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Sample records for austrian central alps

  1. Badgastein spa—Austrian central Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zötl, J. G.

    1995-12-01

    The Badgastein spa shows almost all the special geological and hydrological features existing in the northeastern central Alps. Situated within the Tauern window, the open joint system enables the infiltration of surface water to great depths. There it becomes heated and loaded with radon and trace elements such as fluor. The water discharges as thermal water springs at the steep right flank of the cascade of the Gastein-Ache. This hydraulic process occurs during a span of 3600 3800 years. The springs are captured in galleries, and the largest discharge is in gallery IX (2518 m3/d-1). The spa became known worldwide in the 19th century by visiting aristocrats from Central and Eastern Europe. The most important event in the 20th century was the discovery of the heat joint in the Böckstein gallery. In 1940 an effort to reactivate gold mining in the Radhausberg near Böckstein south of Badgastein failed. However, the miners had the unexpected experience of being cured of rheumatism. A connection between the great depth and high temperature in the gallery was made by the discovery of the joint set with heat and radon emanation. In the medical stations of the Böckstein gallery treatment of polyarthritis has become especially successful.

  2. Photosynthetic temperature adaptation of Pinus cembra within the timberline ecotone of the Central Austrian Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Gerhard; Oberhuber, Walter; Walder, Lisa; Spieler, Daniela; Gruber, Andreas

    2010-04-01

    Temperature is suggested to determine the upper limit of tree life. Therefore, future climate warming may be of importance for tree distribution within the European Alps, where low temperatures limit carbon metabolism.We focused on the effects of air and soil temperature on net photosynthesis (P(n)) of Pinus cembra an evergreen climax species of the timberline ecotone of the Central Austrian Alps. Light response and temperature response curves were estimated along an altitudinal gradient ranging from the forest limit up to the krummholz limit in both summer and fall.In general, P(n) was significantly lower in fall as compared to summer. Nevertheless, independent from season mean P(n) values tended to increase with elevation and were positively correlated with root zone temperatures. The specific leaf area by contrast declined with increasing elevation. Furthermore, the temperature optimum of net photosynthesis declined with increasing elevation and was positively correlated with the mean maximum air temperature of the 10 days prior the date of measurement.Thus, our findings appear to reflect a long-term adaptation of the photosynthetic apparatus of Pinus cembra to the general temperature conditions with respect to elevation combined with a short term acclimation to the prevailing temperature regime. PMID:21379394

  3. Analysis of ERT data of geoelectrical permafrost monitoring on Hoher Sonnblick (Austrian Central Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiler, Stefan; Schöner, Wolfgang; Reisenhofer, Stefan; Ottowitz, David; Jochum, Birgit; Kim, Jung-Ho; Hoyer, Stefan; Supper, Robert; Heinrich, Georg

    2016-04-01

    In the Alps infrastructure facilities such as roads, routes or buildings are affected by the changes of permafrost, which often cause enormous reparation costs. Investigation on degradation of Alpine Permafrost in the last decade has increased, however, the understanding of the permafrost changes inducing its atmospheric forcing processes is still insufficient. Within the project ATMOperm the application of the geoelectrical method to estimate thawing layer thickness for mountain permafrost is investigated near the highest meteorological observatory of Austria on the Hoher Sonnblick. Therefore, it is necessary to further optimize the transformation of ERT data to thermal changes in the subsurface. Based on an innovative time lapse inversion routine for ERT data (Kim J.-H. et al 2013) a newly developed data analysis software tool developed by Kim Jung-Ho (KIGAM) in cooperation with the Geophysics group of the Geological Survey of Austria allows the statistical analysis of the entire sample set of each and every data point measured by the geoelectrical monitoring instrument. This gives on the one hand of course an enhanced opportunity to separate between „good" and „bad" data points in order to assess the quality of measurements. On the other hand, the results of the statistical analysis define the impact of every single data point on the inversion routine. The interpretation of the inversion results will be supplemented by temperature logs from selected boreholes along the ERT profile as well as climatic parameters. KIM J.-H., SUPPER R., TSOURLOS P. and YI M.-J.: Four-dimensional inversion of resistivity monitoring data through Lp norm minimizations. - Geophysical Journal International, 195(3), 1640-1656, 2013. Doi: 10.1093/gji/ggt324. (No OA) Acknowledgments: The geoelectrical monitoring on Hoher Sonnblick has been installed and is operated in the frame of the project ATMOperm (Atmosphere - permafrost relationship in the Austrian Alps - atmospheric extreme

  4. Enhanced analysis of the community structure of a subsurface radioactive thermal spring in the Austrian Central Alps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A molecular analysis of the community structure of the radioactive subsurface thermal spring 'Franz-Josef Quelle' (FJQ) in the Austrian Central Alps was performed. Besides the high microbial diversity, ammonia oxidizing Crenarchaeota and several bacterial species, which were involved in the nitrogen cycle, were also detected. Additionally several sequences were obtained that were related to sequences from locations, which were e.g. contaminated with radioactivity, suggesting the probable presence of organisms that can interact with the Ra, Rn or U in the spring. Furthermore, biofilms were recognized, which had some similarities to the ones described by Holmes and coworkers in the Nullarbor caves. Holmes suggested that a large part (about 12 %) of the microorganisms inhabiting these mats were related to a Nitrospira sp. Besides the mats, which were present in the spring FJQ, sequences of Nitrospira and related species were found. Nitrifiers are known to build biofilms under suboptimal growth conditions, e.g. the water temperature in the spring is 45oC, but the optimum growth temperature of nitrifiers lies between 25 to 30oC. Preliminary DGGE fingerprinting results of the spring showed the dominance of Nitrospira related organisms in biofilms and on glass slides which were placed into the spring for several days. Therefore an extended examination of these natural and artificial biofilms is in progress by addition of DGGE analysis and culturing approaches. (author)

  5. Integrating field measurements, a geomorphological map and stochastic modelling to estimate the spatially distributed rockfall sediment budget of the Upper Kaunertal, Austrian Central Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckmann, Tobias; Hilger, Ludwig; Vehling, Lucas; Becht, Michael

    2016-05-01

    The estimation of catchment-scale rockfall rates relies on the regionalisation of local measurements. Here, we propose a new framework for such a regionalisation by the example of a case study in the Upper Kaunertal, Austrian Central Alps (62.5 km2). Measurements of rockfall deposition during 12 months onto six collector nets within the study area were combined with published mean annual rates from the literature, and a probability density function was fitted to these data. A numerical model involving a random walk routing scheme and a one-parameter friction model was used to simulate rockfall trajectories, starting from potential rockfall source areas that were delineated from a digital elevation model. Rockfall rates sampled from the fitted probability density function were assigned to these trajectories in order to model the spatial distribution and to estimate the amount of rockfall deposition. By recording all trajectories as edges of a network of raster cells, and by aggregating the latter to landforms (or landform types) as delineated in a geomorphological map of the study area, rockfall sediment flux from sources to different landforms could be quantified. Specifically, the geomorphic coupling of rockfall sources to storage landforms and the glacial and fluvial sediment cascade was investigated using this network model. The total rockfall contribution to the sediment budget of the Upper Kaunertal is estimated at c. 8000 Mg yr- 1, 16.5% of which is delivered to the glaciers, and hence to the proglacial zone. The network approach is favourable, for example because multiple scenarios (involving different probability density functions) can be calculated on the basis of the same set of trajectories, and because deposits can be back-linked to their respective sources. While the methodological framework constitutes the main aim of our paper, we also discuss how the estimation of the budget can be improved on the basis of spatially distributed production rates.

  6. An inventory of glacial lakes in the Austrian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckel, Johannes; Otto, Jan-Christoph; Keuschnig, Markus; Götz, Joachim

    2016-04-01

    The formation of lakes is one of the consequences of glacier retreat due to climate change in mountain areas. Numerous lakes have formed in the past few decades in many mountain regions around the globe. Some of these lakes came into focus due to catastrophic hazard events especially in the Himalayas and the Andes. Glacial lake development and lifetime is controlled by the complex interplay of glacier dynamics, geomorphological process activity and geological boundary conditions. Besides the hazard potential new lakes in formerly glaciated areas will significantly contribute to a new landscape setting and to changing geomorphologic, hydrologic and ecologic conditions at higher alpine altitudes. We present an inventory of high alpine lakes in the Austrian Alps located above an altitude of 1700 m asl. Most of these lakes are assumed to be of glacial origin, but other causes for development, like mass movements are considered as well. The inventory is a central part of the project FUTURELAKES that aims at modelling the potential development of glacial lakes in Austria (we refer to the presentation by Helfricht et al. during the conference for more details on the modelling part). Lake inventory data will serve as one basis for model validation since modelling is performed on different time steps using glacier inventory data. The purpose of the lake inventory is to get new insights into boundary conditions for lake formation and evolution by analysing existing lake settings. Based on these information the project seeks to establish a model of lake sedimentation after glacier retreat in order to assess the potential lifetime of the new lakes in Austria. Lakes with a minimum size of 1000 m² were mapped using multiple aerial imagery sources. The dataset contains information on location, geometry, dam type, and status of sedimentation for each lake. Additionally, various geologic, geomorphic and morphometric parameters describe the lake catchments. Lake data is related to

  7. Modeling glacier beds in the Austrian Alps: How many lakes will form in future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Dominik; Geilhausen, Martin; Linsbauer, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Glacial retreat exposes landscapes with relief characteristics greatly differing from the former ice covered surfaces. If glacial retreat exposes natural basins capable of forming proglacial lakes, then the downstream hydrologic and geomorphic systems in such catchments will be significantly altered due to discharge modifications, sediment trapping, decoupling effects and long term sediment storage (e.g. Geilhausen et al. 2013). Further implications are related to hydropower management, tourism and natural hazards. Consequently, sound knowledge of present day glacier beds ("proglacial zones of tomorrow") and in particular the total number, locations and characteristics of overdeepenings are of importance. For Austria, however, this important information about significant future changes of high alpine regions is yet missing. An interdisciplinary research project is currently in preparation to close this gap. This paper presents results of a pilot study. We used a novel GIS-based approach (GlabTop, cf. Linsbauer et al. 2012) to compute approximate glacier beds in the Austrian Alps. GlabTop ('Glacier bed Topography') is based on an empirical relation between average basal shear stress and elevation range of individual glaciers and makes use of digital elevation models (DEM), glacier outlines and branch lines (i.e. a set of lines covering all important glacier branches). DEMs and glacier outlines were derived from the Austrian glacier inventory (1998) and branch lines were manually digitized. The inventory includes 911 glaciers of which 876 (96%) were considered and 35 were excluded due to size restrictions ( 0.01 km²) with the potential of forming proglacial lakes when glacier retreat reveals the bed. The total area and volume of all overdeepenings is approx. 10 km² and 236 Mio m³ respectively and 33 lakes will be larger than 1 km³. A total glacier volume of 16 ± 5 km³ with an average ice thickness of 36 ± 11 m was calculated for 1998. Comparisons with

  8. Water demand for ski resort development in the Austrian Alps: an Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiling, M.; Sokratov, S.

    2012-04-01

    Austria has the highest national added value from winter tourism in Europe, as well as worldwide. 15.7 million arrivals were counted in Austrian accommodation establishments in the 2010/11 winter season. There were more than 62 million overnight stays and 51.2 million skier-days were consumed. 588 million transports were carried out by more than 3000 lifts (cable cars, chair lifts and T-bars). Including indirect and induced effects, this resulted in more than 10 billion euros in added value being generated. The lack of snow in many Austrian skiing areas during the 2006/2007 winter season demonstrated the extent to which meteorological conditions influence operations. Declines in the number of skiers transported and total skier days were the result. The cable-car operators also had to struggle with little snow in the 2010/2011 winter. The Austrian Cable Car Operators' Association stated that the opening of 70-80% of all skiing areas outside of the peak season could only be assured through the use of snowmaking equipment. The central criterion for winter sports enthusiasts to make a trip is the guarantee that they will find snow at their destination and Austria's cable-car operators invest more than 100 million euros in the erection and improvement of snowmaking complexes every year to satisfy this deand. In the 2010/2011 season, this provided for 17,800 jobs. Cable car operators set up snowmaking equipment to become independent from meteorological conditions and improve the capacity utilisation of their expensive investments in transport systems in the early winter. Austria has a skiing area of around 25,400 hectares - around 17,000 hectares at altitudes between 600m and 3200m are currently suitable for snowmaking. As much as 70% of the snow is produced immediately before the start of the season. This recent trend is responsible that the irrigation pattern of Austrian land use changed significantly in the last decade. Previously maize fields and low lands in summer

  9. Mapping the value of ecosystem services: A case study from the Austrian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Paletto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem services (ES are considered the conditions and processes through which natural ecosystems sustain and fulfil human life. In the decision making process related to the natural resources management, two key-aspects must be taken into account: the economic value of the benefits provided by ES (provisioning, regulating and cultural services and the spatial distribution of these benefits. The purpose of the paper is to develop a method aimed to capture the economic value of the benefits provided by ES, in order to support the decision makers in the natural resources management. ES are not homogeneous across landscapes nor in space. Consequently, gaining knowledge on the spatial distribution of the economic relevance of ES is a fundamental information to target management actions. This method was tested in a case study in the Austrian Alps (Leiblachtal area in Vorarlberg region, characterized by a high importance of forests and grasslands. The results show that the highest economic values could be achieved for the provisioning services with a range between 200 €/ha year and 1,400€/ha year. The regulating services have also important economic values, but strongly localized in specific areas (i.e. protective forests against natural hazards. The economic values of the cultural services are influenced by the preferences of tourists and varies between 5 €/ha year to 60 €/ha year. The method allowed us to reveal the spatial heterogeneity of provisioning, regulating and cultural ES, depending on the ecological characteristics of the site.

  10. Modelling technical snow production for skiing areas in the Austrian Alps with the physically based snow model AMUNDSEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzer, F.; Marke, T.; Steiger, R.; Strasser, U.

    2012-04-01

    Tourism and particularly winter tourism is a key factor for the Austrian economy. Judging from currently available climate simulations, the Austrian Alps show a particularly high vulnerability to climatic changes. To reduce the exposure of ski areas towards changes in natural snow conditions as well as to generally enhance snow conditions at skiing sites, technical snowmaking is widely utilized across Austrian ski areas. While such measures result in better snow conditions at the skiing sites and are important for the local skiing industry, its economic efficiency has also to be taken into account. The current work emerges from the project CC-Snow II, where improved future climate scenario simulations are used to determine future natural and artificial snow conditions and their effects on tourism and economy in the Austrian Alps. In a first step, a simple technical snowmaking approach is incorporated into the process based snow model AMUNDSEN, which operates at a spatial resolution of 10-50 m and a temporal resolution of 1-3 hours. Locations of skiing slopes within a ski area in Styria, Austria, were digitized and imported into the model environment. During a predefined time frame in the beginning of the ski season, the model produces a maximum possible amount of technical snow and distributes the associated snow on the slopes, whereas afterwards, until to the end of the ski season, the model tries to maintain a certain snow depth threshold value on the slopes. Due to only few required input parameters, this approach is easily transferable to other ski areas. In our poster contribution, we present first results of this snowmaking approach and give an overview of the data and methodology applied. In a further step in CC-Snow, this simple bulk approach will be extended to consider actual snow cannon locations and technical specifications, which will allow a more detailed description of technical snow production as well as cannon-based recordings of water and energy

  11. Evolution of the eastern Austrian Molasse Basin: The Lower Miocene (Burdigalian) as a key to the understanding of the Eastern Alps - Molasse Basin system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palzer, Markus; Knierzinger, Wolfgang; Wagreich, Michael; Meszar, Maria E.; Gier, Susanne; Soliman, Ali; -Elena Kallanxhi, Mǎdǎlina

    2016-04-01

    The eastern Austrian Molasse Basin is situated between the Bohemian Massif, the Waschberg-Zone and the Alps. There, sands of the Lower Miocene (Upper Ottnangian) Traisen Formation represent a clastic interval at the top of pelitic Schlier successions, which is correlated with the global sea level drop Bur3 (Burdigalian). North of the Danube River, the continuation of the Traisen-Formation is overlain by the Karpatian Laa-Formation. Drill cores from OMV-wells predominantly from the continuation of the Traisen Formation in deep parts in the NE of the basin show hundreds of meters of pelites with intersections of sands. Contrary to the exposed, mainly brackish TF, a turbiditic and predominantly fully marine deep-water environment is inferred from the cores. Profiles of carbonate content, XRD, XRF, whole rock chemistry, clay minerals, calcareous nannoplankton and dinoflagellate cysts of 7 wells were investigated representing a NE-SW transect through the LAMB. Based on these data, a new stratigraphy for the Burdigalian distal parts of the LAMB can be defined and correlated with the proximal units. The Traisen Formation and its equivalents are characterized at their base by an increased clastic input in the south and by increasing mica content in the northern parts. The complete interval is characterized by the decreased carbonate content. The XRD data show strongly reduced calcite contents which goe hand in hand with the absence of nannoplankton. Whether the signal is related to a crisis in primary production or to carbonate dissolution remains unclear. The absence of dinoflagellate cysts and the chemical data (reduced B/Al* ratios indicate reduced salinity) are considered as an argument for an environmental crisis. However, the absence of resedimented Cretaceous to Paleocene nannofossils, which usually occur together with the autochthonous NN4-nannofossils, indicates carbonate dissolution. These results enable us to define a basinal interval as equivalent to the

  12. Temporal changes of inorganic ion deposition in the seasonal snow cover for the Austrian Alps (1983-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greilinger, Marion; Schöner, Wolfgang; Winiwarter, Wilfried; Kasper-Giebl, Anne

    2016-05-01

    A long-term record of inorganic ion concentrations in wet and dry deposition sampled from snow packs at two high altitude glaciers was used to assess impacts of air pollution on remote sites in central Europe. Sampling points were located at Wurtenkees and Goldbergkees near the Sonnblick Observatory (3106 m above sea level), a background site for measuring the status of the atmosphere in Austria's Eastern Alps. Sampling was carried out every spring at the end of the winter accumulation period in the years 1983-2014. Concentrations of major ions (NH4+, SO42-, NO3-, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+ and Cl-) were determined using ion chromatography (IC) as well as atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) in the earlier years. Concentration of H+ was calculated via the measured pH of the samples. Trends in deposition and concentration were analysed for all major ions within the period from 1983 to 2014 using Kendall's tau rank correlation coefficient. From 1983 to 2014, total ion concentration declined ∼25%, i.e. solutions became ∼25% more dilute, indicating reduced acidic atmospheric deposition, even at high altitude in winter snow. SO42- and NO3- concentrations decreased significantly by 70% and 30%, respectively, accompanied by a 54% decrease of H+ concentrations. Ionic concentrations in snowpack were dominated by H+ and SO42- in the earliest decade measured, whereas they were dominated by Ca2+ by the most recent decade. SO42- and H+ depositions, i.e. concentrations multiplied by volume, also showed a significant decrease of more than 50% at both sites. This reflects the successful emission reductions of the precursor gases SO2 and NOx. Seasonal values with significantly elevated spring concentrations of NH4+, SO42- and H+ compared to fall snow reflects the beginning of vertical mixing during spring. All other ions do not show any seasonality. Source identification of the ions was performed using a principal component analysis (PCA). One anthropogenic cluster (SO42-, NO3- and NH

  13. Effects of atmospheric and climate change at the timberline of the Central European Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Gerhard; Matyssek, Rainer; Luzian, Roland; Zwerger, Peter; Pindur, Peter; Oberhuber, Walter; Gruber, Andreas

    2009-06-01

    This review considers potential effects of atmospheric change and climate warming within the timberline ecotone of the Central European Alps. After focusing on the impacts of ozone (O(3)) and rising atmospheric CO(2) concentration, effects of climate warming on the carbon and water balance of timberline trees and forests will be outlined towards conclusions about changes in tree growth and treeline dynamics.Presently, ambient ground-level O(3) concentrations do not exert crucial stress on adult conifers at the timberline of the Central European Alps. In response to elevated atmospheric CO(2)Larix decidua showed growth increase, whereas no such response was found in Pinus uncinata. Overall climate warming appears as the factor responsible for the observed growth stimulation of timberline trees.Increased seedling re-establishment in the Central European Alps however, resulted from invasion into potential habitats rather than upward migration due to climate change, although seedlings will only reach tree size upon successful coupling with the atmosphere and thus loosing the beneficial microclimate of low stature vegetation.In conclusion, future climate extremes are more likely than the gradual temperature increase to control treeline dynamics in the Central European Alps. PMID:21379395

  14. Post-LIA glacier changes along a latitudinal transect in the Central Italian Alps

    OpenAIRE

    R. Scotti; F. Brardinoni; Crosta, G.B.

    2014-01-01

    The variability of glacier response to atmospheric temperature rise in different topo-climatic settings is still matter of debate. To address this question in the Central Italian Alps we compile a post-LIA (Little Ice Age) multitemporal glacier inventory (1860-1954-1990-2003-2007) along a latitudinal transect that originates north of the continental divide in the Livigno mountains, and extends south through the Disgrazia and Orobie ranges, encompassing conti...

  15. Post-LIA glacier changes along a latitudinal transect in the Central Italian Alps

    OpenAIRE

    R. Scotti; F. Brardinoni; Crosta, G.B.

    2014-01-01

    The variability of glacier response to atmospheric temperature rise in different topo-climatic settings is still a matter of debate. To address this question in the Central Italian Alps, we compile a post-LIA (Little Ice Age) multitemporal glacier inventory (1860–1954–1990–2003–2007) along a latitudinal transect that originates north of the continental divide in the Livigno Mountains and extends south through the Disgrazia and Orobie ranges, encompassing continental-to-ma...

  16. Limnological studies on two acid sensitive lakes in the Central Alps (lakes Paione Superiore and Paione Inferiore, Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Rosario MOSELLO; Andrea LAMI; Guilizzoni, Piero; Manca, Marina; Anna Maria NOCENTINI; Alessandra PUGNETTI; Angela BOGGERO; Aldo MARCHETTO; Gabriele A. TARTARI; Roberta BETTINETTI; Bonardi, Maria; Pierluigi CAMMARANO

    1993-01-01

    A limnological study was performed during 1991 and 1992 on lakes Paione Superiore (LPS)and Paione Inferiore (LPI), located in the Ossola Valley, Central Alps. The two lakes are characterized by very low alkalinity values (LPI

  17. Hygiene of Raw Milk from Austrian Spotted, Holstein and Romanian Spotted Breeds, in Three Farms from Central Romania

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    Gheorghe Ștețca

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Analysis strictly medical, objective and impartial demonstrate that none of the foods considered to be basic, it is an ideal food, and milk can have some adverse effects on consumers, if the product is subject to changes caused by the improper welfare and health of the animals, but not least the processing technology. This study aimed the analyzing of raw cow milk related to the quality indicators on hygiene. There were considered the samples collected from three farms of the Central part of Romania, each of 24 samples of raw milk. The cows breed were farm A - Austrian spotted, farm B - Holstein and farm C - Romanian spotted. The parameters investigated here were total bacteria count and somatic cell count. The range of the non-conforming milk samples was 1:5.

  18. Protracted fluid-induced melting during Barrovian metamorphism in the Central Alps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubatto, Daniela; Hermann, Jörg; Berger, Alfons;

    2009-01-01

    The timing and dynamics of fluid-induced melting in the typical Barrovian sequence of the Central Alps has been investigated using zircon chronology and trace element composition. Multiple zircon domains in leucosomes and country rocks yield U-Pb ages spanning from ~32 to 22 Ma. The zircon formed...... during Alpine melting can be distinguished from the inherited and detrital cores on the basis of their age, Th/U (... that repeated melting events occurred within a single Barrovian metamorphic cycle at roughly constant temperature; that in the country rocks zircon formation was limited to the initial stages of melting, whereas further melting concentrated in the segregated leucosomes; that melting occurred at different times...

  19. Changes in fluid composition in metamorphic veins along a cross section through the Central Alps, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinek, K.; Wagner, T.; Wälle, M.; Heinrich, C. A.

    2012-04-01

    The classical Alpine fissure veins are large cavities lined by occasionally giant quartz crystals and many other euhedral mineral assemblages. They occur in regionally metamorphosed terranes in the upper crust and record important information about the composition and evolution of metamorphic fluids, and fluid sources and mass transfer during crustal fluid-rock interaction (Oliver & Bons, 2001). Detailed fluid inclusion studies of Alpine veins along a cross section through the Central Alps have established that the fluid composition shows a distinct evolution with increasing metamorphic grade, where consecutive zones are dominated by (1) heavier hydrocarbons, (2) CH4, (3) H2O-NaCl, and (4) H2O-CO2-NaCl (Mullis et al., 1994). This study addresses the chemical evolution of fluids in Alpine fissure veins in the Central Swiss Alps by integrating field work, fluid inclusion studies (microthermometry and LA-ICPMS microanalysis of individual fluid inclusions), and geochemical modeling. The field locations were selected along a cross section through the Central Alps that covers different lithologies and metamorphic conditions. This includes vein systems in the Aar massif (Gauli glacier, Gerstenegg vein in the Grimsel power station, Tiefen glacier), the Nufenen and Griess pass, the Bedretto valley, the Cavagnoli region and a tunnel near Faido. Fluid inclusion studies have been completed for the localities in the Aar massif, the Cavagnoli region and the Faido tunnel. It was possible to analyze a considerable number of elements with LA-ICPMS, including Na, K, Rb, Cs, Li, Ca, Mg, Sr, Ba, Mn, B, As, Sb, S, Pb and Zn. The fluid inclusions from the Aar massif are low-salinity aqueous two-phase, whereas the Cavagnoli and Faido samples dominantly contain aqueous-carbonic fluid inclusions. While the Gauli samples contain fluid inclusions with 4.5-5.0 wt% equivalent (eqv.) NaCl, those from the Gerstenegg and Tiefen glacier have a considerably higher salinity of around 10-11 wt% eqv

  20. Catchment features controlling nitrogen dynamics in running waters above the tree line (Central Italian Alps

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    R. Balestrini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of nitrogen cycling in mountain areas has a long tradition, both to better understand and describe ecosystem functioning and to quantify the long-distance effect of human activities on remote environments. Nonetheless, especially in Europe, very few studies paid attention on catchment features controlling nitrogen dynamics above the tree line, with focus on running waters. In this study, relationships between some water chemistry descriptors, including nitrogen species and dissolved organic carbon (DOC, and catchment characteristics were evaluated for a range of sites located above the tree line (1950–2650 m a.s.l. at Val Masino, in the Central Italian Alps. Land cover categories as well as elevation and slope were assessed at each site. Water samples were collected during the 2007 and 2008 snow free periods, with a nearly monthly frequency. Differently to dissolved organic nitrogen, nitrate concentration in running waters showed a spatial pattern strictly connected to the fractional extension of tundra and talus in each basin. Exponential models significantly described the relationships between maximum NO3-N and the fraction of vegetated soil cover (negative relation and talus (positive relation, explaining almost 90% of nitrate variation in running waters. Similarly to nitrate, but with an opposite behavior, DOC was positively correlated with vegetated soil cover and negatively correlated with talus. Therefore, land cover can be considered one of the most important factors affecting water quality in high elevation catchments, with a contrasting effect on N and C pools.

  1. Catchment features controlling nitrogen dynamics in running waters above the tree line (central Italian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Balestrini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of nitrogen cycling in mountain areas has a long tradition, as it was applied to better understand and describe ecosystem functioning, as well as to quantify long-distance effects of human activities on remote environments. Nonetheless, very few studies, especially in Europe, have considered catchment features controlling nitrogen dynamics above the tree line with focus on running waters. In this study, relationships between some water chemistry descriptors – including nitrogen species and dissolved organic carbon (DOC – and catchment characteristics were evaluated for a range of sites located above the tree line (1950–2650 m a.s.l. at Val Masino, in the central Italian Alps. Land cover categories as well as elevation and slope were assessed at each site. Water samples were collected during the 2007 and 2008 snow free periods, with a nearly monthly frequency. In contrast to dissolved organic nitrogen, nitrate concentrations in running waters showed a spatial pattern strictly connected to the fractional extension of tundra and talus in each basin. Exponential models significantly described the relationships between maximum NO3 and the fraction of vegetated soil cover (negative relation and talus (positive relation, explaining almost 90% of nitrate variation in running waters. Similarly to nitrate but with an opposite behavior, DOC was positively correlated with vegetated soil cover and negatively correlated with talus. Therefore, land cover can be considered one of the most important factors affecting water quality in high-elevation catchments with contrasting effects on N and C pools.

  2. Acidification and recovery at mountain lakes in Central Alps assessed by the MAGIC model

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    Michela ROGORA

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic model MAGIC was calibrated and applied to 84 lakes in Central Alps to predict the response of water chemistry to different scenarios of atmospheric deposition of S and N compounds. Selected lakes were representative of a wide range of chemical characteristics and of sensitivity to acidification. The most sensitive lakes have already shown in the latest years signs of recovery in terms of pH and ANC. The model well captured the main trends in lake chemical data. According to the model forecast, recovery at sensitive lakes will continue in the next decades under the hypothesis of a further decrease of acidic input from the atmosphere. Results clearly demonstrated the benefits of achieving the emission reductions in both S and N compounds agreed under the Gothenburg Protocol. Nevertheless, besides the achieved reduction of SO4 2- deposition from the peak levels of the 80s, also N deposition should be reduced in the near future to protect alpine lakes from further acidification. The condition of lake catchments with regard to N saturation will probably be the dominant factor driving recovery extent. Beside atmospheric deposition, other factors proved to be important in determining long-term changes in surface water chemistry. Climate warming in particular affects weathering processes in lake catchments and dynamics of the N cycle. Including other factors specific to the alpine area, such as dust deposition and climate change, may improve the fit of experimental data by the model and the reliability of model forecast.

  3. From the Western Alps across Central Europe: Postglacial recolonisation of the tufa stream specialist Rhyacophila pubescens (Insecta, Trichoptera

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    Haase Peter

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dispersal rates, i.e. the effective number of dispersing individuals per unit time, are the product of dispersal capacity, i.e. a species physiological potential for dispersal, dispersal behaviour, i.e. the decision to leave a habitat patch in favour of another, and connectivity of occupied habitat. Thus, dispersal of species that are highly specialised to a certain habitat is limited by habitat availability. Species inhabiting very stable environments may also adopt a sedentary life-style. Both factors should lead to strong genetic differentiation in highly specialised species inhabiting stable environments. These two factors apply to our model species Rhyacophila pubescens a highly specialised freshwater insect that occurs in tufa springs, a very stable habitat. Results We examined the genetic population structure and phylogeography using range-wide mtCOI sequence and AFLP data from 333 individuals of R. pubescens. We inferred the location of Pleistocene refugia and postglacial colonisation routes of R. pubescens, and examined ongoing local differentiation. Our results indicate intraregional differentiation with a high number of locally endemic haplotypes, that we attributed to habitat specificity and low dispersal rates of R. pubescens. We observed high levels of genetic diversity south of the Alps and genetic impoverishment north of the Alps. Estimates of migrants placed the refugium and the source of the colonisation in the Dauphiné Alps (SW Alps. Conclusions This is the first example of an aquatic insect with a colonisation route along the western margin of the Alps to the Central European highlands. The study also shows that specialisation to a stable environment may have promoted a behavioural shift to decreased dispersal rates, leading to stronger local population differentiation than in less specialised aquatic insects. Alternatively, the occurrence of highly specialised tufa spring habitats may have been more

  4. Collision in the Central Alps: 2. Exhumation of high-pressure fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, F. M.; Burri, T.; Berger, A.; Engi, M.

    2003-04-01

    In the Central Alps high-pressure metamorphic rocks are confined to but a few tectonic units. In the Adula nappe pressures range from about 12 kbar in the north, to 20 kbar in the south [1]. The Southern Steep Belt (SSB) is a high-strain zone at the contact between rocks deriving from Apulia and Eurasia. The SSB contains a tectonic composite of ortho and paragneisses, with widespread bands and lenses of mafic and ultramafic composition. Many of the mafic fragments are garnet-amphibolites or eclogites, with a highly variable degree of retrogression. Our petrological studies indicate that the HP rocks in the SSB show extensive variation in metamorphic pressure. In mafic fragments, pressures retained by assemblages predating the amphibolite facies overprint range from 8 to 21 kbar, while pressure estimates for some peridotites are >30 kbar. Some HP fragments show evidence of substantial heating during decompression. New Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd geochronology, in conjunction with previously published data, indicates a spread in ages obtained from the high-pressure metamorphic assemblage. Thermal models based on simplified kinematics produce computed PTt histories that resemble those documented in individual HP fragments [2]. The SSB is interpreted to represent an exhumed part of a Tectonic Accretion Channel (TAC, cf. [3]), assembled of numerous, relatively small fragments which reflect a variety of paths. The different residence times and exhumation rates reflect a protracted history of subduction and extrusion, in which the fragments moved independently from their current neighbours. Combination of thermal modelling and field-based studies improve our conceptual thinking on the dynamics of exhumation of high-pressure rocks in a convergent orogen. [1] Heinrich (1986) J. Pet. 27: 123-154 [2] Roselle et al. (2002) Amer. J. Sci. 302: 381-409 [3] Engi et al. (2001) Geology 29: 1143-1146

  5. Post-LIA glacier changes along a latitudinal transect in the Central Italian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, R.; Brardinoni, F.; Crosta, G. B.

