat transfer fins are embedded to enhance heat transfer from the cask body to the outer-shell because the thermal conductivity of NS-4-FR is not good. However, accurately simulating not only the combustion effect of the neutron shielding but also the effect of the heat transfer fin in the thermal analysis is not easy. Therefore, an open pool fire test was conducted using a one-sixth slice of a real cask to estimate these effects at a temperature of 800 °C for a period of 30 min. The temperature at the central portion of the neutron shielding was lower when the neutron shielding in contact with the outer cask burned because the neutron shielding absorbed the surrounding latent heat as the neutron shielding burned. Therefore, the heat transfer to the inside of the dual purpose cask was reduced. The surface temperature was lower when a heat transfer fin was installed because the high heat generated by the flame was transferred to the

  20. Preliminary safety analysis of criticality for dual-purpose metal cask under dry storage conditions in South Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Taeman, E-mail: tmkim@korad.or.kr [Korea Radioactive Waste Agency (KORAD), 1045 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Dho, Hoseog; Baeg, Chang-Yeal [Korea Radioactive Waste Agency (KORAD), 1045 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gang-uk [Korea Nuclear Engineering and Service Co. (KONES), Hyundai Plaza, 341-4 Jangdae-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • DPC is under development led by Korea Radioactive Waste Agency in South Korea. • The results of criticality analysis with respect to design requirements. • The k{sub eff} under normal and off-normal conditions were 0.36 and 0.46, respectively. • In addition, the k{sub eff} under a postulated accident condition was evaluated to be 0.94. - Abstract: A dual-purpose metal cask is under development led by Korea Radioactive Waste Agency (KORAD) in Korea, for the dry interim storage and long-distance transportation. This cask comprises a main body made of carbon steel and a stainless steel Dry Shielded Canister (DSC), with stainless steel baskets inside to contain spent fuel assemblies. In this study, nuclear criticality safety analysis was conducted as a part of safety assessment of the metal cask. Analysis to show criticality safety in accordance with regulatory requirements of PWR spent fuel storage was carried out. 10CFR72.124 “Criteria for nuclear criticality safety” and the Regulatory Guide of the American Nuclear Society, ANSI/ANS-57.9 “Design Criteria for an Independent Spent Fuel” and US NRC's “Standard Review Plan for Spent Fuel Dry Storage Systems at a General License Facility” were employed as regulatory standard and criteria. This paper shows results of criticality analysis with respect to each designated criterion with modeling of a virtual nuclear fuel assembly and a cask body that induces the maximum reactivity among various design basis fuels of the metal cask. In addition, the sensitivity analysis of nuclear criticality taking into account the various modeling deviation such as manufacturing tolerance and modeling assumptions of conventional models was carried out to ensure the reliability of the analysis result. The criticality evaluation result of the metal cask and the maximum k{sub eff} under normal and off-normal conditions were 0.36884 and 0.46255, respectively. The maximum k{sub eff} under a postulated

  1. Full-scale prototyping of the Hitachi dual-purpose metal cask and verification of its heat transfer characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, N.; Ishida, N.; Ootsuka, M.; Kamoshida, M.; Hiranuma, T.; Doumori, S.; Hoshikawa, T.; Shimizu, M.; Kashiwakura, J.; Hayashi, M.

    2004-01-01

    Hitachi has been developing dual-purpose metal casks for transport and storage of spent nuclear fuels. The Hitachi cask, HDP69B can store 69 BWR fuel assemblies. The cask features are as follows. 1) The fuel basket is assembled mainly with plates of borated stainless steel. The plates are not welded, but cross-inserted into each other like the dividers in an egg carton. Since the borated stainless steel has relatively low heat conductivity, aluminum alloy plates are inserted along with some stainless steel plates to enhance heat removal ability. 2) Cured resin blocks are fitted into the inner shell of the cask for neutron shielding of the cask body. The resin blocks are surrounded by an aluminum casing which transfers heat of stored fuel from the inner shell to the outer shell of the cask. The block type shield structure eliminates the need for welding the heat transfer fins to the inner and outer shells. The weldless structures of the HDP69B lead to its enhanced manufacturability, but they complicate the heat transfer characteristics because there are gaps between such components as the aluminum casing and inner/outer shells. We carried out full-scale prototyping of the HDP69B and ran a heat transfer test using the prototype. The purposes of the heat transfer test were to check the heat removal ability of the HDP69B and to verify the safety analysis model for heat removal. Results of the heat transfer test and optimized analysis model for heat transfer characteristics of the HDP69B are the focus of this paper. The heat transfer test is summarized as follows. Sixty nine heaters simulating the shape and heat power of spent fuel assemblies were inserted into the fuel basket. After replacing the inner atmosphere with 0.1 MPa of helium, the heat transfer test was started. About 7 days were required to equilibrate the temperature distribution. The temperature at the center of the basket was 194 C. The results confirmed the HDP69B had sufficient heat removal ability. The

  2. The Austrian school in Bulgaria: A history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Nenovsky

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study is to highlight the acceptance, dissemination, interpretation, criticism and make some attempts at contributing to Austrian economics made in Bulgaria during the last 120 years. We consider some of the main characteristics of the Austrian school, such as subjectivism and marginalism, as basic components of the economic thought in Bulgaria and as incentives for the development of some original theoretical contributions. Even during the first few years of Communist regime (1944–1989, with its Marxist monopoly over intellectual life, the Austrian school had some impact on the economic thought in the country. Subsequent to the collapse of Communism, there was a sort of a Renaissance and rediscovery of this school. Another contribution of our study is that it illustrates the adaptability and spontaneous evolution of ideas in a different and sometimes hostile environment.

  3. “What is so Austrian about Austrian Economics?”

    OpenAIRE

    David Colander

    2009-01-01

    Modern mainstream economics is a plurocracy in which there is no orthodoxy of ideas, only an orthodoxy of method. Given the training it provides its students, mainstream economic’s natural domain is science. With the mainstream’s acceptance of complexity views of the economy, Austrian economist’s views can now get a hearing within the mainstream. Thus, within the science of economics, there is no need for a separate Austrian economics. However, there is a need for Austrian economics in politi...

  4. The Continuing Relevance of Austrian Capital Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2012-01-01

    The article presents a speech by Professor Nicolai J. Foss of Copenhagen Business School, delivered at the Austrian Scholars Conference held on March 8, 2012 in Auburn, Alabama, in which he discussed the knowledge essays by economist Friedrich A. von Hayek, the concept of capital theory and the w......The article presents a speech by Professor Nicolai J. Foss of Copenhagen Business School, delivered at the Austrian Scholars Conference held on March 8, 2012 in Auburn, Alabama, in which he discussed the knowledge essays by economist Friedrich A. von Hayek, the concept of capital theory...... and the works of Hayek on political philosophy and cultural evolution....

  5. Effect of a dual-purpose cask payload increment of spent fuel assemblies from VVER 1000 Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant on basket criticality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaeian, M.; Kamali, J.

    2017-01-01

    Dual-purpose casks can be utilized for dry interim storage and transportation of the highly radioactive spent fuel assemblies (SFAs) of Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Criticality safety analysis was carried out using the MCNP code for the cask containing 12, 18, or 19 SFAs. The basket materials of borated stainless steel and Boral (Al-B_4C) were investigated, and the minimum required receptacle pitch of the basket was determined. - Highlights: • Criticality safety analysis for a dual purpose cask was carried out. • The basket material of borated stainless steel and Boral were investigated. • Minimum receptacle pitch was determined for 12, 18, or 19 VVER 1000 spent fuel assemblies.

  6. Postweaning growth of performance-tested buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis, Artiodactyla, Bovidae) reared under no-milking versus a dual-purpose system

    OpenAIRE

    Bolívar Vergara, Diana M; Cerón-Muñoz, Mario F; Elzo, Mauricio A

    2012-01-01

    Objective: the objective of this study was to compare growth traits in buffaloes reared in farms using a pre-weaning management system with no milking (NM), or a dual-purpose system (DP: meat and milk production). Methods: performance tests were conducted at the Experimental Station of the University of Antioquia, located in Barbosa (Antioquia, Colombia). Buffaloes were confined and fed with fresh Maralfalfa grass (Pennisetum sp.) ad libitum, plus two kilograms of mixed plus two 2 kilograms o...

  7. Carcass and meat quality of dual-purpose chickens (Lohmann Dual, Belgian Malines, Schweizerhuhn) in comparison to broiler and layer chicken types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, S; Kreuzer, M; Siegrist, M; Mannale, K; Messikommer, R E; Gangnat, I D M

    2018-05-18

    Currently, there is an intensive ethical discussion about the practice of culling day-old layer cockerels. One solution to avoid this practice could be using dual-purpose types, where males are fattened for meat and females used for egg production. The aim of the present study was to compare fattening performance, carcass conformation, and composition as well as meat quality of Lohmann Dual, a novel dual-purpose type, and 2 traditional dual-purpose types (Belgian Malines and Schweizerhuhn) with 2 broiler types and 1 layer type (Lohmann Brown Plus). Broilers included a conventional line (Ross PM3) and a slower-growing line (Sasso 51) fulfilling requirements of organic farming. Nine birds of each type were fed on a conventional broiler diet. Feed intake and metabolizability of nitrogen and energy were recorded per pen (n = 3), the latter through excreta sampling. For each bird, carcass conformation was assessed, and weights of body, carcass, breast meat, legs, wings, and inner organs were determined. Additionally, breast angle, an indicator for carcass appeal, and skin color were recorded. Meat quality assessment included determinations of thaw and cooking loss, shear force, meat color, and proximate composition of the breast meat. None of the dual-purpose types (20 to 30 g ADG) performed as well in growth as the intensively growing broiler line (68 g ADG). However, Lohmann Dual could compete with the slower-growing broiler line (slower growth but better feed efficiency, similar in carcass weight and breast proportion). Also breast angle was quite similar between Lohmann Dual (100°) and the extensive broiler type (115°C) compared to the intensive broiler line (180°). Meat quality was most favorable in the intensive broilers with the smallest shear force and thawing loss, whereas meat quality was not different between the other types. The Schweizerhuhn performed only at the level of the layer hybrid, and the Belgian Malines was ranked only slightly better.

  8. Guido von Pirquet: Austrian pioneer of astronautics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykora, F.

    1977-01-01

    The works of Guido von Pirquet, Austrian pioneer of rocketry, were assessed. Major emphasis was given to Pirquet's calculation of the route to Venus which in fact was followed by the first Russian rocket to Venus. Of interest also is Pirquet's valuable construction of a space station and his analysis of interstellar space flight.

  9. The Austrian x red pine hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. B. Critchfield

    1963-01-01

    The genetic improvement of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) presents tree breeders with one of their most difficult problems. Not only is this valuable species remarkably uniform, but until 1955 it resisted all attempts to cross it with other pines. In that year red pine and Austrian pine (P. nigra var. austriaca [...

  10. The Austrian Toxoplasmosis Register, 1992-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prusa, Andrea-Romana; Kasper, David C; Pollak, Arnold; Gleiss, Andreas; Waldhoer, Thomas; Hayde, Michael

    2015-01-15

    We aimed to determine the incidence of primary gestational infections with Toxoplasma gondii and congenital toxoplasmosis in Austria, a country with a nationwide prenatal serological screening program since 1974. We analyzed retrospective data from the Austrian Toxoplasmosis Register of pregnant women with Toxoplasma infection and their offspring with births between 1992 and 2008, identified by the prenatal mandatory screening program. Treatment was administered to women from diagnosis of a Toxoplasma infection until delivery. Infected infants were treated up to 1 year of life routinely. Clinical manifestations in infected infants were monitored at least for 1 year and documented in the register. The Austrian Toxoplasmosis Register included 2147 pregnant women with suspected Toxoplasma infection. Annually, 8.5 per 10 000 women acquired Toxoplasma infection during pregnancy, and 1.0 per 10 000 infants had congenital toxoplasmosis (13% mean transmission rate). Our data showed that women treated according to the Austrian scheme had a 6-fold decrease in the maternofetal transmission rate compared to women without treatment. Results from the Austrian Toxoplasmosis Register show the efficiency of the prenatal screening program. Our results are of clinical relevance for infants, healthcare systems, and policy makers to consider preventive Toxoplasma screening as a potential tool to reduce the incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Aeroradiometric conducted by the Austrian police

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timal, G.

    2009-01-01

    The Austrian Police has specially trained and equipped radiation protection personnel which are intervention personnel for radiological emergencies, following the law of the Intervention Regulation, BGBl. II Nr. 145/2007. The training which consists of three consecutive courses follows the Intervention Regulation and the Austrian Standard S5207. It is held at the certified Security Academy of the Federal Ministry of the Interior in Traiskirchen near Vienna. As a follow-up training, there are special courses held for the conduction of aeroradiometric measures (radiation measurements by helicopters). All over Austria, the Police have ten aeroradiometric sets at their disposal which can be brought into action within almost no time. The contribution informs about the technics involved, the installation of the system in the helicopter and about the training for the aeroradiometric specialists. Furthermore, practical knowledge from flights conducted at trainings and exercises will be included. (orig.)

  12. The voice of Austrians at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    On 7 May the Austrian Minister for Science announced that, after over 50 years of membership, Austria would withdraw from CERN. By 18 May the Austrian Chancellor had reversed the decision. The Bulletin spoke to some of the Austrian community at CERN about the rollercoaster of events in between. var flash_video_player=get_video_player_path(); insert_player_for_external('Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056-0753-kbps-640x360-25-fps-audio-64-kbps-44-kHz-stereo', 'mms://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056-Multirate-200-to-753-kbps-640x360-25-fps.wmv', 'false', 533, 300, 'https://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056-posterframe-640x360-at-10-percent.jpg', '1180837', true, 'Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056-0600-kbps-maxH-360-25-fps-audio-128-kbps-48-kHz-stereo.mp4'); To watch this video in German click here. There was jubil...

  13. Inducing fluorescence of uranyl acetate as a dual-purpose contrast agent for correlative light-electron microscopy with nanometre precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuijtel, Maarten W; Mulder, Aat A; Posthuma, Clara C; van der Hoeven, Barbara; Koster, Abraham J; Bárcena, Montserrat; Faas, Frank G A; Sharp, Thomas H

    2017-09-05

    Correlative light-electron microscopy (CLEM) combines the high spatial resolution of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with the capability of fluorescence light microscopy (FLM) to locate rare or transient cellular events within a large field of view. CLEM is therefore a powerful technique to study cellular processes. Aligning images derived from both imaging modalities is a prerequisite to correlate the two microscopy data sets, and poor alignment can limit interpretability of the data. Here, we describe how uranyl acetate, a commonly-used contrast agent for TEM, can be induced to fluoresce brightly at cryogenic temperatures (-195 °C) and imaged by cryoFLM using standard filter sets. This dual-purpose contrast agent can be used as a general tool for CLEM, whereby the equivalent staining allows direct correlation between fluorescence and TEM images. We demonstrate the potential of this approach by performing multi-colour CLEM of cells containing equine arteritis virus proteins tagged with either green- or red-fluorescent protein, and achieve high-precision localization of virus-induced intracellular membrane modifications. Using uranyl acetate as a dual-purpose contrast agent, we achieve an image alignment precision of ~30 nm, twice as accurate as when using fiducial beads, which will be essential for combining TEM with the evolving field of super-resolution light microscopy.

  14. Moving the largest capacity PWR dual-purpose cask in the world from Goesgen NPP to the Zwilag interim storage site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delannay, M.; Dudragne, S.

    2002-01-01

    The Swiss Goesgen nuclear power plant (NPP) has decided to use two different methods for the disposal of its spent fuel. (1) To reprocess some of its spent fuel in dedicated facilities. Some of the vitrified waste from the reprocessing will be shipped back to Switzerland using the new COGEMA Logistics, TN81 cask. (2) To ship the other part of its spent fuel to the central interim storage facility of Zwilag (Switzerland) using a COGEMA Logistics dual-purpose TN24G cask. The TN24G is the heaviest and largest dual-purpose cask manufactured so far by COGEMA Logistics in Europe. It is intended for the transport and storage of 37 pressurised water-reactor (PWR) spent fuel assemblies. Four casks were delivered by COGEMA Logistics to Goesgen NPP. Three transports of loaded TN24G casks between Goesgen and Zwilag were successfully performed at the beginning of 2002 with the new COGEMA Logistics Q76 wagon specifically designed to transport heavy casks. This article describes the procedure of operations and shipments for the first TN24G casks up to storage at Zwilag. The fourth transport of loaded TN24G was due to happen in October 2002. The TN24G cask, as part of the TN24 casks family, proved to be a very efficient solution for the KKG spent fuel management. (author)

  15. Possible use of dual purpose dry storage casks for transportation and future storage of spent nuclear fuel from IRT-Sofia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manev, L.; Baltiyski, M.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: The main objective of the present paper is related to one of the priority goals stipulated in Bulgarian Governmental Decision No.332 from May 17, 1999 - removal of SNF from IRT-Sofia site and its exporting for reprocessing and/or for temporary storage at Kozloduy NPP site. The variant of using dual purpose dry storage casks for transportation and future temporary storage of SNF from IRT-Sofia aims to find out a reasonable alternative of the existing till now variant for temporary SNF storage under water in the existing Kozloduy NPP Spent Fuel Storage Facility until its export for reprocessing. Results: Based on the given data for the condition of 73 Spent Nuclear Fuel Assemblies (SNFA) stored in the storage pool and technical data as well as data for available equipment and IRT-Sofia layout the following framework are specified: draft technical features of dual purpose dry storage casks and their overall dimensions; the suitability of the available equipment for safety and reliable performance of transportation and handling operations of assemblies from storage pool to dual purpose dry storage casks; the necessity of new equipment for performance of the above mentioned operations; Assemblies' transportation and handling operations are described; requirements to and conditions for future safety and reliable storage of SNFA loaded casks are determined. When selecting the technical solutions for safety assurance during performance of site handling operations of IRT-Sofia and for description of the exemplary casks the Effective Bulgarian Regulations are considered. The experience of other countries in performance of transfer and transportation of SNFA from such types of research reactors is taken into account. Also, Kozloduy NPP experience in SNF handling operations is taken into account. Conclusions: The Decision of Council of Minister for refurbishment of research reactor into a low power one and its future utilization for experimental and training

  16. Product Liability: A Neo-Austrian Based Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, H.; Heijman, W.J.M.; Leen, A.R.

    2002-01-01

    The paper is an exercise in a neo-Austrian based economic analysis of product liability. After a short historical introduction, we take two of the basic premises of Austrian economic thought and see which system of product liability results. If costs are subjective and entrepreneurship is the

  17. Report on the Austrian Mining Conference 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinmetz, R

    1982-02-01

    The conference took place in Leoben from 19 to 22 May, 1981, under the auspices of the Montanuniversitaet Leoben and the Bergmaennischer Verband of Austria. A total of 14 talks were held, which are summarized in brief. Main topics of the talks concerned prospects of the international coal industry, concepts of Austria' energy supply, coal exploration in Austria, uranium reserves of Austria, development of international coal trade, brown coal deposits of Hungary, aspects of overburden removal in surface mines and of roadway drivage in underground mines, prediction of rock behavior in deep mines, hydraulic salt mining, and protection of an iron ore preparation plant in India by the Austrian VOEST-ALPINE AG. (In German)

  18. The Austrian Approach: Entering the World of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feistritzer, Patricia; Balcerack, Carl

    1979-01-01

    This photo-essay describes a Waldorf School. Developed by Austrian Rudolf Steiner, the Waldorf plan is dedicated to allowing the child a childlike environment. It emphasizes storytelling, creative dramatics, flexibility, improvisation, crafts, and movement. (SJL)

  19. Seal performance of thermal aged metal gasket of dual purpose metal cask for interim spent fuel storage after external impact load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshi Yokoyama; Masami Kato; Satoshi Itooka

    2005-01-01

    As for interim storage for spent nuclear fuels using dual purpose dry metal cask in Japan, we recognize one of the important technical issues that there is a possibility for the cask with degraded metal gasket during storage to apply to transportation. In our study until 2003 focused on degradation of important components for the cask safety performance during storage and application to transportation, for metal gasket, we conducted property tests for degradation and influence of lid movement on seal performance, and furthermore verification tests. From the results, we developed the method to evaluate leak rate from lid with degraded metal gasket at accidents during transportation and in addition, we found as follows: Lid would hardly move and leak rate would not increase seriously during fire event. Leak rate from lid with degraded metal gasket could be evaluated by using results of leak rate trend depending on horizontal displacement of lid by external impact load. So, with regard to influence of lid movement on seal performance, we conducted additional test for extending horizontal displacement in lid moving in 2004. In addition, seal performance was discussed from the results, both previous and latest test. (authors)

  20. The Effect of Feeding Calliandra Calothyrus in Different Patterns as a Supplement to Rhodes Grass Hay on Intake, Nitrogen Utilization and Milk Yield of dual Purpose Goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kariuki, J.N.

    2002-01-01

    Eighteen dual purpose goats were used to evaluate the effects of feeding Calliandra caryothyrus leaf meal at different patterns as a supplement to Rhodes grass hay on intake, nitrogen utilization and milk yield. A basal diet of low quality Rhodes grass hay (fed at 90% ad libitum) and 100 g maize germ were offered to the goats over a 60-day experimental period. The treatments were:- (T1) 100 g day -1 calliandra for 60 days; (T2) 200 g day -1 calliandra for 30 days followed by another 30 days where 200 g or 0 g day -1 calliandra were alternated every 5 days; and (T3) 200 g or 0 g day -1 alternated every 5 days for 60 days. Total dry matter intake (DMI) was significantly (p -1 for T1, T2 and T3, respectively.Milk Yields had similar trend and averaged 166.1, 231.8 and 201.1 g day -1 for T1, T2, and T3, respectively. The utilization of nitrogen was also significantly (p<0.05) affected by pattern of supplement feeding. It was concluded from the results that the overall animal response could be influenced by how a limited quantity of supplement was fed

  1. Analysis framework to calibrate a numerical model to simulate the thermal test of a 1:2 scale dual purpose cask under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Carlos A.J.; Libardi, Rosani M.P.; Marcelino, Sergio; Oliveira, Carlos Alberto de; Mattar Neto, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    This work describes thermal analysis framework including a 3D model and some 2D models to be performed in a 1:2 scale model of a dual-purpose cask to transport and to store spent fuel elements from research reactors to assess the behavior of the cask structure and materials when submitted to heating and drop tests. The analyses should consider all non-linearities involved like the lead phase change and thermal contacts, beside the variation of material properties with the temperature, the air inside it and the heat transfer phenomena (conduction, convection and irradiation) to reproduce the experimental results already obtained in a 1:2 model. A full 3D finite element model takes several hours to run just one analysis. To speed up the analyses to evaluate the significance of some parameters like the emissivity, contact resistance and heat transfer phenomena, among others, two 2D models are planned: one simulating a vertical cut by a diametral plane and another one simulating a horizontal cut by a plane at the cask half height. These 2D models are predicted to run fast enough to allow several analyses in a short period of time and to define options and the best parameters values to match the already obtained experimental results. As this thermal test can not be extrapolated to an 1:1 scale, these parameter values will be used in the final 3D model analysis and also in the full scale model. (author)

  2. A novel flexible cuff-like microelectrode for dual purpose, acute and chronic electrical interfacing with the mouse cervical vagus nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaca, A. S.; Tsaava, T.; Goldman, L.; Silverman, H.; Riggott, G.; Chavan, S. S.; Bouton, C.; Tracey, K. J.; Desimone, R.; Boyden, E. S.; Sohal, H. S.; Olofsson, P. S.

    2017-12-01

    Objective. Neural reflexes regulate immune responses and homeostasis. Advances in bioelectronic medicine indicate that electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve can be used to treat inflammatory disease, yet the understanding of neural signals that regulate inflammation is incomplete. Current interfaces with the vagus nerve do not permit effective chronic stimulation or recording in mouse models, which is vital to studying the molecular and neurophysiological mechanisms that control inflammation homeostasis in health and disease. We developed an implantable, dual purpose, multi-channel, flexible ‘microelectrode’ array, for recording and stimulation of the mouse vagus nerve. Approach. The array was microfabricated on an 8 µm layer of highly biocompatible parylene configured with 16 sites. The microelectrode was evaluated by studying the recording and stimulation performance. Mice were chronically implanted with devices for up to 12 weeks. Main results. Using the microelectrode in vivo, high fidelity signals were recorded during physiological challenges (e.g potassium chloride and interleukin-1β), and electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve produced the expected significant reduction of blood levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in endotoxemia. Inflammatory cell infiltration at the microelectrode 12 weeks of implantation was limited according to radial distribution analysis of inflammatory cells. Significance. This novel device provides an important step towards a viable chronic interface for cervical vagus nerve stimulation and recording in mice.

  3. Publications of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf 1976-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranz, F.; Nevyjel, A.

    1989-02-01

    About 3000 publications, written by staff members of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf (OEFZS) within the period 1976-1985 are cited. The bibliography includes citations of journal articles, proceedings, books, technical reports as well as dissertations and diploma works, carried out in Seibersdorf by students of Austrian universities. It covers the subject areas of chemistry, physics, biology, radiation protection, reactor safety, isotope applications, materials technology, environmental research, mathematics and information, electronics and agriculture. 10 refs. (Author)

  4. Production and reproduction of Fleckvieh, Brown Swiss, and 2 strains of Holstein-Friesian cows in a pasture-based, seasonal-calving dairy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccand, V; Cutullic, E; Meier, S; Schori, F; Kunz, P L; Roche, J R; Thomet, P

    2013-08-01

    The first objective of this study was to compare the productive and reproductive performance of Holstein-Friesian (CH HF), Fleckvieh (CH FV), and Brown Swiss (CH BS) cows of Swiss origin with New Zealand Holstein-Friesian (NZ HF) cows in pasture-based compact-calving systems; NZ HF cows were chosen as the reference population for such grazing systems. The second objective was to analyze the relationships within and between breeds regarding reproductive performance, milk yield, and body condition score (BCS) dynamics. On 15 commercial Swiss farms, NZ HF cows were paired with Swiss cows over 3 yr. Overall, the study involved 259 complete lactations from 134 cows: 131 from 58 NZ HF, 40 from 24 CH HF, 43 from 27 CH FV, and 45 from 25 CH BS cows. All production parameters were affected by cow breed. Milk and energy-corrected milk yield over 270 d of lactation differed by 1,000 kg between the 2 extreme groups; CH HF having the highest yield and CH BS the lowest. The NZ HF cows had the greatest milk fat and protein concentrations over the lactation and exhibited the highest lactation persistency. Body weight differed by 90 kg between extreme groups; NZ HF and CH BS being the lightest and CH HF and CH FV the heaviest. As a result, the 2 HF strains achieved the highest milk production efficiency (270-d energy-corrected milk/body weight(0.75)). Although less efficient at milk production, CH FV had a high 21-d submission rate (86%) and a high conception rate within 2 inseminations (89%), achieving high pregnancy rates within the first 3 and 6 wk of the breeding period (65 and 81%, respectively). Conversely, poorer reproductive performance was recorded for CH HF cows, with NZ HF and CH BS being intermediate. Both BCS at nadir and at 100 d postpartum had a positive effect on the 6-wk pregnancy rate, even when breed was included in the model. The BCS at 100 d of lactation also positively affected first service conception rate. In conclusion, despite their high milk production

  5. Greetings from Austrian Radiation Protection Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, M.; Brandl, A.

    2015-01-01

    Austrian Radiation Protection Association (OVS) share with others a long-standing tradition of common endeavours and close collaboration. We have been and are able to influence the European radiation protection environment and IRPA initiatives and policies. We are intrigued by the breadth and comprehensive nature of the symposium programme, covering the most important sub-fields in our profession, and spanning topics from radiation dosimetry to radiobiology, from instrumentation and measurement to radioecology, and from radiation protection for workers and in medicine to our professional responsibilities towards the general public. These topics are timeless and current, providing testimony to the fact that the science of radiation protection is not exhausted. Novel applications of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation, including new modalities in the fields of medical therapy and diagnosis, a resurgence of nuclear energy generation in some parts of the globe, combined with increased efforts for decontamination and decommissioning of existing sites and facilities, they are all attest to the continued need for further research and our professional input and discussion. The national radiation protection associations will have a role to play in both, the advocacy of increased efforts to educate and train our future professionals and the retention of those professionals in our field.

  6. Natural radionuclides in Austrian bottled mineral waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriele Wallner; Tania Jabbar

    2010-01-01

    All commercially available mineral waters of Austrian origin were investigated with regard to the natural radionuclides 228 Ra, 226 Ra, 210 Pb, 210 Po, 238 U and 234 U. From 1 to 1.5 L of sample the nuclides were extracted and measured sequentially: the radium isotopes as well as 210 Pb were measured by liquid scintillation counting after separation on a membrane loaded with element-selective particles (Empore Radium Disks), 210 Po was determined by α-particle spectroscopy after spontaneous deposition onto a copper planchette and uranium was determined also by α-particle spectroscopy after anion separation and microprecipitation with NdF 3 . The calculated committed effective doses for adults, teens and babies were compared to the total indicative dose of 0.1 mSv/year given in the EC Drinking Water Directive. The dominant portion of the committed effective dose was due to 228 Ra. Highly mineralised waters showed also higher 226 Ra and 228 Ra levels. (author)

  7. [Fight against epidemics: Austrian prisoners in Troyes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzel, Géraldine

    2014-01-01

    The victories near Ulm and Elchingen, where the Napoleonic army took 60000 prisoners between 15th and 20th of October 1805, lead to the arrival at Troyes (county "Aube") of nearly 2000 Austrian soldiers to be held inside former monasteries among whose, mainly the Jacobinians casern where more than half of them stayed. At the beginning of 1806, the government sent the epidemics medical practitioner Dr Desgenettes on an inspection tour to control the state of health of the populations of places where foreign prisoners were held, which lead him through several counties of the North-eastern part of France, where he surveyed several diseases ranging from all kinds offevers up to dysentery, scabies or gangrenes. With the means of acid fumigations invented by the chemist Guyton Morveau from Dijon, the authorities took care of combating and preventing the epidemics in the caserns. As soon as October 1805, the epidemics medical practitioner Dr Pigeotte from Troyes wrote to the county governor his observations recommending a better diet, airing of the rooms and also calls to take some exercise. All these precepts showed an astonishing modernity.

  8. HORA - an Austrian platform for natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlatky, T.

    2009-04-01

    HORA - an Austrian platform for natural hazards as a new way in risk communication One initiatives launched in Austria demonstrate that public participation not only bears the risk of a partial transfer of responsibility by the authorities; it may above all prepare the ground for entirely new approaches and create new links. The recent installation of the first internet risk zoning system in Austria underscores the importance of involving private parties in natural disaster protection. This public-private partnership (PPP) between the Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management (BMLFUW) and the Austrian Insurance Association (VVO) was launched in the wake of the 2002 flood disaster. The first project phase, the Austrian flood risk zoning system called HORA (screenshot see fig. 1), has now been accessible on the Web since 1st June 2006. In accordance with a risk partnership concluded between federal government, insurance companies and private parties, the project initiators seek to offer the public a preliminary risk assessment tool for evaluation of their home, industrial enterprise, of infrastructure. Digital risk maps shall provide information on 30-year, 100-year and 200-year flood events as they occur alongside the 26.000-km-long domestic river network. The probability with which a certain block of land is immersed in water during a flood event can be calculated by means of hydraulic engineering methods. These have traditionally relied on statistical figures, which are known to be very inaccurate, especially when major events such as flooding are concerned. The Vienna University of Technology (TU) (Institute of Hydraulic and Water Resources Engineering) has dedicated many years to developing more accurate, process oriented risk assessment techniques. The starting points was to identify different flood-triggering processes and to divide them into specific categories as long-duration rainfalls, short-duration rainfalls, storms

  9. Austrian Economics and the Transaction Cost Approach to the Firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai J. Foss

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available As the transaction cost theory of the firm was taking shape in the 1970s, another important movement in economics was emerging: a revival of the ‘Austrian’ tradition in economic theory associated with such economists as Ludwig von Mises and F. A. Hayek (1973; Dolan, 1976; Spadaro, 1978. As Oliver Williamson has pointed out, Austrian economics is among the diverse sources for transaction cost economics. In particular, Williamson frequently cites Hayek (e.g., Williamson, 1985, p. 8; 1991, p. 162, particularly Hayek’s emphasis on adaptation as a key problem of economic organisation (Hayek, 1945. Following Williamson’s lead, a reference to Hayek’s ‘The Use of Knowledge in Society’ (Hayek, 1945 has become almost mandatory in discussions of economic organisation (e.g., Ricketts, 1987, p. 59; Milgrom and Roberts, 1992, p. 56; Douma and Schreuder 1991, p. 9. However, there are many other potential links between Austrian and transaction cost economics that have not been explored closely and exploited.This article argues that characteristically Austrian ideas about property, entrepreneurship, economic calculation, tacit knowledge, and the temporal structure of capital have important implications for theories of economic organisation, transaction cost economics in particular. Austrian economists have not, however, devoted substantial attention to the theory of the firm, preferring to focus on business-cycle theory, welfare economics, political economy, comparative economic systems, and other areas. Until recently the theory of the firm was an almost completely neglected area in Austrian economics, but over the last decade, a small Austrian literature on the firm has emerged. While these works cover a wide variety of theoretical and applied topics, their authors share the view that Austrian insights have something to offer students of firm organisation.

  10. Simulation and thermoeconomic analysis of different configurations of gas turbine (GT)-based dual-purpose power and desalination plants (DPPDP) and hybrid plants (HP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rensonnet, Thibaut; Uche, Javier; Serra, Luis

    2007-01-01

    This paper contains a simulation and a thermoeconomic analysis of several configurations of gas turbine (GT)-based dual-purpose power and desalination plants (DPPDP): Gas turbine with reverse osmosis (GT+RO), combined cycle with reverse osmosis (CC+RO), combined cycle with multi-effect distillation (CC+MED) and two different hybrid plant (HP) arrangements combining CC, MED and RO (CC+MED+RO, CC+MED+RO bis ). The last two configurations only differ from the feed solution to the MED units (raw seawater or brine coming from the RO discharge). A complete thermodynamic simulation at both design and at part load conditions has been made, as well as an exergy and an exergo-economic (thermoeconomic) analysis of each configuration, in order to compare the evolution of the water and electricity cost for different arrangements. The results show that even for a significantly reduced fuel cost (1.42 $/GJ), the CC is much more profitable than a GT operating in open cycle, with electricity cost values of 1.647 and 2.166 c$/kWh, respectively. As was expected, RO is more efficient and profitable than MED desalination processes, the difference in the obtained desalted water cost being significant. In the hybrid configuration with MED fed by the RO brine discharge, a decrease in the equivalent electrical consumption of nearly 2 kWh/m 3 was achieved, but even in this case RO was more efficient (14.15 vs. 4.048 kWh/m 3 ). The evolution of electricity cost in each configuration is more similar at part load operation than at full load, but in the case of water cost, RO is once again more profitable and less sensitive to load variations. Costs given in this paper correspond to investment and fuel costs. Further, profitability and operation strategies of HP, i.e., DPPDP combining distillation and membrane processes, are also analyzed. It is shown that HP can be more profitable than RO plants in the case of increasing the water production capacity of existing DPPDP, because the profit

  11. Attitudes of Austrian Psychotherapists Towards Process and Outcome Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Tim; Schmutzhart, Lisa; Laireiter, Anton-Rupert

    2018-03-08

    While monitoring systems in psychotherapy have become more common, little is known about the attitudes that mental health practitioners have towards these systems. In an online survey among 111 Austrian psychotherapists and trainees, attitudes towards therapy monitoring were measured. A well-validated questionnaire measuring attitudes towards outcome monitoring, the Outcome Measurement Questionnaire, was used. Clinicians' theoretical orientations as well as previous knowledge and experience with monitoring systems were associated with positive attitudes towards monitoring. Possible factors that may have led to these findings, like the views of different theoretical orientations or obstacles in Austrian public health care, are discussed.

  12. Accredited training on radiation protection for the Austrian police

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timal, G.

    2009-01-01

    In Austria, radiological emergencies are handled following the Intervention Regulation, in force since 2007. This regulation also defines duration and content for the training of radiation protection personnel, taking advantage of the standard OeNORM S 5207 published in 2005. Radiation protection personnel of the Austrian police are trained at the Federal Security Academy in Traiskirchen near Vienna. The Federal Security Academy is a training centre certified by the Austrian Standards Institute. The poster describes the modular organisation of the training and its duration and content as well as the further trainings available to the radiation protection personnel of the Police. (orig.)

  13. An Austrian framework for PET quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicoletti, R.; Dobrozemsky, G.; Minear, G.; Bergmann, H.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The European patient protection directive (97/43 EURATOM) requires regular routine quality control (QC) of PET imaging devices. Since no standards were available covering this area and in order to comply with the directive a joint working party of the Austrian societies of nuclear medicine and of medical physics have developed a set of procedures suitable for both dedicated PET scanners and gamma cameras operating in coincidence mode (GCPET). The routine procedures proposed include both manufacturer recommended procedures and tests for specific parameters and calibration procedures. Wherever possible, procedures adapted or derived from NEMA standards publication NU 2-2001 were used to permit direct comparison with specified parameters of image quality. For dedicated PET scanners the most important procedures are the checking of detector sensitivities and the attenuation calibration scan. With full ring scanners the attenuation calibration scan is a blank scan, with partial ring devices a special attenuation calibration phantom has to be used. Test protocols are specific to manufacturer and scanner type. They are usually performed automatically overnight. In addition, some instruments require special calibrations, e.g. gain adjustments or coincidence timing calibration. GCPET procedures include the frequent assessment in coincidence mode of detector uniformity, energy resolution and system sensitivity. Common to both dedicated PET and GCPET are the regular quarterly assessment of tomographic spatial resolution and the calibration of the system for quantitative measurements. As a total performance test for both systems assessment of image quality following NU 2-2001 was included, to be carried out after major system changes or repairs. The suite of QC procedures was tested on several dedicated PET and GCPET systems including all major manufacturers' systems. Due to missing hardware or software not all tests could be performed on all systems. Some of the

  14. Avian Plasmodium in Eastern Austrian mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoener, Ellen; Uebleis, Sarah Susanne; Butter, Julia; Nawratil, Michaela; Cuk, Claudia; Flechl, Eva; Kothmayer, Michael; Obwaller, Adelheid G; Zechmeister, Thomas; Rubel, Franz; Lebl, Karin; Zittra, Carina; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter

    2017-09-29

    Insect vectors, namely mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae), are compulsory for malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.) to complete their life cycle. Despite this, little is known about vector competence of different mosquito species for the transmission of avian malaria parasites. In this study, nested PCR was used to determine Plasmodium spp. occurrence in pools of whole individuals, as well as the diversity of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences in wild-caught mosquitoes sampled across Eastern Austria in 2013-2015. A total of 45,749 mosquitoes in 2628 pools were collected, of which 169 pools (6.43%) comprising 9 mosquito species were positive for avian Plasmodium, with the majority of positives in mosquitoes of Culex pipiens s.l./Culex torrentium. Six different avian Plasmodium lineages were found, the most common were Plasmodium vaughani SYAT05, Plasmodium sp. Linn1 and Plasmodium relictum SGS1. In 2014, mosquitoes of the Culex pipiens complex were genetically identified and Culex pipiens f. pipiens presented with the highest number of avian Plasmodium positives (n = 37; 16.74%). Despite this, the minimum infection rate (MIR) was highest in Culex torrentium (5.36%) and Culex pipiens f. pipiens/f. molestus hybrids (5.26%). During 2014 and 2015, seasonal and annual changes in Plasmodium lineage distribution were also observed. In both years P. vaughani SYAT05 dominated at the beginning of the sampling period to be replaced later in the year by P. relictum SGS1 (2014) and Plasmodium sp. Linn1 (2015). This is the first large-scale study of avian Plasmodium parasites in Austrian mosquitoes. These results are of special interest, because molecular identification of the taxa of the Cx. pipiens complex and Cx. torrentium enabled the determination of Plasmodium prevalence in the different mosquito taxa and hybrids of this complex. Since pools of whole insects were used, it is not possible to assert any vector competence in any of the examined mosquitoes, but the results

  15. THE HUNGARIAN CRISIS: AN AUSTRIAN SCHOOL EXPLANATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Toth

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Hungarian model was heralded as one of the most successful post-socialist way of integration into the globalised world economy and European economic area in the nineties. Currently, Hungary is suffering from a full-blown crisis 1996 onwards. Increasingly large number of Hungarians is losing their faith in political parties, institutions, democracy and in market economy. The government, elected in 2010 by supermajority and still enjoying a broad support despite the deepening recession, condemns the development path taken after 1989 and openly rejects the wrong model of the last 20 years. The government intends to build a new economic model following a model, which one can call a model of economic nationalism as the only way out of the crisis. The paper intends to portray, through the case of Hungary, how economy and politics is interconnected, and why political elites are choosing a credit fuelled development path. The paper intends to portray how a credit fuelled growth was induced by politics and ended up in tears. Moreover, the paper describes the consequences of pro-etatist shift in the public sentiment due to the alleged “market-failure”, which was in reality a crisis, at first place, created for political purposes by political means. This article, based on the Austrian business cycle theory, argues that the tragedy of Hungary was that it went through a government inspired spending binge in the first half of the 2000s. The deficit spending of the government was accompanied by the expansion of credit by the commercial banks, mostly denominated in Swiss francs. The combined effect of deficit spending and credit expansion was the build-up of debt and loss of cost competitiveness. The 2008 crisis ended the credit fuelled development path and has started the long and painful period of deleveraging crisis. On the other hand, the Hungarian crisis is a post-Keynesian crisis. It had broken out when the state was already heavily indebted and

  16. Effectiveness of the neutron-shield nanocomposites for a dual-purpose cask of Bushehr's Water–Water Energetic Reactor (VVER 1000 nuclear-power-plant spent fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Rezaeian

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to perform dry interim storage and transportation of the spent-fuel assemblies of the Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant, dual-purpose casks can be utilized. The effectiveness of different neutron-shield materials for the dual-purpose cask was analyzed through a set of calculations carried out using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP code. The dose rate for the dual-purpose cask utilizing the recently developed materials of epoxy/clay/B4C and epoxy/clay/B4C/carbon fiber was less than the allowable radiation level of 2 mSv/h at any point and 0.1 mSv/h at 2 m from the external surface of the cask. By utilization of epoxy/clay/B4C instead of an ethylene glycol/water mixture, the dose rates on the side surface of the cask due to neutron sources and consequent secondary gamma rays will be reduced by 17.5% and 10%, respectively. The overall dose rate in this case will be reduced by 11%.

  17. 47. annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutschera, W.

    1997-01-01

    This volume contains lectures (short communications) of the 47. symposium of the Austrian Physical Society which had been held at the University of Vienna (Austria) in 1997. The following topics are included: atomic physics, molecular physics, plasma physics, solid state physics, nuclear and particle physics, biophysics, environmental physics, quantum electronics and quantum optics. (Suda)

  18. 45. Annual Convention of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This volume contains lectures of the 45 th symposium of the Austrian Physical Society which had been held in Leoben, Austria in 1995. The following topics are included: Atomic physics, molecular physics, plasma physics, solid state physics, nuclear and particle physics, biophysics, environmental physics, quantum electronics and quantum optics. (Suda)

  19. 50. Annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippitsch, M.E.

    2000-01-01

    The conference held from 25. - 29. 9. 2000 at the University of Graz was elaborated by the Austrian society of physics in the fields of solid state physics, polymers physics, quantum electronics, electrodynamics, optics, nuclear and particle physics, atomic, molecules and plasma physics, acoustics, physics - industry - energy and physics teaching. (botek)

  20. 49. annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blatt, R.; Maerk, T.

    1999-01-01

    This volume contains short communications of lectures and poster sessions of the 49th symposium of the Austrian Physical Society which has been held at the University of Innsbruck (Austria) in 1999. The following topics are included: atomic physics, molecular physics, plasma physics, solid state physics, nuclear and particle physics, polymer physics, biophysics, environmental physics, quantum electronics and quantum optics. (Suda)

  1. 40. annual convention 1990 of the Austrian physical society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Titles and abstracts of the 1990 Convention of the Austrian Physical Society, 17-21 September 1990 at Salzburg, Austria, are given. The topical sections are: 1. Atomic, Molecular- and Plasma Physics; 2. Solid State Physics; 3. Polymer Physics; 4. Nuclear- and Particle Physics; 5. Medical Physics and Biophysics. There are alltogether 193 contributions, 61 thereof of INIS interest

  2. Annual convention 1986 of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    There are 152 contributions, 58 thereof of INIS interest. The subject matters are indicated by the grouping of contributions into topical sessions on 1) nuclear and particle physics 2) physics of high polymers 3) atomic and plasma physics. There is additionally a session for teachers contimation training and one page informations on the Austrian Physical Society. (G.Q.)

  3. Acidification and Nitrogen Eutrophication of Austrian Forest Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Jandl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of acidic deposition and nitrogen on Austrian forests soils. Until thirty years ago air pollution had led to soil acidification, and concerns on the future productivity of forests were raised. Elevated rates of nitrogen deposition were believed to cause nitrate leaching and imbalanced forest nutrition. We used data from a soil monitoring network to evaluate the trends and current status of the pH and the C : N ratio of Austrian forest soils. Deposition measurements and nitrogen contents of Norway spruce needles and mosses were used to assess the nitrogen supply. The pH values of soils have increased because of decreasing proton depositions caused by reduction of emissions. The C : N ratio of Austrian forest soils is widening. Despite high nitrogen deposition rates the increase in forest stand density and productivity has increased the nitrogen demand. The Austrian Bioindicator Grid shows that forest ecosystems are still deficient in nitrogen. Soils retain nitrogen efficiently, and nitrate leaching into the groundwater is presently not a large-scale problem. The decline of soil acidity and the deposition of nitrogen together with climate change effects will further increase the productivity of the forests until a limiting factor such as water scarcity becomes effective.

  4. 48. annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Netzer, F.P.

    1998-01-01

    This volume contains short communications of lectures and posters of the 48 th Symposium of the Austrian Physical Society which had been held at the University of Graz (Austria) in 1998. The following topics are included: atomic physics, molecular physics, plasma physics, solid state physics, nuclear and particle physics, polymer physics, biophysics, environmental physics, quantum electronics and quantum optics. (Suda)

  5. Holocaust Studies in Austrian Elementary and Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittnik, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    This article presents arguments in support of teaching about the Holocaust and Nazism in Austria at an early age. To accomplish this, Austrian and German elementary school textbooks were analyzed for the amount of content dealing with the Holocaust and Jews; the results showed that since 1980 the amount of content on the Holocaust increased in…

  6. Report 1985 of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf. Abridged version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwach, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    The report gives a short survey of the work carried out by the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf in 1985. The working programme comprises five main areas: Energy and safety; Materials research, isotope and radiation techniques; Measuring techniques and information processing; Environmental protection, health and food; Industrial consulting. (Author)

  7. English, French, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese? Code Choice and Austrian Export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavric, Eva; Back, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    This article deals with how "export oriented Austrian companies effect code choice in their business relationships with customers from Romance language speaking countries". The focus lies on the most widespread Romance languages, therefore on French, Spanish, Italian and Portuguese speaking customers.The question of code choice in export…

  8. Hospital admissions for traumatic brain injury of Austrian residents vs. of visitors to Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauritz, Walter; Brazinova, Alexandra; Majdan, Marek; Leitgeb, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    The goal was to compare epidemiology of hospital admissions for traumatic brain injury (TBI) in Austrian residents vs. visitors to Austria. Data on all hospital admissions due to TBI (ICD-10 codes S06.0-S06.9; years 2009-2011) was provided by the Austrian Statistical Office. Data on Austrian population and on tourism (visitor numbers, nights spent) was retrieved from www.statistik.at . Age, sex, mechanism of injury, season and mortality was analysed for Austrian residents vs. visitors. Visitors contributed 3.9% to the total population and 9.2% of all TBI cases. Incidence of hospital admissions was 292/100,000/year in Austrian residents and was 727/100,000/year in visitors. Male:female ratio was 1.39:1 in Austrian residents and 1.55:1 in visitors. Austrian cases were older than visitors' cases (mean age 41 vs. 28 years). Austrian cases were distributed evenly over the seasons, while 75% of the visitors' cases happened during winter and spring. The most frequently observed causes of TBI in Austrian residents were private accidents, while sports caused almost half of the visitors' cases. Hospital mortality was lower in visitors than in Austrian residents (0.8 vs. 2.1%). Sports-related TBI of visitors causes a significant workload for Austrian hospitals. Better prevention is warranted.

  9. Gazing behavior reactions of Vietnamese and Austrian consumers to Austrian wafers and their relations to wanting, expected and tasted liking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Thi Minh Hang; Tu, Viet Phu; Duerrschmid, Klaus

    2018-05-01

    Predictability of consumers' food choice based on their gazing behavior using eye-tracking has been shown and discussed in recent research. By applying this observational technique and conventional methods on a specific food product, this study aims at investigating consumers' reactions associated with gazing behavior, wanting, building up expectations, and the experience of tasting. The tested food products were wafers from Austria with hazelnut, whole wheat, lemon and vanilla flavors, which are very well known in Austria and not known in Vietnam. 114 Vietnamese and 128 Austrian participants took part in three sections: The results indicate that: i) the gazing behavior parameters are highly correlated in a positive way with the wanting-to-try choice; ii) wanting to try is in compliance with the expected liking for the Austrian consumer panel only, which is very familiar with the products; iii) the expected and tasted liking of the products are highly country and product dependent. The expected liking is strongly correlated with the tasted liking for the Austrian panel only. Differences between the reactions of the Vietnamese and Austrian consumers are discussed in detail. The results, which reflect the complex process from gazing for "wanting to try" to the expected and tasted liking, are discussed in the context of the cognitive theory and food choice habits of the consumers. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. [Pain care in Austrian health care centers: Questionnaire study on the current status of Austrian pain clinics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, I-S; Bornemann-Cimenti, H; Messerer, B; Vittinghoff, M; Sandner-Kiesling, A

    2015-12-01

    Pain clinics provide interdisciplinary therapy to treat chronic pain patients and to increase the return-to-work rate. In recent years and due to increased economic pressure in health care, a change in the management of pain in Austrian health care centers has been observed. For the analysis of the current situation, two surveys addressing all Austrian pain clinics were performed. In total, 133 heads of Austrian Anesthesia Departments were interviewed online and personally. The data from the first interview were confirmed by an additional telephone survey that was performed by one anesthetist per Austrian state (n = 9). Currently, 44 Austrian pain clinics are active. During the last 5 years, 9 pain clinics closed. Adding the current active pain clinics together, they represent a total of 17.5 full-time-operated clinics. The most common reasons for closing the pain clinics were lack of personnel (47%), lack of time resources (26%), lack of space resources (11%), and financial difficulties (11%). A reduction of >50% of operating hours during the last 3 years was reported by 9 hospitals. The reasons for not running a pain clinic were lack of personnel (36%), lack of time (25%) and department too small (16%). Estimates between actual and required clinics indicate that 49.5 full-time-operating pain clinics are lacking in Austria, resulting in 74% of the Austrian chronic pain patients not receiving interdisciplinary pain management. Our survey confirmed the closure of 9 pain clinics during the last 5 years due to lack of personnel and time. Pain clinics appear to provide the simplest economic saving potential. This development is a major concern. Although running a pain clinic seems to be expensive at the first sight, it reduces pain, sick leave, complications, and potential legal issues against health care centers, while simultaneously increasing the hospital's competitiveness. Our results show that 74% of Austrian chronic pain patients do not have access to an

  11. Asymmetric Mutual Social Perception of Austrians and Germans: A Social Identity Approach Assessing Implicit and Explicit Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Renner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Whereas Austrians tend to perceive Germans as "competent but cold", Germans tend to see Austrians as "incompetent but nice" in the sense of Fiske's Stereotype Content Model. With respect to the unequal distribution of power between Austria and Germany, which outnumbers Austria by approximately the tenfold population, Social Identity Theory (SIT predicts that Austrians will tend to devalue Germans, attempting to preserve their self-esteem and cultural identity, whereas Germans will perceive Austrians more positively. We tested this expectation with N = 31 Austrian and N = 49 German students at an Austrian university. Our hypotheses of asymmetrical mutual attitudes and massive devaluation of Germans by Austrians were confirmed by the Implicit Association Test, whereas on adjective lists as an explicit measure, Austrians described Germans more favourably, obviously out of a desire not to appear prejudiced. The results support SIT and have important implications for the development of Austrian academic education.

  12. Austrian Transition to Open Access“ 2017–2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer, Bruno

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In December the higher education structural funds project (Hochschulraumstrukturmittelprojekt “Austrian Transition to Open Access (AT2OA“ was authorised by the Austrian Federal Ministry of Science, Research and Economy. The 21 public universities cooperate on this project running from 2017 to 2020 in order to promote open access through concerted measures. Constitutive on OANA’s “suggestions for the implementation of Open Access in Austria” published in 2015 four subprojects have been developed. These subprojects’ main focuses are drafting an expert’s report about the financial impact of a total adjustment to open access on a national and institutional basis, the extension of existing consortium licences with an open access component, establishment of an open access publishing fund as well as the promotion of open access monographs and suitable open access infrastructures.

  13. Austrian Security Strategy: Need For Reformulation Due To Security Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-14

    accession to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) as an option. Under the Austrian Constitution , the federal government wanted to maintain the...the Middle East and Africa completely overwhelmed the police at the border crossing between Austria and Hungary and Slovenia . On 14 September 2015...Hungary, Croatia, and Slovenia .33, 34, 35 At the end of October 2015 refugees broke through the barriers several times at the border crossing point

  14. Seasonality in the Austrian Economy: Common Seasonals and Forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Kunst, Robert M.

    1992-01-01

    Abstract: Seasonal cointegration generalizes the idea of cointegration to processes with unit roots at frequencies different from 0. Here, also the dual notion of common trends, "common seasonals", is adopted for the seasonal case. Using a five-variable macroeconomic core system of the Austrian economy, it is demonstrated how common seasonals and seasonal cointegrating vectors look in practice. Statistical tests provide clear evidence on seasonal cointegration in the system. However, it is sh...

  15. Austrian Economics - The Ultimate Achievement of an Intellectual Journey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Salin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this lecture delivered November 2008 on the occasion of the presentation of the Mises Institute’s Gary G. Schlarbaum Prize for lifetime achievement in the cause of liberty, Professor Salin discusses his discovery of Austrian economics and his involvement in “the world of individual liberty,” and draws various lessons from his intellectual journey. The coherence of Austrian economics appealed to Salin—it is not a patchwork of partial theories, but a logical process of thought founded on realistic assumptions about individual action. Salin also discusses differences between the Chicago and Austrian approaches, and his views about monetary systems.The financial crisis beginning in late 2008 is not a crisis of capitalism, but of state intervention, caused by the expansionary monetary policy of the Fed. Capitalism is the solution, not the cause. There is no need to create money. There is never any balance of payments problem. What is required is tax systems more friendly to capital accumulation, a decrease in the role of the state, the end of monetary policy and, if possible, the disappearing of central banks and the IMF.

  16. The Austrian Research Centers activities in energy risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sdouz, Gert

    1998-01-01

    Among the institutions involved in energy analyses in Austria the risk context is being treated by three different entities: the Energy Consumption Agency, internationally known as EVA, the Federal Environmental Protection Agency, or Urnweltbundesarnt assessing mainly the environmental risks involved and the Austrian Research Centers, working on safety and risk evaluation. The Austrian Research Center Seibersdorf draws form its proficiency in Reactor Safety and Fusion Research, two fields of experience it has been involved in since its foundation, for some 40 years now. Nuclear energy is not well accepted by the Austrian population. Therefore in our country only energy systems with advanced safety level might be accepted in the far future. This means that the development of methods to compare risks is an important task. The characteristics of energy systems featuring advanced safety levels are: A very low hazard potential and a focus on deterministic safety instead of probabilistic safety, meaning to rely on inherently safe physics concepts, confirmed by probabilistic safety evaluation results. This can be achieved by adequate design of fusion reactors, advanced fission reactors and all different renewable sources of energy

  17. State aid in the Austrian electricity industry law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehulka, J.

    2009-01-01

    The present work deals with the existence of State aid in the Austrian electricity industry and focuses on three selected areas of the Austrian legal system, which are examined for their compatibility with Community law. Subject of the first part of this work is a representation of the article 87 ff Treaty of Rome and its impact on Austrian provisions on the promotion of electricity from renewable energies or on the promotion of cogeneration energy. In this context, the first principles of the European state aid law and in particular the European Court are presented regarding the existence of State aid. Here, the Rsp of the Court in connection with the use of State resources in the Rs PreussenElektra Stardust Marine and Pearle is paid in connection with para-fiscal levies special attention. The evaluation of the Austrian support model is based on PreussenElektra, Stardust Marine and Pearle. Then the system of green electricity production in Austria represented. In addition to the Community law principles (green power directive, frameworks and guidelines for environmental aid) is here in particular the 'Oekostromgesetz' and treated it's novellas. It is an intensive discussion with the Commission's decisions on the compatibility of the green power and CHP funding and the funding of the countries with state aid rules. As part of this analysis is to attempt a classification of the Commission's practice in the Community legal system. The second part of the work deals with the determination of absorbed. System utilization rates and their distribution to the network operator. After a presentation of the Community legislation (EC regulations, the internal electricity market directives) and Rsp of the European Court of Justice (Case ADBHu, Ferring, Altmark Trans) to services of general economic interest is first attempted to determine the presence of these services in the 216 Austrian legislation. Here, the question will be, entrusted with services of general economic

  18. Some remarks on the Austrian radiation protection legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetter, H.

    1979-01-01

    Some of the provisions of the Austrian Radiation Protection Law and Radiation Protection Ordinance differ from those recommended by ICRP and IAEO. This is particularly true for the definition of working conditions, the categorization of radiation areas and the classification of radiation workers. It is suggested that the responsible authorities when considering a revision of the legislation in the light of ICRP 26 and the revised IAEA Basic Safety Standards, also study the desirability of adapting the currently applicable provisions to the universally accepted international norms. (Auth.)

  19. Emission factors of Austrian industry production and international comparison. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turi, K.

    1997-05-01

    During the last few years a number of measures have been implemented in the Austrian industries to reduce air pollution and energy use. Therefore specific emissions in the various sectors were changed considerably during this period. The aim of this research project was to better characterize air pollutant emissions of the Austrian industry. Emission data as measured by the Austrian industry was compared with published emission factors from international literature. The results show that the emission factors of the Austrian industry are generally lower than literature emission factors. This is because on the one hand many older data from the literature do not reflect current state of the knowledge, and on the other hand because emission reduction measures and new technologies were introduced in the Austrian industry. (author)

  20. 4th February 2011 - Austrian Academy of Sciences President H. Denk visiting CMS underground area with Collaboration Spokesperson G. Tonelli, Austrian Academy of Sciences Secretary General A. Suppan, CERN Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Director, High Energy Physics Laboratory, Austrian Academy of Sciences C Fabjan.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    4th February 2011 - Austrian Academy of Sciences President H. Denk visiting CMS underground area with Collaboration Spokesperson G. Tonelli, Austrian Academy of Sciences Secretary General A. Suppan, CERN Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Director, High Energy Physics Laboratory, Austrian Academy of Sciences C Fabjan.

  1. 69 The Multicultural Education in Bucovina during the Austrian Domination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Baltag

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1775, the territory of Bucovina became part of the Habsburg monarchy and it stayed like that for 143 years. All throughout this period when the Romanians lived here next to Ukrainians, Germans, Jews and other nationalities, the Austrian government took into consideration their need for culture, which resulted in the development of a multicultural teaching system. This implied that the languages of teaching in the Bukovinian schools were: Latin, Greek, Romanian, Ukrainian and, more often than not, German. Although the weighty presence of the German language in the academic institutions limited the number of young Romanians in schools, the teaching in German enabled the access of the Bukovinian students to the great European universities from Vienna, Salzburg, Lemberg, Kraków or Prague, before the founding of the Chernivtsi University (1875. Thus, beyond the negative aspects of the separation of this territory from Romania, the Austrian occupation represented an effervescent period from a cultural viewpoint, which lent a specific identity to the teaching system in Bukovina.

  2. Radiation dosimetry and standards at the austrian dosimetry laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitner, A.

    1984-10-01

    The Austrian Dosimetry Laboratory, established and operated in cooperation between the Austrian Research Center Seibersdorf and the Federal Office of Metrology and Surveying (Bundesamt and Eich- und Vermessungswesen) maintains the national primary standards for radiation dosimetry. Furthermore its tasks include routine calibration of dosemeters and dosimetric research. The irradiation facilities of the laboratory comprise three X-ray machines covering the voltage range from 5 kV to 420 kV constant potential, a 60 Co teletherapy unit, a circular exposure system for routine batch calibration of personnel dosemeters with four gamma ray sources ( 60 Co and 137 Cs) and a reference source system with six gamma ray sources ( 60 Co and 137 Cs). In addition a set of calibrated beta ray sources are provided ( 147 Pm, 204 Tl and 90 Sr). The dosimetric equipment consists of three free-air parallelplate ionization chambers serving as primary standards of exposure for the X-ray energy region, graphite cavity chambers with measured volume as primary standards for the gamma radiation of 137 Cs and 60 Co as well as different secondary standard ionization chambers covering the dose rate range from the natural background level up to the level of modern therapy accelerators. In addition for high energy photon and electron radiation a graphite calorimeter is provided as primary standard of absorbed dose. The principle experimental set-ups for the practical use of the standards are presented and the procedures for the calibration of the different types of dosemeters are described. (Author)

  3. Information systems for administration, clinical documentation and quality assurance in an Austrian disease management programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Peter; Truskaller, Thomas; Rakovac, Ivo; Bruner, Fritz; Zanettin, Dominik; Pieber, Thomas R

    2009-01-01

    5.9% of the Austrian population is affected by diabetes mellitus. Disease Management is a structured treatment approach that is suitable for application to the diabetes mellitus area and often is supported by information technology. This article describes the information systems developed and implemented in the Austrian disease management programme for type 2 diabetes. Several workflows for administration as well as for clinical documentation have been implemented utilizing the Austrian e-Health infrastructure. De-identified clinical data is available for creating feedback reports for providers and programme evaluation.

  4. A dual purpose Compton suppression spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Parus, J; Raab, W; Donohue, D

    2003-01-01

    A gamma-ray spectrometer with a passive and an active shield is described. It consists of a HPGe coaxial detector of 42% efficiency and 4 NaI(Tl) detectors. The energy output pulses of the Ge detector are delivered into the 3 spectrometry chains giving the normal, anti- and coincidence spectra. From the spectra of a number of sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs and sup 6 sup 0 Co sources a Compton suppression factor, SF and a Compton reduction factor, RF, as the parameters characterizing the system performance, were calculated as a function of energy and source activity and compared with those given in literature. The natural background is reduced about 8 times in the anticoincidence mode of operation, compared to the normal spectrum which results in decreasing the detection limits for non-coincident gamma-rays up to a factor of 3. In the presence of other gamma-ray activities, in the range from 5 to 11 kBq, non- and coincident, the detection limits can be decreased for some nuclides by a factor of 3 to 5.7.

  5. Double papilla flap technique for dual purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Mohan Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Marginal tissue recession exposes the anatomic root on the teeth, which gives rise to -common patient complaints. It is associated with sensitivity, tissue irritation, cervical abrasions, and esthetic concerns. Various types of soft tissue grafts may be performed when recession is deep and marginal tissue health cannot be maintained. Double papilla flap is an alternative technique to cover isolated recessions and correct gingival defects in areas of insufficient attached gingiva, not suitable for a lateral sliding flap. This technique offers the advantages of dual blood supply and denudation of interdental bone only, which is less susceptible to permanent damage after surgical exposure. It also offers the advantage of quicker healing in the donor site and reduces the risk of facial bone height loss. This case report presents the advantages of double papilla flap in enhancing esthetic and functional outcome of the patient.

  6. Dual purpose or not? The significant factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bak, W.; Roland, V.

    1999-01-01

    The development of spent fuel storage systems requires consideration of many factors in making design decisions. A significant issue affecting the design is the need to incorporate transportability of the canister or cask system design, which results in major changes to the storage system design. This paper presents a review of the significant factors affecting storage system design to incorporate transportation requirements and looks at the trends in both the United States and Europe where Transnucleaire and its US affiliated companies Transnuclear Inc., Transnuclear West and PacTec are active. A discussion is also presented relative to the pros and cons of whether the spent fuel storage system vendor should anticipate these transportation needs in the design of their systems. (author)

  7. Actualization and enlargement of the Upper Austrian emission inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winiwarter, W.; Schimak, G.; Raup, N.

    2001-06-01

    The functionality of the Upper Austrian emission inventory has been increased by simplifying the evaluation routines. Thus access to existing data will be simplified. This version 2.0 not only improves evaluation procedures already in place, but also allows to retrieve annual information on point sources, as routinely reported by the individual industrial facilities on an annual basis. In the same way as for such point source information, also statistical information is used to derive annual emission changes. This is currently limited to the sector of domestic heating, where emissions are directly influenced by climate parameters that can be easily obtained. Trend analysis currently is not possible due to the limited number of sectors included. First conclusions on the temporal behavior of emissions are still possible and are discussed here. Likewise, additional plausibility checks are facilitated by using temporal emission changes, which will help improve data quality. (author)

  8. A Thought Experiment Comparing Austrian and Keynesian Stimulus Packages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir Kraus

    Full Text Available Essentially, there are two competing views of how to overcome an economy-wide recession/depression. The Austrian view understands the free-play of competition as the most potent means to overcome the short-run mismatch between an excessive boom-level of nominal wages/prices and depressed crisis-level volume of aggregate spending. In the Keynesian view, the disastrous mismatch between desired saving and planned investment inherent in capitalist economies requires the government to step in and take up the burden of spending to infuse the lacking demand for products and labor.The thought experiment presented in the paper is designed to provide the reader with a direct comparison of major analytical claims of the two competing approaches to assess the ability of each of the two to affect, positively or negatively, employment, capital accumulation, and the general standard of living/real wages.

  9. Lay theories of suicide among Austrian psychology undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, Martin; Loibl, Lisa Mariella; Lester, David

    2007-01-01

    Lester and Bean's (1992) Attribution of Causes to Suicide Scale gauges lay theories of suicide including intrapsychic problems, interpersonal conflicts, and societal forces as causes. Results obtained with its German form (n=165 Austrian psychology undergraduates) showed no sex differences and no social-desirability effects. Intriguingly, all three subscales were moderately intercorrelated, thereby indicating respondents' general agreement (or disagreement) with all three theories. Thus, the critical dimension of lay theories of suicide appears to be the belief that suicide has definite causes (regardless of type) versus that it is without causes (unpredictable). In addition, religiosity was positively associated (and overall knowledge about suicide negatively associated) with belief in intrapsychic causes, whereas liberal political views were negatively associated with belief in interpersonal causes.

  10. Austrian WBC intercomparison by means of a BOMAB phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellani, C.M.; Battisti, P.; Tarroni [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; Edelmeier, R. [Bundesamt fuer Eich- und Vermessungswesen, Wien (Austria)

    1998-07-01

    The paper discusses the results obtained in the intercomparison between the Austrian Institute for Legal Metrology and the ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) Institute for Radiation Protection, which gave a BOMAB phantom. Values related to potassium content and MBA (minimum detectable activity) for each identified nuclide are also discussed. [Italian] L'Istituto Austriaco di Metrologia Legale ha organizzato l'interconfronto usando un fantoccio gelificato di tipo BOMAB fornito dall'Istituto di Radioprotezione dell'ENEA nel periodo marzo-giugno 1996. Vengono riportati i risultati ottenuti relativi al contenuto di potassio e all'attivita' minima rilevabile (MDA) per ogni nuclide identificato.

  11. 51. Annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberhummer, H.

    2001-01-01

    The 51th Symposium of the Austrian Physical Society was held from 17-21 September 2001 at the Technical University of Vienna (Austria). The topics covered deal with: energy (greenhouse effect, climatic change, environment protection, energy system transformation, innovative energy technologies), neutrons and synchrotron radiation, quantum mechanics, microscopy, accelerator-driven systems, physics aspects of radiotherapy, nano world, micro cosmos, modern physics, life in the universe, x-ray fluorescence, heavy-ion accelerator mass spectrometry, acoustics, atomic-, molecular- and plasma physics, solid-state physics, nuclear and particle physics, medical-, bio-and environmental physics, quantum electronics, electrodynamics and optics. Those contributions which are in the INIS subject scope are indexed separately. (nevyjel)

  12. 64th Annual Meeting of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The 64th Annual Meeting of the Austrian physical society, including a special topical Energy Day. was held at the Echophysics – European Centre for the History of Physics, Schloss Pöllau 1, 8225 Pöllau, Austria. The plenary sessions gave an overview of the present status of research in quantum mechanics, particle physics and solid state physics.The topical sessions were dedicated to: nuclear and particle physics; atoms, molecules, quantum optics and plasmas; solid state physics and research with neutron and synchrotron radiation; history of physics; surfaces, interfaces and thin films; nanostructures; fundamental interactions; gravity, quantum chromodynamics; particle theory and collider physics; detectors and methods. Those contributions which are in the INIS subject scope are indexed individually

  13. The radiation protection units of the Austrian fire brigades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspek, W.; Schoenhacker, S.

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1960s, Austrian fire brigades have been involved in radiation protection. With the preparations for the NPP Zwentendorf and the building of the research reactor in Seibersdorf, the first radiation protection units of the fire brigade were founded. 45 years later: The NPP Zwentendorf never saw its start-up, the use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity is prohibited by a constitutional law, and the research reactor is being decommissioned. What's left are the radiation protection units of the fire brigades. The contribution gives an overview of similarities and differences of the radiation protection units in the nine federal states of Austria, with a special focus on equipment, training and organisation. Nation-wide guidelines and regulations for the tactics of first responders at radiological emergencies are presented and a couple of incidents will be analysed. (orig.)

  14. [CGM-Continuous Glucose Monitoring--Statement of the Austrian Diabetes Association].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz-Fuhrmann, Ingrid; Rami-Merhar, Birgit; Hofer, Sabine; Stadler, Marietta; Bischof, Martin; Zlamal-Fortunat, Sandra; Laimer, Markus; Weitgasser, Raimund; Prager, Rudolf

    2016-04-01

    This position statement represents the recommendations of the Austrian Diabetes Association regarding the clinical diagnostic and therapeutic application, safety and benefits of continuous subcutaneous glucose monitoring systems in patients with diabetes mellitus, based on current evidence.

  15. [CGM-continuous glucose monitoring - statement of the Austrian Diabetes Association].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz-Fuhrmann, Ingrid; Schober, Edith; Rami, Birgit; Stadler, Marietta; Bischof, Martin; Fortunat, Sandra; Laimer, Markus; Weitgasser, Raimund; Prager, Rudolf

    2012-12-01

    This position statement represents the recommendations of the Austrian Diabetes Association regarding the clinical diagnostic and therapeutic application, safety and benefits of continuous subcutaneous glucose monitoring systems in patients with diabetes mellitus, based on current evidence.

  16. The Efficiency of Supplementing Mondia Whytei, Maize Germ, Lucerne and Dairy Meal on Feed Intake, milk Production and body Weight Changes in Dual Purpose goats fed on Basal Diet of Rhodes Grass Hay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wekesa, F.M.

    2002-01-01

    In order to exploit the productive potential of milk producing animal, supplementation is a prerequisite. However due to low purchasing power of most small scale dairy farmers some farmers use what is locally available as supplements of Mondia whytei, maize germ, lucerne and dairy meal were fed to dual purpose lactating goats in a completely randomised design. The basal diet was Rhodes grass hay. Chemical composition of feeds was done. Crude protein, CP in Mondia leaves was 187 g kg -1 DM while calcium was 69.1 g kg -1 DM. Mondia whytei is a plant which mainly grows in forests and has many valuable uses including its use as a livestock feed. It has been claimed that when farmers in western Kenya feed Mondia roots to their lactating cows there is an increase in milk production. It is against this background that this work was undertaken to compare the potential of Mondia whytei roots and leaves with other conventional feed supplements. Response to Mondia roots was quite low. There was no significant difference in rumen pH levels over time between treatments. It is recommended that more work be done on Mondia whytei to determine its potential as a feed supplement and to continue monitoring its use on-farm including its feeding methods used by farmers in western Kenya

  17. The Remembrance of World War One and the Austrian Federation of Jewish War Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Lamprecht

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses discourses and activities of memory of the Austrian “Federation of Jewish War Veterans” (Bund jüdischer Frontsoldaten/BJF, based primarily on the analysis of the journal “Jewish Front” (Jüdische Front as well as on archival sources. A remarkable increase in anti-Semitic activities as well as acts of violence committed by the National Socialists led former Jewish soldiers of the Austrian army to found the BJF in 1932. The aim of the BJF was to defend the Austrian Jewry against anti-Semitic accusations as well as to strengthen their Jewish self-consciousness by focusing on the remembrance of the Jewish military service during the Great War and an idealized and exaggerated war experience. To reach their objectives, the BJF was organized hierarchically and militarily. The members wore uniforms, and the BJF organized military inspections, spread propaganda via the journal “Jewish Front” and initiated the erection of Jewish war memorials in several Austrian cities. Due to the fact that the BJF wanted to unify the Austrian Jewry under its leadership, it claimed to be above all party lines and propagandized a common Austrian Jewish identity.

  18. Occupational radiation exposure in upper Austrian water supplies and Spas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringer, W.; Simader, M.; Bernreiter, M.; Aspek, W.; Kaineder, H.

    2006-01-01

    The Council Directive 96/29/EURATOM lays down the basic safety standards for the protection of the workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionising radiation, including natural radiation. Based on the directive and on the corresponding Austrian legislation a comprehensive study was conducted to determine the occupational radiation exposure in Upper Austrian water supplies and spas. The study comprises 45 water supplies and 3 spas, one of them being a radon spa. Most measurements taken were to determine the radon concentration in air at different workplaces (n = 184), but also measurements of the dose rate at dehumidifiers (n = 7) and gamma spectrometric measurements of back washing water (n = 4) were conducted. To determine the maximum occupational radon exposure in a water supply measurements were carried out in all water purification buildings and in at least half o f the drinking water reservoirs of the water supply. The results were combined with the respective working times in these locations (these data having been collected by means of a questionnaire). Where the calculated exposure was greater than 1 MBq h/m then all drinking water reservoirs of the concerned water suppl y were measured for their radon concentration to ensure a reliable assessment of the exposure. The results show that the radon concentrations in the water supplies were lower as expected, being in 55% of all measurement sites below 1000 Bq/m in 91% below 5000 Bq/m and with a maximum value of 38700 Bq/m.This leads to exposures that are below 2 MBq h/m (corresponding to approx. 6 mSv/a) in 42 water supplies. However, for the remaining three water supplies maximal occupational exposures due to radon of 2.8 MBq h/m (∼ 10 mSv/a), 15 MBq h/m (∼ 50 mSv/a), and 17 MBq h/m ( ∼ 56 mSv/a), respectively, were determined. In these water supplies remediation measures were proposed, based mainly on improved ventilation of and/or reduction of working time in the building

  19. Potentials to mitigate climate change using biochar - the Austrian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckman, Viktor J.; Klinglmüller, Michaela; Liu, Jay; Uzun, Basak B.; Varol, Esin A.

    2015-04-01

    Biomass utilization is seen as one of various promising strategies to reduce additional carbon emissions. A recent project on potentials of biochar to mitigate climate change (FOREBIOM) goes even a step further towards bioenergy in combination of CCS or "BECS" and tries to assess the current potentials, from sustainable biomass availability to biochar amendment in soils, including the identification of potential disadvantages and current research needs. The current report represents an outcome of the 1st FOREBIOM Workshop held in Vienna in April, 2013 and tries to characterize the Austrian perspective of biochar for climate change mitigation. The survey shows that for a widespread utilization of biochar in climate change mitigation strategies, still a number of obstacles have to be overcome. There are concerns regarding production and application costs, contamination and health issues for both producers and customers besides a fragmentary knowledge about biochar-soil interactions specifically in terms of long-term behavior, biochar stability and the effects on nutrient cycles. However, there are a number of positive examples showing that biochar indeed has the potential to sequester large amounts of carbon while improving soil properties and subsequently leading to a secondary carbon sink via rising soil productivity. Diversification, cascadic utilization and purpose designed biochar production are key strategies overcoming initial concerns, especially regarding economic aspects. A theoretical scenario calculation showed that relatively small amounts of biomass that is currently utilized for energy can reduce the gap between Austria's current GHG emissions and the Kyoto target by about 30% if biomass residues are pyrolized and biochar subsequently used as soil amendment. However, by using a more conservative approach that is representing the aims of the underlying FOREBIOM project (assuming that 10% of the annual biomass increment from forests is used for biochar

  20. First experiences with NORM regulations in the Austrian legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauke, Michael; Katzlberger, C.; Haider, W.; Ringer, W.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: This paper gives a brief overview of important aspects of the recently implemented NORM ordinance in the Austrian Radiation Protection Legislation. It describes first experiences from pilot studies and dose assessments in this field. The field of application of this ordinance is defined by a list of work activities which might cause a significant increase in the exposure of workers and of members of the public. This list includes work activities, which potentially increase the exposure due to radon or uranium, thorium and their progenies and work activities, where residues with elevated levels of natural radionuclides may lead to a significant increase in the exposure of workers and the public. The first level of a dose assessment is the determination of activity concentrations in materials. It is assumed that the dose of workers does not exceed 1 mSv per year, if the activity concentrations of natural radionuclides are below 1 Bq/g. A notification of the workplace to the radiation protection authority is sufficient in this case. Otherwise a detailed dose assessment considering all relevant exposure pathways has to be performed as well as radiation protection measures and organisational measures, if needed. If the results of the dose assessment show higher levels than 6 mSv per year, radiation protection measures like personal dosimeters and periodical medical examination and reporting to the radiation protection authority are obligatory. A similar dose assessment procedure has to be applied for residues. The residues are allowed to be disposed as conventional waste, as long as the dose assessment shows a dose lower than 1 mSv per year. Otherwise the residues have to be treated as radioactive waste. Only accredited or certified institutions may perform authorised dose assessments. The Austrian Agency for Food and Health Safety performed pilot studies in this field for getting more experience in the field of dose assessment and to get an overview of the

  1. [Austrian guideline for palliative sedation therapy (long version) : Results of a Delphi process of the Austrian Palliative Society (OPG)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weixler, Dietmar; Roider-Schur, Sophie; Likar, Rudolf; Bozzaro, Claudia; Daniczek, Thomas; Feichtner, Angelika; Gabl, Christoph; Hammerl-Ferrari, Bernhard; Kletecka-Pulker, Maria; Körtner, Ulrich H J; Kössler, Hilde; Meran, Johannes G; Miksovsky, Aurelia; Pusswald, Bettina; Wienerroither, Thomas; Watzke, Herbert

    2017-02-01

    Palliative sedation therapy (PST) is an important and ethically accepted therapy in the care of selected palliative care patients with otherwise unbearable suffering from refractory distress. PST is increasingly used in end-of-life care. Austria does not have a standardized ethical guideline for this exceptional practice near end of life, but there is evidence that practice varies throughout the country. The Austrian Palliative Society (OPG) nominated a multidisciplinary working group of 16 palliative care experts and ethicists who established the national guideline on the basis of recent review work with the aim to adhere to the Europeans Association of Palliative Care's (EAPC) framework on palliative sedation therapy respecting Austrians legal, structural and cultural background. Consensus was achieved by a four-step sequential Delphi process. The Delphi-process was strictly orientated to the recently published EUROIMPACT-sedation-study-checklist and to the AGREE-2-tool. Additionally national stakeholders participated in the reflection of the results. As a result of a rigorous consensus process the long version of the Austrian National Palliative Sedation Guideline contains 112 statements within eleven domains and is supplemented by a philosophers excursus on suffering. By establishing a national guideline for palliative sedation therapy using the Delphi technique for consensus and stakeholder involvement the Austrian Palliative Society aims to ensure nationwide good practice of palliative sedation therapy. Screening for the practicability and efficacy of this guideline will be a future task.

  2. Structures and perspectives of the Austrian energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlgemut, N.

    1992-03-01

    The technical tools for projecting future energy demand can be grouped into two broad categories: Firstly, time series or cross section data based econometric models which contain information about customers' past behavior and thus enable to judge the causal effects of economic factors like incomes and prices on energy demand (passive forecasting). Secondly, structural simulation models which indicate how energy services transform to flows of useful, final and primary energy. These models enable to estimate the technical potential of improving the energy application and energy transformation systems (active scenario approach). Comparison of the two approaches with respect to projections for future energy demand yields that, typically, in the short run of econometric approach will dominate the structural simulation model. In the long run, however, this relation will be reversed. The econometric models suffer lack of technical information necessary to describe the demand for energy. The structural simulation model enables an incorporation of technical factors like efficiencies and fuel shares. An application of the structural model is a simulation run describing a scenario in order to reduce the Austrian CO 2 -emissions according to the recommendations of the conference of Toronto

  3. Holocaust Studies in Austrian Elementary and Secondary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Mittnik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents arguments in support of teaching about the Holocaust and Nazism in Austria at an early age. To accomplish this, Austrian and German elementary school textbooks were analyzed for the amount of content dealing with the Holocaust and Jews; the results showed that since 1980 the amount of content on the Holocaust increased in Germany, and to a lesser extent in Austria. The article reviews some of the criticism in Europe of the term Holocaust Education and explores some of arguments about why that is. The author argues that moral education and teaching of Human Rights are important components of, but ought not be the main goal of teaching about the Holocaust. The role of Austria after World War II, and exploration of the so called victim myth, prevalent until the 1990s are important to understanding history and to how history textbooks were created. After a discussion of how the Holocaust can be taught to elementary and early secondary school aged children, some suggestions are made about approaches to teaching the Holocaust to students in these age groups.

  4. Attitude Towards End of Life Communication of Austrian Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumpold, Tamara; Lütgendorf-Caucig, Carola; Löffler-Stastka, Henriette; Roider-Schur, Sophie; Pötter, Richard; Kirchheiner, Kathrin

    2018-04-23

    Medical students have to acquire theoretical knowledge, practical skills, and a personal attitude to meet the emerging needs of palliative care. The present study aimed to assess the personal attitude of Austrian medical students towards end of life communication (EOLC), as key part of palliative care. This cross-sectional, mono-institutional assessment invited all medical students at the Medical University of Vienna in 2015. The assessment was conducted web-based via questionnaire about attitudes towards EOLC. Additional socio-demographic and medical education-related parameters were collected. Overall, 743 medical students participated in the present report. Differences regarding the agreement or disagreement to several statements concerning the satisfaction of working with chronically ill patients, palliative care, and health care costs, as well as the extent of information about palliative disease, were found for age, gender, and academic years. The overall attitude towards EOLC in the present sample can be regarded as quite balanced. Nevertheless, a considerable number of medical students are still reluctant to inform patients about their incurable disease. Reservations towards palliative care as part of the health care system seem to exist. The influence of the curriculum as well as practical experiences seems to be important but needs further investigation.

  5. Cornerstones of the Austrian radon risk communication strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunte, A.; Ringer, W.

    2015-01-01

    On behalf of the Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management (BMLFUW), the National Radon Centre of Austria developed the National Radon Risk Communication Strategy. The superior goal is the reduction of the radon exposure of Austrian citizens as well as the reduction of radon-related lung cancer deaths. Austria, like many other countries, follows the approach to raise awareness and to inform the public to achieve this goal. The presented strategy deals with the question of how radon protection issues can be communicated to the public, existing fears can be reduced and affected people can be motivated to take action (perform a radon test, if necessary, mitigate or install preventive measures in new buildings). The cornerstones of the National Radon Risk Communication Strategy can be summarized as follows: - Definition of communication goals - Identification and categorization of target groups - Development of specific key messages for each of the target groups - Determination of communication channels and assessment of their efficiency - Integration of the radon issue in education and training - Cooperation with relevant organizations and platforms. The communication objectives, target groups and communication paths (and their evaluation) will be discussed during the presentation in detail.

  6. A Proposal for an Austrian Nursing Minimum Data Set (NMDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackl, W.O.; Ammenwerth, E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objective Nursing Minimum Data Sets can be used to compare nursing care across clinical populations, settings, geographical areas, and time. NMDS can support nursing research, nursing management, and nursing politics. However, in contrast to other countries, Austria does not have a unified NMDS. The objective of this study is to identify possible data elements for an Austrian NMDS. Methods A two-round Delphi survey was conducted, based on a review of available NMDS, 22 expert interviews, and a focus group discussion. Results After reaching consensus, the experts proposed the following 56 data elements for an NMDS: six data elements concerning patient demographics, four data elements concerning data of the healthcare institution, four data elements concerning patient’s medical condition, 20 data elements concerning patient problems (nursing assessment, nursing diagnoses, risk assessment), eight data elements concerning nursing outcomes, 14 data elements concerning nursing interventions, and no additional data elements concerning nursing intensity. Conclusion The proposed NMDS focuses on the long-term and acute care setting. It must now be implemented and tested in the nursing practice. PMID:25024767

  7. 52. Annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippitsch, M.

    2002-01-01

    The 52th Symposium of the Austrian Physical Society was held from 23.-26. September 2002 at the Montan University of Leoben (Austria). The papers presented were organized under the following sessions: main session (intermetallic materials, nanostructures as sensors, volcanic products as dating materials); Fritz-Kohlrausch-price 2002 (electronic structure and charge transfer in doped single-walled carbon nanotubes), Max-Auwaerter-price 2002 ( growth phenomena of thin overlayers on semiconductor surfaces), Viktor-Hess-price 2002 (analysis of rare Ke4 - decays), Roman-Ulrich-Sexl-price 2002 (experienced physics); acoustics; atomic-, molecular- and plasma physics (plasma ion mass spectrometers, proton-transfer-reaction-mass-spectrometry, radiation damage, electron-molecule interactions, decay); solid physics (nanoopticcs, nanocrystalline magnetic materials, nanostructure, nanoelectronics); nuclear and particle physics (CP-violations, neutral kaons, quark-antiquark systems, QCD, kaonic atoms spectroscopy, hadronic decay, long-lived radionuclides); medical-, bio-and environmental physics (biological radiation damage, photons therapy, Med-AUSTRON, doses rate, endovascular brachytherapy); physics-industry-energy (ski-simulation, acoustic surface wave); neutrons and synchrotron radiation physics (neutron quantum interferometry, AUSTRON, synchrotron-induced x-ray analysis); polymer physics(micro-Raman spectroscopy, x-ray analysis); quantum electronics, electrodynamics and optics (solid-state lasers, doped lasers, quantum purification and teleportation, Bose-Einstein condensates, quantum optics, Talbot-Lau interferometry, neutron quantum phases) and two poster sessions with topics dealing with the subjects above mentioned. Those contributions which are in the INIS subject scope are indexed separately. (nevyjel)

  8. 55. Annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogl, G.; Sepiol, B.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The 55 th Annual Symposium of the Austrian Physical Society was held from 27.-29. September 2005 at the University of Vienna (Austria), it consisted of a plenary session, oral and poster sessions devoted to: acoustics; women and physics; atomic-, molecular- and plasma physics; solid physics; nuclear and particle physics; medical-, bio-and environmental physics; neutrons and synchrotron radiation physics; surface and thin film analysis and quantum electronics, electrodynamics and optics. Topics such as graphs quantization, molecular interferometry, Brownian movement, ion beam diagnostics, electron emission, optical pumping, Bose-Einstein condensates, molecular matter waves, double-wall carbon nanotubes, quantum dots, ferromagnetic nanocomposites, nanowires, transmission electron microscopy analysis of nanostructures, nanocrystals studies, atomic defects in intermetallic compounds, electron energy loss spectroscopy of intermetallic compounds, CHIRALTEM project, covariance data, nuclear astrophysics, kaonic atoms, pionic hydrogen, geometric phase measurements with neutrons, International linear collider project, ATLAS muon spectrometer, ATLAS detector, LHC's protection system, baryon structure, QCD, lattice QCD, coherent tomography, light microscopy, high resolution magnetic resonance imaging, polymer gel dosimetry, radon microdosimetry, traffic air pollutants, BVOC seasonal variations, biogenic VOC emissions, ice dating, synchrotron small angle x-ray diffraction, small angle neutron scattering, stepped surfaces oxidation, grazing incidence synchrotron reflexion studies, magnetic thin films, atoms quantum dynamics, quantum entanglement, BEC and quantum gases experiments were discussed. This book of abstracts contains their summaries and those contributions which are in the INIS subject scope are indexed individually. (nevyjel)

  9. What did we learn from the Austrian radon project?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedmann, H.

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 40000 measurements of indoor radon concentrations were performed in randomly selected homes during the Austrian Radon Project. These measurements were carried out by using long-term measuring devices (SSNTD and Electret detectors) and short-term charcoal detectors with liquid scintillation counting as the method of analysis. In addition to the equilibrium factor, soil gas measurements and quasi-continuous indoor measurements, parallel-measurements with different detector systems in randomly selected homes were also performed. Very different results were occasionally obtained for one and the same room at the same time. This was so not only when comparing the long-term and short-term measuring devices; actually, different long-term detector systems also often showed significant discrepancies in results, although all detector systems had been carefully calibrated and tested in laboratories. The essential conclusion was that during a longer exposure in randomly selected homes, the detectors may be moved, opened, or handled in other unfavourable ways which introduce additional uncertainties in the measuring results. The aim of the Austrian Radon Project was to estimate the radon risk for geographic areas (municipalities). This task is different from the evaluation of the mean radon concentration in a single home. Generally, while long-term measurements (a year or even longer) are necessary to get reliable results for a particular house, this is not so where only the mean indoor radon concentrations for an area are of interest. Observed indoor radon concentrations give information about the actual radon exposures of the inhabitants but not about the radon risk from the ground. The house type, the way the house is constructed, the storey where people live, and some living patterns (ventilation rate etc.) modify the geological risk significantly, although it is the geological situation that has to be primarily taken into account when planning and constructing

  10. Impacts of Austrian Climate Variability on Honey Bee Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switanek, Matt; Brodschneider, Robert; Crailsheim, Karl; Truhetz, Heimo

    2015-04-01

    Global food production, as it is today, is not possible without pollinators such as the honey bee. It is therefore alarming that honey bee populations across the world have seen increased mortality rates in the last few decades. The challenges facing the honey bee calls into question the future of our food supply. Beside various infectious diseases, Varroa destructor is one of the main culprits leading to increased rates of honey bee mortality. Varroa destructor is a parasitic mite which strongly depends on honey bee brood for reproduction and can wipe out entire colonies. However, climate variability may also importantly influence honey bee breeding cycles and bee mortality rates. Persistent weather events affects vegetation and hence foraging possibilities for honey bees. This study first defines critical statistical relationships between key climate indicators (e.g., precipitation and temperature) and bee mortality rates across Austria, using 6 consecutive years of data. Next, these leading indicators, as they vary in space and time, are used to build a statistical model to predict bee mortality rates and the respective number of colonies affected. Using leave-one-out cross validation, the model reduces the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) by 21% with respect to predictions made with the mean mortality rate and the number of colonies. Furthermore, a Monte Carlo test is used to establish that the model's predictions are statistically significant at the 99.9% confidence level. These results highlight the influence of climate variables on honey bee populations, although variability in climate, by itself, cannot fully explain colony losses. This study was funded by the Austrian project 'Zukunft Biene'.

  11. Austrian Painter Leopold Kupelwieser and Bishop Josip Juraj Strossmayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljerka Dulibić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available All 20th-century chronologies of the collector’s activity of Bishop Josip Juraj Strossmayer (1815-1905 and overviews of the evolution of today’s Strossmayer’s Gallery of Old Masters at the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts mention the bishop’s cooperation with the Austrian Nazarene painter Leopold Kupelwieser (1796-1862, father of Paul Kupelwieser, the former owner of the Brijuni islands. This episode from the “prehistory” of Strossmayer’s Gallery has hitherto been known only as a brief notice repeated in almost identical formulations: “In 1857, the bishop sent the first larger group of paintings to Vienna in order to be restored under the supervision of painter Leopold Kupelwieser.” Research of archival documents mentioning the cooperation between Bishop Strossmayer and painter Kupelwieser has now been complemented with an overview of Kupelwieser’s activity in Croatia, with an aim of promoting the preservation and evaluation of this segment of his painting oeuvre. Besides paintings ordered by Strossmayer (presently at the Diocesan Museum of Zagreb, Kupelwieser produced two paintings for Croatian churches independently of his cooperation with the bishop (for the church of St Stephen of Hungary, today’s church of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Nova Gradiška, and for the chapel of St Peter and Paul in Dvor na Uni. Two more paintings are preserved on the Brijuni islands that do not directly belong to Kupelwieser’s oeuvre yet are closely linked to him.

  12. Quantifying low-value services by using routine data from Austrian primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenger, Martin; Robausch, Martin; Moser, Adrian

    2016-12-01

    Open debates about the reduction of low-value services, unnecessary diagnostic tests and ineffective therapeutic procedures and initiatives like "Choosing Wisely "in the USA and Canada are still absent in Austria. The objectives of this study are: (i) to establish a list of ineffective or low-value services possibly provided in Austrian primary care, (ii) to explore how many of these services are quantifiable using routine data and (iii) to estimate the number of affected beneficiaries and avoidable costs arising from the provision of these services. In May 2014, we identified low-value care services relevant for primary care in Austria. For our analysis we used routine data sets from the Austrian health insurance. All analysis refer to the insured population of the Lower Austrian Sickness Fund (n = 1 168 433) in the year 2013. (i) We found 453 low-value services possibly offered in Austrian primary care. (ii) Only 34 (7.5%) services were quantifiable using routine data. (iii) In the year 2013, these 34 services were provided to at least 246 131 beneficiaries and the estimated avoidable costs arising were at least 11.38 million Euros. This accounts for 1.2% of overall spending of the Lower Austrian Sickness Fund for drugs and services provided by primary care doctors in the year 2013. The absence of a homogeneous, transparent and accessible coding system for diagnosis in Austrian primary care restrained our assessment. However, our study findings illustrate the potential utility and limitations of using claims-based measures to identify low-value care. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  13. Social, psychological and demographic reflections on the Austrian nuclear power question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretschneider, R.

    1980-01-01

    The political history of an Austrian referendum in 1978, which led to abandonment of a nuclear power station, is reviewed, and an attempt is made to analyse the reasons for the 'No' vote. Surveys are presented which attempt to classify the yes, no and undecided voters in terms of political views. The effects of the Harrisburg accident on Austrian public opinion is examined and the possibility of accentuated differences between 'for' and 'against' groups is stated. It is noted that success in energy saving may reduce the significance of the atomic energy question. (G.M.E.)

  14. Efecto del régimen de defoliación sobre la producción de grano en trigo doble propósito Effect of the defoliation regime on grain production in dual purpose wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Peralta

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La utilización de cultivos de trigo con doble propósito contribuiría a realizar un uso más eficiente de los recursos ambientales. En Balcarce (Buenos Aires, Argentina se estableció un cultivo de trigo (Triticum aestivum, cv. Baguette 20 sembrado en fecha temprana (17 de marzo de 2006 para comparar la producción de forraje obtenida con tres regímenes de defoliación: T1 (tres defoliaciones, T2 (dos defoliaciones y TG (sin defoliaciones. En esos tres tratamientos y en otro no defoliado sembrado en fecha normal para la producción de grano (7 de junio, TN se cuantificó la biomasa aérea (g MS m², el rendimiento de grano (kg ha-1 y sus componentes. La producción de forraje de T1 fue similar que la de T2 (497 y 392 g m-2, respectivamente. Las defoliaciones posteriores al estado de dos nudos (estado Zadoks 32 afectaron negativamente la radiación fotosintéticamente activa interceptada por el cultivo, disminuyendo tanto el número de granos m-2 como el peso por grano; en consecuencia, la producción de grano cayó 60% respecto de TG y 71% respecto de TN. Se estableció una relación cuantitativa entre la disminución del rendimiento en grano y el momento del último corte (i.e., días entre la última defoliación y antesis. El trigo presenta la ventaja de poseer un destino alternativo a su uso forrajero, que no la presentan otros verdeos de invierno. Puede destinarse sólo para uso forrajero, sólo para producir grano, o se lo puede utilizar buscando un balance entre la producción de forraje y grano.The utilization of dual purpose wheat crops may contribute to perform a more efficient use of environmental resources. In Balcarce (Buenos Aires, Argentina a wheat crop (Triticum aestivum, cv. Baguette 20 was seeded at an early date (March 17, 2006 and the forage production was compared with three defoliation frequencies: T1 (three defoliations; T2 (two defoliations and TG (without defoliations. The aerial biomass, grain yield (kg ha-1 and its

  15. Post-irradiation examination of HTR-fuel at the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitsamer, G.; Proksch, E.; Stolba, G.; Strigl, A.; Falta, G.; Zeger, J.

    1984-02-01

    This paper describes methods and measurements developed at the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf for the evaluation of the irradiation performance of HTR fuel. Main interest is concentrated on particle failure rates, fission product release, burn-up and inventory measurements (solid and gaseous fission products, uranium inventory). (Author) [de

  16. 45. Annual Convention of the Austrian Physical Society; 45. Jahrestagung der Oesterreichischen Physikalischen Gesellschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This volume contains lectures of the 45{sup th} symposium of the Austrian Physical Society which had been held in Leoben, Austria in 1995. The following topics are included: Atomic physics, molecular physics, plasma physics, solid state physics, nuclear and particle physics, biophysics, environmental physics, quantum electronics and quantum optics. (Suda).

  17. Progress Report 1985 of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf. Abridged version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwach, G.W.

    1986-06-01

    The report gives a short survey of the work carried out by the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf in 1985. The working programme comprises five main areas: Energy and safety; Materials research, isotope and radiation techniques; Measuring techniques and information processing; Environmental protection, health and food; Industrial consulting. (Author)

  18. Networking for Education for Sustainable Development in Austria: The Austrian ECOLOG-Schools Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Franz

    2016-01-01

    This case describes networking for education for sustainable development within the Austrian ECOLOG-schools network. The article presents theoretical concepts of networks in education in general, and the organization of the ECOLOG-network in particular. Based upon these foundations, the concept and results of a participatory evaluation study are…

  19. Psychometric Properties of the Revised Facts on Suicide Quiz in Austrian Medical and Psychology Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, Martin; Tran, Ulrich S.; Sonneck, Gernot

    2008-01-01

    Psychometric properties and demographic correlates of a German form of R. W. Hubbard and J. L. McIntosh's (1992) Revised Facts on Suicide Quiz (RFOS), an inventory for assessing overall knowledge about suicide, were investigated in a sample of 1,093 Austrian medical and psychology students. Internal consistency of the RFOS was weak, as were many…

  20. Coming together but staying apart: continuity and change in the Austrian and Swiss varieties of capitalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afonso, A.; Mach, A.; Becker, U.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of continuity and change in the Swiss and Austrian political economies over the last 20 years. After outlining the different institutional foundations of economic governance in both countries (fragmented state, constrained executive power and bourgeois dominance in

  1. PCDD/F and PCB levels in Austrian cow's milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanner, G.; Moche, W. [Umweltbundesamt Wien (Austria)

    2004-09-15

    In 2003 the Federal Environment Agency carried out a first Austrian wide milk monitoring study with the objective to get an overview of average PCDD/F levels in cow's milk, additionally dioxinlike PCBs, according to WHO, and indicator PCBs, as listed by national regulations, were analysed.

  2. Heritabilities and genetic correlations for honey yield, gentleness, calmness and swarming behaviour in Austrian honey bees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brascamp, Evert; Willam, Alfons; Boigenzahn, Christian; Bijma, Piter; Veerkamp, Roel F.

    2016-01-01

    Heritabilities and genetic correlations were estimated for honey yield and behavioural traits in Austrian honey bees using data on nearly 15,000 colonies of the bee breeders association Biene Österreich collected between 1995 and 2014. The statistical models used distinguished between the genetic

  3. Measurement of the 226Ra-concentration in bottled Austrian mineral waters and table beverages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedmann, H.; Hernegger, F.

    1978-01-01

    226 Ra being regarded nowadays as a toxic trace element, a systementic examination of bottled Austrian mineral waters and table beverages has been carried out. Only in one case was the maximum allowable concentration of 3.3 pCi/l, a value set up by the WHO, clearly exceeded. (orig.) [de

  4. Deaustrification? : the policy-area-specific evolution of Austrian social partnership.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kittel, B.E.A.

    2000-01-01

    Recently, the functioning of Austrian Social Partnership has been increasingly questioned. If this interpretation of current strains on the relations between the state and the main economic interest organizations would be correct, Austria would become a significant case in favor of disorganization

  5. 46th annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society. Programme and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, H.G.

    1996-01-01

    This volume contains lectures (short communications) of the 46 th symposium of the Austrian Physical Society which had been held at the University of Linz (Austria) in 1996. The following topics are included: atomic physics, molecular physics, plasma physics, solid state physics, nuclear and particle physics, biophysics, environmental physics, quantum electronics and quantum optics. (Suda)

  6. Quality of Austrian and Dutch Falls-Prevention Information: A Comparative Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoberer, Daniela; Mijnarends, Donja M.; Fliedner, Monica; Halfens, Ruud J. G.; Lohrmann, Christa

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the quality of written patient information material available in Austrian and Dutch hospitals and nursing homes pertaining to falls prevention. Design: Comparative descriptive study design Setting: Hospitals and nursing homes in Austria and the Netherlands. Method: Written patient…

  7. Evaluation of air pollution-related risks for Austrian mountain forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smidt, Stefan; Herman, Friedl

    2004-01-01

    The present paper describes air pollution status and evaluation of risks related to effects of phytotoxic pollutants in the Austrian mountain forests. The results are based on Austrian networks (Forest Inventory, Forest Damage Monitoring System, Austrian Bioindicator Grid), the Austrian sample plots of the European networks of the UN-ECE (ICP Forests, Level I and Level II) and interdisciplinary research approaches. Based on the monitoring data and on modelling and mapping of Critical Thresholds, the evaluation of risk factors was possible. Cause-effect relationships between air pollution and tree responses were shown by tree-physiological measurements. Sulfur impact, proton and lead input, concentrations of nitrogen oxides, nitrogen input and ozone were evaluated. The risk was demonstrated at a regional and large-scale national level. Especially the increasing O 3 level and the accumulation of Pb with altitude present most serious risk for mountain forests. - Despite strong reduction of emissions in Europe, pollutants are still a potential stress factor, especially for sensitive mountain forest ecosystems in Austria

  8. Progress Report 1984 of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf. Abridged version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwach, G.W.

    1986-06-01

    The report gives a short survey of the work carried out by the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf in 1984. The working programme comprises five main areas: Energy and safety; Materials research, isotope and radiation techniques; Measuring techniques and information processing; Environmental protection, health and food; Industrial consulting. (Author)

  9. Civic Education under Pressure? A Case Study from an Austrian School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schild, Isabella; Breitfuss, Judith

    2018-01-01

    When the politician Roman Haider of the party Freiheitliche Partei Österreichs (FPÖ--Freedom Party of Austria) caused the interruption of a lecture about political extremism in an Austrian school in spring 2017, a heated debate erupted over the place of politics in school education. While Haider accused the lecturer of political propaganda,…

  10. 50. Annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society; 50. Jahrestagung der Oesterreichischen Physikalischen Gesellschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippitsch, M E [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Karl-Franzens-Universitaet Graz, Universitaetsplatz 5, A-8010 Graz (Austria)

    2000-07-01

    The conference held from 25. - 29. 9. 2000 at the University of Graz was elaborated by the Austrian society of physics in the fields of solid state physics, polymers physics, quantum electronics, electrodynamics, optics, nuclear and particle physics, atomic, molecules and plasma physics, acoustics, physics - industry - energy and physics teaching. (botek)

  11. 1983 Annual convention of the Austrian Physical Society, University of Linz, 28 - 30 September 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Proceedings of lectures and poster presentations given at the 1983 convention of the Austrian Physical Society, with (German) abstracts only. The four topical sessions were: 1) electrodynamics and optics 2) solid state physics 3) nuclear and particle physics 4) physics of high polymers Only part of the presentations pertain to the subject scope of INIS. (G.Q.)

  12. From the 'Austrian Foundation for Atomic Energy Research' to the 'Seibersdorf Laboratories'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rößner, M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is the description of the process of institutionalization of nuclear research in Austria in the context of the „Atoms for Peace“ program in the 1950s. This aspect of the history of Austrian nuclear research has been relatively unexplored. The focus of this work is the presentation of measures that have been put in Austria to participate in the 'Atoms for Peace' program. Moreover, the expectations and goals of the Austrian nuclear program are analyzed. For this purpose, foundation, structure and research activities of the “Austrian Atomic Energy Commission”, the “Austrian Society for the Study of Atomic Energy” and the “Nuclear Reactor Centre Seibersdorf“ in the period from 1954 until about 1970 are examined. To establish a relationship with the international historical research of the history of nuclear research, the Austrian situation is compared to the Swiss and the German. It turns out that the Austrian expectations and objectives in nuclear research at the beginning of the period of observation roughly corresponded with the international trends. It also follows that by the establishment of the SGAE and the “Nuclear Reactor Centre Seibersdorf“ the development course of Austrian nuclear research occupied a special position compared to foreign institutions.(author) [de

  13. Austrian Daily Climate Data Rescue and Quality Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkovic, A.; Lipa, W.; Adler, S.; Albenberger, J.; Lechner, W.; Swietli, R.; Vossberg, I.; Zehetner, S.

    2010-09-01

    Checked climate datasets are a "conditio sine qua non" for all projects that are relevant for environment and climate. In the framework of climate change studies and analysis it is essential to work with quality controlled and trustful data. Furthermore these datasets are used as input for various simulation models. In regard to investigations of extreme events, like strong precipitation periods, drought periods and similar ones we need climate data in high temporal resolution (at least in daily resolution). Because of the historical background - during Second World War the majority of our climate sheets were sent to Berlin, where the historical sheets were destroyed by a bomb attack and so important information got lost - only several climate sheets, mostly duplicates, before 1939 are available and stored in our climate data archive. In 1970 the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics in Vienna started a first attempt to digitize climate data by means of punch cards. With the introduction of a routinely climate data quality control in 1984 we can speak of high-class-checked daily data (finally checked data, quality flag 6). Our group is working on the processing of digitization and quality control of the historical data for the period 1872 to 1983 for 18 years. Since 2007 it was possible to intensify the work (processes) in the framework of an internal project, namely Austrian Climate Data Rescue and Quality Control. The aim of this initiative was - and still is - to supply daily data in an outstanding good and uniform quality. So this project is a kind of pre-project for all scientific projects which are working with daily data. In addition to routine quality checks (that are running since 1984) using the commercial Bull Software we are testing our data with additional open source software, namely ProClim.db. By the use of this spatial and statistical test procedure, the elements air temperature and precipitation - for several sites in Carinthia - could

  14. Results of the Czech-Austrian calculations of BDBA radiological consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carny, P.; Hohenberg, J.-K.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Common Czech - Austrian comparisons of codes and calculations of BDBA radiological consequences have been performed. Background of these comparisons is described in the paper presented at this symposium. Results of single steps are summarized and discussed in this poster presentation. From the Czech side calculations have been performed with computer codes PC Cosyma, este, RTARC, HAVAR, HERALD, PTM, RODOS/MATCH and long range code MEDIA used by the Czech meteorological institute (CHMI). Code PC Cosyma is taken as main comparable code in this inter-comparisons as it is used by the Czech and the Austrian side. For every accident scenario and for deterministic as well as probabilistic assessment of accident consequences results of both sides have been practically identical. Computer code 'este' is instrument for projection of release and evaluation of real release under real VVER 440 and WER 1000 emergency conditions. The code can be operated with real radiological, meteorological and technological data from the plant. The code calculates projection of avertable doses and simulates movement of radioactive clouds in the vicinity (up to 40-50 km) of the plant. The code participates in these comparisons as it serves as a support instrument for the staff at the emergency centre of the Czech nuclear regulatory body. Code RTARC (Real Time Accident Release Consequences) serves as an instrument for evaluation of radiation situation in the vicinity of the plant (up to 40 km) during the early phase of an accident. The code participates in these comparisons as it was used in the process of the Czech nuclear power plants protective action planning zone determination. Codes HERALD and HAVAR have been used by Skoda and Energoprojekt for analyses of consequences of design bases accidents in Temelin safety report. They were compared with PC Cosyma in one step of these common calculations by the Czech side. The code HAVAR enables to calculate ingestion doses, too, and

  15. Why Credit Deflation Is More Likely than Mass Inflation: An Austrian Overview of the Inflation Versus Deflation Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Boyapati

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an Austrian overview of the inflation versus deflation debate which has captured the attention of the economics profession in the years following the US housing bust. Much of the Austrian analysis of this debate has focused on the massive expansion of the Federal Reserve’s balance sheet and attendant creation of new reserves. Several Austrian economists have predicted that the creation of new reserves will cause a massive increase in inflation. The money multiplier theory, on which these predictions are based, is criticized and an overview of the Austrian business cycle theory is provided to explain why banks are reluctant to issue new credit. Finally, an analysis of the politics of deflation is provided and a class theory is presented to explain why a policy of controlled credit deflation is more likely than a policy that would result in mass inflation or hyperinflation.

  16. Biblical Allusions in Expressionist Poetry in the Context of Austrian, German, and Ukrainian Literature : A Comparative Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mykhalchuk, T.

    2016-01-01

    With the application of comparative methodology, this article analyzes biblical allusions, reminiscences, paraphrases, direct and indirect quotations, and symbols in the poetry of Austrian, German, and Ukrainian writers (Georg Heym, Mykola Bazhan, Mykola Khvyliovyj Todosii, T. Osmachka, Pavlo

  17. Comparison of amount of physical load in the Czech and Austrian footballers at the same level of performance

    OpenAIRE

    Bujnovský, David

    2011-01-01

    Title: Comparison of the size of the motor load in the Czech and Austrian soccer players at the same performance level Objectives: The aim is to determine the size of the physical load of players during a football match. At the same time the next aim is to determinate the differences of physical load between Czech and Austrian soccer players at the same performance level. Methods: The indirect (mediated) observations was used in this bachelor thesis, because the data were recorded by computer...

  18. Impact of Austrian hydropower plants on the flood control safety of the Hungarian Danube reach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zsuffa, I.

    1999-01-01

    Statistical analysis of daily water level data from four gauging stations along the Hungarian Danube reach has been carried out with the purpose of analysing the impact of the Austrian hydropower plants on the floods of the river. Conditional probability distribution functions of annual flood load maxima and annual number of floods were generated for the periods 1957-1976 and 1977-1996. By comparing these distribution functions, it could be shown that the flood load maxima have decreased, while the number of small and medium floods have increased during the past forty years. These changes indicate a decreased rate of flood superposition resulting from the barrages constructed in this period. The significantly decreased flood load maxima indicate that the Austrian barrage system has positive impact on the flood control safety of the Hungarian Danube reach

  19. Legal aspects of the crimes committed in insolvency proceedings – comparison of Czech and Austrian legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Uhlířová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is to compare the Czech and Austrian legislation considering offenses which entrepreneurs and other entities (natural person may commit within the insolvency proceedings or which are related to the insolvency. Emphasis is placed on the comparison of Czech and Austrian legislation with regard cross-border relationships within the business environment and living between the Czech Republic and Austria.Czech entrepreneurs and natural person in Austria can get into a situation where their debtor is located in Austria and finds himself insolvent or vice versa. Also the Czech entrepreneurs and natural person may do their bussines or live in Austria and may get into such a situation when they are close to the situation which can lead to their decline. This paper would be for them a practical recommendation on how to avoid potential criminal liability.

  20. Manmade radionuclide vector in Austrian soil and vegetation near Temelin nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinojmeri, M.; Ringer, V. [Oesterreichische Agentur fuer Gesundheit und Ernaehrungssicherheit - AGES (Austria)

    2014-07-01

    Since Chernobyl NPP accident an environmental monitoring program concerning the Upper Austrian region near Czech Republic Nuclear Power Plant, NPP Temelin, is in progress between AGES and BMLFUV, the Austrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment, Water and Food, in Austria. This paper presents the results obtained during the sampling campaign over biennial period of 2010-2011. Soil samples, grass and different cereal species were collected. Beside Cs-134, Cs-137 and Sr-89, Sr-90 isotopes, at this phase the number of isotopes determined was extended with plutonium isotopes Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241 and Am-241. A comparison of these results with the existing data so far is presented. New knowledge was obtained related the bio-kinetic parameters of these elements in the environment. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  1. Towards a Dynamic Resource-Based View: Insights from Austrian capital and Entrepreneurship Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Ishikawa, Ibuki

    The dominant view in the strategic management field is the resource-based view ("RBV"). It has often been observed that the RBV is lacking in the dynamic dimension. For example, processes of building competitive advantages by means of combining existing complementary resources in novel ways...... are not inquired into. We argue that the RBV may profitably draw on Austrian (Misesian) and Knightian insights in entrepreneurship and capital theory, particularly in its Lachmannian manifestation, in order to strengthen its dynamic components. We link the RBV and Austrian ideas in the context of the theory...... of complex systems pioneered by Herbert Simon. We draw a number of implications for strategic management from this synthesis, notably into resource value and sustainability of competitive advantage.JEL Code: B53, D21, L23, M1...

  2. Austrian Capital Theory and the Link Between Entrepreneurship and the Theory of the Firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.

    2005-01-01

    tangible and intangible,are heterogeneous; arranging these assets to minimize contractual hazards, toprovide efficient investment incentives, or to exploit competitive advantage isconceived as the prime task of economic organization. None of these approaches,however, is based on a systematic theory......Several writers link entrepreneurship to asset ownership, trying to incorporatethe theory of entrepreneurship into the theory of the firm. The critical link, weargue, is capital heterogeneity. Transaction cost, property rights, and resourcebasedapproaches to the firm assume that assets, both...... of capital heterogeneity. Inthis paper we outline the approach to capital developed by the Austrian schoolof economics and integrate it into an entrepreneurial theory of the firm. We refineAustrian capital theory by defining capital heterogeneity in terms of subjectivelyperceived attributes, that is...