    2014-12-01

    The variability of glacier response to atmospheric temperature rise in different topo-climatic settings is still a matter of debate. To address this question in the Central Italian Alps, we compile a post-LIA (Little Ice Age) multitemporal glacier inventory (1860-1954-1990-2003-2007) along a latitudinal transect that originates north of the continental divide in the Livigno Mountains and extends south through the Disgrazia and Orobie ranges, encompassing continental-to-maritime climatic settings. In these sub-regions, we examine the area change of 111 glaciers. Overall, the total glacierized area has declined from 34.1 to 10.1 km2, with a substantial increase in the number of small glaciers due to fragmentation. The average annual decrease (AAD) in glacier area has risen by about 1 order of magnitude from 1860-1990 (Livigno: 0.45; Orobie: 0.42; and Disgrazia: 0.39 % a-1) to 1990-2007 (Livigno: 3.08; Orobie: 2.44; and Disgrazia: 2.27 % a-1). This ranking changes when considering glaciers smaller than 0.5 km2 only (i.e., we remove the confounding caused by large glaciers in Disgrazia), so that post-1990 AAD follows the latitudinal gradient and Orobie glaciers stand out (Livigno: 4.07; Disgrazia: 3.57; and Orobie: 2.47 % a-1). More recent (2007-2013) field-based mass balances in three selected small glaciers confirm post-1990 trends showing the consistently highest retreat in continental Livigno and minimal area loss in maritime Orobie, with Disgrazia displaying transitional behavior. We argue that the recent resilience of glaciers in Orobie is a consequence of their decoupling from synoptic atmospheric temperature trends, a decoupling that arises from the combination of local topographic configuration (i.e., deep, north-facing cirques) and high winter precipitation, which ensures high snow-avalanche supply, as well as high summer shading and sheltering. Our hypothesis is further supported by the lack of correlations between glacier change and glacier attributes in

  6. Post-LIA glacier changes along a latitudinal transect in the Central Italian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Scotti

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The variability of glacier response to atmospheric temperature rise in different topo-climatic settings is still matter of debate. To address this question in the Central Italian Alps we compile a post-LIA (Little Ice Age multitemporal glacier inventory (1860-1954-1990-2003-2007 along a latitudinal transect that originates north of the continental divide in the Livigno mountains, and extends south through the Disgrazia and Orobie ranges, encompassing continental-to-maritime climatic settings. In these sub-regions we examine area change of 111 glaciers. Overall, total glacierized area has declined from 34.1 to 10.1 km2, with a substantial increase in the number of small glaciers due to fragmentation. Average annual decrease (AAD in glacier area has risen of about an order of magnitude from 1860–1990 (Livigno: 0.45; Orobie: 0.42; and Disgrazia: 0.39 % a−1 to 1990–2007 (Livigno: 3.08; Orobie: 2.44; and Disgrazia: 2.27 % a−1. This ranking changes when considering glaciers 2 only (i.e., we remove the confounding caused by large glaciers in Disgrazia, so that post-1990 AAD follows the latitudinal gradient and Orobie glaciers stand out (Livigno: 4.07; Disgrazia: 3.57; and Orobie: 2.47 % a−1. More recent (2007–2013 field-based mass balances in three selected small glaciers confirm post-1990 trends showing consistent highest retreat in continental Livigno and minimal area loss in maritime Orobie, with Disgrazia displaying a transitional behaviour. We argue that the recent resilience of glaciers in Orobie is a consequence of their decoupling from synoptic atmospheric temperature trends. A decoupling that arises from the combination of local topographic configuration (i.e., deep, north-facing cirques and high winter precipitation, which ensures high snow-avalanche supply, as well as high summer shading and sheltering. Our hypothesis is further supported by the lack of correlations between glacier change and glacier attributes in Orobie, as well

  7. Glacial Debutressing and Displacement History of the Driest Rockslide (Central Alps, Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Matthias; Loew, Simon; Glueer, Franziska; Grämiger, Lorenz

    2016-04-01

    Only few studies have been performed, where the physical interactions between a retreating valley glacier and rock slope movements have been recorded and analyzed in detail. The Driest landslide, situated at the current tongue of the Great Aletsch Glacier in the Swiss Alps, offers a unique case study, because the history of the Great Aletsch Glacier has been studied in great detail by various researchers and the Driest landslide displacements can be unraveled for similar time windows. In this paper we focus on the most recent observation period, i.e. the rockslide and glacier history since the Little Ice Age, when the entire Driest landslide was covered by the glacial ice. Our kinematic model of the Driest landslide, based on field mapping and photogrammetric analyses, was confirmed by displacement vector data from two robotic total stations recording daily displacements of 12 reflectors positioned within the instability. The rockslide basal rupture plane is a compound sliding surface composed of a steeply dipping head scarp, a presumably moderately steep central section, and an upward directed daylighting frontal section. This rupture plane geometry is structurally conditioned by a regional fault in the head scarp area and a rotating Alpine foliation in the toe area. The most recent displacement history of this old rotational rockslide has been unraveled by lichenometry (i.e. systematic mapping of greenish Rhizocarpon Geographicum diameters) in the deepest part of the head scarp, calibrated with dendrochronologic data. Depending on the lichen profile position within the head scarp area, different displacement time histories of the Driest landslide can be developed and correlated with glacial ice elevations as recorded by multiple aerial images and historical documents. Whereas displacement rates before 1991 were in the order of 1 cm/year, significantly higher displacement rates ranging between 7 and 13 cm/year are recorded in the head scarp area for the period

  8. Regional hydrogeochemical groundwater characterization and Natural Arsenic occurrence in Upper Valtellina Valley (Central Italian Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena Reyes, Fredy; Crosta, Giovanni B.; Frattini, Paolo; Basiricò, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the research is the characterization of the alpine Upper Valtellina Valley (central Italian Alps, 800 km2) aquifers by means of hydrogeological, hydrogeochemical, As speciation, isotopic and whole-rock analyses. In particular, the main focus of the study was the understanding of the processes responsible for As release and mobilization into the groundwater. Historical chemical data from springs, wells, lakes, rivers and public fountains were collected from the Lombardy Region Health Agency (ASL) and implemented into a geodatabase. The available groundwater chemistry analyses (3050) from five municipalities (Bormio, Livigno, Valdidentro, Valdisotto and Valfurva) cover a relatively long time span between 1996 and 2011. Moreover, samples across the entire study area and covering one full hydrologic year 2012-2013 were collected during four different campaigns (June 2012, October 2012, May 2013, and September 2013) and analyzed . During these campaigns, water samples have been collected from both cold springs and thermal springs. The hydrogeochemistry of aquifers and superficial waters through the hydrologic year, and the long-term regional As distribution and time variability were analyzed. Although the studied springs belong to different catchments with different hydrochemical and lithological conditions, they present some typical characteristics: (1) the water types are dominated by dissolution of the main ions Ca - Mg and SO4-HCO3; (2) the Cl concentration is always very low, and poorly correlated with other ions; (3) the circulation time obtained from isotopic data ranges between 5 and 10 years for thermal springs and it is lower than 2 years for cold springs; (4) the average yearly temperatures (about 12°C for cold springs, and between 18°C and 42° for thermal springs) are nearly constant through the year; (5) dominant oxidizing environments have been observed for most of the cold springs and also for the thermal springs; (6) anthropogenic

  9. Three-dimensional geometry and tectonostratigraphy of the Pennine zone, Central Alps, Switzerland and Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxelon, Michael; Mancktelow, Neil S.

    2005-08-01

    Continental collision during Alpine orogenesis entailed a polyphase deformation history (D 1-D 5) in the Pennine zone of the Central Alps. The regional tectonostratigraphy was basically developed during D 1 and D 2, characterised by isoclinal, typically north-closing recumbent anticlines, separated by pinched-in synclines, on the scale of tens of kilometres. Later deformation phases (D 3 and D 4) warped the stack into wavy to open folds. Exhumation of this zone resulted locally in later vertical shortening and folding of already steep fabrics (D 5). Three-dimensional models of the nappe pile were constructed, based on geostatistical assessment of the regional foliation field and considering the abundant structural field data. These models indicate the existence of five principal tectonostratigraphic levels developed during D 1 and thus equivalent to nappe units s. str.: the Gotthard, the Leventina-Antigorio, the Maggia-Simano (and probably the Monte Leone as well as the Composite Lepontine Series), Lebendun-Soja and Adula-Cima Lunga levels. All these tectonic units formed part of the passive continental margin of Europe prior to the onset of the Alpine orogenesis. Individual isoclinal post-nappe folds reflect relative displacements on the order of 40 km or more. The most prominent D 2 post-nappe structure is the Wandfluhhorn Fold, structurally equivalent to the northern closure of the Leventina-Lucomagno Antiform. The Lebendun and Monte Leone folds are of similar magnitudes and also affect the whole nappe pile, whereas the smaller Mogno and Molare synforms only refold the Maggia-Simano nappe internally. Principal D 3 and D 4 structures are the tight Mergoscia Synform directly north of the Insubric Fault between Bellinzona and Locarno (Southern Steep Belt), the Maggia Steep Zone, forming the steep western limb of the Campo Tencia Synform and subdividing the Lepontine dome into the Simplon and Ticino subdomes, the Chiéra Synform steepening the dominant foliation in

  10. Rock slope response to fluvial incision in the central Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leith, Kerry; Fox, Matthew; Moore, Jeffrey R.

    2016-04-01

    The longitudinal profile of rivers intersecting the Rhone Valley in the central Swiss Alps suggests the development of topography throughout much of this region has been dominated by interglacial fluvial incision and ongoing tectonic uplift with only minimal glacial erosion since the mid-Pleistocene transition. Evidence indicates bedrock river incision during this period reflects a base level fall of between 500 m and 800 m (depending on the degree of overdeepening following an early period of enhanced glacial incision). This observation raises important questions regarding the preservation, or development of hillslope morphologies through multiple glacial-interglacial cycles. Since the pioneering works of Richter (1900) and Penck and Brückner (1909), Alpine geomorphologists have commented on a sequence of between three and five moderately dipping matched terraces that converge toward inferred paleo-river channels up to 800 m above the axis of many valleys. Here, we use a combination of integral analysis, forward streampower models, and a new method of topographic analysis based on high resolution LiDAR DEMs in order to test the correspondence of valley morphologies in this formerly glaciated landscape, with hillslope processes initiated by fluvial incision up to 700,000 years ago. Results indicate topography adjacent to reaches subjected to transient fluvial incision is characterized by a coherent region of consistently steep slopes, while narrow gorges correspond to rapid incision close to the Rhone valley since MIS 5. A majority of hillslopes converge to our initial fluvial valley floor, or the location of propagating knickpoints. The correspondence between intermediate-level terraces and modeled stages of river incision is, however, currently unclear. These results offer a unique insight into the long-term response of bedrock slopes to varying rates of base level fall, and the cumulative impact of glacial erosion on Alpine valley walls since MIS 11. Penck, A

  11. The Ordovician orogeny in the Alpine basement: constraints from geochronology and geochemistry in the Aar Massif (Central Alps)

    OpenAIRE

    Schaltegger, Urs; Abrecht, Jürgen; Corfu, Fernando

    2003-01-01

    A sequence of magmatic and metasedimentary rocks from the Susten pass area (Aar Massif, Central Alps of Switzerland) provides evidence of an orogenic cycle of Ordovician age overprinted by the Variscan orogeny. Several stages of this evolution have been dated by U-Pb on zircon, titanite and monazite, complementing previously published U- Pb zircon data from the same area. A gabbro, with epsNd values of +4 to +7 was formed at 478 ± 5 Ma and was then affected by a HP metamorphic stage. A subseq...

  12. Molecular characterization of an endolithic microbial community in dolomite rock in the central alps (Switzerland)

    OpenAIRE

    Horath, T; Bachofen, R.

    2009-01-01

    Endolithic microorganisms colonize the pores in exposed dolomite rocks in the Piora Valley in the Swiss Alps. They appear as distinct grayish-green bands about 1–8 mm below the rock surface. Based on environmental small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences, a diverse community driven by photosynthesis has been found. Cyanobacteria (57 clones), especially the genus Leptolyngbya, form the functional basis for an endolithic community which contains a wide spectrum of so far not characterized spe...

  13. Chrysotile asbestos quantification in serpentinite quarries: a case study in Valmalenco, central Alps, northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    Outcrops of serpentinites are usually strongly fractured and cataclastic, and the rock can only be used as ballast. However, in rare cases, like in Valmalenco (Central Alps, Northern Italy), fractures are regular and well spaced, and the rock mass has good geotechnical quality, ideal conditions for the extraction of dimension stone blocks. The Valmalenco Serpentinite is marketed worldwide as dimension and decorative stone, with remarkable mechanical properties and pleasing colours and textures. However, the same area was once subject to chrysotile asbestos mining, in the form of discrete veins along the main discontinuities of the rock mass. For this reason, airborne asbestos contamination can occur during the extraction and processing cycle of the rocks, therefore it is essential to locate and quantify asbestos in the rock mass, to reduce as much as possible the exposure risk. The first step was a detailed geostructural survey of each quarry, in order to characterize the main discontinuities (orientation, spacing, linear persistence, opening, filling), with special attention to the identification of fibrous minerals. The surveys was followed by extensive sampling of massive rocks, mineralized veins and fillings of fractures, and the cutting sludge derived from diamond wire cutting. Preliminary qualitative XRPD was performed on all samples, while quantitative analysis was carried out on the most representative samples of the main rock mass discontinuities. On the other hand, XRPD is not effective in the identification of asbestos percentages of less than 2% by weight, and the accurate distinction among the various serpentine polymorphs (antigorite, lizardite, chrysotile) is very difficult (if not impossible) when they are simultaneously present, due to their very similar basic structure and the strong structural disorder. The same samples were then analyzed by SEM-EDS (fiber counting after filtration on a polycarbonate filter), for a better distinction between

  14. Molecular characterization of an endolithic microbial community in dolomite rock in the central Alps (Switzerland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horath, Thomas; Bachofen, Reinhard

    2009-08-01

    Endolithic microorganisms colonize the pores in exposed dolomite rocks in the Piora Valley in the Swiss Alps. They appear as distinct grayish-green bands about 1-8 mm below the rock surface. Based on environmental small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences, a diverse community driven by photosynthesis has been found. Cyanobacteria (57 clones), especially the genus Leptolyngbya, form the functional basis for an endolithic community which contains a wide spectrum of so far not characterized species of chemotrophic Bacteria (64 clones) with mainly Actinobacteria, Alpha-Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Acidobacteria, as well as a cluster within the Chloroflexaceae. Furthermore, a cluster within the Crenarchaeotes (40 clones) has been detected. Although the eukaryotic diversity was outside the scope of the study, an amoeba (39 clones), and several green algae (51 clones) have been observed. We conclude that the bacterial diversity in this endolithic habitat, especially of chemotrophic, nonpigmented organisms, is considerable and that Archaea are present as well. PMID:19172216

  15. Competitive advantages of Central European cities in the cross-border region Alpe-Adria

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    Nataša Pichler-Milanović

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the competitive advantages of the major cities in the Alpe-Adria region, defined by the authors on the basis of a survey conducted among experts and leading individuals from various fields. First opinions on the international image of cities, international functions, marketing properties and rivals are shown. The next theme is quality of life, researched through housing, urban services, natural and business environments. A chapter about development projects and interurban cooperation follows. In conclusion there are three chapters dealing with directions for improving the supra-national setting and quality of life in the region’s cities, new urban development strategies and directions for improving the supra-national position of Ljubljana.

  16. Environmental impact of cow milk production in the central Italian Alps using Life Cycle Assessment

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    Chiara A. Penati

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze environmental impact of cow milk production in an alpine area through a cradle-to-farm-gate Life Cycle Assessment and to identify farming strategies that can improve environmental sustainability without negatively affecting profitability. Data were collected from farmers in 28 dairy farms in an Italian alpine valley. The production of 1 kg of fat protein corrected milk (FPCM needed 3.18 m2 of land; land use on-farm was high because a large part of farm land consisted of pastures in the highland, used extensively during summer. Also the use of energy from non-renewable sources was high, 5.14 MJ kg FPCM-1 on average. Diesel for production and transportation of feed purchased off-farm was mainly used, especially concentrates which were entirely purchased. The average emission of greenhouse and acidification causing gases was 1.14 kg CO2-eq and 0.021 kg SO2-eq kg FPCM-1. Eutrophication was on average 0.077 kg of nitrate-eq kg FPCM-1. Farms with low producing cows had higher environmental impact per kg of milk and lower gross margin per cow compared to the others. Low stocking rate farms had the best results regarding acidification and eutrophication per kg FPCM. Farms with high feed self-sufficiency had significantly lower acidification potential than the others. Increasing milk yield per cow, by selection and feeding, and enhancing feed self-sufficiency, by higher forage production and quality and more exploitation of highland pastures, seem to be the best strategies to improve ecological performances of dairy farms in the Alps while maintaining their profitability.

  17. On Austrian regional economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijman, W.J.M.; Leen, A.R.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this research note is two-fold, firstly, to clarify the growing interaction between regional science and Austrian economics and their awareness of each other. We elucidate the Austrian methodology, called praxeology, which is especially misunderstood in regional science. Secondly, we tent

  18. New Techniques of LASS-ICPMS Depth Profiling Applied to Detrital Zircon from the Central Alps-Apennines System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anfinson, O. A.; Smye, A.; Stockli, D. F.

    2014-12-01

    Detrital zircon U-Pb age dating has become a widely used tool for determining sediment provenance in basins and orogenic systems. While traditional LA-ICPMS zircon geochronology is powerful, it has limitations when source regions are characterized by monotonous or non-diagnostic crystallization ages or by major sediment recycling and homogenization, leading to minimal zircon age variability. In the central Alps of Switzerland and Italy, for example, similar Cadomian, Caledonian, and Variscan zircons dominate with only minor Alpine ages. Samples collected from Oligocene-Miocene strata deposited in both the northern (Swiss Molasse) and southern (Apenninic foredeep) Alpine foreland basins document shifts in the relative abundance of Cadomian, Caledonian, Variscan and Alpine aged detrital zircon, but the exact source region and genesis of the grains remains poorly constrained based on zircon U-Pb age data alone. Laser Ablation Split Stream (LASS)-ICPMS depth profiling of detrital zircon allows for the simultaneous recovery of multiple ages and of chemical/petrogenetic data from single zircons, and has the potential to shed additional light on provenance. This study applies this approach to Oligocene-Miocene strata of the Swiss Molasse Basin and Apenninic foredeep. Recent advances in LA-ICPMS sample cell technology allow for reliable recovery of age and trace element data during progressive ablation into zircons. Decreased washout (rim-core relationships and REE/trace element abundances from grains of the major orogenic cycles, further constraining the provenance of these strata.

  19. Tectonic vs. gravitational morphostructures in the central Eastern Alps (Italy): Constraints on the recent evolution of the mountain range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agliardi, Federico; Zanchi, Andrea; Crosta, Giovanni B.

    2009-09-01

    Deep-seated gravitational slope deformations (DSGSDs) influence landscape development in tectonically active mountain ranges. Nevertheless, the relationships among tectonics, DSGSDs, and topography are poorly known. In this paper, the distribution of DSGSDs and their relationships with tectonic structures and active processes, surface processes, and topography were investigated at different scales. Over 100 DSGSDs were mapped in a 5000 km 2 sector of the central Eastern Alps between the Valtellina, Engadine and Venosta valleys. Detailed lineament mapping was carried out by photo-interpretation in a smaller area (about 750 km 2) including the upper Valtellina and Val Venosta. Fault populations were also analysed in the field and their mechanisms unravelled, allowing to identify different structural stages, the youngest being consistent with the regional pattern of the ongoing crustal deformation. Finally, four DSGSD examples have been investigated in detail by geological and 2D geomechanical modelling. DSGSDs affect more than 10% of the study area, and mainly cluster in areas where anisotropic fractured rock mass and high local relief occur. Their onset and development is subjected to a strong passive control by mesoscopic and major tectonic features, including regional nappe boundaries as well as NW-SE, N-S and NE-SW trending recent brittle structures. The kinematic consistency between these structures and the pattern of seismicity suggests that active tectonics may force DSGSDs, although field evidence and numerical models indicate slope debuttressing related to deglaciation as a primary triggering mechanism.

  20. Communities of archaea and bacteria in a subsurface radioactive thermal spring in the Austrian Central Alps, and evidence of ammonia-oxidizing Crenarchaeota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidler, Gerhard W; Dornmayr-Pfaffenhuemer, Marion; Gerbl, Friedrich W; Heinen, Wolfgang; Stan-Lotter, Helga

    2007-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy revealed great morphological diversity in biofilms from several largely unexplored subterranean thermal Alpine springs, which contain radium 226 and radon 222. A culture-independent molecular analysis of microbial communities on rocks and in the water of one spring, the "Franz-Josef-Quelle" in Bad Gastein, Austria, was performed. Four hundred fifteen clones were analyzed. One hundred thirty-two sequences were affiliated with 14 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and 283 with four archaeal OTUs. Rarefaction analysis indicated a high diversity of bacterial sequences, while archaeal sequences were less diverse. The majority of the cloned archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences belonged to the soil-freshwater-subsurface (1.1b) crenarchaeotic group; other representatives belonged to the freshwater-wastewater-soil (1.3b) group, except one clone, which was related to a group of uncultivated Euryarchaeota. These findings support recent reports that Crenarchaeota are not restricted to high-temperature environments. Most of the bacterial sequences were related to the Proteobacteria (alpha, beta, gamma, and delta), Bacteroidetes, and Planctomycetes. One OTU was allied with Nitrospina sp. (delta-Proteobacteria) and three others grouped with Nitrospira. Statistical analyses suggested high diversity based on 16S rRNA gene analyses; the rarefaction plot of archaeal clones showed a plateau. Since Crenarchaeota have been implicated recently in the nitrogen cycle, the spring environment was probed for the presence of the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) gene. Sequences were obtained which were related to crenarchaeotic amoA genes from marine and soil habitats. The data suggested that nitrification processes are occurring in the subterranean environment and that ammonia may possibly be an energy source for the resident communities.

  1. Use of trophic resources and forest habitats by the genus Martes in Adamello-Brenta Park (Central Italian Alps)

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Pedrini; Claudio Prigioni; Gilberto Volcan

    1995-01-01

    Abstract Habitat use and diet of genus Martes (M. martes and M. foina) were studied in alpine forest habitat (Adamello-Brenta Park, Central Italian Alps) from July 1991 to September 1992. Marten scats were looked for along 3 transects representative of 5 forest habitats in order to analyse seasonal variations in habitat selection. The food habits were studied analysing 225 scats collected along the tr...

  2. The not trivial subdivision of nappes in the Lower Pennine domain of the Central Alps (Riviera and Verzasca Valleys, Swiss Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, Filippo Luca; Ambrosi, Christian; Scapozza, Cristian; Castelletti, Claudio; Maino, Matteo; Gouffon, Yves

    2016-04-01

    We present new data of the geological map of the Osogna sheet in the Southern Swiss Alps (Swiss National Map no. 1293) that extends N-S from Biasca to Claro and W-E from Lavertezzo to the Pizzo di Claro, respectively. The area mapped at the 1:10'000 scale is located in the Lepontine dome and includes, from core-to-carapace, the gneissic nappes of the Leventina, Simano, Adula/Cima-Lunga and Maggia. These nappes derive from the same post-Variscan gneissic basement complicating their lithological distinction and making difficult to recognize their boundaries. In particular, the boundary between the Leventina and the Simano gneisses is difficult to recognize. In previous work, this boundary was traced within leucogneisses by joining a carbonate lens with quartzite, amphibolite or paragneiss lenses. Nevertheless, quartzites are absent in the mapped area and amphibolite and paragneiss lenses are vertically distributed in the tectonostratigraphy and do not form a single folded horizon. Furthermore, no significant strain gradient related to top-to-the-foreland shearing has been observed between these two units, also when paragneisses and amphibolites were present. Therefore, we present evidence that the top-to-the-foreland deformation between the Leventina and the Simano units was more distributed that commonly assumed, questioning the allochthonous character of the Simano unit.

  3. Anarchism and Austrian economics

    OpenAIRE

    Boettke, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In the 2011 Franz Cuhel Memorial Lecture, I argue that the study of endogenous rule formation in economic life (what I term the positive political economy of anarchism) should be studied in-depth and that the economic analysis of the Austrian school of economics provides many of the key analytical insights necessary for such study.

  4. Younger Dryas equilibrium line altitudes and precipitation patterns in the Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerschner, Hanns; Moran, Andrew; Ivy-Ochs, Susan

    2016-04-01

    Moraine systems of the "Egesen Stadial" are widespread and easily identifiable features in the Alps. Absolute dating with terrestrial cosmogenic radionuclides shows that the maximum extent was reached during the early Younger Dryas (YD), probably as a reaction to the intense climatic downturn subsequent to Lateglacial Interstadial. In recent years, several new studies and the availability of high-quality laser-scan hillshades and orthophotos allowed a significant extension of the database of YD glaciers as "palaeoprecipitation gauges" to large hitherto unmapped regions in the Austrian and Swiss Alps. The equilibrium line altitude (ELA) of the glaciers and its lowering relative to the Little Ice Age ELA (dELA) shows a distinct and systematic spatial pattern. Along the northern slope of the Alps, dELAs are usually large (around 400 m and perhaps even more), while dELAs range around 200 m in the well sheltered areas of the central Alps, e.g. in the Engadine and in western Tyrol. Both stochastic glacier-climate models (e.g. Ohmura et al. 1992) and the heat- and mass balance equation (Kuhn 1981) allow the reconstruction of precipitation change under the assumption of a spatially constant summer temperature depression, which in turn can be estimated from biological proxies. This allows to draw the spatial pattern of precipitation change with considerable detail. Precipitation change is clearly controlled by the local relief like high mountain chains, deeply incised and long valleys and mountain passes. Generally the contrast between the northern fringe of the Alps and the interior was more pronounced than today. Climate in the Northern and and Northwestern Alps was rather wet with precipitation totals eventually exceeding modern annual sums. The central Alps received 20 - 30% less precipitation than today, mainly due to reduced winter precipitation. In the southern Alps, still scarce spatial information points to precipitation sums which were approximately similar to

  5. Asbestos exposure during quarrying and processing of serpentinites: a case study in Valmalenco, Central Alps, Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, A.; Rimoldi, B.

    2012-04-01

    Serpentinites are metamorphic rocks derived from ultramafics such as peridotites (lherzolites and/or harzburgites), with a typical mineralogical assemblage of antigorite, olivine, diopside and minor magnetite, chlorite and chrysotile. If the rock mass has good geotechnical properties, these stones are quarried because of their wide variety of green shades and outstanding technical properties. Excellent stones are produced in the Malenco Valley, Central Alps (northern Italy, Sondrio): here the geological set-up is dominated by the ultramafic Malenco massif (lower crust-mantle complex), exposed at the Penninic to Austroalpine boundary zone. Different processing operations give origin to valuable products like stoves, funeral monuments, design home appliances; important building element as roof slabs, tiles for floor and wall coverings constitute the main commercial line of production. In this area, good quality long fibre chrysotile asbestos was mined since the XIX century, till the seventies. The asbestos fissures (mostly slip-fiber) are well known in Valmalenco, associated to an important ENE-WSW striking fracture and hydrothermal vein system. Some actual serpentinite quarries "cross" at times tunnels of the old asbestos mines, because the fracture and vein system "guides" the extraction. At present time, this area represents an excellent example of naturally occurring asbestos (NOA). For these reasons, workers' exposure to asbestos during quarrying and processing cannot be ruled out, and must be assessed according to national laws. From 2004 to nowadays, the INAIL Regional Management of Lombardia, with the collaboration of University of Milan-Bicocca, carried out extensive monitoring campaigns both in quarries and in processing laboratories. More than 300 massive samples (rocks and veins) and 250 airborne dust samples were collected during the surveys. One of the main problems in the study of massive serpentinites is the accurate identification of the different

  6. STABLE CARBON ISOTOPE ANALYSIS OF SUBFOSSIL WOOD FROM AUSTRIAN ALPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    KŁUSEK, MARZENA; PAWEŁCZYK, SŁAWOMIRA

    2015-01-01

    The presented studies were carried out in order to check the usefulness of subfossil wood for stable isotope analysis. The aim of research was also to define the optimal method of subfossil samples preparation. Subfossil samples used during the presented studies are a part of the multi-century dendrochronological scale. This chronology originates in an area situated around a small mountain lake — Schwarzersee, in Austria. The obtained results of stable carbon isotope measurements confirmed that the method of α-cellulose extraction by the application of acidic sodium chlorite and sodium hydroxide solutions removes resins and other mobile compounds from wood. Therefore, in the case of the analysed samples, the additional chemical process of extractives removing was found to be unnecessary. Studied wood samples contained an adequate proportion of α-cellulose similar to the values characteristic for the contemporary trees. This proved an adequate wood preservation which is essential for the conduction of isotopic research. PMID:26346297

  7. Soil-vegetation interaction on slopes with shrub encroachment in the central Alps - simple measurements for complex slopes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caviezel, Chatrina; Hunziker, Matthias; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2013-04-01

    In the European Alps many high mountain grasslands which where traditionally used for summer pasturing and haying have been abandoned during the last decades. Abandonment of mown or grazed grasslands causes a shift in vegetation composition, e.g. a change in landscape ecology and geomorphology. From a short term perspective, alpine areas are very fragile ecosystems and are highly sensitive to changing environmental conditions. Land use change can affect runoff and water erosion rates, snow gliding and avalanches as well as mass wasting in high-energy mountain environments. The effect of land use intensification on surface processes is well documented. However, the effect of land abandonment on surface resistance to eroding processes is discussed controversially in literature, particularly in relation to its short term and long-term consequences. Generally, perennial vegetation is considered to improve the mechanical anchoring of loose surface material and the regulation of the soil water budget including the control over the generation of runoff. This study aimed at determining the effect of green alder encroachment in the Unteralpvalley in the Swiss Alps. A range of measurements of the mechanical strength of the soil under green alder stands ranging from 15 to 90 years of age and a control site still used for grazing were conducted. Unlike the literature on the effects of perennial vegetation suggest, the data presented in this study show that soil shear strength is decreasing with along the sampled chronosequence, including compared to the grazed reference site. A possible explanation for this decline in soil stability with shrub encroachment is the loosing effect of the green alder roots on the soil structure, which causes an increase in porosity and thus less friction between soil particles. As a consequence, rates of water erosion may decline with shrub encroachment, but frequency of creeping and sliding may increase.

  8. Patterns of landscape form in the upper Rhône basin, Central Swiss Alps, predominantly show lithologic controls despite multiple glaciations and variations in rock uplift rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutenbecker, L. A.; Costa, A.; Schlunegger, F.

    2015-10-01

    The development of topography is mainly dependent on the interplay of uplift and erosion, which are in term controlled by various factors including climate, glaciers, lithology, seismic activity and short-term variables such as anthropogenic impact. While most studies have focused on the role of tectonics and climate on the landscape form and underlying processes, less attention has been paid on exploring the controls of lithology on erosion. The Central European Alps are characterized by a large spatial variability in exposed lithologies and as such offer an ideal laboratory to investigate the lithological controls on erosion and landscape form. Here, we focus on the ca. 5400 km2-large upper Rhône basin situated in the Central Swiss Alps to explore how the lithological architecture of the bedrock conditions the Alpine landscape. To this extent, we extract geomorphological parameters along the channels of ca. 50 tributary basins, whose catchments are located in either granitic basement rocks (External massifs), oceanic meta-sedimentary and ophiolitic rocks (Penninic nappes) or fine-grained continental-margin sediments (Helvetic nappes). The analysis of longitudinal river profiles show that all tributary rivers within the Rhône basin are in topographic transient state as testified by mainly convex or concave-convex longitudinal stream channel profiles with several knickpoints of either tectonic or glacial origin. In addition, although the entire Rhône basin shows a strong glacial inheritance (and is still partly glaciated) and some of the highest uplift rates recently measured in the Alps, the river network has responded differently to those perturbations as revealed by the morphometric data. In particular, tributary basins in the Helvetic nappes are the most equilibrated (concave river profiles, overall lower elevations, less steep slope gradients and lowest hypsometric integrals), while the tributaries located in the External massifs are least equilibrated

  9. Geomorphological response of a landscape to long-term tectonic and glacial processes: the upper Rhône basin, Central Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutenbecker, Laura; Schlunegger, Fritz

    2015-04-01

    The Rhône River in the Central Swiss Alps drains a 5380 km2 large basin that shows a high spatial variability of bedrock lithology, exhumation rate, glacial conditioning and climate. All of these factors were recently discussed to control erosion rates in orogenic settings in general, and particularly in the Alps (e.g. Wittmann et al. 2007, Vernon et al. 2008, Norton et al. 2010a). Thanks to various and densely distributed data, the upper Rhône basin located between the Aar massif and Lake Geneva is a suitable natural laboratory to analyze the landscape's geomorphological state and controlling factors at a basin-scale. In this study, we extract geomorphological parameters along the channels of ca. 50 tributary basins of various sizes that contribute to the sediment budget of the Rhône River either through sediment supply by torrents or debris flows. Their catchments are located in either granitic basement rocks (External Massifs), oceanic meta-sedimentary and ophiolitic rocks (Penninic nappes) or fine-grained continental-margin sediments (Helvetic nappes). The analysis of longitudinal river profiles from DEMs and slope/area relationships show that all tributary rivers within the Rhône basin are in topographic transient state that is expressed by mainly convex or concave-convex channel shapes with several knickpoints of either tectonic-lithological or glacial origin. Furthermore, the frequency distribution of elevations (hypsometry) along the river channel allows identifying glacially inherited morphologies and the recent erosional front. The combination of those different geomorphological data yields to a categorization of the tributary rivers into three endmember groups: (1) streams with highly convex profiles, testifying to a strong glacial inheritance, (2) concave-convex channels with several knickzones and inherited morphologies of past glaciations, (3) predominantly concave, relatively steep rivers with minor knickpoints and inner gorges. Assuming that

  10. Austrian natural scientists in exile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This text was written by E. Broda for the international symposium for exploration of the Austrian exile from 1934 to 1945 (“Internationales Symposiums zur Erforschung des österreichischen Exils von 1934 bis 1945”) in the year 1978. The article is about the specific problems of the Austrian scientific landscape, caused by the political events in the first half of the 20th century. The focus is primarily on the enormous ‘brain drain’, triggered by political repression in the period of Nazi rule (1938 - 1945), the Austro-fascism period (1934 - 1938) and the economic regression, anti-intellectual and anti-Semitic sentiment in the Country since 1918. The article emphasizes the importance of exile organizations, such as the ‘Free Austrian Movement’ or the ‘Association of Austrian Engineers, Chemists and Scientific Workers in Great Britain’ for the reconstruction of a scientific culture in Austria, after the Second World War. (rössner)

  11. Origin and pathways of pro- and retrograde fluids, PTt paths and fluid-mineral equilibria from Alpine veins of the Central Alps : case studies of the Fibbia and Amsteg areas

    OpenAIRE

    Heijboer, Tjerk Cornelis

    2006-01-01

    In order to constrain the conditions of and processes related to vein formation and the origins of mineralising fluids, field work, multiple geochemical methods applied to whole rocks, minerals, and fluid inclusions, as well as thermodynamic modeling on these veinwall rock systems have been carried out. The focus of this study was on vein and fissure systems from two particular areas in the external parts of the Central Alps: the Fibbia area in the southern Gotthard massif and ...