  3. Phylogenetic analysis of Austrian canine distemper virus strains from clinical samples from dogs and wild carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetka, V; Leschnik, M; Affenzeller, N; Möstl, K

    2011-04-09

    Austrian field cases of canine distemper (14 dogs, one badger [Meles meles] and one stone marten [Martes foina]) from 2002 to 2007 were investigated and the case histories were summarised briefly. Phylogenetic analysis of fusion (F) and haemagglutinin (H) gene sequences revealed different canine distemper virus (CDV) lineages circulating in Austria. The majority of CDV strains detected from 2002 to 2004 were well embedded in the European lineage. One Austrian canine sample detected in 2003, with a high similarity to Hungarian sequences from 2005 to 2006, could be assigned to the Arctic group (phocine distemper virus type 2-like). The two canine sequences from 2007 formed a clearly distinct group flanked by sequences detected previously in China and the USA on an intermediate position between the European wildlife and the Asia-1 cluster. The Austrian wildlife strains (2006 and 2007) could be assigned to the European wildlife group and were most closely related to, yet clearly different from, the 2007 canine samples. To elucidate the epidemiological role of Austrian wildlife in the transmission of the disease to dogs and vice versa, H protein residues related to receptor and host specificity (residues 530 and 549) were analysed. All samples showed the amino acids expected for their host of origin, with the exception of a canine sequence from 2007, which had an intermediate position between wildlife and canine viral strains. In the period investigated, canine strains circulating in Austria could be assigned to four different lineages reflecting both a high diversity and probably different origins of virus introduction to Austria in different years.

  4. Segregated integration : recent trends in the Austrian gender division of labor

    OpenAIRE

    Kreimer, Margareta; Mora, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Using micro data from the Austrian Labor Force Survey, this paper explores how decreases in the gender differential in participation rates together with increasing differentials in the incidence of part-time jobs and stable or rising levels of occupational segregation by gender affect the gender division of labor. To so so, we propose an index for the gender division of labor based on the Mutual Information index. Our main results show that the gender division of labor is very sta...

  5. Authority Relationship From a Societal Perspective: Social Representations of Obedience and Disobedience in Austrian Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Fattori, Francesco; Curly, Simone; J?rchel, Amrei C.; Pozzi, Maura; Mihalits, Dominik; Alfieri, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Obedience and disobedience have always been salient issues for both civil society and social psychologists. Since Milgram’s first studies on destructive obedience there has not been a bottom-up definition of what obedience and disobedience mean. The current study aimed at investigating the social representations young adults use to define and to co-construct knowledge about obedience and disobedience in Austria. One hundred fifty four (106 females, 68.8%) Austrian young adults (Mean age = 22....

  6. European parliament in Strasbourg more courageous against 'atomic neighbours' than Austrian politicians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockinger, H.

    1987-01-01

    The author is refering to a notice in the german journal VDI-Nachrichten that the European Parliament claims that nuclear power stations should be put into operation upon agreement of the neighbouring member state up to a distance of 100 km from the border. The presently accepted distance is 30 km only. The author gives a list of claims the Austrian authorities should insist on when negotiating with neighbours operating nuclear power plants, primarily West Germany and Czechoslovakia. 1 fig. (qui)

  7. Longer Working Hours? More Flexible Work Schedules? Do Austrian Economic Policymakers Need to Act?

    OpenAIRE

    Alfred Stiglbauer

    2004-01-01

    On September 23, 2004, the Oesterreichische Nationalbank (OeNB) hosted a workshop to discuss extending working hours and increasing working time flexibility. After Peter Mooslechner (OeNB) outlined the development of the present discussion in the media and presented some facts, the participants delivered their statements. Erhard Fu‹rst (Federation of Austrian Industry and Austria perspektiv) called for more flexibility rather than for an extension of working hours. He supported this view by p...

  8. Open Access Policies of Research Funders: The Case Study of the Austrian Science Fund (FWF)

    OpenAIRE

    Tonto, Yaşar; Doğan, Güleda; Al, Umut; Madran, Orçun

    2015-01-01

    The Austrian Science Fund (FWF) is the main funder for basic research in Austria. FWF has been instrumental in promoting Open Access in Austria and elsewhere and possesses a strong Open Access policy for the research it funds. This case study presents FWF as a good practice of an effective funder policy on account of its comprehensive strategy and multi-faceted approach for implementing and supporting it.

  9. Joint Annual Meeting of the Austrian Physical Society and the Swiss Physical Society together with the Austrian and Swiss Societies for Astronomy and Astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The Joint Annual Meeting of the Austrian Physical Society and the Swiss Physical Society was organized together with both national societies of Astronomy and Astrophysics (SSAA and ÖGAA) at the Johannes Kepler University Linz, Altenberger Straße 69, 4040 Linz, Austria. The plenary sessions gave an overview of the present status of research in quantum mechanics, particle, atomic and molecular physics. The topical sessions were dedicated to: nuclear, particle- and astro particle physics; physics teachers; acoustics; atoms, molecules, quantum optics and plasmas; solid state physics and research with neutron and synchrotron radiation; history of physics; medical, bio and environmental physics; surfaces, interfaces and thin films; careers in physics. There were special sessions on thermoelectrics and photovoltaics. In addition to the regular program, an Energy Day (Energietag) with several parallel sessions on recent topics of energy generation, -transport and -storage was jointly organized by the Energy and Industry Subdivisions of the Austrian Physical Society and by the Johannes Kepler Universität Linz. Those contributions which are in the INIS subject scope are indexed individually

  10. [Comparison between the Austrian and German DRG systems in hand surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotter, O; Jaminet, P; Schwarzach, S; Schaller, H E

    2013-02-01

    Diagnosis-Related Groups (DRG) are a patient classification system grouping related types of patients treated to the resources they consumed. In this analysis, we compared the Austrian and the German DRG systems. The 15 most common hand surgical diagnoses and their corresponding operative treatment were transferred into the Austrian system. Thus, the length of stay and the reimbursement of both countries could be obtained and compared. The mean values and the median values of the upper and lower thresholds of length of stay as well as the average length of stay were all lower in Austria compared to Germany. Reimbursement in Germany was higher in 13 of 19 cases. Total proceeds amounted to 1.67 million in the German and 1.70 million in the Austrian health care system. Considering the purchasing power applying consumer prize parities, the difference of reimbursement between the countries rose to 130,000 which equals a difference of almost 8%. Reimbursement of the top 15 diagnoses in hand surgery in Austria is 8% higher than in Germany. Except for one case, mean values as well as upper and lower thresholds of length of stay are considerably shorter in Austria. Comparison of international data to refine a national compensation system is advocated.

  11. Österreichs Wirtschaftsbeziehungen in Südostasien [Austrian Economic Relations to South-East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhart Zimmermann

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Der süd- und südostasiatische Raum befindet sich im Aufholprozess. Der anhaltende Wachstumstrend geht einher mit der steigenden Nachfrage aus den Industriestaaten sowie dem Binnenmarkt und führt auch zu erhöhtem Bedarf an Infrastruktur. Auch die österreichische Wirtschaft profitiert vom Asien-Boom. Dies zeigt das stete Wachstum österreichischer Warenexporte in die Region, der Anstieg heimischer Direktinvestitionen sowie die wachsende Präsenz österreichischer Firmen. Ziel der österreichischen WirtschaftsvertreterInnen ist es, die Tigerstaaten Südostasiens mehr aus dem Schatten der aufstrebenden Wirtschaftssupermacht China zu holen und die österreichische Wirtschaftsverflechtung mit diesen Ländern zu intensivieren.The South and South East Asian Area has been catching up with the developed world. The sustained economic growth trend goes hand in hand with a higher demand from industrialized nations and a stronger internal demand, pushing for better infrastructure. The Austrian economy is also benefiting from booming Asia, underscored by the steady increase of Austrian exports to this region, the rise of foreign direct investment and companies doing business in these countries. The Austrian business community would like to see the South East Asian tiger states more out of the shadow of the new super power China. The overall objective is to intensify the economic integration with South and South East Asia.

  12. Attitudes among the general Austrian population towards neonatal euthanasia: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldnagl, Lena; Freidl, Wolfgang; Stronegger, Willibald J

    2014-10-07

    The Groningen Protocol aims at providing guidance in end-of-life decision-making for severely impaired newborns. Since its publication in 2005 many bioethicists and health care professionals have written articles in response. However, only very little is known about the opinion among the general population on this subject. The aim of this study was to present the general attitude towards neonatal euthanasia (NE) among the Austrian population and the factors associated with the respondents' opinion. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the general Austrian population. Computer-assisted telephone interviews were performed with 1,000 interviewees aged 16 years and older. Binary logistic regression was performed in order to determine factors that are independently associated with the respondents' opinion about neonatal euthanasia. While 63.6% of the participants rejected the idea of neonatal euthanasia for severely impaired newborns, 36.4% opted either in favor or were undecided. Regression analysis has shown the respondents' educational level (p = 0.005) and experience in the care of terminally ill persons (p = 0.001) to be factors that are positively associated with the rejection of neonatal euthanasia, whereas a higher age was associated with a lower degree of rejection (p = 0.021). We found that the majority of the Austrian population rejects the idea of neonatal euthanasia for severely impaired newborns. However, given the increasing levels of rejection of NE among the younger generations and among people with a higher educational level, it cannot be precluded that the rejection rate might in future increase even further, rather than decrease.

  13. THE AUSTRIAN CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION: CONTINUING THE PATH TO REFORM THE FEDERAL STATE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gamper

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the different debates and attempts to reform the Austrianfederal system over the last fifteen years. The article is based on a historicalperspective that describes the most relevant developments of Austrianfederalism during the 20th century, highlighting the importance of thecentralisation process through the constant transfer of powers from the Länderto the Federal Government, as well as various debates in this regard.According to the author, since 1995, the year of Austrian adhesion to theEuropean Union, two opportunities have been missed to carry out a generalreform of the federal system which could contribute to compensating thecentralisation process.The first missed opportunity is directly related to the Austrian adhesion tothe European Union. The Länder agreed to the adhesion under the conditionthat the Federal Constitution would include their participation in Europeandecision-making processes. By focussing on this point, the Länder set aside the opportunity to take advantage of the debate and, as a consequence,press for structural reform of the federal system. The second missed opportunitywas related to the dispersion of proposals resulting from the work ofthe Austrian Constitutional Convention. The Convention, created in 2003,had the mission of discussing those aspects of the reform of the Constitutionthat regulated the federal structure of the country and, as a consequence,of making a first draft reform. The incapability of establishing and definingcommon ground for reform, together with the lack of flexibility and ofseeking political commitment, weakened the role of the Convention and,thus, any possibility to carry on with the reform.

  14. The effectiveness of psychotherapy with refugees and asylum seekers: preliminary results from an Austrian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Walter

    2009-02-01

    An Austrian Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) offered psychotherapy to 37 asylum seekers and refugees (21 of them female) with a mean age of 36.1 years (s = 7.5), with the majority of them from Chechnya or Afghanistan. Comparative data between the start of therapy and the time of evaluation revealed a highly significant positive effect (d = 0.77), while most therapies were still going on. By a retrospective measure of perceived change, 85% of the participants reported significant improvements. The results show that even under difficult conditions, when working with asylum seekers and refugees, psychotherapy can be effective.

  15. Progress report 1980/81 of the Austrian Academy of Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    From the numerous institutes and divisions of the Austrian Academy of Sciences presented in this report the Commission for Arteriosclerosis and Thrombosis Research (application of radioimmunoassay) and the Institute for X-ray Microstructure Research (investigation of biological substances by X-ray and neutron small angle scattering) are partly within the scope of INIS. Fully in scope are short project discriptions of the Institute for Radium Research and Nulear Physics: the Commission for the SIN-project and the Institute for High Energy Physics, completed by publication lists. (G.Q.)

  16. Annoying vacation souvenir: Fish tapeworm (Diphyllobothrium sp.) infestation in an Austrian fisherman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadlbauer, Vanessa; Haberl, Renate; Langner, Cord; Krejs, Günter J; Eherer, Andreas

    2005-11-01

    Diphyllobothriosis is infestation with the fish tapeworm. Although the worldwide incidence has decreased in recent decades, increased travel and the new popularity of dishes involving raw fish (e.g. sushi) may provide a higher risk of infestation in formerly low-risk areas. We report an Austrian fisherman who passed a 75 cm tapeworm segment in his stool. Infestation presumably occurred 14 months earlier during a fishing tour in Alaska. At presentation, the patient was asymptomatic, reported no weight loss and showed neither anaemia nor eosinophilia. He was cured with a single dose of 10 mg/kg body weight praziquantel.

  17. Feasibility and acceptance of biofeedback-assisted mental training in an Austrian elementary school: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crevenna, Richard; Krammer, Christine; Keilani, Mohammad

    2016-04-01

    This pilot study aimed to investigate feasibility, acceptance, and effects of biofeedback-assisted mental training in a population of fifteen 10-year-old pupils in an Austrian elementary school. Participants were instructed in relaxation techniques by using biofeedback. Before intervention, after 6 weeks with active mental training and with regular instructions by the teacher, and after a further time period of 6 weeks without instructions, attention and concentration improved. The results indicate feasibility, good acceptance, and beneficial effects of biofeedback-assisted mental techniques in Austrian elementary school pupils.

  18. Why Context Matters: Social Inclusion and Multilingualism in an Austrian School Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Jessner

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article draws attention to language choice and language use of Austrian bi- and multilingual school children. We explore some implications of their linguistic practices with regard to social inclusion in an Austrian educational school setting. Pursuing a Dynamic Systems and Complexity Theory approach, we hypothesise that before language users actually use a language within a certain context, they have to evaluate the respective communicative situation by taking multiple contextual factors into consideration, meaning language users choose to use, or not to use, a language based on the socio-contextual information at hand. We consider these contextual factors to be most relevant as they provide the basis on which speakers can actually make use of a certain language within a given context. By drawing on examples of empirical data obtained through a language background survey, we examine some of the complex and dynamic interactions of contextual parameters influencing language choice and language use in the formal educational setting of classroom instruction. Based on the results of this study, we display a selection of the dynamic and complex interactions of pupils’ language use in one specific context as well as their language preferences and how these relate to social inclusion.

  19. Characterization of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from Austrian companion animals and horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginders, Maximilian; Leschnik, Michael; Künzel, Frank; Kampner, Doris; Mikula, Claudia; Steindl, Georg; Eichhorn, Inga; Feßler, Andrea T; Schwarz, Stefan; Spergser, Joachim; Loncaric, Igor

    2017-11-14

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the genetic relatedness and the antimicrobial resistance profiles of a collection of Austrian Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from companion animals and horses. A total of 12 non-repetitive isolates presumptively identified as S. pneumoniae were obtained during routinely diagnostic activities between March 2009 and January 2017. Isolates were confirmed as S. pneumoniae by bile solubility and optochin susceptibility testing, matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and sequence analysis of a part recA and the 16S rRNA genes. Isolates were further characterized by pneumolysin polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and genotyped by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed and resistance genes were detected by specific PCR assays. All isolates were serotyped. Four sequence types (ST) (ST36, ST3546, ST6934 and ST6937) and four serotypes (3, 19A, 19F and 23F) were detected. Two isolates from twelve displayed a multidrug-resistance pheno- and genotype. This study represents the first comprehensive investigation on characteristics of S. pneumoniae isolates recovered from Austrian companion animals and horses. The obtained results indicate that common human sero- (23F) and sequence type (ST36) implicated in causing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) may circulate in dogs. Isolates obtained from other examined animals seem to be host-adapted.

  20. Augmenting Austrian flood management practices through geospatial predictive analytics: a study in Carinthia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, S. M.; Paulus, G.

    2013-06-01

    The Danube River basin has long been the location of significant flooding problems across central Europe. The last decade has seen a sharp increase in the frequency, duration and intensity of these flood events, unveiling a dire need for enhanced flood management policy and tools in the region. Located in the southern portion of Austria, the state of Carinthia has experienced a significant volume of intense flood impacts over the last decade. Although the Austrian government has acknowledged these issues, their remedial actions have been primarily structural to date. Continued focus on controlling the natural environment through infrastructure while disregarding the need to consider alternative forms of assessing flood exposure will only act as a provisional solution to this inescapable risk. In an attempt to remedy this flaw, this paper highlights the application of geospatial predictive analytics and spatial recovery index as a proxy for community resilience, as well as the cultural challenges associated with the application of foreign models within an Austrian environment.

  1. [Counselling customers with psychotropic vs. cardiovascular prescriptions: a survey among Austrian community pharmacists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmair, Gisela; Amering, Michaela; Kaiser, Gerda; Katschnig, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Prescriptions for psychotropic drugs in general and their share of all prescriptions have substantially risen over the last decades. Thus, also counselling by pharmacists becomes more important in this area. This study focuses on how community pharmacists see their own role when counselling persons with prescriptions for psychotropic medication and how this differs from counselling persons with other types of prescriptions. Based on the Toronto Community Pharmacists' Questionnaire an online questionnaire was developed with the assistance of the Austrian Pharmacists Association. This instrument elicits pharmacists' attitudes toward and professional interactions with users of psychotropic drugs on the one hand and of cardiovascular medication on the other. After a pilot study the questionnaire - which was to be filled in anonymously - was put on a web portal for six months and Austrian community pharmacists were invited to answer it. 125 pharmacists completed the questionnaire. Overall it was reported, that new customers with psychotropic prescriptions were less often counselled than those with prescriptions for cardiovascular medication. The main reasons for this difference seem to be the lack of privacy in public pharmacies, the fear of stigmatising customers with psychotropic medication and a perceived lack of training concerning the treatment of mental disorders. In addition to improving such training, it was suggested that seminars and workshops for communication skills should be organised. The reduced frequency in counselling new customers with psychotropic medication is related to a lack of privacy in public pharmacies, fear of stigmatising customers and a perceived need for improving the training on the treatment of mental disorders.

  2. Augmenting Austrian flood management practices through geospatial predictive analytics: a study in Carinthia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Ward

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Danube River basin has long been the location of significant flooding problems across central Europe. The last decade has seen a sharp increase in the frequency, duration and intensity of these flood events, unveiling a dire need for enhanced flood management policy and tools in the region. Located in the southern portion of Austria, the state of Carinthia has experienced a significant volume of intense flood impacts over the last decade. Although the Austrian government has acknowledged these issues, their remedial actions have been primarily structural to date. Continued focus on controlling the natural environment through infrastructure while disregarding the need to consider alternative forms of assessing flood exposure will only act as a provisional solution to this inescapable risk. In an attempt to remedy this flaw, this paper highlights the application of geospatial predictive analytics and spatial recovery index as a proxy for community resilience, as well as the cultural challenges associated with the application of foreign models within an Austrian environment.

  3. Integrated environmental protection obligations under European law, survey analysis of Austrian legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthaler, W.

    2001-05-01

    This work focuses on legal instruments serving integrated environmental protection, especially with respect to administrative procedures concerning plant permits, and their inhorent limits. Initially, the legal and scientific approach pursued under the notion of 'integrated environmental protection' and 'environmental impact assessment' is examined and clarified in chapter A. Based thereon, chapter B deals with the obligations resulting from the EIA-Directive and - compared therewith - from the IPPC-Directive with regard to procedures for plant permits. Further, Austria's delay in fully transposing these directives is examined. When dealing with the constitutional basis for transposing the EIA- and IPPC-D into Austrian administrative law (chapter C), the inherent limits of some competence of legislation are discovered to be too narrow to ensure full compliance with EC law; only with regard to EIA, legistation is based on sound constitutional ground. The second part of the work is devoted to three areas of discussion on EIA- and IPPC-procedures under Austrian law: the scope of their applicability (chapter D), the problems of integrated evaluation and the limits of ecological expertise (chapter E) and aspects of public participation (chapter F). The study is concluded by a summary of the main results (chapter G). (author)

  4. Recent Developments Concerning Pellet Combustion Technologies - A Review of Austrian Developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obernberger, I.; Thek, G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of recent developments concerning pellet combustion technologies in Austria. It covers basic information about the Austrian pellet market and market developments in recent years as well as about national framework conditions in Austria with regard to standards for Pellets, pellet furnaces and emission limits. A detailed overview is given of the state-of-the-art of Austrian pellet boiler technology, which is - from a technological point of view - probably the best developed market world-wide. Innovations, which have recently been developed and introduced into the market, are described. The most important innovations are new furnace developments based on CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulations, flue gas condensation systems for small-scale pellet boilers and multi-fuel concepts, where e.g. firewood and Pellets can be utilised in one boiler. Moreover, emissions from pellet furnaces are discussed and evaluated based on test stand and field measurements. In this respect, a focus is put on fine particulate emissions from pellet boilers. Finally, future developments based on ongoing research projects are described and discussed. The ongoing R and D activities focus on the further reduction of fine particulate emissions by primary and secondary measures, the utilisation of herbaceous biomass fuels and small or micro-scale CHP systems

  5. Speaking up behaviors and safety climate in an Austrian university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwappach, David; Sendlhofer, Gerald; Häsler, Lynn; Gombotz, Veronika; Leitgeb, Karina; Hoffmann, Magdalena; Jantscher, Lydia; Brunner, Gernot

    2018-04-26

    To analyze speaking up behavior and safety climate with a validated questionnaire for the first time in an Austrian university hospital. Survey amongst healthcare workers (HCW). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Cronbach's alpha was calculated as a measure of internal consistencies of scales. Analysis of variance and t-tests were used. The survey was conducted in 2017. About 2.149 HCW from three departments were asked to participate. To measure speaking up behavior and safety climate. To explore psychological safety, encouraging environment and resignation towards speaking up. About 859 evaluable questionnaires were returned (response rate: 40%). More than 50% of responders perceived specific concerns about patient safety within the last 4 weeks and observed a potential error or noticed rule violations. For the different items, between 16% and 42% of HCW reported that they remained silent though concerns for safety. In contrast, between 96% and 98% answered that they did speak up in certain situations. The psychological safety for speaking up was lower for HCW with a managerial function (P speak up (P speaking up behaviors for the first time in an Austrian university hospital. Only moderately frequent concerns were in conflict with frequent speaking up behaviors. These results clearly show that a paradigm shift is needed to increase speaking up culture.

  6. Strategic capacity withholding through failures in the German-Austrian electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergler, Julian; Heim, Sven; Hüschelrath, Kai

    2017-01-01

    In electricity day-ahead markets organized as uniform price auction, a small reduction in supply in times of high demand can cause substantial increases in price. We use a unique data set of failures of generation capacity in the German-Austrian electricity market to investigate the relationship between electricity spot prices and generation failures. Differentiating between strategic and non-strategic failures, we find a positive impact of prices on non-usable marginal generation capacity for strategic failures only. Our empirical analysis therefore provides evidence for the existence of strategic capacity withholding through failures suggesting further monitoring efforts by public authorities to effectively reduce the likelihood of such abuses of a dominant position. - Highlights: • We investigate the relationship between electricity spot prices and generation failures. • Announced (non-strategic) failures are found to decrease with increasing price. • Unannounced (strategic) failures of marginal technologies increase with increasing price. • Our evidence is consistent with the presence of capacity withholding strategies in the German-Austrian electricity market.

  7. The relevance and legibility of radio/TV weather reports to the Austrian public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keul, A. G.; Holzer, A. M.

    2013-03-01

    The communicative quality of media weather reports, especially warnings, can be evaluated by user research. It is an interdisciplinary field, still uncoordinated after 35 years. The authors suggest to shift from a cognitive learning model to news processing, qualitative discourse and usability models as the media audience is in an edutainment situation where it acts highly selective. A series of field surveys 2008-2011 tested the relevance and legibility of Austrian radio and television weather reports on fair weather and in warning situations. 247 laypeople heard/saw original, mostly up-to-date radio/TV weather reports and recalled personally relevant data. Also, a questionnaire on weather knowledge was answered by 237 Austrians. Several research hypotheses were tested. The main results were (a) a relatively high level of meteorological knowledge of the general population, with interest and participation of German-speaking migrants, (b) a pluralistic media usage with TV, radio and internet as the leading media, (c) higher interest and attention (also for local weather) after warnings, but a risk of more false recalls after long warnings, (d) more recall problems with radio messages and a wish that the weather elements should always appear in the same order to faciliate processing for the audience. In their narrow time windows, radio/TV weather reports should concentrate on main features (synoptic situation, tomorrow's temperature and precipitation, possible warnings), keep a verbal “speed limit” and restrict show elements to serve the active, selective, multioptional, multicultural audience.

  8. Preliminary survey on the information campaign on nuclear energy of the Austrian Government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, H.

    1977-01-01

    To provide adequate, unbiased information to the public as well as basic material for future decisions concerning nuclear energy to parliament, the Austrian Government began the Information Campaign on Nuclear Energy in October 1976 and it will continue to June 1977. In the first phase of this campaign, teams of experts consisting of promoters and critics of nuclear energy discussed the various aspects of this topic in public as well as in internal debates, finally producing exhaustive reports. In the second phase, scheduled to take place in May and June 1977, these reports will be discussed in a series of symposia by representatives of the different viewpoints of the Austrian public on nuclear energy. They will then be submitted to parliament together with a summary provided by the Government. The motivation of the campaign, the preparation and execution of the first phase, as well as the first steps in the preparation of the second pahse, are described. Preliminary analyses concern: a) the interaction between the authorities, the experts and the public; b) the interaction among the experts; c) the character of the protest movement and its activities and the public activities of the promoters of nuclear energy; d) the role of the mass media and the information flow in society; and, very cursorily; e) the international echo. Preliminary conclusions are drawn on the organisation of the process of optimal transfer of information to the public, consensus-finding in society and decision-making; a comparison with experiences in other countries is attempted

  9. Water demand for ski resort development in the Austrian Alps: an Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiling, M.; Sokratov, S.

    2012-04-01

    Austria has the highest national added value from winter tourism in Europe, as well as worldwide. 15.7 million arrivals were counted in Austrian accommodation establishments in the 2010/11 winter season. There were more than 62 million overnight stays and 51.2 million skier-days were consumed. 588 million transports were carried out by more than 3000 lifts (cable cars, chair lifts and T-bars). Including indirect and induced effects, this resulted in more than 10 billion euros in added value being generated. The lack of snow in many Austrian skiing areas during the 2006/2007 winter season demonstrated the extent to which meteorological conditions influence operations. Declines in the number of skiers transported and total skier days were the result. The cable-car operators also had to struggle with little snow in the 2010/2011 winter. The Austrian Cable Car Operators' Association stated that the opening of 70-80% of all skiing areas outside of the peak season could only be assured through the use of snowmaking equipment. The central criterion for winter sports enthusiasts to make a trip is the guarantee that they will find snow at their destination and Austria's cable-car operators invest more than 100 million euros in the erection and improvement of snowmaking complexes every year to satisfy this deand. In the 2010/2011 season, this provided for 17,800 jobs. Cable car operators set up snowmaking equipment to become independent from meteorological conditions and improve the capacity utilisation of their expensive investments in transport systems in the early winter. Austria has a skiing area of around 25,400 hectares - around 17,000 hectares at altitudes between 600m and 3200m are currently suitable for snowmaking. As much as 70% of the snow is produced immediately before the start of the season. This recent trend is responsible that the irrigation pattern of Austrian land use changed significantly in the last decade. Previously maize fields and low lands in summer

  10. 25 October 2017- Austrian, German and Swiss Science Foundations signing the guest book in the Globe of Science and Innovation

    CERN Multimedia

    Ordan, Julien Marius

    2017-01-01

    Austrian, German and Swiss Science Foundations in Globe: Professor Klement Tockner, Präsident, Fonds zur Förderung der wissenschaftlichen Forschung, Austria; Professor Peter, Strohschneider, Präsident, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft Germany; Professor Matthias Egger, Präsident, Schweizerischer Nationalfonds zur Förderung der Wissenschaftlichen Forschung, Switzerland

  11. ["Maintaining a Common Culture"--the German Research Foundation and the Austrian-German scientific aid in the interbellum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fengler, Silke; Luxbacher, Günther

    2011-12-01

    After the end of the Great War, private as well as public research funding in Austria was anaemic and slow to develop. Whereas the German state-funded Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) was established as early as 1920, first steps in that direction were only taken in Austria in the late 1920s. In 1929, the Osterreichisch-deutsche Wissenschaftshilfe (ODW) was founded under the auspices of the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the DFG. Although prima facie on an equal footing, the new research funding organisation was in fact highly dependent on its German cooperation partner. The article explores for the first time ODW's position within the German and Austrian science and foreign policies, which aimed to promote the idea of unification of both states within the German Reich. A quantitative analysis of the subsidies policy in the first five years of existence shows that the ODW gave financial aid primarily to conservative research fields, affecting the intellectual balance of power in the First Austrian Republic. Policy continuities and discontinuities of the organisation in the course of the national-socialist rise to power in Germany after 1933 are examined in the second part of the article. The article thus both increases our knowledge about the most important German research funding organisation DFG, and identifies some of the fundamental structural features of Austrian science policy in the interwar years.

  12. Combining IPPC and emission trading: An assessment of energy efficiency and CO2 reduction potentials in the Austrian paper industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starzer, Otto; Dworak, Oliver

    2005-01-01

    In the frame of an innovative project partnership E.V.A. - the Austrian Energy Agency accompanied the Austrian paper industry for the last 2.5 years in developing a branch specific climate change strategy. Within the scope of this project an assessment of the energy efficiency status of the branch was carried out as well as an evaluation of still realisable energy savings and CO 2 reduction potentials. The paper presents the methodology applied, which combines a top down approach (benchmarking and best practice) with a bottom up approach (on-site interviews and energy audits), supported by a huge data collection process. Within the benchmarking process all Austrian paper industry installations affected by the EU emission trading directive were benchmarked against their respective IPPC/BAT values. Furthermore an extensive list of best practice examples derived from existing or ongoing studies was compared with the energy efficiency measures already carried out by the companies ('early actions'). These theory-oriented findings were complemented by several on-site interviews with the respective energy managers as well as by detailed energy audits carried out by a consulting company, covering in total more than 80% of the Austrian paper industry's CO 2 emissions. The paper concludes with the main results of the project, presenting the pros and cons of working with IPPC documents and BAT values in terms of energy efficiency assessments. Recommendations are presented on how to improve the allocation exercise for the next emission trading period from 2008 to 2012

  13. What Does It Take to Be an Adult in Austria? Views of Adulthood in Austrian Adolescents, Emerging Adults, and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirsch, Ulrike; Dreher, Eva; Mayr, Eva; Willinger, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the defining features of emerging adulthood, subjects' conceptions of the transition to adulthood, and the perceived adult status in Austria. The sample consisted of 775 subjects (226 adolescents, 317 emerging adults, 232 adults). Results showed that most Austrian emerging adults feel themselves to be between adolescence…

  14. The regulation of social housing outcomes : A micro examination of Dutch and Austrian social landlords since financing reforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawson, J.M.; Nieboer, N.

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1990s, significant changes affecting financial arrangements have permeated both the Dutch and Austrian system of social housing provision. Potentially, these changes could have influenced the role and performance of social landlords in both countries. This paper explores the actual impact

  15. Austrian Lives

    OpenAIRE

    Bischof, Günter; Plasser, Fritz; Maltschnig, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Writing biographies for a long time had been a male hegemonic project. Ever since Plutarch and Sueton composed their vitae of the greats of classical antiquity, to the medieval obsession with the hagiographies of holy men (and a few women) and saints, Vasari's lives of great Renaissance artists, down to the French encyclopedists, Dr. Johnson and Lytton Strachey, as well as Ranke and Droysen the genre of biographical writing has become increasingly more refined. In the twentieth century male p...

  16. Further dual purpose evolutionary optimization of small wind turbine blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton-Smith, M J; Wood, D H

    2007-01-01

    Much work has been done to maximise the power extraction of wind turbine blades. However, small wind turbines are also required to be self starting and whilst blades designed for maximum power extraction can be optimised analytically, these blades often have poor starting performance. The numeric method of Differential Evolution is used here to maximise for both power and starting performance. Standard blade element theory is used to calculate the power coefficient, and a modified blade element method for starting time. The chord and twist of each blade element make up the genes for evolution. Starting times can be improved by a factor of 20 with only a small reduction in power coefficient. With the introduction of the tip speed ratio as an additional gene, up to 10% improvement in power coefficient was achieved. A second study was done in another case where analytical optimisation is not possible; the inclusion of tip losses. The inclusion resulted in only a small increase in the optimum chord in the tip region which becomes less noticeable at lower tip speed ratios

  17. Utilization of stover from six improved dual-purpose Groundnut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Similarly, NDF digestibility (488 to 635 g/kg DM) and ADF digestibility (406 to 572 g/kg DM) were significantly different (P 0.05) among cultivars, whereas available protein ranged (P < 0.05) from 2.5 g d-1 for RMP-12 to 29.0 g d-1 for M170-80I. Liveweight changes ...

  18. ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY OF THE LOCAL DUAL-PURPOSE CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Krupová

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Base economic characteristics (total revenues, total costs, profit and profitability ratio of the Slovak Pinzgau breed were calculated in this study. Under the actual production and economic conditions of the breed, production system is operated with loss (-457 € per cow and per year and with negative profitability ratio (-20%. Optimisation of the production parameters on the level defined in the breed standard (5,200 kg milk per cow and year, 92% for conception rate of cows, 404 days of calving interval and 550 g in daily gain of reared heifers and improved udder health traits (clinical mastitis incidence and somatic cells score was of positive impact on the total revenues (+34%, on the effective utilisation of costs (+105% and balanced profit of dairy systems. Next to the positive profitability of the system, higher quality and security of dairy milk products should be mentioned there. Moreover, direct subsidies as an important factor of positive economic result of dairy cattle systems has to be pointed as well. Subsidies should be provided to compensate the real biological limitation of the local breed farmed in marginal areas. However, improvement of the production parameters of the Slovak Pinzgau breed is recommended with the same attention to reach the economic sustainability of dairy production system. To reach economic sustainability of the breed from practical point of view, the farmer activity should be aimed especially to the enhanced herd management.

  19. Dual-purpose light water reactor supplying heat for desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waplington, G.; Fichtner, H.

    1978-01-01

    The technical as well as the economic aspects of using a large commercial light water reactor for the production of both electricity and potable water have been examined. For the basis of the study, the multistage flash distillation process was selected, in conjunction with a reactor rated at not less than 2100 MW (thermal). Combined use of a condensing and a back-pressure turbine (the latter matched to distillation plant steam requirements) represents a convenient method for supplying process heat. Overall costs can be fairly allocated to the two products using the ''power credit'' method. A sample economic evaluation indicates highly favorable water costs as compared with more conventional distillation schemes based on fossil fuel

  20. Dual-purpose LWR supplying heat for desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waplington, G.; Fitcher, H.

    1977-01-01

    A number of desalination processes are at present in various stages of development but distillation is the only serious choice for a large-scale project. The distillation process temperature requirement is low compared with the temperature of steam normally delivered to the turbine in a power generation plant. This gives the possibility for combining the functions of electricity generation with water distillation. The brine heater of the multi-stage flash distillation plant can be supplied with steam after partial expansion through a turbine. Such an arrangement allows the use of a standard nuclear steam supply system and makes fuller use of the energy output than would either single purpose role. The LWR represents a safe, reliable and economic system, and is easily able to provide heat of a quality adequate for the desalination process. (M.S.)

  1. development of a dual purpose refrigeration system for domestic use

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    sealed reciprocating compressor, a fabricated condenser and split evaporator operated by temperature controlled solenoid valve. ... employed requires evaporation and condensation to ... used in obtaining heat transfer coefficients used for.

  2. Generation mean analysis of dual purpose traits in cowpea (Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fadiji

    2012-06-07

    Jun 7, 2012 ... Frequency analysis showed that all the F2 populations for fodder yield exhibited a continuous distribution, suggesting that inheritance of fodder yield is ... Key words: Gene effects, fodder, Vigna unguiculata, generation mean analysis. .... using the ABC scaling test (Mather, 1949), incorporating the weighted ...

  3. System analysis for a dual-purpose repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechthold, W.; Closs, K.D.; Knapp, U.; Papp, R.

    1993-01-01

    This study focuses on planning and evaluating alternative concepts for dealing with the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Emphasis is laid on the underground part of this system consisting in the disposal of radioactive waste/spent fuel that generates considerable heat. A given amount of spent fuel discharged from LWRs is subject to disposal and reprocessing, respectively. For the emerging mix of waste and spent fuel packages a sizeable variety of disposal variants is designed conceptually, thereby providing the database for further near- and far-field analyses as well as dose and cost calculations. The technical alternatives were compared with one another by a panel of experts relying on a set of objectives (criteria) which belong to seven criteria fields. Concept BD1 (borehole and drift emplacement) and concept D3* (three-level drift emplacement) best meet the requirements as stated by the criteria. The comparative analysis also helped detect areas of insufficient knowledge which introduced a degree of uncertainty into the systems evaluation and gave rise to a continuation of the research programme

  4. development of dual purpose sorghum: correlation and path

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    (Table 3). Grain yield and stem sugar traits. The correlation coefficients between grain yield and. T. ABLE 2. Correlation coefficients between grain yield and stem sugar content with selected agronomic traits in sorghum. SBX. GY. SBW. DT50F. HDL. SJS. NLP. PHT. Stem brix (SBX). 1.000. Grain yield (GY). 0.071**. 1.000.

  5. Influence of local regulations on TN dual purpose BWR casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samson, P.; Neider, T.

    1999-01-01

    Transnucleaire (Paris, France) and Transnuclear, Inc. (Hawthorne, New York, United Sates) have both developed Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) spent fuel casks for storage and transport purposes. The products are supplied in Europe by Transnucleaire and in the United States by Transnuclear, Inc. Now the TN Group is working on a design for Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) spent fuel assemblies: the TN 52 L cask is designed for transport and storage is Switzerland, the TN 68 cask is designed for transport and storage in the United States. For storage purpose, national regulatory requirements have to be met: each country has specific demands and criteria. As a consequence, differences between the TN 52 L design and the TN 68 design for rather similar contents appear in several fields: the design work, the licensing process, the manufacturing and the operational life. (author)

  6. Austrian Business Cycle Theory: Are 100 Percent Reserves Sufficient to Prevent a Business Cycle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Bagus

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Authors in the Austrian tradition have made the credit expansion of a fractional reserve banking system as the prime cause of business cycles. Authors such as Selgin (1988 and White (1999 have argued that a solution to this problem would be a free banking system. They maintain that the competition between banks would limit the credit expansion effectively. Other authors such as Rothbard (1991 and Huerta de Soto (2006 have gone further and advocated a 100 percent reserve banking system ruling out credit expansion altogether. In this article it is argued that a 100 percent reserve system can still bring about business cycles through excessive maturity mismatching between deposits and loans.

  7. Modelling the impact of changes in the interest rates on the economy: An Austrian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Le Roux

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Even though econometric models and yield curve analysis are useful in assessing the impact of interest rate changes on the economic structure, their power to predict the magnitude and direction of swings in the business cycle is often restricted to the use of short-term interest rates. From an Austrian school perspective on interest rates, empirical evidence suggests that the profitability of heavy industries further downstream outperforms that of light industries in the initial stages of monetary easing, due to a rising demand for investment goods and a rise in capacity utilisation levels. This paper assesses the impact of interest rates changes on the productive structure of the economy by taking into account the effect thereof on sector earnings and ultimately share prices.

  8. The Austrian school of economics in Russia: From criticism and rejection to absorption and adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Avtonomov

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Dissemination and adoption of Western economic ideas in Russia have never been a simple process, always bearing marks of the socio-political and ideological circumstances of the country and inner processes in economics, as well as marks of the national intellectual tradition in general. It is not surprising that the history of Austrian economics in Russia was akin to a long road with many windings and turns. We can distinguish three different periods, or waves, each of them rather complex: from the 1890s until the late 1920s (introduction and, to a certain degree, adoption and criticism, from the beginning of the 1930s until the mid-1980s (hostile attitude and ignorance, and from the mid-1980s onwards (rediscovery, dissemination, and adoption.

  9. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of Austrian wine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, X. [Atominstitut der Osterreichischen Universitaeten, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Kregsamer, P. [Atominstitut der Osterreichischen Universitaeten, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Wobrauschek, P. [Atominstitut der Osterreichischen Universitaeten, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Streli, C. [Atominstitut der Osterreichischen Universitaeten, 1020 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: streli@ati.ac.at

    2006-11-15

    The concentration of major, minor and trace elements in Austrian wine was determined by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence using gallium as internal standard. A multi-elemental analysis was possible by pipetting 6 {mu}l of wine directly on the reflector and drying. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis was performed with Atomika EXTRA II A (Cameca) X-rays from a Mo tube with a high-energy cut-off at 20 keV in total-reflection geometry. The results showed that it was possible to identify only by the elemental analysis as fingerprint the vineyards and year of vintage among 11 different wines.

  10. The Austrian social festival Keep the Ball Rolling in a peripheral region of Upper Styria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gstach Isabell

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The “Steirische Eisenstraße” is a region located in the province of Styria in Austria, which has been struggling with a massive shift in population and age structure for some time. In 2012/13 the Austrian social festival Keep the Ball Rolling is taking place in this region. Over a period of 18 months, the social festival is providing opportunities to think of their own environment. Consequently, they can develop and implement ideas for good cohabitation and put these into practice. The main focus of this article is the demographic presentation of the “Steirische Eisenstraße” region, according to population, employment and age structure. The introduction of the social festival is fundamental in initiating successful change processes.

  11. SOCIETAL CULTURE: A COMPARISON OF ROMANIAN, AUSTRIAN AND GERMAN STUDENTS PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CATANA DOINA

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Our study compares the students’ view on the existing cultural practices with their ideal societal value system in compared societies. For the purpose of this investigation, Austria and Germany were selected to represent Central European values since they are seen as a ‘bridge’ between Eastern and Western European societal values. The research findings are helpful in identifying signs of cultural convergence of Romanian societal culture with Central European values. In doing so, our study will hopefully broaden the body of knowledge about the cultural harmonization between newer and older members of European Union. As seen in the literature review section, such studies started only a few years ago. Comparison of Romanian, Austrian and German students’ perspective on societal culture is performed for the first time by the authors of this study. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\r\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\

  12. Eight- and twelve-hour shifts in Austrian rail traffic controllers: a psychophysiological comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. WOLFGANG KALLUS

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study compared a 12-hour and an 8-hour shift system in 18 Austrian rail traffic controllers. To gain objective indicators for arousal and fatigue induced by the whole workrest sequence, we recorded heart rate during the last night shift, in addition to subjective measures that included physical symptoms. A higher increase of monotony, fatigue and saturation emerged during the 8-hour compared to the 12-hour regime, together with a heart rate decrease during the last 8-hour night shift. In line with other researchers, we conclude that flexible working conditions in specific occupational groups may compensate for disadvantages of prolonged working periods, giving way to advantages of longer shifts such as longer pauses and extra days off for social and other personal activities.

  13. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of Austrian wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, X.; Kregsamer, P.; Wobrauschek, P.; Streli, C.

    2006-01-01

    The concentration of major, minor and trace elements in Austrian wine was determined by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence using gallium as internal standard. A multi-elemental analysis was possible by pipetting 6 μl of wine directly on the reflector and drying. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis was performed with Atomika EXTRA II A (Cameca) X-rays from a Mo tube with a high-energy cut-off at 20 keV in total-reflection geometry. The results showed that it was possible to identify only by the elemental analysis as fingerprint the vineyards and year of vintage among 11 different wines

  14. Building positive nature awareness in pupils using the "Rainforest of the Austrians" in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrecht, Margit; Hölzl, Irmgard; Huber, Werner; Weissenhofer, Anton

    2013-04-01

    20 years ago, Michael Schnitzler founded the NGO "Rainforest of the Austrians" to help save one of the most diverse rainforests in Central America, the Esquinas rainforest on the Pacific coast of SW Costa Rica, from being destroyed through logging. In this abstract we present an interdisciplinary upper Austrian school project aiming at building positive awareness in pupils towards rainforest conservation by fund-raising to help purchase endangered forest areas. The acquired rainforest was donated to the Costa Rican government and became part of the National Park "Piedras Blancas". In the following, we present a chronology of events and actions of the school project. We started our rainforest project by face-to-face encounters, letting involved persons speak directly to the pupils. Dr. Huber, coordinator of the tropical rainforest station La Gamba in Costa Rica (www.lagamba.at), together with Dr. Weissenhofer, presented an introductory slide show about the "Rainforest of the Austrians". With rainforest images and sounds in their mind the pupils wrote "trips of a lifetime" stories, thus creating idyllic images of rainforest habitats. Following up on that, we visited the exhibition "Heliconia and Hummingbirds" at the Biology Center in Linz. Reports about the slide show and the exhibition followed. Tropical sites were compared by producing climate graphs of La Gamba, Costa Rica, and Manaus in Brazil. The global distribution and the decrease of rainforests were also analyzed. In biology lessons the symbiosis between plants and animals of the rainforest were worked out by searching the Internet. Flyers with profiles of rainforest animals were produced. We also discussed the ecotourism project "RICANCIE" in Ecuador using fact sheets. "RICANCIE" is a Spanish acronym standing for "Indigenous Community Network of the Upper Napo for Intercultural Exchange and Ecotourism". It was founded in 1993 aiming to improve the quality of life for some 200 indigenous Kichwa families

  15. Development of soil taxation and soil classification as furthered by the Austrian Soil Science Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Soil taxation and soil classification are important drivers of soil science in Austria. However, the tasks are quite different: whereas soil taxation aims at the evaluation of the productivity potential of the soil, soil classification focusses on the natural development and - especially nowadays - on functionality of the soil. Since the foundation of the Austrian Soil Science Society (ASSS), representatives both directions of the description of the soil have been involved in the common actions of the society. In the first years it was a main target to improve and standardize field descriptions of the soil. Although both systems differ in the general layout, the experts should comply with identical approaches. According to this work, a lot of effort has been put into the standardization of the soil classification system, thus ensuring a common basis. The development, state of the art and further development of both classification and taxation systems initiated and carried out by the ASSS will be shown.

  16. Scientific support, soil information and education provided by the Austrian Soil Science Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Sigbert; Baumgarten, Andreas; Birli, Barbara; Englisch, Michael; Tulipan, Monika; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie

    2015-04-01

    The Austrian Soil Science Society (ASSS), founded in 1954, is a non-profit organisation aiming at furthering all branches of soil science in Austria. The ASSS provides information on the current state of soil research in Austria and abroad. It organizes annual conferences for scientists from soil and related sciences to exchange their recent studies and offers a journal for scientific publications. Annually, ASSS awards the Kubiena Research Prize for excellent scientific studies provided by young scientists. In order to conserve and improve soil science in the field, excursions are organized, also in cooperation with other scientific organisations. Due to well-established contacts with soil scientists and soil science societies in many countries, the ASSS is able to provide its members with information about the most recent developments in the field of soil science. This contributes to a broadening of the current scientific knowledge on soils. The ASSS also co-operates in the organisation of excursions and meetings with neighbouring countries. Several members of the ASSS teach soil science at various Austrian universities. More detail on said conferences, excursions, publications and awards will be given in the presentation. Beside its own scientific journal, published once or twice a year, and special editions such as guidebooks for soil classification, the ASSS runs a website providing information on the Society, its activities, meetings, publications, awards and projects. Together with the Environment Agency Austria the ASSS runs a soil platform on the internet. It is accessible for the public and thus informs society about soil issues. This platform offers a calendar with national and international soil events, contacts of soil related organisations and networks, information on national projects and publications. The society has access to products, information material and information on educational courses. Last but not least information on specific soil

  17. Present and future situation of Austrian petroleum supply in consideration of energy economy aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filip, G

    1982-02-02

    The author attempts to show the present situation (as of 1979/80) of the Austrian petroleum industry. Section two of the study is, to a certain extent, pointing out the range of activities of the OeMV-AG, which is the most important national petroleum company. Furthermore, the most important data and figures documenting the importance of petroleum and its processing products are mentioned in that section. In many countries the energy source petroleum contributes more than 50% to the total energy supply. Especially for this reason, it is necessary to attribute a certain weight to this energy source in making forecasts. This is considered in detail mainly in the third section, and apart from imports problems and environmental protection also the recent technologies in the field of petroleum production are described. The dissertation ends with a short view to the future energy situation and its problems.

  18. Post-irradiation examination of HTR-fuel at the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitsamer, G.; Proksch, E.; Stolba, G.; Strigl, A.; Falta, G.; Zeger, J.

    1985-01-01

    Austrian R and D activities in the HTR-field reach back almost to the beginning of this advanced reactor line. For more than 20 years post-irradiation examination (PIE) of HTR-fuel has been performed at the laboratories of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf Ltd. (OEFZS) (formerly OESGAE) and a high degree of qualification has been achieved in the course of that time. Most of the PIE-work has been carried out by international cooperation on contract basis with the OECD-DRAGON-project and with KFA-Juelich (FRG). There has also been some collaboration with GA (USA), Belgonucleaire and others in the past. HTR-fuel elements contain the fissile and fertile materials in form of coated particles (CPs) which are embedded in a graphite matrix. Because of this special design it has been necessary from the very beginning of the PIE work up to now to develop new methods (i.e. fuel element disintegration methods, chlorine gas leach, single particle examination techniques...) as well as to adapt and improve already existing methods (i.e. gamma spectrometry, mass-spectrometry, optical methods...). The main interests on PIE-work at Seibersdorf are concentrated on particle performance, fission product distribution and the 'free' Uranium content (contamination and broken particles) of the fuel elements (fuel spheres or cylindrical compacts). A short compilation of the applied methods and of available instrumental facilities is given as follows: deconsolidation of fuel elements; equipment for electrochemical deconsolidation; examinations and measurements of graphite and electrolyte samples; examination of coated particles; single particle examinations

  19. Survey to identify depth of penetration of critical incident reporting systems in Austrian healthcare facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendlhofer, Gerald; Eder, Harald; Leitgeb, Karina; Gorges, Roland; Jakse, Heidelinde; Raiger, Marianne; Türk, Silvia; Petschnig, Walter; Pregartner, Gudrun; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Brunner, Gernot

    2018-01-01

    Incident reporting systems or so-called critical incident reporting systems (CIRS) were first recommended for use in health care more than 15 years ago. The uses of these CIRS are highly variable among countries, ranging from being used to report critical incidents, falls, or sentinel events resulting in death. In Austria, CIRS have only been introduced to the health care sector relatively recently. The goal of this work, therefore, was to determine whether and specifically how CIRS are used in Austria. A working group from the Austrian Society for Quality and Safety in Healthcare (ASQS) developed a survey on the topic of CIRS to collect information on penetration of CIRS in general and on how CIRS reports are used to increase patient safety. Three hundred seventy-one health care professionals from 274 health care facilities were contacted via e-mail. Seventy-eight respondents (21.0%) completed the online survey, thereof 66 from hospitals and 12 from other facilities (outpatient clinics, nursing homes). In all, 64.1% of the respondents indicated that CIRS were used in the entire health care facility; 20.6% had not yet introduced CIRS and 15.4% used CIRS only in particular areas. Most often, critical incidents without any harm to patients were reported (76.9%); however, some health care facilities also use their CIRS to report patient falls (16.7%), needle stick injuries (17.9%), technical problems (51.3%), or critical incidents involving health care professionals. CIRS are not yet extensively or homogeneously used in Austria. Inconsistencies exist with respect to which events are reported as well as how they are followed up and reported to health care professionals. Further recommendations for general use are needed to support the dissemination in Austrian health care environments.

  20. Lymphedema and employability - Review and results of a survey of Austrian experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Markus; Schoberwalter, Dieter; Cenik, Fadime; Keilani, Mohammad; Crevenna, Richard

    2017-03-01

    Literature about lymphedema and its influence on the ability to work and employability is limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate the opinion of Austrian experts on factors influencing the ability to work and employability in patients suffering from lymphedema. A self-administered questionnaire consisting of 6 questions was sent to 12 Austrian lymphedema experts with 6 different specializations from May to August 2016. These experts were asked about suitable and unsuitable professions, the possible influence of lymphedema on the ability to work and employability as well as about existing and additional measures to improve the return to work. The reply rate was 100% (12 out of 12). All experts agreed that lymphedema can restrict the ability to work and employability. The leading reason for limited ability to work and employability was restricted mobility or function of the affected limb along with time-consuming therapeutic modalities, pain and psychological stress. The most suitable job named was teacher and the most unsuitable job named was cook. As easements for return to work, early rehabilitation, self-management, coping strategies, patient education, employer's goodwill and employer's cooperation were reported. Furthermore, experts stressed the need for an adjustment of the legal framework as well as low-barrier and more therapy offers. Adjusted work demands seem to be of greater importance to support the ability to work and employability than recommendations for specific job profiles alone. Experts suggest an adjustment of the legal framework for affected patients, claiming a right for early rehabilitation as well as for life-long therapy. Even though some clinically useful conclusions may be drawn from this article, further research in the field is warranted.

  1. Post-irradiation examination of HTR-fuel at the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf Ltd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitsamer, G; Proksch, E; Stolba, G; Strigl, A; Falta, G; Zeger, J [Department of Chemistry, Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf Ltd., Seibersdorf (Austria)

    1985-07-01

    Austrian R and D activities in the HTR-field reach back almost to the beginning of this advanced reactor line. For more than 20 years post-irradiation examination (PIE) of HTR-fuel has been performed at the laboratories of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf Ltd. (OEFZS) (formerly OESGAE) and a high degree of qualification has been achieved in the course of that time. Most of the PIE-work has been carried out by international cooperation on contract basis with the OECD-DRAGON-project and with KFA-Juelich (FRG). There has also been some collaboration with GA (USA), Belgonucleaire and others in the past. HTR-fuel elements contain the fissile and fertile materials in form of coated particles (CPs) which are embedded in a graphite matrix. Because of this special design it has been necessary from the very beginning of the PIE work up to now to develop new methods (i.e., fuel element disintegration methods, chlorine gas leach, single particle examination techniques...) as well as to adapt and improve already existing methods (i.e. gamma spectrometry, mass-spectrometry, optical methods...). The main interests on PIE-work at Seibersdorf are concentrated on particle performance, fission product distribution and the 'free' Uranium content (contamination and broken particles) of the fuel elements (fuel spheres or cylindrical compacts). A short compilation of the applied methods and of available instrumental facilities is given as follows: deconsolidation of fuel elements; equipment for electrochemical deconsolidation; examinations and measurements of graphite and electrolyte samples; examination of coated particles; single particle examinations.

  2. Individual-based assessment of population structure and admixture in Austrian, Croatian and German draught horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druml, T; Curik, I; Baumung, R; Aberle, K; Distl, O; Sölkner, J

    2007-02-01

    All over Europe, the number of draught horses has decreased drastically during the last 50 years. As a prerequisite for efficient management decisions, we analysed the conservation status in Austrian (Noriker Carinthia - NC, Noriker Salzburg - NS), Croatian (Croatian Coldblood - C, Posavina horse - P) and German (Altmaerkisch Coldblood - A, Black Forest horse - BF, Mecklenburg Coldblood - M, Rhenish German Draught horse - R, Saxon Thuringa Coldblood - ST, Schleswig Draught horse - Sch, South German Coldblood - SG) draught horses (434) using multilocus genotypic information from 30 (effectively 27) microsatellite loci. Populations located in areas with less intensive agricultural production (C, NC, NS, P and SG) had greater diversity within the population and estimated effective population size than A, BF, Sch, M, R and ST populations. The PCA plots revealed that populations form five separate groups. The 'Noriker' group (NC, NS and SG) and the 'Rhenish' group (A, M, R and ST) were the most distinctive (pairwise F(ST) values ranged from 0.078 to 0.094). The 'Croatian' group (C and P) was in the centre, while the BF and Sch populations formed two out-groups. A posterior Bayesian analysis detected further differentiation, mainly caused by political and geographical factors. Thus, it was possible to separate the South German Coldblood from the Austrian Noriker population where no subpopulation structure was detected. The admixture analysis revealed imprecise classification between C and P populations. A small but notable separation of R from A, M and ST populations was detected, while Sch and BF populations remained as out-groups. The information obtained should aid in making efficient conservation decisions.

  3. Teaching in Bukovina at the time of the Austrian domination. The Foundation of the University of Tchernivtsi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Baltag

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Teaching is a mirror that reveals how a nation defines and limits its identity in history, taking its landmarks at cultural level. The situation of education in Bukovina during the Austrian occupation was precarious, especially in the presence of the Romanian language in schools. In that sense, the Romanians of Bukovina fought against the preponderance of German language, imposed by the Austrian occupation and against the pressure exerted by the Ukrainians to impose their mother tongue in educational institutions. If the quality of the teaching of the first schools remained at a fairly low level, the time has come when, following the Western model, Bukovina raised the level of its institutions. The Theological Institute which turns into the Faculty of Theology so that the University of Tchernivtsi allowed students to complete their studies in Bukovina, without having to study in the academic centers of Liov or Vienna.

  4. Connectedness to nature and public (skin) health perspectives: results of a representative, population-based survey among Austrian residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluza, Daniela; Simic, Stana; Höltge, Jan; Cervinka, Renate; Moshammer, Hanns

    2014-01-20

    Connectedness to nature (CN) influences motivation to have contact with outdoor natural environments. Spending leisure time in natural environments is beneficial for human health and well-being. Besides these positive effects, health risks of open-air activities are mainly related to unprotected sun light exposure-associated acute and chronic skin hazards. Thus, we conducted a cross-sectional, representative telephone survey among Austrian residents to study the association of perceived CN level with sun-exposure knowledge, tanning habits, and sun protective behaviour. In total, 1,500 study subjects (50.5% females) participated in this questionnaire survey. Although knowledge about tanning and motives to tan were similar among genders, females performed more photoprotective measures and were more connected to nature (all p nature connectedness and skin health-relevant recreational habits of Austrian residents. The findings suggest to integrate hitherto neglected gender-specific Public (Skin) Health promotion when counselling on the manifold health advantages of outdoor activities.

  5. Modelling technical snow production for skiing areas in the Austrian Alps with the physically based snow model AMUNDSEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzer, F.; Marke, T.; Steiger, R.; Strasser, U.

    2012-04-01

    Tourism and particularly winter tourism is a key factor for the Austrian economy. Judging from currently available climate simulations, the Austrian Alps show a particularly high vulnerability to climatic changes. To reduce the exposure of ski areas towards changes in natural snow conditions as well as to generally enhance snow conditions at skiing sites, technical snowmaking is widely utilized across Austrian ski areas. While such measures result in better snow conditions at the skiing sites and are important for the local skiing industry, its economic efficiency has also to be taken into account. The current work emerges from the project CC-Snow II, where improved future climate scenario simulations are used to determine future natural and artificial snow conditions and their effects on tourism and economy in the Austrian Alps. In a first step, a simple technical snowmaking approach is incorporated into the process based snow model AMUNDSEN, which operates at a spatial resolution of 10-50 m and a temporal resolution of 1-3 hours. Locations of skiing slopes within a ski area in Styria, Austria, were digitized and imported into the model environment. During a predefined time frame in the beginning of the ski season, the model produces a maximum possible amount of technical snow and distributes the associated snow on the slopes, whereas afterwards, until to the end of the ski season, the model tries to maintain a certain snow depth threshold value on the slopes. Due to only few required input parameters, this approach is easily transferable to other ski areas. In our poster contribution, we present first results of this snowmaking approach and give an overview of the data and methodology applied. In a further step in CC-Snow, this simple bulk approach will be extended to consider actual snow cannon locations and technical specifications, which will allow a more detailed description of technical snow production as well as cannon-based recordings of water and energy

  6. Interaction with customers: The Application of Social Media within the Austrian Supply Chain for Food and Beverages

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver Meixner; Rainer Haas; Helmut Moosbrugger; Philipp Magdits

    2013-01-01

    Social media marketing has become a powerful tool of interaction with stakeholders. An increasing number of companies are using social media platforms to initiate active interaction and communication with current and prospective customers. Within this study, certain content and contact features, as well as social media activities of companies of the Austrian food and beverage industry were evaluated. Empirical findings concerning the threats, risks, and opportunities connected with the applic...

  7. Attitudes of Austrian veterinarians towards euthanasia in small animal practice: impacts of age and gender on views on euthanasia

    OpenAIRE

    Hartnack, Sonja; Springer, Svenja; Pittavino, Marta; Grimm, Herwig

    2016-01-01

    Background Euthanasia of pets has been described by veterinarians as ?the best and the worst? of the profession. The most commonly mentioned ethical dilemmas veterinarians face in small animal practice are: limited treatment options due to financial constraints, euthanizing of healthy animals and owners wishing to continue treatment of terminally ill animals. The aim of the study was to gain insight into the attitudes of Austrian veterinarians towards euthanasia of small animals. This include...

  8. Sun Exposure Prevalence and Associated Skin Health Habits: Results from the Austrian Population-Based UVSkinRisk Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Haluza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recreational sun exposure accounts for a large number of acute and chronic dermatological diseases, including skin cancer. This study aimed at estimating the one-year prevalence of sun exposure and skin health-associated knowledge and attitudes among Austrian citizens. The population-based UVSkinRisk survey investigated a representative sample of Austrian adults using a structured questionnaire. In total, 1500 study subjects (median age 33.0 years, 50.5% females participated in this questionnaire survey. Among study participants, prevalence of sun exposure was 47%, with slightly higher rates in males (48% compared to females (46%. Younger age, lower professional category, darker skin type, motives to tan, sunbed use, sunburn, and outdoor sport activity increased the odds for prevalent sun exposure. This is the first population-based study evaluating the prevailing sun exposure and recreational habits influencing skin health among Austrian citizens. Despite public media campaigns educating on the harmful effects of sunlight exposure, we found a high prevalence of self-reported sunlight exposure. The results suggest that multifaceted socio-cultural characteristics stimulate recreational sun exposure and tanning habits. Communicating individualized Public (Skin Health messages might be the key to prevent photo-induced skin health hazards in light-skinned populations. The practical and theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

  9. Rise, use and treatment of works in Austria. Compiled for the Austrian Federal Waste Management Plan 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perz, K.

    2001-06-01

    The Austrian Waste Management Act (AWG) entered into force on 1 July 1990. Paragraph 1 of the act defines the following objectives: to keep detrimental, unbeneficial or otherwise unhealthy influences on man, as well as on animals, plants, their living conditions and their natural environment as low as possible; to preserve raw material and energy resources; to keep the demand for landfill capacities as low as possible; to ensure that only such materials should remain as waste, the dumping of which does not present any potential hazard for future generations (precautionary principle). The waste management act thus places the highest priority on the protection of human beings and the environment and upon the preservation of natural resources. Accordingly, it must be the aim of waste management to handle waste in such a way that environmental pollution is kept as low as possible by prevention, recovery and disposal. Paragraph 5 of the Austrian waste management act stipulates that the Federal Minister of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management has to issue the Federal Waste Management Plan in order to reach the objectives and observing the rules of modern waste management. Following the first waste management plan in 1992 an amendment is required every three years. This is why the Austrian Federal Environment Agency elaborated the following studies: waste generation, recovery and disposal in Austria; hazardous waste and waste oils in Austria; non-hazardous waste in Austria. Further information on waste management facilities in Austria is presented on our homepage (http://www.ubavie.gv.at). (author)

  10. Afforestation in Serbia in the period 1961-2007 with special reference to Austrian pine and Scots pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranković Nenad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The significance of afforestation in Serbia is high because only in this way the forest area can be increased and brought to the level which corresponds to the demands of the population. This is also indicated by the content of some documents, such as 'Professional base for the design of the National Forest Action Programme', which emphasises this problem from the very beginning. Special significance is assigned to afforestation with Austrian pine and Scots pine, which are most frequently applied in the afforestation of the most unfavourable terrains. This study analyses the scope of afforestation over the period 1961-2007, the percentage of Austrian pine and Scots pine and the relationship of the afforested areas, and generates the forecasts of the changes in the future period. In this way, the socialeconomic significance of afforestation can be assessed from the aspect of satisfying the objectives of forest policy, and particularly of afforestation with Austrian pine and Scots pine, as the specific tree species.

  11. The impact of seeds provenance and nursery production method on Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn. seedlings quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladan Ivetić

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of seed provenances and seedling production methodson quality of one and two years old seedlings of Austrian pine wereinvestigated. Seeds from three provenances of Austrian pine (Goč, Studenica and Šargan were used for seedlings production, combined with three production methods: (i the modified seedbeds (bare-root, (ii the container type Plantagrah II and (iii the container type Gočko. Provenance, as well as the combined influence of provenance and production method had minimal influence on the variability of one and two years old Austrian pine seedlings. Nevertheless, the production method had the highest influence. The production system, besides its importance in nursery, will have a high influence on seedlings growth during the first year after planting. Considering the results of this study (e.g. the highest values of the diameter, number of lateral roots, shoot and root dry weight, and quality index and the lowest value of SQ and satisfactory value of S:R, we can conclude that the seedlings produced in container type Gočko led to the highestseedlings quality, recommended especially for afforestation on hard sites.

  12. The impact of seeds provenance and nursery provenance method on Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn. seedlings quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladan Ivetić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of seed provenances and seedling production methods on quality of one and two years old seedlings of Austrian pine were investigated. Seeds from three provenances of Austrian pine (Goc, Studenica and Sargan were used for seedlings production, combined with three production methods: (i the modified seedbeds (bare-root, (ii the container type Plantagrah II and (iii the container type Gocko. Provenance, as well as the combined influence of provenance and production method had minimal influence on the variability of one and two years old Austrian pine seedlings. Nevertheless, the production method had the highest influence. The production system, besides its importance in nursery, will have a high influence on seedlings growth during the first year after planting. Considering the results of this study (e.g. the highest values of the diameter, number of lateral roots, shoot and root dry weight, and quality index and the lowest value of SQ and satisfactory value of S:R, we can conclude that the seedlings produced in container type Gocko led to the highest seedlings quality, recommended especially for afforestation on hard sites.     

  13. Modeling glacier beds in the Austrian Alps: How many lakes will form in future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Dominik; Geilhausen, Martin; Linsbauer, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Glacial retreat exposes landscapes with relief characteristics greatly differing from the former ice covered surfaces. If glacial retreat exposes natural basins capable of forming proglacial lakes, then the downstream hydrologic and geomorphic systems in such catchments will be significantly altered due to discharge modifications, sediment trapping, decoupling effects and long term sediment storage (e.g. Geilhausen et al. 2013). Further implications are related to hydropower management, tourism and natural hazards. Consequently, sound knowledge of present day glacier beds ("proglacial zones of tomorrow") and in particular the total number, locations and characteristics of overdeepenings are of importance. For Austria, however, this important information about significant future changes of high alpine regions is yet missing. An interdisciplinary research project is currently in preparation to close this gap. This paper presents results of a pilot study. We used a novel GIS-based approach (GlabTop, cf. Linsbauer et al. 2012) to compute approximate glacier beds in the Austrian Alps. GlabTop ('Glacier bed Topography') is based on an empirical relation between average basal shear stress and elevation range of individual glaciers and makes use of digital elevation models (DEM), glacier outlines and branch lines (i.e. a set of lines covering all important glacier branches). DEMs and glacier outlines were derived from the Austrian glacier inventory (1998) and branch lines were manually digitized. The inventory includes 911 glaciers of which 876 (96%) were considered and 35 were excluded due to size restrictions ( 0.01 km²) with the potential of forming proglacial lakes when glacier retreat reveals the bed. The total area and volume of all overdeepenings is approx. 10 km² and 236 Mio m³ respectively and 33 lakes will be larger than 1 km³. A total glacier volume of 16 ± 5 km³ with an average ice thickness of 36 ± 11 m was calculated for 1998. Comparisons with

  14. Past and future of the Austrian snow cover - results from the CC-Snow project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Ulrich; Marke, Thomas; Hanzer, Florian; Ragg, Hansjörg; Kleindienst, Hannes; Wilcke, Renate; Gobiet, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    This study has the goal to simulate the evolution of the Austrian snow cover from 1971 to 2050 by means of a coupled modelling scheme, and to estimate the effect of climate change on the evolution of the natural snow cover. The model outcomes are interepreted with focus on both the future natural snow conditions, and the effects on winter skiing tourism. Therefore the regional temperature-index snow model SNOWREG is applied, providing snow maps with a spatial resolution of 250 m. The model is trained by means of assimilating local measurements and observed natural snow cover patterns. Meteorological forcing consists of the output of four realizations of the ENSEMBLES project for the A1B emission scenario. The meteorological variables are downscaled and error corrected with a quantile based empirical-statistical method on a daily time basis. The control simulation is 1971-2000, and the scenario simulation 2021-2050. Spatial interpolation is performed on the basis of parameter-elevation relations. We compare the four different global/regional climate model combinations and their effect on the snow modelling, and we explain the patterns of the resulting snow cover by means of regional climatological characteristics. The provinces Tirol and Styria serve as test regions, being typical examples for the two climatic subregions of Austria. To support the interpretation of the simulation results we apply indicators which enable to define meaningful measures for the comparison of the different periods and regions. Results show that the mean duration of the snow cover will decrease by 15 to 30 days per winter season, mostly in elevations between 2000 and 2500 m. Above 3000 m the higher winter precipitation can compensate this effect, and mean snow cover duration may even slightly increase. We also investigate the local scale by application of the physically based mountain snow model AMUNDSEN. This model is capable of producing 50 m resolution output maps for indicators

  15. Effects of crop management, soil type, and climate on N2O emissions from Austrian Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Sigmund, Elisabeth; Kasper, Martina; Kitzler, Barbara; Haas, Edwin; Wandl, Michael; Strauss, Peter; Poetzelsberger, Elisabeth; Dersch, Georg; Winiwarter, Wilfried; Amon, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    Within the project FarmClim ("Farming for a better climate") we assessed recent N2O emissions from two selected regions in Austria. Our aim was to deepen the understanding of Austrian N2O fluxes regarding region specific properties. Currently, N2O emissions are estimated with the IPCC default emission factor which only considers the amount of N-input as an influencing factor for N2O emissions. We evaluated the IPCC default emission factor for its validity under spatially distinct environmental conditions. For this two regions for modeling with LandscapeDNDC have been identified in this project. The benefit of using LandscapeDNDC is the detailed illustration of microbial processes in the soil. Required input data to run the model included daily climate data, vegetation properties, soil characteristics and land management. The analysis of present agricultural practices was basis for assessing the hot spots and hot moments of nitrogen emissions on a regional scale. During our work with LandscapeDNDC we were able to adapt specific model algorithms to Austrian agricultural conditions. The model revealed a strong dependency of N2O emissions on soil type. We could estimate how strongly soil texture affects N2O emissions. Based on detailed soil maps with high spatial resolution we calculated region specific contribution to N2O emissions. Accordingly we differentiated regions with deviating gas fluxes compared to the predictions by the IPCC inventory methodology. Taking region specific management practices into account (tillage, irrigation, residuals) calculation of crop rotation (fallow, catch crop, winter wheat, barley, winter barley, sugar beet, corn, potato, onion and rapeseed) resulted in N2O emissions differing by a factor of 30 depending on preceding crop and climate. A maximum of 2% of N fertilizer input was emitted as N2O. Residual N in the soil was a major factor stimulating N2O emissions. Interannual variability was affected by varying N-deposition even in case

  16. Inverting the pyramid! Extent and quality of food advertised on Austrian television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missbach, Benjamin; Weber, Adelheid; Huber, Elke M; König, Jürgen S

    2015-09-18

    Research showed that food marketing for children frequently contradicts national dietary guidelines. Children, unlike adults, are not able to understand the persuasiveness of the advertisements with its short- and long-term effects on health, thus the common international tenor is to restrict food marketing. In the European Union, marketing restriction based on self-regulation have been initiated (EU Pledge Nutrition Criteria). The study aims contribute to depict the status quo of television advertisement targeted at children before the pledged initiative came into full effect. In this study we analyze the quality and displaying frequency of a set of advertisements targeted at children broadcasted on Austrian television. Promoted food products targeted at children or adults were identified. Category-based analysis of the displayed food was performed based on the Austrian Nutrition guidelines (number of displayed food per food category). The children's food content was analyzed according to the newly established nutritional quality criteria for advertised food in the EU to assess the nutritional quality of the depicted food. In total, 360 h of video material was recorded in February and March 2014. A set of 1919 food advertisements, with 15.1 % targeted at children were broadcasted. Of all food advertisements targeted at children, 92.4 % was for fatty, sweet and salty snacks, while no advertisements for vegetables, legumes or fruits were shown. From all food advertisements for children, 65.9 % originated from participating companies of the EU Pledge Nutrition Criteria. Further analysis revealed that 95.9 % of the advertised food for children showed at least one aspect of nonconformity with the EU Pledge Nutrition Criteria; on the contrary 64.7 % of the displayed food advertisement also featured at least one desirable food component (e.g. high fibre content, high protein content). The present research suggests that the majority of advertised food for children do not

  17. Quality assurance and quality control methodologies used within the austrian UV monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mario, B.

    2004-01-01

    The Austrian UVB monitoring network is operational since 1997. Nine detectors for measuring erythemally weighted solar UV irradiance are distributed over Austria in order to cover the main populated areas as well as different levels of altitude. The detectors are calibrated to indicate the UV-Index, the internationally agreed unit for erythemally weighted solar UV irradiance. Calibration is carried out in the laboratory for determination of spectral sensitivity of each detector, and under the sun for absolute comparison with a well-calibrated, double-monochromator spectro-radiometer. For the conversion from detector-weighted units to erythemally weighted units a lookup table is used, which is calculated using a radiative transfer model and which reflects the dependence of the conversion on the solar zenith angle and total ozone content of the atmosphere. The uncertainty of the calibration is about ±7%, dominated by the uncertainty of the calibration lamp for the spectro-radiometer (±4%). The long-term stability of this type of detectors has been found to be not satisfactory. Therefore, routinely every year all detectors are completely re-calibrated. Variations of the calibration factors up to ±10% are found. Thus, during routine operation, several measures take place for quality control. The measured data are compared to results of model calculations with a radiative transfer model, where clear sky and an aerosol-free atmosphere are assumed. At each site, the UV data are also compared with data from a co-located pyrano-meter measuring total solar irradiance. These two radiation quantities are well correlated, especially on clear days and when the ozone content is taken into account. If suspicious measurements are found for one detector in the network, a well-calibrated travelling reference detector of the same type is set up side-by-side, allowing the identification of relative differences of ∼3%. If necessary, a recalibration is carried out. As the main aim

  18. The Austrian breast implant register: recent trends in implant-based breast surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurzer, Paul; Rappl, Thomas; Friedl, Herwig; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Spendel, Stephan; Hoflehner, Helmut; Parvizi, Daryousch

    2014-12-01

    Due to the fact that the number of breast implant surgeries for cosmetic and medical purposes is rising yearly, a discussion about the quality of service for both patients and physicians is more important than ever. To this end, we reviewed the Austrian Breast Implant Register with one specific question in mind: What are the trends? In the statistical analysis of the Austrian Breast Implant Register, we were able to identify 13,112 registered breast implants between 2004 and 2012. The whole dataset was then divided into medical and cosmetic groups. We focused on device size, surface characteristics, filling material, device placement and incision site. All factors were considered for all examined years. In summary, the most used device had a textured surface (97 %) and silicone gel as the filling material (93 %). The mean size of implants for the cosmetic group was 240 cc, placement was submuscular (58 %) and the incision site was inframammary (67 %). In the medical group, the mean size was 250 cc. Yearly registrations had their peak in 2008 (1,898 registered devices); from this year on, registrations decreased annually. A slight trend away from subglandular placement in the cosmetic group was noted. Also, the usage of implants with polyurethane surface characteristics has increased since 2008. The smooth surface implants had a peak usage in 2006 and their usage decreased steadily from then on whereas the textured surface was steady over the years. Keeping the problems related to the quality of breast implants in mind, we could recommend an obligatory national register. Organisations of surgeons and governments should develop and establish these registers. Furthermore, an all-encompassing international register should be established by the European Union and the American FDA (Food and Drug Administration); this might be useful in comparing the individual country registers and also would help in delivering "evidence based" medicine in cosmetic and medical procedures

  19. Multi-methodical realisation of the new Austrian climate maps for 1971-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, I.; Böhm, R.; Hiebl, J.; Reisenhofer, S.; Schöner, W.

    2010-09-01

    Constantly changing climate, the further development of geostatistical interpolation methods and the availability of a higher resolved digital elevation model gave reason for updating the most frequently demanded climate maps out of the Austrian digital climate atlas (ÖKLIM) from 1961-1990 to 1971-2000. The resulting 19 grids concern 30-year-means of air temperature (annual, January, July means) and derived indices (ice days, frost days, freeze-thaw days, summer days, hot days, heating degree days), precipitation (annual, winter half-year, summer half-year sums) and derived indices (days with precipitation, percentage of solid precipitation), snow (sum of fresh-fallen snow, snow cover duration, maximum snow depth) and sunshine (January, July absolute sunshine duration) parameters. For application in all branches of geosciences (e.g. climate variability and modelling, hydrology, biogeography, natural hazards) as well as for planning in all kinds of contexts (e.g. agriculture, tourism, generation of renewable energy, climate change adaption) such digital grids of standard climate information are greatly demanded and likely to gain even more importance in the near future. Data preparation was carried out with large effort. In order to avoid adverse border effects and to guarantee an equal state of quality across all parts of the country, the study region was extended beyond the national borders and stations from all neighbouring countries were requested. The final data collection includes between 319 (percentage of solid precipitation) and 1,399 (annual precipitation sum) records from eleven national and foreign institutes. To achieve a station density as high as possible, data gaps of up to five or ten years were filled considering the same parameter at reference stations or a related parameter station-wise. According to the climate parameter, different geostatistical interpolation methods were applied. Multiple regressions against elevation, longitude, latitude and

  20. Doping in sports: knowledge and attitudes among parents of Austrian junior athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, C; Leichtfried, V; Schaiter, R; Fürhapter, C; Müller, D; Schobersberger, W

    2015-02-01

    Strategies for doping prevention are based on prior identification of opportunities for intervention. There is no current research focusing on the potential role in doping prevention, which might be played by the parents of junior elite athletes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes toward doping among parents of Austrian junior athletes and to analyze factors potentially influencing these beliefs. In this study, two questionnaires were distributed to 1818 student athletes, each with instructions that these surveys were to be completed by their parents (n(total) = 3636). Parents filled in questionnaires at home without observation. Responses from 883 parents were included in this analysis. Compared to female parents, male parents demonstrated significantly better knowledge about doping and its side effects and were more likely to be influenced by their own sporting careers and amounts of sports activities per week. Parental sex did not demonstrate a significant influence on responses reflecting attitudes toward doping. Additional research is needed to compare these results with young athletes' knowledge and attitudes to determine if and to what degree parental attitudes and beliefs influence the behavior and attitudes of their children. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Foodborne gastroenteritis outbreak in an Austrian healthcare facility caused by asymptomatic, norovirus-excreting kitchen staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, D; Kuo, H-W; Hell, M; Kasper, S; Lederer, I; Mikula, C; Springer, B; Allerberger, F

    2011-03-01

    An outbreak of norovirus GGII.4 2006b affected an Austrian 600-bed healthcare facility from 15 to 27 March 2009. A total of 204 patients, residents and staff fitted the outbreak case definition; 17 (8.3%) were laboratory-confirmed. Foodborne origin was suspected in the 114 patient and resident cases with onset 15-18 March. A case-cohort study was performed to test the hypothesis that consumption of dishes offered on 14, 15 and 16 March (risk days) was associated with increased risk of infection. Data on food exposure of 62% (317/510) of the patient and resident cohort were available for a simultaneous retrospective cohort study. The case-cohort analysis revealed that consumption of sliced cold sausage offered on 15 March [odds ratio (OR): 3.98; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18-14.1], a meat dish with salad (adjusted OR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.19-4.08) and a rolled spinach pancake (adjusted OR: 2.17; 95% CI: 1.27-3.71) on 16 March were independent risk factors. It is likely that one of the five asymptomatic excretors among the kitchen staff on duty on the risk days was the source of food contamination. The case-cohort study design was found to be a valid alternative to the retrospective cohort study design for the investigation of a suspected foodborne outbreak in a large cohort. Copyright © 2010 The Hospital Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Austrian consensus on the definition and treatment of portal hypertension and its complications (Billroth II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck-Radosavljevic, Markus; Angermayr, Bernhard; Datz, Christian; Ferlitsch, Arnulf; Ferlitsch, Monika; Fuhrmann, Valentin; Häfner, Michael; Kramer, Ludwig; Maieron, Andreas; Payer, Berit; Reiberger, Thomas; Stauber, Rudolf; Steininger, Rudolf; Trauner, Michael; Thurnher, Siegfried; Ulbrich, Gregor; Vogel, Wolfgang; Zoller, Heinz; Graziadei, Ivo

    2013-04-01

    In November 2004, the Austrian Society of Gastroenterology and Hepatology (ÖGGH) held for the first time a consensus meeting on the definitions and treatment of portal hypertension and its complications in the Billroth-Haus in Vienna, Austria (Billroth I-Meeting). This meeting was preceded by a meeting of international experts on portal hypertension with some of the proponents of the Baveno consensus conferences (http://www.oeggh.at/videos.asp). The consensus itself is based on the Baveno III consensus with regard to portal hypertensive bleeding and the suggestions of the International Ascites Club regarding the treatment of ascites. Those statements were modified by new knowledge derived from the recent literature and also by the current practice of medicine as agreed upon by the participants of the consensus meeting. In October 2011, the ÖGGH organized the second consensus meeting on portal hypertension and its complications in Vienna (Billroth II-Meeting). The Billroth II-Guidelines on the definitions and treatment of portal hypertension and its complications take into account the developments of the last 7 years, including the Baveno-V update and several key publications.

  3. Images of the Second World War in Austrian Literature after 1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Müller

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The author examines selected examples of post-1945 Austrian literature, asking what pictures of the Second World War they imparted and what role they played when, certainly from 1948 on, a certain image of history began to take shape in Austria against the background of the Cold War. This image involved a fade-out in particular of the racist nature of the war, and it had a collectively exonerating and distorting impact. Attention is paid to the stories and novels of former participants in the war and National Socialists, such as, for example, Erich Landgrebe, Erich Kern, Hans Gustl Kernmayr, Kurt Ziesel. A contrast is seen in the anti-war novel, Letzte Ausfahrt (Last Exit (1952 by the former soldier Herbert Zand, who turns against the dominant image of history, as well as in Ingeborg Bachmann's use of war memories as a topic. The texts are read as a reservoir of selective memory: on the one hand they are critical, individual counter-memories and on the other hand, they make a positive contribution to the formation of the aforesaid collective image. One may say that a war of perception was fought around the Second World War; it was undoubtedly won in the immediate post-war years by those literary works that legitimized or at least trivialized the war. The critical voices of Herbert Zand, Gerhard Fritsch, and Ingeborg Bachmann were unfortunately the quieter ones and were not particularly successful in their time.

  4. [Voluntary stopping eating and drinking (VSED) : A position paper of the Austrian Palliative Society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feichtner, Angelika; Weixler, Dietmar; Birklbauer, Alois

    2018-05-01

    In some cases terminally ill patients fear of prolonged dying and suffering can manifest itself in the voluntary refusal of food and fluids, aiming to accelerate the dying process. This represents a considerable area of conflict, because of the ethical responsibility to not aid a person's death but also to respect a patients autonomy.There is a clear separation between an assisted suicide and following a patient's wishes. Not to accept the voluntary refusal of FVNF would have to be considered as forced treatment of patients while they are capable of self-determination.Several symptoms associated with or caused by voluntary refusal of food and fluids do require palliative care. It is important to be aware, that caring for dying patients refusing food and fluids and accepting their choice is not synonymous with assisted suicide. Rather is it part of medical and nursing care for patients during their dying-process.An interprofessional working group of the Austrian Palliative Society (OPG) intends to shed light on the legal, ethical, medical and nursing related aspects concerning this subject of growing public and professional interest.

  5. Coordinated subprojects of the Austrian forest damage monitoring system; Koordinierte Teilprojekte des Oesterr. Waldschaden-Beobachtungssystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollanschuetz, J

    1993-12-31

    Any actions to preserve nature as the base of our survival needs to rely on knowledge about the condition of ecosystems and their `evolutionary` trends. A monitoring system ensuring timely detection of a critical `evolution` of forests as sensitive bio-indicators is an absolute must when addressing the global threat to our living environment. The Austrian forest damage monitoring system addresses this task. It involves subprojects and interdisciplinary studies integrated within this biomonitoring system to enhance our knowledge about and detection capabilities for forest diseases and injuries. (orig.) [Deutsch] Massnahmen zur Bewahrung der Natur als Lebensgrundlage setzen das Wissen ueber den Zustand der Oekosysteme und Kenntnisse ueber deren Entwicklung voraus. Ein Ueberwachungssystem das rechtzeitig kritische Entwicklung am sensiblen Bioindikator Wald erkennen laesst, ist angesichts der Anzeichen einer globalen Bedrohung der belebten Umwelt eine zwingende Selbstverstaendlichkeit. Mit dem Waldschaden-Beobachtungssystem wird diesen Aufgabenstellungen Rechnung getragen. Durch die in diesem Biomonitoring-System integrierten Teilprojekte und interdisziplinaeren Untersuchungen wird auch ein wesentlicher Beitrag zur Erkennung von Ursachen fuer Waldschaeden und Waldkrankheiten geleistet. (orig.)

  6. Enduring Power of Attorney (EPoA – comparison between Austrian and German Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ganner

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ENGLISH: With the establishment of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD the treatment of people with disabilities is changing from a protective perspective to a rights - based approach. The Enduring Power of Attorney (EPoA is an important instrument, which helps with the implementation of the CRPD into national law. As an instrument of self - determined substituted decision - making it is recognised as the best practice model to safeguard the autonomy of people suffering the deprivations of age and other disabilities. This article touches briefly on general supported and substituted decision - making instruments and then goes on to examine the differences and similarities, advantages and disadvantages b e- tween Austrian and German laws concerning EPoAs. DEUTSCH: Mit der Umsetzung der UN-Behindertenrechtskonvention findet ein Paradigmenwechsel und Umdenken im Umgang mit Personen mit Behinderungen statt. Der Primat der Fürsorge weicht einem liberalen, auf Menschenrechten basierenden Ansatz. In diesem Kontext ist die Vorsorgevollmacht ein effektives Mittel, das die Implementation der UN-Behindertenrechtskonvention in nationales Recht vorantreibt und die Selbstbestimmung und Eigenständigkeit altersbedingt eingeschränkter Menschen und von Menschen mit Behinderungen gewährleistet. Dieser Artikel beschäftigt sich einleitend mit allgemeinen Rechtsinstrumenten der (unterstützten Entscheidungsfindung bei nicht selbst entscheidungsfähigen Personen und analysiert in weiterer Folge Gemeinsamkeiten und Unterschiede sowie Vor- und Nachteile der Vorsorgevollmacht nach österreichischem und deutschem Recht.

  7. Declining ambient air pollution and lung function improvement in Austrian children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, Manfred; Moshammer, Hanns; Kundi, Michael

    Three thousand four hundred fifty-one Austrian elementary school children were examined (between 2 and 8 times) by spirometry by standardized methods, over a 5 yr period. The districts where they lived were grouped into those where NO 2 declined during this period (by at least 30 μg/m 3 measured as half year means) and those with less or no decline in ambient NO 2. In both groups of districts, SO 2 and TSP fell by similar amounts over this period. A continuous improvement of MEF25 (maximum exspiratory flow rate at 25% vital capacity) was found in districts with declining ambient NO 2. Populations did not differ in respect of anthropometric factors, passive smoking or socioeconomic status. A birth cohort from this study population which was followed up to age 18 confirmed the improved growth of MEF25 with decline in NO 2, while the improved growth of forced vital capacity was more related to decline in SO 2. This study provides the first evidence that improvements in the outdoor air quality during the 1980s are correlated with health benefits, and suggest that adverse effects on lung function related to ambient air pollution are reversible before adulthood. Improvement of small airway functions appeared to be more dependent on reductions of NO 2 than reduction in SO 2 and TSP.

  8. Photosynthetic temperature adaptation of Pinus cembra within the timberline ecotone of the Central Austrian Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Gerhard; Oberhuber, Walter; Walder, Lisa; Spieler, Daniela; Gruber, Andreas

    2010-04-01

    Temperature is suggested to determine the upper limit of tree life. Therefore, future climate warming may be of importance for tree distribution within the European Alps, where low temperatures limit carbon metabolism.We focused on the effects of air and soil temperature on net photosynthesis (P(n)) of Pinus cembra an evergreen climax species of the timberline ecotone of the Central Austrian Alps. Light response and temperature response curves were estimated along an altitudinal gradient ranging from the forest limit up to the krummholz limit in both summer and fall.In general, P(n) was significantly lower in fall as compared to summer. Nevertheless, independent from season mean P(n) values tended to increase with elevation and were positively correlated with root zone temperatures. The specific leaf area by contrast declined with increasing elevation. Furthermore, the temperature optimum of net photosynthesis declined with increasing elevation and was positively correlated with the mean maximum air temperature of the 10 days prior the date of measurement.Thus, our findings appear to reflect a long-term adaptation of the photosynthetic apparatus of Pinus cembra to the general temperature conditions with respect to elevation combined with a short term acclimation to the prevailing temperature regime.

  9. Cornerstones of the Austrian radon risk communication strategy; Eckpfeiler der oesterreichischen Radonrisikokommunikationsstrategie (OeRRKS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunte, A.; Ringer, W. [AGES, Linz (Austria). Oesterreichische Fachstelle fuer Radon

    2015-07-01

    On behalf of the Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management (BMLFUW), the National Radon Centre of Austria developed the National Radon Risk Communication Strategy. The superior goal is the reduction of the radon exposure of Austrian citizens as well as the reduction of radon-related lung cancer deaths. Austria, like many other countries, follows the approach to raise awareness and to inform the public to achieve this goal. The presented strategy deals with the question of how radon protection issues can be communicated to the public, existing fears can be reduced and affected people can be motivated to take action (perform a radon test, if necessary, mitigate or install preventive measures in new buildings). The cornerstones of the National Radon Risk Communication Strategy can be summarized as follows: - Definition of communication goals - Identification and categorization of target groups - Development of specific key messages for each of the target groups - Determination of communication channels and assessment of their efficiency - Integration of the radon issue in education and training - Cooperation with relevant organizations and platforms. The communication objectives, target groups and communication paths (and their evaluation) will be discussed during the presentation in detail.

  10. The liberalization of the European energy market from the perspective of the Austrian regional power company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sander, H.

    1999-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the liberalization of the European energy sector from an Austrian perspective, emphasizing its effect on a regional power company (KELAG). The energy market's changing conditions are creating new opportunities for consumers that allow them to optimize their ability to fulfill their power requirements. Decentralized solutions are now just as viable for large industrial customers as the ability to have all energy supplied through the utility network. In addition, partnerships with independent power producers (IPP's) or cooperation between the large customers in energy production can be considered. From a regional perspective, the central management concept of KELAG is the answer to an altered market situation, since this concept created tremendous potential for streamlining the management of energy production and operation of the network. The liberalization of the energy market for large industrial customers in Carinthia's electricity sector was preceded by a series of important decisions. The Verbundgesellschaft combine their generating facilities. In the future the power plants of Draukraft in Carinthia will be supervised and controlled remotely from KELAG's central control unit in Klagenfurt, as a result of which the central control unit becomes the primary energy control for Carinthia. (author)

  11. Joint Annual Meeting of the Swiss Physical Society and the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The meeting was organised - as every two years - as a joint meeting with the Austrian Physical Society ((ÖPG) and the Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy (SSAA). The Swiss Institute of Particle Physics (CHIPP) participated additionally to their usual 2-year rhythm. We also welcomed for the first time the NCCR MARVEL (Computational Design and Discovery of Novel Materials). They all together guarantee an exciting conference covering physics at its best. This meeting was hosted by CERN, Genève. The plenary sessions gave an overview of the present status of research in molecular spintronics, biophotonic micro manipulation of cells, gravitational waves, spectroscopy of trapped antihydrogen atoms, reflective optical systems for astronomical applications, trapped-ion interfaces for quantum networks and quantum photonics. The topical sessions were dedicated to: Applied Physics and Plasma Physics; Astronomy and Astrophysics; Atomic Physics and Quantum Optics; Biophysics, Medical Physics and Soft Matter; Condensed Matter Physics; Correlated-Electron Physics in Transition-Metal Oxides; Earth, Atmosphere and Environmental Physics; Emergent phenomena in novel low-dimensional materials; History of Physics; Magnetism and Spintronics at the Nanoscale; Nuclear, Particle- and Astrophysics; Physics in Startups; Scientific Opportunities with SwissFEL; Surfaces, Interfaces and Thin Films; Theoretical Physics. Those contributions which are in the INIS subject scope are indexed individually.

  12. Austrian height and body proportion references for children aged 4 to under 19 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleiss, Andreas; Lassi, Michael; Blümel, Peter; Borkenstein, Martin; Kapelari, Klaus; Mayer, Michael; Schemper, Michael; Häusler, Gabriele

    2013-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated differences between national and the WHO reference curves in children older than 5 years. Moreover, reference curves for body proportions (sitting height, subischial leg length and their ratio) based on state-of-the-art statistics are not available. To develop reference curves for height and body proportions for use in Austria and compare the curves with WHO reference curves. To estimate and statistically investigate extreme percentiles. A sample of ∼14 500 children between 4-19 years of age was drawn via schooling institutions, stratified by provinces according to age- and sex-specific population proportions. GAMLSS models were used for a flexible estimation of percentile curves. After the age of 5 years national reference curves are more suitable than the WHO reference curves for clinical use in Austria. These height curves are very similar to the German reference curves published recently. Therefore, these reference curves for criteria of body proportions are recommended for use in other populations. Further validation studies are needed to establish whether the recently recommended -2.5 and -3.0 SD for height are a sensitive and specific cut-off in the diagnostic work-up for children with a suspected growth disorder using this new Austrian height chart.

  13. Between resentment and aid: German and Austrian psychiatrist and neurologist refugees in Great Britain since 1933.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenau, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    This article is a historiographical exploration of the experiences that German and Austrian émigré psychiatrists and neurologists made in Great Britain since 1933, after the Nazi Governments in Central Europe had ousted them from their positions. When placing these occurrences in a wider historiographical perspective, the in-depth analysis provided here also describes the living and working conditions of the refugee neuroscientists on the British Isles. In particular, it looks at the very elements and issues that influenced the international forced migration of physicians and psychiatrists during the 1930s and 1940s. Only a fraction of refugee neuroscientists had however been admitted to Britain. Those lucky ones were assisted by a number of charitable, local, and academic organizations. This article investigates the rather lethargic attitude of the British government and medical circles towards German-speaking Jewish refugee neuroscientists who wished to escape Nazi Germany. It will also analyze the help that those refugees received from the academic establishment and British Jewish organizations, while likewise examining the level and extent of the relationship between social and scientific resentments in Great Britain. A special consideration will be given to the aid programs that had already began in the first year after the Nazis had seized power in Germany, with the foundation of the British Assistance Council by Sir William Henry Beveridge (1879-1963) in 1933.

  14. Natural radionuclides in Austrian mineral water and their sequential measurement by fast methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallner, Gabriele; Wagner, Rosmarie; Katzlberger, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Ten samples of Austrian mineral water were investigated with regard to the natural radionuclides 228 Ra, 226 Ra, 210 Pb, 210 Po, 238 U and 234 U. The radium isotopes as well as 210 Pb were measured by liquid scintillation counting (LSC) after separation on a membrane loaded with element-selective particles (Empore TM Radium Disks) and 210 Po was determined by α-spectroscopy after spontaneous deposition onto a copper planchette. Uranium was determined by ICP-MS as well as by α-spectroscopy after ion separation and microprecipitation with NdF 3 . From the measured activity concentrations the committed effective doses for adults and babies were calculated and compared to the total indicative dose of 0.1 mSv/a given in the EC Drinking Water Directive as a maximum dose. The dominant portion of the committed effective dose was due to the radium isotopes; the dose from 228 Ra in most samples clearly exceeded the dose from 226 Ra

  15. Success Factors for an E-Government Strategy: Austrian Experiences, Indonesian Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Behrens

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Focus of this paper are success factors for the implementation of an E-Government strategy. While concepts for a sophisticated strategy process in Public Sector are delivered on a regular basis, the gap between ambitious planning and its implementation seems to get wider. Authors seek to define what makes a “good strategy” in order to enhance management capacity. Meanwhile some scholars from Political Science see limitation of Governments on announcements which are not followed up by sufficient action rather as systematic problems, challenging concept and rules of liberal western democracy, or owed to growing complexity of Governance under the conditions of globalization. In context of the introduction of New Public Management and its perception of citizens as customers and on the basis of new available technical options in Information Society, a key Governance reform project in European and other Countries over the last fifteen years has been the introduction of E-Government. European market leader in this field is Austria. The author reviews concept and implementation experiences of the Austrian E-Government strategy, analyzes key success factors and opens a discussion, under which conditions a successful implementation of E-Government can take place in Indonesia.

  16. Influence of regulatory requirements for nuclear power plants on the backfitting of Austrian research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.; Hammer, J.

    1985-01-01

    In general the licensing and backfitting activities have once more demonstrated the fact that safety assessment of a research reactor is by no means just a scaled-down version of a nuclear power plant licensing procedure. Naturally the risk potential is much lower, however, the very nature of research calls for much more flexibility in operation, for temporary installations and for experimental methods which cannot be covered by detailed regulations in advance. Therefore the application of nuclear power reactor criteria to such facilities has to be considered with extreme caution. If NPP standards are applicable at all, they have to be carefully interpreted in each individual case. It is interesting to compare the original reactor safety reports with their modern versions: emphasis has shifted from reactivity accident calculations to thermal-hydraulic considerations, to better instrumentation (both in quality and quantity) and to more effort in reducing, measuring and documenting all radioactive effluents. This tendency is also reflected in most of the backfitting requirements. In summary, the result of the lengthy licensing and backfitting process is certainly a considerable improvement in performance and safety of the Austrian research reactors

  17. Joint annual meeting of the Swiss Physical and the Society Austrian Physical Society

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The next annual meeting, hosted by CERN, will take place from 21 - 25 August 2017 in Genève at two different locations. Starting at CERN on 21st with internal meetings of some of the participating societies, the 22nd will be dedicated to plenary and invited talks and more (see below). We will then move to the Centre International de Conférences de Genève (CICG) on 23 - 25 August where further plenary talks and all topical sessions will take place. The meeting is organised - as every two years - as a joint meeting with the Austrian Physical Society (ÖPG) and the Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy (SSAA). The Swiss Institute of Particle Physics (CHIPP) will participate additionally to their usual 2-year rhythm. We also welcome for the first time the NCCR MARVEL (Computational Design and Discovery of Novel Materials). They all together guarantee an exciting conference covering physics at its best. Many thanks go to CERN for their generous help and support with the organisation.

  18. Continuous rainfall simulation for regional flood risk assessment - application in the Austrian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Jose Luis; Nester, Thomas; Komma, Jürgen; Blöschl, Günter

    2017-04-01

    Generation of realistic synthetic spatial rainfall is of pivotal importance for assessing regional hydroclimatic hazard as the input for long term rainfall-runoff simulations. The correct reproduction of the observed rainfall characteristics, such as regional intensity-duration-frequency curves, is necessary to adequately model the magnitude and frequency of the flood peaks. Furthermore, the replication of the observed rainfall spatial and temporal correlations allows to model important other hydrological features like antecedent soil moisture conditions before extreme rainfall events. In this work, we present an application in the Tirol region (Austrian alps) of a modification of the model presented by Bardossy and Platte (1992), where precipitation is modeled on a station basis as a mutivariate autoregressive model (mAr) in a Normal space, and then transformed to a Gamma-distributed space. For the sake of simplicity, the parameters of the Gamma distributions are assumed to vary monthly according to a sinusoidal function, and are calibrated trying to simultaneously reproduce i) mean annual rainfall, ii) mean daily rainfall amounts, iii) standard deviations of daily rainfall amounts, and iv) 24-hours intensity duration frequency curve. The calibration of the spatial and temporal correlation parameters is performed in a way that the intensity-duration-frequency curves aggregated at different spatial and temporal scales reproduce the measured ones. Bardossy, A., and E. J. Plate (1992), Space-time model for daily rainfall using atmospheric circulation patterns, Water Resour. Res., 28(5), 1247-1259, doi:10.1029/91WR02589.

  19. Analysis of the Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Austrian and Belgian Wheat Germplasm within a Regional Context Based on DArT Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. El-Esawi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of crop genetic diversity and structure provides valuable information needed to broaden the narrow genetic base as well as to enhance the breeding and conservation strategies of crops. In this study, 95 Austrian and Belgian wheat cultivars maintained at the Centre for Genetic Resources (CGN in the Netherlands were characterised using 1052 diversity array technology (DArT markers to evaluate their genetic diversity, relationships and population structure. The rarefacted allelic richness recorded in the Austrian and Belgian breeding pools (A25 = 1.396 and 1.341, respectively indicated that the Austrian germplasm contained a higher genetic diversity than the Belgian pool. The expected heterozygosity (HE values of the Austrian and Belgian pools were 0.411 and 0.375, respectively. Moreover, the values of the polymorphic information content (PIC of the Austrian and Belgian pools were 0.337 and 0.298, respectively. Neighbour-joining tree divided each of the Austrian and Belgian germplasm pools into two genetically distinct groups. The structure analyses of the Austrian and Belgian pools were in a complete concordance with their neighbour-joining trees. Furthermore, the 95 cultivars were compared to 618 wheat genotypes from nine European countries based on a total of 141 common DArT markers in order to place the Austrian and Belgian wheat germplasm in a wider European context. The rarefacted allelic richness (A10 varied from 1.224 (Denmark to 1.397 (Austria. Cluster and principal coordinates (PCoA analyses divided the wheat genotypes of the nine European countries into two main clusters. The first cluster comprised the Northern and Western European wheat genotypes, whereas the second included the Central European cultivars. The structure analysis of the 618 European wheat genotypes was in a complete concordance with the results of cluster and PCoA analyses. Interestingly, a highly significant difference was recorded between regions (26.53%. In

  20. Reproductive performance of Jersey and Fleckvieh × Jersey heifers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unknown

    2015-09-30

    Sep 30, 2015 ... financial health of the dairy enterprise than production losses .... were calculated for each effect, where they were separated using the PDIFF STDERR procedures of SAS. (2009). ..... Statistical Analysis Systems User's Guide.

  1. Choice of optimum size of installations for dual-purpose production of desalted water and electricity, using nuclear power; Le dimensionnement optimum des installations de production mixte d'eau sessalee et d'electricite faisant intervenir l'energie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaussens, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Paris (France)

    1966-07-01

    The author used a method starting with water and power demand curves; this leads to the rational allocation of production costs to water and power within a given market. The power demand curve is needed as it seems improbable to sell at a constant price the enormous quantity of electricity produced by a dual purpose plant. Criteria based on principles of classical economics, help to select objectively desalination methods and plant sizes. On these criteria, normative methods for tariffing action of water and power can be based, while adhering as closely as possible to structure of demand. Examples of such criteria are the maximum profit of the supplier or the maximum satisfaction of the consumers taken collectively. In the first case marginal costs must be equated to marginal revenue, in the second one marginal cost to marginal satisfaction (theory of surpluses). The plant size often determines the choice of desalination process. Therefore the shape of the water demand curve and the economic criterion adopted (public or private ownership, capital restrictions etc.) often determine in this way both size and type of plant. Before deciding on the desalination technique, market surveys and rather subtle economic analyses are therefore necessary. (author) [French] Le probleme est presente en introduisant la notion de courbes de demande d'eau et d'electricite, ce qui permet d'aboutir a un partage rationnel des couts de revient entre eau et electricite dans ]e cadre d'un marche. L'objet de l'etude est, a partir des principes de l'economie classique, de donner des criteres objectifs de selection des dimensions des installations et des techniques de dessalement et d'en deduire une methode normative de tarification des deux produits lies: eau et electricite, en collant autant que possible a la structure de la demande. Ces criteres sont en particulier, soit le maximum de benefice de l'exploitant, soit le maximum de satisfaction des utilisateurs, c'est-a-dire la realisation d

  2. Subclinical hypothyroidism and mortality in a large Austrian cohort: a possible impact on treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovar, Florian Maria; Fang, I-Fei; Perkmann, Thomas; Haslacher, Helmuth; Slavka, Georg; Födinger, Manuela; Endler, Georg; Wagner, Oswald F

    2015-12-01

    Clinical implications of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) are still matter of intense debate, resulting in the controversial discussion whether subclinical hypothyroidism should be treated. We performed a cohort study to evaluate the impact of subclinical hypothyroidism on vascular and overall mortality. Between 02/1993 and 03/2004, a total of 103,135 persons attending the General Hospital Vienna with baseline serum thyrotropin (TSH, thyroid-stimulating hormone) and free thyroxin (fT4) measurements could be enrolled in a retrospective cohort study. Subclinical hypothyroidism was defined by elevated TSH ranging from 4.5 to 20.0 mIU/L and normal fT4 concentration (0.7-1.7 ng/dL). Overall and vascular mortality as primary endpoints were assessed via record linkage with the Austrian Death Registry. A total of 80,490 subjects fulfilled inclusion criteria of whom 3934 participants (3.7%) were classified as SCH (868 males and 3066 females, median age 48 years). The mean follow-up among the 80,490 subjects was 4.1 years yielding an observation period of 373,301 person-years at risk. In a multivariate Cox regression model adjusted for age and gender TSH levels showed a dose-dependent association with all-cause mortality. The association between SCH and overall or vascular mortality was stronger in men below 60 years compared to older males or females. Our data support the hypothesis that SCH might represent an independent risk factor for overall and vascular mortality, especially in men below 60 years. Whether this group would benefit from replacement therapy should be evaluated in interventional studies.

  3. A new CCD-camera neutron radiography detector at the Atominstitute of the Austrian Universities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koerner, S.; Boeck, H.; Rauch, H.; Lehmann, E.

    1999-01-01

    Neutron radiography provides a very efficient tool for non-destructive testing as well as for many applications in fundamental research. A neutron beam penetrating a specimen is attenuated by the sample material and detected by a two dimensional imaging device. The image contains information about materials and structure inside the sample because neutrons are attenuated according to the basic law of radiation attenuation. At the Atominstitute of the Austrian Universities neutron radiographic examinations have been carried out for more than 35 years, mainly with detectors consisting of X-ray films and a Gd- converter enclosed in a vacuum cassette. Presently a neutron tomography set-up is under development. For high quality 3D image reconstruction, about 200 digitized neutron transmission images from different angles of the object are necessary. Therefore the first step was the design of an adequate electronic neutron radiography imaging device. The requirements for a detector suitable for neutron tomography are: exact and reproducible positioning, easy handling, high spatial resolution and dynamic range, high efficiency and a good linearity. The key components of the detector system selected on the basis of the requirements consist of a neutron sensitive scintillator screen, a cooled slow scan CCD camera and a mirror to reflect the light emitted by the scintillator to the CCD camera. The whole assembly is placed in a light tight enclosure. In this paper the strategy of the selection of the individual detector components is described. Comparisons on the influence of the use of different components on the properties of the whole position sensitive imaging device are demonstrated. Finally the new CCD camera neutron radiography detector of the Atominstitute is presented and first results of test measurements performed at the neutron radiography facility NEUTRA at the continuous spallation source SINQ at Paul Scherrer Institute are shown.(author)

  4. Mechanisms of induced susceptibility to Diplodia tip blight in drought-stressed Austrian pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Patrick; Villari, Caterina; Capretti, Paolo; Bonello, Pierluigi

    2015-05-01

    Plants experiencing drought stress are frequently more susceptible to pathogens, likely via alterations in physiology that create favorable conditions for pathogens. Common plant responses to drought include the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the accumulation of free amino acids (AAs), particularly proline. These same phenomena also frequently occur during pathogenic attack. Therefore, drought-induced perturbations in AA and ROS metabolism could potentially contribute to the observed enhanced susceptibility. Furthermore, nitrogen (N) availability can influence AA accumulation and affect plant resistance, but its contributions to drought-induced susceptibility are largely unexplored. Here we show that drought induces accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) shoots, but that shoot infection by the blight and canker pathogen Diplodia sapinea (Fr.) Fuckel leads to large reductions in H2O2 levels in droughted plants. In in vitro assays, H2O2 was toxic to D. sapinea, and the fungus responded to this oxidative stress by increasing catalase and peroxidase activities, resulting in substantial H2O2 degradation. Proline increased in response to drought and infection when examined independently, but unlike all other AAs, proline further increased in infected shoots of droughted trees. In the same tissues, the proline precursor, glutamate, decreased significantly. Proline was found to protect D. sapinea from H2O2 damage, while also serving as a preferred N source in vitro. Fertilization increased constitutive and drought-induced levels of some AAs, but did not affect plant resistance. A new model integrating interactions of proline and H2O2 metabolism with drought and fungal infection of plants is proposed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. A physiotherapy-directed occupational health programme for Austrian school teachers: a cluster randomised pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figl-Hertlein, A; Horsak, B; Dean, E; Schöny, W; Stamm, T

    2014-03-01

    Although physiotherapists have long advocated workplace health, school teachers have not traditionally been a focus of study by these professionals. However, classroom teaching contributes to a range of occupational health issues related to general health as well as ergonomics that can be prevented or addressed by physiotherapists. To undertake a pilot study to explore the potential effects of a physiotherapy-directed occupational health programme individualised for school teachers, develop study methodology and gather preliminary data to establish a 'proof of concept' to inform future studies. Cluster randomised pilot study using a convenience sample. Eight Austrian regional secondary schools. Schools and their teachers were recruited and allocated to an intervention group (IG, n=26 teachers) or a control group (CG, n=43 teachers). Teachers were eligible to participate if they reported no health issues that compromised their classroom responsibilities. The IG participated in an individualised physiotherapy-directed occupational health programme (six 30-minute sessions) related to ergonomics and stress management conducted over a 5-month semester. The CG had a pseudo-intervention of one oral education session. Primary outcomes included scores from the physical and mental components and health transition item of the Short-Form-36 Health Survey questionnaire (SF-36), and emotional well-being and resistance to stress items from the work-related behaviour and experience patterns questionnaire. Data were collected before and after one semester. The primary outcome measure, the SF-36 physical component score, showed a reduction in the CG and no change in the IG, meaning that the CG deteriorated over the study semester while the IG did not show any change. A physiotherapy-directed occupational health programme may prevent deterioration of physical health of school teachers in one semester (proof of concept). This pilot study provided valuable information to inform the

  6. Quasi-dynamic Material Flow Analysis applied to the Austrian Phosphorus cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoboli, Ottavia; Rechberger, Helmut

    2013-04-01

    Phosphorus (P) is one of the key elements that sustain life on earth and that allow achieving the current high levels of food production worldwide. It is a non-renewable resource, without any existing substitute. Because of its current dissipative use by mankind and to its very slow geochemical cycle, this resource is rapidly depleting and it is strongly connected to the problem of ensuring food security. Moreover P is also associated to important environmental problems. Its extraction often generates hazardous wastes, while its accumulation in water bodies can lead to eutrophication, with consequent severe ecological damages. It is therefore necessary to analyze and understand in detail the system of P, in regard to its use and management, to identify the processes that should be targeted in order to reduce the overall consumption of this resource. This work aims at establishing a generic quasi-dynamic model, which describes the Austrian P-budget and which allows investigating the trends of P use in the past, but also selected future scenarios. Given the importance of P throughout the whole anthropogenic metabolism, the model is based on a comprehensive system that encompasses several economic sectors, from agriculture and animal husbandry to industry, consumption and waste and wastewater treatment. Furthermore it includes the hydrosphere, to assess the losses of P into water bodies, due to the importance of eutrophication problems. The methodology applied is Material Flow Analysis (MFA), which is a systemic approach to assess and balance the stocks and flows of a material within a system defined in space and time. Moreover the model is integrated in the software STAN, a freeware tailor-made for MFA. Particular attention is paid to the characteristics and the quality of the data, in order to include data uncertainty and error propagation in the dynamic balance.

  7. Can online benchmarking increase rates of thrombolysis? Data from the Austrian stroke unit registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Julia; Seyfang, Leonhard; Lang, Wilfried

    2013-09-01

    Despite its widespread availability and known safety and efficacy, a therapy with intravenous thrombolysis is still undergiven. We aimed to identify whether nationwide quality projects--like the stroke registry in Austria--as well as online benchmarking and predefined target values can increase rates of thrombolysis. Therefore, we assessed 6,394 out of 48,462 patients with ischemic stroke from the Austrian stroke registry (study period from March 2003 to December 2011) who had undergone thrombolysis treatment. We defined lower level and target values as quality parameters and evaluated whether or not these parameters could be achieved in the past years. We were able to show that rates of thrombolysis in Austria increased from 4.9% in 2003 to 18.3% in 2011. In a multivariate regression model, the main impact seen was the increase over the years [the OR ranges from 0.47 (95% CI 0.32-0.68) in 2003 to 2.51 (95% CI 2.20-2.87) in 2011). The predefined lower and target levels of thrombolysis were achieved at the majority of participating centers: in 2011 the lower value of 5% was achieved at all stroke units, and the target value of 15% was observed at 21 of 34 stroke units. We conclude that online benchmarking and the concept of defining target values as a tool for nationwide acute stroke care appeared to result in an increase in the rate of thrombolysis over the last few years while the variability between the stroke units has not yet been reduced.

  8. Medical studies and Nazi medicine: Nazi medicine as perceived by Austrian medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Stefan; Rásky, Éva; Freidl, Wolfgang

    2016-02-01

    Austrian medical universities have not covered the topic of Nazi medicine in their curricula to any satisfactory degree to date. In the context of medical-ethical education and on-going medical ethics debates, it seems indispensable to be confronted also with the dark chapters of medical history, and especially Nazi medicine. Students should learn to understand controversial discussions, e.g. about euthanasia, in a historical context. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether students had, during their studies, been confronted with Nazi medical crime and whether they considered such a confrontation as important. The survey also focused on extant knowledge about this topic. From late 2012 to May 2013, 341 late semester students of the medical universities in Vienna, Graz, and Innsbruck were questioned about the coverage of Nazi medicine during their courses, using multiple choice questionnaires. The data were evaluated using a descriptive-statistical approach. The study has shown a low level of knowledge of students about Nazi medicine in the three universities. Only a third of the students had ever heard about "Aktion T4". About 65% of the participants found it important to be comprehensively informed about Nazi medicine during their studies, e.g. with a view to their future career. On average across the three universities, only 43% of the students had been confronted with this topic. The study found a clear wish for more information about Nazi medicine. Universities should, therefore, offer students various opportunities and ways of discussing this issue in the university context.

  9. Determining the amount of waste plastics in the feed of Austrian waste-to-energy facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzböck, Therese; Van Eygen, Emile; Rechberger, Helmut; Fellner, Johann

    2017-02-01

    Although thermal recovery of waste plastics is widely practiced in many European countries, reliable information on the amount of waste plastics in the feed of waste-to-energy plants is rare. In most cases the amount of plastics present in commingled waste, such as municipal solid waste, commercial, or industrial waste, is estimated based on a few waste sorting campaigns, which are of limited significance with regard to the characterisation of plastic flows. In the present study, an alternative approach, the so-called Balance Method, is used to determine the total amount of plastics thermally recovered in Austria's waste incineration facilities in 2014. The results indicate that the plastics content in the waste feed may vary considerably among different plants but also over time. Monthly averages determined range between 8 and 26 wt% of waste plastics. The study reveals an average waste plastics content in the feed of Austria's waste-to-energy plants of 16.5 wt%, which is considerably above findings from sorting campaigns conducted in Austria. In total, about 385 kt of waste plastics were thermally recovered in all Austrian waste-to-energy plants in 2014, which equals to 45 kg plastics cap -1 . In addition, the amount of plastics co-combusted in industrial plants yields a total thermal utilisation rate of 70 kg cap -1  a -1 for Austria. This is significantly above published rates, for example, in Germany reported rates for 2013 are in the range of only 40 kg of waste plastics combusted per capita.