  12. Visit of the Austrian Ambassador

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    The Austrian Ambassador Wolfgang Petritsch (light raincoat) learns about superconducting magnets at the LHC magnet test facility in building SM18 during a visit to CERN. The blue pipe-like structure in the left background is String 2: the 120-m long full-scale model of an LHC cell, which is used to test LHC systems.

  13. Austrian Business Cycle Theory: Did Iceland go through an Austrian Business Cycle?

    OpenAIRE

    Ragnar Haukur Ragnarsson 1978

    2012-01-01

    The question this research tries to answer is if an artificial credit expansion caused the Icelandic economy to go into an Austrian style business cycle in the first decade of this century. To answer that question data from the Statistic of Iceland and the Central Bank of Iceland will be studied. The period that will be looked at is the years from 2001 until 2010. The framework that is used is taken from Jesús Huerta de Soto´s book “Money, Bank Credit, and Economic Cycles”, in that book d...

  14. A new restoration of the NFP20-East cross section and possible tectonic overpressure in the Penninic Adula Nappe (Central Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleuger, J.; Podladchikov, Y.

    2012-04-01

    The Adula Nappe in the eastern Central Alps is one of the four units in the Alps from which ultrahigh-pressure rocks have been reported. Several very different models for its tectonic history have been published but none of these models is fully satisfactory. In the models of Schmid et al. (1996) and Engi et al. (2001), the main mechanism of exhumation is assumed to be extrusion. The extrusion models require top-to-the-hinterland, i.e. top-to-the-south faulting in the hanging wall of the exhuming nappe for which there is no evidence. Froitzheim et al. (2003) proposed a scenario with two different subduction zones, an internal one in which the South Penninic and Briançonnais domains were subducted, and an external one in which the North Penninc domain and the European margin, including the Adula nappe, were subducted. In this model, the exhumation of the Adula nappe results from the subduction of the overlying sub-Briançonnais and sub-South-Penninic mantle in the internal subduction zone. The Adula nappe would then have been exhumed from below into a top-to-the-north shear zone also affecting the overriding Briançonnais units. The main shortcoming of this model is that otherwise there is little evidence for two Alpine subduction zones. All the models cited above are based on the conversion of peak pressures obtained from geobarometry to depth by assuming lithostatic pressures. This results in a much greater burial depth of the Adula Nappe with respect to the surrounding units which poses major problems when trying to reconcile maximum burial depths of the Penninic nappes with their structural record. We performed a new restoration of the NFP20-East cross section (Schmid et al. 1996) without applying a lithostatic pressure-to-depth conversion but a purely geometrical restoration of deformation events in the Penninic nappe stack. The major constraints on these reconstructions are given by strain estimates for the major deformation phases in the units overlying the

  15. Mr. Wolfgang Petritsch, Austrian Ambassador

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    Dr.Peter Schmid/CERN/EP, Dr.Wolfgang Petritsch, Austrian Ambassador, Permanent representative at UN, Mrs.Nora Petritsch, Dr.Kurt Hubner/CERN/AC, Mrs. Frederike Klaus-Salesin, Adviser, Mrs.Andrea Strohmeier, Secretary of the Ambassador, Mr.Heinz Klaus, Attaché, Dr.Theodor Tortschanoff/CERN/LHC, Mr.Peter Storer, Advisor. Dr.Peter Schmid/CERN/EP, Dr.Wolfgang Petritsch, Austrian Ambassador, Permanent representative at UN, Mrs.Nora Petritsch, Dr.Kurt Hubner/CERN/AC, Mrs. Frederike Klaus-Salesin, Adviser, Mrs.Andrea Strohmeier, Secretary of the Ambassador, Mr.Heinz Klaus, Attaché, Dr.Theodor Tortschanoff/CERN/LHC, Mr.Peter Storer, Advisor.

  16. Austrian Science Fund (FWF) Open Access Compliance Monitoring 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Kunzmann, Martina; Reimann, Ralph; Rieck, Katharina; Reckling, Falk

    2016-01-01

    Since 2008 the Austrian Science Fund (FWF), Austria's central funding organisation for basic research, requires from and supports all project leaders and project staff members to make their peer-reviewed research results freely available through the Internet. All principal investigators of FWF funded projects are obliged to submit a final report three months after the project is finished. The average duration of an FWF funded project from the beginning to the delivery of the final pro...

  17. Use of trophic resources and forest habitats by the genus Martes in Adamello-Brenta Park (Central Italian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Pedrini

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Habitat use and diet of genus Martes (M. martes and M. foina were studied in alpine forest habitat (Adamello-Brenta Park, Central Italian Alps from July 1991 to September 1992. Marten scats were looked for along 3 transects representative of 5 forest habitats in order to analyse seasonal variations in habitat selection. The food habits were studied analysing 225 scats collected along the transects. Both percentage frequency of occurrence and relative percentage frequency (Fr% of the different food items were calculated. Arthropods (Fr% = 50.0%, mainly insects (Coleoptera and Hymenoptera, were the staple in the diet of martens and were mostly consumed in spring and in summer. The other main food categories were vegetables (Fr% = 25.9%, mainly Rosaceae fruits, with a peak in autumn/winter, and mammals (Fr% = 10.5, especially small rodents, regularly preyed on throughout the year with a peak in winter. Carrion (marmots and ungulates and partly insects (Orthoptera and Hymenoptera were a fairly important food resource in the winter and at the beginning of the spring. All year round Martes selected coppice forest and mixed high forest, where presumably a major availability of the main food resources used by both species occurred. Riassunto Uso delle risorse trofiche e degli ambienti forestali da parte del genere Martes nel Parco Adamello-Brenta (Alpi Centrali - L'uso dell'habitat e la dieta del genere Martes (M. martes e M. foina sono stati studiati in ambienti forestali del Parco Adamello-Brenta nel periodo luglio 1991-settembre 1992. I1 numero di feci di Martes è stato rilevato in 3 transetti rappresentativi di 5 ambienti forestali, al fine di valutare le variazioni stagionali nell'uso dell'habitat. Le abitudini alimentari sono state investigate mediante analisi di 225 feci raccolte lungo i transetti di

  18. Austrian Economics, Neoclassicism, and the Market Test

    OpenAIRE

    Leland B. Yeager

    1997-01-01

    Professor Sherwin Rosen correctly suggests that the Austrian and neoclassical schools can be complementary, each accepting much from the other. However his recognition of Austrian strengths needs to be amplified and his criticisms need softening. His appeal to the market test risks encouraging anti-intellectual attitudes and practices

  19. The Forgotten Austrian Economics Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bianca Vieru

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In light of the current events, namely the crisisthat economy has to face for quite someyears now, plenty of questions are raised, not only among specialists in the field but also amongordinary people as they prove to be most impoverished by these imbalances. Thus, this paper aims, asa first objective, to explain, froma general perspective and using an inductive-subjectivemethodology based on a brief survey as well as on observation, two of the most important causes that,according to the Austrian Business Cycle Theory, are the leading motives for triggering crises. Weare referring particularly to an excessivestate interventionismmanifested throughout itsexpansionary monetary policy.Secondly, we seek to establish the interconnections between theseelements and the case of the Great Depression as well as the current recession. The results we cameacross point out towards the same pattern designed by the Austrian economists, although thecircumstances are, each time, different. Hence, the contribution of this paper consists of handling thedetails that surround the subject by extracting only the essential aspects regarding the triggering ofcrises; we refer to the main ideas that need to be underlined for a better comprehension of the topic.

  20. Status of the ALPS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehret, Klaus

    2008-12-19

    The ALPS experiment at DESY searches for light particles which are coupling very weakly to photons. Primary physics goal is the search for axion like particles in a photon regeneration experiment. Central part of the experimental setup is a five Tesla strong superconducting HERA dipole magnet. During two operation periods in the years 2007 and 2008 we have collected first data and explored the sensitivity of the setup. A Fabry Perot laser cavity is being set up in order to increase the sensitivity by more than one order of magnitude. (orig.)

  1. Trans-Alps neutrinos

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "A beam of neutrinos manufactured at CERN shot through the Alps for the first time on 18 August. The beam will feed two neutrino oscillation experiments 730km away at the Gran Sasso National Laobratory near Rome, Italy." (1 page)

  2. ALP (Alkaline Phosphatase) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Also known as: ALK PHOS; Alkp Formal name: Alkaline Phosphatase Related tests: AST ; ALT ; GGT ; Bilirubin ; Liver Panel ; Bone Markers ; Alkaline Phosphatase Isoenzymes; Bone Specific ALP All content on ...

  3. Austrian Economics - The Ultimate Achievement of an Intellectual Journey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Salin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this lecture delivered November 2008 on the occasion of the presentation of the Mises Institute’s Gary G. Schlarbaum Prize for lifetime achievement in the cause of liberty, Professor Salin discusses his discovery of Austrian economics and his involvement in “the world of individual liberty,” and draws various lessons from his intellectual journey. The coherence of Austrian economics appealed to Salin—it is not a patchwork of partial theories, but a logical process of thought founded on realistic assumptions about individual action. Salin also discusses differences between the Chicago and Austrian approaches, and his views about monetary systems.The financial crisis beginning in late 2008 is not a crisis of capitalism, but of state intervention, caused by the expansionary monetary policy of the Fed. Capitalism is the solution, not the cause. There is no need to create money. There is never any balance of payments problem. What is required is tax systems more friendly to capital accumulation, a decrease in the role of the state, the end of monetary policy and, if possible, the disappearing of central banks and the IMF.

  4. Schumpeter and Mises as 'Austrian Economists'

    OpenAIRE

    Vanberg, Viktor J.

    2008-01-01

    "Whether and, if so, in what sense Joseph A. Schumpeter (1883-1950) and Ludwig von Mises (1881-1973) may both be classified as ‘Austrian economists’ is a controversial issue. In terms of their biographical background they were, of course, Austrian nationals, and as students of Böhm-Bawerk and von Wieser both qualify in a formal sense as third-generation members of the Austrian School. Yet, whether they so qualify in a substantive sense as well is much more questionable. Apparen...

  5. Síndrome de Austrian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Estevão Midon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste relato, é descrito o caso de um paciente masculino, 64 anos, sem história de etilismo, que se apresentou com a Tríade de Osler, que consiste no desenvolvimento de endocardite, pneumonia e meningite, por um mesmo agente. A síndrome é denominada síndrome de Austrian, quando a infecção for por Streptococcus pneumoniae. Serão discutidas as manifestações clínicas, fisiopatológicas e a terapêutica mais adequada para esse quadro. Tendo em vista a raridade do caso e a elevada morbimortalidade, serão enfatizadas a importância do diagnóstico precoce e o tratamento adequado, visando reduzir as complicações inerentes a essa doença.

  6. Austrian emission inventory for dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the first time, Austrian emissions of anthropogenic particulate matter emissions to the atmosphere have been estimated. Results have been reported as total suspended particles (TSP) as well as for the fractions of particles smaller than 10 μm or 2.5 μm aerodynamic diameter (PM10, PM2.5), respectively. Base years for the inventory were 1990, 1995 and 1999. Excluded from this assessment is wind blown dust, which has been considered a natural source here. National statistics have been applied, specifically those also used previously in the Austrian air pollution inventory (OLI). Emission factors have been taken from literature compilations, only for exceptional cases specific Austrian assessments were performed or original literature on emission measurements was consulted. Resuspension of dust by road traffic emerged as the most important source. For the size fraction of PM10 this source contributed about half of the emissions, when applying the calculation scheme by the U.S. EPA. While this scheme is widely used and well documented, its validity is currently subject of intense scientific debate. As these results do not seem to coincide with ambient air measurements, resuspension of road dust is considered separately and not now included in the national total. The sum of all other sources increases from 75,000 t of TSP in 1990 and 1995 to 77,000 t in 1999, while both PM10 and PM2.5 exhibit decreasing tendency (at 45,000 t and 26,000 t in 1999, respectively). The increase in TSP derives from increasing traffic and friction related emissions (tire wear, break wear), decrease of the finer particulate matter is due to reductions in firewood consumption for domestic heating. Most important source sectors are fugitive emissions from material transfer in industry as well as the building industry and the tilling of agricultural land. Common to these sources is the high uncertainty of available data. Wood combustion is the most important of the non-fugitive emissions

  7. The Consumer in Austrian Economics and the Austrian Perspective on Consumer Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Leen, A.R.

    1999-01-01

    In this thesis I examined the place of the competitive-entrepreneurial consumer in Austrian economic thought. For a neoclassical economist, competition among consumers is hard to find. For an Austrian economist, however, it is a necessity. The introduction puts forward the problem that although an Austrian economist believes that everyone -the consumer included- acts entrepreneurially, in his elucidation of the market process he gives the role of entrepreneur to the producer only.In Part I, "...

  8. The chemical and biological response of two remote mountain lakes in the Southern Central Alps (Italy to twenty years of changing physical and chemical climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea LAMI

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Two small high mountain lakes in the Alps were monitored in 1984-2003 to follow their response to changes in human impact, such as deposition of atmospheric pollutants, fish stocking and climate change. The results were compared to occasional samplings performed in the 1940s, and to the remains found in sediment cores. When monitoring started, the most acid-sensitive of them, Lake Paione Superiore, was acidified, with evident effects in its flora and fauna: benthic diatoms assemblage was shifted towards acidophilous species, and zooplankton lost the dominant species, Arctodiaptomus alpinus. Palaeolimnological studies outlined that lake acidification paralleled the increasing input of long-range transported industrial pollutants, traced by spherical carbonaceous particles. On the contrary, the biota of Lake Paione Inferiore appeared to be mainly affected by fish stocking. In the last twenty years, decrease in acid load from the atmosphere led to an improvement in lake water quality, with an increase in both pH and alkalinity. First signs of biological recovery were identified, such as change in diatom flora and appearance of sensitive species among benthic insects. However, climate change and episodic deposition of Saharan dust were important driving factors controlling lake water chemistry. Further monitoring to assess the effects of climate change and of the increasing load of nitrogen and other pollutants is recommended.

  9. Structure and fluid migration in a Late Cenozoic duplex system forming the Main Divide in the central Southern Alps, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Alpine Schist immediately west of the Main Divide of the Southern Alps is a west-dipping duplex system consisting of an imbricated stack of rock slabs, each c. 250-1000 m thick. The imbricated stack has low grade, little deformed pumpellyite-actinolite facies semischists at the base, overlain by progressively higher grade and more deformed schists. The structurally highest slab mapped consists of multiply-deformed biotite zone schist. The duplex lies on the hanging wall of the northwest-dipping Main Divide Fault Zone, which separates semischist from structurally underlying greywacke. Rock slabs are internally disrupted by faults subparallel to layering, and consist of lozenge-shaped blacks of 10-100 m. Fault zones separating rock slabs consist of 18O(SMOW) between 11.4 and 26.1 per thousand, and δ13C(PDB) between -.6 and -11.4 per thousand. Calculated isotopic ratios for the mineralising fluids show little evidence for meteoric origin. The fluid may be meteoric water which has undergone isotopic exchange with host rocks, metamorphic water, or a mixture of these, and mineralisation occurred during rise of the fluids from depth. (author). 56 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs

  10. The Consumer in Austrian Economics and the Austrian Perspective on Consumer Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leen, A.R.

    1999-01-01

    In this thesis I examined the place of the competitive-entrepreneurial consumer in Austrian economic thought. For a neoclassical economist, competition among consumers is hard to find. For an Austrian economist, however, it is a necessity. The introduction puts forward the problem that although an A

  11. Glacial isostatic uplift of the European Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mey, Juergen; Scherler, Dirk; Wickert, Andrew D.; Egholm, David L.; Tesauro, Magdala; Schildgen, Taylor F.; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2016-04-01

    Present-day vertical movements of the Earth's surface are mostly due to tectonic deformation, volcanic processes, and crustal loading/unloading. In tectonically stable regions of North America and Scandinavia, vertical movements are almost entirely attributable to glacial isostatic rebound after the melting of the Laurentide and Fennoscandian ice sheets. In contrast, the Pleistocene Alpine icecap grew on a younger mountain belt that formed by collision of the European and African plates, still subject to shortening. Therefore, measured uplift is potentially a composite signal of tectonic shortening and unloading after deglaciation and concomitant erosion. Deciphering the contributions of tectonics and crustal unloading to present-day uplift rates in formerly-glaciated mountain belts is a prerequisite to using uplift data to estimate the viscosity structure of the Earth's mantle, a key variable in geodynamics. We evaluate the post-LGM glacial-isostatic rebound of the Alps following a 4-tiered procedure. First, we estimated the thickness distribution of sedimentary valley fills to create a bedrock map of the entire mountain belt. Second, this map was used as topographic basis for the reconstruction of the Alpine icecap using a numerical ice-flow model. Third, we estimated the equilibrium deflection of the Alpine lithosphere, using the combined loads of ice and sediments with a variable effective elastic thickness. Finally, we used an exponential decay function to infer the residual deflection and the present-day uplift rate for a range of upper mantle viscosities. Our analysis shows that virtually all of the geodetically measured surface uplift in the Swiss and the Austrian Alps can be attributed to glacial unloading and redistribution of sediments, assuming an upper-mantle viscosity lower than that inferred for an old craton (e.g., Fennoscandia), but higher than that for a region with recent crustal thinning (e.g., Basin and Range province).

  12. President Hans Ager of Austrian Federal Council Visits China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>An Austrian goodwill delegation led by Hans . Ager, president of the Austrian Federal Coun-cil and board member of the Austrian Association for Promotion of Friendship and Cultural Relations with China (AAPFCRC), paid a friendly visit to China in November, 2003 at the invitation of the CPAFFC. On the delegation were Dietmar Bachmann, president of the Industrial Federation of

  13. Austrian Philosophy. The Legacy of Franz Brentano

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Barry

    1994-01-01

    This book is a survey of the most important developments in Austrian philosophy in its classical period from the 1870s to the Anschluss in 1938. But I hope that the volume will be seen also as a contribution to philosophy in its own right as an attempt to philosophize in the spirit of those, above all Roderick Chisholm, Rudolf Haller, Kevin Mulligan and Peter Simons, who have done so much to demonstrate the continued fertility of the ideas and methods of the Austrian philosophers in our own d...

  14. The Continuing Relevance of Austrian Capital Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2012-01-01

    The article presents a speech by Professor Nicolai J. Foss of Copenhagen Business School, delivered at the Austrian Scholars Conference held on March 8, 2012 in Auburn, Alabama, in which he discussed the knowledge essays by economist Friedrich A. von Hayek, the concept of capital theory and the w......The article presents a speech by Professor Nicolai J. Foss of Copenhagen Business School, delivered at the Austrian Scholars Conference held on March 8, 2012 in Auburn, Alabama, in which he discussed the knowledge essays by economist Friedrich A. von Hayek, the concept of capital theory...... and the works of Hayek on political philosophy and cultural evolution....

  15. Austrian Airlines:Safety is our Business!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Mighty Capacity Managed "Although Austrian Airlines is a middle-sized company, it has a mighty capacity of over 10 million customers every year. Because it has an extensive European service network." G(o)tz stressed to China's Foreign Trade.

  16. Permafrost detection in the headwalls of receding glaciers at the Dachstein Massif, Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Matthias; Gitschthaler, Christoph; Schnepfleitner, Harald; Kellerer-Pirklbauer, Andreas; Sass, Oliver

    2014-05-01

    The Northern Calcareous Alps cover a large area of the Austrian Alps forming a boundary zone between the Alpine Foreland to the north and the crystalline Central Alps to the south. Generally, climate in this area is more maritime compared to the mountain ranges further south. Few small glaciers are to be found mostly on north-facing slopes. The Northern Calcareous Alps reach maximum elevations of about 3000 m asl. Some of highest summits are to be found are located in the Dachstein Massif reaching 2995 m asl (47° 28' 32″ N, 13° 36' 23″ E). Occurrence, thickness and thermal regime of permafrost at this mountain massif are widely unknown and knowledge is based on simulations only. In contrast, the glaciation changes at this mountain massif (e.g. Schladminger and Hallstätter glaciers) have been well documented for decades. Within the framework of the research project ROCKING ALPS - dealing with frost weathering and rockfall in alpine regions - knowledge of permafrost distribution in the headwalls surrounding the receding glaciers is substantial to understand rock decay. For this reason, several techniques have been applied in order to detect bedrock permafrost. During the winter of 2012 22 i-buttons (temperature sensors) were attached to rock walls with different orientations but at similar elevations (2600-2700 m asl). Most of these sites were later covered by an insulating winter snow cover therefore allowing the calculation of the base temperature of the winter snow cover (BTS). These BTS data have been used as a first indicator of permafrost presence. In selected rock walls of several mountains in the massif - Koppenkarstein (2863 m asl), Dirndln (2829 m asl) and Gjaidstein (2794 m asl) - additional 2D-geoelectric surveys (five ERT profiles with a length of 100 m and 2 m electrode spacing) were measured in summer 2013. The high resistivities (> 50.000 ohm.m) at about 1.5 m depth and deeper strongly suggest permafrost existence inside the bedrock at all

  17. The voice of Austrians at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    On 7 May the Austrian Minister for Science announced that, after over 50 years of membership, Austria would withdraw from CERN. By 18 May the Austrian Chancellor had reversed the decision. The Bulletin spoke to some of the Austrian community at CERN about the rollercoaster of events in between. var flash_video_player=get_video_player_path(); insert_player_for_external('Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056-0753-kbps-640x360-25-fps-audio-64-kbps-44-kHz-stereo', 'mms://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056-Multirate-200-to-753-kbps-640x360-25-fps.wmv', 'false', 533, 300, 'https://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056-posterframe-640x360-at-10-percent.jpg', '1180837', true, 'Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056-0600-kbps-maxH-360-25-fps-audio-128-kbps-48-kHz-stereo.mp4'); To watch this video in German click here. There was jubil...

  18. The archives of the glacier survey of the Austrian Alpine Club

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Andrea; Bendler, Gebhard

    2016-04-01

    The archive of the Austrian Alpine Club holds masses of material on glaciers and their former extent. The material includes descriptions and sketches of the summits conquered by early mountaineers, mapping campaigns and data from early scientific expeditions as well as data on glacier length change. To date a large proportion of the glaciological information in the material has not been catalogued or analysed. As cold ice, containing relevant climate information, might still exist at the highest peaks of Austria, a pilot project was started to collect some of the data of two test sites in Tyrol, in Silvretta and Ötztal Alps, to reveal former summit shapes and glacier tongue positions. Additional information on the number and position of crevasses as well as firn extent is often evident from the material. Challenging tasks not yet tackled are compiling a catalogue of the material and defining an analysis scheme.

  19. Foreign Identities in the Austrian E-Government

    OpenAIRE

    Ivkovic, Mario; Stranacher, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    With the revision of the Austrian E-Government Act [8] in the year 2008, the legal basis for a full integration of foreign persons in the Austrian e-government, has been created. Additionally, the E-Government Equivalence Decree [1] has been published in June 2010. This decree clarifies which foreign electronic identities are considered to be equivalent to Austrian identities and can be electronically registered within the Austrian identity register. Based on this legal framework a concept ha...

  20. ALPS - A LINEAR PROGRAM SOLVER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, L. A.

    1994-01-01

    Linear programming is a widely-used engineering and management tool. Scheduling, resource allocation, and production planning are all well-known applications of linear programs (LP's). Most LP's are too large to be solved by hand, so over the decades many computer codes for solving LP's have been developed. ALPS, A Linear Program Solver, is a full-featured LP analysis program. ALPS can solve plain linear programs as well as more complicated mixed integer and pure integer programs. ALPS also contains an efficient solution technique for pure binary (0-1 integer) programs. One of the many weaknesses of LP solvers is the lack of interaction with the user. ALPS is a menu-driven program with no special commands or keywords to learn. In addition, ALPS contains a full-screen editor to enter and maintain the LP formulation. These formulations can be written to and read from plain ASCII files for portability. For those less experienced in LP formulation, ALPS contains a problem "parser" which checks the formulation for errors. ALPS creates fully formatted, readable reports that can be sent to a printer or output file. ALPS is written entirely in IBM's APL2/PC product, Version 1.01. The APL2 workspace containing all the ALPS code can be run on any APL2/PC system (AT or 386). On a 32-bit system, this configuration can take advantage of all extended memory. The user can also examine and modify the ALPS code. The APL2 workspace has also been "packed" to be run on any DOS system (without APL2) as a stand-alone "EXE" file, but has limited memory capacity on a 640K system. A numeric coprocessor (80X87) is optional but recommended. The standard distribution medium for ALPS is a 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskette. IBM, IBM PC and IBM APL2 are registered trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.

  1. Holocene temperature variations at a high-altitude site in the Eastern Alps: a chironomid record from Schwarzsee ob Sölden, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyashuk, Elena A.; Koinig, Karin A.; Heiri, Oliver; Ilyashuk, Boris P.; Psenner, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Few well-dated, quantitative Holocene temperature reconstructions exist from high-altitude sites in the Central Eastern Alps. Here, we present a chironomid-based quantitative reconstruction of mean July air temperatures (TJuly) throughout the Holocene for a remote high-mountain lake, Schwarzsee ob Sölden, situated above the treeline at 2796 m a.s.l. in the Austrian Alps. Applying a chironomid-temperature inference model developed from lakes of the Alpine region to a high-resolution chironomid record from the lake provides evidence for early Holocene (ca 10000–8600 cal yr BP) TJuly of up to 8.5 °C, i.e. >4 °C above the modern (1977–2006) mean July temperature. The reconstruction reveals the so-called ‘8.2-ka cold event’ centered at ca 8250–8000 cal yr BP with temperatures ca 3 °C below the early-Holocene thermal maximum. Rather warm (ca 6 °C) and productive conditions prevailed during ca 7900–4500 cal yr BP. The chironomid record suggests a climate transition between ca 5200 and 4500 cal yr BP to cooler TJuly. A distinct cooling trend is evident from ca 4500 until ca 2500 cal yr BP. Thereafter, the study site experienced its coldest conditions (around 4 °C or less) throughout the rest of the Holocene, with the exception of the warming trend during the late 20th century. Beside other factors, the Northern Hemisphere summer insolation seems to be the major driving force for the long-term trends in TJuly at high altitudes in the Eastern Alps. Due to the extreme location of the lake and the limited temperature range represented by the applied calibration data set, the chironomid-based temperature reconstruction fails to track phases of the late-Holocene climatic history with TJuly cooler than 4 °C. Further chironomid-based palaeoclimate model and down-core studies are required to address this problem, provide more realistic TJuly estimates from undisturbed high-altitude lakes in the Alps, and extract a reliable regional

  2. Crustal structure and active tectonics in the Eastern Alps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brückl, E.; Behm, M.; Decker, K.;

    2010-01-01

    During the last decade, a series of controlled source seismic experiments brought new insight into the crustal and lithospheric structure of the Eastern Alps and their adjacent tectonic provinces. A fragmentation of the lithosphere into three blocks, Europe (EU), Adria (AD), and the new Pannonian...... compensated by the lateral extrusion of the central Eastern Alps. The Periadriatic (Insubric) line east of the triple junction and the mid-Hungarian fault zone have relatively recently lost their role as first-order active structures. We favor the idea that the Pannonian fragment and the TISZA block merged to...

  3. Network Topology of the Austrian Airline Flights

    CERN Document Server

    Han, D D; Qian, J H

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the directed, weighted and evolutionary Austrian airline flight network. It is shown that such a specific airline flight network displays features of small-world networks, namely large clustering coefficient and small average shortest-path length. We study the detailed flight information both in a week and on a whole. In both cases, the degree distributions reveal power law with exponent value of 2 $\\sim$ 3 for the small degree branch and a flat tail for the large degree branch. Similarly, the flight weight distributions have power-law for the small weight branch. The degree-degree correlation analysis shows the network has disassortative behavior, i.e. the large airports are likely to link to smaller airports.

  4. Austrian Carbon Calculator (ACC) - modelling soil carbon dynamics in Austrian soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedy, Katrin; Freudenschuss, Alexandra; Zethner, Gehard; Spiegel, Heide; Franko, Uwe; Gründling, Ralf; Xaver Hölzl, Franz; Preinstorfer, Claudia; Haslmayr, Hans Peter; Formayer, Herbert

    2014-05-01

    Austrian Carbon Calculator (ACC) - modelling soil carbon dynamics in Austrian soils. The project funded by the Klima- und Energiefonds, Austrian Climate Research Programme, 4th call Authors: Katrin Sedy, Alexandra Freudenschuss, Gerhard Zethner (Environment Agency Austria), Heide Spiegel (Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety), Uwe Franko, Ralf Gründling (Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research) Climate change will affect plant productivity due to weather extremes. However, adverse effects could be diminished and satisfying production levels may be maintained with proper soil conditions. To sustain and optimize the potential of agricultural land for plant productivity it will be necessary to focus on preserving and increasing soil organic carbon (SOC). Carbon sequestration in agricultural soils is strongly influenced by management practice. The present management is affected by management practices that tend to speed up carbon loss. Crop rotation, soil cultivation and the management of crop residues are very important measures to influence carbon dynamics and soil fertility. For the future it will be crucial to focus on practical measures to optimize SOC and to improve soil structure. To predict SOC turnover the existing humus balance model the application of the "Carbon Candy Balance" was verified by results from Austrian long term field experiments and field data of selected farms. Thus the main aim of the project is to generate a carbon balancing tool box that can be applied in different agricultural production regions to assess humus dynamics due to agricultural management practices. The toolbox will allow the selection of specific regional input parameters for calculating the C-balance at field level. However farmers or other interested user can also apply their own field data to receive the result of C-dynamics under certain management practises within the next 100 years. At regional level the impact of predefined changes in agricultural management

  5. The Austrian Approach: Entering the World of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feistritzer, Patricia; Balcerack, Carl

    1979-01-01

    This photo-essay describes a Waldorf School. Developed by Austrian Rudolf Steiner, the Waldorf plan is dedicated to allowing the child a childlike environment. It emphasizes storytelling, creative dramatics, flexibility, improvisation, crafts, and movement. (SJL)

  6. France and the Austrian Empire 1815-1918

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horel Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Relations between France and the Habsburg Empire during the long nineteenth century went through several phases bounded by the events crucial not just to the two countries' mutual relations but to all of Europe. The Congress of Vienna defined their mutual relations for the next thirty years. The Habsburgs and their omnipresent minister Metternich were fearful of revolutionary and liberal movements traditionally having their origins in France. And it was the revolutionary events of 1848 that brought about a change in the balance of power and their mutual relations. Metternich's retirement and, more importantly, the arrival of the Russian armies in Central Europe and the subsequent strengthening of Prussia, conferred a new importance to the role of the Habsburg Monarchy as a bulwark against the advancement of Russia and a vital counterweight to Prussia. With the defeat of Napoleon III and the creation of Germany with Alsace and Lorraine Franco-Austrian relations entered a new phase. The destiny of the two provinces alienated the Habsburgs from the French Republic, especially after the reorganization of Europe into two confronting blocs. The logic of alliances led to their being adversaries in the world conflict, although Napoleon III's geo-strategic analyses remained present almost to its very end, when Clemenceau's government gave support to the nationality principle thereby crucially contributing to the collapse of the Habsburg Monarchy.

  7. Capital Market-Oriented Financing Prospects for Austrian SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Halling; Josef Zechner

    2005-01-01

    The performance and growth of the Austrian economy largely depend on small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Despite their diminutive size, SMEs offer attractive investment opportunities that are, however, financed primarily by debt for a variety of reasons. The financing concept presented in this study adopts an innovative approach to provide access to quasi-equity forms of financing to Austrian SMEs, which have successfully and responsibly generated business in recent years and which cur...

  8. Publications of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf 1976-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About 3000 publications, written by staff members of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf (OEFZS) within the period 1976-1985 are cited. The bibliography includes citations of journal articles, proceedings, books, technical reports as well as dissertations and diploma works, carried out in Seibersdorf by students of Austrian universities. It covers the subject areas of chemistry, physics, biology, radiation protection, reactor safety, isotope applications, materials technology, environmental research, mathematics and information, electronics and agriculture. 10 refs. (Author)

  9. Acidification and Nitrogen Eutrophication of Austrian Forest Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Jandl; Stefan Smidt; Franz Mutsch; Alfred Fürst; Harald Zechmeister; Heidi Bauer; Thomas Dirnböck

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of acidic deposition and nitrogen on Austrian forests soils. Until thirty years ago air pollution had led to soil acidification, and concerns on the future productivity of forests were raised. Elevated rates of nitrogen deposition were believed to cause nitrate leaching and imbalanced forest nutrition. We used data from a soil monitoring network to evaluate the trends and current status of the pH and the C : N ratio of Austrian forest soils. Deposition measurements and...