  10. From the new Austrian tunneling method to the geoengineering condition evaluation and dynamic controlling method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Shang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The new Austrian tunneling method (NATM is widely applied in design and construction of underground engineering projects. When the type and distribution of unfavorable geological bodies (UGBs associated with their influences on geoengineering are complicated or unfortunately are overlooked, we should pay more attentions to internal features of rocks grades IV and V (even in local but mostly controlling zones. With increasing attentions to the characteristics, mechanism and influences of engineering construction-triggered geohazards, it is crucial to fully understand the disturbance of these geohazards on project construction. A reasonable determination method in construction procedure, i.e. the shape of working face, the type of engineering support and the choice of feasible procedure, should be considered in order to mitigate the construction-triggered geohazards. Due to their high sensitivity to groundwater and in-situ stress, various UGBs exhibit hysteretic nature and failure modes. To give a complete understanding on the internal causes, the emphasis on advanced comprehensive geological forecasting and overall reinforcement treatment is therefore of more practical significance. Comprehensive evaluation of influential factors, identification of UGB, and measures of discontinuity dynamic controlling comprises the geoengineering condition evaluation and dynamic controlling method. In a case of a cut slope, the variations of UGBs and the impacts of key environmental factors are presented, where more severe construction-triggered geohazards emerged in construction stage than those predicted in design and field investigation stages. As a result, the weight ratios of different influential factors with respect to field investigation, design and construction are obtained.

  11. Mapping the value of ecosystem services: A case study from the Austrian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Paletto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem services (ES are considered the conditions and processes through which natural ecosystems sustain and fulfil human life. In the decision making process related to the natural resources management, two key-aspects must be taken into account: the economic value of the benefits provided by ES (provisioning, regulating and cultural services and the spatial distribution of these benefits. The purpose of the paper is to develop a method aimed to capture the economic value of the benefits provided by ES, in order to support the decision makers in the natural resources management. ES are not homogeneous across landscapes nor in space. Consequently, gaining knowledge on the spatial distribution of the economic relevance of ES is a fundamental information to target management actions. This method was tested in a case study in the Austrian Alps (Leiblachtal area in Vorarlberg region, characterized by a high importance of forests and grasslands. The results show that the highest economic values could be achieved for the provisioning services with a range between 200 €/ha year and 1,400€/ha year. The regulating services have also important economic values, but strongly localized in specific areas (i.e. protective forests against natural hazards. The economic values of the cultural services are influenced by the preferences of tourists and varies between 5 €/ha year to 60 €/ha year. The method allowed us to reveal the spatial heterogeneity of provisioning, regulating and cultural ES, depending on the ecological characteristics of the site.

  12. Development of Investment Activities of Commercial Insurance Companies in Slovak, Czech and Austrian Insurance Markets in 2004-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Meheš

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with investments of commercial insurance companies operating in Slovak, Czech and Austrian insurance market in the period of 2004–2009. First of all, development of technical reserves volume as an important prerequisite of investing of commercial insurance companies will be characterized. After that, we evaluate financial placements and investment activities – ratio of total investments and technical reserves. We also present statistical tests by means of which we examine the existence of the relation between the volume of technical reserves and the volume of investments of commercial insurance companies.

  13. Interaction with customers: The Application of Social Media within the Austrian Supply Chain for Food and Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Meixner

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Social media marketing has become a powerful tool of interaction with stakeholders. An increasing number of companies are using social media platforms to initiate active interaction and communication with current and prospective customers. Within this study, certain content and contact features, as well as social media activities of companies of the Austrian food and beverage industry were evaluated. Empirical findings concerning the threats, risks, and opportunities connected with the application of social media are presented. The results imply that social media applications are innovative alternatives for customer relationship management. However, more knowledge on how to properly use social media marketing seems to be necessary.

  14. Evaluation of recommendations on limits of exposure to ultraviolet radiation on the basis of data from the Austrian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keck, G.; Schauberger, G.; Cabaj, A.

    1996-01-01

    For the application of solaria at present the following international recommendations on limits of exposure exist, which differ strongly: 1. IRPA/INIRC (1991): 30 MED/a (i.e. 7.5 kJ/a). 2. IEC 335-2-27 (1978, 1989): 25 kJ/m 2 /a for each region of the body, that is 100 MED/a. On the basis of our data from the Austrian population we give an evaluation of these recommendations for the entire population. This evaluation shows that 100 MED/a is much too high, it seduces rather to use solaria than to restrict their application

  15. The discharge of certain amounts of industrial microplastic from a production plant into the River Danube is permitted by the Austrian legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Aaron; Ramler, David

    2015-05-01

    Numerous studies have quantified the amount of plastic litter in aquatic ecosystems and tried to assess its impacts and threats. This reflects a rising awareness of plastic as an environmental problem. As a next logical step, identifying and regulating the sources must be in the focus of scientific efforts. We report on a spillage of industrial microplastic (IMP) from a production plant situated at an Austrian Danube tributary. This is the first identified point source of IMP litter in freshwater systems. However, due to generous thresholds established by the Austrian government substantial amounts of IMP are legally introduced into running waters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Digital age and the public eHealth perspective: Prevailing health app use among Austrian Internet users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naszay, Marlene; Stockinger, Andreas; Jungwirth, David; Haluza, Daniela

    2017-12-19

    New technological developments affect almost every sector of our daily lives including the healthcare sector. Successful adoption and sustainable integration of eHealth and telemedicine in Public Health strategies (also known as Public eHealth) depend on knowledge and constant evaluation of consumers' needs, proficiencies, and preferences. We therefore assessed how the general Austrian population perceived innovative Public eHealth solutions. The online survey on 562 Austrian adults (58.9% females) collected self-reported data on current and expected use of smartphone-based health applications (apps) of digital natives (35 years and younger) and digital immigrants (aged 35+). In total, 26.7% (95% CI 23.0-30.4) of participants already used health apps, especially lifestyle-associated apps for monitoring exercise habits and nutritional habits. We found substantial digital age group differences; compared to digital immigrants digital natives were more likely to use mobile devices and health apps. Health apps have the potential to improve community health and prevent lifestyle diseases cost-effectively and efficiently, and thus build an important pillar of Public eHealth. With regard to aging societies, healthcare providers could take advantage of consumer-oriented health apps by assessing individual needs of specific target groups such as elderly people.

  17. Secondary Use of Claims Data from the Austrian Health Insurance System with i2b2: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endel, Florian; Duftschmid, Georg

    2016-01-01

    In conformity with increasing international efforts to reuse routine health data for scientific purposes, the Main Association of Austrian Social Security Organisations provides pseudonymized claims data of the Austrian health care system for clinical research. We aimed to examine, whether an integration of the corresponding database into i2b2 would be possible and provide benefits. We applied docker-based software containers and data transformations to set up the system. To assess the benefits of i2b2 we plan to reenact the task of cohort formation of an earlier research project. The claims database was successfully integrated into i2b2. The docker-based installation approach will be published as git repository. The assessment of i2b2's benefits is currently work in progress and will be presented at the conference. Docker enables a flexible, reproducible, and resource-efficient installation of i2b2 within the restricted environment implied by our highly secured target system. First preliminary tests indicated several potential benefits of i2b2 compared to the methods applied during the earlier research project.

  18. Use of the TRIGA Reactor by the Radiochemistry Group of the Atominstitute of the Austrian Universities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bichler, M.; Buchtela, K.; Grass, F.; Ismail, S.

    1994-01-01

    The Radiochemistry Group of the Atominstitute of the Austrian Universities uses the TRIGA Mark II Reactor mainly for neutron activation analysis. Transport of samples to and from the irradiation positions in the reactor is performed by fast pneumatic transfer systems (transfer time 20 msec and 300 msec) and slow conventional transport facilities. Gamma-spectrometric instrumentation equipped with loss free counting systems is used to handle the high count rates up to 500 000 counts/sec. During the last years neutron activation analysis was applied to investigate environmental samples (soil, dust, incineration ash), geological samples (rocks, sediments, fossils, volcanic gases), biological materials (lichens, mushrooms and other plant materials, human diet, biological reference materials), raw materials (phosphate, coal) and archaeological materials (ancient glass). Lichen analysis was used for environmental monitoring. The content of some of the trace elements can be correlated with industrial activities, like manganese content with steel industry, the occurrence of vanadium and nickel with oil firing plants and stainless steel industry, selenium is found in lichen near coal firing plants. The amount of chlorine and sodium indicates the application of salt for road treatment during winter time, aluminum, scandium and hafnium content depends on the amount of dust in the environment. A further environmental application of neutron activation analysis is the determination of trace elements in volcanic gases. The halogens, arsenic, antimony, selenium, tellurium and mercury were determined and their daily output was calculated. The distribution of trace elements in fossils of known age gives us a geochemical key to condition and development of the paleo-environment. For this purpose we determined rare earth elements in 250 million years old microfossils (conodonts). Neutron activation analysis served also for some non scientific but nevertheless useful purposes: Organic

  19. Continuous monitoring of a mountain snowpack in the Austrian Alps by above-ground neutron sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schattan, Paul; Baroni, Gabriele; Oswald, Sascha E.; Schöber, Johannes; Fey, Christine; Francke, Till; Huttenlau, Matthias; Achleitner, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    In alpine catchments the knowledge of the spatially and temporally heterogeneous dynamics of snow accumulation and depletion is crucial for modelling and managing water resources. While snow covered area can be retrieved operationally from remote sensing data, continuous measurements of other snow state variables like snow depth (SD) or snow water equivalent (SWE) remain challenging. Existing methods of retrieving both variables in alpine terrain face severe issues like a lack of spatial representativeness, labour-intensity or discontinuity in time. Recently, promising new measurement techniques combining a larger support with low maintenance cost like above-ground gamma-ray scintillators, GPS interferometric reflectometry or above-ground cosmic-ray neutron sensors (CRNS) have been suggested. While CRNS has proven its potential for monitoring soil moisture in a wide range of environments and applications, the empirical knowledge of using CRNS for snowpack monitoring is still very limited and restricted to shallow snowpacks with rather uniform evolution. The characteristics of an above-ground cosmic-ray neutron sensor (CRNS) were therefore evaluated for monitoring a mountain snowpack in the Austrian Alps (Kaunertal, Tyrol) during three winter seasons. The measurement campaign included a number of measurements during the period from 03/2014 to 06/2016: (i) neutron count measurements by CRNS, (ii) continuous point-scale SD and SWE measurements from an automatic weather station and (iii) 17 Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) with simultaneous SD and SWE surveys. The highest accumulation in terms of SWE was found in 04/2014 with 600 mm. Neutron counts were compared to all available snow data. While previous studies suggested a signal saturation at around 100 mm of SWE, no complete signal saturation was found. A strong non-linear relation was found for both SD and SWE with best fits for spatially distributed TLS based snow data. Initially slightly different shapes were

  20. Results of a first look into the Austrian animal phenological records

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheifinger, H.; Koch, E. [Central Inst. for Meteorology and Geodynamics, Vienna (Austria); Winkler, H. [Konrad Lorenz Inst. for Ethology, Vienna (Austria)

    2005-04-01

    The year to year variability and trends of animal phenological phases (honey bee, cockchafer, 3 butterfly species, swallow and cuckoo) of the Austrian phenological observational network were related to each other and to mean monthly temperatures over the time period 1951-1998. Insect phases were well correlated with each other (r{sup 2} = 0.4 to 0.6) and with temperature (r{sup 2} = 0.25 to 0.55), whereas both bird phases were only well correlated with each other (r{sup 2} = 0.57), but showed low common variance values with temperature and with other animal phases. The slope of the temperature-pheno regression, also termed as temperature sensitivity of the phenological phase, was high in the case of the insect phases (-3 to -5 days/ C), but low in the cases of both bird phases (about -1 days/ C). All animal phenological time series showed a trend towards later occurrence dates. The trends of the bird phases were even significant (p<0.1). There was a marked discrepancy between the trends of all animal phenological and temperature time series, especially between the insects and temperature: the mean temperature time series of February, March and April with the highest common variance with the insect phases showed a strongly increasing trend (0.027 C/year), whereas the first appearance dates of the insects tended to occur later (0.06 to 0.15 days/year). Both bird phases correlated weakly with the mean April temperature (r{sup 2} about 0.1). The temperature trend of April was 0.0003 C/year, whereas the trend of the bird phases was 0.2 days/year for the cuckoo and 0.25 days/year for the swallow. From these observations we conclude that a strong temperature sensitivity of the phenological phase based on the year to year variability (in days/ C) does not necessarily result in corresponding trends of temperature and phenological phase. A strong trend of non-atmospheric factors such as population density influencing the animal phases is suspected. Factors other than local

  1. Formalizing the Austrian Procedure Catalogue: A 4-step methodological analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neururer, Sabrina Barbara; Lasierra, Nelia; Peiffer, Karl Peter; Fensel, Dieter

    2016-04-01

    Due to the lack of an internationally accepted and adopted standard for coding health interventions, Austria has established its own country-specific procedure classification system - the Austrian Procedure Catalogue (APC). Even though the APC is an elaborate coding standard for medical procedures, it has shortcomings that limit its usability. In order to enhance usability and usefulness, especially for research purposes and e-health applications, we developed an ontologized version of the APC. In this paper we present a novel four-step approach for the ontology engineering process, which enables accurate extraction of relevant concepts for medical ontologies from written text. The proposed approach for formalizing the APC consists of the following four steps: (1) comparative pre-analysis, (2) definition analysis, (3) typological analysis, and (4) ontology implementation. The first step contained a comparison of the APC to other well-established or elaborate health intervention coding systems in order to identify strengths and weaknesses of the APC. In the second step, a list of definitions of medical terminology used in the APC was obtained. This list of definitions was used as input for Step 3, in which we identified the most important concepts to describe medical procedures using the qualitative typological analysis approach. The definition analysis as well as the typological analysis are well-known and effective methods used in social sciences, but not commonly employed in the computer science or ontology engineering domain. Finally, this list of concepts was used in Step 4 to formalize the APC. The pre-analysis highlighted the major shortcomings of the APC, such as the lack of formal definition, leading to implicitly available, but not directly accessible information (hidden data), or the poor procedural type classification. After performing the definition and subsequent typological analyses, we were able to identify the following main characteristics of

  2. Radon measurements in Austrian buildings and estimation of collective doses for the population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steger, F.

    1988-07-01

    Nuclear track etch detectors were used for the determination of radon and radon daughter levels in Austrian dwelling houses. A diffusion chamber, developed at Karlsruhe, FRG, was used to construct a passive radon detector. It consists of a plastic beaker covered with a glass fibre filter. It is shielded by a cover which has openings on the side so that air can diffuse through and on the top there is a mounted thermoluminescent detector card. The TLD dosimeter was used to determine beta and gamma radiation levels. A polycarbonate foil was placed at the bottom of the diffusion chamber which served as a detector for the alphas emitted by radon daughters. The dosimeters were exposed for a period of three months. The mean concentration of radon in all rooms in dwelling houses in Austria were clearly higher in winter than in summer time. This was interpreted as the effect of reduced ventilation rates in winter time. This effect of ventilation on radon concentration is more significant in living and sleeping rooms than in the cellar. Compared to all rooms in a dwelling house the level of radon concentration was distinctly higher in the cellar. Higher values of radon concentration were found in famous radon spa of Gastein and in the Waldviertel and in a landscape near the Czechoslovakian border. In Vienna a mean value for radon concentration in the living and sleeping rooms was found to be 47 bq/m 3 which corresponds to an estimated effective dose equivalent to the lung of 10.7 mSv per annum. The whole body effective dose equivalent was estimated to be 1.27 mSv per annum. These estimations were based on the radon equilibrium factor of 0.5. The exposure to radon at such concentration is estimated to cause 3-4% incidence of excess lung cancer in Vienna within the next 20 years. The value of 47 bq/m 3 of radon in Vienna and its surrounding areas corresponds well with the mean values in Switzerland and Germany, but it is lower than those found in Great Britain, Canada, Sweden

  3. Current role of MDCT in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (2011). A clinical guideline of the Austrian Societies of Cardiology and Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hergan, K.; Globits, S.; Loewe, C.

    2011-01-01

    The clinical guideline of the Austrian Societies for Cardiology and Radiology on the actual role of MDCT in the diagnosis of coronary artery diseases includes the following issues: CT calcium scoring; CT angiography (CTA) of the coronaries; actually recommended application of MDCR; generally inappropriate use of the technique for specific patients; radiation exposure; structural and organizational framework.

  4. 46th annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society. Programme and abstracts; 46. Jahrestagung der Oesterreichischen Physikalischen Gesellschaft. Programm und Kurzfassungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, H G [ed.

    1997-12-31

    This volume contains lectures (short communications) of the 46{sup th} symposium of the Austrian Physical Society which had been held at the University of Linz (Austria) in 1996. The following topics are included: atomic physics, molecular physics, plasma physics, solid state physics, nuclear and particle physics, biophysics, environmental physics, quantum electronics and quantum optics. (Suda)

  5. ... AND HERE COMES THE WEATHER - Austrian TV and radio weather news in the eye of the public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keul, A.; Holzer, A. M.; Wostal, T.

    2010-09-01

    Media weather reports as the main avenue of meteorological and climatological information to the general public have always been in the focus of critical investigation. Former research found that although weather reports are high-interest topics, the amount of information recalled by non-experts is rather low, and criticized this. A pilot study (Keul et al., 2009) by the Salzburg University in cooperation with ORF, the Austrian Broadcasting Corporation, used historic radio files on a fair-weather and a storm situation. It identified the importance of intelligible wording of the weather forecast messages for lay people. Without quality control, weather information can stimulate rumours, false comfort or false alarms. More qualitative and experimental research, also on TV weather, seems justified. This need for further research was addressed by a second and larger field experiment in the spring of 2010. The survey took place in Salzburg City, Austria, with a quota sample of about 90 lay persons. This time TV and radio weather reports were used and a more realistic listening and viewing situation was created by presenting the latest weather forecasts of the given day to the test persons in the very next hours after originally broadcasting them. It asked lay people what they find important in the weather reports and what they remember for their actual next-day use. Reports of a fairweather prognosis were compared with a warning condition. The weather media mix of the users was explored. A second part of the study was a questionnaire which tested the understanding of typical figures of speech used in weather forecasts or even meteorological terms, which might also be important for fully understanding the severe weather warnings. This leads to quantitative and qualitative analysis from which the most important and unexpected results are presented. Short presentation times (1.5 to 2 minutes) make Austrian radio and TV weather reports a narrow compromise between general

  6. Modelling site-specific N2O emission factors from Austrian agricultural soils for targeted mitigation measures (NitroAustria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, Barbara; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Kasper, Martina; Foldal, Cecilie; Schiefer, Jasmin; Kitzler, Barbara; Schwarzl, Bettina; Zethner, Gerhard; Anderl, Michael; Sedy, Katrin; Gaugitsch, Helmut; Dersch, Georg; Baumgarten, Andreas; Haas, Edwin; Kiese, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    Results from a previous project "FarmClim" highlight that the IPCC default emission factor is not able to reflect region specific N2O emissions from Austrian arable soils. The methodology is limited in identifying hot spots and hot moments of N2O emissions. When estimations are based on default emission factors no recommendations can be given on optimisation measures that would lead to a reduction of soil N2O emissions. The better the knowledge is about Nitrogen and Carbon budgets in Austrian agricultural managed soils the better the situation can be reflected in the Austrian GHG emission inventory calculations. Therefore national and regionally modelled emission factors should improve the evidence for national deviation from the IPCC default emission factors and reduce the uncertainties. The overall aim of NitroAustria is to identify the drivers for N2O emissions on a regional basis taking different soil types, climate, and agricultural management into account. We use the LandscapeDNDC model to update the N2O emission factors for N fertilizer and animal manure applied to soils. Key regions in Austria were selected and region specific N2O emissions calculated. The model runs at sub-daily time steps and uses data such as maximum and minimum air temperature, precipitation, radiation, and wind speed as meteorological drivers. Further input data are used to reflect agricultural management practices, e.g., planting/harvesting, tillage, fertilizer application, irrigation and information on soil and vegetation properties for site characterization and model initialization. While at site scale, arable management data (crop cultivation, rotations, timings etc.) is obtained by experimental data from field trials or observations, at regional scale such data need to be generated using region specific proxy data such as land use and management statistics, crop cultivations and yields, crop rotations, fertilizer sales, manure resulting from livestock units etc. The farming

  7. Human biomonitoring of phthalate exposure in Austrian children and adults and cumulative risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Christina; Uhl, Maria; Weiss, Stefan; Koch, Holger M; Scharf, Sigrid; König, Jürgen

    2015-07-01

    Phthalates are a class of chemicals widely used as plasticisers in a multitude of common consumer products. Through contact with such products, people are regularly exposed to phthalates, which are suspected to contribute to adverse health effects, particularly in the reproductive system. In the present study, 14 urinary phthalate metabolites of 10 parent phthalates were analysed by HPLC-MS/MS among the Austrian population aged 6-15 and 18-81 years in order to assess phthalate exposure. In the total study population, ranges of urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations were n.d.-2,105 μg/l (median 25 μg/l) for monoethyl phthalate (MEP), n.d.-88 μg/l (10 μg/l) for mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), n.d.-248 μg/l (28 μg/l) for mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), n.d.-57 μg/l (1.8 μg/l) for mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), n.d.-20 μg/l (n.d.) for mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), n.d.-80 μg/l (2.6 μg/l) for mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (5OH-MEHP), n.d.-57 μg/l (1.9 μg/l) for mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (5oxo-MEHP), n.d.-219 μg/l (11 μg/l) for mono-(5-carboxy-2-ethylpentyl) phthalate (5cx-MEPP), n.d.-188 μg/l (1.6 μg/l) for 3-carboxy-mono-proply phthalate (3 cx-MPP), n.d.-5.5 μg/l (n.d.) for mono-cyclohexyl phthalate (MCHP), n.d.-4.5 μg/l (n.d.) for mono-n-pentyl phthalate (MnPeP), n.d.-3.4 μg/l (n.d.) for mono-n-octyl phthalate (MnOP), n.d.-13 μg/l (n.d.) for mono-isononyl phthalate (MiNP), and n.d.-1.1 μg/l (n.d.) for mono-isodecyl phthalate (MiDP). Generally, children exhibited higher levels of exposure to the majority of investigated phthalates, except to MEP, which was found in higher concentrations in adults and senior citizens at a maximum concentration of 2,105 μg/l. Individual daily intakes were estimated based on urinary creatinine and urinary volume excretion and were then compared to acceptable exposure levels, leading to the identification of exceedances of mainly the Tolerable Daily Intakes (TDI), especially among

  8. Human Nature, Flourishing, and Happiness: Toward a Synthesis of Aristotelianism, Austrian Economics, Positive Psychology, and Ayn Rand’s Objectivism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward W. Younkins

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a skeleton of a potential paradigm of human flourishing and happiness in a free society. It is an exploratory attempt to construct an understanding from various disciplines and to integrate them into a clear, consistent, coherent, and systematic whole. Holding that there are essential interconnections among objective ideas, the article specifically emphasizes the compatibility of Aristotelianism, Austrian Economics, Positive Psychology, and Ayn Rand’s Objectivism arguing that particular ideas from these areas can be integrated into a paradigm of human flourishing and happiness based on the nature of man and the world. Such a paradigm will help people to understand the world and to survive and flourish in it. It is hoped that the paradigm will grow and evolve as scholars engage, question, critique, interpret, and extend its ideas. Our goal is to have a paradigm that accords with reality and there is always more to learn from reality.

  9. A Clinical Data Warehouse Based on OMOP and i2b2 for Austrian Health Claims Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinner, Christoph; Gezgin, Deniz; Wendl, Christopher; Gall, Walter

    2018-01-01

    To develop simulation models for healthcare related questions clinical data can be reused. Develop a clinical data warehouse to harmonize different data sources in a standardized manner and get a reproducible interface for clinical data reuse. The Kimball life cycle for the development of data warehouse was used. The development is split into the technical, the data and the business intelligence pathway. Sample data was persisted in the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership (OMOP) Common Data Model (CDM). The i2b2 clinical data warehouse tools were used to query the OMOP CDM by applying the new i2b2 multi-fact table feature. A clinical data warehouse was set up and sample data, data dimensions and ontologies for Austrian health claims data were created. The ability of the standardized data access layer to create and apply simulation models will be evaluated next.

  10. 64th Annual Meeting of the Austrian Physical Society; 64. Jahrestagung der Österreichischen Physikalischen Gesellschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The 64th Annual Meeting of the Austrian physical society, including a special topical Energy Day. was held at the Echophysics – European Centre for the History of Physics, Schloss Pöllau 1, 8225 Pöllau, Austria. The plenary sessions gave an overview of the present status of research in quantum mechanics, particle physics and solid state physics.The topical sessions were dedicated to: nuclear and particle physics; atoms, molecules, quantum optics and plasmas; solid state physics and research with neutron and synchrotron radiation; history of physics; surfaces, interfaces and thin films; nanostructures; fundamental interactions; gravity, quantum chromodynamics; particle theory and collider physics; detectors and methods. Those contributions which are in the INIS subject scope are indexed individually.

  11. Diagnosis, management and response criteria of iron overload in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS): updated recommendations of the Austrian MDS platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valent, Peter; Stauder, Reinhard; Theurl, Igor; Geissler, Klaus; Sliwa, Thamer; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Bettelheim, Peter; Sill, Heinz; Pfeilstöcker, Michael

    2018-02-01

    Despite the availability of effective iron chelators, transfusion-related morbidity is still a challenge in chronically transfused patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). In these patients, transfusion-induced iron overload may lead to organ dysfunction or even organ failure. In addition, iron overload is associated with reduced overall survival in MDS. Areas covered: During the past 10 years, various guidelines for the management of MDS patients with iron overload have been proposed. In the present article, we provide our updated recommendations for the diagnosis, prevention and therapy of iron overload in MDS. In addition, we propose refined treatment response criteria. As in 2006 and 2007, recommendations were discussed and formulated by participants of our Austrian MDS platform in a series of meetings in 2016 and 2017. Expert commentary: Our updated recommendations should support early recognition of iron overload, optimal patient management and the measurement of clinical responses to chelation treatment in daily practice.

  12. IMPACT OF ROMANIA’S ACCESSION TO THE EUROPEAN UNION ON THE AUSTRIAN TRADE, FDI AND LABOUR MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Hunya

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the potential impact of Romania’s accession to the European Union on Austria in three major fields: foreign trade, FDI and labour market. While conditions of doing business in Romania have improved in recent years, they are still more complicated than in old and new EU member states. Romania remains a rapidly growing market for investment goods, consumer goods and services alike providing good opportunities for Austrian companies. While the effect of Eastern European labour immigration to Austria can be expected to be marginal on total employment and wages, it may affect specific segments of the labour market. Overall, labour immigration from Romania will remain relatively unproblematic.

  13. Attrition in the Austrian Generations and Gender Survey: Is there a bias by fertility-relevant aspects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Buber-Ennser

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: In longitudinal research the loss of sample members between waves is a possible source of bias. It is therefore crucial to analyse attrition. Objective: This paper analyses attrition in a longitudinal study on family and fertility, by distinguishing between attrition due to non-contact and attrition due to non-cooperation. Methods: Based on the first two waves of the Austrian Generations and Gender Survey, the two components of attrition are studied separately by using bivariate as well as multivariate methods. Moreover, overall dropout - the combination of both components - isanalysed. Apart from various socio-economic characteristics and data collection information, the study focuses on fertility-relevant variables such as fecundity, fertility intentions, sexual orientation, and traditional attitudes. Results: Fecundity, fertility intentions, and homosexual relationships are associated with higher attrition due to non-cooperation in bivariate analyses, but have no explanatory power inthe multivariate model. Pregnancy and traditional attitudes towards marriage are associated with significantly lower attrition due to non-cooperation in the multivariate context. Overall dropout is significantly lower only among persons with traditionalattitudes towards marriage, although small in size and statistical significance. Moreover, various individual and regional characteristics are significantly associated with dropout, with differences between attrition due to non-contact and attrition due to non-cooperation. Conclusions: Detailed insights into attrition are not only important when using longitudinal data and interpreting results, but also for the design of future data collections. The Austrian GGS panel has a relatively low dropout (22Š and is affected by a small bias towards familyoriented persons as well as less-educated respondents and persons with migrationbackgrounds, but the data can be used without concern about selectivity.

  14. Mental health problems in Austrian adolescents: a nationwide, two-stage epidemiological study applying DSM-5 criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Gudrun; Zeiler, Michael; Waldherr, Karin; Philipp, Julia; Truttmann, Stefanie; Dür, Wolfgang; Treasure, Janet L; Karwautz, Andreas F K

    2017-12-01

    This is a nationwide epidemiological study using DSM-5 criteria to assess the prevalence of mental disorders in a large sample of Austrian adolescents between 10 and 18 years including hard-to-reach samples. A sample of 3615 adolescents from four cohorts (school grades 5, 7, 9, 11; age range 10-18 years) was recruited from 261 schools, samples of unemployed adolescents (n = 39) and adolescents from mental health institutions (n = 137) were added. The Youth Self-Report and SCOFF were used to screen for mental health problems. In a second phase, the Childrens' Diagnostic Interview for Mental Disorders was used to make point and lifetime psychiatric diagnoses. Mental health service use was also assessed. Point prevalence and lifetime prevalence rates for at least one psychiatric disorder were 23.9% and 35.8%. The highest lifetime prevalence rates were found for anxiety disorders (15.6%), neurodevelopmental disorders (9.3%; ADHD 5.2%) and depressive disorders (6.2%). Forty-seven percent of adolescents with a lifetime psychiatric disorder had a second diagnosis. Internalising disorders were more prevalent in girls, while neurodevelopmental disorders and disruptive, impulse control and conduct disorders were more prevalent in boys. Of those with a lifetime psychiatric disorder, 47.5% had contacted mental health services. Of the residual 52.5% who had not contacted mental health services, 18.1% expressed an interest in treatment. DSM-5 mental health disorders are highly prevalent among Austrian adolescents. Over 50% had or were interested in accessing treatment. Early access to effective interventions for these problems is needed to reduce burden due to mental health disorders.

  15. 11 June 2012 - Austrian Federal Minister of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection R. Hundstorfer signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Ambassador to the UN C. Strohal (CERN-HI-120611334)

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    11 June 2012 - Austrian Federal Minister of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection R. Hundstorfer signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Ambassador to the UN C. Strohal (CERN-HI-120611334)

  16. 4 August 2011 - Austrian Head of Protocol, Directorate General III, Federal Ministry of Science and Research I. Friedrich (3rd from left) in the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with M. Benedkit, C. Wulz and C. Fabjan.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    4 August 2011 - Austrian Head of Protocol, Directorate General III, Federal Ministry of Science and Research I. Friedrich (3rd from left) in the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with M. Benedkit, C. Wulz and C. Fabjan.

  17. The discharge of certain amounts of industrial microplastic from a production plant into the River Danube is permitted by the Austrian legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechner, Aaron; Ramler, David

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have quantified the amount of plastic litter in aquatic ecosystems and tried to assess its impacts and threats. This reflects a rising awareness of plastic as an environmental problem. As a next logical step, identifying and regulating the sources must be in the focus of scientific efforts. We report on a spillage of industrial microplastic (IMP) from a production plant situated at an Austrian Danube tributary. This is the first identified point source of IMP litter in freshwater systems. However, due to generous thresholds established by the Austrian government substantial amounts of IMP are legally introduced into running waters. - We report on the first documented case of microplastic spillage from a manufacturing site

  18. The “Austrian School of Critical Political Economy”? A Review of Thomas Allmer’s Book “Towards a Critical Theory of Surveillance in Informational Capitalism”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Amon Prodnik

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is a review of Thomas Allmer’s book “Towards a Critical Theory of Surveillance in Informational Capitalism”. The book was published in 2012 by the publishing house Peter Lang (in Frankfurt am Main, Berlin, New York, Oxford […]. In the start of the article the author also poses the question whether there is a new school of thought emerging, namely the “Austrian School of Critical Political Economy”.

  19. Changes in equipment and image quality. Impact of one year Austrian breast cancer early detection programme; Aenderungen in der Geraetelandschaft und Bildqualitaet. Auswirkungen nach einem Jahr Oesterreichischem Brustkrebsfrueherkennungsprogramm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menhart, S.; Osanna-Elliott, A.; Semturs, F.; Schloegl, C.; Wildner, S.; Zwettler, G. [AGES, Wien (Austria). Referenzzentrum fuer technische Qualitaetssicherung im Brustkrebsfrueherkennungsprogramm

    2015-07-01

    The nationwide Austrian Breast Cancer Early Detection Programme (''BKFP'') started in January 2014. The Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety Ltd. was entrusted with running the reference center for technical quality control (''RefZQS'') on April 1, 2014. The quality of the radiologists' equipment is evaluated against the standards described in the EUREF-Oeprotocol, which is based on the European guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening and diagnosis (EPQC V4, 2006) and has been optimized for Austrian requirements. In its first year of operation the RefZQS has controlled the entire equipment (mammography, periphery and ultrasound system) of all participating radiologists. A significant number of systems had to be adjusted to meet the EUREF-Oecriteria. Some of the systems could not be adjusted accordingly, and had to be replaced. In the wake of the start of the screening programme, several sites switched from CR to more modern DR systems, yielding a significant benefit by reduction of radiation burden. The most important data after one year of RefZQS, especially according to adjustments and replacements, are presented.

  20. The effectiveness of the Austrian disease management programme for type 2 diabetes: a cluster-randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klima Gert

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disease management programmes (DMPs are costly and impose additional work load on general practitioners (GPs. Data on their effectiveness are inconclusive. We therefore conducted a cluster-randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of the Austrian DMP for diabetes mellitus type 2 on HbA1c and quality of care for adult patients in primary care. Methods All GPs of Salzburg-province were invited to participate. After cluster-randomisation by district, all patients with diabetes type 2 were recruited consecutively from 7-11/2007. The DMP, consisting mainly of physician and patient education, standardised documentation and agreement on therapeutic goals, was implemented in the intervention group while the control group received usual care. We aimed to show superiority of the intervention regarding metabolic control and process quality. The primary outcome measure was a change in HbA1c after one year. Secondary outcomes were days in the hospital, blood pressure, lipids, body mass index (BMI, enrolment in patient education and regular guideline-adherent examination. Blinding was not possible. Results 92 physicians recruited 1489 patients (649 intervention, 840 control. After 401 ± 47 days, 590 intervention-patients and 754 controls had complete data. In the intention to treat analysis (ITT of all 1489 patients, HbA1c decreased 0.41% in the intervention group and 0.28% in controls. The difference of -0.13% (95% CI -0.24; -0.02 was significant at p = 0.026. Significance was lost in mixed models adjusted for baseline value and cluster-effects (adjusted mean difference -0.03 (95% CI -0.15; 0.09, p = 0.607. Of the secondary outcome measures, BMI and cholesterol were significantly reduced in the intervention group compared to controls in ITT after adjustments (-0.53 kg/m²; 95% CI -1.03;-0.02; p = 0.014 and -0.10 mmol/l; 95% CI -0.21; -0.003; p = 0.043. Additionally, more patients received patient education (49.5% vs. 20

  1. Ecological effects and chemical composition of fine sediments in Upper Austrian streams and resulting implications for river management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfler, Sarah; Pichler-Scheder, Christian; Gumpinger, Clemens

    2017-04-01

    In the current scientific discussion high loads of fine sediments are considered one of the most important causes of river ecosystem degradation worldwide. Especially in intensively used catchment areas changes in the sediment household must be regarded as a reason, which prevents the achievement of the objectives of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). Therefore, the Upper Austrian Water Authorities have launched two comprehensive studies on the topic. The first one was a survey on the current siltation status of river courses in Upper Austria. The second study deals with two selected catchments in detail, in order to get a clear picture of the impacts of the fines on the aquatic fauna (trout eggs, benthic invertebrates), the chemical composition of these fractions, the crucial hydrogeological processes and to develop possible role models for measures both in the catchments and in the streams. At eight sites within the two catchments sediment and water samples were collected at two dates for detailed chemical analysis. On one date additionally the benthic invertebrate fauna was investigated on the microhabitat level. Thereby it was possible to enhance the understanding of the range of ecological impacts caused by silting-up in different hydro-morphological circumstances and with different fine sediment loads. The water samples as well as the sediment fraction samples ethylbenzene, and xylenes), AOX (adsorbable organohalogens) and various nutrients. Additionally, the basic parameters dry residue, loss on ignition, TC (total carbon), TOC (total organic carbon) and nutrients were analysed. From the sediment eluates and the filtered water decomposition products of pesticides, remains of medical drugs, sweeteners, hormonally active substances and water-soluble elements were analysed. Furthermore, a GIS-based analysis was carried out for the two examined catchments. The model included data gained from a digital elevation model, land use data and digital soil

  2. Proteins in seed and seedlings of selected Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold trees as genetic markers tolerant to drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mataruga Milan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A precondition necessary for creation and selection of genotypes tolerant of stress conditions is a study of physiological, biochemical and molecular bases of their adaptive reaction to stress. The study includes 40 lines of free pollination originating from 5 provenances: Sutjeska, Višegrad, Tara, Teslić and Durmitor (B&H, Serbia and Montenegro. Two populations were selected from each provenance, i.e.: 5 lines of free pollination represent the population growing on the cliffs and 3 lines of free pollination represent the population growing at the best site of Austrian pine. Specific characteristics of the studied provenances, populations, and free pollination lines were confirmed by the analyses in the salt-soluble proteins. The identical protein composition was proved in a small number of cases in the replicates of the same free pollination line, which indicates a high intra-line variability, which can be the result of the effect of father, as well as of heterozygosity of mother trees. The analyses of protein composition of seed showed considerable differences at provenance level. Inter-line, population and provenance differences, and also, the interaction between the origin and drought factor, were recorded for 9-day-old seedlings germinated in induced drought conditions and in normal conditions.

  3. Austrian Moderate Altitude Studies (AMAS): benefits of exposure to moderate altitudes (1,500-2,500 m).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schobersberger, Wolfgang; Leichtfried, Veronika; Mueck-Weymann, Michael; Humpeler, Egon

    2010-09-01

    A considerable part of the millions of Alpine tourists suffer from pre-existing diseases (e.g., metabolic syndrome) and high daily stress levels. The main goal of the Austrian Moderate Altitude Study (AMAS) was to investigate (a) the consequences of an active vacation at moderate altitude on the key parameters of the metabolic syndrome (AMAS I) and (b) the effects of a short active vacation on adult progenitor cells, bio-psychological parameters, and heart rate variability (HRV). During the AMAS I pilot study (n = 22; 1,700 m a.s.l.) and AMAS I main study (n = 71; 1,700 m a.s.l. and 200 m a.s.l.), the volunteers simulated 3-week coached hiking vacations. For AMAS II, healthy volunteers (n = 13) participated in a 1-week active holiday at 1,700 m. There were significant improvements of obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance of AMAS I patients after the vacation. In AMAS II participants, we found an increase in circulating endothelial progenitor cells as well as improvements in bio-psychological and HRV parameters. Active vacations at moderate altitude are associated with a variety of positive health effects in persons with metabolic syndrome and in healthy subjects.

  4. Spatial and seasonal variations in mobile carbohydrates in Pinus cembra in the timberline ecotone of the Central Austrian Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, A; Pirkebner, D; Oberhuber, W; Wieser, G

    2011-03-01

    To test whether the altitudinal limit of tree growth is determined by carbons shortage or by a limitation in growth we investigated non structural carbohydrates and their components starch and total soluble sugars in Pinus cembra trees along an elevational gradient in the timberline ecotone of the Central Austrian Alps. NSC contents in needles, branches, stems, and coarse roots were measured throughout an entire growing season. At the tissue level NSC contents were not significantly more abundant in treeline trees as compared to trees at lower elevations. Along our 425 m elevational transect from the closed forest to the treeline we failed to find a stable elevational trend in the total NSC pool of entire trees and observed within season increases in the tree's NSC pool that can be attributed to an altitudinal increase in leaf mass as needles contained the largest NSC fraction of the whole tree NSC pool. Furthermore, whole tree NSC contents were positively correlated with net photosynthetic capacity. Although our observed NSC characteristics do not support the hypothesis that tree life at their upper elevational limit is determined by an insufficient carbon balance we found no consistent confirmation for the sink limitation hypothesis.

  5. Spatial and seasonal variations in mobile carbohydrates in Pinus cembra in the timberline ecotone of the Central Austrian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, A.; Pirkebner, D.; Oberhuber, W.; Wieser, G.

    2011-01-01

    To test whether the altitudinal limit of tree growth is determined by carbons shortage or by a limitation in growth we investigated non structural carbohydrates and their components starch and total soluble sugars in Pinus cembra trees along an elevational gradient in the timberline ecotone of the Central Austrian Alps. NSC contents in needles, branches, stems, and coarse roots were measured throughout an entire growing season. At the tissue level NSC contents were not significantly more abundant in treeline trees as compared to trees at lower elevations. Along our 425 m elevational transect from the closed forest to the treeline we failed to find a stable elevational trend in the total NSC pool of entire trees and observed within season increases in the tree’s NSC pool that can be attributed to an altitudinal increase in leaf mass as needles contained the largest NSC fraction of the whole tree NSC pool. Furthermore, whole tree NSC contents were positively correlated with net photosynthetic capacity. Although our observed NSC characteristics do not support the hypothesis that tree life at their upper elevational limit is determined by an insufficient carbon balance we found no consistent confirmation for the sink limitation hypothesis. PMID:22003357

  6. First record of the Asian bush mosquito, Aedes japonicus japonicus, in Italy: invasion from an established Austrian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Bernhard; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Huemer, Hartwig P; Indra, Alexander; Capelli, Gioia; Allerberger, Franz; Nowotny, Norbert

    2016-05-16

    In 2011 we identified the Asian bush mosquito, Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald, 1901) (Diptera: Culicidae) for the first time in northern Slovenia and in the bordering Austrian federal state of Styria. Between May and July 2012 the distribution area of Ae. j. japonicus was already found to be extended westwards into Carinthia and eastwards towards Burgenland and bordering Hungary. In August 2012 the species was first detected in a western province of Hungary. In subsequent years, follow-up field studies demonstrated an active spread westwards throughout Carinthia, reaching the border to northern Italy. In July 2015 several aquatic-stage specimens of the species were discovered at three different sites in the Friuli Venezia Giulia region, north-eastern Italy. In September 2015, co-occurrence of Ae. j. japonicus and Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1895) was observed in the same sample in that region. Ae. j. japonicus actively extended its geographic range from an established population in Carinthia (Austria) southwards to northern Italy by crossing Alpine ranges. Since Ae. albopictus and Aedes koreicus (Edwards, 1917) are already well established in northern Italy, it will be pivotal to monitor the consequences of a third invasive mosquito species trying to populate the same geographic region.

  7. The views and motives of environmental ethics in the articles of Austrian nature and environmental protection associations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leinwather, T.

    2000-03-01

    This study deals with the views and motives of environmental ethics in the articles of Austrian nature and environmental protection associations. There are different ways of arguing: In an anthropocentric point of view nature is seen as a resource for man; human life needs protection an cultivation of nature. The non-anthropocentric point of view is more popular. Nature is not only seen as a resource for human needs and interests. It follows its own aims and purposes, seems to be a valuable being and has to be protected for itself. The study presents the two parent organizations 'Umweltdachverband - OeGNU' and 'Oeko-Buero' and their 45 members. The associations mainly argue from an anthropocentric point of view for the protection of nature and environment. Their motives are the care for human health and quality of life, the ensuring of resources, the leisure-time in nature and patriotism. The anthropocentric arguments perfectly fit into the other articles of these organizations: many of them are dealing with economical, scientifical, recreational and pedagogical affairs. And often they represent interests of agriculture, forestry ore trade. Non-anthropocentric statements are of minor importance and seem to be a way to present the seriousness of their demand for protection of nature and environment. (author)

  8. Morphological features of Camarosporium pini – the fungus associated to health state degradation in Austrian and Ponderosa pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanová Helena

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this study is escalated occurrence of the pathogenic fungus Camarosporium pini in the needle tissue of symptomatic trees P. nigra and P. ponderosa var. jeffreyi growing in urbanized settings and parks. C. pini induces severe infections and initiates a blight and premature loss of second-year foliage in pine trees. The fungus was identified microscopically and on base of morphological keys. The affected needles displayed a distinct bluish-grey necrotic band in the centre. On the surface of infected needles, there were formed pycnidia producing brown, oval conidia with three transversal and one or two vertical walls. Disease symptoms, some important characteristics in pure culture, and distinctive morphological features of C. pini associated to the health state degradation in Austrian and Ponderosa pine are described and compared. Cumulative effects of these stressful biotic and various abiotic factors may explain the current situation concerning the decline in the P. nigra and P. ponderosa var. jeffreyi in Slovakia.

  9. Diabetes mellitus in Friedreich Ataxia: A case series of 19 patients from the German-Austrian diabetes mellitus registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappa, Angeliki; Häusler, Martin G; Veigel, Andreas; Tzamouranis, Konstantina; Pfeifer, Martin W; Schmidt, Andreas; Bökamp, Martin; Haberland, Holger; Wagner, Siegfried; Brückel, Joachim; de Sousa, Gideon; Hackl, Lukas; Bollow, Esther; Holl, Reinhard W

    2018-05-12

    Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is a multisystem autosomal recessive disease with progressive clinical course involving the neuromuscular and endocrine system. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one typical non-neurological manifestation, caused by beta cell failure and insulin resistance. Because of its rarity, knowledge on DM in FRDA is limited. Based on data from 200 301 patients with DM of the German-Austrian diabetes registry (DPV) and two exemplary patient reports, characteristics of patients with DM and FRDA are compared with classical type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Diabetes phenotype in FRDA is intermediate between type 1 and type 2 diabetes with ketoacidosis being frequent at presentation and blood glucose levels similar to T1Dm but higher than in T2Dm (356 ±165 and 384± 203 mg/dl). 63.2% of FRDA patients received insulin monotherapy, 21% insulin plus oral antidiabetics and 15.8% lifestyle change only, applying similar doses of insulin in all three groups. FRDA patients did not show overweight and HbA1c levels were even lower than in T1Dm or T2Dm patients, respectively, indicating good overall diabetes control. FRDADm can be controlled by individualized treatment regimen with insulin or oral antidiabetics. Patients with DM in FRDA may show a relevant risk to ketoacidotic complications, which should be avoided. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Weight and body mass index (BMI): current data for Austrian boys and girls aged 4 to under 19 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Michael; Gleiss, Andreas; Häusler, Gabriele; Borkenstein, Martin; Kapelari, Klaus; Köstl, Gerhard; Lassi, Michael; Schemper, Michael; Schmitt, Klaus; Blümel, Peter

    2015-01-01

    BMI reference charts are widely used to diagnose overweight, obesity and underweight in children and adolescents. To provide up-to-date national reference values for Austria. A cross-sectional sample of over 14 500 children and adolescents (4-19 years) stratified by provinces according to age- and sex-specific population proportions was drawn via schooling institutions (kindergartens, schools and vocational colleges). The generalized additive models for location, scale and shape were used for a flexible estimation of percentile curves. Austrian boys and girls have higher average weight compared with previous prevalence data. BMI centiles matching BMI values at age 18 years, which are used for defining thinness, overweight and obesity in adults, were calculated. In Austria, using reference values as thresholds, ∼18% of boys and 12% of girls are overweight (with thresholds passing through BMI 25.00-29.99 kg/m(2) in adults) and 5% of boys and 3% of girls are obese (with thresholds passing through BMI ≥30.00 kg/m(2) in adults). Overweight and obesity are common in Austria and their prevalence is increasing (using the same IOTF reference for international comparison). Up-to-date national BMI reference values are provided to classify children and adolescents according to the proposed overweight and obesity thresholds.

  11. Landfill mining: Resource potential of Austrian landfills--Evaluation and quality assessment of recovered municipal solid waste by chemical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfsberger, Tanja; Aldrian, Alexia; Sarc, Renato; Hermann, Robert; Höllen, Daniel; Budischowsky, Andreas; Zöscher, Andreas; Ragoßnig, Arne; Pomberger, Roland

    2015-11-01

    Since the need for raw materials in countries undergoing industrialisation (like China) is rising, the availability of metal and fossil fuel energy resources (like ores or coal) has changed in recent years. Landfill sites can contain considerable amounts of recyclables and energy-recoverable materials, therefore, landfill mining is an option for exploiting dumped secondary raw materials, saving primary sources. For the purposes of this article, two sanitary landfill sites have been chosen for obtaining actual data to determine the resource potential of Austrian landfills. To evaluate how pretreating waste before disposal affects the resource potential of landfills, the first landfill site has been selected because it has received untreated waste, whereas mechanically-biologically treated waste was dumped in the second. The scope of this investigation comprised: (1) waste characterisation by sorting analyses of recovered waste; and (2) chemical analyses of specific waste fractions for quality assessment regarding potential energy recovery by using it as solid recovered fuels. The content of eight heavy metals and the net calorific values were determined for the chemical characterisation tests. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. [Effects of care experience to the attitude of active euthanasia among the Austrian population–a cross sectional study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohar, Birgit; Großschädl, Franziska; Meier, Isabella Maria; Stronegger, Willibald Julius

    2015-12-01

    Attitudes towards active euthanasia by request of competent patients who are seriously or incurable ill people are common in public debates. There is still a lack of knowledge on how people with care experience differ in their attitudes towards active euthanasia from those without. The aim of this study is to find out if and how care experience has an effect on the attitude toward voluntary active euthanasia. In spring 2014 a cross-sectional survey was conducted among the Austrian population by a self-developed questionnaire (on basis of a qualitative pilot study). An online-survey was distributed among persons aged 16 to 65 years and a postal survey among those aged 65 years and older (n=725). Descriptive data was analysed with IBM SPSS Version 2.0. Ethical approval has been provided by the Medical University Graz. 48% of the respondents have experience with care, 8.6% as physicians or nurses, 43.7% as family caregiver and 50% as not caring relatives. Multiple answers were possible. People with caring experience–as nurses or family caregiver–show a significantly lower approval of voluntary active euthanasia (p=0.04). Care experiences have an impact on the attitude towards voluntary active euthanasia. Thus, experiences of caring should be better included in end-of-life debates.

  13. 137Cs-migration in soils and its transfer to roe deer in an Austrian forest stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strebl, F.; Gerzabek, M.H.; Karg, V.; Tataruch, F.

    1996-01-01

    The depth distribution of 137 Cs in an Austrian spruce forest stand was investigated in soil profiles sampled in thin layers (2 cm) and in pooled soil samples over an area of 200 ha. The 137 Cs concentrations both from Chernobyl and global fallout decrease exponentially with depth. Forty-six percent of Chernobyl-derived caesium and 26% from global fallout are still to be found in the litter layer; 137 Cs content in samples on organic matter as well as cation exchange capacity. Using a compartment model, average residence half-times of 5.3, 9.9, 1.78 and 0.8 years were calculated for the layers litter, 0-5 (Ah 1 ), 5-10 (Ah 2 ) and 10-20 cm (A/B) of mineral soil, respectively. Using the model predictions of soil contamination as a basis and considering that roe deer forage plants' rooting depths, the development of 137 Cs contamination of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) (1987-1993) was well described by applying an aggregated transfer factor

  14. 137Cs-migration in soils and its transfer to roe deer in an Austrian forest stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strebl, F.; Gerzabek, M. H.; Karg, V.; Tataruch, F.

    1996-03-01

    The depth distribution of 137 Cs in an Austrian spruce forest stand was investigated in soil profiles sampled in thin layers (2 cm) and in pooled soil samples over an area of 200 ha. The 137 Cs concentrations both from Chernobyl and global fallout decrease exponentially with depth. Forty-six percent of Chernobyl-derived cesium and 26 % from global fallout are still to be found in the litter layer; 137 Cs content in samples on organic matter as well as cation exchange capacity. Using a compartment model, average residence half-times of 5.3, 9.9, 1.78 and 0.8 years were calculated for the layers litter, 0-5 (Ah 1 ), 5-10 (Ah 2 ) and 10-20 cm (A/B) of mineral soil, respectively. Using the model predictions of soil contamination as a basis and considering the roe deer forage plants' rooting depths, the development of 137 Cs contamination of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) (1987 - 1993) was well described by applying an aggregated transfer factor. (author)

  15. The Role of the Photogeologic Mapping in the Morocco 2013 Mars Analog Field Simulation (Austrian Space Forum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losiak, Anna; Orgel, Csilla; Moser, Linda; MacArthur, Jane; Gołębiowska, Izabela; Wittek, Steffen; Boyd, Andrea; Achorner, Isabella; Rampey, Mike; Bartenstein, Thomas; Jones, Natalie; Luger, Ulrich; Sans, Alejandra; Hettrich, Sebastian

    2013-04-01

    The MARS2013 mission: The Austrian Space Forum together with multiple scientific partners will conduct a Mars analog field simulation. The project takes place between 1st and 28th of February 2013 in the northern Sahara near Erfoud. During the simulation a field crew (consisting of suited analog astronauts and a support team) will conduct several experiments while being managed by the Mission Support Center (MSC) located in Innsbruck, Austria. The aim of the project is to advance preparation of the future human Mars missions by testing: 1) the mission design with regard to operational and engineering challenges (e.g., how to work efficiently with introduced time delay in communication between field team and MSC), 2) scientific instruments (e.g., rovers) and 3) human performance in conditions analogous to those that will be encountered on Mars. The Role of Geological Mapping: Remote Science Support team (RSS) is responsible for processing science data obtained in the field. The RSS is also in charge of preparing a set of maps to enable planning activities of the mission (including the development of traverses) [1, 2]. The usage of those maps will increase the time-cost efficiency of the entire mission. The RSS team members do not have any prior knowledge about the area where the simulation is taking place and the analysis is fully based on remote sensing satellite data (Landsat, GoogleEarth) and a digital elevation model (ASTER GDEM)from the orbital data. The maps design: The set of maps (covering area 5 km X 5 km centered on the Mission Base Camp) was designed to simplify the process of site selection for the daily traverse planning. Additionally, the maps will help to accommodate the need of the field crew for the increased autonomy in the decision making process, forced by the induced time delay between MSC and "Mars". The set of provided maps should allow the field team to orientate and navigate in the explored areas as well as make informed decisions about

  16. Antimicrobial consumption on Austrian dairy farms: an observational study of udder disease treatments based on veterinary medication records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Clair L; Käsbohrer, Annemarie; Schleicher, Corina; Fuchs, Klemens; Egger-Danner, Christa; Mayerhofer, Martin; Schobesberger, Hermann; Köfer, Josef; Obritzhauser, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial use in livestock production is an important contemporary issue, which is of public interest worldwide. Antimicrobials are not freely available to Austrian farmers and can only be administered to livestock by veterinarians, or by farmers who are trained members of the Animal Health Service. Since 2015, veterinarians have been required by law to report antimicrobials dispensed to farmers for use in food-producing animals. The study presented here went further than the statutory framework, and collected data on antimicrobials dispensed to farmers and those administered by veterinarians. Seventeen veterinary practices were enrolled in the study via convenience sampling. These veterinarians were asked to contact interested dairy farmers regarding participation in the study (respondent-driven sampling). Data were collected from veterinary practice software between 1st October 2015 and 30th September 2016. Electronic data (89.4%) were transferred via an online interface and paper records (10.6%) were entered by the authors. Antimicrobial treatments with respect to udder disease were analysed by number of defined daily doses per cow and year (nDDD vet /cow/year), based on the European Medicines Agency technical unit, Defined Daily Dose for animals (DDD vet ). Descriptive statistics and the Wilcoxon rank sum test were used to analyse the results. Antimicrobial use data from a total of 248 dairy farms were collected during the study, 232 of these farms treated cows with antibiotics; dry cow therapy was excluded from the current analysis. The mean number of DDD vet /cow/year for the antimicrobial treatment of all udder disease was 1.33 DDD vet /cow/year. Of these treatments, 0.73 DDD vet /cow/year were classed as highest priority critically important antimicrobials (HPCIAs), according to the World Health Organization (WHO) definition. The Wilcoxon rank sum test determined a statistically significant difference between the median number of DDD vet /cow/year for

  17. Antimicrobial consumption on Austrian dairy farms: an observational study of udder disease treatments based on veterinary medication records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clair L. Firth

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Antimicrobial use in livestock production is an important contemporary issue, which is of public interest worldwide. Antimicrobials are not freely available to Austrian farmers and can only be administered to livestock by veterinarians, or by farmers who are trained members of the Animal Health Service. Since 2015, veterinarians have been required by law to report antimicrobials dispensed to farmers for use in food-producing animals. The study presented here went further than the statutory framework, and collected data on antimicrobials dispensed to farmers and those administered by veterinarians. Methods Seventeen veterinary practices were enrolled in the study via convenience sampling. These veterinarians were asked to contact interested dairy farmers regarding participation in the study (respondent-driven sampling. Data were collected from veterinary practice software between 1st October 2015 and 30th September 2016. Electronic data (89.4% were transferred via an online interface and paper records (10.6% were entered by the authors. Antimicrobial treatments with respect to udder disease were analysed by number of defined daily doses per cow and year (nDDDvet/cow/year, based on the European Medicines Agency technical unit, Defined Daily Dose for animals (DDDvet. Descriptive statistics and the Wilcoxon rank sum test were used to analyse the results. Results Antimicrobial use data from a total of 248 dairy farms were collected during the study, 232 of these farms treated cows with antibiotics; dry cow therapy was excluded from the current analysis. The mean number of DDDvet/cow/year for the antimicrobial treatment of all udder disease was 1.33 DDDvet/cow/year. Of these treatments, 0.73 DDDvet/cow/year were classed as highest priority critically important antimicrobials (HPCIAs, according to the World Health Organization (WHO definition. The Wilcoxon rank sum test determined a statistically significant difference between the median

  18. Animal health and welfare planning improves udder health and cleanliness but not leg health in Austrian dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremetsberger, Lukas; Leeb, Christine; Winckler, Christoph

    2015-10-01

    Animal health and welfare planning is considered an important tool for herd management; however, its effectiveness is less well known. The aim of this study was to conduct animal health and welfare planning on 34 Austrian dairy farms and to evaluate changes in health and welfare after 1 yr. After an initial assessment using the Welfare Quality protocol (Welfare Quality Consortium, Lelystad, the Netherlands), results were reported back to the farmers. Health and welfare area(s) in which both the farmer and the researcher regarded improvement as important were discussed. Management practices and husbandry measures were chosen according to the respective farm situation. One year after interventions had been initiated, farms were reassessed, and the degree of implementation of improvement measures was recorded. The average implementation rate was 57% and thus relatively high when compared with other studies. High degrees of implementation were achieved related to cleanliness and udder health, at 77 and 63%, respectively. Intervention measures addressing udder health were mostly easy to incorporate in the daily routine and led to a reduced somatic cell score, whereas this score increased in herds without implementation of measures. The decrease in cows with dirty teats was more pronounced when measures were implemented compared with control farms. The implementation rate regarding leg health (46%) was comparably low in the present study, and leg health did not improve even when measures were implemented. Lying comfort, social behavior, and human-animal relationship did not require interventions and were therefore seldom chosen by farmers as part of health and welfare plans. In conclusion, the structured, participatory process of animal health and welfare planning appears to be a promising way to improve at least some animal health and welfare issues. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Links between meteorological conditions and spatial/temporal variations in long-term isotope records from the Austrian precipitation network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, A.; Scheifinger, H.; Kralik, M.; Papesch, W.; Rank, D.; Stichler, W.