  10. The Meaning of Market : Comparing Austrian and Institutional Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Dulbecco, Philippe; DUTRAIVE

    1997-01-01

    Our contribution aims at revealing the terms of a confrontation between Austrian and Institutional schools concerning the nature and the role of markets. Such an approach is justified by, on the one hand, the characteristics shared by both theoretical traditions, and on the other by the existence of complementarity, which founds a representation of market mechanisms in terms of process. The point is that if the economic analysis of institutions constitutes an essential link in the Austrian pr...

  11. PEGASUS - An Austrian Nanosatellite for QB50

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharlemann, Carsten; Seifert, Bernhard; Kohl, Dominik; Birschitzky, David; Gury, Lionel; Kerschbaum, Franz; Obertscheider, Christof; Ottensamer, Roland; Reissner, Alexander; Riel, Thomas; Sypniewski, Richard; Taraba, Michael; Trausmuth, Robert; Turetschek, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    PEGASUS - An Austrian Nanosatellite for QB50 C. Scharlemann* David Birschitzky* Lionel Gury*, Franz Kerschbaum~, Dominik Kohl#, Christof Obertscheider*, Roland Ottensamer~, Alexander Reissner+, Thomas Riel#, B. Seifert+, Richard Sypniewski*, Michael Taraba?, Robert Trausmuth*, Thomas Turetschek?, …. (*)University of Applied Sciences Wiener Neustadt, Austria (+)FOTEC GmbH, Wiener Neustadt, Austria (+) Spaceteam, TU Wien, Austria (~) University Wien, Wien, Austria The QB50 project is an international project with the goal to send up to 50 Nanosatellites, a.k.a. CubeSat, into the Thermosphere. The scientific goal of this mission is to monitor over a period of up to nine months the prevailing conditions in this rather unknown part of Earth's atmosphere. Each of the 50 nanosatellites will be equipped with one of three possible scientific instruments: (i) a set of Langmuir probes, (ii) atomic oxygen measurement device, (iii) ion/neutral mass spectrometer. All satellites will be launched together and released in a string-of-pearls type fashion. It is predicted that the satellites will drift apart rather rapidly following the release. Therefore, the QB50 missions offers the possibility of a measurement grid in the thermosphere of unprecedented scope and accuracy. One of the satellites, named PEGASUS, is designed and build by a team of Austrian researches and students. PEGASUS will be equipped with the aforementioned Langmuir probes and will provide information about essential properties of the plasma in the thermosphere such as the electrontemperature and -density. In order to ensure the capability to collect and downlink the data over several months, PEGASUS requires about the same types of subsystems as one would find on large-scale satellites. This includes an attitude control system, an on-board computer, telecommunication devices, an electrical power systems allowing to harvest the solar power and either distribute or store it for later use, a thermal control system

  12. Regional Ambient Noise Tomography in the Eastern Alps of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behm, Michael; Nakata, Nori; Bokelmann, Götz

    2016-08-01

    We present results from ambient noise tomography applied to temporary seismological stations in the easternmost part of the Alps and their transition to the adjacent tectonic provinces (Vienna Basin, Bohemian Massif, Southern Alps, Dinarides). By turning each station into a virtual source, we recover surface waves in the frequency range between 0.1 and 0.6 Hz, which are sensitive to depths of approximately 2-15 km. The utilization of horizontal components allows for the analysis of both Rayleigh and Love waves with comparable signal-to-noise ratio. Measured group wave dispersion curves between stations are mapped to local cells by means of a simultaneous inverse reconstruction technique. The spatial reconstruction for Love-wave velocities fails in the central part of the investigated area, and we speculate that a heterogeneous noise source distribution is the cause for the failure. Otherwise, the obtained group velocity maps correlate well with surface geology. Inversion of Rayleigh-wave velocities for shear-wave velocities along a vertical N-S section stretching from the Bohemian Massif through the Central Alps to the Southern Alps and Dinarides reveals a mid-crustal low-velocity anomaly at the contact between the Bohemian Massif and the Alps, which shows a spatial correlation with the P-wave velocity structure and the low-frequency component of the magnetic anomaly map. Our study is validated by the analysis of resolution and accuracy, and we further compare the result to shear-wave velocity models estimated from other active and passive experiments in the area.

  13. Bericht der AG Primo-Implementierung an die Vollversammlung des österreichischen Bibliothekenverbundes zum möglichen Einsatz des Dienstes Primo Central

    OpenAIRE

    Pipp, Eveline; Knitel, Markus; Mayer, Wolfgang; Putz, Michaela

    2011-01-01

    Applicability of the discovery service Primo Central for Austrian academic libraries. A Report of the task force PrimoImplementation for the Austrian Library Network. In winter 2010/11 the task force PrimoImplementation of the Austrian Library Network evaluated Primo Central, the Discovery and Delivery Service from Ex Libris, by means of a three month test account and several Q&A sessions with product developers from Ex Libris. Primo Central integrates hundreds of millions of metadata from va...

  14. Any Light Particle Search (ALPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Aaron; Any Light Particle Search (ALPS) Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    High power laser fields enabled by technologies developed for ground-based gravitational-wave observatories open up new opportunities for fundamental physics studies. One of these options is the search for axions and axion-like particles in a pure laboratory experiment. The axion is a solution to the strong CP-problem and a potential dark matter candidate. The axion has also been proposed as an additional channel to cool stars as well as a potential explanation for the TeV transparency problem. The German-US ALPS collaboration is setting up a light-shining-through-walls (LSW) experiment at DESY. LSW experiments are based on the simple idea that a high power laser field traversing a static magnetic field will transform partly into a relativistic axion field. This axion field will travel through an opaque wall into a second static magnetic field region where it turns partly back into an electromagnetic wave field with the same frequency as the laser. The ALPS collaboration is working towards a large scale LSW experiment at DESY in Hamburg, Germany. I will report on the status of the ALPS experiment. This work is supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, PRISMA, the Helmholtz Association, the National Science Foundation and the Heising-Simons Foundation.

  15. HORA - an Austrian platform for natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlatky, T.

    2009-04-01

    HORA - an Austrian platform for natural hazards as a new way in risk communication One initiatives launched in Austria demonstrate that public participation not only bears the risk of a partial transfer of responsibility by the authorities; it may above all prepare the ground for entirely new approaches and create new links. The recent installation of the first internet risk zoning system in Austria underscores the importance of involving private parties in natural disaster protection. This public-private partnership (PPP) between the Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management (BMLFUW) and the Austrian Insurance Association (VVO) was launched in the wake of the 2002 flood disaster. The first project phase, the Austrian flood risk zoning system called HORA (screenshot see fig. 1), has now been accessible on the Web since 1st June 2006. In accordance with a risk partnership concluded between federal government, insurance companies and private parties, the project initiators seek to offer the public a preliminary risk assessment tool for evaluation of their home, industrial enterprise, of infrastructure. Digital risk maps shall provide information on 30-year, 100-year and 200-year flood events as they occur alongside the 26.000-km-long domestic river network. The probability with which a certain block of land is immersed in water during a flood event can be calculated by means of hydraulic engineering methods. These have traditionally relied on statistical figures, which are known to be very inaccurate, especially when major events such as flooding are concerned. The Vienna University of Technology (TU) (Institute of Hydraulic and Water Resources Engineering) has dedicated many years to developing more accurate, process oriented risk assessment techniques. The starting points was to identify different flood-triggering processes and to divide them into specific categories as long-duration rainfalls, short-duration rainfalls, storms

  16. Natural radionuclides in Austrian bottled mineral waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All commercially available mineral waters of Austrian origin were investigated with regard to the natural radionuclides 228Ra, 226Ra, 210Pb, 210Po, 238U and 234U. From 1 to 1.5 L of sample the nuclides were extracted and measured sequentially: the radium isotopes as well as 210Pb were measured by liquid scintillation counting after separation on a membrane loaded with element-selective particles (Empore Radium Disks), 210Po was determined by α-particle spectroscopy after spontaneous deposition onto a copper planchette and uranium was determined also by α-particle spectroscopy after anion separation and microprecipitation with NdF3. The calculated committed effective doses for adults, teens and babies were compared to the total indicative dose of 0.1 mSv/year given in the EC Drinking Water Directive. The dominant portion of the committed effective dose was due to 228Ra. Highly mineralised waters showed also higher 226Ra and 228Ra levels. (author)

  17. [Fight against epidemics: Austrian prisoners in Troyes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzel, Géraldine

    2014-01-01

    The victories near Ulm and Elchingen, where the Napoleonic army took 60000 prisoners between 15th and 20th of October 1805, lead to the arrival at Troyes (county "Aube") of nearly 2000 Austrian soldiers to be held inside former monasteries among whose, mainly the Jacobinians casern where more than half of them stayed. At the beginning of 1806, the government sent the epidemics medical practitioner Dr Desgenettes on an inspection tour to control the state of health of the populations of places where foreign prisoners were held, which lead him through several counties of the North-eastern part of France, where he surveyed several diseases ranging from all kinds offevers up to dysentery, scabies or gangrenes. With the means of acid fumigations invented by the chemist Guyton Morveau from Dijon, the authorities took care of combating and preventing the epidemics in the caserns. As soon as October 1805, the epidemics medical practitioner Dr Pigeotte from Troyes wrote to the county governor his observations recommending a better diet, airing of the rooms and also calls to take some exercise. All these precepts showed an astonishing modernity.

  18. Assessment of sustainability in Austrian wine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosner Franz Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the project was to find out whether environmental sustainability can be measured not only with regard to climate change and carbon consumption but also as to other criteria concerning material consumption, energy, soil, biodiversity and water. We investigated which measures in the vineyard and wine cellar can lead to “better” sustainability while ensuring a high quality standard. 343 activities were identified to fulfill 61 quality objectives. Of the 2,191 sustainability assessments that were determined the measurements of the individual sustainability criteria vary and are in some cases even negatively correlated. Nevertheless, it was still possible to differentiate sustainably managed wineries from others in all of the Austrian wine producing areas. In our approach, a specifically developed online tool can calculate the expression of ecological, economic and social sustainability and show the effects in a spider diagram in the form of a traffic light rating system. Moreover, an algorithm suggests adequately which quality improvements can be achieved. If part of the management system is changed the online tool will show the positive and negative sustainability effects.

  19. Austrian Economics and the Transaction Cost Approach to the Firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai J. Foss

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available As the transaction cost theory of the firm was taking shape in the 1970s, another important movement in economics was emerging: a revival of the ‘Austrian’ tradition in economic theory associated with such economists as Ludwig von Mises and F. A. Hayek (1973; Dolan, 1976; Spadaro, 1978. As Oliver Williamson has pointed out, Austrian economics is among the diverse sources for transaction cost economics. In particular, Williamson frequently cites Hayek (e.g., Williamson, 1985, p. 8; 1991, p. 162, particularly Hayek’s emphasis on adaptation as a key problem of economic organisation (Hayek, 1945. Following Williamson’s lead, a reference to Hayek’s ‘The Use of Knowledge in Society’ (Hayek, 1945 has become almost mandatory in discussions of economic organisation (e.g., Ricketts, 1987, p. 59; Milgrom and Roberts, 1992, p. 56; Douma and Schreuder 1991, p. 9. However, there are many other potential links between Austrian and transaction cost economics that have not been explored closely and exploited.This article argues that characteristically Austrian ideas about property, entrepreneurship, economic calculation, tacit knowledge, and the temporal structure of capital have important implications for theories of economic organisation, transaction cost economics in particular. Austrian economists have not, however, devoted substantial attention to the theory of the firm, preferring to focus on business-cycle theory, welfare economics, political economy, comparative economic systems, and other areas. Until recently the theory of the firm was an almost completely neglected area in Austrian economics, but over the last decade, a small Austrian literature on the firm has emerged. While these works cover a wide variety of theoretical and applied topics, their authors share the view that Austrian insights have something to offer students of firm organisation.

  20. Review: Natural tracers in fractured hard-rock aquifers in the Austrian part of the Eastern Alps—previous approaches and future perspectives for hydrogeology in mountain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilberg, Sylke

    2016-08-01

    Extensive in-depth research is required for the implementation of natural tracer approaches to hydrogeological investigation to be feasible in mountainous regions. This review considers the application of hydrochemical and biotic parameters in mountain regions over the past few decades with particular reference to the Austrian Alps, as an example for alpine-type mountain belts. A brief introduction to Austria's hydrogeological arrangement is given to show the significance of fractured hard-rock aquifers for hydrogeological science as well as for water supply purposes. A literature search showed that research concerning fractured hard-rock aquifers in Austria is clearly underrepresented to date, especially when taking the abundance of this aquifer type and the significance of this topic into consideration. The application of abiotic natural tracers (hydrochemical and isotope parameters) is discussed generally and by means of examples from the Austrian Alps. The potential of biotic tracers (microbiota and meiofauna) is elucidated. It is shown that the meiofauna approach to investigating fractured aquifers has not yet been applied in the reviewed region, nor worldwide. Two examples of new approaches in mountainous fractured aquifers are introduced: (1) use of CO2 partial pressure and calcite saturation of spring water to reconstruct catchments and flow dynamics (abiotic approach), and, (2) consideration of hard-rock aquifers as habitats to reconstruct aquifer conditions (biotic approach).

  1. ALPES: an advanced logic programming environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ruggieri

    1988-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a software programming environment for an extended Prolog language, called ALPES. The purpose of ALPES is to enable a logic programming paradigm to become a software engineering tool to design, develop and prototype traditional software systems, as well as artificial intelligence applications. The key structuring concepts for programs, as well as for the system architecture as a whole are those of contexts, processes and communication. The software design and development methodologies induced by the use of the Alpes-Prolog language have been incrementally used to develop the environment itself. This research was conducted under the Esprit projects P973 (ALPES.

  2. Austrian Books Online. Das Google Books-Projekt an der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiser, Max

    2012-01-01

    Austrian Books Online. The Austrian National Library’s Google Books Project (Translation of the title). In cooperation with Google, the Austrian National Library is digitising its historical, public-domain book holdings. Some 600,000 volumes from the sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries will be digitised. The project "Austrian Books Online" demonstrates that public-private partnerships can be successful in enabling heritage institutions to provide large-scale access to their holdings, provid...

  3. The Austrian Business Cycle Theory: Validity and Implications

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis the Austrian business cycle theory is analyzed. Based on the work of Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk (1959[1889]), Knut Wicksell (1962[1898]) and Ludwig von Mises (1953[1912]), the theory was further developed and made famous by Friedrich von Hayek in the 1930s. Arguably, Hayek was the main rival of Keynes during this decade, but after heavy criticism and the publication of the General Theory (Keynes, 1936), the Austrian business cycle theory was left with few advocates by the end of Wor...

  4. THE HUNGARIAN CRISIS: AN AUSTRIAN SCHOOL EXPLANATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Toth

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Hungarian model was heralded as one of the most successful post-socialist way of integration into the globalised world economy and European economic area in the nineties. Currently, Hungary is suffering from a full-blown crisis 1996 onwards. Increasingly large number of Hungarians is losing their faith in political parties, institutions, democracy and in market economy. The government, elected in 2010 by supermajority and still enjoying a broad support despite the deepening recession, condemns the development path taken after 1989 and openly rejects the wrong model of the last 20 years. The government intends to build a new economic model following a model, which one can call a model of economic nationalism as the only way out of the crisis. The paper intends to portray, through the case of Hungary, how economy and politics is interconnected, and why political elites are choosing a credit fuelled development path. The paper intends to portray how a credit fuelled growth was induced by politics and ended up in tears. Moreover, the paper describes the consequences of pro-etatist shift in the public sentiment due to the alleged “market-failure”, which was in reality a crisis, at first place, created for political purposes by political means. This article, based on the Austrian business cycle theory, argues that the tragedy of Hungary was that it went through a government inspired spending binge in the first half of the 2000s. The deficit spending of the government was accompanied by the expansion of credit by the commercial banks, mostly denominated in Swiss francs. The combined effect of deficit spending and credit expansion was the build-up of debt and loss of cost competitiveness. The 2008 crisis ended the credit fuelled development path and has started the long and painful period of deleveraging crisis. On the other hand, the Hungarian crisis is a post-Keynesian crisis. It had broken out when the state was already heavily indebted and

  5. Planning the Brown Bear Ursus arctos reintroduction in the Adamello Brenta Natural Park. A tool to establish a metapopulation in the Central-Eastern Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mustoni

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the 17th century, brown bears (Ursus arctos were still abundant and widely distributed over the entire alpine area of northern Italy and even in large, dense forests of the prealps and the Po plain. The start of the decline coincided with increasing deforestation for farming at the end of the 18th century and, in the 19th century, increased access to previously remote wilderness areas of the prealpine and alpine mountains, where direct persecution by farmers and hunters caused the extinction of local bear populations. The last remnant population that occupied the Adamello-Brenta Alps was considered biologically extinct since 1989 (only three, non-reproducing bears. Here we present an analysis of the reintroduction process as the most suitable tool for brown bear recovery in the Italian Alps, taking into account both the benefits of reinstating a viable population and the risks that the coexistence between man and bear could cause. The reintroduction process is discussed aiming at an evaluation of its contribution to the global future efforts for brown bear conservation in the alpine region. A GIS-based habitat suitability analysis was implemented to test for good-quality bear habitat in a vast mountainous area around the Adamello-Brenta Natural Park (6500 km², the release site of bears. The model was based on presence/absence data, gathered over the last 20 years, and habitat parameters in 25 ha cells in the core-area of the remnant bear population (645 km² study area. Other parameters of human disturbance and livestock densities, were considered at the scale of the municipality. Bears positively selected deciduous forest but seemed to avoid areas with intensive pasture activity, mainly of horses and sheep, despite the latter being a potential prey. Habitats containing large amounts of bare rock, farmland and urbanised areas were avoided. There were no significant

  6. 48. annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains short communications of lectures and posters of the 48th Symposium of the Austrian Physical Society which had been held at the University of Graz (Austria) in 1998. The following topics are included: atomic physics, molecular physics, plasma physics, solid state physics, nuclear and particle physics, polymer physics, biophysics, environmental physics, quantum electronics and quantum optics. (Suda)

  7. 45. Annual Convention of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains lectures of the 45th symposium of the Austrian Physical Society which had been held in Leoben, Austria in 1995. The following topics are included: Atomic physics, molecular physics, plasma physics, solid state physics, nuclear and particle physics, biophysics, environmental physics, quantum electronics and quantum optics. (Suda)

  8. Acidification and Nitrogen Eutrophication of Austrian Forest Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Jandl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of acidic deposition and nitrogen on Austrian forests soils. Until thirty years ago air pollution had led to soil acidification, and concerns on the future productivity of forests were raised. Elevated rates of nitrogen deposition were believed to cause nitrate leaching and imbalanced forest nutrition. We used data from a soil monitoring network to evaluate the trends and current status of the pH and the C : N ratio of Austrian forest soils. Deposition measurements and nitrogen contents of Norway spruce needles and mosses were used to assess the nitrogen supply. The pH values of soils have increased because of decreasing proton depositions caused by reduction of emissions. The C : N ratio of Austrian forest soils is widening. Despite high nitrogen deposition rates the increase in forest stand density and productivity has increased the nitrogen demand. The Austrian Bioindicator Grid shows that forest ecosystems are still deficient in nitrogen. Soils retain nitrogen efficiently, and nitrate leaching into the groundwater is presently not a large-scale problem. The decline of soil acidity and the deposition of nitrogen together with climate change effects will further increase the productivity of the forests until a limiting factor such as water scarcity becomes effective.

  9. 47. annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains lectures (short communications) of the 47. symposium of the Austrian Physical Society which had been held at the University of Vienna (Austria) in 1997. The following topics are included: atomic physics, molecular physics, plasma physics, solid state physics, nuclear and particle physics, biophysics, environmental physics, quantum electronics and quantum optics. (Suda)

  10. English, French, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese? Code Choice and Austrian Export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavric, Eva; Back, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    This article deals with how "export oriented Austrian companies effect code choice in their business relationships with customers from Romance language speaking countries". The focus lies on the most widespread Romance languages, therefore on French, Spanish, Italian and Portuguese speaking customers.The question of code choice in export should be…

  11. 50. Annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference held from 25. - 29. 9. 2000 at the University of Graz was elaborated by the Austrian society of physics in the fields of solid state physics, polymers physics, quantum electronics, electrodynamics, optics, nuclear and particle physics, atomic, molecules and plasma physics, acoustics, physics - industry - energy and physics teaching. (botek)

  12. 49. annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains short communications of lectures and poster sessions of the 49th symposium of the Austrian Physical Society which has been held at the University of Innsbruck (Austria) in 1999. The following topics are included: atomic physics, molecular physics, plasma physics, solid state physics, nuclear and particle physics, polymer physics, biophysics, environmental physics, quantum electronics and quantum optics. (Suda)

  13. Report 1985 of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf. Abridged version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report gives a short survey of the work carried out by the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf in 1985. The working programme comprises five main areas: Energy and safety; Materials research, isotope and radiation techniques; Measuring techniques and information processing; Environmental protection, health and food; Industrial consulting. (Author)

  14. Occupational incidents with self-propelled machinery in Austrian agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrhofer, Hannes; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery, and material handling machinery are the most commonly used self-propelled machineries in Austrian agriculture, and they have similarities in main accident scenarios. Statistical data of all occupational incidents with these machines reported between 2008 and 2010 were analyzed to obtain information about the circumstances of the incidents, and about the victims and their work environments. Criteria of recognized occupational incidents provided by the Austrian Social Insurance Institution for Farmers were analyzed according to machinery category by means of cross-tabulation and chi-square tests. The results were discussed and evaluated in the context of the literature. The results of the analysis of the databases show that 786 occupational incidents with tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery, and material handling machinery occurred in Austrian agriculture between 2008 and 2010. There were 231 occupational incidents in 2008; the number rose to 268 in 2009 and to 286 in 2010. A total of 41 incidents were fatal. For the machinery categories analyzed, the majority of injured victims were male, older than 40 years, Austrian citizens, and managers of a mixed-agricultural farm. A large number of the incidents occurred in all machinery categories by loss of control during operating a vehicle.

  15. Present status and distribution of the Lynx in the Swiss Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Molinari-Jobin

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To evaluate the population trend of lynx in the Swiss Alps, we analysed the spatial and numerical development of signs of presence found from 1995 to 1999 and compared them with previous years. Three sources of information on the presence of lynx are available: (1 reports of lynx killed or found dead; (2 records of livestock killed by lynx; (3 records of wild prey remains, tracks, scats, sightings, and vocalisations. We distinguished three levels of reliability: Quality 1 represent the hard facts, e.g. all reports of lynx killed or found dead, photographs of lynx as well as young orphaned lynx caught in the wild and taken into captivity. Quality 2 include all records of livestock killed, wild prey remains, tracks and scats reported by people who have attended special courses, e.g. mainly game wardens. Quality 3 are all wild prey remains and tracks reported by the general public as well as all sightings, scats and vocalisations, e.g. signs that cannot be verified. More than 1600 signs of presence were recorded in the Swiss Alps in this 5-year-period. A high number of quality 1 and 2 records showed that (1 the lynx population in the north-western Swiss Alps increased from 1994 to 1999, that (2 there is a moderate presence of the species in the central and south-western parts and (3 none or hardly any lynx are found in the eastern Alps of Switzerland. Based on a radio-telemetry study and the number of quality 2 data, we were able to estimate the number of lynx in the Swiss Alps at 70 individuals. To counterpart the uneven distribution of lynx in Switzerland, lynx are being translocated from the north-western Alps to the eastern Swiss Alps, as the expansion of the Swiss lynx population is crucial for the conservation of the lynx in the whole Alps.

  16. Detailed analysis of the isotopic composition of CO and characterization of the air masses arriving at Mount Sonnblick (Austrian Alps)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gros, V.; Bräunlich, M.; Röckmann, T.; Jöckel, P.; Bergamaschi, P.; Brenninkmeijer, C.A.M.; Rom, W.; Kutschera, W.; Kaiser, A.; Scheel, H.E.; Mandl, M.; Plicht, J. van der; Possnert, G.

    2001-01-01

    Air sampling for analysis of CO and its isotopic composition (C-13, O-18, and C-14) has been performed at the alpine station Sonnblick(47 degreesN, 13 degreesE, 3106 m above sea level) since September 1996. A high degree of variability is observed, which is due to the wide variation in the origin of

  17. Charcoal from a prehistoric copper mine in the Austrian Alps: dendrochronological and dendrological data, demand for wood and forest utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, Thomas; Nicolussi, Kurt; Goldenberg, Gert; Hanke, Klaus; Kovács, Kristóf; Thurner, Andrea

    2013-02-01

    During prehistory fire-setting was the most appropriate technique for exploiting ore deposits. Charcoal fragments found in the course of archaeological excavations in a small mine called Mauk E in the area of Schwaz/Brixlegg (Tyrol, Austria) are argued to be evidence for the use of this technology. Dendrochronological analyses of the charcoal samples yielded calendar dates for the mining activities showing that the exploitation of the Mauk E mine lasted approximately one decade in the late 8th century BC. Dendrological studies show that the miners utilised stem wood of spruce and fir from forests with high stand density for fire-setting and that the exploitation of the Mauk E mine had only a limited impact on the local forests. PMID:23565025

  18. Charcoal from a prehistoric copper mine in the Austrian Alps: dendrochronological and dendrological data, demand for wood and forest utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, Thomas; Nicolussi, Kurt; Goldenberg, Gert; Hanke, Klaus; Kovács, Kristóf; Thurner, Andrea

    2013-02-01

    During prehistory fire-setting was the most appropriate technique for exploiting ore deposits. Charcoal fragments found in the course of archaeological excavations in a small mine called Mauk E in the area of Schwaz/Brixlegg (Tyrol, Austria) are argued to be evidence for the use of this technology. Dendrochronological analyses of the charcoal samples yielded calendar dates for the mining activities showing that the exploitation of the Mauk E mine lasted approximately one decade in the late 8th century BC. Dendrological studies show that the miners utilised stem wood of spruce and fir from forests with high stand density for fire-setting and that the exploitation of the Mauk E mine had only a limited impact on the local forests.

  19. Two centuries of the Austrian Civil code (1811-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Dušan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Austrian civil code (Allgemeines bürgerliches Gesetzbuch - ABGB, ACC succeeded in resisting the challenges of time for two centuries. A number of factors influenced it's longevity. First of all, prior to adoption of the law, a long lasting and well designed work, which has been described in greater detail in this article, was done. The Code was written gradually, with lots of recalculations, checks and public debates. In legal literature, it is often written about a unique lawmaking experiment, which Austrian authorities made by implementing the Code in one part of the state territory. The Code was written for feudal order, but according to principles of natural law. This second thing has, in addition to widely formulated and flexible legal norms, left enough space for extensive interpretation of outdated rules, and filling in the legal lacunas, whose number was increasing as the time passed. Courts often used this opportunity in a creative manner, contributing to survival of the Code. Many additions and changes were made to the Code, but there were few of those who thought that it should be changed by a new one Code. Austrians are preparing a more detailed revision of the ACC, which will allow modernization of the national law and it's synchronization with trends in current European law, but on the other hand, to preserve the two century old legal heritage. The second part of this article is dedicated to the influence of the Austrian Civil Code on the development of civil law in the former Yugoslavia and Serbia. ACC served as model for adoption of the Serbian Civil Code of 1844. It was applied as a positive law in the first half of XX century, in one part of the territory of today's Autonomous Province of Vojvodina. Formally, legal rules of the Austrian Civil Code can even be applied today, according to the Law on Nullity of Legal Regulations Enacted Prior to 6th of April 1941, and During the Enemy Occupation. However, that possibility is more

  20. Authority Relationship From a Societal Perspective: Social Representations of Obedience and Disobedience in Austrian Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattori, Francesco; Curly, Simone; Jörchel, Amrei C; Pozzi, Maura; Mihalits, Dominik; Alfieri, Sara

    2015-05-01

    Obedience and disobedience have always been salient issues for both civil society and social psychologists. Since Milgram's first studies on destructive obedience there has not been a bottom-up definition of what obedience and disobedience mean. The current study aimed at investigating the social representations young adults use to define and to co-construct knowledge about obedience and disobedience in Austria. One hundred fifty four (106 females, 68.8%) Austrian young adults (Mean age = 22.9; SD = 3.5) completed a mixed-method questionnaire comprising open-ended questions and free word associations. Overall obedience and disobedience are respectively defined as conformity and non-conformity to regulations, ranging from implicit social norms to explicit formal laws. Authority is multi-faceted and has a central role in orienting obedience and disobedience. Further fundamental determinants of the authority relationship and relevant application of the results are discussed in this paper.

  1. Authority Relationship From a Societal Perspective: Social Representations of Obedience and Disobedience in Austrian Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Fattori

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Obedience and disobedience have always been salient issues for both civil society and social psychologists. Since Milgram’s first studies on destructive obedience there has not been a bottom-up definition of what obedience and disobedience mean. The current study aimed at investigating the social representations young adults use to define and to co-construct knowledge about obedience and disobedience in Austria. One hundred fifty four (106 females, 68.8% Austrian young adults (Mean age = 22.9; SD = 3.5 completed a mixed-method questionnaire comprising open-ended questions and free word associations. Overall obedience and disobedience are respectively defined as conformity and non-conformity to regulations, ranging from implicit social norms to explicit formal laws. Authority is multi-faceted and has a central role in orienting obedience and disobedience. Further fundamental determinants of the authority relationship and relevant application of the results are discussed in this paper.

  2. 57. annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society. Conference programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This annual symposium was devoted to present advances in physics research performed in Austrian scientific organizations. It covered a variety of physical topics as well as the 'symposium on carbon nanophysics'. The contributions were speeches and poster sessions on the research fields of acoustics; atoms, molecules, quantum optics and plasma; solid state physics; polymer physics; physics history; nuclear and particle physics; medical, bio- and environmental physics; neutrons and synchrotron radiation physics; and surfaces and thin films. Specific topics such as the application of accelerator mass spectrometry, age dating, ATLAS experiment, electron detachment, electronic structure calculation, nanostructures, international linear collider, isobar suppression, magnetic field analysis, neutron interferometry, neutron experiments, neutron sources, nTOF project results, pionic atoms, quantum simulation, quantum well, quantum dots, quantum entanglement, quark confinement, quark gluon, quantum optics, silicon detectors, string theory development, synchrotron radiation, Austria UV indexing, Austrian radon potential, UV dosimetry were addressed. Those contributions which are in the INIS subject scope are indexed individually. (nevyjel)

  3. Some specific Austrian insights on markets and the "new economy"

    OpenAIRE

    Arena, Richard; Festré, Agnès

    2004-01-01

    In section 1 of this contribution, we will recall the usual arguments which are put forward to analyze the New Economy (NE) as the empirical realization of the Competitive Economic Equilibrium (CEE) model. After having stressed the limits of these arguments, we will try to show that some Austrian concepts and developments better fit to explain the economic impact of Information Technologies on present markets. This purpose is characterized in section 2 of this contribution. Finally, in sectio...

  4. Austrian Economics, Evolutionary Psychology and Methodological Dualism: Subjectivism Reconsidered

    OpenAIRE

    Vanberg, Viktor J.

    2004-01-01

    The methodological individualism and subjectivism of the Austrian tradition in economics is often associated with a methodological dualism, i.e. the claim that the nature of its subject matter, namely purposeful and intentional human action, requires economics to adopt a methodology that is fundamentally different from the causal explanatory approach of the natural sciences. This paper critically examines this claim and advocates an alternative, explicitly naturalistic and empiricist outlook ...

  5. Austrian meat: Authenticity control by stable isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The EU has declared that all foodstuff must be able to be traced back from 'fork to farm' to increase the safety of food and the confidence of the consumers in food quality and safety. Additionally, several incidents of 'food diseases and scandals' related with meat (e.g.: BSE, foot and mouth disease, antibiotics abuse, avian flu, etc.) have demonstrated the necessity to trace back the origin of meat, to be able to locate sources of infection/mismanagement. Besides the conventional method of the control of documentation there is the possibility of control of origin by analysing the isotopic composition of meat and herewith controlling the questioned good itself. Stable isotope ratios of the elements HCNOS are varying geographically due to different environmental conditions (e.g.: climate, geology, soil, altitude, geography, etc.) thus every region possesses an individual pattern. The isotopic pattern is imprinted on plants and animals growing in a certain region, and therefore analysis of the stable isotope pattern can allow the identification of agricultural goods from different regions. For the control of origin of Austrian meat about 500 beef and 500 pork samples have been collected from slaughterhouses and were analysed for the isotopic composition of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulphur and compared with the isotopic composition of meat samples from neighbouring countries. As Austria, despite being a small country, is very heterogeneous in its environmental conditions, thus there are significant differences in the isotopic patterns of individual Austrian provinces. The isotopic signature of meat samples from neighbouring countries can overlap with the 'Austrian isotope pattern' due to similar environmental conditions. However, a correct statistical classification has been achieved for 80% and 84% of the analysed beef and pork samples, respectively. If the declared origin of meat can be pinned down to an Austrian province, the discrimination power of

  6. THE AUSTRIAN SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS AND MARKET INSTABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Peptine

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Market equilibrium is an illusion. The economic reality shows us that the main characteristic of the markets is the state of instability. The complexity of the phenomenon and the strong implications engendered by the economic fluctuations in the macro system, justify the rich scientific research activity of the main schools of economic thought to explain it. The Austrian school of economic thought has one of the most realistic analyses of the factors who generate the market instability.

  7. The Accelerated Learning Program (ALP) 2000-01: Student Participation and Effectiveness. ALP Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baenen, Nancy; Yaman, Kimberly; Lindblad, Mark

    The Accelerated Learning Program (ALP) is the major initiative that the Wake County Public School System (WCPSS), North Carolina, is using to help all students reach grade level performance in reading and mathematics. This report focuses on student participation rates and the impact of the ALP program. Data are from a variety of sources. In the…

  8. The emergence, development and demilitarization of the military border of the Austrian Monarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Kulauzov Maša

    2008-01-01

    Military border of the Austrian Monarchy was formed gradually in border areas for the purpose of defending the border from Turkish invasions. In time, as the international political circumstances have changed, the Border itself also modified its primary function. From the beginning of the 18th century soldiers of the Military Border together with the regular troops of Austrian army participate in all wars in which Austria took part. Thanks to those soldiers the military force of the Austrian ...

  9. A Contribution to the Austrian Business Cycle Theory: Uncertainty and Price Expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Frömmel, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Common critique of the Austrian business cycle theory states that the Austrian cycle could not be initiated under the rational expectations hypothesis. This thesis therefore investigates the role of price expectations of entrepreneurs in the Austrian cycle theory. We conclude that this theory might be compatible with rational expectations only under several assumptions. The rational expectations hypothesis is, however, evaluated rather critically concluding it is quite strong and unrealistic ...

  10. State aid in the Austrian electricity industry law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work deals with the existence of State aid in the Austrian electricity industry and focuses on three selected areas of the Austrian legal system, which are examined for their compatibility with Community law. Subject of the first part of this work is a representation of the article 87 ff Treaty of Rome and its impact on Austrian provisions on the promotion of electricity from renewable energies or on the promotion of cogeneration energy. In this context, the first principles of the European state aid law and in particular the European Court are presented regarding the existence of State aid. Here, the Rsp of the Court in connection with the use of State resources in the Rs PreussenElektra Stardust Marine and Pearle is paid in connection with para-fiscal levies special attention. The evaluation of the Austrian support model is based on PreussenElektra, Stardust Marine and Pearle. Then the system of green electricity production in Austria represented. In addition to the Community law principles (green power directive, frameworks and guidelines for environmental aid) is here in particular the 'Oekostromgesetz' and treated it's novellas. It is an intensive discussion with the Commission's decisions on the compatibility of the green power and CHP funding and the funding of the countries with state aid rules. As part of this analysis is to attempt a classification of the Commission's practice in the Community legal system. The second part of the work deals with the determination of absorbed. System utilization rates and their distribution to the network operator. After a presentation of the Community legislation (EC regulations, the internal electricity market directives) and Rsp of the European Court of Justice (Case ADBHu, Ferring, Altmark Trans) to services of general economic interest is first attempted to determine the presence of these services in the 216 Austrian legislation. Here, the question will be, entrusted with services of general economic

  11. Austrian Daily Climate Data Rescue and Quality Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkovic, A.; Lipa, W.; Adler, S.; Albenberger, J.; Lechner, W.; Swietli, R.; Vossberg, I.; Zehetner, S.

    2010-09-01

    Checked climate datasets are a "conditio sine qua non" for all projects that are relevant for environment and climate. In the framework of climate change studies and analysis it is essential to work with quality controlled and trustful data. Furthermore these datasets are used as input for various simulation models. In regard to investigations of extreme events, like strong precipitation periods, drought periods and similar ones we need climate data in high temporal resolution (at least in daily resolution). Because of the historical background - during Second World War the majority of our climate sheets were sent to Berlin, where the historical sheets were destroyed by a bomb attack and so important information got lost - only several climate sheets, mostly duplicates, before 1939 are available and stored in our climate data archive. In 1970 the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics in Vienna started a first attempt to digitize climate data by means of punch cards. With the introduction of a routinely climate data quality control in 1984 we can speak of high-class-checked daily data (finally checked data, quality flag 6). Our group is working on the processing of digitization and quality control of the historical data for the period 1872 to 1983 for 18 years. Since 2007 it was possible to intensify the work (processes) in the framework of an internal project, namely Austrian Climate Data Rescue and Quality Control. The aim of this initiative was - and still is - to supply daily data in an outstanding good and uniform quality. So this project is a kind of pre-project for all scientific projects which are working with daily data. In addition to routine quality checks (that are running since 1984) using the commercial Bull Software we are testing our data with additional open source software, namely ProClim.db. By the use of this spatial and statistical test procedure, the elements air temperature and precipitation - for several sites in Carinthia - could

  12. Clinical refinement of the automatic lung parameter estimator (ALPE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Lars P; Karbing, Dan S; Smith, Bram W; Murley, David; Weinreich, Ulla M; Kjærgaard, Søren; Toft, Egon; Thorgaard, Per; Andreassen, Steen; Rees, Stephen E

    2013-06-01

    The automatic lung parameter estimator (ALPE) method was developed in 2002 for bedside estimation of pulmonary gas exchange using step changes in inspired oxygen fraction (FIO₂). Since then a number of studies have been conducted indicating the potential for clinical application and necessitating systems evolution to match clinical application. This paper describes and evaluates the evolution of the ALPE method from a research implementation (ALPE1) to two commercial implementations (ALPE2 and ALPE3). A need for dedicated implementations of the ALPE method was identified: one for spontaneously breathing (non-mechanically ventilated) patients (ALPE2) and one for mechanically ventilated patients (ALPE3). For these two implementations, design issues relating to usability and automation are described including the mixing of gasses to achieve FIO₂ levels, and the automatic selection of FIO₂. For ALPE2, these improvements are evaluated against patients studied using the system. The major result is the evolution of the ALPE method into two dedicated implementations, namely ALPE2 and ALPE3. For ALPE2, the usability and automation of FIO₂ selection has been evaluated in spontaneously breathing patients showing that variability of gas delivery is 0.3 % (standard deviation) in 1,332 breaths from 20 patients. Also for ALPE2, the automated FIO2 selection method was successfully applied in 287 patient cases, taking 7.2 ± 2.4 min and was shown to be safe with only one patient having SpO₂ < 86 % when the clinician disabled the alarms. The ALPE method has evolved into two practical, usable systems targeted at clinical application, namely ALPE2 for spontaneously breathing patients and ALPE3 for mechanically ventilated patients. These systems may promote the exploration of the use of more detailed descriptions of pulmonary gas exchange in clinical practice.

  13. Updated Core Libraries of the ALPS Project

    CERN Document Server

    Gaenko, A; Carcassi, G; Chen, T; Chen, X; Dong, Q; Gamper, L; Gukelberger, J; Igarashi, R; Iskakov, S; Könz, M; LeBlanc, J P F; Levy, R; Ma, P N; Paki, J E; Shinaoka, H; Todo, S; Troyer, M; Gull, E

    2016-01-01

    The open source ALPS (Algorithms and Libraries for Physics Simulations) project provides a collection of physics libraries and applications, with a focus on simulations of lattice models and strongly correlated systems. The libraries provide a convenient set of well-documented and reusable components for developing condensed matter physics simulation code, and the applications strive to make commonly used and proven computational algorithms available to a non-expert community. In this paper we present an updated and refactored version of the core ALPS libraries geared at the computational physics software development community, rewritten with focus on documentation, ease of installation, and software maintainability.

  14. Hydrogeological interpretation of natural radionuclide contents in Austrian groundwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Gerhard; Berka, Rudolf; Hörhan, Thomas; Katzlberger, Christian; Landstetter, Claudia; Philippitsch, Rudolf

    2010-05-01

    The Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety (AGES) stores comprehensive data sets of radionuclide contents in Austrian groundwater. There are several analyses concerning Rn-222, Ra-226, gross alpha and gross beta as well as selected analyses of Ra-228, Pb-210, Po-210, Uranium and U-234/U-238. In a current project financed by the Austrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management, AGES and the Geological Survey of Austria (GBA) are evaluating these data sets with regard to the geological backgrounds. Several similar studies based on groundwater monitoring have been made in the USA (for instance by Focazio, M.J., Szabo, Z., Kraemer, T.F., Mullin, A.H., Barringer, T.H., De Paul, V.T. (2001): Occurrence of selected radionuclides in groundwater used for drinking water in the United States: a reconnaissance survey, 1998. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 00-4273). The geological background for the radionuclide contents of groundwater will be derived from geological maps in combination with existing Thorium and Uranium analyses of the country rocks and stream-sediments and from airborne radiometric maps. Airborne radiometric data could contribute to identify potential radionuclide hot spot areas as only airborne radiometric mapping could provide countrywide Thorium and Uranium data coverage in high resolution. The project will also focus on the habit of the sampled wells and springs and the hydrological situation during the sampling as these factors can have an important influence on the Radon content of the sampled groundwater (Schubert, G., Alletsgruber, I., Finger, F., Gasser, V., Hobiger, G. and Lettner, H. (2010): Radon im Grundwasser des Mühlviertels (Oberösterreich) Grundwasser. - Springer (in print). Based on the project results an overview map (1:500,000) concerning the radionuclide potential should be produced. The first version should be available in February 2011.

  15. Direct rockfall measurements in the Northern Alps - spatio-temporal patterns and the significance for long-term studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, O.

    2009-04-01

    The number of field studies dealing with the distribution and quantity of rockfall at alpine rock faces is still comparatively low. In previous investigations, debris falls were quantified by means of more than 60 collectors in six study areas in the northern and central Alps. In all study areas, the weathering rate was strongly influenced by three factors: Firstly, a combination of joint density and porosity of the bedrock; secondly, rockwall orientation with north faces delivering thrice the amount of rockfall than south faces; thirdly, the presence or non-presence of permafrost in the rock. Conversely, no general increase of rockfall with elevation was found. According to the results, the water supply of the rockwalls during freeze-thaw conditions is supposed to be a prominent controlling factor of frost weathering rates. This is confirmed by the observed temporal distribution of rockfalls. Sediment delivery to the collectors was highest in summer periods with "wet" freeze-thaw cycles caused by passing cold fronts. Conversely, strong winter frost turned out to be virtually inefficient without liquid water supply. Talus volumes were derived from geophysical, mainly ground-penetrating radar profiling on more than 30 scree slopes. According to the scree cubature, the weathering rates at north faces are two times higher than at south faces, the rockwalls in which permafrost is present showed the highest retreat rates, and no interrelation between rockwall retreat and elevation could be found. These patterns agree with the recent rockfall measurements. However, the absolute rates of rockwall retreat derived from scree volumes (200-850 mm/ka) are generally much higher than the measured recent removal rates (50-300 mm/ka). The possible reasons for this discrepancy include accelerated weathering during cold phases and the contribution of boulder and block falls to the sediment budget which are not registered by the small collectors. In order to cover an intermediate

  16. Underground electromagnetic activity in two regions with contrasting seismicity: a case study from the Eastern Alps and Bohemian Massif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroň, Ivo; Koktavý, Pavel; Stemberk, Josef; Macků, Robert; Trčka, Tomáš; Škarvada, Pavel; Lenhardt, Wolfgang; Meurers, Bruno; Rowberry, Mattew; Marti, Xavi; Plan, Lukas; Grasemann, Berhnard; Mitrovic, Ivanka

    2016-04-01

    observed in Obir Caves. From May to the end of July the data were characterised by a series of irregular high energy anomalies, lasting from hours to days, along with a series of regular nightly anomalies which are thought to relate to the VLF transmitters. From the beginning of August to October the data were characterised (except for the artificial nightly signals) by relative quiescence of other signals with only a few distinct anomalies. Data relating to rock deformation along active tectonic faults is also recorded at Zbrašov Aragonite Caves and Obir Caves using a type of automated moiré extensometer called a TM-71. These data have been interrogated alongside other environmental factors such as seismicity, precipitation, earth tides, and extraterrestrial magnetic radiation (all data provided by the Central Institution for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG)). It has been possible to compare all the phenomena with our data of natural electromagnetic activity. This pilot study was supported by the Institute of Physics at the Brno University of Technology, the Institute of Rock Structure & Mechanics CAS, and the Austrian Science Foundation (Project P25884-N29 "Active tectonics and recent dynamics of microdisplacements along major fault systems of the Eastern Alps registered in caves (SPELEOTECT)".

  17. AlpArray - a broad(band) seismology initiative on the European Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetényi, G.

    2012-12-01

    AlpArray is a new initiative to study the greater Alpine area with a large-scale broadband seismological network. The interested parties (currently 57 institutes in 16 countries) plan to combine their existing infrastructures into an all-out transnational effort that includes data acquisition, processing, imaging and interpretation. The experiment will encompass the greater Alpine area from the Black Forest and the Bohemian Massif in the north to the Northern Apennines in the south and from the Pannonian Basin in the east to the French Massif Central in the west. We aim to cover this region with a high-quality broadband seismometer backbone by combining the ca. 220 existing permanent stations with additional 300-340 instruments from mobile pools, all of them to be deployed between August 2014 and August 2016. In this way, we plan to achieve homogeneous and high resolution coverage (ca. 40 km average station spacing). Furthermore, we also plan to deploy a few densely spaced targeted networks along swaths across - and in regions of - key parts of the Alpine chain on shorter time scales. These efforts on land will be combined with deployments of ca. 40-45 ocean bottom seismometers in the Mediterranean Sea. We also aim to implement the best practice for synchronizing mobile pool operation procedures and data handling: common data centre and data management procedure, free access to data to participants as soon as possible through EIDA. Data will be open to the public 3 years after the experiment ends. The main scientific goal of AlpArray is to investigate the structure and evolution of the lithosphere beneath the Alps. A primary target is the geometry and configuration of subducting slabs and their polarity switch beneath the arc. Numerous regional questions such as seismic hazard will be tackled. Targets will be imaged at several depths (e.g., from near-surface structure down to upper mantle anisotropy), scales (e.g., from local seismicity to mantle transition zone

  18. Religion and suicide risk in lesbian, gay and bisexual Austrians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralovec, Karl; Fartacek, Clemens; Fartacek, Reinhold; Plöderl, Martin

    2014-04-01

    Religion is known to be a protective factor against suicide. However, religiously affiliated sexual minority individuals often report a conflict between religion and sexual identity. Therefore, the protective role of religion against suicide in sexual minority people is unclear. We investigated the effect of religion on suicide risk in a sample of 358 lesbian, gay and bisexual Austrians. Religion was associated with higher scores of internalized homophobia, but with fewer suicide attempts. Our data indicate that religion might be both a risk and a protective factor against suicidality in religiously affiliated sexual minority individuals.

  19. Treatment of liquid wastes at the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a review of the different categories, ammounts, types and sources of liquid wastes, arising at the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf, the collection and distribution of these wastes are described. The treatment of these effluents in the categories Cooling Water, Faeces, Inactive Line, Active Line and Alpha Line is shown in several examples. Special attention is given on the treatment of wastes containing organic liquids. A review of the release rates shows the efficiency of the treatment system. A short view on future installations closes the paper. (author)

  20. Austrian diplomacy in a changing global and European context: Between innovation, adaptation and resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maurer, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years after Austria joining the EU, this contribution investigates how Austrian diplomacy has been adjusting to the changing European demands and opportunities next to global and domestic pressures for adaptation. Austrian diplomatic adaptation has predominantly been reactive. EU membership a

  1. Regional Networks in Education: A Case Study of an Austrian Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Franz

    2013-01-01

    This case study presents the development of networks in education, using the Austrian IMST (Innovations Make Schools Top) project as illustration. The regional networks are coordinated in every Austrian federal province by groups made up of teachers, representatives of the educational authorities, and members of academia. In the framework of the…

  2. Building positive nature awareness in pupils using the "Rainforest of the Austrians" in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrecht, Margit; Hölzl, Irmgard; Huber, Werner; Weissenhofer, Anton

    2013-04-01

    20 years ago, Michael Schnitzler founded the NGO "Rainforest of the Austrians" to help save one of the most diverse rainforests in Central America, the Esquinas rainforest on the Pacific coast of SW Costa Rica, from being destroyed through logging. In this abstract we present an interdisciplinary upper Austrian school project aiming at building positive awareness in pupils towards rainforest conservation by fund-raising to help purchase endangered forest areas. The acquired rainforest was donated to the Costa Rican government and became part of the National Park "Piedras Blancas". In the following, we present a chronology of events and actions of the school project. We started our rainforest project by face-to-face encounters, letting involved persons speak directly to the pupils. Dr. Huber, coordinator of the tropical rainforest station La Gamba in Costa Rica (www.lagamba.at), together with Dr. Weissenhofer, presented an introductory slide show about the "Rainforest of the Austrians". With rainforest images and sounds in their mind the pupils wrote "trips of a lifetime" stories, thus creating idyllic images of rainforest habitats. Following up on that, we visited the exhibition "Heliconia and Hummingbirds" at the Biology Center in Linz. Reports about the slide show and the exhibition followed. Tropical sites were compared by producing climate graphs of La Gamba, Costa Rica, and Manaus in Brazil. The global distribution and the decrease of rainforests were also analyzed. In biology lessons the symbiosis between plants and animals of the rainforest were worked out by searching the Internet. Flyers with profiles of rainforest animals were produced. We also discussed the ecotourism project "RICANCIE" in Ecuador using fact sheets. "RICANCIE" is a Spanish acronym standing for "Indigenous Community Network of the Upper Napo for Intercultural Exchange and Ecotourism". It was founded in 1993 aiming to improve the quality of life for some 200 indigenous Kichwa families

  3. Urbanization and depopulation in the Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batzing, W; Perlik, M; Dekleva, M

    1996-11-01

    Demographic developments in the European Alpine region are analyzed over the period 1870-1990. The region is defined as including parts of Germany, France, Italy, Liechtenstein, Austria, Switzerland, and Slovenia. "Studies of growth, stagnation, decline, commune size, and altitude in almost 6,000 communes are presented on three colored maps.... It is apparent that two highly divergent processes are at work and, accordingly, statistical mean values reveal little of importance. Approximately one-half of Alpine Europe is undergoing general economic and demographic growth and has experienced significant increase in population since the end of the agricultural era. This development has taken place primarily in low-lying valleys and basins and in areas bordering the Alps that have good access to transport routes. Tourism is not as widespread as generally assumed and is usually characterized by a punctate pattern. Only in the western part of the Eastern Alps does tourism account for widespread population growth at higher altitudes; elsewhere the Alps have not been affected by modern development and the economy and population are declining, with some areas in danger of becoming completely abandoned. The results challenge the earlier concept of the Alps as a rural region, once populated by peasants, where tourism now plays a major role." (EXCERPT) PMID:12292860

  4. How to transfer knowledge across the Alps?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Pfefferkorn

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available CIPRA’s Future in the Alps Project aims at showcasing examples of successful implementation and successful projects in the Alps, and making available to others the extensive pool of experience and practical knowledge that lies in these projects. But how to transfer knowledge in an area of some 14 million inhabitants with several linguistic and cultural regions in which thousands of projects are carried out each year, that all kinds of players who work and life in completely different contexts are able to learn and benefit from one another? How do you go about something like that?Le projet « Avenir dans les Alpes » de la CIPRA (Commission Internationale pour la Protection des Alpes a pour objectif de présenter des exemples de réalisations et de projets réussis dans les Alpes, et de mettre à disposition du public l’ensemble de l’expérience et des connaissances pratiques acquises dans le cadre de ces projets. Cependant, comment transférer les savoirs dans une zone comptant quelque 14 millions d’habitants, composée de plusieurs régions linguistiques et culturelles dans lesquelles des milliers de projets sont menés à bien chaque année, et dont tous les acteurs, qui travaillent et vivent dans des contextes complètement différents, sont capables d’apprendre et de tirer profit les uns des autres ? Comment aborder ce genre de cas ?

  5. First annual report of the Austrian CML registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stefan; Wolf, Dominik; Thaler, Josef; Burgstaller, Sonja; Linkesch, Wolfgang; Petzer, Andreas; Fridrik, Michael; Lang, Alois; Agis, Hermine; Valent, Peter; Krieger, Otto; Walder, Alois; Korger, Markus; Schlögl, Ernst; Sliwa, Tamer; Wöll, Ernst; Mitterer, Manfred; Eisterer, Wolfgang; Pober, Michael; Gastl, Günther

    2010-10-01

    The Austrian chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) registry monitors individual disease courses, treatments applied, clinical outcome, and side effects of CML patients on a nationwide basis to provide data on the "real-life" situation and to complement the information and interpretation gained from the selected patient population observed in clinical trials. This report summarizes the Austrian CML registry data as of March 2009. A total of 179 patients have been registered with a median number of 1012 follow-up visits and median observation duration of 20 months. At diagnosis most patients (n = 163) were in chronic phase (early, late, and secondary), whereas only 4 were in advanced phase. A total of 137 patients were treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), of which 14 received first and second generation TKIs sequentially. Other treatment modalities included chemotherapy or interferon and stem cell transplantation (SCT). Cumulative incidence rates for complete hematological responses (CHR) were 91.6% and 94.4% at 12 and 24 months, respectively, compared to cumulative incidence rates of complete cytogenetical response rates of 64% and 80% at these timepoints. A total of 5 patients progressed from chronic phase to accelerated (n = 3) and blastic phase (n = 2) while receiving imatinib standard dose. Estimated overall survival (OS) rate at 60 months was 90% and progression free survival (PFS) according to European Leukemia Net (ELN) failure definition was 58%. PMID:20936366

  6. 69 The Multicultural Education in Bucovina during the Austrian Domination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Baltag

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1775, the territory of Bucovina became part of the Habsburg monarchy and it stayed like that for 143 years. All throughout this period when the Romanians lived here next to Ukrainians, Germans, Jews and other nationalities, the Austrian government took into consideration their need for culture, which resulted in the development of a multicultural teaching system. This implied that the languages of teaching in the Bukovinian schools were: Latin, Greek, Romanian, Ukrainian and, more often than not, German. Although the weighty presence of the German language in the academic institutions limited the number of young Romanians in schools, the teaching in German enabled the access of the Bukovinian students to the great European universities from Vienna, Salzburg, Lemberg, Kraków or Prague, before the founding of the Chernivtsi University (1875. Thus, beyond the negative aspects of the separation of this territory from Romania, the Austrian occupation represented an effervescent period from a cultural viewpoint, which lent a specific identity to the teaching system in Bukovina.

  7. Radiation dosimetry and standards at the austrian dosimetry laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Austrian Dosimetry Laboratory, established and operated in cooperation between the Austrian Research Center Seibersdorf and the Federal Office of Metrology and Surveying (Bundesamt and Eich- und Vermessungswesen) maintains the national primary standards for radiation dosimetry. Furthermore its tasks include routine calibration of dosemeters and dosimetric research. The irradiation facilities of the laboratory comprise three X-ray machines covering the voltage range from 5 kV to 420 kV constant potential, a 60Co teletherapy unit, a circular exposure system for routine batch calibration of personnel dosemeters with four gamma ray sources (60Co and 137Cs) and a reference source system with six gamma ray sources (60Co and 137Cs). In addition a set of calibrated beta ray sources are provided (147Pm, 204Tl and 90Sr). The dosimetric equipment consists of three free-air parallelplate ionization chambers serving as primary standards of exposure for the X-ray energy region, graphite cavity chambers with measured volume as primary standards for the gamma radiation of 137Cs and 60Co as well as different secondary standard ionization chambers covering the dose rate range from the natural background level up to the level of modern therapy accelerators. In addition for high energy photon and electron radiation a graphite calorimeter is provided as primary standard of absorbed dose. The principle experimental set-ups for the practical use of the standards are presented and the procedures for the calibration of the different types of dosemeters are described. (Author)

  8. 4th February 2011 - Austrian Academy of Sciences President H. Denk visiting CMS underground area with Collaboration Spokesperson G. Tonelli, Austrian Academy of Sciences Secretary General A. Suppan, CERN Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Director, High Energy Physics Laboratory, Austrian Academy of Sciences C Fabjan.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    4th February 2011 - Austrian Academy of Sciences President H. Denk visiting CMS underground area with Collaboration Spokesperson G. Tonelli, Austrian Academy of Sciences Secretary General A. Suppan, CERN Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Director, High Energy Physics Laboratory, Austrian Academy of Sciences C Fabjan.

  9. The Tertiary dynamics of the northern Eastern Alps (Austria): changing palaeostresses in a collisional plate boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peresson, Herwig; Decker, Kurt

    1997-05-01

    Six Tertiary deviatoric palaeostress tensor groups from 165 stations in the Calcareous Alps describe the upper crustal dynamics of the leading edge of the Adriatic plate during protracted continental collision with the European lower plate. Palaeostress changes are correlated to the kinematic evolution of the plate boundary and to independently derived plate kinematic data of the Alpine-Carpathian-Pannonian area. Each palaeostress direction is defined by 32 to 89 individual tensors which constrain: (1) Late Eocene to ?Oligocene NW-directed compression during thrusting and dextral shearing on WNW-striking faults; NW-directed compression along the northern margin of the Adriatic plate is correlated to its N-directed translation combined with a counterclockwise rotation. (2a) ?Late Eocene to Early Miocene N-directed compression during N-directed thrusting of Penninic and Helvetic units and the Molasse; (2b) Early to Middle Miocene N-directed strike-slip compression during the onset of eastward lateral extrusion; the change from NW- to N-directed compression is interpreted to result from strain partitioning at the Periadriatic fault which has formed the new Adriatic plate boundary since the Oligocene. Dextral shearing on this fault accommodated continued anticlockwise rotation and decoupled the northern Eastern Alps from the rotational component. N-directed compression in the Calcareous Alps paralleled the N-directed translation of the Adriatic plate. (3) Middle Miocene NE-directed compression of thrust- and strike-slip type during lateral extrusion; NE-directed compression in the Calcareous Alps resulted from the drag of the eastward extruding central Eastern Alps. Sinistral shear stress was transmitted across the ENE-trending Salzach-Ennstal fault. NE-oriented σ1-axes include 45° with the E-W-striking zone of distributed sinistral shear in the Calcareous Alps. (4) Middle Miocene E-directed extension associated with orogen-parallel normal faulting of the central

  10. Allanite behaviour during incipient melting in the southern Central Alps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregory, C.J.; Rubatto, D.; Hermann, J.;

    2012-01-01

    -crustal deformation, fluid flow, and migmatisation within the SSB. The nature of incipient Alpine melting and complex association of high-grade rocks in the SSB has complicated geochronology and the determination of Alpine ages (Romer et al., 1996). The long-accepted age for peak metamorphism in the SSB (~28 Ma, Engi...... was ablated into a mixed He-Ar (1:3) carrier gas (gas flow ~1.2 L/min). Each isotope analysis was of 65 s duration in time-resolved (peak hopping) analysis mode, including 40 s of ablation and 25 s monitoring gas blank. The depth of laser drilling was ~20–25 µm per analysis. A post-plasma oxide was used...... was processed offline using an in-house macro-based EXCEL spreadsheet. Each analysis was corrected for background gas blank and for laser-induced element fractionation processes, which occur during stationary laser sampling (e.g. Eggins et al., 1998). External calibration of 208Pb/232Th was done against...

  11. SALMON-TRINITY ALPS WILDERNESS, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotz, Preston E.; Thurber, Horace K.

    1984-01-01

    The Salmon-Trinity Alps Wilderness in the Klamath Mountains province occupies an area of about 648 sq mi in parts of Trinity, Siskiyou, and Humboldt Counties, northwestern California. As a result of field studies it was determined that the Salmon-Trinity Alps Wilderness has an area with substantiated potential for gold resources in known lode deposits. Small amounts of quicksilver have been produced from one mine but there is little promise for the discovery of additional mercury resources. Geochemical sampling showed that anomalously high amounts of several other metals occur in a few places, but there is little promise for the discovery of energy or mineral resources other than mercury and gold.

  12. Information systems for administration, clinical documentation and quality assurance in an Austrian disease management programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Peter; Truskaller, Thomas; Rakovac, Ivo; Bruner, Fritz; Zanettin, Dominik; Pieber, Thomas R

    2009-01-01

    5.9% of the Austrian population is affected by diabetes mellitus. Disease Management is a structured treatment approach that is suitable for application to the diabetes mellitus area and often is supported by information technology. This article describes the information systems developed and implemented in the Austrian disease management programme for type 2 diabetes. Several workflows for administration as well as for clinical documentation have been implemented utilizing the Austrian e-Health infrastructure. De-identified clinical data is available for creating feedback reports for providers and programme evaluation.

  13. A fractal comparison of real and Austrian business cycle models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Robert F.

    2010-06-01

    Rescaled range and power spectral density analysis are applied to examine a diverse set of macromonetary data for fractal character and stochastic dependence. Fractal statistics are used to evaluate two competing models of the business cycle, Austrian business cycle theory and real business cycle theory. Strong evidence is found for antipersistent stochastic dependence in transactions money (M1) and components of the monetary aggregates most directly concerned with transactions, which suggests an activist monetary policy. Savings assets exhibit persistent long memory, as do those monetary aggregates which include savings assets, such as savings money (M2), M2 minus small time deposits, and money of zero maturity (MZM). Virtually all measures of economic activity display antipersistence, and this finding is invariant to whether the measures are adjusted for inflation, including real gross domestic product, real consumption expenditures, real fixed private investment, and labor productivity. This strongly disconfirms real business cycle theory.

  14. 51. Annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 51th Symposium of the Austrian Physical Society was held from 17-21 September 2001 at the Technical University of Vienna (Austria). The topics covered deal with: energy (greenhouse effect, climatic change, environment protection, energy system transformation, innovative energy technologies), neutrons and synchrotron radiation, quantum mechanics, microscopy, accelerator-driven systems, physics aspects of radiotherapy, nano world, micro cosmos, modern physics, life in the universe, x-ray fluorescence, heavy-ion accelerator mass spectrometry, acoustics, atomic-, molecular- and plasma physics, solid-state physics, nuclear and particle physics, medical-, bio-and environmental physics, quantum electronics, electrodynamics and optics. Those contributions which are in the INIS subject scope are indexed separately. (nevyjel)

  15. 1993 energy report and energy concept of the Austrian government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ''1993 Energy Report'' and the ''1993 Energy Concept'' were drawn up by the Federal Minister of Economics and published by the Austrian government. Earlier reports were published in 1986 and 1990. The 1990 energy report covered the period of 1970 through 1988, the new update the years 1989 through 1991. The section on useful energy is supplemented by a coloured representation of the 1990 energy flow chart for Austria. Appendices 1 to 3 present the development of the energy economy in 1992, the publication ''Development and situation of energy research in Austria'', which was compiled in May 1993 by the Federal Minister of Science and Research, and the ''Reports on the decision of the National Council of 19 January 1993. (orig.)

  16. A Thought Experiment Comparing Austrian and Keynesian Stimulus Packages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir Kraus

    Full Text Available Essentially, there are two competing views of how to overcome an economy-wide recession/depression. The Austrian view understands the free-play of competition as the most potent means to overcome the short-run mismatch between an excessive boom-level of nominal wages/prices and depressed crisis-level volume of aggregate spending. In the Keynesian view, the disastrous mismatch between desired saving and planned investment inherent in capitalist economies requires the government to step in and take up the burden of spending to infuse the lacking demand for products and labor.The thought experiment presented in the paper is designed to provide the reader with a direct comparison of major analytical claims of the two competing approaches to assess the ability of each of the two to affect, positively or negatively, employment, capital accumulation, and the general standard of living/real wages.

  17. The Herschel space telescope and the Austrian participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The biggest space telescope ever, Herschel was successfully launched on May 14, 2009. ESA's Space Horizon 2000 cornerstone mission will perform imaging photometry and spectroscopy in the 60-670 micron range and will address astrophysical questions ranging from our planetary system, the galaxy, the local universe out to cosmological distances. The Austrian participation in one of Herschels instruments, namely PACS is lead by the Institute for Astronomy at the University Vienna and carried out in collaboration with partners at the Technical University, Vienna and Joanneum Research, Graz in the framework of an European consortium. Both the technical contributions in the field of the on-board data reduction and compression as well as the scientific projects in the fields of late stages of stellar evolution and astro-mineralogy are outlined in the contribution. First prospective space based data sets will be available in the late August 2009 timeframe well timed for the conference. (author)

  18. 64th Annual Meeting of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 64th Annual Meeting of the Austrian physical society, including a special topical Energy Day. was held at the Echophysics – European Centre for the History of Physics, Schloss Pöllau 1, 8225 Pöllau, Austria. The plenary sessions gave an overview of the present status of research in quantum mechanics, particle physics and solid state physics.The topical sessions were dedicated to: nuclear and particle physics; atoms, molecules, quantum optics and plasmas; solid state physics and research with neutron and synchrotron radiation; history of physics; surfaces, interfaces and thin films; nanostructures; fundamental interactions; gravity, quantum chromodynamics; particle theory and collider physics; detectors and methods. Those contributions which are in the INIS subject scope are indexed individually

  19. Investigations of biological processes in Austrian MBT plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanical biological treatment (MBT) of municipal solid waste (MSW) has become an important technology in waste management during the last decade. The paper compiles investigations of mechanical biological processes in Austrian MBT plants. Samples from all plants representing different stages of degradation were included in this study. The range of the relevant parameters characterizing the materials and their behavior, e.g. total organic carbon, total nitrogen, respiration activity and gas generation sum, was determined. The evolution of total carbon and nitrogen containing compounds was compared and related to process operation. The respiration activity decreases in most of the plants by about 90% of the initial values whereas the ammonium release is still ongoing at the end of the biological treatment. If the biogenic waste fraction is not separated, it favors humification in MBT materials that is not observed to such extent in MSW. The amount of organic carbon is about 15% dry matter at the end of the biological treatment.