    2002-01-01

    The isotope records from the Austrian Network for Isotopes in Precipitation (ANIP) show significant but not uniform long-term trends. While the 10-year running means of some mountain stations exhibit a pronounced increase in δ 18 O of about 1 per mille since 1975, the change of δ 18 O at the valley stations is much lower. There are also differences in the time behaviour. The differences in the δ 18 O-values of sampling stations at similar altitudes can be explained by different origins of the air moisture (Atlantic or Mediterranean influence). Furthermore, a significant difference in the behaviour of the deuterium excess at neighbouring mountain and valley stations has been observed. There is a slight increase of the yearly mean of the deuterium excess with increasing altitude of the sampling station. But moreover, the seasonal pattern of the deuterium excess is quite different. While the valley stations exhibit the expected minimum in summer, the mountain stations show a distinct maximum between June and October. As a first step into a comprehensive analysis of the meteorological effects on the isotope patterns, the role of advection of different air masses is studied by trajectory statistics. Back trajectories, based on the three dimensional wind fields of the ECMWF model, are calculated for each hour within each precipitation event. Thus, the frequency of the origin of air masses and their contribution to the isotope patterns of the monthly precipitation samples are studied for two selected mountain stations north and south of the main ridge of the Alps. (author)

  20. The legal protections form emission under the aspect of section 364/2 ABGB of the Austrian Civil Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woerndl, E.

    1991-05-01

    The legal protections from emissions caused by industries, car and public transportation traffic are one of the most important cases of defending real property. Due to the fact, that the mass media report international cases like 'Wackersdorf', there can be stated a general interest in the subject. Through section 364/2 of the 'Allgemeines Buergerliches Gesetzbuch' the Austrian Civil Law lifts its limits for property in consideration of emissions. The main reasons for the unsatisfying status quo must be related to the misinterpretation of imponderables as the key of emissions in section 364/2 ABGB. In fact section 364 lists a number of possible emissions, one of them considers sewage, which hardly can be declared as an imponderable one. This secures the position that all sorts of different kinds of emissions quoted in section 364/2 as far as 'others' gain civil presentation in case of infringing anybody's property. Another aspect must be referred to the influence of Public Law towards Civil Law and pollution control in particular: In Austria there exists a law (sections 47 and 56/1 Forstgesetz 1975) concerning the damage of forests (there to a great extent the interests of the state are touched because of the position as its land owner), where the legislator has no samples about determinating the terms - what the Civil Law calls 'customary in a place' to the extent of measurable damage. Due to this fact and in order to beware a homogenous legal order 'measurable damage' in general should substitute the inaccurate terms, that one has to relate to in use of section 364/2 ABGB. (author)

  1. 'klima:aktiv energieeffiziente betriebe' (climate:active energy efficient companies) - the Austrian climate change program for industry. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattler, Peter; Sampl, Martin; Fuchsberger, Karin

    2007-01-01

    'klima:aktiv' is the climate change program of the Austrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management. The aim of 'klima:aktiv' is to reduce CO 2 emissions as well as reinforce renewable energy in Austria. To achieve these goals more than 20 programs for renewable energies and energy efficiency were created - 'energy efficient companies' being one of them. 'klima:aktiv' was created in order to identify and furthermore realise energy saving and CO 2 reducing measures. To build an active and effective network, regional programs, local consultants and companies on the energy-market are encouraged to become partners of the program to be multipliers.One focus of the program is the support of consultants which are acting as mediators to the companies. A step by step model was developed for companies to help them realise the goals of the program. To ensure the highest service efficiency from the first contact with companies, consultants were furthermore provided with special 'k:a eeb Pro-Tools', which include a wide variety of tools from analysis and development to financing advise.The program started in October 2005. Its mission statement for the first year was to reduce CO 2 emission at 45.000 t or 60 GWh of primarily electrical energy. To reach this goal, single regional agencies were committed to individual objectives. After one year, a detailed evaluation of the program was carried out with the aim to show the areas of success but also to highlight areas that will need adjustments for optimal results

  2. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) in Juvenile and Adult Type 1 Diabetes in a German/Austrian Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinauer, Christina; Bollow, Esther; Fröhlich-Reiterer, Elke; Laubner, Katharina; Bergis, Dominik; Schöfl, Christof; Kempe, Hans-Peter; Hummel, Michael; Hennes, Pia; Gollisch, Katja; Haberland, Holger; Datz, Nicolin; Meissner, Thomas; Holl, Reinhard W

    2017-11-01

    Context While an association between PCOS and type 2 diabetes is well established, to date there have been few data on clinical care of type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients with PCOS. Objective The aim of our study was to characterize T1D patients with the comorbidity of PCOS within the DPV cohort with regard to diabetes phenotype, therapy and metabolic control. Design and Setting Clinical data from the prospective German/Austrian DPV cohort on patients with T1D and documented PCOS (n=76) were compared to female T1D controls (n=32,566) in reproductive age. Results The age at T1D manifestation in PCOS patients was later than in the control group (14.9±8.2 vs. 11.8±7.0 years, pPCOS patients had higher BMI-SDS (0.92±0.11 vs. 0.38±0.01, pPCOS group, higher rates of dyslipidemia (63.4 vs. 48.7%, p =0.032) and thyroid disorders (42.2% vs. 21.2%, pPCOS showed features of a "type 1.5 diabetes" phenotype, insulin requirements per kg body weight were not higher and metabolic control was better, which could be explained only partially by additional metformin therapy. A more precise genetic and metabolic characterisation of these patients is needed to answer open questions on the underlying autoimmune process and residual ß-cell function. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Does obesity lead to a specific lipid disorder? Analysis from the German/Austrian/Swiss APV registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holl, Reinhard W; Hoffmeister, Ulrike; Thamm, Michael; Stachow, Rainer; Keller, Klaus-Michael; L'Allemand, Dagmar; Widhalm, Kurt; Flechtner-Mors, Marion; Wiegand, Susanna

    2011-09-01

    Overweight and obese youth represent a challenge for the affected individual, the healthcare system as well as society as a whole. Increased long-term cardiovascular risk is one of the major consequences of early-onset obesity, affecting both life expectancy and quality of life. The aim of this report is to study the effects of age, gender and obesity category on the presence of individual components of dyslipidemia using normal-weight subjects from the population-based German KIGGS study including 17,641 randomly selected children and adolescents, aged 0-18 years (11,110 normal-weight subjects with lipid measurements) and the German-Austrian-Swiss APV registry, including 57,239 overweight or obese children, adolescents and young adults from 162 specialized obesity care centers (lipid measurements available in 29,711 subjects). Subjects were classified according to BMI category based on the age- and gender-adjusted BMI-z-scores as recommended by the AGA (German Pediatric Obesity working group). Cut-offs for dyslipidemia were based on the recommendations by the American Heart Association: total cholesterol: > 5.2 mmol/l, HDL-cholesterol 3.4 mmol/l, triglycerides > 1.7 mmol/l. Using SAS 9.2-software, hierarchic modeling with both linear and logistic regression analysis was applied. Within the group of normal-weight children, fasting triglycerides were elevated in 3.3%, LDL-cholesterol in 7.2% and HDL-cholesterol was reduced in 3.1%. With increasing BMI-category, the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia and reduced HDL-cholesterol increased rapidly. A weaker relationship was present for LDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol. Among obese youth, 30.5% displayed any dyslipidemia, underlining the importance of adequate screening and intervention.

  4. Individual Cognitive Social Capital and Its Relationship with Pain and Sick Leave Due to Pain in the Austrian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muckenhuber, Johanna; Pollak, Lorenz; Stein, Katharina Viktoria; Dorner, Thomas Ernst

    2016-01-01

    Background Individual cognitive social capital has repeatedly been shown to be linked to health disparities in many dimensions. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between social capital and pain-related measures. Methods 15,474 subjects older than 15 years were personally interviewed on subjective health, quality of life, health behaviour, and utilisation of healthcare in the Austrian Health Interview Survey. An indicator for cognitive social capital at the individual level consisting of nine questions targeted at different social resources was built and its association with pain-related items analysed. Results Odds ratios, adjusted for age, chronic diseases, and educational level for having suffered from severe pain in the last 12 months were 2.02 (95% CI 1.77–2.03) in the lowest tertile and 1.30 (95% CI 1.14–1.47) in the middle tertile of social capital for men. The corresponding odds ratios for women were 2.28 (95% CI 2.01–2.59) and 1.30 (95% CI 1.15–1.46). In both sexes, pain intensity increased significantly with decreasing level of social capital. The proportion of subjects that have been on sick leave in the last 12 months due to pain were 16.3%, 12.0%, and 7.7% (Psocial capital in men, and 16.5%, 12.3%, and 6.7%, respectively (Psocial capital at individual level is significantly associated not only with higher prevalence of pain and higher pain intensity, but also with a higher chance for sick leave due to pain in employed subjects. PMID:27322649

  5. A survey of visual function in an Austrian population of school-age children with reading and writing difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McClelland Julie F

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To describe and compare visual function measures of two groups of school age children (6-14 years of age attending a specialist eyecare practice in Austria; one group referred to the practice from educational assessment centres diagnosed with reading and writing difficulties and the other, a clinical age-matched control group. Methods Retrospective clinical data from one group of subjects with reading difficulties (n = 825 and a clinical control group of subjects (n = 328 were examined. Statistical analysis was performed to determine whether any differences existed between visual function measures from each group (refractive error, visual acuity, binocular status, accommodative function and reading speed and accuracy. Results Statistical analysis using one way ANOVA demonstrated no differences between the two groups in terms of refractive error and the size or direction of heterophoria at distance (p > 0.05. Using predominately one way ANOVA and chi-square analyses, those subjects in the referred group were statistically more likely to have poorer distance visual acuity, an exophoric deviation at near, a lower amplitude of accommodation, reduced accommodative facility, reduced vergence facility, a reduced near point of convergence, a lower AC/A ratio and a slower reading speed than those in the clinical control group (p Conclusions This study highlights the high proportions of visual function anomalies in a group of children with reading difficulties in an Austrian population. It confirms the importance of a full assessment of binocular visual status in order to detect and remedy these deficits in order to prevent the visual problems continuing to impact upon educational development.

  6. Individual Cognitive Social Capital and Its Relationship with Pain and Sick Leave Due to Pain in the Austrian Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Muckenhuber

    Full Text Available Individual cognitive social capital has repeatedly been shown to be linked to health disparities in many dimensions. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between social capital and pain-related measures.15,474 subjects older than 15 years were personally interviewed on subjective health, quality of life, health behaviour, and utilisation of healthcare in the Austrian Health Interview Survey. An indicator for cognitive social capital at the individual level consisting of nine questions targeted at different social resources was built and its association with pain-related items analysed.Odds ratios, adjusted for age, chronic diseases, and educational level for having suffered from severe pain in the last 12 months were 2.02 (95% CI 1.77-2.03 in the lowest tertile and 1.30 (95% CI 1.14-1.47 in the middle tertile of social capital for men. The corresponding odds ratios for women were 2.28 (95% CI 2.01-2.59 and 1.30 (95% CI 1.15-1.46. In both sexes, pain intensity increased significantly with decreasing level of social capital. The proportion of subjects that have been on sick leave in the last 12 months due to pain were 16.3%, 12.0%, and 7.7% (P<0.001 from lowest to highest tertile of social capital in men, and 16.5%, 12.3%, and 6.7%, respectively (P<0.001 in women.Our findings indicate that low cognitive social capital at individual level is significantly associated not only with higher prevalence of pain and higher pain intensity, but also with a higher chance for sick leave due to pain in employed subjects.

  7. Energy efficiency actions related to the rollout of smart meters for small consumers, application to the Austrian system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmos, Luis; Ruester, Sophia; Liong, Siok-Jen; Glachant, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    Smart meters (SM) may provide large benefits to all stakeholders by providing the information required to implement certain sets of demand response actions. Benefits produced by SM related actions depend on the features of these actions, the system and the targeted consumer group. We first lay out an analytical framework to analyze the application of Demand Response (DR) actions. Based on this framework, we describe a way to determine the response of domestic load in a system to the implementation of DR actions. We propose determining the overall change in the consumption behavior of domestic load based on previously obtained estimates of the peak load and overall consumption reduction for different types of consumers in different types of systems resulting from the application of each set of actions. We have carried out a comprehensive literature review to provide here such estimates. We apply the analytical framework and methodology developed to characterize the reaction of consumers in the Austrian system to different SM related actions. Finally, we provide guidelines on which DR actions to implement in this system and how to implement them. The use of advanced indirect feedback on consumption behavior, critical peak prices and simple time-of-use tariffs is advocated. -- Highlights: → System and consumer features determine households' potential benefits from a Demand Response (DR) action. → Consumers' perception of the net benefits of actions determines their actual reaction. → Consumers' reaction can be characterized by their peak load and consumption reduction. → DR actions implemented should be accepted and understood by all stakeholders involved.

  8. Retrospective Analysis of Bacterial and Viral Co-Infections in Pneumocystis spp. Positive Lung Samples of Austrian Pigs with Pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Weissenbacher-Lang

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was the retrospective investigation of viral (porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV, torque teno sus virus type 1 and 2 (TTSuV1, TTSuV2 and bacterial (Bordetella bronchiseptica (B. b., Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. h., and Pasteurella multocida (P. m. co-infections in 110 Pneumocystis spp. positive lung samples of Austrian pigs with pneumonia. Fifty-one % were positive for PCV2, 7% for PRRSV, 22% for TTSuV1, 48% for TTSuV2, 6% for B. b., 29% for M. h., and 21% for P. m. In 38.2% only viral, in 3.6% only bacterial and in 40.0% both, viral and bacterial pathogens were detected. In 29.1% of the cases a co-infection with 1 pathogen, in 28.2% with 2, in 17.3% with 3, and in 7.3% with 4 different infectious agents were observed. The exposure to Pneumocystis significantly decreased the risk of a co-infection with PRRSV in weaning piglets; all other odds ratios were not significant. Four categories of results were compared: I = P. spp. + only viral co-infectants, II = P. spp. + both viral and bacterial co-infectants, III = P. spp. + only bacterial co-infectants, and IV = P. spp. single infection. The evaluation of all samples and the age class of the weaning piglets resulted in a predomination of the categories I and II. In contrast, the suckling piglets showed more samples of category I and IV. In the group of fattening pigs, category II predominated. Suckling piglets can be infected with P. spp. early in life. With increasing age this single infections can be complicated by co-infections with other respiratory diseases.

  9. Adult and His Other: Conceptualization of the Childhood in the Austrian Modernist Fiction (On the Example of R.M. Rilke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera V. Kotelevskaya

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The childhood as the subject of psychology, philosophy, and art is object of intensive study in the 20 th century Austrian culture. Childhood is seen as the origin of personhood, its “code” that calls for interpretation. Psychoanalysis of Freud and Rank, fiction of Rilke, Musil, Kafka, Bernhard, Bachmann, and Handke are the landmarks in the development of the Austrian modernist text on childhood. The study of the conceptualization of childhood in the 20 th century Austrian fiction being part of the modernist project of the independent personality generating autonomous art is of scholarly relevance. Rainer Maria Rilke imparts a confessional tone to the theme as he develops the neo-romantic idea of childhood as the source of artistic personality. The child is conceptualized as the other of the adult whereas art is conceived to compensate the loss of the former. Experience of self-research is undertaken by Rilke in the novel about a fictional Danish poet Malte Laurids Brigge (Notebooks of Malte Laurids Brigge / “Die Aufzeichnungen des Malte Laurids Brigge”, 1910. The author first describes the past of the character, or his “lonely” childhood, and then turns to the historical past of the mankind and evangelical parable from which the narrator draws exemplae as arguments for his juxtaposition of the “mask” and the self. The fragmentariness or dissociation of the adult self becomes partly overcome by means of return to the childhood, a period when the narrator already gains experience of self-loss and self-discovery. Thus, for the modernist artist, the aesthetic project is inseparably interrelated with the “Sisyphean labor” of writing (Albert Camus, loss of the transcendental principles of poetic “labor,” and total experience of despair which, according to Kierkegaard, inspires self-reflection.

  10. The impact of risk and protective factors on mental health and well-being-Austrian adolescents and migrant adolescents from war-affected countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Buchegger-Traxler

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: young persons are most strongly affected by displacement through political/military actions. This is also a European problem as well as an issue for the European Union. Applying the social-ecological model by Bronfenbrenner we concentrated on micro- and mesosystems of Austrian adolescents and migrant adolescents of war-affected countries.

    Methods: a questionnaire was administered to adolescents in Austria attending schools beyond the mandatory school age, yielding a sample of about 1 100 students from Austrian and immigrant background. We used analysis of variance to compare host and immigrant youth as well as regression analysis to assess the impact of risk and protective factors on youth outcomes.

    Results: we do find sex differences for protective factors and youth outcomes but few differences between immigrant and Austrian adolescents. Youth outcomes analysed were somatic symptoms, anxiety, depression, self-esteem, anti-social behaviour, substance use, and academic performance. Important risk factors turned out to be intergenerational conflict, exposure to violence, and social distance. Protective factors include family connectedness, parental monitoring, school connectedness, peer support, and neighbourhood attachment.

    Conclusions: the most important protective factor is school connectsdness. Social distance and intergenerational conflict are the dominant risk factors influencing youth outcomes. Our research leads to a better understanding of factors determining the well-being of adolescents and contributes to finding new approaches to prevent or cope with mental health problems of young immigrants. In particular it appears to be important to keep young persons in education and/or training since school connectedness influences mental health and well-being positively.

  11. Integrating the hospital information system (HIS) into the Austrian electronic health record ("ELGA") using the example of the health care facility "Breitenstein".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonstingl, Martina

    2014-01-01

    The health care facility "Breitenstein" makes use of a hospital information system to coordinate clinical processes and document medical health data. So as to comply with novel Austrian legislation and fit the "ELGA" architecture, the system has to be adapted. This paper is based on a literature research and gives answers to technical and legal aspects of "ELGA". The introduction of an IHE connector and a CDA manager are the main changes to the current hospital information system. The implementation of interfaces that allow an integration of further "ELGA" features possible are the next step of the project.

  12. Competing Victimizations or Multidirectional Soli-daties? Politics of Collective Memory and Solidarity in the Post-National Socialist and Post-Colonial Austrian Left

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Edthofer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article I illustrate “competing victimizations” and propose possible “multidirectional solidarities” regarding inner-left debates about the Middle East conflict, anti-Semitism and racism in Viennese left-wing contexts. The illustrated conflict is specific for radical left-wing politics in a post-National Socialist and post-colonial setting. Debates initially revolve around Israel versus Palestine solidarity. In the wake of the Second Intifada and the September 11 attacks they partly divide anti-fascist and anti-racist political stances. While the pro-Israeli camp focuses on the Holocaust, Austrian guilt-deflection and current anti-Semitism, the pro-Palestinian side condemns the Israeli occupation and fights growing anti-Muslim racism. In this context, opposing perspectives on the relation of new anti-Semitism and anti-Muslim racism are articulated. Such competing dynamics and their interrelation with Austrian memory politics and global politics are illustrated.  Subsequently, they are discussed as being related to conflicting memories and interrelated competing victimizations in migrant societies with a National Socialist history, such as in Austria and Germany. Concluding, the concept of “multidirectional solidarity” is proposed as an alternative approach, transcending competitive views on past and current victimizations.

  13. Effects of word-of-mouth on the behavior of Austrian blood donors: a case study of the Red Cross Blood Donation Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sebastian; Greiling, Dorothea; Leibetseder, Nina

    2017-12-13

    The procurement of blood is an essential challenge of today's health care. Current studies emphasize the influence of word-of-mouth (WOM) on health care behavior, including blood donation. Still, there exists no study which systematically investigates how WOM affects the behavior of blood donors. Therefore, this paper aims to contribute to this lack of research by focusing on Austrian blood donors as possible receivers and senders of WOM. A survey was distributed to 300 donors of the Austrian Red Cross with a return of 245 surveys. The results highlight the strong influence of WOM on the awareness of the blood service and the willingness to donate blood. Further, structured and organized procedures, friendly employees and respectful interaction were found to be important factors determining willingness to recommend blood donation. Family members as well as friends are the preferred WOM-receivers and the personal face-to-face contact is the favored channel of communication. The results also show that WOM-behavior is strongly influenced by factors such as age, gender and donation frequency. By helping blood bank managers to better understand how WOM affects donation intention and behavior, this study provides a new approach to attract blood donors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Typology of historical sources and the reconstruction of long-term historical changes of riverine fish: a case study of the Austrian Danube and northern Russian rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidvogl, Gertrud; Lajus, Dmitry; Pont, Didier; Schmid, Martin; Jungwirth, Mathias; Lajus, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Historical data are widely used in river ecology to define reference conditions or to investigate the evolution of aquatic systems. Most studies rely on printed documents from the 19th century, thus missing pre-industrial states and human impacts. This article discusses historical sources that can be used to reconstruct the development of riverine fish communities from the Late Middle Ages until the mid-20th century. Based on the studies of the Austrian Danube and northern Russian rivers, we propose a classification scheme of printed and archival sources and describe their fish ecological contents. Five types of sources were identified using the origin of sources as the first criterion: (i) early scientific surveys, (ii) fishery sources, (iii) fish trading sources, (iv) fish consumption sources and (v) cultural representations of fish. Except for early scientific surveys, all these sources were produced within economic and administrative contexts. They did not aim to report about historical fish communities, but do contain information about commercial fish and their exploitation. All historical data need further analysis for a fish ecological interpretation. Three case studies from the investigated Austrian and Russian rivers demonstrate the use of different source types and underline the necessity for a combination of different sources and a methodology combining different disciplinary approaches. Using a large variety of historical sources to reconstruct the development of past fish ecological conditions can support future river management by going beyond the usual approach of static historical reference conditions. PMID:25284959

  15. Fuel efficiency of the Austrian passenger vehicle fleet-Analysis of trends in the technological profile and related impacts on CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, I.; Wessely, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes trends in the technological profile of the Austrian personnel vehicle fleet from 1990 to 2007. This includes the parameters of power, engine size and weight, which beyond the technological efficiency of the motor engine itself, are considered to be the main determinants of the fuel efficiency of the average car stock. Investigating the drivers of ever rising transport related greenhouse gas emissions is crucial in order to derive policies that strive towards more energy-efficient on-road passenger mobility. We focus on the efficacy of technological efficiency improvements in mitigating climate-relevant emissions from car use in light of shifting demand patterns towards bigger, heavier and more powerful cars. The analysis is descriptive in nature and based on a bottom-up database that was originally collated for the purpose of the present study. Technological data on car models, which includes tested fuel consumption, engine size, power and weight, is related to registered car stock and, in parts, to newly registered cars. From this, we obtain an original database of the Austrian passenger car fleet, i.e. information on consumer choice of specific car models, segregated by gasoline and diesel fuelled engines. Conclusions are derived for policies aimed at reducing the fossil fuel consumption of the moving vehicle fleet in order to contribute to a low carbon society.

  16. A chronic alcoholic man with high fever, neck rigidity and loss of consciousness: remember the Austrian syndrome a commonly unrecognised invasive pneumococcus triad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadou, Sarah P; Manoulakas, Efstratios; Makaritsis, Konstantinos P; Dalekos, George N

    2018-05-30

    Austrian syndrome is a rare medical condition characterised by the triad of pneumonia, meningitis and endocarditis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae Native aortic valve insufficiency is the most common cause of cardiac failure in these patients, requiring valve replacement. We report a 52-year-old chronic alcoholic man who presented with fever, neck rigidity and loss of c onsciousness. Lumbar puncture revealed central nervous system infection while chest X-ray showed pneumonia. Blood and cerebrospinal fluid cultures revealed S. pneumonia Transoesophageal echocardiography revealed aortic endocarditis with severe valve insufficiency. The patient underwent aortic valve replacement and was finally discharged after completion of 6 weeks intravenous antibiotic treatment. Nowadays, Austrian syndrome is seen infrequently in the antibiotic era. However, clinicians should be aware of this syndrome as its early recognition and prompt combined medical and surgical treatment could reduce morbidity and mortality due to this potentially catastrophic clinical entity. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Pedigree analysis in the Austrian Noriker draught horse: genetic diversity and the impact of breeding for coat colour on population structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druml, T; Baumung, R; Sölkner, J

    2009-10-01

    The pedigree of the current Austrian Noriker draught horse population comprising 2808 horses was traced back to the animals considered as founders of this breed. In total, the number of founders was 1991, the maximum pedigree length was 31 generations, with an average of 12.3 complete generations. Population structure in this autochthonous Austrian draught horse breed is defined by seven breeding regions (Carinthia, Lower Austria, Salzburg, Styria, Tyrol, Upper Austria and Vorarlberg) or through six coat colour groups (Bay, Black, Chestnut, Roan, Leopard, Tobiano). Average inbreeding coefficients within the breeding regions ranged from 4.5% to 5.5%; for the colour groups, the coefficients varied from 3.5% to 5.9%. Other measures of genetic variability like the effective number of founders, ancestors and founder genomes revealed a slightly different genetic background of the subpopulations. Average co-ancestries between and within breeding areas showed that the Salzburg population may be considered as the nucleus or original stock whereas all other subpopulations showed high relationship to horses from Salzburg. The target of draught horse breeding in the 21st century does not meet the breeding concept of maximizing genetic gains any more. Stabilizing selection takes place. In this study, we show that demographic factors as well as structure given by different coat colours helped to maintain genetic diversity in this endangered horse breed.

  18. [Prevention of Occupational Injuries Related to Hands: Calculation of Subsequent Injury Costs for the Austrian Social Occupational Insurance Institution (AUVA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauner, M S; Mayer, B; Schaffhauser-Linzatti, M M

    2015-08-01

    Occupational injuries cause short-term, direct costs as well as long-term follow-up costs over the lifetime of the casualties. Due to shrinking budgets accident insurance companies focus on cost reduction programmes and prevention measures. For this reason, a decision support system for consequential cost calculation of occupational injuries was developed for the main Austrian social occupational insurance institution (AUVA) during three projects. This so-called cost calculation tool combines the traditional instruments of accounting with quantitative methods such as micro-simulation. The cost data are derived from AUVA-internal as well as external economic data sources. Based on direct and indirect costs, the subsequent occupational accident costs from the time of an accident and, if applicable, beyond the death of the individual casualty are predicted for the AUVA, the companies in which the casualties are working, and the other economic sectors. By using this cost calculation tool, the AUVA classifies risk groups and derives related prevention campaigns. In the past, the AUVA concentrated on falling, accidents at construction sites and in agriculture/forestry, as well as commuting accidents. Currently, among others, a focus on hand injuries is given and first prevention programmes have been initiated. Hand injuries represent about 38% of all casualties with average costs of about 7,851 Euro/case. Main causes of these accidents are cutting injuries in production, agriculture, and forestry. Beside a low, but costly, number of amputations with average costs of more than 100,000 Euro/case, bone fractures and strains burden the AUVA-budget with about 17,500 and 10,500 € per case, respectively. Decision support systems such as this cost calculation tool represent necessary instruments to identify risk groups and their injured body parts, causes of accidents, and economic activities, which highly burden the budget of an injury company, and help derive

  19. German-austrian recommendations for HIV1-therapy in pregnancy and in HIV1-exposed newborn - update 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buchholz Bernd

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract German-Austrian recommendations for HIV1-therapy in pregnancy - Update 2008 Bernd Buchholz (University Medical Centre Mannheim, Pediatric Clinic, Matthias Beichert (Mannheim, Gynecology and Obstetrics Practice, Ulrich Marcus (Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, Thomas Grubert, Andrea Gingelmaier (Gynecology Clinic of the Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Dr. med. Annette Haberl (HIV-Department, J. W. Goethe-University Hospital, Frankfurt, Dr. med. Brigitte Schmied (Otto-Wagner Spital, Wien. In Germany during the last years about 200-250 HIV1-infected pregnant women delivered a baby each year, a number that is currently increasing. To determine the HIV-status early in pregnancy voluntary HIV-testing of all pregnant women is recommended in Germany and Austria as part of prenatal care. In those cases, where HIV1-infection was known during pregnancy, since 1995 the rate of vertical transmission of HIV1 was reduced to 1-2%. This low transmission rate has been achieved by the combination of anti-retroviral therapy of pregnant women, caesarean section scheduled before onset of labour, anti-retroviral post exposition prophylaxis in the newborn and refraining from breast-feeding by the HIV1-infected mother. To keep pace with new results in research, approval of new anti-retroviral drugs and changes in the general treatment recommendations for HIV1-infected adults, in 1998, 2001, 2003 and 2005 an interdisciplinary consensus meeting was held. Gynaecologists, infectious disease specialists, paediatricians, pharmacologists, virologists and members of the German AIDS Hilfe (NGO were participating in this conference to update the prevention strategies. A fifth update became necessary in 2008. The updating process was started in January 2008 and was terminated in September 2008. The guidelines provide new recommendations on the indication and the starting point for HIV-therapy in pregnancies without complications, drugs and drug combinations to be

  20. Current role of MDCT in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (2011). A clinical guideline of the Austrian Societies of Cardiology and Radiology; Aktueller Stellenwert der MSCTA in der Koronargefaessdiagnostik (2011). Klinischer Leitfaden der Oesterreichischen Gesellschaften fuer Kardiologie und Radiologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hergan, K. [Salzburger Landeskliniken, Paracelsus Medizinische Privatuniv. (Austria). Universitaetsinst. fuer Radiologie; Globits, S. [Landesklinikum St. Poelten (Austria). 3. Medizinische Abt./Kardiologie; Loewe, C. [Medizinische Univ. Wien (AT). Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik] (and others)

    2011-10-15

    The clinical guideline of the Austrian Societies for Cardiology and Radiology on the actual role of MDCT in the diagnosis of coronary artery diseases includes the following issues: CT calcium scoring; CT angiography (CTA) of the coronaries; actually recommended application of MDCR; generally inappropriate use of the technique for specific patients; radiation exposure; structural and organizational framework.

  1. Efficiency of the Austrian disease management program for diabetes mellitus type 2: a historic cohort study based on health insurance provider’s routine data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The Austrian diabetes disease management program (DMP) was introduced in 2007 in order to improve health care delivery for diabetics via the promotion of treatment according to guidelines. Considering the current low participation rates in the DMP and the question of further promotion of the program, it is of particular interest for health insurance providers in Austria to assess whether enrollment in the DMP leads to differences in the pattern of the provision of in- and outpatient services, as well as to the subsequent costs in order to determine overall program efficiency. Methods Historic cohort study comparing average annual levels of in- and outpatient health services utilization and its associated costs for patients enrolled and not enrolled in the DMP before (2006) and 2 years after (2009) the implementation of the program in Austria. Data on the use of services and data on costs were extracted from the records of the Austrian Social Insurance Institution for Business. 12,199 persons were identified as diabetes patients treated with anti-diabetic medication or anti-diabetics with insulin throughout the study period. 314 diabetics were enrolled in the DMP. Results Patients enrolled in the diabetes DMP received a more evolved pattern of outpatient care, featuring higher numbers of services provided by general practitioners and specialists (79 vs. 62), more diagnostic services (22 vs. 15) as well as more services provided by outpatient care centers (9 vs. 6) in line with increased levels of participation in medical assessments as recommended by the treatment guideline in 2009. Hospitalization was lower for DMP patients spending 3.75 days in hospital, as compared to 6.03 days for diabetes patients in regular treatment. Overall, increases in costs of care and medication throughout the study period were lower for enrolled patients (€ 718 vs. € 1.684), resulting in overall costs of € 5,393 p.c. for DMP patients and € 6,416 p.c. for the

  2. Efficiency of the Austrian disease management program for diabetes mellitus type 2: a historic cohort study based on health insurance provider’s routine data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostermann Herwig

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Austrian diabetes disease management program (DMP was introduced in 2007 in order to improve health care delivery for diabetics via the promotion of treatment according to guidelines. Considering the current low participation rates in the DMP and the question of further promotion of the program, it is of particular interest for health insurance providers in Austria to assess whether enrollment in the DMP leads to differences in the pattern of the provision of in- and outpatient services, as well as to the subsequent costs in order to determine overall program efficiency. Methods Historic cohort study comparing average annual levels of in- and outpatient health services utilization and its associated costs for patients enrolled and not enrolled in the DMP before (2006 and 2 years after (2009 the implementation of the program in Austria. Data on the use of services and data on costs were extracted from the records of the Austrian Social Insurance Institution for Business. 12,199 persons were identified as diabetes patients treated with anti-diabetic medication or anti-diabetics with insulin throughout the study period. 314 diabetics were enrolled in the DMP. Results Patients enrolled in the diabetes DMP received a more evolved pattern of outpatient care, featuring higher numbers of services provided by general practitioners and specialists (79 vs. 62, more diagnostic services (22 vs. 15 as well as more services provided by outpatient care centers (9 vs. 6 in line with increased levels of participation in medical assessments as recommended by the treatment guideline in 2009. Hospitalization was lower for DMP patients spending 3.75 days in hospital, as compared to 6.03 days for diabetes patients in regular treatment. Overall, increases in costs of care and medication throughout the study period were lower for enrolled patients (€ 718 vs. € 1.684, resulting in overall costs of € 5,393 p.c. for DMP patients and

  3. Dual-purpose power plants, experiences with exhaust gas purification plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, R.

    1993-01-01

    From 1984 to 1988, the research and development project ''pollutant reduction for exhaust gases from heat production systems'' sponsored by the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology (BMFT) has been carried out by TUeV in Bavaria. This project was to show the state of exhaust gas technology for small and medium-sized plants (boilers and motoric heat generators). When publishing the final report, no positive balance could be given. Based on the results, the succession project ''Exhaust gas purification plants in field test'' (ARIF) has been started. This project has the following objectives: -Measuring technical investigation of the exhaust gas purification of motoric driven heat generator systems in field test. - Suitability of hand measuring devices for emissions for a discontinuous control of the exhaust gas purification plat by the operator. - Control of new methods regarding pollutant reduction for motoric and conventional heat generators. (orig.) [de

  4. Dual-purpose cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) straw as sole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L.) Walp.) (IT89KD-391; IT86D-716; IT86D-719; IT81D-994) using 24 West African dwarf (WAD) rams solefed the straw over a 60-d period. Voluntary dry matter (57 to 88 g kg-1 W0.75 d-1), organic matter (OM) ranged from 50.5 to 78.9 g kg-1 ...

  5. Operation efficiency increasing of dual-purpose NPP's by means of improving turbine plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.A.; Borovkov, V.M.; Levit, I.G.; Averbakh, Yu.A.; Titova, I.B.

    1984-01-01

    Ways of operation efficiency increasing power plants for combined electrisity prodUction and centralized heating with WWER-440 reactors and wet-steam heating-condensating turbines are considered. Two variants of floWsheets of by-pass steam distribution permitting to use energy of excess steam in a wide pressure range in the secondary circuit for keeping electric or thermal power of the power unit at a possibly higher level are analyzed. Optimum time of operating cycle prolongation of a heating WWER-440 poWer unit when using the suggested flowsheets with pipelines of by-pass distribution of excess steam covers 16-40 days for the range of change in expenditures at reconstruction for electric power and heat 13.5-17 rub/MWxh and 2-3 rub./MWxh. The maximum time of the reactor operating cycle prolongation for the considered situations makes up 30-80 days

  6. A ferrite LTCC based dual purpose helical antenna providing bias for tunability

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.

    2015-03-30

    Typically, magnetically tunable antennas utilize large external magnets or coils to provide the magneto-static bias. In this work, we present a novel concept of combining the antenna and the bias coil in one structure. A helical antenna has been optimized to act as the bias coil in a ten layer ferrite LTCC package, thus performing two functions. This not only reduces the overall size of the system by getting rid of the external bias source but also eliminates demagnetization effect (fields lost at air-to-substrate interface), which reduces the required magneto-static field strength and makes the design efficient. RF choking inductor and DC blocking capacitor have been monolithically integrated as package elements to allow the magnetostatic and microwave excitation at the same time. The design has been optimized for its low frequency and high frequency performance in two different simulators. A measured tuning range of 10% is achieved at a center frequency of 13 GHz. The design is highly suitable for low cost, compact, light-weight and tunable microwave systems. © 2002-2011 IEEE.

  7. yield and yield components of intercropped dual-purpose lablab and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user pc

    1,3 Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. 2Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. *Corresponding author: ...... Bangladesh. Journal of ...

  8. Design and development of CAMAC 12 bit ADC/DAC dual purpose module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, S.G.; Gore, J.A.; Ramlal, V.; Matkar, U.V.; Lokare, R.N.; Yadav, M.L.; Ekambaram, M.; Gupta, A.K.; Datar, V.M.

    2013-01-01

    A dual function CAMAC module is designed for Pelletron Accelerator which can function as 12 bit 8 channels DAC or 12 bit 16 channels ADC. Spartan 2 series of FPGA is used for implementing the CAMAC interface logic as well as logic for ADC/DAC interface. The PCB has both the ADC and DAC mounted but the module can have only one function selected due to wiring constraint. Two different VHDL programs (one for the ADC and other for the DAC) reside on the EEPROM permitting selection of any one as per the functionality required. The module is working as a 12 bit DAC at BARC-TIFR Pelletron Linac Facility, successfully. (author)

  9. Dual-purpose self-deliverable lunar surface PV electrical power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Jack H.; Harris, David W.; Cross, Eldon R.; Flood, Dennis J.

    1991-01-01

    A safe haven and work supported PV power systems on the lunar surface will likely be required by NASA in support of the manned outpost scheduled for the post-2000 lunar/Mars exploration and colonization initiative. Initial system modeling and computer analysis shows that the concept is workable and contains no major high risk technology issues which cannot be resolved in the circa 2000 to 2025 timeframe. A specific selection of the best suited type of electric thruster has not been done; the initial modeling was done using an ion thruster, but Rocketdyne must also evaluate arc and resisto-jets before a final design can be formulated. As a general observation, it appears that such a system can deliver itself to the Moon using many system elements that must be transported as dead payload mass in more conventional delivery modes. It further appears that a larger power system providing a much higher safe haven power level is feasible if this delivery system is implemented, perhaps even sufficient to permit resource prospecting and/or lab experimentation. The concept permits growth and can be expanded to include cargo transport such as habitat and working modules. In short, the combined payload could be manned soon after landing and checkout. NASA has expended substantial resources in the development of electric propulsion concepts and hardware that can be applied to a lunar transport system such as described herein. In short, the paper may represent a viable mission on which previous investments play an invaluable role. A more comprehensive technical paper which embodies second generation analysis and system size will be prepared for near-term presentation.

  10. Dual purpose QA tool developed for teletherapy unit and CT scan in SNDH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shilvant, D.V.; Tamane, C.J.; Pangam, S.B.; Raees, M.D.; Aynoor, S.K.; Pol, P.S.; Verghese, Aju; Ghorpade, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    To make a simple device used in Teletherapy unit and CT scan for depth data measurement. The accurate depth data is essential and very important factor for precise treatment in SAD isocentric setup calculation. In CT scan based treatment planning, the calculation obtained is from the depth given by the CT scan. The success of treatment depends on the same parameters in treatment unit matched with diagnostic CT scan data. To check the depth parameters in both CT scan and Teletherapy unit we have developed a single QA tool in our hospital. As this tool is precise, handy and easily accessible the results obtained from it assures the quality of Teletherapy unit as well as CT scan depth data. This small device resulted data helps a lot in calculations of complicated SAD setup in Telecobalt and also useful in recent new treatment modalities such as IMRT, micro MLC, etc

  11. Site selection of a dual purpose nuclear power plant in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, F.M.; Obeid, M.A.; El-Malahy, K.S.

    1987-01-01

    Selecting a nuclear power plant site for power production and water desalination is a very complex problem, especially in countries with moderate technology. Many interrelated factors affect the process, and professional judgments by various experts are involved. Four sites, all located on the West Coast of Saudi Arabia along the Red Sea, were chosen as potential sites for building such a plant. (All sites were in either the northern or southern section of the coast; the central part was excluded for pilgrims' safety.) The East Coast was completely eliminated in the initial screening process due to its strategic location, the existence of oil fields and refineries, and its proximity to other Arabian (Persian) Gulf countries (to minimize radioactive releases to these countries in case of an accident). A computer code based on Saaty's eigenvalue technique and developed in a previous study was used in this analysis. Twenty-one main criteria were considered, and the sites were ranked to determine which was most desirable. Site 4 was found to be most suitable, followed by site 3

  12. Yield and forage value of a dual-purpose bmr-12 sorghum hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is an important crop for rainfed production systems with 2.7 million ha grown in the USA in 2013. The brown-midrib (bmr) mutations, especially bmr-12, have resulted in low stover lignin and high fiber digestibility without reducing grain yield in some sor...

  13. Implementation of the dual-purpose principle in Iran, Bushehr desalination and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edalat, M.; Mansoori, F.S.; Entessari, J.; Hamidi, H.

    1978-01-01

    The requirements for electrical power and fresh water and the past and present desalination projects in Iran are discussed. The different methods usually employed in coupling the desalination plants with power plants are outlined, and the interdependency of the two plants and the safety aspects due to radioactive contamination are considered. Finally, the method utilizing a pressurized hot water loop as a safety barrier for the two proposed desalination plants to be coupled with the Bushehr Nuclear Power Plants under construction in Iran is described. (author)

  14. Assessing the potential of dual-purpose maize in southern Africa: A multi-level approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homann-Kee Tui, S.; Blümmel, M.; Valbuena, D.F.; Chirima, A.; Maskati, P.; Rooyen, van A.F.; Kassie, G.T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the potential and challenges of increasing production of food and feed on existing maize fields in mixed crop-livestock systems in the semi-arid areas of southern Africa. It integrates results from different sources of data and analysis: 1. Spatial stratification using secondary

  15. Dual purpose scanner for thyroid imaging in the fluorescence and emission modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charleston, D.; Beck, R.; Yasillo, N.; Atkins, F.; Cooper, M.; Kirchner, P.

    1981-01-01

    Quantitative elemental analysis by the use of stimulated fluorescence x-rays has been applied in an imaging modality whereby the relative concentration of iodine-127 in the thyroid can be mapped, and total iodine in the gland estimated for the diagnosis of malignant and benign nodules. To further the development of fluorescence imaging of the thyroid, three areas of work are described which include theoretical studies, empirical studies and hardware development, and clinical feasibility studies

  16. A ferrite LTCC based dual purpose helical antenna providing bias for tunability

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.; Shamim, Atif

    2015-01-01

    Typically, magnetically tunable antennas utilize large external magnets or coils to provide the magneto-static bias. In this work, we present a novel concept of combining the antenna and the bias coil in one structure. A helical antenna has been optimized to act as the bias coil in a ten layer ferrite LTCC package, thus performing two functions. This not only reduces the overall size of the system by getting rid of the external bias source but also eliminates demagnetization effect (fields lost at air-to-substrate interface), which reduces the required magneto-static field strength and makes the design efficient. RF choking inductor and DC blocking capacitor have been monolithically integrated as package elements to allow the magnetostatic and microwave excitation at the same time. The design has been optimized for its low frequency and high frequency performance in two different simulators. A measured tuning range of 10% is achieved at a center frequency of 13 GHz. The design is highly suitable for low cost, compact, light-weight and tunable microwave systems. © 2002-2011 IEEE.

  17. Dual purpose use of preterm piglets as a model of pediatric GI disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oosterloo, Berthe C; Premkumar, Muralidhar; Stoll, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common gastrointestinal complication in human neonates, yet the pathogenesis of this disease remains poorly understood. A fundamental approach to understanding the etiology and underlying biology of NEC is the use of in vivo experimental animal models, ...

  18. Generator, mechanical, smoke: For dual-purpose unit, XM56, Yuma Proving Ground, Yuma, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driver, C.J.; Ligotke, M.W.; Moore, E.B. Jr. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Bowers, J.F. (Dugway Proving Ground, UT (United States))

    1991-10-01

    The US Army Chemical Research, Development and Engineering Center (CRDEC) is planning to perform a field test of the XM56 smoke generator at the US Army Yuma Proving Ground (YPG), Arizona. The XM56, enabling the use of fog oil in combination with other materials, such as graphite flakes, is part of an effort to improve the efficiency of smoke generation and to extend the effectiveness of the resulting obscurant cloud to include the infrared spectrum. The plan field operation includes a road test and concurrent smoke- generation trials. Three M1037 vehicles with operation XM56 generators will be road-tested for 100 h. Smoke will be generated for 30 min from a single stationary XM56 four times during the road test, resulting in a total of 120 min of smoke generation. The total aerial release of obscurant materials during this test is expected to be 556 kg (1,220 lb) of fog oil and 547 kg (1,200 lb) of graphite flakes. This environmental assessment has evaluated the consequences of the proposed action. Air concentrations and surface deposition levels were estimated using an atmospheric dispersion model. Degradation of fog oil and incorporation of graphite in the soil column will limit the residual impacts of the planned action. No significant impacts to air, water, and soil quality are anticipated. risks to the environment posed by the proposed action were determined to be minimal or below levels previously found to pose measurable impacts. Cultural resources are present on YPG and have been identified in adjacent areas; therefore, off-road activities should be preceded by a cultural resource survey. A Finding of No Significant Impact is recommended. 61 refs., 1 fig.

  19. Risk-based damage potential and loss estimation of extreme flooding scenarios in the Austrian Federal Province of Tyrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Huttenlau

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the last decades serious flooding events occurred in many parts of Europe and especially in 2005 the Austrian Federal Province of Tyrol was serious affected. These events in general and particularly the 2005 event have sensitised decision makers and the public. Beside discussions pertaining to protection goals and lessons learnt, the issue concerning potential consequences of extreme and severe flooding events has been raised. Additionally to the general interest of the public, decision makers of the insurance industry, public authorities, and responsible politicians are especially confronted with the question of possible consequences of extreme events. Answers thereof are necessary for the implementation of preventive appropriate risk management strategies. Thereby, property and liability losses reflect a large proportion of the direct tangible losses. These are of great interest for the insurance sector and can be understood as main indicators to interpret the severity of potential events. The natural scientific-technical risk analysis concept provides a predefined and structured framework to analyse the quantities of affected elements at risk, their corresponding damage potentials, and the potential losses. Generally, this risk concept framework follows the process steps hazard analysis, exposition analysis, and consequence analysis. Additionally to the conventional hazard analysis, the potential amount of endangered elements and their corresponding damage potentials were analysed and, thereupon, concrete losses were estimated. These took the specific vulnerability of the various individual elements at risk into consideration. The present flood risk analysis estimates firstly the general exposures of the risk indicators in the study area and secondly analyses the specific exposures and consequences of five extreme event scenarios. In order to precisely identify, localize, and characterize the relevant risk indicators of buildings

  20. El seguro de desempleo en el Perú : una retrospección preliminar a través de la Teoría Jurídica, la Economía Neo Institucional y el Austrian Law and Economics = Unemployment insurance in Peru : a preminary analysis through the Legal, Neo Institutional Economics and Austrian Law and Economics approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Méndez Reátegui, Rubén

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo de este documento es examinar la implementación de un sistema de seguro de desempleo en el Perú y sus implicancias a partir de la coordinación institucional como modelo teórico. Este estudio es implementado a través de los aportes de la Teoría Jurídica, Economía Neo Institucional y al Austrian Law and Economics. Al representar lo jurídico un bien cultural infinitamente variable, en el manuscrito no se recurre a un análisis empírico-experimental sino al estudio de caso, la metodolo...

  1. Development of standard methods for activity measurement of natural radionuclides in waterworks as basis for dose and risk assessment—First results of an Austrian study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stietka, M.; Baumgartner, A.; Seidel, C.; Maringer, F.J.

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive study with the aim to evaluate the risks due to radiation exposure for workers in water supply is conducted in 21 Austrian waterworks. The development of standard methods for the assessment of occupational exposure of water work staff is a part of this study. Preliminary results of this study show a wide range of Rn-222 activity concentration in waterworks with values from (28±10) Bq/m 3 to (38,000±4000) Bq/m 3 . Also seasonal variations of the Rn-222 activity concentration could be observed. - Highlights: • In this study operational exposure of water work staff was evaluated. • The Rn-222 concentration in indoor air in waterworks was measured for 1 year. • Results show a wide range of Rn-222 activity concentration in waterworks. • Seasonal variations of the Rn-222 activity concentration could be observed

  2. The contribution of school to the feeling of acceptance and the risk of suicide attempts among Austrian gay and bisexual males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plöderl, Martin; Faistauer, Gregor; Fartacek, Reinhold

    2010-01-01

    School-related factors contributing to the suicidality of lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals are understudied, especially in German-speaking Europe. Among our Web-based sample of 468 Austrian gay or bisexual adults, 18% attempted suicide and about one half of them reported that hard times at school related to one's homosexuality partly or mainly caused the attempt. Such suicide attempts were associated with a lack of acceptance at school and harassment experiences. In contrast to suicide attempts, acceptance at school was significantly associated with protective factors such as teachers intervening against homophobia or presence of openly homosexual teachers or peers. These findings may be important for consideration in school-based suicide prevention programs.

  3. Organization for the input and output of the environmental managment system in the Austrian network; Aufbau- und Ablauforganisation des Umweltmanagementsystems im Verbund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, G. [Oesterreichische Elektrizitaetswirtschaft-AG (Verbund), Vienna (Austria)

    1998-12-01

    The Austrian network has pledged itself in all areas of activity to a responsible, enduring relationship with the environment and, consequently, has introduced an environmental management system which embraces all undertakings. The input and output organization is described in relation to the new companies` structure. The establishment of an environmental information system, as well as documentation (required by EMAS) and communications with the public in the form of an annual environmental report may be cited as some of the concrete results. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der oesterreichische Verbund hat sich in allen Taetigkeitsbereichen zu einem verantwortungsvollen, an Nachhaltigkeit orientierten Umgang mit der Umwelt verpflichtet und daher ein - das gesamte Unternehmen umfassendes - Umweltmanagementsystem eingefuehrt. Beschrieben wird die Aufbau- und Ablauforganisation in Verbindung mit der neuen Firmenstruktur. Als konkrete Ergebnisse seien der Aufbau eines Umweltinformationssystems sowie die (vom EMAS geforderte) Dokumentation und Kommunikation mit der Oeffentlichkeit in Form eines jaehrlichen Umweltberichtes erwaehnt. (orig.)

  4. To Infinity and Beyond – Are Innovation Contests at Austrian Technical Colleges the Right Tool to Stimulate the Creative and Technical Potential of the Country?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Zafoschnig

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, creativity as it is applied for finding new technologies and making new inventions, is characterised by new unorthodox aspects of and approaches to problem solving. At the same time, innovation uses new scientific, technical and cultural elements to sustainably change the social structure of society. However, creative and innovative ideas are not affluent or ever-lasting resources. They need to be stimulated, elicited and put into realisation. This has to be done through expensive research and development cam-paigns, but may also be achieved at a lower level, namely, for example, at Austrian Technical Colleges. There, students are often encouraged to submit their diploma thesis projects in national and regional competitions and have recently proved to be very successful.

  5. How organizational research can avoid the pitfalls of a co-optation perspective: analyzing gender equality work in Austrian universities with organizational institutionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striedinger, Angelika

    2017-04-03

    The concept of co-optation offers vocabulary to discuss how concerns and demands of feminist movements are transformed on their way to, and within, mainstream organizations and policymaking. However, applications of this concept can have problematic implications, failing to grasp the complexity of social change efforts and contributing to divisions, rather than alliances, between different groups that work and fight for gender equality. This article argues that conceptual tools from organizational institutionalism can help to avoid these pitfalls by capturing the ambivalence of organizational change initiatives, and allowing us to identify not only counterintentional effects, but also subtle and unexpected opportunities of organizational gender equality work. I illustrate my arguments with empirical examples from research on gender equality work in Austrian universities.

  6. Influence of department volume on survival for ovarian cancer: results from a prospective quality assurance program of the Austrian Association for Gynecologic Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marth, Christian; Hiebl, Sonja; Oberaigner, Willi; Winter, Raimund; Leodolter, Sepp; Sevelda, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The Austrian Association for Gynecologic Oncology initiated in 1998 a prospective quality assurance program for patients with ovarian cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate factors predicting overall survival especially under consideration of department volume. All Austrian gynecological departments were invited to participate in the quality assurance program. A questionnaire was sent out that included birth date, histology, date of diagnosis, stage, and basic information on primary treatment. Description of comorbidity was not requested. Patient life status was assessed in a passive way. We did record linkage between each patient's name and birth date and the official mortality data set collected by Statistics Austria. No data were available on progression-free survival. Patients treated between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2004 were included in the analysis. Mortality dates were available to December 31, 2006. Data were analyzed by means of classical statistical methods. Cut-off point for departments was 24 patients per year. A total of 1948 patients were evaluable. Approximately 75% of them were treated at institutions with fewer than 24 new patients per year. Patient characteristics were grossly similar for both department types. Multivariate analysis confirmed established prognostic factors such as International Federation of Gynecologists and Obstetricians (FIGO) stage, lymphadenectomy, age, grading, and residual disease. In addition, we found small departments (<24 patients per year) to have a negative effect on overall survival (hazards ratio, 1.38: 95% confidence interval, 1.2-1.7; and P < 0.001). The results indicate that in Austria, rules prescribing minimum department case load can further improve survival for patients with ovarian cancer.

  7. Environmental situation in Austria. Seventh state of the environment report of the federal minister of environment to the national assembly of the Austrian parliament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderl, M.; Banko, G.; Baumann, R.

    2004-01-01

    With the presentation of the seventh state of the Environment Report, the Umweltbundesamt - Austrian Environment Agency - fulfils its legal obligation of submitting detailed information on the state of the environment in Austria, thus providing the National Assembly of the Austrian Parliament as well as the Federal Government with an objective basis of data and information. It covers the period under review of 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2003 (unless stated otherwise) and is organized in 6 chapters: 1.- Sustainable development; 2.- Man and environment; 3.- Environmental impacts (agriculture, forest management and hunting, water resource management, energy industry, spatial planning, transport, the handling of chemicals, the application of pesticides and biocidal products, the application of genetically modified organisms, industry, waste management, contaminated sites, and noise); 4.- Environmental media (water, air, soil); 5.- Fauna, flora, habitats (biodiversity, nature protection, national parks in Austria, forest, agricultural habitats, Alpine regions) and 6.- Special chapters (greenhouse emissions and climate change, floods). In order to facilitate orientation, chapters 2-5 has been structured as follows: The 'Introduction' gives an overview of the conditions relevant for Austria as well as the current situation - if applicable also in comparison with other countries, the subchapter 'Environmental policy targets' lists the goals relevant for the respective topic specified in or to be derived from national or EU-wide laws, regulations, ordinances, plans or strategies; 'Situation and Trends' describes the current situation as well as future trends as far as they are detectable; the subchapter 'Summary Assessment and Outlook' compares the status quo with the trends contained in the 'Environmental policy targets'; the subchapter 'Recommendations' contains, from a point of view of precautionary environmental protection, recommendations of measures to guarantee

  8. Adaptation of the Austrian biogas technology to suit conditions in developing countries in the tropical zone. Final report. Adaptierung der oesterreichischen Biogastechnologie an Gegebenheiten in Entwicklungslaendern in der tropischen Zone. Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padinger, R

    1984-04-01

    Within the framework of the objective project 'Adaptation of the Austrian biogas technology to suit conditions in developing countries in the tropical zone' and using the example of the planning for a biogas installation on the Cape Verde Islands, a record was made of experience gained in achieving optimum technology transfer and from which recommendations are made for the implementation of further development aid projects in the biogas sector. (orig./EF).