  20. Investigations of biological processes in Austrian MBT plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tintner, J; Smidt, E; Böhm, K; Binner, E

    2010-10-01

    Mechanical biological treatment (MBT) of municipal solid waste (MSW) has become an important technology in waste management during the last decade. The paper compiles investigations of mechanical biological processes in Austrian MBT plants. Samples from all plants representing different stages of degradation were included in this study. The range of the relevant parameters characterizing the materials and their behavior, e.g. total organic carbon, total nitrogen, respiration activity and gas generation sum, was determined. The evolution of total carbon and nitrogen containing compounds was compared and related to process operation. The respiration activity decreases in most of the plants by about 90% of the initial values whereas the ammonium release is still ongoing at the end of the biological treatment. If the biogenic waste fraction is not separated, it favors humification in MBT materials that is not observed to such extent in MSW. The amount of organic carbon is about 15% dry matter at the end of the biological treatment. PMID:20580543

  1. Flood Change Assessment and Attribution in Austrian alpine Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claps, Pierluigi; Allamano, Paola; Como, Anastasia; Viglione, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The present paper aims to investigate the sensitivity of flood peaks to global warming in the Austrian alpine basins. A group of 97 Austrian watersheds, with areas ranging from 14 to 6000 km2 and with average elevation ranging from 1000 to 2900 m a.s.l. have been considered. Annual maximum floods are available for the basins from 1890 to 2007 with two densities of observation. In a first period, until 1950, an average of 42 records of flood peaks are available. From 1951 to 2007 the density of observation increases to an average amount of contemporary peaks of 85. This information is very important with reference to the statistical tools used for the empirical assessment of change over time, that is linear quantile regressions. Application of this tool to the data set unveils trends in extreme events, confirmed by statistical testing, for the 0.75 and 0.95 empirical quantiles. All applications are made with specific (discharges/area) values . Similarly of what done in a previous approach, multiple quantile regressions have also been applied, confirming the presence of trends even when the possible interference of the specific discharge and morphoclimatic parameters (i.e. mean elevation and catchment area). Application of a geomorphoclimatic model by Allamano et al (2009) can allow to mimic to which extent the empirically available increase in air temperature and annual rainfall can justify the attribution of change derived by the empirical statistical tools. An comparison with data from Swiss alpine basins treated in a previous paper is finally undertaken.

  2. Rock glacier development in the Northern Calcareous Alps at the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Andrew P.; Ivy Ochs, Susan; Vockenhuber, Christof; Kerschner, Hanns

    2016-11-01

    Relict rock glaciers provide information on past discontinuous permafrost and former mean annual air temperatures. A lack of records showing former permafrost distribution along the northern Alpine fringe prompted the investigation and numerical dating of a belt of relict rock glaciers in the Karwendel Mountains of the Northern Calcareous Austrian Alps. In two neighbouring cirques that were still glaciated during the early Younger Dryas, eleven 36Cl exposure ages from boulder surfaces were obtained. The ages imply the onset of rock glacier activity around ~ 12.3 ka with subsequent stabilization and permafrost melt out no later than ~ 10.1 ka. Hence, rock glacier formation coincided with glacier retreat in the cirques around the mid-Younger Dryas and continued into the early Holocene. As permafrost induced features, the rock glacier termini indicate the local past lower limit of discontinuous permafrost in open cirque floors at ~ 2000 m asl, which is around 400 m lower than during the mid-twentieth century at comparable locations in the Karwendel Mountains. Thus, a mean annual air temperature reduction of ~- 2.6 to - 3.8 °C relative to the mid-twentieth century is inferred. Based on a minimum glacier equilibrium line altitude in the cirques, a summer temperature reduction of less than - 2.6 to - 1.8 °C is shown, suggesting an increased seasonality at the time of rock glacier activity.

  3. Between resentment and aid: German and Austrian psychiatrist and neurologist refugees in Great Britain since 1933.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenau, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    This article is a historiographical exploration of the experiences that German and Austrian émigré psychiatrists and neurologists made in Great Britain since 1933, after the Nazi Governments in Central Europe had ousted them from their positions. When placing these occurrences in a wider historiographical perspective, the in-depth analysis provided here also describes the living and working conditions of the refugee neuroscientists on the British Isles. In particular, it looks at the very elements and issues that influenced the international forced migration of physicians and psychiatrists during the 1930s and 1940s. Only a fraction of refugee neuroscientists had however been admitted to Britain. Those lucky ones were assisted by a number of charitable, local, and academic organizations. This article investigates the rather lethargic attitude of the British government and medical circles towards German-speaking Jewish refugee neuroscientists who wished to escape Nazi Germany. It will also analyze the help that those refugees received from the academic establishment and British Jewish organizations, while likewise examining the level and extent of the relationship between social and scientific resentments in Great Britain. A special consideration will be given to the aid programs that had already began in the first year after the Nazis had seized power in Germany, with the foundation of the British Assistance Council by Sir William Henry Beveridge (1879-1963) in 1933.

  4. Between resentment and aid: German and Austrian psychiatrist and neurologist refugees in Great Britain since 1933.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenau, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    This article is a historiographical exploration of the experiences that German and Austrian émigré psychiatrists and neurologists made in Great Britain since 1933, after the Nazi Governments in Central Europe had ousted them from their positions. When placing these occurrences in a wider historiographical perspective, the in-depth analysis provided here also describes the living and working conditions of the refugee neuroscientists on the British Isles. In particular, it looks at the very elements and issues that influenced the international forced migration of physicians and psychiatrists during the 1930s and 1940s. Only a fraction of refugee neuroscientists had however been admitted to Britain. Those lucky ones were assisted by a number of charitable, local, and academic organizations. This article investigates the rather lethargic attitude of the British government and medical circles towards German-speaking Jewish refugee neuroscientists who wished to escape Nazi Germany. It will also analyze the help that those refugees received from the academic establishment and British Jewish organizations, while likewise examining the level and extent of the relationship between social and scientific resentments in Great Britain. A special consideration will be given to the aid programs that had already began in the first year after the Nazis had seized power in Germany, with the foundation of the British Assistance Council by Sir William Henry Beveridge (1879-1963) in 1933. PMID:27388257

  5. Edaphic characteristics of Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) forests in the Višegrad area

    OpenAIRE

    Blagojević Velibor D.; Knežević Milan N.; Košanin Olivera D.; Kapović-Solomun Marijana B.; Lučić Radovan J.; Eremija Saša M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of soil research in Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) forest communities in the Višegrad area, carried out to determine the basic soil characteristics and eco-production potential of forest habitats as an important basis and framework for the successful management of these forests on the principles of sustainable development. Austrian pine forests in this region are an important and ecologically valuable community. The complex...

  6. From retreating to resisting How Austrian-Turkish women deal with experiences of racism

    OpenAIRE

    Katharina Hametner

    2014-01-01

    Recent European integration discourses are increasingly structured by neo-racist topoi based on orientalist markers of difference. In the Austrian debate, people of Turkish origin are particularly affected by such ascriptions. They are marked as a group not willing to integrate and culturally not fitting into Austrian society. In this discursive conglomerate, women are identified as oppressed victims, lacking education and being in need of help. Using the biographical narratives of young Aust...

  7. On nonneutral relative price effects in monetarist thought : some Austrian misconceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas M. Humphrey

    1984-01-01

    The rise in the rate of inflation during the 1970s was paralleled by a rise in interest in monetarism, which offered the means for controlling inflation. Despite the increased interest, monetarism is still often misunderstood, as Thomas M. Humphrey points out in “On Nonneutral Relative Price Effects in Monetarist Thought: Some Austrian Misconceptions.” Economists of the Austrian school have portrayed monetarism as oblivious to the effects of monetary disturbances on the real economy of output...

  8. Direct investment strategies of Austrian companies in Romania.A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Arjoca

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Austrian companies present in Romania have learned their lessons after the subprime crisis started in year 2008 and although operating in various industrial areas and therefore being differently affected by the crisis, they have followed rather a similar strategy. Despite the unfavourable economic circumstances in Romania, all Austrian investors still recognise the country’s potential and have started consolidating their position on the market.

  9. New Promotion of Austrian Airlines to Celebrate the 10th Anniversary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      2005 marks the 10th Anniversary of Austrian Airlines' flight operations to China. Austrian Airlines kicks off the celebration year with super attractive roundtrip fares from Beijing and Shanghai to Europe starting at RMB4,500 (excluding taxes and surcharges). The earlier the tickets are booked and purchased,the lower the airfares are for travel during the period from February 13 to April 15,2005.……

  10. New Promotion of Austrian Airlines to Celebrate the 10th Anniversary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ 2005 marks the 10th Anniversary of Austrian Airlines' flight operations to China. Austrian Airlines kicks off the celebration year with super attractive roundtrip fares from Beijing and Shanghai to Europe starting at RMB4,500 (excluding taxes and surcharges). The earlier the tickets are booked and purchased,the lower the airfares are for travel during the period from February 13 to April 15,2005.

  11. Assessing the Relevance of Austrian Investment Companies and Mutual Funds for Financial Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Kavan; Günther Sedlacek; Reinhardt Seliger; Eva Ubl

    2010-01-01

    This paper looks at the role Austrian investment companies and the mutual funds managed by them play in the context of financial stability. At the end of the third quarter 2009, the 30 Austrian investment companies (of which 5 manage real estate funds) had invested around EUR 114 billion in the market. Given the repercussions arising from interlocks between investment companies and other financial intermediaries (such as credit institutions, insurance companies, pension funds and severance fu...

  12. How Climate Change Affects Water Resources in the Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schädler, B.

    2009-04-01

    Water resources in the Alps are abundant, but long term observed climatological, glaciological and hydrological time series clearly show ongoing climate changes. And regional climate change scenarios indicate even more changes. Will we experience more severe natural disasters in the Alps and will water scarcity affect alpine agriculture and tourism? Or might the importance of the Alps as «Water Tower of Europe» even grow?

  13. Low temperature thermochronology in the Eastern Alps: Implications for structural and topographic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölfler, Andreas; Stüwe, Kurt; Danišík, Martin; Evans, Noreen J.

    2012-01-01

    According to new apatite fission track, zircon- and apatite (U–Th)/He data, we constrain the near-surface history of the southeastern Tauern Window and adjacent Austrolapine units. The multi-system thermochronological data demonstrate that age-elevation correlations may lead to false implications about exhumation and cooling in the upper crust. We suggest that isothermal warping in the Penninic units that are in the position of a footwall, is due to uplift, erosion and the buildup of topography. Additionally we propose that exhumation rates in the Penninic units did not increase during the Middle Miocene, thus during the time of lateral extrusion. In contrast, exhumation rates of the Austroalpine hangingwall did increase from the Paleogene to the Neogene and the isotherms in this unit were not warped. The new zircon (U–Th)/He ages as well as zircon fission track ages from the literature document a Middle Miocene exhumation pulse which correlates with a period of enhanced sediment accumulation during that time. However, enhanced sedimentation- and exhumation rates at the Miocene/Pliocene boundary, as observed in the Western- and Central Alps, cannot be observed in the Eastern Alps. This contradicts a climatic trigger for surface uplift, and makes a tectonic trigger and/or deep-seated mechanism more obvious to explain surface uplift in the Eastern Alps. In combination with already published geochronological ages, our new data demonstrate Oligocene to Late Miocene fault activity along the Möll valley fault that constitutes a major shear zone in the Eastern Alps. In this context we suggest a geometrical and temporal relationship of the Katschberg-, Polinik–Möll valley- and Mur–Mürz faults that define the extruding wedge in the eastern part of the Eastern Alps. Equal deformation- and fission track cooling ages along the Katschberg–Brenner- and Simplon normal faults demonstrate overall Middle Miocene extension in the whole alpine arc. PMID:27065501

  14. [Recommendations of the Austrian Society of Rheumatology/Austrian Radiology-Rheumatology Initiative for Musculoskeletal Ultrasound for the application of ultrasound in rheumatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duftner, Christina; Dejaco, Christian; Kainberger, Franz; Machold, Klaus; Mandl, Peter; Nothnagl, Thomas; DeZordo, Tobias; Husic, Rusmir; Schüller-Weidekamm, Claudia; Schirmer, Michael

    2014-12-01

    It is the current goal in rheumatology to diagnose and treat inflammatory rheumatic diseases early in order to avoid structural damage. Functional imaging methods such as musculoskeletal sonography are increasingly used to support the clinical diagnosis. To ascertain the quality of ultrasound assessments performed by rheumatologists in Austria, the Austrian Radiology-Rheumatology Initiative for Musculoskeletal Ultrasound (ARRIMUS) proposed recommendations for a training curriculum, technical standards for ultrasound equipment, minimum requirements for documentation, indications for sonography and the use of ultrasound for interventions. These recommendations have been endorsed by the Austrian Society of Rheumatology and should aid rheumatologists to perform high quality ultrasound assessment in clinical practice.

  15. Potentials to mitigate climate change using biochar - the Austrian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckman, Viktor J.; Klinglmüller, Michaela; Liu, Jay; Uzun, Basak B.; Varol, Esin A.

    2015-04-01

    Biomass utilization is seen as one of various promising strategies to reduce additional carbon emissions. A recent project on potentials of biochar to mitigate climate change (FOREBIOM) goes even a step further towards bioenergy in combination of CCS or "BECS" and tries to assess the current potentials, from sustainable biomass availability to biochar amendment in soils, including the identification of potential disadvantages and current research needs. The current report represents an outcome of the 1st FOREBIOM Workshop held in Vienna in April, 2013 and tries to characterize the Austrian perspective of biochar for climate change mitigation. The survey shows that for a widespread utilization of biochar in climate change mitigation strategies, still a number of obstacles have to be overcome. There are concerns regarding production and application costs, contamination and health issues for both producers and customers besides a fragmentary knowledge about biochar-soil interactions specifically in terms of long-term behavior, biochar stability and the effects on nutrient cycles. However, there are a number of positive examples showing that biochar indeed has the potential to sequester large amounts of carbon while improving soil properties and subsequently leading to a secondary carbon sink via rising soil productivity. Diversification, cascadic utilization and purpose designed biochar production are key strategies overcoming initial concerns, especially regarding economic aspects. A theoretical scenario calculation showed that relatively small amounts of biomass that is currently utilized for energy can reduce the gap between Austria's current GHG emissions and the Kyoto target by about 30% if biomass residues are pyrolized and biochar subsequently used as soil amendment. However, by using a more conservative approach that is representing the aims of the underlying FOREBIOM project (assuming that 10% of the annual biomass increment from forests is used for biochar

  16. Ice cap melting and low-viscosity crustal root explain the narrow geodetic uplift of the Western Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chéry, J.; Genti, M.; Vernant, P.

    2016-04-01

    More than 10 years of geodetic measurements demonstrate an uplift rate of 1-3 mm/yr of the high topography region of the Western Alps. By contrast, no significant horizontal motion has been detected. Two uplift mechanisms have been proposed: (1) the isostatic response to denudation responsible for only a fraction of the observed uplift and (2) the rebound induced by the Wurmian ice cap melting which predicts a broader uplifting region than the one evidenced by geodetic observations. Using a numerical model to fit the geodetic data, we show that a crustal viscosity contrast between the foreland and the central part of the Alps, the latter being weaker with a viscosity of 1021 Pa s, is needed. The vertical rates are enhanced if the strong uppermost mantle beneath the Moho is interrupted across the Alps, therefore allowing a weak vertical rheological anomaly over the entire lithosphere.

  17. Propositions for the Building of a Quantitative Austrian Modelling: An Answer to Prof. Rizzo and to Prof. Vriend

    OpenAIRE

    Rodolphe Buda

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we try to promote the building of a Quantitative Austrian Modelling (QAM). QAM must be viewed as a complementary quantitative prolongation of the Austrian methods and as a complementary approach to the already existing quantitative approaches - especially we would like here to answer to the appeal of Prof. N.J.Vriend [61]. As we explain it in the first part, our approach resulted from a critical view of the econometric procedures by Austrian methods and, from a theoretical inst...

  18. SARSTEINIA BABAI N. GEN., N. SP., A NEW PROBLEMATIC SPONGE (INOZOA? FROM THE LATE JURASSIC OF THE NORTHERN CALCAREOUS ALPS, AUSTRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FELIX SCHLAGINTWEIT

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The new problematic sponge Sarsteinia babai n. gen., n. sp. is described from the Kimmeridgian to Tithonian Plassen and Lärchberg Formations of the Northern Calcareous Alps of Austria. The type-locality is the Sarsteinalm north of Mount Hoher Sarstein in the Austrian Salzkammergut, other findings come from Mount Sandling, Mount Jainzen, Mount Trisselwand and the Litzlkogel-Gerhardstein-complex west of Lofer. Most findings can be attributed to a fore-reef to upper slope facies or slope-of-toe breccias, small fragments can occasionally also be found in the back-reef facies. The suprageneric systematic position of the new sponge is unknown so far since it shows morphological characteristics known from Inozoa but also from "stromatoporoids".

  19. Severe Mycoplasma bovis outbreak in an Austrian dairy herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothmann, Harald; Spergser, Joachim; Elmer, Josef; Prunner, Isabella; Iwersen, Michael; Klein-Jöbstl, Daniela; Drillich, Marc

    2015-11-01

    A conventional dairy farm, housing 19 Austrian Simmental cows, experienced a spontaneous outbreak of a Mycoplasma bovis infection, showing severe clinical signs of respiratory tract disease, clinical mastitis, and tremendous drop in milk production. Despite intensive therapy, 5 cows died within 2 weeks or were euthanized. From the remaining cows, bacteriological culture and polymerase chain reaction revealed M. bovis in 10 of 14 milk samples. Mycoplasma bovis was found in 1 of 5 randomly collected nasal swabs. Autopsy of 1 cow revealed infection of the lungs and the udder with M. bovis. The 13 M. bovis isolates from milk samples, nasal swabs, lungs, and udder were genotyped by multilocus variable number of tandem-repeat analysis, and indicated that described infections were caused by a single M. bovis strain. The virulent M. bovis strain resulted in dramatic economic loss to the farmer. To control the disease, culling of all animals, including heifers and calves, was recommended, and strict hygienic measures were implemented before introducing new animals to the farm. PMID:26450838

  20. Cornerstones of the Austrian radon risk communication strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On behalf of the Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management (BMLFUW), the National Radon Centre of Austria developed the National Radon Risk Communication Strategy. The superior goal is the reduction of the radon exposure of Austrian citizens as well as the reduction of radon-related lung cancer deaths. Austria, like many other countries, follows the approach to raise awareness and to inform the public to achieve this goal. The presented strategy deals with the question of how radon protection issues can be communicated to the public, existing fears can be reduced and affected people can be motivated to take action (perform a radon test, if necessary, mitigate or install preventive measures in new buildings). The cornerstones of the National Radon Risk Communication Strategy can be summarized as follows: - Definition of communication goals - Identification and categorization of target groups - Development of specific key messages for each of the target groups - Determination of communication channels and assessment of their efficiency - Integration of the radon issue in education and training - Cooperation with relevant organizations and platforms. The communication objectives, target groups and communication paths (and their evaluation) will be discussed during the presentation in detail.

  1. The new Austrian tunnelling method in coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thierse, D.

    1987-12-03

    The new Austrian tunnelling method (NATM), as a composite support and lining system of bolts, steel mats and shotcrete, prevents the deconsolidation of the strata and activates the self-supporting properties of the strata envelope. By bringing in the strata for support it provides an exceptionally high support resistance, which outdoes steel supports and which is needed at increasing depths with their predictable high rock pressures and with large cross-sections in rooms where the limits of conventional steel arches are exceeded. Even thin shotcrete casing has a high support resistance. Where effects of other workings are present the NATM can be relied upon to have good stability over a long period and to be repair-friendly, as flaking off the casing can be made good by re-bolting and re-spraying. In contrast with the costly changing of entire support arches, partial surfaces can be repaired as required. The NATM is particularly cost-effective in the construction of drainage roads, which have to be lined against aggressive water, shaft porches, branch-offs, large rooms such as workshops, landings, belt drive rooms with internal cross-sections of 25 to 30 m/sup 2/ and shaft widening and traversing with irregular cross-sections. In geologically extremely difficult levels, such as those of the Laura and Zollverein 7/8 seams, the NATM has also been successfully used to construct drainage roads, branch-offs and shaft traverses. 30 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Structures and perspectives of the Austrian energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical tools for projecting future energy demand can be grouped into two broad categories: Firstly, time series or cross section data based econometric models which contain information about customers' past behavior and thus enable to judge the causal effects of economic factors like incomes and prices on energy demand (passive forecasting). Secondly, structural simulation models which indicate how energy services transform to flows of useful, final and primary energy. These models enable to estimate the technical potential of improving the energy application and energy transformation systems (active scenario approach). Comparison of the two approaches with respect to projections for future energy demand yields that, typically, in the short run of econometric approach will dominate the structural simulation model. In the long run, however, this relation will be reversed. The econometric models suffer lack of technical information necessary to describe the demand for energy. The structural simulation model enables an incorporation of technical factors like efficiencies and fuel shares. An application of the structural model is a simulation run describing a scenario in order to reduce the Austrian CO2-emissions according to the recommendations of the conference of Toronto

  3. Austrian results from Matroshka poncho and organ dose determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, M.; Bergmann, R.; Fugger, M.; Vana, N.

    Cosmic rays in low-earth orbits LEO primarily consist of high-energy charged particles originating from galactic cosmic radiation GCR energetic solar particle events SPE and trapped radiation belts These radiations of high linear energy transfer LET generally inflict greater biological damage than that resulting from typical terrestrial radiation hazards Particle and energy spectra are attenuated in interaction processes within shielding structures and within the human body Reliable assessment of health risks to astronaut crews is pivotal in the design of future expeditions into interplanetary space and requires knowledge of absorbed radiation doses in critical radiosensitive organs and tissues The European Space Agency ESA Matroshka experiment---conducted under the aegis of the German Aerospace Center DLR ---is aimed at simulating an astronaut s body during extravehicular activities EVA Matroshka basically consists of a human phantom torso attached to a base structure and covered with a protective carbon-fibre container acting as a spacesuit model The phantom is divided into 33 tissue-equivalent polyurethane slices of specific density for tissue and organs Natural bones are embedded Channels and cut-outs enable accommodation of active and passive radiation monitors The torso is dressed by a skin-equivalent poncho which is also designed for dosimeter integration The phantom houses in total 7 active and more than 6000 passive radiation sensors Thereof the Atomic Institute of the Austrian Universities ATI provided more than

  4. 52. Annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 52th Symposium of the Austrian Physical Society was held from 23.-26. September 2002 at the Montan University of Leoben (Austria). The papers presented were organized under the following sessions: main session (intermetallic materials, nanostructures as sensors, volcanic products as dating materials); Fritz-Kohlrausch-price 2002 (electronic structure and charge transfer in doped single-walled carbon nanotubes), Max-Auwaerter-price 2002 ( growth phenomena of thin overlayers on semiconductor surfaces), Viktor-Hess-price 2002 (analysis of rare Ke4 - decays), Roman-Ulrich-Sexl-price 2002 (experienced physics); acoustics; atomic-, molecular- and plasma physics (plasma ion mass spectrometers, proton-transfer-reaction-mass-spectrometry, radiation damage, electron-molecule interactions, decay); solid physics (nanoopticcs, nanocrystalline magnetic materials, nanostructure, nanoelectronics); nuclear and particle physics (CP-violations, neutral kaons, quark-antiquark systems, QCD, kaonic atoms spectroscopy, hadronic decay, long-lived radionuclides); medical-, bio-and environmental physics (biological radiation damage, photons therapy, Med-AUSTRON, doses rate, endovascular brachytherapy); physics-industry-energy (ski-simulation, acoustic surface wave); neutrons and synchrotron radiation physics (neutron quantum interferometry, AUSTRON, synchrotron-induced x-ray analysis); polymer physics(micro-Raman spectroscopy, x-ray analysis); quantum electronics, electrodynamics and optics (solid-state lasers, doped lasers, quantum purification and teleportation, Bose-Einstein condensates, quantum optics, Talbot-Lau interferometry, neutron quantum phases) and two poster sessions with topics dealing with the subjects above mentioned. Those contributions which are in the INIS subject scope are indexed separately. (nevyjel)

  5. Holocaust Studies in Austrian Elementary and Secondary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Mittnik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents arguments in support of teaching about the Holocaust and Nazism in Austria at an early age. To accomplish this, Austrian and German elementary school textbooks were analyzed for the amount of content dealing with the Holocaust and Jews; the results showed that since 1980 the amount of content on the Holocaust increased in Germany, and to a lesser extent in Austria. The article reviews some of the criticism in Europe of the term Holocaust Education and explores some of arguments about why that is. The author argues that moral education and teaching of Human Rights are important components of, but ought not be the main goal of teaching about the Holocaust. The role of Austria after World War II, and exploration of the so called victim myth, prevalent until the 1990s are important to understanding history and to how history textbooks were created. After a discussion of how the Holocaust can be taught to elementary and early secondary school aged children, some suggestions are made about approaches to teaching the Holocaust to students in these age groups.

  6. Distribution of radiocaesium in an Austrian forest stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within an Austrian spruce stand, vertical distribution of radiocaesium in soil as well as 137Cs concentration in different forest ecosystem compartments including spruce and surface water were investigated 10 years after the Chernobyl accident. The total 137Cs inventory in the forest was estimated to be 46 kBq m-2 (ref. date: 86-05-01). From the collected data annual input rates via litterfall of 0.48% per year and output rates through waterflows of only 0.02% per year were derived. The results identify the high importance of forest soils as a sink for radiocaesium. The estimated ecological residence half-times turned out to be highest in the organic soil horizons (1-3 years per cm), whereas in mineral horizons the values decrease significantly. As a consequence, soil inventory represents more than 95% of the total, whereas only approximately 3.3% of the 137Cs inventory is stored in the living biomass of spruce trees and a further 0.5% in the phytomass of understorey vegetation

  7. Assessment of radiocaesium behaviour in an Austrian forest ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A monitoring program has been carried out since 1988 in Weinsberger Wald, an Austrian forest stand severely affected by the Chernobyl plume. Analyses of forest soils, understorey vegetation and mushrooms showed that 137Cs values decreased significantly between 1988 and 1993. In ferns, mosses and bilberry sprouts the concentrations did decrease to about 35% of the concentrations measured in 1988, however, seven years after the deposition event, the 137Cs contamination of edible forest products and game browse is still considerable. Derived ecological half-times are the longest in mushrooms (5.8 years), followed by values between 3.1-3.7 years in mosses, ferns and dwarf shrubs. Ecological half-times of 2.1 years were determined in grasses and the shortest values (1.9 years) were found in herbs (Oxalis acetosella). Annual measurements of 137Cs content in soil samples from different layers showed that the 137Cs values decreased in the litter layer, whereas they increased in mineral strata between 1988 and 1993. (author)

  8. A regional analysis of elements at risk exposed to mountain hazards in the Eastern European Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Sven; Zischg, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    We present a method to quantify the number and value of buildings exposed to torrents and snow avalanches in the Austrian Alps, as well as the number of exposed people. Based on a unique population and building register dataset, a relational SQL database was developed that allows in combination with GIS data a rule-based nation-wide automated analysis. Furthermore, possibilities and challenges are discussed with respect to the use of such data in vulnerability assessment and with respect to resilience measures. We comprehensively address the challenge of data accuracy, scale and uncertainties. From the total of approximately 2.4 million buildings with a clearly attributable geographical location, around 120,000 are exposed to torrent processes (5 %) and snow avalanches (0.4 %); exposition was defined here as located within the digitally available hazard maps of the Austrian Torrent and Avalanche Control Service. Around 5 % of the population (360,000 out of 8.5 million inhabitants), based on those people being compulsory listed in the population register, are located in these areas. The analysis according to the building category resulted in 2.05 million residential buildings in Austria (85 %), 93,000 of which (4.5 %) are exposed to these hazards. In contrast, 37,300 buildings (1.6 %) throughout the country belong to the category of accommodation facilities, 5,600 of which are exposed (15 %). Out of the 140,500 commercial buildings, 8,000 (5 %) are exposed. A considerable spatial variation was detectable within the communities and Federal States. In general, an above-average exposition of buildings to torrent process and snow avalanches was detectable in communities located in the Federal State of Salzburg, Styria and Vorarlberg (torrents), and Tyrol and Vorarlberg (snow avalanches). In the alpine part of Austria, the share of exposed accommodation buildings was two times (Salzburg) and three times (Vorarlberg) higher than the regional average of exposed buildings

  9. Structure of Accelerated Learning Program (ALP) Efforts, 2000-01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baenen, Nancy; Yaman, Kimberly

    This report focuses on the structure of instructional assistance available through the Accelerated Learning Program (ALP) to students who show low achievement in the Wake County Public School System (WCPSS), North Carolina. Context information is also provided on other programs available to these students. Reports on ALP student participation,…

  10. The Central and Eastern European Earthquake Research Network - CE3RN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragato, Pier Luigi; Costa, Giovanni; Gallo, Antonella; Gosar, Andrej; Horn, Nikolaus; Lenhardt, Wolfgang; Mucciarelli, Marco; Pesaresi, Damiano; Steiner, Rudolf; Suhadolc, Peter; Tiberi, Lara; Živčić, Mladen; Zoppé, Giuliana

    2014-05-01

    The region of the Central and Eastern Europe is an area characterised by a relatively high seismicity. The active seismogenic structures and the related potentially destructive events are located in the proximity of the political boundaries between several countries existing in the area. An example is the seismic region between the NE Italy (FVG, Trentino-Alto Adige and Veneto), Austria (Tyrol, Carinthia) and Slovenia. So when a destructive earthquake occurs in the area, all the three countries are involved. In the year 2001 the Agencija Republike Slovenije za Okolje (ARSO) in Slovenia, the Department of Mathematics and Geoscience of the University of Trieste (DMG), the OGS (Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale) in Italy and the Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik (ZAMG) in Austria signed an agreement for the real-time seismological data exchange in the Southeastern Alps region. Soon after the Interreg IIIa Italia-Austria projects "Trans-National Seismological Networks in the South-Eastern Alps" and "FASTLINK" started. The main goal of these projects was the creation of a transfrontier network for the common seismic monitoring of the region for scientific and civil defense purposes. During these years the high quality data recorded by the transfrontier network has been used, by the involved institutions, for their scientific research, for institutional activities and for the civil defense services. Several common international projects have been realized with success. The instrumentation has been continuously upgraded, the installations quality improved as well as the data transmission efficiency. In the 2013 ARSO, DMG, OGS and ZAMG decided to name the cooperative network "Central and Eastern European Earthquake Research Network - CE3RN". The national/regional seismic networks actually involved in the CE3RN network are: • Austrian national BB network (ZAMG - OE) • Friuli Veneto SP network (OGS - FV) • Friuli VG

  11. Cultures et politiques dans les Alpes contemporaines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Debarbieux

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Plus que jamais, l’espace alpin est marqué par le déploiement de flux toujours plus variés, toujours plus puissants, et symétriquement par la multiplication d’initiatives destinées à conforter ou à régénérer l’idée de localité. Quelles spatialités et quelles territorialités travaillent les populations alpines aujourd’hui ? Quelles sont les figures contemporaines de la circulation et des flux, et les figures complémentaires de l’ancrage et de la refondation territoriale ? Voici les questions que cet essai se propose de développer. Ce texte reprend le contenu d’une conférence donnée dans le cadre de la célébration du centenaire de l’Institut de Géographie Alpine. Cette conférence, comme les autres données à cette occasion, avait adopté une forme libre dressant un bilan et des perspectives de la situation alpine. La trace écrite adoptée ici prend alors logiquement la forme d’un essai.More than ever before, the Alps are affected by increasingly varied and powerful flows and equally by the multiplication of initiatives designed to strengthen or regenerate the idea of “locality” (place. What spatialities and what territorialities activate the populations of the Alps today? What are the contemporary figures relating to circulation and flows and the complementary figures concerning spatial “anchoring” or fixity and new territorial foundations? These are the questions that this essay, proposes to develop. This text takes another look at the subject of a lecture given as part of celebrations to mark the centenary of the Institut de Géographie Alpine. This lecture, like the others given on this occasion, adopted a free format, presenting a report on the current situation in the Alps and prospects for the future. The written format adopted here logically takes the form of an essay. Readers looking for detailed illustrations and references are referred to three scientific articles published by the same

  12. Autochthonous Linguistic Minorities in the Italian Alps:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernst Steinicke

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available More than any other area in Western Europe, the Alps, especially the Italian Alps, are home to great ethno-cultural diversity: there, no less than seven autochthonous linguistic minorities coexist side by side with the respective official majority. Now being considered an important cultural heritage by the state as well as by the regions, new legislation offers protection to all ‘linguistic-historic minorities’ in Italy. Our study shows, however, that it is quite difficult to maintain such groups, since it is largely unknown where exactly the minority areas are situated. Based on that, local actor groups in various communities take advantage of this lack of knowledge and declare themselves minority territories although they show no linguistic varieties. An important objective of this project is therefore to present a cartographic representation of this linguistic diversity. Subsequently, the contribution discusses case studies of distinct ethno-linguistic self-awareness. Even though with Law No. 482 a first important step was taken to preserve the linguistic minorities, their progressive decline by territorial and numerical criteria cannot be denied. Today, besides unfavorable bio-demographic factors and “diffuse ethnicity,” other causes are current demographic processes. In this framework the amenity migrants, those new immigrants who have discovered the mountains as a new, desirable settlement space, play a decisive role by reinforcing the assimilation process.Les Alpes, plus précisément les Alpes italiennes, plus que toute autre région d'Europe Occidentale, sont un lieu de grande diversité ethnoculturelle : pas moins de sept minorités linguistiques autochtones y coexistent, côte à côte avec la majorité officielle correspondante. Maintenant considérées comme un héritage culturel important par les états ainsi que par les régions, une nouvelle législation offre une protection à toutes les « minorités linguistiques

  13. Shrub encroachment in pastures in the Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Camacho

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Landscape closing due to the decline in agricultural activity is considered to be a major problem in the Alps. Abondance Valley provides a good example of this phenomenon and is also representative of a paradox commonly found in the Northern French Alps: the mountainsides and alpine pastures are still used, whereas they are becoming increasingly afforested. Environmental conditions play a major role in the localisation of agricultural land uses, but they are not sufficient to explain why pastures still in use are being invaded by shrub. Even if cutting makes it possible to effectively control the encroachment by woody species, this is not true for uncut pastures where grazing is not able to keep up with grass production. This situation is repeated every year and is the likely cause of the colonisation by woody species. To ensure their forage system and to simplify their work, farmers tend to establish grazing units that are oversized in relation to the needs of their animals. They implement compensatory practices that consist of mechanical maintenance as a complement to grazing to limit the dynamics of woody species. These labour-intensive practices are not used on all of the pastures. The analysis of farmers’ practices by agronomists is therefore a useful complement to studies of physical and socio-economic environments, at the level of the grazed field as well as at that of the valley as a whole.La dégradation des paysages par suite du recul de l’activité agricole est considérée comme un enjeu majeur dans les Alpes. La vallée d’Abondance illustre bien ce phénomène de fermeture de l’espace mais elle est en outre représentative d’un paradoxe assez répandu dans les Alpes du nord françaises : les versants et les alpages sont encore exploités et pourtant ils se boisent progressivement. Les conditions de milieux jouent un rôle majeur sur la localisation des usages agricoles de l'espace, mais elles ne peuvent pas suffire pour

  14. Climate Modeling at the Austrian Weather Service (ZAMG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matulla, C.; Anders, I.; Auer, I.

    2009-05-01

    In later 2007 the Austrian Weather Service (ZAMG) established a group that shall deal with climate change modeling. Two of the group's main goals are to provide climate change scenarios for the assessment of the impact on ecosystems and to reconstruct past climate states along with their change. The former aim is to derive estimates of might happen to our ecosystems under different emission-pathways, whilst the latter goal is to better understand what has caused characteristical changes, which are to be found in proxies. Both aims can be achieved by empirical or dynamical downscaling models, which are ultimately based on the reliability of the driving GCMs results. It is well known that empirical and dynamical downscaling models do have advantages and disadvantages, which are different. As such it appears reasonable to use the approach which is better adapted to the considered question. It may be meaningful to apply empirical downscaling if long periods of time (such as substantial parts of the Holocene) are in the center of attention, whereas dynamical downscaling may be better suited to address questions that are related to decades. Up to now we were more involved with empirical downscaling that helped us to work together with scientists assessing the impact on ecosystems, as for instance, fish in a river (Matulla et al. 2007), forests (Lexer et al. 2002) or phenological phases (Scheifinger et al. 2007). After catching a glimpse of those results, we will turn to dynamical modeling. Here we would like to present findings from case studies, which are related to the more recent past. Our next target is the modelling of possible future climate conditions within the Greater Alpine Region (GAR, see e.g. Auer et al. 2007) as well as some characteristical periods throughout the Holocene as for instance the 8.2k event. This event is to be found in a variety of proxies within and also outside GAR. Auer I., Boehm R., Jurkovic A., Lipa W., Orlik A., Potzmann R., Schoener W

  15. What did we learn from the Austrian radon project?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximately 40000 measurements of indoor radon concentrations were performed in randomly selected homes during the Austrian Radon Project. These measurements were carried out by using long-term measuring devices (SSNTD and Electret detectors) and short-term charcoal detectors with liquid scintillation counting as the method of analysis. In addition to the equilibrium factor, soil gas measurements and quasi-continuous indoor measurements, parallel-measurements with different detector systems in randomly selected homes were also performed. Very different results were occasionally obtained for one and the same room at the same time. This was so not only when comparing the long-term and short-term measuring devices; actually, different long-term detector systems also often showed significant discrepancies in results, although all detector systems had been carefully calibrated and tested in laboratories. The essential conclusion was that during a longer exposure in randomly selected homes, the detectors may be moved, opened, or handled in other unfavourable ways which introduce additional uncertainties in the measuring results. The aim of the Austrian Radon Project was to estimate the radon risk for geographic areas (municipalities). This task is different from the evaluation of the mean radon concentration in a single home. Generally, while long-term measurements (a year or even longer) are necessary to get reliable results for a particular house, this is not so where only the mean indoor radon concentrations for an area are of interest. Observed indoor radon concentrations give information about the actual radon exposures of the inhabitants but not about the radon risk from the ground. The house type, the way the house is constructed, the storey where people live, and some living patterns (ventilation rate etc.) modify the geological risk significantly, although it is the geological situation that has to be primarily taken into account when planning and constructing

  16. Occupational accidents with mowing machines in Austrian agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kogler

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The number of recognized accidents during agricultural work is still very high in Austria. In the years 2008 to 2009, there occurred 84 approved work accidents with mowing machines. The main causes of accidents were the loss of control of machines, transportations or conveyances, hand tools, objects or animals. In the literature, numerous studies of general agricultural and forestry accident situations are available. Detailed studies on specific types of agricultural machines, which describe concrete circumstances and causes of accidents, are in limited numbers. The accident database from the General Accident Insurance Institution and the Austrian Social Insurance Institution of Farmers, with personal and accidental data information about mowing machine accidents, were analyzed. The results showed that most accidents occurred on mixed agricultural farms (68%. The majority of the injured persons were male (86%, over 40-years-old (86% with an agricultural or forestry education (91%. The most common accidents occurred in the summer months (69% and on afternoons during the working week (79%. The majority of accidents were caused by contact with the machine (55% and the loss of control (73% during their operation (60% and harvesting work (63%. The most frequently injuries were wounds, fractures and superficial injuries (81% to the upper and lower extremities (66%. The results of the chi-square test showed significant correlations between the specific task with the form of contact, the working process, the day and season. Results of the odds ratio determination showed an increased risk of suffering serious injury for men in the first half of the year and half of the day due to loss of control over the machine during agricultural harvesting work.

  17. Impacts of Austrian Climate Variability on Honey Bee Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switanek, Matt; Brodschneider, Robert; Crailsheim, Karl; Truhetz, Heimo

    2015-04-01

    Global food production, as it is today, is not possible without pollinators such as the honey bee. It is therefore alarming that honey bee populations across the world have seen increased mortality rates in the last few decades. The challenges facing the honey bee calls into question the future of our food supply. Beside various infectious diseases, Varroa destructor is one of the main culprits leading to increased rates of honey bee mortality. Varroa destructor is a parasitic mite which strongly depends on honey bee brood for reproduction and can wipe out entire colonies. However, climate variability may also importantly influence honey bee breeding cycles and bee mortality rates. Persistent weather events affects vegetation and hence foraging possibilities for honey bees. This study first defines critical statistical relationships between key climate indicators (e.g., precipitation and temperature) and bee mortality rates across Austria, using 6 consecutive years of data. Next, these leading indicators, as they vary in space and time, are used to build a statistical model to predict bee mortality rates and the respective number of colonies affected. Using leave-one-out cross validation, the model reduces the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) by 21% with respect to predictions made with the mean mortality rate and the number of colonies. Furthermore, a Monte Carlo test is used to establish that the model's predictions are statistically significant at the 99.9% confidence level. These results highlight the influence of climate variables on honey bee populations, although variability in climate, by itself, cannot fully explain colony losses. This study was funded by the Austrian project 'Zukunft Biene'.

  18. No Austrians in South Tyrol? Why the German-speaking community in Italy’s South Tyrol (Alto Adige province is not usually called an Austrian minority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Julian Emanuel Volkmer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available No Austrians in South Tyrol? Why the German-speaking community in Italy’s South Tyrol (Alto Adige province is not usually called an Austrian minority The article discusses the question why the German-speakers in Northern Italy’s South Tyrol province are only very rarely referred to as an Austrian minority, in spite of the fact that they were split off from Austria, and not Germany, in the aftermath of World War I. An analysis of the naming of German-speaking South Tyroleans in German, Austrian, Italian and English-speaking news media, which demonstrates a preference for terms such as “German-speaking minority” or “German minority” over “Austrian minority and equivalents, is followed by a discussion of three hypotheses to account for the situation. The author shows how the question of how to name the German-speaking South Tyroleans is closely intertwined with the issue of Austrian national identity and its re-orientation away from Germany in the aftermath of the Second World War. The author comes to the conclusion that the minority is not usually referred to as Austrian both due to the fact that it is difficult to include them in the young (civic Austrian nation in a logically consistent manner, and due to the German-speaking South Tyroleans’ own inconsistent self-identification as Austrians.   Nie ma Austriaków w Tyrolu Południowym? Dlaczego niemieckojęzyczna wspólnota we włoskiej prowincji Tyrol Południowy (Alto Adige zwykle nie jest nazywana mniejszością austriacką Artykuł podejmuje kwestię, dlaczego niemieckojęzyczna ludność północnowłoskiej prowincji Tyrol Południowy rzadko bywa nazywana mniejszością austriacką, pomimo tego że w efekcie I wojny światowej odłączona została ona od Austrii, a nie od Niemiec. Analiza nazewnictwa odnoszonego do niemieckojęzycznej ludności Tyrolu Południowego, które występuje w informacyjnych środkach przekazu: niemiecko-, austriacko-, włosko- i angloj

  19. On the way to an Austrian radon action plan; Auf dem Weg zum oesterreichischen Radonaktionsplan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, V.; Ringer, W.; Wurm, G. [Oesterreichische Agentur fuer Gesundheit und Ernaehrungssicherheit (AGES), Linz (Austria). Oesterreichische Fachstelle fuer Radon; Haider, W. [Bundesministerium fuer Land- und Forstwirtschaft, Umwelt und Wasserwirtschaft (BMLFUW), Wien (Austria). Abt. Strahlenschutz

    2013-07-01

    According to the draft of the new European Basic Safety Standards (EU-BSS) all member states are obliged to develop a national radon action plan, to control the long term risks from radon exposure in dwellings, public buildings and workplaces. The National Radon Centre, embedded in the Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety (AGES), was assigned by the Ministry for Environment (BMLFUW) to develop this Austrian action plan and the strategy behind. This conference contribution discusses where we still have a need for actions and how the new BSS will influence the Austrian radon legislation (reference levels, responsibilities, standards, building law). Currently running and planned projects regarding the radon action plan like developing a national radon data base, definition of radon prone areas by improving the radon map and strategies to increase public radon awareness and involve the building sector are presented. (orig.)

  20. High-resolution multitemporal measurement of rockglacier dynamics and periglacial sediment storage in the eastern Alps, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusik, Jana-Marie; Haas, Florian; Heckmann, Tobias; Hilger, Ludwig; Neugirg, Fabian; Leopold, Matthias; Becht, Michael

    2013-04-01

    High alpine environments are subject to rapid change due to melting glaciers and permafrost. As a consequence, rockwalls and moraines experience destabilization and increased mobilization of sediment. The work presented here is part of the joint project PROSA (High-resolution measurements of morphodynamics in rapidly changing PROglacial Systems of the Alps) which deals with the calculation and quantification of the sediment budget for an alpine catchment situated in the Kaunertal, Austrian Alps. Rockglaciers are frequently appearing landforms in the Kaunertal and represent large sediment storages. Usually the sediment flux of rockglaciers is rather small, depending on their activity status. All activity forms of rockglaciers (active, inactive and relict) are present in the catchment area. Besides the highly active and well-known Ölgrube rockglacier, this work deals especially with the examination of the Riffeltal rockglacier which is situated on the opposite valley side. The activity status of the Riffeltal rockglacier is assessed and compared to the Ölgrube rockglacier with respect to the local parameters aspect, altitude, existence/absence of glaciers, geology and catchment area. Furthermore sediment volumes of both rockglaciers, their rates of movement and therefore their contribution to the sediment budget of the Kaunertal-catchment area is estimated. The internal structure of the Riffeltal rockglacier was inferred from geophysical measurements (refraction seismics, ground penetrating radar and electrical resistivity tomography). Temperature loggers were placed on and around the rockglacier before the first snowfall to measure the bottom temperature of snowcover (BTS) once per hour during winter, and BTS measurements will be performed with a probe in February, March and April to infer permafrost probability. Rockglacier dynamics are identified with the analysis of multitemporal orthophotos and digital elevation models, derived from high-resolution airborne

  1. Western Italian Alps Monthly Snowfall and Snow Cover Duration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of snow observations for 18 stations in the western Italian Alps. Two types of data are included: monthly snowfall amounts and monthly snow...

  2. Text Reference Panel at ALPS Annual General Meeting

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Joyce; Flewelling, Debra; WHITE, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    A panel discussion on text reference initiatives at the Simon Fraser University Library, Langara College Library and Douglas College Library. This panel was held at the 2011 ALPS (Academic Librarians in Public Service section of BCLA) Annual General Meeting.

  3. Photon-ALP conversions inside AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Tavecchio, F; Roncadelli, M

    2014-01-01

    An intriguing possibility to partially circumvent extragalactic background light (EBL) absorption in very-high-energy (VHE) observations of blazars is that photons convert into axion-like particles (ALPs) $\\gamma \\to a$ inside or close to a blazar and reconvert into photons $a \\to \\gamma$ in the Milky Way magnetic field. This idea has been put forward in 2008 and has attracted a considerable interest. However, while the probability for the back-conversion $a \\to \\gamma$ has been computed in detail (using the maps of the Galatic magnetic field), regretfully no realistic estimate of the probability for the conversion $\\gamma \\to a$ inside a blazar has been performed, in spite of the fact that the present-day knowledge allows this task to be accomplished in a reliable fashion. We present a detailed calculation that fills this gap, considering both types of blazars, namely BL Lac objects (BL Lacs) and flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQ) with their specific structural and environmental properties. We also include t...

  4. Cosmogenic nuclide-derived rates of diffusive and episodic erosion in the glacially sculpted upper Rhone Valley, Swiss Alps

    OpenAIRE

    Norton, K. P.; Friedhelm von Blanckenburg; Kubik, P. W.

    2010-01-01

    Denudation rates of small tributary valleys in the upper Rhone valley of the Swiss Central Alps vary by more than an order of magnitude within a very small distance (tens of kilometers). Morphometric data indicate two distinct erosion processes operate in these steep mountain valleys. We determined the rates of these processes using cosmogenic beryllium-10 (10Be) in pooled soil and stream sediment samples. Denudation in deep, glacially scoured valleys is characterized by rapid, non-uniform pr...

  5. Density, diet and productivity of Long-eared Owls Asio otus in the Italian Alps: The importance of Microtus voles

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio, Fabrizio; Marchesi, Luigi; Pedrini, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    Capsule: Relatively large populations, feeding predominantly upon voles, were present at higher elevations. Aims: To determine the density, productivity and diet composition of Long-eared Owls breeding at higher elevations. Methods: Population census and breeding biology were investigated, and dietary analysis performed for 32 Long-eared Owl territories that were occupied over a six-year period (2000-05), in a 155 km2 study area located in the Noce Valley of the central-eastern Italian Alps. ...

  6. A NEW DAONELLA FROM THE LADINIAN PLATFORM OF THE ESINO LIMESTONE (SOUTHERN ALPS, ITALY)

    OpenAIRE

    CRISTIANO LARGHI; MARCO BALINI; VALENTINA TORTI

    2006-01-01

    The bivalve Daonella Mojsisovics, 1874 is very common in the Middle Triassic pelagic facies, whereas the record of this genus from shallow water limestones is rare. In the present paper a new species of Daonella, named D. pseudograbensis, is described from the Esino Limestone, a Ladinian (Middle Triassic) carbonate platform in the central Southern Alps. The species is described from Brembana Valley, where the Esino Limestone is rather rich in bioclastic lenses yielding faunas with bivalves, c...

  7. PCDD/F and PCB levels in Austrian cow's milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanner, G.; Moche, W. [Umweltbundesamt Wien (Austria)

    2004-09-15

    In 2003 the Federal Environment Agency carried out a first Austrian wide milk monitoring study with the objective to get an overview of average PCDD/F levels in cow's milk, additionally dioxinlike PCBs, according to WHO, and indicator PCBs, as listed by national regulations, were analysed.

  8. Minority Schools in the South Tyrol and in the Austrian Burgenland: A Comparison of Two Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, A. R.

    1986-01-01

    Presents findings from an empirical study comparing the status of the German minority in the Italian South Tyrol and the Croatian minority in the Austrian Burgenland. The article analyzes observations of actual language use in schools and compares school authorities, curricula, and employment opportunities of the two minorities. (SED)

  9. Monitoring Language Skills in Austrian Primary (Elementary) Schools: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangl, Renate

    2000-01-01

    Provides an overview of how language skills in young learners have been assessed in two primary school contexts, carried out in a total of seven Austrian primary schools. The schools took part in an initiative where the integration of a foreign language was introduced when children entered primary school at the age of six. (Author/VWL)

  10. Progress Report 1985 of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf. Abridged version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report gives a short survey of the work carried out by the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf in 1985. The working programme comprises five main areas: Energy and safety; Materials research, isotope and radiation techniques; Measuring techniques and information processing; Environmental protection, health and food; Industrial consulting. (Author)

  11. 1983 Annual convention of the Austrian Physical Society, University of Linz, 28 - 30 September 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proceedings of lectures and poster presentations given at the 1983 convention of the Austrian Physical Society, with (German) abstracts only. The four topical sessions were: 1) electrodynamics and optics 2) solid state physics 3) nuclear and particle physics 4) physics of high polymers Only part of the presentations pertain to the subject scope of INIS. (G.Q.)

  12. Quality of Austrian and Dutch Falls-Prevention Information: A Comparative Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoberer, Daniela; Mijnarends, Donja M.; Fliedner, Monica; Halfens, Ruud J. G.; Lohrmann, Christa

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the quality of written patient information material available in Austrian and Dutch hospitals and nursing homes pertaining to falls prevention. Design: Comparative descriptive study design Setting: Hospitals and nursing homes in Austria and the Netherlands. Method: Written patient…

  13. Pragmatics of Content-Based Instruction: Teacher and Student Directives in Finnish and Austrian Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton-Puffer, Christiane; Nikula, Tarja

    2006-01-01

    Using a pragmatic framework, this paper examines how directives are performed by teachers and students in Finnish and Austrian CLIL classrooms, that is settings where a foreign language (in this case English) is used as the medium of instruction in non-language subjects such as history or chemistry. We explore how interpersonal aspects of…

  14. Networking for Education for Sustainable Development in Austria: The Austrian ECOLOG-Schools Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Franz

    2016-01-01

    This case describes networking for education for sustainable development within the Austrian ECOLOG-schools network. The article presents theoretical concepts of networks in education in general, and the organization of the ECOLOG-network in particular. Based upon these foundations, the concept and results of a participatory evaluation study are…

  15. Progress Report 1984 of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf. Abridged version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report gives a short survey of the work carried out by the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf in 1984. The working programme comprises five main areas: Energy and safety; Materials research, isotope and radiation techniques; Measuring techniques and information processing; Environmental protection, health and food; Industrial consulting. (Author)

  16. Experience in the operation and maintenance of the Austrian TRIGA Mark II reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Austrian TRIGA Mark II reactor ia in operation since March 1962. The reactor instrumentation, core design and irradiation facilities and operation are described. Besides steady state power and pulse operation, square wave operation has been installed 1968, allowing power squares up to 750 kW. A Survey of reactor operation and experiments is given

  17. 46th annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society. Programme and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains lectures (short communications) of the 46th symposium of the Austrian Physical Society which had been held at the University of Linz (Austria) in 1996. The following topics are included: atomic physics, molecular physics, plasma physics, solid state physics, nuclear and particle physics, biophysics, environmental physics, quantum electronics and quantum optics. (Suda)

  18. Overt and Disguised Discrimination against Women in Collective Agreements: Findings of an Austrian Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzker, Maria

    1980-01-01

    An Austrian survey of discriminatory practices in the texts of all collective agreements in force in March 1978 (except those covering public employees) identified six main forms of potential discrimination. Examples found among white-collar workers in the private sector and among textile, clothing, and leather workers are cited. (CT)

  19. Searching for axions and ALPs from string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringwald, Andreas

    2012-09-15

    We review searches for closed string axions and axion-like particles (ALPs) in IIB string flux compactifications. For natural values of the background fluxes and TeV scale gravitino mass, the moduli stabilisation mechanism of the LARGE Volume Scenario predicts the existence of a QCD axion candidate with intermediate scale decay constant, f{sub a} {proportional_to}10{sup 9/12} GeV, associated with the small cycles wrapped by the branes hosting the visible sector, plus a nearly massless and nearly decoupled ALP associated with the LARGE cycle. In setups where the visible sector branes are wrapping more than the minimum number of two intersecting cycles, there are more ALPs which have approximately the same decay constant and coupling to the photon as the QCD axion candidate, but which are exponentially lighter. There are exciting phenomenological opportunities to search for these axions and ALPs in the near future. For f{sub a} {proportional_to}10{sup 11/12} GeV, the QCD axion can be the dominant part of dark matter and be detected in haloscopes exploiting microwave cavities. For f{sub a} {proportional_to}10{sup 9/10} GeV, the additional ALPs could explain astrophysical anomalies and be searched for in the upcoming generation of helioscopes and light-shining-through-a-wall experiments.

  20. Status and distribution of the lynx in the German Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Kaczensky

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The lynx (Lynx lynx had been eradicated in the German Alps by the middle of the 19th century. Since the early 1970s there have been several attempts to initiate the re-introduction of lynx into the German Alps, but none of the projects could be carried out because of the still very controversial attitudes towards the species, and because of competition between institutions. Natural re-colonization of the German Alps by lynx can be expected sooner or later from Switzerland or Austria. Although lynx are already present in some parts of Germany outside the Alps, neither an organized monitoring system nor compensation regulations for losses of livestock exist. For a successful comeback of lynx into Germany, including the German Alps, more efforts than a year-round protection by the federal hunting law is needed. Initiative management actions and intensive public education are necessary to obtain and secure public acceptance of the lynx.

  1. Phenology in the Western Alps: first results of the PhenoALP project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremonese, Edoardo; Tracol, Yann

    2010-05-01

    PHENOALP is a EU co-funded Interreg Project under the operational programme for cross-border cooperation "Italy-France (Alps-ALCOTRA)" 2007 - 2013, started in 2009, aiming to get a better understanding of phenological changes in the Alps and build a long term monitoring network. The results obtained after the first year of the project are mainly related to the definition of observation protocols and to the implementation of the observation networks. In particular, we focused on the comparison of different approaches for monitoring alpine grasslands phenology. We developed a new protocol for vegetative and reproductive phases of the seven most common plant growth life forms of alpine pastures: cyperaceae, poaceae (palatable and non palatable), evergreen and deciduous shrubs, forbs and leguminous. For each group quantitative and qualitative variables (e.g. leaves length, bud number, fruits number and phenophases) are monitored during the growing season. Study sites are located along an elevation gradient from 1560 to 2580 m asl and measurements are carried out on marked individuals in permanent plots. The other techniques used to monitor grassland phenology are: analysis of webcam images, weekly nadiral digital images, visual estimations of greening percentage, canopy structural measurements (i.e. height, fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation, leaf are index, etc..) and high frequency radiometric measurements of vegetation indexes related to canopy structure. All methods are providing promising results and our goal is to define a protocol suitable for long term observation based on a reasonable trade-off between the quality and robustness of collected data and the heaviness of the observations. For animal phenology we are focusing on many animal taxa among birds, mammals, amphibians and insects. First results are coming from birds and amphibians. In the case of birds, observations of reproductive phenology of some common alpine species are done

  2. Why Credit Deflation Is More Likely than Mass Inflation: An Austrian Overview of the Inflation Versus Deflation Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Boyapati

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an Austrian overview of the inflation versus deflation debate which has captured the attention of the economics profession in the years following the US housing bust. Much of the Austrian analysis of this debate has focused on the massive expansion of the Federal Reserve’s balance sheet and attendant creation of new reserves. Several Austrian economists have predicted that the creation of new reserves will cause a massive increase in inflation. The money multiplier theory, on which these predictions are based, is criticized and an overview of the Austrian business cycle theory is provided to explain why banks are reluctant to issue new credit. Finally, an analysis of the politics of deflation is provided and a class theory is presented to explain why a policy of controlled credit deflation is more likely than a policy that would result in mass inflation or hyperinflation.

  3. Fission track ages and Exhumation mechanisms of the Tauern Window, Eastern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Audrey; Rosenberg, Claudio; Garcia, Sebastian

    2010-05-01

    The Tauern Window (TW) is a thermal and structural dome which exposes Penninic basement, its cover units as well as parts of the overlying Austroalpine basement in the central part of the Eastern Alps. The peak of metamorphism was attained approximately at 30Ma (Selverstone et .al, 1992), followed by cooling and exhumation throughout Miocene time. Most of the tertiary exhumation of the Eastern Alps was localized in the TW, from Early Oligocene to late Miocene time. A current debate centers on the exhumation mechanisms of Penninic rocks in the core of the TW, namely to assess whether orogen-parallel extension (e.g., Selverstone, 1988) or a combination of folding and erosion (eg., Rosenberg et al., 2004) with subordinate extension were the controlling processes. E-W extension is well documented at the western (Brenner Fault) and eastern (Katschberg Fault) margins of the window (e.g., Behrmann, 1988; Selverstone, 1988; Genser and Neubauer, 1989). In contrast, upright folding dominates the internal structure of the dome, and in particular along its western part, where fold amplitudes, mostly eroded during folding, attained up to 10 km. This study attempts to assess the relative importance of folding and erosion and of orogen-parallel extension during exhumation by analyzing the spatial and temporal cooling patterns of apatite and zircon fission track ages. The compilation of published apatite and zircon fission track ages indicates a concentric younging of both the apatite and zircon ages toward the core of the TW. The concentric isochrones follow the map trace of the axial planes of the upright folds of the western and eastern TW. This cooling pattern is in contrast to the one expected by a process of extensional unroofing, which in map view would results in isochrons parallel to the extensional faults and progressively younging towards them (e.g., Foster et al., 2001). We therefore propose that folding and erosion were primarily responsible for exhuming the Penninic

  4. Characterization of optical systems for the ALPS II experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Spector, Aaron D; Bähre, Robin; Lindner, Axel; Willke, Benno

    2016-01-01

    ALPS II is a light shining through a wall style experiment that will use the principle of resonant enhancement to boost the conversion and reconversion probabilities of photons to relativistic WISPs. This will require the use of long baseline low-loss optical cavities. Very high power build up factors in the cavities must be achieved in order to reach the design sensitivity of ALPS II. This necessitates a number of different sophisticated optical and control systems to maintain the resonance and ensure maximal coupling between the laser and the cavity. In this paper we report on the results of the characterization of these optical systems with a 20 m cavity and discuss the results in the context of ALPS II.

  5. Culture standards and their impact on teamwork: An empirical analysis of Austrian, German, Hungarian and Spanish culture differences

    OpenAIRE

    Dunkel, Amanda; Meierewert, Sylvia

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the impact of different cultural standards on the processes and performances of Austrian, Spanish, German and Hungarian task groups. We therefore analyzed 201 qualitative interviews with Austrians, Spaniards, Germans and Hungarians, which were conducted from 1996 to 2001. This paper uses the cultural standard framework as its theoretical background as well as the concepts of team development. The emphasis of our research is on those culture standards that have been ident...

  6. Peak metamorphic temperature and thermal history of the Southern Alps (New Zealand)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyssac, O.; Cox, S. C.; Vry, J.; Herman, F.

    2016-04-01

    The Southern Alps orogen of New Zealand results from late Cenozoic convergence between the Indo-Australian and Pacific plates and is one of the most active mountain belts in the world. Metamorphic rocks carrying a polymetamorphic legacy, ranging from low-greenschist to high-grade amphibolites, are exhumed in the hanging wall of the Alpine Fault. On a regional scale, the metamorphic grade has previously been described in terms of metamorphic zones and mineral isograds; application of quantitative petrology being severely limited owing to unfavorable quartzofeldspathic lithologies. This study quantifies peak metamorphic temperatures (T) in a 300 × 20 km area, based on samples forming 13 transects along-strike from Haast in the south to Hokitika in the north, using thermometry based on Raman spectroscopy of carbonaceous material (RSCM). Peak metamorphic T decreases across each transect from ≥ 640 °C locally in the direct vicinity of the Alpine Fault to less than 330 °C at the drainage divide 15-20 km southeast of the fault. Thermal field gradients exhibit a degree of similarity from the southernmost to the northernmost transects, are greater in low-grade semischist than high-grade schist, are affected by folding or discontinuous juxtaposition of metamorphic zones, and contain limited information on crustal-scale geothermal gradients. Temperatures derived by RSCM thermometry are slightly (≤ 50 °C) higher than those derived by traditional quantitative petrology using garnet-biotite thermometry and THERMOCALC modeling. The age of RSCM T appears to be mostly pre-Cenozoic over most of the area except in central Southern Alps (Franz Josef-Fox area), where the amphibolite facies schists have T of likely Cenozoic age. The RSCM T data place some constraints on the mode of exhumation along the Alpine Fault and have implications for models of Southern Alps tectonics.

  7. Postcollisional cooling history of the Eastern and Southern Alps and its linkage to Adria indentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberer, Bianca; Reverman, Rebecca Lee; Fellin, Maria Giuditta; Neubauer, Franz; Dunkl, István; Zattin, Massimiliano; Seward, Diane; Genser, Johann; Brack, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Indentation of rigid blocks into rheologically weak orogens is generally associated with spatiotemporally variable vertical and lateral block extrusion. The European Eastern and Southern Alps are a prime example of microplate indentation, where most of the deformation was accommodated north of the crustal indenter within the Tauern Window. However, outside of this window only the broad late-stage exhumation pattern of the indented units as well as of the indenter itself is known. In this study we refine the exhumational pattern with new (U-Th-Sm)/He and fission-track thermochronology data on apatite from the Karawanken Mountains adjacent to the eastern Periadriatic fault and from the central-eastern Southern Alps. Apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He ages from the Karawanken Mountains range between 12 and 5 Ma and indicate an episode of fault-related exhumation leading to the formation of a positive flower structure and an associated peripheral foreland basin. In the Southern Alps, apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He and fission-track data combined with previous data also indicate a pulse of mainly Late Miocene exhumation, which was maximized along thrust systems, with highly differential amounts of displacement along individual structures. Our data contribute to mounting evidence for widespread Late Miocene tectonic activity, which followed a phase of major exhumation during strain localization in the Tauern Window. We attribute this exhumational phase and more distributed deformation during Adriatic indentation to a major change in boundary conditions operating on the orogen, likely due to a shift from a decoupled to a coupled system, possibly enhanced by a shift in convergence direction.

  8. A new observation of ALPs-photon coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Prabhakar

    2016-01-01

    One of the fundamental results used in observational cosmology is the distance duality relation (DDR), which relates the luminosity distance, $D_L$, with angular diameter distance, $D_A$, at a given redshift $z$. We suggest to employ the observed limits of this relation to constrain the coupling of axion like particles (ALPs) with photons. With available data we are able to provide improved mixing limit. The method can provide very stringent constraint on ALPs mixing with future improved DDR observations. Also any deviation in DDR can be conventionally explained as photons decaying to axions or vice-versa.

  9. Praxeology and the firm: a contribution to the Austrian redefinition of the economic organization problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Ivan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to syntetize theory of entrepreneurship of the Austrian School of economics with the contractual theory of the firm. Transaction cost theory of Ronald Coase and his followers holds that the firm is the organization with dominant component of ordering, while market is defined by competition and rivalry. But, market also includes interdependency and cooperation, such as in the case of cartel. Therefore non-competitive forms of economic coordination are not specificity for the firm, and can be observed in the open market as well. Agency theory rejects the notion of the firm as a hierarchy, and it is based on completeness of knowledge and contract. Theory of entrepreneurship and monetary calculation of Austrian School enables us to integrate contractual theory into the theoretical setting characterized by uncertainty, information asymmetry and positive transaction costs.

  10. Manmade radionuclide vector in Austrian soil and vegetation near Temelin nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinojmeri, M.; Ringer, V. [Oesterreichische Agentur fuer Gesundheit und Ernaehrungssicherheit - AGES (Austria)

    2014-07-01

    Since Chernobyl NPP accident an environmental monitoring program concerning the Upper Austrian region near Czech Republic Nuclear Power Plant, NPP Temelin, is in progress between AGES and BMLFUV, the Austrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment, Water and Food, in Austria. This paper presents the results obtained during the sampling campaign over biennial period of 2010-2011. Soil samples, grass and different cereal species were collected. Beside Cs-134, Cs-137 and Sr-89, Sr-90 isotopes, at this phase the number of isotopes determined was extended with plutonium isotopes Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241 and Am-241. A comparison of these results with the existing data so far is presented. New knowledge was obtained related the bio-kinetic parameters of these elements in the environment. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  11. Out-of-pocket expenditures for pharmaceuticals: Lessons from the Austrian household budget survey

    OpenAIRE

    Sanwald, Alice; Theurl, Engelbert

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Paying pharmaceuticals out-of-pocket is an important source of financing pharmaceutical consumption. Only limited empirical knowledge is available on the determinants of these expenditures. OBJECTIVES: In this paper we analyze which characteristics of private households influence out-of-pocket pharmaceutical expenditure (OOPPE) in Austria. DESIGN & METHODS: We use cross-sectional information on OOPPE and on household characteristics provided by the Austrian household budget survey...