  9. Functional Outcomes in Individuals Undergoing Very Early (Spinal Cord Injury: Analysis of Neurological Improvement from the Austrian Spinal Cord Injury Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiassich, Georg; Gollwitzer, Maria; Gaderer, Franz; Blocher, Martina; Osti, Michael; Lill, Markkus; Ortmaier, Reinhold; Haider, Thomas; Hitzl, Wolfgang; Resch, Herbert; Aschauer-Wallner, Stephanie

    2017-12-15

    Our study aim was to assess the neurological outcomes of surgical decompression and stabilization within 5 and 24 h after injury. We performed a multi-center, retrospective cohort study in adolescents and adults 15-85 years of age presenting cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI) at one of 6 Austrian trauma centers participating in the Austrian Spinal Cord Injury Study (ASCIS). Neurological outcomes were measured using the American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) grade according to the International Standards For Neurological Classification Of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) form after at least 6 months of follow-up (FU). Of the 49 enrolled patients with acute CSCI, 33 underwent surgical decompression within 5 h (mean 3.2 h ± 1.1 h; very early group) after injury, and 16 underwent surgical decompression between 5 and 24 h (mean 8.6 h ± 5.5 h; early group). Significant neurological improvement was observed among the entire study population between the preoperative assessment and the FU. We identified a significant difference in the AIS grade at the last FU between the groups the using Jonckheere-Terpstra test for doubly ordered crosstabs (p = 0.011) and significantly different AIS improvement rates in the early group (Poisson model, p = 0.018). Improvement by one AIS grade was observed in 31% and 42% of the patients in the early and very early groups, respectively (p = 0.54). Improvement by two AIS grades was observed in 31% and 6% of the patients in the early and very early groups, respectively (p = 0.03; relative risk [RR], 5.2; 95% CI, 1.1-35). Improvement by three AIS grades was observed in 6% and 3% of patients in the early and very early groups, respectively (p = 1.0). Decompression of the spinal cord within 24 h after SCI was associated with an improved neurological outcome. No additional neurological benefit was observed in patients who underwent decompression within 5 h of injury.

  10. The Austrian Network of Isotopes in Precipitation and Surface water: more than 50 years applications and interpretations of basic isotope-hydrological data for Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyhlidal, S.; Rank, D.; Kralik, M.

    2017-12-01

    Austria runs one of the longest-standing and most dense isotope precipitation collection networks worldwide, resulting in a unique isotope time series. Stable isotope variations in precipitation are a consequence of isotope effects accompanying each step of the water cycle. Therefore, stable isotope ratios of oxygen (18O/16O) and hydrogen (2H/1H) in precipitation provide important information about the origin and atmospheric transport of water vapour. The separation of a remote moisture source signals from local influences is thereby challenging. The amount of precipitation in Austria is highly influenced by the Alpine mountain range (400-3.000 mm/a). The amount of annual precipitation increases towards the mountain ranges. However, strong regional differences exist between the north and south of the Austrian Alps because the Alpine range functions as weather divide. The isotope time series of the stations of the Austrian precipitation network show significant but not uniform long-term trends. While the 10-year running mean of some mountain stations exhibit a highly significant increase in δ18O of about 1 ‰ since 1975, the change of δ18O at the valley stations is less pronounced. The increasing δ18O values can be correlated to an increase mean air temperature in the Alpine area and can be used as an additional indicator of climate change in this region. The differences in δ18O-values of sampling stations at similar altitudes can be explained by the origin of the air moisture. An Atlantic influence causes lower δ18O-values than sources from the Mediterranean. This can be explained by the different distances to the sea. Deuterium excess is a second-order isotopic parameter which is often interpreted as a tracer of the evaporation conditions of water vapor at the moisture source in terms of relative humidity, wind speed, and sea surface temperature, but can also be modified by local influences, such as below-cloud evaporation and equilibrium fractionation under

  11. [How can the impact of Health Technology Assessment (HTA) in the Austrian healthcare system be assessed? Design of a conceptual framework].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, I; Zechmeister, I

    2012-04-01

    In Austria research in Health Technology Assessment (HTA) has been conducted since the 1990s. Research in HTA aims at supporting an adequate and efficient use of health care resources in order to sustain a publicly financed and solidary health care system. Ultimately, HTA research should result in better health of the population. Research results should provide independent information for decision makers. For legitimizing further research resources and for prioritizing future HTA research and guaranteeing the value of future research, HTA research needs itself to undergo evaluation. Aim of the study is to design a conceptual framework for evaluating the impact of HTA research in Austria on the basis of the existing literature. An already existing review which presents methods and concepts how to evaluate HTA-impact was updated by a systematic research including literature of the years 2004-January 2010. Results were analysed in regard to 4 categories: definition of the term impact, target groups and system levels, operationalisation of indicators and evaluation methods. Overall, 19 publications were included. Referring to the 4 categories, an explanation of impact has to take into account HTAs multidisciplinary setting and needs a context related definition. Target groups, system levels, indicators and methods depend on the impact defined. Studies investigated direct and indirect impact and were focused on different target groups like physicians, nurses and decision makers on the micro-, and meso level, as well as politicians and reimbursement institutions on the macro level. Except for one reference all studies applied already known and mostly qualitative methods for measuring the impact of HTA research. Thus, an appropriate pool of instruments seems to be available. There is a lack of information about validity of applied methods and indicators. By adapting adequate methods and concepts a conceptual framework for the Austrian HTA-Impact evaluation has been

  12. Wood densitometry in 17th and 18th century Dutch, German, Austrian and French violins, compared to classical Cremonese and modern violins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berend C Stoel

    Full Text Available Classical violins produced by makers such as Antonio Stradivari and Guarneri del Gesu have long been considered the epitome of the luthier's art and the expressive tool of choice for the most celebrated violinists. It has been speculated these makers had access to wood that was unique in some way and that this was responsible for their acclaimed tonal characteristics. In an attempt to discern whether the above conjecture is true, we analyzed 17 modern and classical Dutch, German, Austrian and French violins by wood densitometry using computed tomography and correlated these results with our previous study of modern and Cremonese violins; in all studying 30 instruments of the violin family. In order to make this comparison possible we developed methods to cross calibrate results from different CT manufacturers using calibration wood pieces. We found no significant differences in median densities between modern and classical violins, or between classical violins from different origins. These results suggest that it is unlikely classical Cremonese makers had access to wood with significantly different wood density characteristics than that available to contemporaneous or modern makers.

  13. The influence of sense of coherence and mindfulness on PTSD symptoms and posttraumatic cognitions in a sample of elderly Austrian survivors of World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glück, Tobias M; Tran, Ulrich S; Raninger, Simone; Lueger-Schuster, Brigitte

    2016-03-01

    Sense of Coherence (SOC) and mindfulness are known protective factors against psychopathology, also in older age. We set out to investigate the influence of SOC and mindfulness on posttraumatic symptoms and cognitions in the context of lifetime trauma in elderly persons with a history of childhood war-experiences. Elderly Austrians (N = 97) filled in questionnaires on traumatic lifetime experiences and posttraumatic symptoms (ETI), posttraumatic cognitions (PTCI), SOC (SOC-13) and mindfulness (FFMQ). We expected the influence of SOC scores on posttraumatic symptoms and cognitions to be on one hand influenced by mindfulness. On the other hand, we expected that both aspects would uniquely explain fewer posttraumatic symptoms and cognitions. Participants reported various lifetime traumas (M = 2.42), including experiences during World War II (WWII) as children and adolescents. Mindfulness partially mediated the association of SOC scores with posttraumatic cognitions, but not with posttraumatic symptoms. However, in a two-stage mediation model, mindfulness significantly predicted posttraumatic symptoms via its effects on posttraumatic cognitions. Although SOC was the strongest predictor of posttraumatic symptoms, mindfulness influenced the severity of posttraumatic symptoms via its effects on posttraumatic cognitions. We discuss implications for mindfulness-based interventions on trauma-related cognitions in the elderly.

  14. The dynamics of germination and morphometrics properties of Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold saplings in terms of early indicators of tolerance toward the drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mataruga Milan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic markers, from morphological to molecular, in function with early indicators of tolerance toward drought, have been an object of research and scientific papers for many years. It starts with the hypothesis that seedlings produced from seeds that were collected from population of extremely different site conditions, on the level of open pollinated families, will have different results concerning drought tolerance. By tracking the dynamics of germination and morphological parameters of saplings, we are researching the interdependence of these parameters with the survival and growth of two-year-old seedlings in conditions where there is a lack of water. Austrian Pine seeds were collected from forty trees, distributed over five provenances on the Balkan Peninsula. Within each provenance a group is assigned to an extremely harsh and dry habitat, while also another group is assigned to prosperous (the most productive habitat. The analysis of the twenty-one-day-old seedlings (saplings is performed in the laboratory, while the tolerance test of the two-year-old seedlings is performed in the field. Seedlings that are exposed to conditions in which there is lack of water, have the coefficient of water formation evaluation 22.59 times bigger than sandy-clay soil with fraction of sand bigger than 60 percent. The results show significant and positive correlation between some parameters of saplings and the dynamics of growth (high increments of the seedlings in drought, but no correlation with the survival of the seedlings.

  15. When Paid Work Matters for Fertility Intentions and Subsequent Behavior: Evidence from Two Waves of the Austrian Gender and Generation Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Hanappi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The anticipated risk of job loss and material insecurity are related to fertility postponement in the same way as unemployment is. Given the sequential nature of fertility and occupational decisions, unfavorable working conditions should be resolved before having children, and result in an increase in people’s assignment of importance to paid work when developing their childbearing plans. We aim to demonstrate this link, focusing on perceived employment and material insecurity, the importance assigned to paid work in forming fertility intentions, the construction of fertility intentions, and their realization. Using two waves of the Austrian Generations and Gender Survey, we apply probit regressions to analyze gender variations in the associations between uncertainty conditions, the importance of paid work, fertility intentions and behavior. Results reveal that work and related benefits become salient when they are insecure, and that material insecurity among men discourages childbearing. For women, we find support for the hypothesis that the anticipated risk of job loss inhibits the realization of fertility intentions – intentions which are less likely to be constructed under such conditions from the onset of family planning processes.

  16. Temporal and spatial distribution of isotopes in river water in Central Europe: 50 years experience with the Austrian network of isotopes in rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rank, Dieter; Wyhlidal, Stefan; Schott, Katharina; Weigand, Silvia; Oblin, Armin

    2018-05-01

    The Austrian network of isotopes in rivers comprises about 15 sampling locations and has been operated since 1976. The Danube isotope time series goes back to 1963. The isotopic composition of river water in Central Europe is mainly governed by the isotopic composition of precipitation in the catchment area; evaporation effects play only a minor role. Short-term and long-term isotope signals in precipitation are thus transmitted through the whole catchment. The influence of climatic changes has become observable in the long-term stable isotope time series of precipitation and surface waters. Environmental 3 H values were around 8 TU in 2015, short-term 3 H pulses up to about 80 TU in the rivers Danube and March were a consequence of releases from nuclear power plants. The complete isotope data series of this network will be included in the Global Network of Isotopes in Rivers database of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in 2017. This article comprises a review of 50 years isotope monitoring on rivers and is also intended to provide base information on the (isotope-)hydrological conditions in Central Europe specifically for the end-users of these data, e.g. for modelling hydrological processes. Furthermore, this paper includes the 2006-2015 supplement adding to the Danube isotope set published earlier.

  17. Wood densitometry in 17th and 18th century Dutch, German, Austrian and French violins, compared to classical Cremonese and modern violins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoel, Berend C; Borman, Terry M; de Jongh, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Classical violins produced by makers such as Antonio Stradivari and Guarneri del Gesu have long been considered the epitome of the luthier's art and the expressive tool of choice for the most celebrated violinists. It has been speculated these makers had access to wood that was unique in some way and that this was responsible for their acclaimed tonal characteristics. In an attempt to discern whether the above conjecture is true, we analyzed 17 modern and classical Dutch, German, Austrian and French violins by wood densitometry using computed tomography and correlated these results with our previous study of modern and Cremonese violins; in all studying 30 instruments of the violin family. In order to make this comparison possible we developed methods to cross calibrate results from different CT manufacturers using calibration wood pieces. We found no significant differences in median densities between modern and classical violins, or between classical violins from different origins. These results suggest that it is unlikely classical Cremonese makers had access to wood with significantly different wood density characteristics than that available to contemporaneous or modern makers.

  18. Geological characteristic of the main oil and gas producing formations of the upper Austrian molasse basin. Pt. 1. The Eocene sandstones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, L [Rohoel-Aufsuchungs-Gesellschaft m.b.H., Vienna (Austria)

    1980-09-01

    The sandstones of the Upper Eocene are the main oil carriers within RAG's Upper Austrian concession area. The attempt is being made to reconstruct the paleogeography of the Eocene-in which time the sea transgressed the Molasse basin towards N and E - from core and log evidence. From deep Lower Tertiary onwards the mesozoic and older sediments were exposed to intensive erosion, which resulted in a slightly undulating peneplane sloping in a S to SW direction. This erosion plane was - still in Lower Tertiary times - in some areas dissected into horst and graben structures which greatly influenced the deposition of the early Eocene sediments. During the Upper Eocene the Molasse basin began to subside and subsided more strongly in the SW than in the N and NE, so that neritic deposits could form in the first area, whereas lagoonal and brackish sedimentation still prevailed in the latter. The Eocene sandstones are being classified according to their environment of deposition, and their reservoir, characteristics are being studied. Sandstones are absent in the neritic environment of the Discocyclina-marls only. Sand deposits have been encountered as: 1) transgressive horizons directly overlying the pretertiary substrate, 2) infills of channels cut into limnic-brackish sediments, 3) littoral deposits, partly interfingering with Lithothamnium limestone, 4) fine grained sandy marls and nummulitic sandstones within sublittoral to neritic sediments.

  19. Women show a closer association between educational level and hypertension or diabetes mellitus than males: a secondary analysis from the Austrian HIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kautzky-Willer Alexandra

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lifestyle diseases and cardiovascular complications are dramatically increasing, but little is known about the impact of educational level and health behaviour in men and women in different populations. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the association between educational level (EL and self-reported chronic diseases and health behaviour in both sexes. Methods Data were derived from the Austrian Health Interview Surveys 2006/2007, which includes 13 558 persons (50.9% females. The associations between EL and the risk of obesity, hypertension, diabetes, myocardial infarction, stroke and anxiety disorders or depression, nutrition, exercise, and smoking were evaluated. University education served as the reference category (EL4, the lowest educational level was required schooling only (EL0. Results Only among women did the risk for diabetes mellitus and hypertension increase with decreasing educational level with the highest rates for EL0 OR [95% CI] adjusted for age, income, family status and lifestyle: 3.7 [1.7-8.0], and 2.5 [1.8-3.5], respectively. Only among the men, however, did the risk for stroke increase with decreasing educational level adjusted OR for EL0: 8.5 [1.7-42.7]. For anthropometric measures and lifestyle factors in both sexes the risk increased with decreasing EL. Conclusion EL affects lifestyle, overweight and obesity in both sexes. The apparent sex-specific differences in the association between the prevalence of some chronic disease with EL call for further investigation.

  20. [Laminitis with a high degree of osteitis rarefaciens of the distal phalanx in a Fleckvieh bull].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, J; Stanek, C

    1990-06-01

    Chronic laminitis with severe rarefactive osteitis was diagnosed in a nine month old Simmental fattening bull. The condition was observed in all eight weight bearing digits. Clinical, radiological and pathomorphological examinations revealed osteolysis and downward rotation of all the distal phalanges. The condition appears to resemble the several cases of laminitis in Jersey cattle, which have been attributed to hereditary factors. In this case, however, the genetic background was unavailable for evaluation.

  1. The application of a social cognition model in explaining fruit intake in Austrian, Norwegian and Spanish schoolchildren using structural equation modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Rodrigo Carmen

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this paper was to test the goodness of fit of the Attitude – Social influence – self-Efficacy (ASE model in explaining schoolchildren's intentions to eat fruit and their actual fruit intake in Austria, Norway and Spain; to assess how well the model could explain the observed variance in intention to eat fruit and in reported fruit intake and to investigate whether the same model would fit data from all three countries. Methods Samples consisted of schoolchildren from three of the countries participating in the cross-sectional part of the Pro Children project. Sample size varied from 991 in Austria to 1297 in Spain. Mean age ranged from 11.3 to 11.4 years. The initial model was designed using items and constructs from the Pro Children study. Factor analysis was conducted to test the structure of the measures in the model. The Norwegian sample was used to test the latent variable structure, to make a preliminary assessment of model fit, and to modify the model to increase goodness of fit with the data. The original and modified models were then applied to the Austrian and Spanish samples. All model analyses were carried out using structural equation modelling techniques. Results The ASE-model fitted the Norwegian and Spanish data well. For Austria, a slightly more complex model was needed. For this reason multi-sample analysis to test equality in factor structure and loadings across countries could not be used. The models explained between 51% and 69% of the variance in intention to eat fruit, and 27% to 38% of the variance in reported fruit intake. Conclusion Structural equation modelling showed that a rather parsimonious model was useful in explaining the variation in fruit intake of 11-year-old schoolchildren in Norway and Spain. For Austria, more modifications were needed to fit the data.

  2. Austrian phase on the northern African margin inferred from sequence stratigraphy and sedimentary records in southern Tunisia (Chotts and Djeffara areas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzez, Marzouk; Zouaghi, Taher; Ben Youssef, Mohamed

    2008-08-01

    A multidisciplinary study concerning Aptian and Albian deposits is reported from petroleum wells and the exposed section. The biostratigraphic and sedimentological analysis defined four sedimentary units. Well-logging signals' analysis allows us to refine the record resolution on Aptian series and reveals, in the Djeffara field, a transgressive system tract (TST) and a highstand system tract (HST). Exceptionally, the first sequence (S1) in the Mareth 1 well and the fifth sequence in the two wells Mareth 1 and Gourine 1 reveal the lower-stand system tract (LST). The unconformities characterized by the absence of Upper Aptian (Clansayesian) and Lower to Middle Albian deposits signed by a significant gamma-ray reduction. The Middle and Upper Albian is represented by only one deposit sequence (S6) in Mareth 1. Towards the south, in the Gourine well, two deposit sequences were identified (S6 and S7); to specify the Aptian and Albian evolution of the deposit sequences, a tentative correlation has been established between the Chotts and Djeffara areas. This correlation allows us to characterize the sedimentary unconformities related to the tectonics and eustatic events. The Chotts and the Djeffara deposition areas were developed, characterized by an irregular subsidence and separated by the Tebaga Medenine high area. The Aptian-Albian subsidence platform of southern Tunisia may be considered as a block diagram of environmental deposit with regressive and transgressive trends, showing the impact of tectonic deformations on the palaeogeographic evolution of southeastern Tunisia during the Austrian phase. This study also must be replaced within regional structural patterns that may explain both the sequential and sedimentological evolution of the area. Deformations regionally identified are integrated in the more general context of both Tethyan and Atlantic areas related to the drift of the African platform.

  3. Policies to Accelerate Fuel, Technology andBehavioural Change in Transport - Results and Success of the Austrian Climate: Active Mobile Programme after the First Seven Years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelinek, R.

    2012-01-01

    There is plenty of concepts and strategies on almost all administrative levels to reduce carbon emissions and boost energy efficiency in transport. But it usually takes a long time to adapt national and regional legislation to these strategies with considerable loss of valuable time. Furthermore some of the defined measures will never find the necessary ''political will'' for implementation. To bridge this gap Austria's Environmental ministry supported by the Austrian Energy Agency, got into action 2005 and set up an action programme, condensing all so called ''soft'' and ''voluntary'' measures in transport (''mobility management''), that do not necessarily need to wait for legislation or specific administrative framework conditions. In its comprehensive approach - not only transport is targeted, but also buildings, renewables and energy saving - and also in its effects regarding the reduction of GHG emissions, Climate:active and especially climate:active mobile seems to be one-of-a-kind in Europe. Climate-active mobile set-up: free-of-charge consulting programmes addressing specific target groups (companies, cites andmunicipalities, real estate developers, schools andyouth, tourism); a financial support programme with 51 Mio Euro since 2007 for mobility management measures, fleet conversions to low-carbon technologies, work travel plans etc.; an EcoDriving training programme with up to now 20,000 trainees and educating all novice drivers in Austria in a smart driving style; a broad awareness raising campaign; about 2,900 klima:aktiv mobil partners among the target groups implementing sustainable transport measures and therewith reduces more than 530,000 tons of CO 2 emissions every year, created or saved 4300 ''green jobs'' in transport and induced ''green'' investments by companies and administrations 7 to 8 times higher as the funding. Climate-active mobile is one of the main drivers in Austria to accelerate fuel, technology andbehavioural change in transport

  4. Management of chronic immune thrombocytopenia in children and adolescents: lessons from an Austrian national cross-sectional study of 81 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipurzynski, J; Fahrner, B; Kerbl, R; Crazzolara, R; Jones, N; Ebetsberger, G; Jauk, B; Strenger, V; Wohlmuther, B; Schwinger, W; Lackner, H; Urban, C; Holter, W; Minkov, M; Kager, L; Benesch, M; Seidel, M G

    2016-04-01

    Chronic immune thrombocytopenia (cITP) is often associated with an underlying predisposition towards autoimmunity, recognition of which is relevant to guide treatment. International recommendations on diagnostic steps and therapeutic measures of cITP in childhood exist. However, due to the low prevalence (1-2/100,000) and a variation of availability of immunological and hematological tests and treatments across pediatric units, we postulated that these guidelines are not uniformly adhered to and that immune dysregulation syndromes remained undiscovered. To delineate the current management of children and adolescents with cITP in Austria, we performed a nationwide cross-sectional study. Between 2011 and 2014, 81 children with cITP were seen at seven centers (median age 8.75 years; range 1-17; female:male ratio 47:34) at 641 visits during 180 patient years after diagnosis of cITP (>12 months ITP duration). Additional diagnoses were noted, most frequently immune or autoimmune disorders, hematologic diseases, or infections (in 37.3%, including Evans syndrome, autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, and Fanconi anemia), or other symptoms like bi- or pancytopenia (n=9), lymphoproliferation or granulomatous inflammation (n = 3). Both decision to treat as well as choice of treatment varied: smaller centers tended to observe more frequently, larger centers applied a pattern of treatment modalities that appeared to depend less on bleeding tendency than on center policy. More than 50% of therapeutic interventions occurred in bleedings scores ≤2 (of 5), suggesting a strong psychosocial intention to treat. Platelet increment upon 479 therapeutic interventions of eight types was evaluated, with multiple treatment approaches being pursued sequentially in refractory patients. These data confirm the hypothesis of heterogeneous diagnostic and therapeutic management of cITP in Austrian children and corroborate the need for (1) a precise panel of

  5. Effects of hiking at moderate and low altitude on cardiovascular parameters in male patients with metabolic syndrome: Austrian Moderate Altitude Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumayr, Günther; Fries, Dietmar; Mittermayer, Markus; Humpeler, Egon; Klingler, Anton; Schobersberger, Wolfgang; Spiesberger, Reinhard; Pokan, Rochus; Schmid, Peter; Berent, Robert

    2014-09-01

    Physical activity is a cornerstone in therapy for patients with metabolic syndrome. Walking and hiking in a mountain scenery represents an ideal approach to make them move. The Austrian Moderate Altitude Study (AMAS) 2000 main study is a randomized controlled trial to investigate the cardiovascular effects of hiking at moderate altitude on patients with metabolic syndrome compared with a control group at low altitude, to assess a potential altitude-specific effect. Seventy-one male patients with metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned to a moderate altitude group (at 1700 m), with 36 participants, or to a low altitude group (at 200 m), with 35 participants. The 3-week vacation program included 12 hiking tours (4 per week, average duration 2.5 hours, intensity 55% to 65% of heart rate maximum). Physical parameters, performance capacity, 24-hour blood pressure, and heart rate profiles were obtained before, during, and after the stay. In both groups, we found a significant mean weight loss of -3.13 kg; changes in performance capacity were minor. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures and circadian heart rate profiles were significantly reduced in both groups, with no differences between them. Consequently, the pressure-rate product was reduced as well. All study participants tolerated the vacation well without any adverse events. A 3-week hiking vacation at moderate or low altitude is safe for patients with metabolic syndrome and provides several improvements in their cardiovascular parameters. The cardiovascular benefits achieved are more likely to be the result of regular physical activity than the altitude-specific effect of a mountain environment. Copyright © 2014 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of gender, working field and psychosocial factors on the vulnerability for burnout in mental hospital staff: results of an Austrian cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schadenhofer, Petra; Kundi, Michael; Abrahamian, Heidemarie; Stummer, Harald; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra

    2018-03-01

    According to the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (EU-OSHA), hospitals represent a work environment with high job strain. Prolonged perceived occupational stress may result in symptoms of burnout, such as emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalisation (DP) and reduced personal accomplishment (PA). Understanding which factors may reduce vulnerability for burnout is an important requirement for well-targeted occupational stress prevention in mental hospital staff. To identify the influence of gender, age, working field, family structure, education, voluntarily occupational training during holidays and length of stay on job on occupational stress perception. In a cross-sectional design, 491 employees (311 female, 180 male) of an Austrian mental health centre participated in the study. The extent of perceived occupational stress was assessed by the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) with the scales for emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and personal accomplishment. Participants were divided according to their working field in those working with/without patients. Prevalence of emotional exhaustion was higher in women working with patients compared to men working with patients (25% vs. 18%, p = 0.003). Age above 45 years was significantly associated with decreased vulnerability for burnout in men (EE p = 0.040, DP p = 0.010, PA p = 0.007), but not in women. A lower level of education had a significant impact on depersonalisation in both sexes (p = 0.001 for men, p = 0.048 for women). Length of stay on job showed a significant influence on emotional exhaustion. No significant relationship was found between family structure and vulnerability for burnout. Gender had a differential effect on perceived occupational stress indicating a need for gender-tailored preventive strategies. Age, working field, education, voluntarily occupational training during holidays and length of stay on job affect vulnerability for burnout in mental hospital staff.

  7. High molecular diversity in the true service tree (Sorbus domestica) despite rareness: data from Europe with special reference to the Austrian occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jan-Peter; Konrad, Heino; Collin, Eric; Thevenet, Jean; Ballian, Dalibor; Idzojtic, Marilena; Kamm, Urs; Zhelev, Peter; Geburek, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Sorbus domestica (Rosaceae) is one of the rarest deciduous tree species in Europe and is characterized by a scattered distribution. To date, no large-scale geographic studies on population genetics have been carried out. Therefore, the aims of this study were to infer levels of molecular diversity across the major part of the European distribution of S. domestica and to determine its population differentiation and structure. In addition, spatial genetic structure was examined together with the patterns of historic and recent gene flow between two adjacent populations. Leaf or cambium samples were collected from 17 populations covering major parts of the European native range from north-west France to south-east Bulgaria. Seven nuclear microsatellites and one chloroplast minisatellite were examined and analysed using a variety of methods. Allelic richness was unexpectedly high for both markers within populations (mean per locus: 3·868 for nSSR and 1·647 for chloroplast minisatellite). Moreover, there was no evidence of inbreeding (mean Fis = -0·047). The Italian Peninsula was characterized as a geographic region with comparatively high genetic diversity for both genomes. Overall population differentiation was moderate (FST = 0·138) and it was clear that populations formed three groups in Europe, namely France, Mediterranean/Balkan and Austria. Historic gene flow between two local Austrian populations was high and asymmetric, while recent gene flow seemed to be disrupted. It is concluded that molecular mechanisms such as self-incompatibility and high gene flow distances are responsible for the observed level of allelic richness as well as for population differentiation. However, human influence could have contributed to the present genetic pattern, especially in the Mediterranean region. Comparison of historic and recent gene flow may mirror the progress of habitat fragmentation in eastern Austria. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press

  8. Infección invasiva por Streptococcus pneumoniae: reporte de caso de un paciente con síndrome de Austrian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Echeverri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Descrito inicialmente en 1957 por Robert Austrian, el síndrome que lleva su nombre se define como la tríada de neumonía, endocarditis y meningitis secundarias a una infección invasiva por Streptococcus pneumoniae. Desde entonces, y debido a su infrecuencia, se han reportado muy pocos casos en la literatura científica. A continuación se presenta el caso de un paciente de 61 años de edad con un cuadro inicial de meningitis bacteriana por S. pneumoniae, acompañado de neumonía bacteriana e insuficiencia mitral grave asociada a cuatro vegetaciones sobre la cara auricular de la valva posterior, con ruptura y prolapso de su festón central posterior. Se aisló S. pneumoniae, serotipo 18C, en líquido cefalorraquídeo y en dos hemocultivos. El paciente recibió antibióticos de amplio espectro y fue sometido a reemplazo valvular temprano con un resultado clínico satisfactorio. El principal factor pronóstico de esta condición lo determina el daño valvular subsecuente, sobre todo en pacientes con compromiso de la válvula aórtica, por lo que es necesario identificar tempranamente la extensión del compromiso valvular y definir oportunamente el tratamiento quirúrgico y antibiótico del paciente. En casos menos frecuentes, en los que solo hay compromiso de la válvula mitral, la evolución clínica es menos aguda y, por lo general, el tratamiento antibiótico dirigido y las medidas de soporte avanzado suelen ser suficientes para su control.

  9. Socio-economic factors associated with the 1‑year prevalence of severe pain and pain-related sickness absence in the Austrian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor; Dorner, Thomas Ernst

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to (1) investigate the relation of socio-economic status (SES), measured as education, occupation, and income, with the 12-month prevalence of severe pain and with pain-related sickness absence, and (2) analyse to what extent sociodemographic and medical factors influence these associations. The study population comprised 8084 subjects aged between 15 and 65 years from the Austrian Health Interview Survey in 2006/07. Associations of SES with the 1‑year prevalence of severe pain and sickness absence due to pain in those with severe pain was assessed with logistic regression analysis and adjusted for socio-demographic and chronic medical conditions. The 1‑year prevalence of severe pain was 33.7%. Among those with severe pain, 32.9% were on sickness absence due to pain. SES was significantly associated with the prevalence of severe pain and even more strongly with sickness absence due to pain. Stepwise adjustment for socio-demographics and medical factors had only marginal effects on these associations. Multivariate odds ratios (ORs) for severe pain were 1.14; 1.18 and 1.32 for low income, blue-collar workers, and low education, respectively. Related ORs for sickness absence due to pain were 1.52; 1.14 and 2.05. There was an association between SES, particularly measured as educational level, and the prevalence of severe pain, which was even stronger with sickness absence due to pain.

  10. Sexual violence by occupational forces during and after World War II: influence of experiencing and witnessing of sexual violence on current mental health in a sample of elderly Austrians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueger-Schuster, Brigitte; Glück, Tobias M; Tran, Ulrich S; Zeilinger, Elisabeth L

    2012-08-01

    Wartime rape is an atrocity with long-lasting impacts not only on victims but whole societies. In this brief report, we present data on experience and witness of sexual violence during World War II (WWII) and subsequent time of occupation and on indicators of mental health in a sample of elderly Austrians. Interviews of 298 elderly Austrians from a larger epidemiological study on WWII traumatization were analyzed for the impact of experience and witness of sexual violence during the wartime committed by occupational forces. Interviews comprised a biographical/historical section and psychological measures (BSI, TLEQ, PCL-C). Participants were recruited in all nine provinces of Austria with respect to former zones of occupation (Western Allied/Soviet). Twelve persons reported direct experience of sexual violence, 33 persons witnessed such atrocities. One third of the victims and 18.2% of the witnesses reported post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD full/subthreshold). Sexual violence occurred more often in the former Soviet zone. Victims and witnesses displayed higher odds of post-traumatic symptoms and symptoms of depression and phobic fear than non-victims. Furthermore, witnesses displayed higher levels of aggression compared to victims and non-witnesses. Our results corroborate previous findings that wartime rape has long-lasting effects over decades on current mental health and post-traumatic distress in victims and witnesses. We recommend integration of psychotraumatological knowledge on consequences of sexual violence on mental health into geriatric care and the education of dedicated personnel.

  11. Predictors of and attitudes toward counseling about SUDEP and other epilepsy risk factors among Austrian, German, and Swiss neurologists and neuropediatricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzelczyk, Adam; Zschebek, Gerda; Bauer, Sebastian; Baumgartner, Christoph; Grond, Martin; Hermsen, Anke; Kieslich, Matthias; Krämer, Günter; Kurlemann, Gerhard; May, Theodor W; Mayer, Thomas; Neubauer, Bernd A; Pfäfflin, Margarete; Plecko, Barbara; Ryvlin, Philippe; Schubert-Bast, Susanne; Stefan, Hermann; Trinka, Eugen; Knake, Susanne; Seifart, Carola; Rosenow, Felix

    2016-04-01

    To examine the attitudes toward counseling about sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) and other epilepsy risk factors among Austrian, German, and Swiss neurologists and neuropediatricians, and to determine factors associated with not discussing SUDEP. Questionnaires were sent to approximately 5,000 neurologists and neuropediatricians in 2014 regarding respondents' demographics, their working environments, and how often they discussed SUDEP, suicidal ideations on anticonvulsive medication, driving restrictions, and risks in daily life activities. In total, 519 surveys were completed (respondents' mean age: 45.5 years, 41.6% female, 66.9% adult neurologists, 31.0% neuropediatricians). A minority of 2.7% reported that they counseled all of their patients on SUDEP, 8.7% counseled most of the time (50-90%), 20.8% sometimes (10-49%), 44.5% rarely (1-9%), and 23.3% reported not counseling about SUDEP at all. In contrast, 92.9% reported that they counseled all patients about driving restrictions and 81.5% about risks in daily life activities. Suicidal ideations were discussed in 59.0% for some and in 3.3% for all patients, whereas 35.1% of respondents reported never discussing suicidal ideations. Independent predictors of not discussing SUDEP were no additional epilepsy training, no or uncertain SUDEP cases in the past, <10 years in practice, <25 epilepsy patients seen per quarter, and the opinion of a lack of consequences in SUDEP prevention. The opinion that SUDEP is a risk factor in particular patient groups and the attitude that all risks should be discussed predicted counseling on SUDEP. Our findings show a discrepancy between guidelines and practice regarding the discussion of premature mortality due to SUDEP or suicidality. Both are not discussed at all by a substantial proportion of neurologists and neuropediatricians. This is in contrast to ubiquitous education about driving restrictions. Dissemination of knowledge among physicians about potential

  12. Efficacy and tolerability of vildagliptin-based versus comparative dual therapy in type 2 diabetes : Results of the Austrian subpopulation of the EDGE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brath, Helmut; Bialek, Christoph; Gingl, Ewald; Resl, Michael; Prager, Rudolf; Ratzinger, Michaela

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this post hoc analysis of data from the Austrian subpopulation of the EDGE study was the evaluation of the effectiveness and tolerability of vildagliptin as an add-on to an existing oral antidiabetic (OAD) monotherapy versus a combination therapy with two OADs without vildagliptin in patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes. In Austria, 422 patients were included. In the framework of regular visits (at baseline, about once per quarter, and at the study end, after 12 months), adverse events (AEs), courses, and changes of therapy were recorded. In addition to the primary end point defined in the primary study, i.e., a reduction of HbA1c by > 0.3 % without hypoglycemia, weight gain ≥ 5 %, peripheral edema, or discontinuation due to gastrointestinal events, the most clinically relevant secondary end point, i.e., HbA1c reduction vildagliptin cohort and - 1.0 % in the comparator cohort. In the vildagliptin cohort, 56.4 % of patients, and in the comparator cohort, 45.9 % of patients, reached the primary end point (odds ratio: 1.53, p = 0.04). In the vildagliptin cohort, 18.7 % of patients, and in the comparator cohort, 16.9 % of patients, reached the secondary end point (odds ratio: 1.13, p = 0.68). The incidence of hypoglycemic events (two in each cohort), AEs (approximately 15 % in each cohort), and serious AEs (approximately 2 % in each cohort) was comparable between the two groups. In a "real-life" setting, the effectiveness of vildagliptin as second-line treatment is superior to comparator OADs with regard to a reduction in HbA1c of greater than 0.3 % from baseline without well-recognized side effects in patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes (mean baseline HbA1c: 8.5 % (vildagliptin cohort) vs. 8.1 % (comparator cohort)).

  13. 24th August 2010 - Bhutan Permanent Representative to the United Nations Office, Ambassador Y. Dorji signing the Guest Book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss; visiting the source and linacs and the CMS control centre, building 354, with Austrian Physicist M. Hoch.

    CERN Document Server

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2010-01-01

    24th August 2010 - Bhutan Permanent Representative to the United Nations Office, Ambassador Y. Dorji signing the Guest Book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss; visiting the source and linacs and the CMS control centre, building 354, with Austrian Physicist M. Hoch.

  14. Eberhard Widmann (Stefan Meyer Institute, Vienna) and Silke Federmann (Ph.D. Student from Vienna in the CERN-Austrian Ph.D. program) together with a microwave cavity developed by Silke at CERN. The cavity will be used for the first time to look for spin-flip transitions of antihydrogen atoms later this year.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    Eberhard Widmann (Stefan Meyer Institute, Vienna) and Silke Federmann (Ph.D. Student from Vienna in the CERN-Austrian Ph.D. program) together with a microwave cavity developed by Silke at CERN. The cavity will be used for the first time to look for spin-flip transitions of antihydrogen atoms later this year.

  15. 19 September 2011 - Austrian State Secretary for European and International Affairs W. Waldner, signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss; visiting CMS service cavern with Collaboration Spokesperson G. Tonelli and the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with M. Zerlauth.

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoît Jeannet

    2011-01-01

    Austrian state secretary for foreign affairs, Wolfgang Waldner, left, was welcomed to CERN by Felicitas Pauss, head of international relations at CERN, on 19 September. While at CERN, he toured the CMS control room and underground experimental service cavern, the LHC superconducting magnet test hall, and the Universe of Particles exhibition in the Globe of Science and Innovation.

  16. Conceptual design and cost study for a dual-purpose nuclear-electric reverse osmosis seawater conversion plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a conceptual design and cost estimate for a 25 million gallon per day seawater reverse osmosis desalting plant operating at both Caribbean and Persian Gulf sites. The plant would operate in conjunction with a 1000 MW(e) nuclear power plant. Four seawater membrane manufacturers were supplied with feedwater analysis and a simplified cost estimating procedure in order to recommend membrane systems which would be applicable. For both sites a two-stage system was selected for development of a conceptual cost estimate. The product water cost was found to be (based upon 1978 United States construction costs) $3.17/1000 gallons for the Caribbean site and $3.75/1000 gallons for the Persian Gulf site

  17. Dual-purpose linker for alpha helix stabilization and imaging agent conjugation to glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Navaratna, Tejas; Liao, Jianshan; Thurber, Greg M

    2015-02-18

    Peptides display many characteristics of efficient imaging agents such as rapid targeting, fast background clearance, and low non-specific cellular uptake. However, poor stability, low affinity, and loss of binding after labeling often preclude their use in vivo. Using glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) ligands exendin and GLP-1 as a model system, we designed a novel α-helix-stabilizing linker to simultaneously address these limitations. The stabilized and labeled peptides showed an increase in helicity, improved protease resistance, negligible loss or an improvement in binding affinity, and excellent in vivo targeting. The ease of incorporating azidohomoalanine in peptides and efficient reaction with the dialkyne linker enable this technique to potentially be used as a general method for labeling α helices. This strategy should be useful for imaging beta cells in diabetes research and in developing and testing other peptide targeting agents.

  18. Lucrative status of improved dual purpose cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L., Walp) in Damboa, Borno State, North-Eastern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    B.H. Gabdo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract.Thisstudydivulgedthecost-returnsanalysisbetweenimproveddualpurposecowpea (IDPC)varietiesandothernon-IDPC/localcowpeavarieties in Azir, Damboa town, Kuboa and Sabongari villages of Damboa local council, Borno State, Nigeria. Socio-economic stratification of the villages into Low Population Low Market (LPLM) and Low Population High Market (LPHM) on the basis of human demographic profile and proximity to wholesale market were the criteria adopted for selecting the villages for this stud...

  19. Integration and Test of a 2nd Generation Dual Purpose Pulse Forming Network into the P&E HWIL SIL

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barshaw, E. J; White, J; Danielson, G; Chait, M. J; Frazier, G; Dixon, B; Marinos, B; Milner, D

    2006-01-01

    ... hit probability of the round. ETC provides maximum performance in all conditions, including temperature compensation, resulting in increased lethality and range with higher average muzzle velocities...

  20. Lucrative status of improved dual purpose cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L., Walp in Damboa, Borno State, North-Eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.H. Gabdo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract.Thisstudydivulgedthecost-returnsanalysisbetweenimproveddualpurposecowpea (IDPCvarietiesandothernon-IDPC/localcowpeavarieties in Azir, Damboa town, Kuboa and Sabongari villages of Damboa local council, Borno State, Nigeria. Socio-economic stratification of the villages into Low Population Low Market (LPLM and Low Population High Market (LPHM on the basis of human demographic profile and proximity to wholesale market were the criteria adopted for selecting the villages for this study. A total of 150 cowpea farmers responded to the questionnaire instrument; administered between December, 2006 and February, 2007. Results of the budgetary techniques used show that adopters of IDPC varieties generate $386.01ha-1 as net income as against $248.37ha-1 for the non-IDPC adopters; proportional to 55.42% rise in net income per hectare of cowpea resulting from the impact factor of IDPC adoption alone. Similarly, farmers in Sabongari village realized the highest net income of $491.99ha-1 as against Azir the lowest net income of $247.21ha-1 across the four villages owing to demand factor; interplay between human population and proximity to wholesale market; both in favour of Sabongari but none in favour of Azir. In terms of ratios, farmers in Sabongari were adjudged as more lucrative across adopters’ category, socio-economic domain and villages respectively owing to higher return on sale ratio and lower operating ratio. Azir and Sabongari villages were found to exhibit potentiality for comparative cost advantage and comparative sales advantage respectively. Thus, the research concludes that an expansion path for cowpea is feasible if cultivation and sales are premised on cost and sales advantages.

  1. BRS Ana: cultivar de batata de duplo propósito BRS ANA: A dual purpose potato cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arione da S Pereira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O genótipo BRS Ana é uma nova cultivar de batata adequada para fritura à francesa, com potencial de processamento na forma de palitos pré-fritos congelados e de flocos, liberada em 2007. Foi desenvolvida pelo Programa de Melhoramento de Batata da Embrapa (Clima Temperado, Pelotas-RS, Transferência de Tecnologia - Escritório de Canoinhas-SC e Hortaliças, Brasília-DF, com base na aparência e rendimento de tubérculos, peso específico e qualidade de fritura. Os tubérculos têm película vermelha, levemente áspera, polpa branca, formato oval e olhos rasos. O potencial produtivo é alto. No ecossistema subtropical, apresentou maior produtividade (31,2 t ha-1 que as cultivares mais plantadas no país, quando cultivada no outono, e não diferiu na primavera. Em ecossistema tropical, plantio da seca, a cultivar BRS Ana foi tão produtiva (33,8 t ha-1 quanto as demais cultivares avaliadas. Produziu maior percentagem de tubérculos graúdos (55,6% e peso médio dos tubérculos (108,4 g que as testemunhas no outono do ecossistema subtropical. Em ambos os ecossistemas, a cultivar BRS Ana apresentou elevados valores de peso específico (1,086 e conteúdo de matéria seca (19,7%. Nos testes sensoriais mostrou-se adequada à fritura na forma de palitos, tanto no preparo doméstico, quanto na industrialização. É moderadamente suscetível à requeima (Phytophthora infestans e tem boa resistência à pinta-preta (Alternaria solani. A reação à podridão-mole (Pectobacterium sp. é similar à das cultivares mais plantadas. Apresenta baixa degenerescência de sementes por viroses, conferida pela resistência moderadamente alta ao PVY e baixa incidência do PLRV. Suscetibilidade a distúrbios de origem fisiológica nos tubérculos não tem sido observada. No ecossistema subtropical a tuberização é mais tardia na primavera, devendo portanto ser plantada mais cedo.The genotype BRS Ana is a new potato cultivar adequate for French fries, with potential for processing into frozen French fries and flakes, released in 2007. It was developed by the Embrapa Potato Breeding Program (Embrapa Temperate Agriculture, Pelotas-RS; Embrapa Transference of Technology, Office of Canoinhas-SC; and Embrapa Vegetables, Brasília-DF, based on tuber appearance and yield, specific gravity and French fries quality. Tubers are red-skinned, lightly rough, oval shaped with shallow eyes. The pulp is white. Cultivar BRS Ana has high yield potential. In the subtropical ecosystem, cultivar BRS Ana showed higher yield (31.2 t ha-1 than the most used cultivars in Brazil when grown in autumn, and did not differ from them in the spring. In the tropical ecosystem, under irrigation, BRS Ana did not differ from both control cultivars. It produced higher percentage of marketable tubers (55.6% and average tuber weight (108.4 g than the controls in the fall crop of subtropical ecosystem. In both ecosystems, cultivar BRS Ana presented high specific gravity (1.086 and dry matter content (19.7%. The sensorial analysis showed that cultivar BRS Ana is adequate for home made French fries as well as for industrial processing. It is moderately susceptible to late blight (Phytophthora infestans and presents good resistance to early blight (Alternaria solani. The reaction to the tuber soft rot (Pectobacterium sp. is similar to the most used cultivars. It has low seed degeneration conferred by moderate resistance to PVY and low incidence of PLRV. Susceptibility to tuber physiological disorders has not been observed. It seems that BRS Ana has lower fertilizer and water requirements than the most planted cultivars, meaning reduction of crop cost and risk. In the subtropical ecosystem, tuberization starts later in spring, therefore BRS Ana should be planted earlier in the season.

  2. Conceptual design and cost study for a dual-purpose nuclear-electric reverse osmosis seawater conversion plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a conceptual design and cost estimate for a 25 million gallon per day seawater reverse osmosis desalting plant operating at both Caribbean and Persian Gulf sites. The plant would operate in conjunction with a 1000 MW(e) nuclear power plant. Four seawater membrane manufacturers were supplied with feedwater analysis and a simplified cost estimating procedure in order to recommend membrane systems which would be applicable. For both sites a two-stage system was selected for development of a conceptual cost estimate. The product water cost was found to be (based upon 1978 United States construction costs) $3.17/1000 gallons for the Caribbean site and $3.75/1000 gallons for the Persian Gulf site.

  3. [On the work of Austrian authorised experts on procedures in custodial and visiting rights--a survey of current practice from the parents and children view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vöelkl-Kernstock, Sabine; Bein, Nicolas; Gutschner, Daniel; Klicpera, Christian; Ponocny-Seliger, Elisabeth; Friedrich, Max H

    2008-01-01

    Children who are involved in their parents' contentious separations, and about whom custody or visiting rights have become a matter of legal dispute, often demonstrate changes in behaviour, sometimes to the extent that these changes develop into noticeable psychological problems. Where custody and visiting rights are in dispute the expert child psychological/psychiatric evaluator appraises the family and recognises the suffering of the children involved, but is unable to intervene to treat the child for they have only been authorised to provide an appraisal. The goal of this study is to determine the extent to which an expert's evaluation provides the opportunity to intervene with the child's parents, and to what extent it offers a greater insight and understanding of the child's behaviour. The study also aims to record the children's own attitude to the expert evaluation. With the support of each Austrian district court, 1200 parents involved in custodial proceedings were contacted by post. Likewise, 27 children aged between 6 and 14 years old who were referred to a forensic psychology outpatient's clinic as a result of their parent's highly contentious separations, were recruited as test persons. Parents as well as children were asked to complete an especially designed questionnaire in order to assess the work of the expert evaluator; this took place before the study began and was conducted by an expert who didn;t work at the forensic outpatient clinic of the department of child and adolescent psychiatry. Overall, the parents displayed a high level of dissatisfaction with the expert evaluation procedure. More than a third of those questioned highlighted the lack of information about the psychological and educational contents of the appraisal, and about the way the child is treated in terms of the provisions for custody and visiting rights. A key point of criticism turned out to be the brevity of the discussion with the expert evaluator, whilst the opportunity to

  4. Modality-dependent dose requirements in the Austrian breast cancer early detection program. First results from technical quality assurance; Geraeteabhaengiger Dosisbedarf im Oesterreichischen Brustkrebsfrueherkennungsprogramm. Erste Ergebnisse aus der technischen Qualitaetssicherung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osanna-Elliott, A.; Semturs, F.; Menhart, S.; Schloegl, C.; Wildner, S.; Zwettler, G. [AGES, Wien (Austria). Referenzzentrum fuer technische Qualitaetssicherung im Brustkrebsfrueherkennungsprogramm

    2015-07-01

    The Austrian Breast Cancer Early Detection Program (BKFP) has officially started in January 2014. In order to ensure that all participating women can rely on a sufficient cancer detection rate while at the same time the required dose is as low as reasonably achievable, all participating radiology institutes (approx. 200) have to fulfill strict quality assurance requirements. The control and certification is performed by the Reference Center for Technical Quality Assurance (RefZQS), which has been developing the methods and tolerances in a pilot project since 2007. The limits are defined in the EUREF-Oeprotocol which is based on the European EPQC guidelines. From the requirement for optimized image quality while simultaneously following the ALARA principle, we found modality-dependent dose requirements, which we had expected but which have now been compiled for the first time for Austria.

  5. Determination of eye lens doses and identification of risk groups among radiation exposed workers. An Austrian pilot study; Bestimmung der Augenlinsen-Dosis und Identifizierung von Risikogruppen bei beruflich strahlenexponierten Personen. Eine Pilotstudie in Oesterreich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadtmann, H.; Hranitzky, C.; Willer, H. [Seibersdorf Labor GmbH, Seibersdorf (Austria). Radiation Protection Dosimetry; Strebl, F.; Ernst, G. [Seibersdorf Labor GmbH, Seibersdorf (Austria). Radiation Safety and Applications; Aspek, W. [Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt (AUVA), Wien (Austria). Abt. Unfallverhuetung und Berufskrankheitenbekaempfung (HUB)

    2015-07-01

    On European level, in 2014 the dose limit for the lens of the eye of radiation exposed workers has been reduced from 150 to 20 mSv per year (2013/59/Euratom). Data about eye lens exposition measured under realistic operational conditions of Austrian radiation exposed workers is sparse and there is no information to verify, if all professional groups identified to be at risk for elevated eye doses will remain below the new annual dose limit. Therefore, financed by the Austrian Workers Compensation Board, AUVA, a pilot study has been initiated to answer this question. Based on published information professional groups of radiation exposed workers and operational tasks with an enhanced risk of elevated eye lens doses have been identified. By dosimetric measurements with volunteers (forehead dose meters and parallel measurements with whole-body TL-dose meters above and under the lead apron) realistic lens doses will be estimated during selected radiation exposed tasks. Comparison of yielded doses will show whether a TLD outside the apron could serve as an alternative to forehead dose meters dedicated to measure eye lens doses. Measurements with leaded protective eyewear based on IEC61331 yield results for lead equivalent in good agreement with manufacturers' information. Results for eye lens doses determined by use of a RANDO head phantom and a standardized phantom simulating a body in a typical exposition situation for interventional radiologists show that wearing of leaded goggles allows for a 90% dose reduction. Under such conditions the eye lens dose is dominated by backscatter and stray radiation from the operator's head and patient body. This has to be considered for the evaluation of protective effectiveness for leaded eye wear.

  6. 29 March 2012 - Austrian Niederösterreich Governor E. Pröll with Klubobmann and Chairman of EBG MedAustron GmbH Council K. Schneeberger, Director General for Cultural Policy Amabssador M.Eichtinger and Permanent Representative of Austria to the UNO and Austrian Delegate to CERN Council Ambassador C. Strohal in the MedAustron facility at CERN building 184.

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2012-01-01

    CERN-HI-1203078 01 - 13: visit of LINAC 3 with M. Benedikt CERN-HI-1203078 14 - 20: in the Roy Billinge room CERN-HI-1203078 21- 22: visit of the LEIR accelerator in building 354 CERN-HI-1203078 23 - 55: signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer and Head of International Relations F. Pauss CERN-HI-1203078 56 - 99: in building 184, Governor Pröll and CERN Director-General R. Heuer switch on the MedAustron ion source to produce the proton beam; visit MedAustron facility. CERN-HI-1203078 32:from left to right: Klubobmann and Chairman of EBG MedAustron GmbH Council K. Schneeberger; Director-General R. Heuer;Niederösterreich Governor E. Pröll;Head of International Relations F. Pauss;Permanent Representative of Austria to the UNO and Austrian Delegate to CERN Council Ambassador C. Strohal.

  7. Adaptation of the Austrian biogas technology to suit conditions in developing countries in the tropical zone. Intermediate report. Adaptierung der oesterreichischen Biogastechnologie an Gegebenheiten in Entwicklungslaendern in der tropischen Zone. Zwischenbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padinger, R

    1983-11-01

    Within the framework of the objective project 'Adaptation of the Austrian biogas technology to suit conditions in developing countries in the tropical zone' and using the example of the planning for a biogas installation on the Cape Verde Islands, a record was made of experience gained in achieving optimum technology transfer and from which recommendations are made for the implementation of further development aid projects in the biogas sector. The interim report on hand describes the current status of the project. After a description of the situation on the Cape Verde Islands, a commentary is given on the objectives in the planning of the biogas installation, taking into consideration the regional conditions. In addition to a description of the measures taken during planning to achieve optimum adaptation of the installation to the prevailing circumstances, a detailed record is given of the problems encountered within the scope of the planning in the pursuit of this objective, together with the difficulties involved in eliminating these problems. (orig./EF).

  8. High rate of hypoglycemia in 6770 type 2 diabetes patients with comorbid dementia: A multicenter cohort study on 215,932 patients from the German/Austrian diabetes registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, Nicole; Stingl, Julia; Dapp, Albrecht; Denkinger, Michael D; Fasching, Peter; Jehle, Peter M; Merger, Sigrun; Mühldorfer, Steffen; Pieper, Urte; Schuler, Andreas; Zeyfang, Andrej; Holl, Reinhard W

    2016-02-01

    Dementia and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are two major phenomena in older people. To compare anti-hyperglycemic therapy and diabetes-related comorbidities between elderly T2D patients with or without comorbid dementia. 215,932 type 2 diabetes patients aged ≥ 40 years (median [Q1;Q3]: 70.4 [61.2;77.7] years) from the standardized, multicenter German/Austrian diabetes patient registry, DPV, were studied. To identify patients with comorbid dementia, the registry was searched by ICD-10 codes, DSM-IV/-5 codes, respective search terms and/or disease-specific medication. For group comparisons, multiple hierarchic regression modeling with adjustments for age, sex, and duration of diabetes was applied. 3.1% (n=6770; 57% females) of the eligible T2D patients had clinically recognized comorbid dementia. After adjustment for demographics, severe hypoglycemia (insulin group: 14.8 ± 0.6 vs. 10.4 ± 0.2 events per 100 patient-years, p<0.001), hypoglycemia with coma (insulin group: 7.6 ± 0.4 vs. 3.9 ± 0.1 events per 100 patient-years, p<0.001), depression (9.9 vs. 4.7%, p<0.001), hypertension (74.7 vs. 72.2%, p<0.001), stroke (25.3 vs. 6.5%, p<0.001), diabetic foot syndrome (6.0 vs. 5.2%, p=0.004), and microalbuminuria (34.7 vs. 32.2%, p<0.001) were more common in dementia patients compared to T2D without dementia. Moreover, patients with dementia received insulin therapy more frequently (59.3 vs. 54.7%, p<0.001), but metabolic control (7.7 ± 0.1 vs. 7.7 ± 0.1%) was comparable to T2D without dementia. In T2D with dementia, higher rates of hypoglycemia and other diabetes-related comorbidities were observed. Hence, the risks of a glucocentric and intense diabetes management with insulin and a focus on tight glycemic control without considering other factors may outweigh the benefits in elderly T2D patients with comorbid dementia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Diabetic foot syndrome (DFS) in patients with diabetes. A multicenter German/Austrian DPV analysis on 33,870 DFS patients among 358,986 adult subjects with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Barbara; Grünerbel, Arthur; Altmeier, Marcus; Giesche, Carsten; Pfeifer, Martin; Wagner, Christian; Heise, Nikolai; Best, Frank; Fasching, Peter; Holl, Reinhard W

    2018-05-03

    The diabetic foot syndrome (DFS) is a serious complication in patients with diabetes increasing the risk for minor/major amputations. This analysis aimed to examine differences in diabetes patients with or without DFS stratified by type 1 (T1D) or type 2 diabetes (T2D). Adult patients (≥20y of age) with diabetes from the German/Austrian DPV-registry were included. The cross-sectional study comprised 45,722 subjects with T1D (n DFS =2,966) and 313,264 with T2D (n DFS =30,904). In DFS, minor/major amputations were analyzed. To compare HbA 1C , neuropathy, nephropathy, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and macrovascular complications between patients with our without DFS, regression models were conducted. Confounders: age, sex, diabetes duration. In patients with DFS, a minor amputation was documented in 27.2% (T1D) and 25.9% (T2D), a major amputation in 10.2% (T1D) and 11.3% (T2D). Regression models revealed that neuropathy was more frequent in subjects with DFS compared to patients without DFS (T1D: 70.7 vs. 29.8%; T2D: 59.4% vs. 36.9%; both p<0.0001). Hypertension, nephropathy, peripheral vascular disease, stroke, or myocardial infarction were more common compared to patients without DFS (all p<0.0001). In T1D with DFS, a slightly higher HbA 1C (8.11% vs. 7.95%; p<0.0001) and in T2D with DFS a lower HbA 1C (7.49% vs. 7.69%, p<0.0001) was observed. One third of the patients with DFS had an amputation of the lower extremity. Especially neuropathy or peripheral vascular disease were more prevalent in patients with DFS. New concepts to prevent DFS-induced amputations and to reduce cardiovascular risk factors before the occurrence of DFS are necessary. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Results of the Austrian CT dose study 2010. Typical effective doses of the most frequent CT examinations; Ergebnisse der Oesterreichischen CT-Dosisstudie 2010. Effektive Dosen der haeufigsten CT-Untersuchungen und Unterschiede zwischen Anwendern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homolka, Peter; Leithner, Robert; Billinger, Jochen [Medizinische Universitaet Wien (Austria). Zentrum fuer Medizinische Physik und Biomedizinische Technik; Gruber, Michael [Medizinische Universitaet Wien (Austria). Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: To determine typical doses from common CT examinations of standard sized adult patients and their variability between CT operators for common CT indications. Materials and Methods: In a nationwide Austrian CT dose survey doses from approx. 10,000 common CT examinations of adults during 2009 and 2010 were collected and 'typical' radiation doses to the 'average patient', which turned out to have 75.6 kg body mass, calculated. Conversion coefficients from DLP to effective dose were determined and effective doses calculated according to ICRP 103. Variations of typically applied doses to the 'average patient' were expressed as ratios between 90{sup th} and 10{sup th} percentile (inter-percentile width, IPW90/10), 1st and 3{sup rd} quartile (IPW75/25), and Maximum/Minimum. Results: Median effective doses to the average patients for standard head and neck scans were 1.8 mSv (cervical spine), 1.9 mSv (brain: trauma/bleeding, stroke) to 2.2 mSv (brain: masses) with typical variation between facilities of a factor 2.5 (IPW90/10) and 1.7 (IPW75/25). In the thorax region doses were 6.4 to 6.8 mSv (pulmonary embolism, pneumonia and inflammation, oncologic scans), the variation between facilities was by a factor of 2.1 (IPW90/10) and 1.5 (IPW75/25), respectively. In the abdominal region median effective doses from 6.5 mSv (kidney stone search) to 22 mSv (liver lesions) were found (acute abdomen, staging/metastases, lumbar spine: 9-12 mSv; oncologic abdomen plus chest 16 mSv; renal tumor 20 mSv). Variation factors between facilities were on average for abdominal scans 2.7 (IPW90/10) and 1.8 (IPW75/25). Conclusion: Variations between CT operators are generally moderate for most operators, but in some indications the ratio between the minimum and the maximum of average dose to the typical standard patients exceeds a factor of 4 or even 5. Therefore, comparing average doses to Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs) and optimizing protocols need to

  11. Austrian Students and Smoking: Prevalence and Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glawischnig, Markus; Reichmann, Gerhard; Sommersguter-Reichmann, Margit

    2009-01-01

    There is little data on the smoking behaviour of the population of Austria. The available information hardly goes beyond some figures on the number of regular smokers and the amount of cigarettes consumed per person per year. Equally, statutory anti-smoking measures in Austria lag considerably behind those of other countries, especially the U.S.…

  12. The Austrian prize list; Le palmares autrichien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonas, A.; Gortler, F. [LK Oberosterreich (Austria)

    1999-06-01

    The Austria took stock on the wood furnaces from 1983 to 1997. Many tables present the annual power of automatic installations and networks, the installations number and their localization. Facing the fossil energies competition, the development of this energy needs a government financial assistance to keep its increase. (A.L.B.)

  13. Annual report 1992 - Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillebrand, G.

    1994-01-01

    This is a non-technical progress report (in English) of the activities of the Research Centre Seibersdorf in the fields of energy and safety, materials research, isotope and radiation techniques, environment protection, health and food and industrial consulting. Within other non nuclear related highlights the newly built radio-pharmaceutical laboratory is described, which will guarantee the reliable supply of products and develop new diagnostic and therapeutic preparations. A newly developed whole-body counter for measuring internal radiation is in use in the Vienna General Hospital to obtain better information of the patient's metabolism and can thus assess the efficiency of pharmaceuticals. The research in the field of toxicology and carcinogenicity was intensified. Geological dating was performed for the 'Continental Deep-Drilling Programme' on behalf of the Max Planck Institute. Environmental data acquisition was mainly conducted in the field of ozone, water quality, air pollution and electro-smog (quittner, rieger)

  14. Sunscreens and occupation: the Austrian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Harald; Schmalwieser, Alois W

    2010-04-01

    Since the nineteen fifties the attitude of the fair-skinned world population towards the sun has changed dramatically. Tanned skin, which before was regarded as the stigma of the underprivileged working classes, became fashionable and desirable. The science of photoprotection primarily focuses on ultraviolet exposure during leisure time activities, whereas ultraviolet radiation is still underestimated as a risk factor for UV-induced skin and eye problems. The actual discussion on the registration of UV-induced skin tumours as occupational diseases, however, has drawn more attention to this important issue. Ambient radiation, the working process itself and the photoprotective behaviour of an outdoor worker are the main factors which influence the actual UV exposure. However, the total risk for the development of actinic damage results from the interaction of both the occupational and the leisure time exposure. It is evident that there is a high need for photoprotective measures for outdoor workers. Topical sunscreens as a part of a comprehensive UV protection strategy for outdoor workers have to fulfil special requirements: reasonable price, high water resistance, non-sticky appearance. At present only a few products are available which meet these criteria. This is the reason why sunscreens are not so well accepted by outdoor workers. Great efforts have to be undertaken to improve sunscreen formulations and to convince people to apply them correctly and regularly.

  15. Institutional patterns in the Austrian space sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Annie; Burg, Elco van; Giannopapa, Christina

    2018-01-01

    This paper employs the institutional logics perspective to understand how space policies and regulations influences entrepreneurship and innovation. We conducted interviews with entrepreneurs, ESA policy makers and governmental representatives in Austria and identified six prevailing institutional practices: geographical return, the SME-initiatives, the national support pattern, the size pattern, the consortium pattern and the experience pattern. Together, these patterns make up the semi-governmental logic of the space sector. We find that space actors adhere to these patterns to earn legitimacy, which is a condition for support and access to resources. This study adds to our understanding in the consequences of policies and contributes to the design of new space policies and programmes.

  16. Annual report 1992 - Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillebrand, G.

    1994-01-01

    This is a non-technical progress report (in German) of the activities of the Research Centre Seibersdorf in the fields of energy and safety, materials research, isotope and radiation techniques, environment protection, health and food and industrial consulting. Within other non nuclear related highlights the newly built radio-pharmaceutical laboratory is described, which will guarantee the reliable supply of products and develop new diagnostic and therapeutic preparations. A newly developed whole-body counter for measuring internal radiation is in use in the Vienna General Hospital to obtain better information of the patient's metabolism and can thus assess the efficiency of pharmaceuticals. The research in the field of toxicology and carcinogenicity was intensified. Geological dating was performed for the 'Continental Deep-Drilling Programme' on behalf of the Max Planck Institute. Environmental data acquisition was mainly conducted in the field of ozone, water quality, air pollution and electro-smog (quittner, rieger)

  17. Targhee Russet: A high yielding dual purpose, long russet potato cultivar having higher protein and vitamin C content and resistance to tuber soft rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targhee Russet is a dark-skinned russet potato variety with tubers slightly longer than Russet Burbank. It produces higher total and marketable yields than does Russet Burbank at most of the sites it was tested in the western United States. Tuber dormancy is about 58 days shorter than Russet Burba...

  18. Loads imposed on dual purpose casks in German on-site-storage facilities for long term intermediate storage of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, N.; Rabe, O. [TUeV NORD EnSys Hannover GmbH und Co. KG, Hanover (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    In accordance with recent changes of the atomic energy act and in order to secure reliable removal of spent fuel from the nuclear power plants' fuel storage ponds the German utilities filed license applications for a total of 12 onsite- storage facilities for spent fuel assemblies. By the end of 2003 the last of these storage facilities were licensed and are currently under construction. The first on-site-storage facility of that line became operational in late 2002. There are several design lines of storage facilities with different handling procedures or possible accident conditions. Short term interim storage facilities for a few casks are characterized by individual concrete hoods shielding the casks in horizontal position whereas long term intermediate storage facilities currently erected for large numbers of casks typically feature a condensed pattern of casks stored in upright position and massive structures of reinforced concrete. TUeV Hannover/Sachsen-Anhalt e. V. (now TUeV NORD EnSys Hannover GmbH and Co. KG) has been contracted as a body of independent experts for the assessment of all related safety requirements on behalf of the national licensing authority, the federal office for radiation protection (BfS).

  19. Valorization of the energy potential of fossil and fissile fuels for heat production: dual-purpose power plants and heat-producing nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavite, Michel.

    1975-07-01

    The heat market is analyzed briefly within the French context: present structures and characteristics of the market, current means of heat production, predictable trend of the demand. The possible applications of nuclear energy to heat production, through the agency of combined electricity-steam stations or heat-producing stations, are then examined. Nuclear solutions are compared with others from the technico-economic and ecological wiewpoints and an estimate fo their respective impacts on the energy balance is attempted [fr

  20. A Dual-Purpose Linker for Alpha Helix Stabilization and Imaging Agent Conjugation to Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Navaratna, Tejas; Liao, Jianshan; Thurber, Greg M.

    2016-01-01

    Peptides display many characteristics of efficient imaging agents such as rapid targeting, fast background clearance, and low non-specific cellular uptake. However, poor stability, low affinity, and loss of binding after labeling often preclude their use in vivo. Using the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) ligands exendin and GLP-1 as a model system, we designed a novel alpha helix stabilizing linker to simultaneously address these limitations. The stabilized and labeled peptides showed an increase in helicity, improved protease resistance, negligible loss or an improvement in binding affinity, and excellent in vivo targeting. The ease of incorporating azidohomoalanine in peptides and efficient reaction with the dialkyne linker enables this technique to potentially be used as a general method for labeling alpha helices. This strategy should be useful for imaging beta cells in diabetes research and in developing and testing other peptide targeting agents. PMID:25594741

  1. IKT-Gateway as a bridge between dual-purpose power plant and smart grid; IKT-Gateway als Bruecke zwischen BHKW und Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, Joerg [SSV Software Systems GmbH, Hannover (Germany). Bereich Vertrieb und Marketing

    2012-07-15

    The way to a smart grid leads via the interconnection of distributed energy producers and consumers. Within the total network, energy producers and consumers have to communicate meaningfully with each other. This is a great performance for a reliable and performant long-distance service. In the case of 2G Energietechnik AG (Heek, Federal Republic of Germany), SSV Software Systems GmbH (Hannover, Federal Republic of Germany) has met this challenge with an ICT-based gateway solution mastered.

  2. Calculation of radiation exposure of the environment of interim storage facilities for the dry storage of spent fuel in dual-purpose casks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wortmann, B.; Stratmann, W. [STEAG Encotec GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Acceptance problems in the public concerning the transport of spent nuclear fuel elements and a new political objective of the Federal Government have forced the German utilities to embark on on-site interim storage projects for the temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel elements. STEAG encotec GmbH, Essen, Germany, was awarded contracts for the conceptual planning including necessary shielding calculations for the majority of the 13 nuclear sites which opted for the dry storage concept. The capacity of the storage facilities ranges from 80 to 100 casks, according to the storage needs of the plants. The average dose rate at the surface of each cask was limited to 0.5 mSv/h, independent of the type of radiation. These new buildings should not significantly increase the exposure of the public to radiation already originating from the existing nuclear power plant. The layout of the storage building therefore has to ensure that additional target values of 10-20 iSv/y are not exceeded. These very low target values as well as the requirement to avoid high mechanical impacts to the casks in case of external events led to a thickness of walls and ceilings of between 1.2 m and 1.3 m. To remove the decay heat from the casks by natural convection sufficient cross sections of the air inlet and outlet ducts are required.

  3. Design and experimental testing of air slab caps which convert commercial electron diodes into dual purpose, correction-free diodes for small field dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles, P. H., E-mail: paulcharles111@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Ipswich Road, Woolloongabba, Brisbane, Queensland 4102, Australia and School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane, Queensland 4001 (Australia); Cranmer-Sargison, G. [Department of Medical Physics, Saskatchewan Cancer Agency, 20 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7L 3P6, Canada and College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, 107 Wiggins Road, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5E5 (Canada); Thwaites, D. I. [Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Kairn, T. [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane, Queensland 4001, Australia and Genesis CancerCare Queensland, The Wesley Medical Centre, Suite 1, 40 Chasely Street, Auchenflower, Brisbane, Queensland 4066 (Australia); Crowe, S. B.; Langton, C. M.; Trapp, J. V. [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane, Queensland 4001 (Australia); Pedrazzini, G. [Genesis CancerCare Queensland, The Wesley Medical Centre, Suite 1, 40 Chasely Street, Auchenflower, Brisbane, Queensland 4066 (Australia); Aland, T.; Kenny, J. [Epworth Radiation Oncology, 89 Bridge Road, Richmond, Melbourne, Victoria 3121 (Australia)

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: Two diodes which do not require correction factors for small field relative output measurements are designed and validated using experimental methodology. This was achieved by adding an air layer above the active volume of the diode detectors, which canceled out the increase in response of the diodes in small fields relative to standard field sizes. Methods: Due to the increased density of silicon and other components within a diode, additional electrons are created. In very small fields, a very small air gap acts as an effective filter of electrons with a high angle of incidence. The aim was to design a diode that balanced these perturbations to give a response similar to a water-only geometry. Three thicknesses of air were placed at the proximal end of a PTW 60017 electron diode (PTWe) using an adjustable “air cap”. A set of output ratios (OR{sub Det}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n}}) for square field sizes of side length down to 5 mm was measured using each air thickness and compared to OR{sub Det}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n}} measured using an IBA stereotactic field diode (SFD). k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}} was transferred from the SFD to the PTWe diode and plotted as a function of air gap thickness for each field size. This enabled the optimal air gap thickness to be obtained by observing which thickness of air was required such that k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}} was equal to 1.00 at all field sizes. A similar procedure was used to find the optimal air thickness required to make a modified Sun Nuclear EDGE detector (EDGEe) which is “correction-free” in small field relative dosimetry. In addition, the feasibility of experimentally transferring k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}} values from the SFD to unknown diodes was tested by comparing the experimentally transferred k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}} values for unmodified PTWe and EDGEe diodes to Monte Carlo simulated values. Results: 1.0 mm of air was required to make the PTWe diode correction-free. This modified diode (PTWe{sub air}) produced output factors equivalent to those in water at all field sizes (5–50 mm). The optimal air thickness required for the EDGEe diode was found to be 0.6 mm. The modified diode (EDGEe{sub air}) produced output factors equivalent to those in water, except at field sizes of 8 and 10 mm where it measured approximately 2% greater than the relative dose to water. The experimentally calculated k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}} for both the PTWe and the EDGEe diodes (without air) matched Monte Carlo simulated results, thus proving that it is feasible to transfer k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}} from one commercially available detector to another using experimental methods and the recommended experimental setup. Conclusions: It is possible to create a diode which does not require corrections for small field output factor measurements. This has been performed and verified experimentally. The ability of a detector to be “correction-free” depends strongly on its design and composition. A nonwater-equivalent detector can only be “correction-free” if competing perturbations of the beam cancel out at all field sizes. This should not be confused with true water equivalency of a detector.

  4. Design and experimental testing of air slab caps which convert commercial electron diodes into dual purpose, correction-free diodes for small field dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, P H; Cranmer-Sargison, G; Thwaites, D I; Kairn, T; Crowe, S B; Pedrazzini, G; Aland, T; Kenny, J; Langton, C M; Trapp, J V

    2014-10-01

    Two diodes which do not require correction factors for small field relative output measurements are designed and validated using experimental methodology. This was achieved by adding an air layer above the active volume of the diode detectors, which canceled out the increase in response of the diodes in small fields relative to standard field sizes. Due to the increased density of silicon and other components within a diode, additional electrons are created. In very small fields, a very small air gap acts as an effective filter of electrons with a high angle of incidence. The aim was to design a diode that balanced these perturbations to give a response similar to a water-only geometry. Three thicknesses of air were placed at the proximal end of a PTW 60017 electron diode (PTWe) using an adjustable "air cap". A set of output ratios (ORDet (fclin) ) for square field sizes of side length down to 5 mm was measured using each air thickness and compared to ORDet (fclin) measured using an IBA stereotactic field diode (SFD). kQclin,Qmsr (fclin,fmsr) was transferred from the SFD to the PTWe diode and plotted as a function of air gap thickness for each field size. This enabled the optimal air gap thickness to be obtained by observing which thickness of air was required such that kQclin,Qmsr (fclin,fmsr) was equal to 1.00 at all field sizes. A similar procedure was used to find the optimal air thickness required to make a modified Sun Nuclear EDGE detector (EDGEe) which is "correction-free" in small field relative dosimetry. In addition, the feasibility of experimentally transferring kQclin,Qmsr (fclin,fmsr) values from the SFD to unknown diodes was tested by comparing the experimentally transferred kQclin,Qmsr (fclin,fmsr) values for unmodified PTWe and EDGEe diodes to Monte Carlo simulated values. 1.0 mm of air was required to make the PTWe diode correction-free. This modified diode (PTWeair) produced output factors equivalent to those in water at all field sizes (5-50 mm). The optimal air thickness required for the EDGEe diode was found to be 0.6 mm. The modified diode (EDGEeair) produced output factors equivalent to those in water, except at field sizes of 8 and 10 mm where it measured approximately 2% greater than the relative dose to water. The experimentally calculated kQclin,Qmsr (fclin,fmsr) for both the PTWe and the EDGEe diodes (without air) matched Monte Carlo simulated results, thus proving that it is feasible to transfer kQclin,Qmsr (fclin,fmsr) from one commercially available detector to another using experimental methods and the recommended experimental setup. It is possible to create a diode which does not require corrections for small field output factor measurements. This has been performed and verified experimentally. The ability of a detector to be "correction-free" depends strongly on its design and composition. A nonwater-equivalent detector can only be "correction-free" if competing perturbations of the beam cancel out at all field sizes. This should not be confused with true water equivalency of a detector.

  5. Ex ante assessment of dual-purpose sweet potato in the crop-livestock system of western Kenya: a minimum-data approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, L.; Stoorvogel, J.J.; Antle, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Mixed crop¿livestock systems have a crucial role to play in meeting the agricultural production challenges of smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. Sweet potato is seen as a potential remedial crop for these farmers because of its high productivity and low input requirements, while its

  6. Dual purpose laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for pulsed laser deposition and diagnostics of thin film fabrication: preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azdejković, Mersida Janeva; van Elteren, Johannes Teun; Rozman, Kristina Zuzek; Jaćimović, Radojko; Sarantopoulou, Evangelia; Kobe, Spomenka; Cefalas, Alkiviadis Constantinos

    2009-08-15

    PLD (pulsed laser deposition) is an attractive technique to fabricate thin films with a stoichiometry reflecting that of the target material. Conventional PLD instruments are more or less black boxes in which PLD is performed virtually "blind", i.e. without having great control on the important PLD parameters. In this preliminary study, for the first time, a 213 nm Nd-YAG commercial laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (LA-ICPMS) intended for microanalysis work was used for PLD under atmospheric pressure and in and ex situ ICPMS analysis for diagnostics of the thin film fabrication process. A PLD demonstration experiment in a He atmosphere was performed with a Sm(13.8)Fe(82.2)Ta(4.0) target-Ta-coated silicon wafer substrate (contraption with defined geometry in the laser ablation chamber) to transfer the permanent magnetic properties of the target to the film. Although this paper is not dealing with the magnetic properties of the film, elemental analysis was applied as a means of depicting the PLD process. It was shown that in situ ICPMS monitoring of the ablation plume as a function of the laser fluence, beam diameter and repetition rate may be used to ensure the absence of large particles (normally having a stoichiometry somewhat different from the target). Furthermore, ex situ microanalysis of the deposited particles on the substrate, using the LA-ICPMS as an elemental mapping tool, allowed for the investigation of PLD parameters critical in the fabrication of a thin film with appropriate density, homogeneity and stoichiometry.

  7. A novel pressed porous silicon-polycaprolactone composite as a dual-purpose implant for the delivery of cells and drugs to the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irani, Yazad D; Tian, Yuan; Wang, Mengjia; Klebe, Sonja; McInnes, Steven J; Voelcker, Nicolas H; Coffer, Jeffery L; Williams, Keryn A

    2015-10-01

    Dysfunction of corneal epithelial stem cells can result in painful and blinding disease of the ocular surface. In such cases, treatment may involve transfer of growth factor and normal adult stem cells to the ocular surface. Our purpose was to develop an implantable scaffold for the delivery of drugs and cells to the ocular surface. We examined the potential of novel composite biomaterials fabricated from electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) fibres into which nanostructured porous silicon (pSi) microparticles of varying sizes (150-250 μm or <40 μm) had been pressed. The PCL fabric provided a flexible support for mammalian cells, whereas the embedded pSi provided a substantial surface area for efficient delivery of adsorbed drugs and growth factors. Measurements of tensile strength of these composites revealed that the pSi did not strongly influence the mechanical properties of the polymer microfiber component for the Si loadings evaluated. Human lens epithelial cells (SRA01/04) attached to the composite materials, and exhibited enhanced attachment and growth when the materials were coated with foetal bovine serum. To examine the ability of the materials to deliver a small-drug payload, pSi microparticles were loaded with fluorescein diacetate prior to cell attachment. After 6 hours (h), cells exhibited intracellular fluorescence, indicative of transfer of the fluorescein diacetate into viable cells and its subsequent enzymatic conversion to fluorescein. To investigate loading of large-molecule biologics, murine BALB/c 3T3 cells, responsive to epidermal growth factor, insulin and transferrin, were seeded on composite materials. The cells showed significantly more proliferation at 48 h when seeded on composites loaded with these biologics, than on unloaded composites. No cell proliferation was observed on PCL alone, indicating the biologics had loaded into the pSi microparticles. Drug release, measured by ELISA for insulin, indicated a burst followed by a slower, continuous release over six days. When implanted under the rat conjunctiva, the most promising composite material did not cause significant neovascularization but did elicit a macrophage and mild foreign body response. These novel pressed pSi-PCL materials have potential for delivery of both small and large drugs that can be released in active form, and can support the growth of mammalian cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Loads imposed on dual purpose casks in German on-site-storage facilities for long term intermediate storage of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetzel, N.; Rabe, O.

    2004-01-01

    In accordance with recent changes of the atomic energy act and in order to secure reliable removal of spent fuel from the nuclear power plants' fuel storage ponds the German utilities filed license applications for a total of 12 onsite- storage facilities for spent fuel assemblies. By the end of 2003 the last of these storage facilities were licensed and are currently under construction. The first on-site-storage facility of that line became operational in late 2002. There are several design lines of storage facilities with different handling procedures or possible accident conditions. Short term interim storage facilities for a few casks are characterized by individual concrete hoods shielding the casks in horizontal position whereas long term intermediate storage facilities currently erected for large numbers of casks typically feature a condensed pattern of casks stored in upright position and massive structures of reinforced concrete. TUeV Hannover/Sachsen-Anhalt e. V. (now TUeV NORD EnSys Hannover GmbH and Co. KG) has been contracted as a body of independent experts for the assessment of all related safety requirements on behalf of the national licensing authority, the federal office for radiation protection (BfS)

  9. Azacitidine for Front-Line Therapy of Patients with AML: Reproducible Efficacy Established by Direct Comparison of International Phase 3 Trial Data with Registry Data from the Austrian Azacitidine Registry of the AGMT Study Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Pleyer

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We recently published a clinically-meaningful improvement in median overall survival (OS for patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML, >30% bone marrow (BM blasts and white blood cell (WBC count ≤15 G/L, treated with front-line azacitidine versus conventional care regimens within a phase 3 clinical trial (AZA-AML-001; NCT01074047; registered: February 2010. As results obtained in clinical trials are facing increased pressure to be confirmed by real-world data, we aimed to test whether data obtained in the AZA-AML-001 trial accurately represent observations made in routine clinical practice by analysing additional AML patients treated with azacitidine front-line within the Austrian Azacitidine Registry (AAR; NCT01595295; registered: May 2012 and directly comparing patient-level data of both cohorts. We assessed the efficacy of front-line azacitidine in a total of 407 patients with newly-diagnosed AML. Firstly, we compared data from AML patients with WBC ≤ 15 G/L and >30% BM blasts included within the AZA-AML-001 trial treated with azacitidine (“AML-001” cohort; n = 214 with AAR patients meeting the same inclusion criteria (“AAR (001-like” cohort; n = 95. The current analysis thus represents a new sub-analysis of the AML-001 trial, which is directly compared with a new sub-analysis of the AAR. Baseline characteristics, azacitidine application, response rates and OS were comparable between all patient cohorts within the trial or registry setting. Median OS was 9.9 versus 10.8 months (p = 0.616 for “AML-001” versus “AAR (001-like” cohorts, respectively. Secondly, we pooled data from both cohorts (n = 309 and assessed the outcome. Median OS of the pooled cohorts was 10.3 (95% confidence interval: 8.7, 12.6 months, and the one-year survival rate was 45.8%. Thirdly, we compared data from AAR patients meeting AZA-AML-001 trial inclusion criteria (n = 95 versus all AAR patients with World Health Organization (WHO-defined AML (

  10. Österreichischer Muster-Leistungskatalog Physikalische Medizin – empirische Grundlagen zur Wirksamkeit der Inhalte [Austrian catalogue of services of physical medicine – empirical basis of the effectiveness of the contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilbacher, Ingrid

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: An existing catalogue of services of physical medicine as a basic guideline for contracts with physicians and institutes in the Austrian Social Health Insurance Setting was checked for the evidence of the services. The main focus for this is the outpatient setting.Method: Based on the level of services (not indications nine systematic literature reviews were done using the databases Pubmed, PEDRO and Cochrane and were concluded in this overview-report. Results: More than 180 studies were included in the several literature reviews. There is good evidence for active exercises like aerobic, strengthening, stretching, graded activity, training of the back muscles and coordination training. Positive results are reported for pain decrease and functional increase especially for chronic musculoskeletal disorders. However, exercise is not a universal remedy: there are negative results for the effectiveness of exercise for indications like asthma, dysmenorrheal, epilepsy and psychiatric disorders.Limited evidence was found for exercise supported by mechanical devices, the studies found mainly focus on traction. Manual therapies and mobilization do not show clear evidence for a recommendation, and they have an unclear potential of harm. There is fair positive evidence for electro physical therapy (TENS for indications connected with pain and conflicting evidence for middle- and high frequent electro therapy modalities. Thermotherapy does not show clear advantages over placebo.Conclusion: There is positive evidence for the effectiveness of active exercises and conflicting evidence for passive treatment modalities for musculoskeletal conditions. There are methodical limitations due to the comparability in many of the studies using different outcomes, different scores for outcome measurement, subjective outcome indicators and a huge range of different indications where physical therapy modalities are done. Additional therapies, like pain

  11. 11 June 2013- Autrian Federal President Dr Heinz Fischer and Federal Minister Prof. Dr Karlheinz Töchterle visit CMS cavern and LHC tunnel at Point 5 and the ASACUSA and AEGIS experiments on the AD. Signature of the guest book in the Globe of Science and Innovation after a round table with 10 young austrian scientists. Family photograph in front of an LHC magnet.

    CERN Multimedia

    TEAM VMO

    2013-01-01

    Welcome line: on French territory by the Representative of the French Republic S. Donnot, Sous-Préfet de Gex; CERN Director-General R. Heuer; Director for Research and Scientific Computing S. Bertolucci; Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers; Director for Administration and general Infrastructure S. Lettow; Head of Technology Department F. Bordry; CERN Austrian Circle Spokesperson F. Eder and CERN Protocol S. Molinari. First Lady and Federal Minister Töchterle follow. CERN-HI-1306154 19-32: in CMS conference room, building 3562: general presentation of the Laboratory by the DG; CERN-HI-1306154 33-43: visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5 with Head of Technology Department F. Bordry CERN-HI-1306154 44-64: in the CMS cavern with Collaboration Spokesperson J. Incandela and CMS and Austrian Academy of Sciences C. Wulz; CERN-HI-1306154 65-90: ASACUSA with E. Widmann and AEGIS with M. Doser. CERN-HI-1306154 91-115: round table, signatures and exchange of gifts in the Globe of Science and Innovation; fa...

  12. Needle pollutant concentrations in Austrian long-term observation sites (spruce), 1968-1987 - (a contribution to the discussion of increased pollutant deposition and washout effects); Nadelnaehrstoffgehalte auf oesterreichischen Dauerbeobachtungsflaechen (Fichte) von 1968 bis 1987 - (ein Beitrag zur Diskussion erhoehter Schadstoffeintraege bzw. Auswaschungseffekten)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan, K.

    1992-12-31

    In order to obtain information on the nutrient supply prior to the establishment of the Austrian biological indicator grid in 1983, needle data of long-term observation areas were analyzed in order to find out whether, and from when on, changes occurred in the course of 20 years, and whether the nutrient supply (in particular of N and Mg) differs since 1983 as compared to former years. According to the results of the long-term experimental areas, one may assume the following: an increase of the N-concentrations has taken place only locally and with different onset; indeed, the magnesium concentrations have been increasing again scince the establishment of the biological indicator grid. (orig.) [Deutsch] Um Anhaltspunkte ueber die Naehrelementversorgung vor Bearbeitung des oesterreichischen Bioindikatornetzes ab 1983 zu erhalten, wurden die nadelanalytischen Daten von Dauerbeobachtungsflaechen dahingehend ausgewertet, ob und ab wann Veraenderungen im Verlauf von 20 Jahren eingetreten sind und ob sich die Naehrelementversorgung (insbesondere von N und Mg) seit 1983 gegenueber frueheren Jahren unterscheidet. Nach den Ergebnissen der Dauerversuchsflaechen darf angenommen werden, dass eine Anhebung der N-Gehalte nur lokal und mit zeitlich unterschiedlichem Beginn vorhanden ist und die Magnesiumgehalte seit der Bearbeitung des Bioindikatornetzes eher wieder anstiegen. (orig.)

  13. Evaluation of the short- and long-term safety and therapy outcomes of the everolimus-eluting bioresorbable vascular scaffold system in patients with coronary artery stenosis: Rationale and design of the German–Austrian ABSORB RegIstRy (GABI-R)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nef, Holger, E-mail: holger.nef@innere.med.uni-giessen.de [University of Giessen, Medizinische Klinik I, Department of Cardiology, Giessen (Germany); Wiebe, Jens [University of Giessen, Medizinische Klinik I, Department of Cardiology, Giessen (Germany); Achenbach, Stefan [University of Erlangen, Medizinische Klinik II, Department of Cardiology, Erlangen (Germany); Münzel, Thomas [Department of Medicine II, University Medical Center, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Naber, Christoph [Klinik für Kardiologie und Angiologie, Elisabeth-Krankenhaus, Essen (Germany); Richardt, Gert [Herzzentrum, Segeberger Kliniken GmbH, Bad Segeberg (Germany); Mehilli, Julinda [Department of Cardiology, Klinikum Großhadern, Ludwig- Maximilian Universität, Munich (Germany); Wöhrle, Jochen [Department of Internal Medicine II, University of Ulm, Ulm (Germany); Neumann, Till; Biermann, Janine [University of Essen, Department of Cardiology, Essen (Germany); Zahn, Ralf [Abteilung für Kardiologie, Herzzentrum Ludwigshafen, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Kastner, Johannes [Department of Cardiology, University of Vienna Medical School, Vienna (Austria); Schmermund, Axel [CCB, Cardioangiologisches Centrum Bethanien, Frankfurt (Germany); Pfannebecker, Thomas [Abbott Vascular Deutschland GmbH, Wetzlar (Germany); Schneider, Steffen; Limbourg, Tobias [Institut für Herzinfarktforschung, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Hamm, Christian W. [University of Giessen, Medizinische Klinik I, Department of Cardiology, Giessen (Germany); Kerckhoff Heart and Thorax Center, Department of Cardiology, Bad Nauheim (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    Background: Third-generation drug-eluting metal stents are the gold standard for treatment of coronary artery disease. The permanent metallic caging of the vessel, however, can result in limited vasomotion, chronic inflammation, and late expansive remodeling, conditions that can lead to late and very late stent thrombosis. The development of bioresorbable scaffolds (BRSs) promises advantages over metal stents due to complete biodegradation within 2–4 years. Theoretically, since vessel scaffolding is temporary and no permanent implant remains in the vessel, BRSs, as opposed to metal stents, once degraded would no longer be potential triggers for stent-related adverse events or side effects. Methods/design: The short- and long-term outcome after implantation of an everolimus-eluting, poly-L-lactic acid-based bioresorbable scaffold system (ABSORB, Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, CA, USA) in the world-wide greatest all-comers cohort will be evaluated in the prospective, non-interventional, multicenter German–Austrian ABSORB RegIstRy (GABI-R). GABI-R will include over 5000 patients from about 100 study sites in Austria and Germany. Safety endpoints such as cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and clinically driven percutaneous or surgical target lesion and vessel revascularization will be evaluated during hospitalization and in the follow-up period (minimum of 5 years). Conclusion: Although two randomized controlled trials and several registries have documented safety and efficacy as well as non-inferiority of this everolimus-eluting ABSORB device compared with drug-eluting metal stents, the current knowledge regarding clinical application, treatment success, and long-term safety of using this BRS in daily routine is limited. Thus, the goal of GABI-R is to address this lack of information. - Highlights: • The GABI-R addresses a lack of data about bioresorbable scaffolds in daily practice. • 5000 patients with minimal in- and exclusion criteria at 100 sites will

  14. Evaluation of the short- and long-term safety and therapy outcomes of the everolimus-eluting bioresorbable vascular scaffold system in patients with coronary artery stenosis: Rationale and design of the German–Austrian ABSORB RegIstRy (GABI-R)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nef, Holger; Wiebe, Jens; Achenbach, Stefan; Münzel, Thomas; Naber, Christoph; Richardt, Gert; Mehilli, Julinda; Wöhrle, Jochen; Neumann, Till; Biermann, Janine; Zahn, Ralf; Kastner, Johannes; Schmermund, Axel; Pfannebecker, Thomas; Schneider, Steffen; Limbourg, Tobias; Hamm, Christian W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Third-generation drug-eluting metal stents are the gold standard for treatment of coronary artery disease. The permanent metallic caging of the vessel, however, can result in limited vasomotion, chronic inflammation, and late expansive remodeling, conditions that can lead to late and very late stent thrombosis. The development of bioresorbable scaffolds (BRSs) promises advantages over metal stents due to complete biodegradation within 2–4 years. Theoretically, since vessel scaffolding is temporary and no permanent implant remains in the vessel, BRSs, as opposed to metal stents, once degraded would no longer be potential triggers for stent-related adverse events or side effects. Methods/design: The short- and long-term outcome after implantation of an everolimus-eluting, poly-L-lactic acid-based bioresorbable scaffold system (ABSORB, Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, CA, USA) in the world-wide greatest all-comers cohort will be evaluated in the prospective, non-interventional, multicenter German–Austrian ABSORB RegIstRy (GABI-R). GABI-R will include over 5000 patients from about 100 study sites in Austria and Germany. Safety endpoints such as cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and clinically driven percutaneous or surgical target lesion and vessel revascularization will be evaluated during hospitalization and in the follow-up period (minimum of 5 years). Conclusion: Although two randomized controlled trials and several registries have documented safety and efficacy as well as non-inferiority of this everolimus-eluting ABSORB device compared with drug-eluting metal stents, the current knowledge regarding clinical application, treatment success, and long-term safety of using this BRS in daily routine is limited. Thus, the goal of GABI-R is to address this lack of information. - Highlights: • The GABI-R addresses a lack of data about bioresorbable scaffolds in daily practice. • 5000 patients with minimal in- and exclusion criteria at 100 sites will

  15. Climate Change Risk Appraisal in the Austrian Ski Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfsegger, C.

    2009-04-01

    Ski tourism is an economically and culturally important industry in many parts of Europe. A growing number of studies in Europe, North America, Japan, and Australia have concluded that climate change has potentially serious implications for the sustainability of ski operations by reducing the average length of ski seasons and, where applicable, increasing snowmaking costs. To date, however, the climate change risk awareness and adaptive responses of stakeholders in the ski industry have not been examined. A survey of managers at low elevation ski areas in Austria was undertaken to explore their perceptions of climate change (past and future), how climate change had/will affect their operations, and their adaptive responses (past and planned). The results indicate that climate change is not perceived to be a serious threat to ski operations and that with technological adaptation, principally snowmaking, ski area managers believe they will be able to effectively cope with climate change in the 21st century. The consequences of these perceptions for the future operation of these ski areas are discussed and conclusions drawn for the future of ski tourism in Austria.

  16. Bioindication in the limnological sector - the Austrian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chovanec, A.

    1992-01-01

    The paper gives a summary of activities in the field of biological indication on the limnological sector in Austria. For the different activity sectors which handle different questions, institutions and teams are introduced. Characteristic results are introduced exemplarily. During the establishment of an integrated system of moist areas on the Danube river island in Vienna, the 'Tritonwasser' was set up in 1989. (orig.) [de

  17. Mighty vulture back from near extinction Austrian project breeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-03-02

    Mar 2, 2007 ... Alpine roosts. Today, however, the bone crusher is soaring toward a comeback as the continent's most ambitious – and priciest – wildlife reintroduction project achieves small but biologically significant success. The species was hunted nearly to extinction in the Alps by the start of the 20th century, mainly by ...

  18. klima:aktiv - the Austrian initiative for climate protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimund, Willy; Cerveny, Michael; Fickl, Stephan; Matt, Elisabeth

    2005-01-01

    In 2004 Austria launched its long-term umbrella programme for active climate protection (until 2010). It combines various market-constituent measures and effectuates target-oriented implementation. klima:aktiv is an innovative add-on to common instruments, introducing target-group oriented programmes in the areas construction and living, mobility, company policies, electricity saving and renewable energy sources. By following a systematic approach, klima:aktiv is determined to effect a breakthrough in the use of climate-friendly technologies and services for increased energy-efficiency and of renewable energy sources, as well as to accrue their market shares. Implementing tailor-made, target-oriented programmes. klima:aktiv programmes develop technological and organisational solutions able to compete on the market, take care of innovative quality standards and promote training of all relevant groups. Implementation of the klima:aktiv programmes must be accomplished within set time limits and results in concrete measurable targets. 8 programmes already launched (May 2005): eco:facility - innovative refurbishment of private service buildings; e5 programme - energy-efficient municipalities (similar to European Energy Award); Solar thermal programme ('solarwaerme'); Quality management for new biomass district heating stations and heating plants ('qm heizwerke'); Mobility management for companies ('Betriebliches Mobilitaetsmanagement'); Refurbishment of residential buildings (multi-family houses) ('wohn modern'); Energy wood ('energie holz'); Biogas - heat, power, gas and transport fuels from renewables ('bio gas') Programmes for heat pumps and for energy-efficiency in small and medium-sized enterprises are next to be launched. By the end of 2005, the number of thematic programmes number will raise to about 15. More than 3 million Euro/year-plus contributions from partners The government provides over 3 million Euro/year. In addition, relevant economy branches are invited to contribute The partners allow for easier access to the target groups. Thus, actions are capable of making powerful impact in terms of market transformation and energy savings

  19. 54. Annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippitsch, M.

    2004-01-01

    The papers presented were organized under the following sessions: main session (from attoseconds to RGB to telecom, density functional calculations, magnetic anisotropy of nanostructures, quantum cascade laser, bose-einstein condensates, DNA molecular force sensor); Fritz-Kohlrausch-price 2004 (nanoscale building blocks), Max-Auwaerter-price 2004 (electron emission and nano defects, magnetic rings), AT + S price 2004 (conducting atomic-force microscopy for nanoscale studies), Viktor-Hess-price 2004 (entanglement for meson-antimeson systems), Roman-Ulrich-Sexl-price 2004 (teaching physics ); acoustics; atomic-, molecular- and plasma physics (kinetic electron emission, accelerated-mass spectrometry of molecules, dissociative electron attachment, voc measurements); solid physics (spin relaxation, nano clean room reactor, proton transport through nanotubes); nuclear and particle physics (color reconnection, supersymmetry at Large Hadron Collider, pionic hydrogen, kaonic hydrogen, quantum chaos, quantum dwell time, trigger system simulation, ATLAS initial detector layout, QCD); medical-, bio-and environmental physics (PTR-MS, validation Monte Carlo FLUKA codes, Gamma camera- positron emission tomography); neutrons and synchrotron radiation physics (3D synchrotron micro on human bones); surface and thin film analysis; quantum electronics, electrodynamics and optics (teleportation, optic induced changes in interaction in BEC, electronic feed back cooling single ions) and poster sessions with topics dealing with the subjects above mentioned. This book of abstracts contains their summaries and those contributions which are in the INIS subject scope are indexed individually. (nevyjel)

  20. Casting Simulation of an Austrian Bronze Age Sword Hilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pola, Annalisa; Mödlinger, Marianne; Piccardo, Paolo; Montesano, Lorenzo

    2015-07-01

    Bronze Age swords with a metal hilt can be considered the peak of Bronze Age casting technologies. To reconstruct the casting techniques used more than 3000 years ago, a metal hilted sword of the Schalenknauf type from Lower Austria was studied with the aid of macroscopic analyses and simulation of mold filling and casting solidification. A three-dimensional model of the hilt was created based on optical scanner measurements performed on a hilt recently discovered during archaeological excavations. Three different configurations of the gating system were considered, two on the pommel disk and one on the knob, and the effect of its location on the formation of casting defects was investigated. Three-dimensional computed tomography was used to detect internal defects, such as gas and shrinkage porosity, which were then compared with those calculated by simulation. The best match between actual and predicted hilt quality demonstrated the location of the gating system, which turned out to be on the pommel disk.

  1. The Chernobyl reactor accident and its impact on Austrian agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horak, O.

    1986-09-01

    As a consequence of the Chernobyl reactor accident the environmental radioactivity in Austria increased far above the level recorded before. Radionuclides can enter into the foodchains by the contamination of agricultural products. Determining for the contamination is the behaviour of radionuclides in plants and soils, the development of vegetative plant mass at the moment of the accident and regional differences in fallout intensity. Contamination of plants is caused mainly by cesium-137 and cesium-134. Cs is taken up easily by plant foliage. Its mobility in the plant is high, even to fruits and seeds growing after the accident. Higher contaminations are recorded generally in winter cercals, rape, and fruits, while spring cercals, sugar beets and maize are nearly free from Cs-activity. Heavy contaminations with Cs appear in grassland vegetation as a result of combined uptake via leaves, plant base, and roots. The entry of caesium into the milk is one of the most serious consequences of the reactor accident. Transfer coefficients derived from prevailing experiments can be used for estimating the activity concentration in milk. Accordingly the threshold value of 5 nCi 137 Cs per liter milk should be reached when the daily intake by feeding is about 700 nCi. During the grazing season the Cs-availability for cattle is distinctly lower. (Author)

  2. Visit of the Austrian Minister of Health and Women's Issues

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Mrs Maria Rauch-Kallat, Minister of Health and Women's Issues, Austria, came to CERN on 19 May. The theme of her visit was technology transfer. Photo 01: Dr Hans F. Hoffmann, CERN Director for Technology Transfer and Scientific Computing with Mrs Maria Rauch-Kallat, Minister of Health and Women's Issues, Austria, signing the VIP visitors' book. Photo 02: Mrs Maria Rauch-Kallat, Minister of Health and Women's Issues, Austria, signing the VIP visitors' book.

  3. Austrian pharmacy in the 18 and 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletter, Christa

    2010-01-01

    This overview reflects the extensive changes in the health care system which had significant effects on the apothecaryâs profession and education. In the 18(th) century Maria Theresia assigned Gerard van Swieten to modernize the medical curriculum and to work out reforms for health care. The resulting sanitary bill released in 1770 and amended in 1773 became effective for the whole empire and influenced greatly the apothecaryâs profession. The Viennese Medical Faculty continued to be the supervisory body for the apothecaries, a situation which prolonged the conflicts between the faculty and the apothecaries. The financial and social distress prevalent in the 19(th) century also affected the apothecary business and led to a crisis of the profession. Furthermore, the apothecariesâ missing influence over the sanitary authorities delayed the release of a badly needed new apothecary bill until 1906. The introduction of a specific pharmaceutical curriculum at the university in 1853 was a great step forward to improve the pharmaceutical education. Nevertheless, the secondary school exam was not compulsory for the studies until 1920 and, therefore, the graduates were not on a par with other university graduates before that date. Women, except nuns, were not allowed to work as pharmacists until 1900.

  4. The geomorphic legacy of small dams — An Austrian study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poeppl, R.E.; Keesstra, S.D.; Hein, T.

    2015-01-01

    Dams represent one of the most dominant forms of human impact upon fluvial systems during the Anthropocene, as they disrupt the downstream transfer of water and sediments. Removing dams restores river continuity and channel morphology. Both dam construction and dam removal induce geomorphic channel

  5. Tigecycline Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolated from Austrian River Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Hladicz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are spreading worldwide in medical settings but also in the environment. These resistant bacteria illustrate a major health problem in our times, and last-line antibiotics such as tigecycline represent an ultimate therapy option. Reports on tigecycline non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae are presented with regard to medical settings but are rare with that for the environment. The aim of this study was to characterize two tigecycline non-susceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from the river Mur, and to question the resistance mechanism. The screening for chromosomal mutations revealed a deletion and a silent point mutation in one isolate and a point mutation in the other isolate all within the ramR allele. RamR acts as repressor and prevents overexpression of ramA. These mutations are likely to cause a resistant phenotype due to the overexpression of AcrAB-TolC. MLST revealed that the isolates belonged to two unrelated MLST types (ST2392 and ST2394. Both isolates only revealed resistance to tigecycline and tetracycline. This is one of the rare reports of tigecycline-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae from surface water. The presence of two genetically different isolates suggests that the river water may bear substances that favor mutations that can lead to this efflux pump-driven resistance.

  6. Presentation of Austrians recommended dispersion model for tunnel portals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oettl, D.; Sturm, P.; Almbauer, R. [Inst. for Internal Combustion Engines and Thermodynamics, Graz Univ. of Technology (Austria)

    2004-07-01

    Street tunnels in cities are often suggested as solution to avoid daily congestions but also to prevent residential areas from high noise and air pollution emissions. In case of longitudinal ventilated tunnels high pollution levels may occur in the vicinity of the portals. The dispersion of pollutants from tunnel portals is considered to differ significantly from those of other sources, such as line or point sources. To the best of the authors knowledge, there exist currently two distinct dispersion models, which are especially designed to treat dispersion from tunnel portals. Okamoto et al proposed a diagnostic wind field model, where the dispersion is modelled using a Taylor-Galerkin-Forester filter method. Oettl et al. developed a Lagrangian-type model (GRAL TM 3.5=Graz Lagrangian model Tunnel Module version 3.5), which is briefly described in the next section. (orig.)

  7. 58. annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society. Conference programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oswald, J.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: This annual conference consisted of a plenary session, oral and poster sessions on the research fields of: acoustics; atoms, quantum optics and plasma (doped helium droplets, biomolecules studies in super fluid helium droplets, quantum physics with neutrons); solid state physics (terahertz quantum-cascade lasers, semiconductors nanostructures, magnetic studies on steel pipeline tubes, magnetic characterization magnetic materials, spin properties of confined electrons); physics history; nuclear and particle physics (antiprotonic helium - hyperfine structure, pionic atoms (hydrogen), CMS experiment at LHC (level 1-trigger, super symmetry), vertex reconstruction toolkit RAVE, silicon strip detectors, chiral transition temperature, quantum physics - Bell theorem, Bethe-Salpeter equation, plane static magnetic field, low-lying eigen modes of the dirac operator, SU(3) potentials by thick-center-vortex-model); medical, bio - and environmental physics; neutrons and synchrotron radiation physics (neutron holography - advances, atomic diffusion by XPCS, micro-diffraction experiments, cold three-axis spectrometer - next generation, superconductive radio resonating cavities- roughness, neutron polarization); surfaces and thin films (carbon monoxide adsorption on metal surfaces, laser - assisted deposition, nanostructures (magnetic properties, semiconductors, electronic structure, erosion, crystal growth, adsorption, sputtering)); physics - industry - energy; besides a poster session on polymer physics and the Max Auwaerter symposium are included. Those contributions which are in the INIS subject scope are indexed individually. (nevyjel)

  8. The Department of Chemistry of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proksch, E.

    1984-03-01

    The present report describes the R and D work carried out during 1981 to 1983. This work is still almost exclusively devoted to applied research items; a major fraction of the capacity available is devoted to contract research. The main R and D areas are: - applied radiation chemistry - conditioning of wastes - nuclear fuel chemistry and technology - non-nuclear technical chemistry - radioisotopes and labelled compounds - analytical chemistry. (Author) [de

  9. Austrian state-of-the-environment report. Umweltreport Oesterreich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzmann, W; Schrom, H [eds.

    1986-01-01

    The book intends to show that environmental hazards and health hazards are real, i.e. that they are not just a product of the media or a tool of the political parties and a TV decoy nobody is taking seriously any more. Being experts who are speaking for themselves and not in the name of their institutions, the authors give a minute account of air pollution, noise pollution, water pollution, ground pollution, ecological chemistry, which is uncontrolled, energy sources, the flora and fauna, agriculture, the ecology of urban areas, as well as of legal and political problems. However, the authors are not competent to suggest solutions for the future. Pat solutions are out of reach. By informing the public about the plain truth they hope to awake possible potentials of creativity. (orig./HSCH).

  10. Radon in Austrian tourist mines and show caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringer, W.; Graeser, J.

    2009-01-01

    The radon situation in tourist mines and show caves is barely investigated in Austria. This paper investigates the influence of its determining factors, such as climate, structure and geology. For this purpose, long-term time-resolved measurements over 6 to 12 months in 4 tourist mines and 2 show caves - with 5 to 9 measuring points each - have been carried out to obtain the course of radon concentration throughout the year. In addition, temperature and air-pressure were measured and compared to the data outside where available. Results suggest that the dominating factors of the average radon concentration are structure and location (geology) of the tunnel-system, whereas the diurnal and annual variation is mainly caused by the changing airflow, which is driven by the difference in temperature inside and outside. Downcast air is connected with very low radon concentrations, upcast air with high concentrations. In some locations the maximum values appear when the airflow ceases. But airflow can be different in different parts of mines and caves. Systems close to the surface show generally lower radon levels than the ones located deeper underground. Due to variation of structure, geology and local climate, the radon situation in mines and caves can only be described by simultaneous measurements at several measuring points. (orig.)

  11. Lead residues in plants and soils along Austrian motor roads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horak, O.; Rebler, R.; Schmidt, J.

    1977-01-01

    Plant samples from 63 roadside locations were collected monthly, with the exception of January and February, beginning in July 1972 and ending in June 1973. Lead contents were determined after wet digestion by techniques of atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results, calculated by analysis of variance, show, that the contamination of plants with airborne lead residues from motor car exhausts depends not only on the density of traffic and the distance from the road, but also on the season. In spring, when the vegetative plant growth starts, lead levels of the vegetation are decreasing and remain nearly constant from May to July. From August onwards a gradual increase in the lead content of plants occurs, which becomes more distinctly at the end of the season when the plant growth stops. The highest lead contents (up to 500 ppm) were found in plant matter collected during the winter months. Lead was determined in a number of roadside soils. Extremely high amounts (up to nearly 800 ppm) were found in uncultivated soils near busy highways. (author)

  12. 44. Annual Convention of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    There are about 270 contributions presented by title and abstract only. 250 of them are of INIS interest. The range of subject matters covered is indicated by the headings of topical sessions: (1) acoustics (2) atomic-, molecular- and plasma physics (3) solid-state physics (4) nuclear- and particle physics (5) school teachers' continuing education (6) medical-, bio-and environmental physics (7) polymer physics (8) quantum electronics, electrodynamics and optics. (blahsl)

  13. Annual convention 1989 of the Austrian physical society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This is a collection of pre-conference abstracts of 205 oral representations and posters, in the fields of: atomic, molecular and plasma physics; solid state physics; nuclear and particle physics; high polymer physics; medical- and biophysics. 69 of them are in INIS scope. (qui)

  14. 56. annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, W.E.; Neger, T.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: This annual symposium provides an overview of advances on the following subjects: acoustics; atomic, molecular and plasma physics; solid state physics; physics history; nuclear and particle physics; biophysics, medical, and environmental physics; neutrons and synchrotron radiation physics; surface and thin film; energy industry; polymer physics; quantum electronics, electrodynamics and optics. Specific topics such as the application of transmission electron microscopy, monochromated scanning transmission electron microscopy, mass spectrometry (accelerator mass spectrometry), proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE), leakage radiation microscopy, synchrotron radiation, scanning tunneling microscopes, matter wave interferometry, neutron diffraction, neutron holography, neutron scattering and ultra small scattering in the analysis of nanomaterials and biomaterials were discussed as well as others dealing with atoms excitation and depletion, Coulomb gauge QCD; Coulomb lattice; Coulomb landau gauge; hyperfine structure, lattice field theory, quantum mechanics, particle interactions, QCD, lattice QCD, quantum chemistry, quantum cryptography, quantum entanglement, ion-surface collisions, air traffic pollutants, ultra short pulsed lasers, VOC seasonal variations, surfaces oxidation, magnetic thin films, ATLAS calorimeter system, LHC (lepton flavor violation, radiation loses, beam-beam interactions). Those contributions which are in the INIS subject scope are indexed individually. (nevyjel)

  15. 1985 Annual convention of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    Altogether 170 contributions are presented as titles with abstracts. 102 of them are in INIS scope and are processed individually. The subjects are indicated in the session headings: 1) Nuclear- and Particle Physics 2) high-performance lasers 3) Superconductivity 4) Physics of high polymers 5) Atomic- and Plasma Physics. (G.Q.)

  16. Restricted working hours in Austrian residency programs : Survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmeister, Konstantin D; Aman, Martin; Podesser, Bruno K

    2018-04-27

    New regulations for working hours of medical doctors have been implemented in Austria based on the European directive 2003/88/EG, limiting on-duty working hours to 48 h per week. Clinical work is, therefore, substantially reduced compared to previous decades, and little is known on physician and students' opinions on this matter. We illustrate survey results concerning on-job training, its difficulties, and implications for restricted working hours. We conducted an internal survey among M.D. and Ph.D. students and medical staff members at the Medical University of Vienna using the MedCampus system (CAMPUSOnline, Graz, Austria) and SPSS (V.21, IBM Corp, Armonk, NY, USA). Participants were 36.5% staff members and 63.5% students. Students rated continuous education of physicians high at 9.19 ± 1.76 and staff members at 8.90 ± 2.48 on a 1-10 (1 unimportant, 10 most important) scale. Students rated limited time resources, while staff considered financial resources as the greatest challenge for in-hospital education. Overall, 28.85% thought that restricted working hours can positively influence education, while 19.04% thought the opposite and 52.11% were undecided. Considering the limited available time and financial resources, education of tomorrow's medical doctors remains an important but difficult task. While participants of our survey rated education as very important despite its many challenges, the opinions towards limited working hours were not as clear. Given that over 50% are still undecided whether reduced work hours may also positively influence medical education, it clearly presents an opportunity to include the next generations of physicians in this undertaking.

  17. 1987 Annual convention of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    This is the pre-convention program of the annual convention to be held in September 1987. The divisions 1) general, 2) nuclear - and particle physics, 3) high-polymer physics have 124 contributions with abstracts, 75 of them of INIS interest. Another 22 contributions from the divisions, 4) atomic -, nuclear - and plasma physics, 5) solid state physics and 6) vocational training, are announced ty titles only. (G.Q.)

  18. Teton Russet: an early-maturing, dual-purpose potato cultivar having higher protein and vitamin C content, low Asparagine, and resistances to common scab and Fusarium dry rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teton Russet is an early-maturing, medium- russeted, potato cultivar with high merit for both fresh-pack and processing. In early harvest trials in the Pacific Northwest, Teton Russet had total yields similar to Russet Norkotah, and higher than Ranger Russet and Russet Burbank. Marketable yield of T...

  19. Sage Russet: A new high yielding dual-purpose russet variety, with cold-sweetening resistance, high vitamin C and protein contents and excellent fresh pack and processing potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage Russet was released in 2009 by Oregon State University, in cooperation with the USDA-ARS and the Agricultural Experiment Stations of Idaho and Washington. It is a product of the Northwest Potato Variety (Tri-State) Development Program. Sage Russet has a medium-early maturity and produces long, ...

  20. Study of translocation of photosynthate in grapes with radiotracers with the dual purpose of increasing grape production and improving the technology required for the evaluation of the photosynthetic yield of other crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcar, J.

    1984-05-01

    Using [ 14 C]-CO 2 to label the products of photosynthesis formed at each leaf on developing, fruiting grape stems the pattern of translocation of sugar to competing ''sinks'' was determined. The studies, which used four economically important Uruguayan wine-grape varieties in field trials, established that the upper parts of the stems were 'parasitic' in that their leaves did not contribute sugars to grape cluster growth. From these results a technique was developed for shortening shoots which resulted in increased sugar content of clusters. Further research on ''source-sink'' relationships in grape will emphasis the role of plant growth regulators and their possible use in agronomic practice