  12. Drugs from nature targeting inflammation (DNTI): a successful Austrian interdisciplinary network project

    OpenAIRE

    Waltenberger, Birgit; Atanasov, Atanas G.; Heiss, Elke H; Bernhard, David; Rollinger, Judith M.; Breuss, Johannes M.; Schuster, Daniela; Bauer, Rudolf; Kopp, Brigitte; Franz, Chlodwig; Bochkov, Valery; Marko D Mihovilovic; Dirsch, Verena M.; Stuppner, Hermann

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Inflammation is part of numerous pathological conditions, which are lacking satisfying treatment and effective concepts of prevention. A national research network project, DNTI, involving scientists from six Austrian universities as well as several external partners aimed to identify and characterize natural products capable of combating inflammatory processes specifically in the cardiovascular system. The combined use of computational techniques with traditional knowledge, high-tech...

  13. Integrating English as a Foreign Language in Austrian primary schools: contextual and participant perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Millonig, Diana Jean

    2015-01-01

    Government guidelines in Austria specify that first and second year primary school pupils (age 6-8 years old) should receive their first teaching of a foreign language integrated into the syllabus subjects. The present study, embedded in the theoretical framework of social constructivist learning and socio-cultural language learning theories, investigated the actual classroom practices of Austrian primary school teachers during the integration of English into the lessons. The main research...

  14. Decision Criteria in Ethical Dilemma Situations: Empirical Examples from Austrian Managers

    OpenAIRE

    Litschka, Michael; Suske, Michaela; Brandtweiner, Roman

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the result of an empirical research project analysing the decision behaviour of Austrian managers in ethical dilemma situations. While neoclassical economic theory would suggest a pure economic rational basis for management decisions, the empirical study conducted by the authors put other concepts to a test, thereby analysing their importance for managerial decision making: specific notions of fairness, reciprocal altruism, and commitment. After reviewing some of ...

  15. Is Bitcoin money? An analysis from the Austrian school of economic thought

    OpenAIRE

    Ísak Andri Ólafsson 1989

    2014-01-01

    This thesis aims to explore whether digital crypto-currencies such as Bitcoin can be considered money from the perspective of the Austrian school of economics. It begins by describing the functions and design of the Bitcoin system in detail. Other innovations that either build on or improve Bitcoin will be explained as well. The functions of money are then defined from the origins of money, providing a categorical approach toward a comparison between Bitcoin and incumbent money. The risks and...

  16. Welcome address: Alois Posch on behalf of the Austrian presidency for the European Union (A)

    OpenAIRE

    Posch, Dipl.-Ing. Alois

    2006-01-01

    In Austria, organic farming has been playing an important role in the national agricultural policy. Thus, Austria has advocated to foster the development of organic farming also at the level of the EU. It is the aim of the Austrian Presidency to support the European Commission in its actions. Like other EU countries, Austria is trying to make use of the Action programme for organic farming in the best possible way for the further development of organic farming. The rural development p...

  17. Academic Anti-Semitism and the Austrian School: Vienna, 1918–1945

    OpenAIRE

    Hansjoerg Klausinger

    2013-01-01

    The theme of academic anti-Semitism has been much discussed recently in histories of the interwar period of the University of Vienna, in particular its Faculty of Law and Policy Sciences. This paper complements these studies by focusing in this regard on the economics chairs at this faculty and, more generally, on the fate of the younger generation of the Austrian school of economics. After some introductory remarks the paper concentrates on three case studies: the neglect of Mises in a...

  18. Financial and Economic Education Products and Services of Austrian Institutions and Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Sabine Schlögl

    2007-01-01

    Austrian institutions and enterprises offer a broad range of economic and financial literacy products and services, including online products, brochures, folders, economic simulation games, TV and radio programs, presentations, seminars, company visits and guided tours. On closer inspection, however, it turns out that some areas and target groups remain largely neglected: Education products and services for students attending primary and compulsory school are still scarce, while comprehensive...

  19. Sustainability Management with the Sustainability Balanced Scorecard in SMEs: Findings from an Austrian Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Susanna Falle; Romana Rauter; Sabrina Engert; Rupert J. Baumgartner

    2016-01-01

    Given the economic importance of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) and their need for strategic sustainability management, this paper examines the concept of Sustainability Balanced Scorecard (SBSC) with respect to SMEs. This case study describes the development of an SBSC in a middle-sized Austrian brewery. The existing methods used in SBSC creation were adapted to suit the company’s specific needs. The findings show that when developing an SBSC it is important to take specific SME c...

  20. Revealed comparative advantage index: an analysis of export trade in the Austrian district of Burgerland

    OpenAIRE

    Granabetter, Doris

    2016-01-01

    The Austrian District of Burgenland is located in the eastern part of the country. In the last decade, the region has benefited from different subsidy programs from the European Union. The aim of this paper is to analyze and evaluate the export competitiveness of Burgenland in relation to the foreign trade of Austria as a whole from 2010 to 2014, which is the period showing the highest increase in exports since the Iron Curtain fell. The Revealed Comparative Advantage index (RCA) was used ...

  1. Phylogenetic analysis of Austrian canine distemper virus strains from clinical samples from dogs and wild carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetka, V; Leschnik, M; Affenzeller, N; Möstl, K

    2011-04-01

    Austrian field cases of canine distemper (14 dogs, one badger [Meles meles] and one stone marten [Martes foina]) from 2002 to 2007 were investigated and the case histories were summarised briefly. Phylogenetic analysis of fusion (F) and haemagglutinin (H) gene sequences revealed different canine distemper virus (CDV) lineages circulating in Austria. The majority of CDV strains detected from 2002 to 2004 were well embedded in the European lineage. One Austrian canine sample detected in 2003, with a high similarity to Hungarian sequences from 2005 to 2006, could be assigned to the Arctic group (phocine distemper virus type 2-like). The two canine sequences from 2007 formed a clearly distinct group flanked by sequences detected previously in China and the USA on an intermediate position between the European wildlife and the Asia-1 cluster. The Austrian wildlife strains (2006 and 2007) could be assigned to the European wildlife group and were most closely related to, yet clearly different from, the 2007 canine samples. To elucidate the epidemiological role of Austrian wildlife in the transmission of the disease to dogs and vice versa, H protein residues related to receptor and host specificity (residues 530 and 549) were analysed. All samples showed the amino acids expected for their host of origin, with the exception of a canine sequence from 2007, which had an intermediate position between wildlife and canine viral strains. In the period investigated, canine strains circulating in Austria could be assigned to four different lineages reflecting both a high diversity and probably different origins of virus introduction to Austria in different years.

  2. Towards a Dynamic Resource-Based View Insights from Austrian Capital and Entrepreneurship Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolai J. Foss; Ishikawa, Ibuki

    2006-01-01

    The dominant view in the strategic management field is the resource-based view ("RBV"). It has often been observed that the RBV is lacking in the dynamic dimension. For example, processes of building competitive advantages by means of combining existing complementary resources in novel ways are not inquired into. We argue that the RBV may profitably draw on Austrian (Misesian) and Knightian insights in entrepreneurship and capital theory, particularly in its Lachmannian manifestation, in orde...

  3. Negotiating Partnership: How Serbian Hauzmajstor Established a Business Relationship with Austrian Rustler

    OpenAIRE

    Vesna Vučinić-Nešković

    2016-01-01

    This study is an account of how Serbian Hauzmajstor negotiated and entered into partnership with the Austrian Rustler. The introduction is devoted to the development of Hauzmajstor, a small real estate maintenance firm, founded by a Serbian repatriate in 2004. Beginning with its start up as the first daughter firm of Komon sens, a consulting and project development firm, the study follows its adaptation to the local business environment, concentrating on its organizational and business cultur...

  4. Praxeology and the firm: a contribution to the Austrian redefinition of the economic organization problem

    OpenAIRE

    Janković Ivan

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to syntetize theory of entrepreneurship of the Austrian School of economics with the contractual theory of the firm. Transaction cost theory of Ronald Coase and his followers holds that the firm is the organization with dominant component of ordering, while market is defined by competition and rivalry. But, market also includes interdependency and cooperation, such as in the case of cartel. Therefore non-competitive forms of economic coordination are not specificity f...

  5. the term structure of interest rates: a first look at the austrian case

    OpenAIRE

    Jäger, Albert

    1985-01-01

    abstract: first, the basic idea of the expectations theory on the term structure of interest rates is sketched. a brief review of empirical evidence on the expectations theory is presented. the paper then derives and estimates a term structure equation for austrian interest rates. the empirical results for this equation seem not to be at variance with the basic idea of the expectations theory, i. e., representing the long term interest rates as a weighted average of expected short rates. a li...

  6. Bioactive Ingredients and Antioxidant Activity of Austrian Wine and Grape Juice

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Navarro, Roser

    2008-01-01

    Wine has already been investigated for its potential nutritional quality, such as high amount of phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds, well-known as natural antioxidants, are reported due their radical scavenging capacity. In the present work, the bioactive ingredients of nine Austrian wines (four red wines: Zweigelt, Blaufränkisch, Syrah and Cuvée; two white wines: Pinot Blanc and Chardonnay; one rosé Blaufränkisch; and two grape juice: red and white) have been quantified an...

  7. Edaphic characteristics of Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn. forests in the Višegrad area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Velibor D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of soil research in Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn. forest communities in the Višegrad area, carried out to determine the basic soil characteristics and eco-production potential of forest habitats as an important basis and framework for the successful management of these forests on the principles of sustainable development. Austrian pine forests in this region are an important and ecologically valuable community. The complexity of the geological structure and relief dynamics are dominant environmental factors that condition the expressed variability of soils in the study area. Forest communities of Austrian pine are formed on the peridotites and serpentinites, eutric ranker (haplic leptosol, eutric cambisol (haplic cambisols and pseudogley (haplic planosol, dense granular and marl limestones calcomelanosol (mollic leptosol, rendzina (rendzic leptosol and calcocambisol (leptic cambisol. The productivity of these soils is highly correlated with depth and texture composition, and the impact of these factors is linked with soil type, climate and other site conditions. In the research area, soil types with low production potential such as rankers, rendzinas, limestone and dolomite calcomelanosol are dominant. Deeper variants of eutric cambisol, pseudogley and calcocambisol can be classified as soils with moderate to high production potential.

  8. Effects of Renal Denervation Documented in the Austrian National Multicentre Renal Denervation Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Thomas; Steinwender, Clemens; Weber, Thomas; Suppan, Markus; Brussee, Helmut; Koppelstätter, Christian; Kerschbaum, Julia; Watschinger, Bruno; Hohenstein-Scheibenecker, Katharina; Reindl-Schwaighofer, Roman; Sturmberger, Thomas; Kindslehner, Claudia; Weiss, Thomas Werner; Rohla, Miklos; Gruener, Peter; Maister, Petra; Auer, Johann; Dechant, Cornelia; Sykora, Josef; Krismer, Christoph; Glaser, Stefan; Zweiker, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Renal denervation (RDN) is a new procedure for treatment-resistant hypertensive patients. In order to monitor all procedures undergone in Austria, the Austrian Society of Hypertension established the investigator-initiated Austrian Transcatheter Renal Denervation (TREND) Registry. From April 2011 to September 2014, 407 procedures in 14 Austrian centres were recorded. At baseline, office and mean 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) were 171/94 and 151/89 mmHg, respectively, and patients were taking a median of 4 antihypertensive medications. Mean 24-h ABP changes after 2–6 weeks, 3, 6 and 12 months were -11/-6, -8/-4, -8/-5 and -10/-6 mmHg (p<0.05 at all measurements), respectively. The periprocedural complication rate was 2.5%. Incidence of long-term complications during follow-up (median 1 year) was 0.5%. Office BP and ABP responses showed only a weak correlation (Pearson coefficient 0.303). Based on the data from the TREND registry, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in addition to office BP should be used for patient selection as well as for monitoring response to RDN. Furthermore, criteria for optimal patient selection are suggested. PMID:27529426

  9. Österreichs Wirtschaftsbeziehungen in Südostasien [Austrian Economic Relations to South-East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhart Zimmermann

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Der süd- und südostasiatische Raum befindet sich im Aufholprozess. Der anhaltende Wachstumstrend geht einher mit der steigenden Nachfrage aus den Industriestaaten sowie dem Binnenmarkt und führt auch zu erhöhtem Bedarf an Infrastruktur. Auch die österreichische Wirtschaft profitiert vom Asien-Boom. Dies zeigt das stete Wachstum österreichischer Warenexporte in die Region, der Anstieg heimischer Direktinvestitionen sowie die wachsende Präsenz österreichischer Firmen. Ziel der österreichischen WirtschaftsvertreterInnen ist es, die Tigerstaaten Südostasiens mehr aus dem Schatten der aufstrebenden Wirtschaftssupermacht China zu holen und die österreichische Wirtschaftsverflechtung mit diesen Ländern zu intensivieren.The South and South East Asian Area has been catching up with the developed world. The sustained economic growth trend goes hand in hand with a higher demand from industrialized nations and a stronger internal demand, pushing for better infrastructure. The Austrian economy is also benefiting from booming Asia, underscored by the steady increase of Austrian exports to this region, the rise of foreign direct investment and companies doing business in these countries. The Austrian business community would like to see the South East Asian tiger states more out of the shadow of the new super power China. The overall objective is to intensify the economic integration with South and South East Asia.

  10. OLIGOCENE STRATIGRAPHY BASED ON A SEDIMENT-BASALT ASSOCIATION IN CENTRAL MONGOLIA(TAATSIIN GOL AND TAATSIIN TSAGAAN NUUR AREA,VALLEY OF LAKES):REVIEW OF A MONGOLIAN-AUSTRIAN PROJECT%蒙古中部湖泊之谷沉积岩-玄武岩共存的渐新世地层:蒙古-奥地利合作项目回顾

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gudrun DAXNER-H(O)CK; Demchig BADAMGARAV; Margarita ERBAJEVA

    2010-01-01

    The Oligocene sedimentary sequence of the Taatsiin Gol and Taatsiin Tsagaan Nuur area is of unique stratigraphic importance:here,the exposed sediments of the Hsanda Gol and the Loh Formations display multiple fossil horizons and interbedded basah layers.In the frame of a Mongolian-Austrian pro-ject,289 fossil taxa(11 Gastropoda,2 Amphibia,9 Reptilia and 267 Mammalia)were collected from 85 fossil horizons of 33 sections/fossil sites of the study area.The taxa were identified by an interna-tional team of specialists.This contribution presents comprehensive mammal lists of all localities.By integrating the new data on large and small mammals,the Mongolian informal biozones A,B,C,C1 were updated.40Ar/39Ar-datings provide at least two groups of basalt ages,the Early Oligocene ba-salt I group around 31.5 Ma and the Late Oligocene basalt II group around 28 Ma.They serve as chronological tie points in the Oligocene mammalian stratigraphy.From the Early to the Late Oligocene the mammal associations underwent remarkable changes involving a ignificant decrease of species numbers in the Late Oligocene.This trend was most strik-ing in creodont,carnivore and ruminant communities.%Taatsiin Col和Taatsiin Tsagaan Nuur地区的渐新世沉积序列具有重要的地层学意义:这里出露的三达河组和Loh组沉积含有多个化石层和玄武岩夹层.在蒙古-奥地利合作项目中,从研究区域的33个剖面/化石地点的85个化石层中采集了289种化石(11种腹足类、2种两柄类、9种爬行类和267种哺乳类).本文提供了所有地点的完整哺乳动物清单,并结合大、小哺乳动物的新资料,对蒙古非正式的生物带A,B,C和Cl进行了更新.40Ar/39Ar测年给出了至少两组玄武岩年龄:早渐新世玄武岩Ⅰ组大约31.5 Ma,晚渐新世玄武岩Ⅱ组大约28 Ma.它们可以用作渐新世哺乳动物地层学的年代校正点.从早渐新世至晚渐新世,哺乳动物群发生了显著的变化,包括晚渐新世种

  11. Soil mapping and classification in the Alps: Current state and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruck, Jasmin; Gruber, Fabian; Geitner, Clemens

    2014-05-01

    Soil is an essential, non-renewable resource, which fundamentally needs sustainable management. Soils in mountain regions like the Alps have a diverse small-scale distribution and they are characterized by a slow soil development and multilayer profiles. This is mainly caused by high process dynamics and harsh climate conditions. Therefore, soils are particularly vulnerable and require a sustainable management approach. Furthermore, the global change, especially the climate and land use change, leads to new demands on the soil. Thus, high-resolution spatial informations on soil properties are required to protect this resource and to consider its properties in spatial planning and decision making. In the Alpine region soil maps are mostly confined to small (mostly agriculture) areas. Especially, in higher altitudes of the Alps pedologic research and data collection are lacking. However, nowadays and in the future systematic soil mapping works are and will be no longer applied. Another methodical problem arises because each Alpine country has its own national soil mapping and classification system which are not adapted to Alpine areas. Therefore, appropriate methods of working practices for the Alpine region are mostly missing. The central aim of the research project "ReBo - Terrain Classification based on airborne laser scanning data to support soil mapping in the Alps", founded by the Autonomous Province of Bolzano - South Tyrol, is to develop and verify a concept, which allows the collection of soil data through an optimized interaction of soil mapping and geomorphometric analysis. The test sites are located in South Tyrol (Italy). The workflow shall minimise the required pedologic field work and shall provide a reliable strategy for transferring punctual soil informations into spatial soil maps. However, for a detailed analysis a systematic pedologic field work is still indispensable. As in the Alps reliable soil mapping and classification standards are lacking

  12. Slab rollback orogeny in the Alps inferred from the stratigraphic evolution of the Swiss Molasse basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlunegger, Fritz; Kissling, Edi

    2016-04-01

    move south while the overriding Adriatic plate shifted north. In conclusion, a rollback mechanism yields an orogeny/foreland basin ensemble where subsidence and thrusting are partly decoupled at the scale of the orogeny. These mechanisms explain the formation of the Alps through the delamination and accretion of crustal rocks from the subducting plate, yielding in the stacking of Alpine nappes. Such a model is capable of reconciling previously conflicting stratigraphic, palaeotopographic, seismic and plate tectonic observations in the Central Alps and the Molasse Basin (Schlunegger and Kissing, 2015). Schlunegger, F., Kissling, E. (2015) Slab rollback orogeny in the Alps and evolution of the Swiss Molasse basin. Nature Communications, 6, 8605, DOI: 10.1038/ncomms9605 | www.nature.com/naturecommunications

  13. Mature vs. Active Deep-Seated Landslides: A Comparison Through Two Case Histories in the Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delle Piane, Luca; Perello, Paolo; Baietto, Alessandro; Giorza, Alessandra; Musso, Alessia; Gabriele, Piercarlo; Baster, Ira

    2016-06-01

    Two case histories are presented, concerning the still poorly known alpine deep-seated gravitational slope deformations (DSD) located nearby Lanzada (central Italian Alps), and Sarre (north-western Italian Alps). The Lanzada DSD is a constantly monitored, juvenile, and active phenomenon, partly affecting an existing hydropower plant. Its well-developed landforms allow a precise field characterization of the instability-affected area. The Sarre DSD is a mature, strongly remodeled phenomenon, where the only hazard factor is represented by secondary instability processes at the base of the slope. In this case, the remodeling imposed the adoption of complementary analytical techniques to support the field work. The two presented studies had to be adapted to external factors, namely (a) available information, (b) geological and geomorphological setting, and (c) final scope of the work. The Lanzada case essentially relied upon accurate field work; the Sarre case was mostly based on digital image and DTM processing. In both cases a sound field structural analysis formed the necessary background to understand the mechanisms leading to instability. A back-analysis of the differences between the study methods adopted in the two cases is finally presented, leading to suggestions for further investigations and design.

  14. Algorithms used in the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, David B.; Wright, C. Wayne

    2016-05-23

    The Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS) analyzes Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) data—digitized laser-return waveforms, position, and attitude data—to derive point clouds of target surfaces. A full-waveform airborne lidar system, the EAARL seamlessly and simultaneously collects mixed environment data, including submerged, sub-aerial bare earth, and vegetation-covered topographies.ALPS uses three waveform target-detection algorithms to determine target positions within a given waveform: centroid analysis, leading edge detection, and bottom detection using water-column backscatter modeling. The centroid analysis algorithm detects opaque hard surfaces. The leading edge algorithm detects topography beneath vegetation and shallow, submerged topography. The bottom detection algorithm uses water-column backscatter modeling for deeper submerged topography in turbid water.The report describes slant range calculations and explains how ALPS uses laser range and orientation measurements to project measurement points into the Universal Transverse Mercator coordinate system. Parameters used for coordinate transformations in ALPS are described, as are Interactive Data Language-based methods for gridding EAARL point cloud data to derive digital elevation models. Noise reduction in point clouds through use of a random consensus filter is explained, and detailed pseudocode, mathematical equations, and Yorick source code accompany the report.

  15. Searching for axions and ALPs from string theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ringwald, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    We review searches for closed string axions and axion-like particles (ALPs) in IIB string flux compactifications. For natural values of the background fluxes and TeV scale gravitino mass, the moduli stabilisation mechanism of the LARGE Volume Scenario predicts the existence of a QCD axion candidate with intermediate scale decay constant, f_a ~ 10^9 ... 10^12 GeV, associated with the small cycles wrapped by the branes hosting the visible sector, plus a nearly massless and nearly decoupled ALP associated with the LARGE cycle. In setups where the visible sector branes are wrapping more than the minimum number of two intersecting cycles, there are more ALPs which have approximately the same decay constant and coupling to the photon as the QCD axion candidate, but which are exponentially lighter. There are exciting phenomenological opportunities to search for these axions and ALPs in the near future. For f_a ~ 10^11 ... 10^12 GeV, the QCD axion can be the dominant part of dark matter and be detected in haloscopes ...

  16. The Geology of the Bergamasc Alps Lombardia Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitter, de L.U.; Sitter-Koomans, de C.M.

    1949-01-01

    In the Bergamasc Alps we have observed one major unconformity between the Basement rock and the overlying Permian. The total absence of any recognisable Palaeozoic sedimentary rocks accentuates this unconformity, and moreover this enormous hiatus makes the dating of any Palaeozoic event impossible.

  17. Adapting the ALP Model for Student and Institutional Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sides, Meredith

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing adoption of accelerated models of learning comes the necessary step of adapting these models to fit the unique needs of the student population at each individual institution. One such college adapted the ALP (Accelerated Learning Program) model and made specific changes to the target population, structure and scheduling, and…

  18. Constraining ALP-photon coupling using galaxy clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlederer, Martin; Sigl, Günter [II. Institut für theoretische Physik, Universität Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-01-21

    We study photon-ALP conversion by resonance effects in the magnetized plasma of galaxy clusters and compare the predicted distortion of the cosmic microwave background spectrum in the direction of such objects to measurements of the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect. Using galaxy cluster models based on current knowledge, we obtain upper limits on the photon-ALP coupling constant g of ≲O(10{sup −11} GeV{sup −1}). The constraints apply to the mass range of 2⋅10{sup −14} eV ≲m{sub ALP}≲3⋅10{sup −12} eV in which resonant photon-ALP conversions can occur. These limits are slightly stronger than current limits, and furthermore provide an independent constraint. We find that a next generation PRISM-like experiment would allow limits down to g≈O(10{sup −14} GeV{sup −1}), two orders of magnitude stronger than the currently strongest limits in this mass range.

  19. Monochroa bronzella sp. n. from the southwestern Alps (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsholt, Ole; Nel, Jacques; Fournier, François;

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Monochroa bronzella sp. n. is described from the southwestern Alps (France, Italy). It is closely related to M. nomadella (Zeller, 1868), with which it was hitherto confused. Literature records of M. nomadella from France and northwestern Italy refer to M. bronzella sp. n. The two speci...

  20. Green light for neutrino beam to pass below the Alps

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, A

    1999-01-01

    CERN council have approved a plan to send a beam of muon neutrinos under the Alps from Geneva to the Gran Sasso laboratories near Rome. INFN is organising two experiments - OPERA and ICANOE, to study the neutrino oscillations as they travel (1/2 pg)

  1. 13 CFR 120.841 - Qualifications for the ALP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Risk Rating, among other factors, will be considered in determining satisfactory SBA performance. Other... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualifications for the ALP. 120.841 Section 120.841 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS...

  2. Algorithms used in the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, David B.; Wright, C. Wayne

    2016-01-01

    The Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS) analyzes Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) data—digitized laser-return waveforms, position, and attitude data—to derive point clouds of target surfaces. A full-waveform airborne lidar system, the EAARL seamlessly and simultaneously collects mixed environment data, including submerged, sub-aerial bare earth, and vegetation-covered topographies.ALPS uses three waveform target-detection algorithms to determine target positions within a given waveform: centroid analysis, leading edge detection, and bottom detection using water-column backscatter modeling. The centroid analysis algorithm detects opaque hard surfaces. The leading edge algorithm detects topography beneath vegetation and shallow, submerged topography. The bottom detection algorithm uses water-column backscatter modeling for deeper submerged topography in turbid water.The report describes slant range calculations and explains how ALPS uses laser range and orientation measurements to project measurement points into the Universal Transverse Mercator coordinate system. Parameters used for coordinate transformations in ALPS are described, as are Interactive Data Language-based methods for gridding EAARL point cloud data to derive digital elevation models. Noise reduction in point clouds through use of a random consensus filter is explained, and detailed pseudocode, mathematical equations, and Yorick source code accompany the report.

  3. Traditional phytotherapy of the Albanians of Lepushe, Nothern Albanian Alps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieroni, A.; Dibra, B.; Grishaj, G.; Grishaj, I.; Maçai, S.G.

    2005-01-01

    An ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacognostic survey has been carried out in one of the most isolated mountainous area in Europe: the village of Lepushe and its surrounding territory, in the Northern Albanian Alps. Approximately 70 botanical taxa and 160 preparations, mainly derived from plants, but al

  4. Present-day uplift of the western Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocquet, J.-M.; Sue, C.; Walpersdorf, A.; Tran, T.; Lenôtre, N.; Vernant, P.; Cushing, M.; Jouanne, F.; Masson, F.; Baize, S.; Chéry, J.; van der Beek, P. A.

    2016-06-01

    Collisional mountain belts grow as a consequence of continental plate convergence and eventually disappear under the combined effects of gravitational collapse and erosion. Using a decade of GPS data, we show that the western Alps are currently characterized by zero horizontal velocity boundary conditions, offering the opportunity to investigate orogen evolution at the time of cessation of plate convergence. We find no significant horizontal motion within the belt, but GPS and levelling measurements independently show a regional pattern of uplift reaching ~2.5 mm/yr in the northwestern Alps. Unless a low viscosity crustal root under the northwestern Alps locally enhances the vertical response to surface unloading, the summed effects of isostatic responses to erosion and glaciation explain at most 60% of the observed uplift rates. Rock-uplift rates corrected from transient glacial isostatic adjustment contributions likely exceed erosion rates in the northwestern Alps. In the absence of active convergence, the observed surface uplift must result from deep-seated processes.

  5. Accelerated Learning Program (ALP): Grade 3-8 Evaluation, 2001-02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baenen, Nancy; Yaman, Kimberly; Lindblad, Mark

    The Wake County Public Schools, North Carolina (WCPSS), initiated the Accelerated Learning Program (ALP) in 1999-2000 as the major new intervention to help all students reach grade-level performance in reading and mathematics. The ALP program was funded through local and state funds, and in 2001-220, 7,285 students received services through ALP.…

  6. New, rare or remarkable microfungi in the Italian Alps (Carnic Alps)--part I--ascomycotina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feige, G B; Ale-Agha, N; Jensen, M; Christiaans, B; Kricke, R

    2004-01-01

    During our observations in the SE part of the Carnic Alps in the year 2003 we were able to collect and identify 35 ascomycetes on trees and dead wood. Among these one can find numerous ascomycetes of different orders e.g. Pyrenomycetes, Loculoascomycetes and Discomycetes. Some species like Botryosphaeria ribis GROSENLUCHER & DUGGAR on Ribes alpinum L., Dothiora pyrenophora (FR.) FR. on Sorbus aucuparia L., Gemmamyces piceae (BORTH.) CASAGO. on Picea excelsa (LAM.) LINK, Glomerella montana (SACC.) v. ARX & E. MULLER on Sesleria caerulea (L.) ARD, Hymenoscyphus immutabilis (Fuck.) Dennis on Alnus incana (L.) Moench, Hysterographium fraxini (PERS. Ex. FR.) de Not. on Fraxinus ornus L., Lachnellula willkommii (Hartig) DENNIS [= Trichascyphella willkommii (Hartig) NANNF.] on Larix decidua MILL.,Leptosphaeria lycopodina (Mont.) SACC. on Lycopodium annotinum L., Mollisia adenostylidis REHM. on Adenostyles glabra (MILL.) DC., Pezicula cinnamomea (DC.)SACC. [ana: Cryptosporiopsis quercina PETRAK] on Quercus robur L., Pyrenopeziza petiolaris (A. & S. Ex FR.) NANNF. on Acer pseudoplatanus L., Tapesia rosae (PERS.) FUCKEL on Rosa canina L., are new for this area. All specimen are deposited in the Herbarium ESS Mycotheca Parva, Collection G.B. Feige/N. Ale-Agha. PMID:15756826

  7. Comment diffuser les savoirs à travers les Alpes ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Pfefferkorn

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available CIPRA’s Future in the Alps Project aims at showcasing examples of successful implementation and successful projects in the Alps, and making available to others the extensive pool of experience and practical knowledge that lies in these projects. But how to transfer knowledge in an area of some 14 million inhabitants with several linguistic and cultural regions in which thousands of projects are carried out each year, that all kinds of players who work and life in completely different contexts are able to learn and benefit from one another? How do you go about something like that?Le projet « Avenir dans les Alpes » de la CIPRA (Commission Internationale pour la Protection des Alpes a pour objectif de présenter des exemples de réalisations et de projets réussis dans les Alpes, et de mettre à disposition du public l’ensemble de l’expérience et des connaissances pratiques acquises dans le cadre de ces projets. Cependant, comment transférer les savoirs dans une zone comptant quelque 14 millions d’habitants, composée de plusieurs régions linguistiques et culturelles dans lesquelles des milliers de projets sont menés à bien chaque année, et dont tous les acteurs, qui travaillent et vivent dans des contextes complètement différents, sont capables d’apprendre et de tirer profit les uns des autres ? Comment aborder ce genre de cas ?

  8. Immediate and delayed signal of slab breakoff in Oligo/Miocene Molasse deposits from the European Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlunegger, Fritz; Castelltort, Sébastien

    2016-08-01

    High-resolution 32-20 Ma-old stratigraphic records from the Molasse foreland basin situated north of the Alps, and Gonfolite Lombarda conglomerates deposited on the southern Alpine margin, document two consecutive sedimentary responses - an immediate and delayed response - to slab breakoff beneath the central Alps c. 32-30 Ma ago. The first signal, which occurred due to rebound and surface uplift in the Alps, was a regional and simultaneous switch from basin underfill to overfill at 30 Ma paired with shifts to coarse-grained depositional environments in the foreland basin. The second signal, however, arrived several million years after slab breakoff and was marked by larger contributions of crystalline clasts in the conglomerates, larger clast sizes, larger sediment fluxes and shifts to more proximal facies. We propose that this secondary pulse reflects a delayed whiplash-type erosional response to surface uplift, where erosion and sediment flux became amplified through positive feedbacks once larger erosional thresholds of crystalline bedrock were exceeded.

  9. Morphology and ecology of Daphnia middendorffiana, Fisher 1851 (Crustacea, Daphniidae from four new populations in the Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco TIBERTI

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Daphnia middendorffiana has an arctic, circumpolar distribution, with some isolated southerly populations restricted to mountainous areas, including the Alps. In this paper, new records of Daphnia middendorffiana on the Alps are reported. The species was regularly recorded in several samples collected from 2006 to 2009 in four high altitude lakes in the Gran Paradiso National Park (GPNP during the ice free period. This is the third finding for the Alps and the described populations are the largest. Chemical and morphometric features of the lakes are provided, the morphology of the Daphnia middendorffiana from GPNP is described as well as some aspects concerning its ecology. The studied lakes are small, oligotrophic (total phosphorus ranged from 0 to 7 μg L-1 and well preserved from acidification risk (pH ranged from 6.45 to 8.14. D. middendorffiana is the largest zooplanktonic crustacean inhabiting the Alpine lakes in GPNP reaching 3.43 mm in length; the morphological analysis noted some differences within the studied populations; however there is a clear resemblance to the only Alpine population previously described (from Central Alps, Bognanco Valley, Lake Campo IV and to the arctic populations. D. middendorffiana in GPNP lives at low density levels, reaching higher densities in late August and early September. No males have been found during the sample campaign confirming its ability to produce asexual viable diapauses eggs. This study confirms the attitude of this species for cold and oligotrophic waters and increases the current knowledge on the geographical distribution, morphology and ecology of this species in Alpine environments. The finding of D. middendordorffiana in the GPNP poses interesting issues concerning the phylogeography of Alpine Daphnia middendorffiana, as well as raising need for conservation efforts aimed at keeping the populations safe from several global and local threats, such as climate warming and the ecological

  10. A NEW DAONELLA FROM THE LADINIAN PLATFORM OF THE ESINO LIMESTONE (SOUTHERN ALPS, ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIANO LARGHI

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The bivalve Daonella Mojsisovics, 1874 is very common in the Middle Triassic pelagic facies, whereas the record of this genus from shallow water limestones is rare. In the present paper a new species of Daonella, named D. pseudograbensis, is described from the Esino Limestone, a Ladinian (Middle Triassic carbonate platform in the central Southern Alps. The species is described from Brembana Valley, where the Esino Limestone is rather rich in bioclastic lenses yielding faunas with bivalves, cephalopods, gastropods, brachiopods, corals and calcareous algae. Daonella pseudograbensis n. sp. is based on very well preserved specimens, which are often articulated and closed, all coming from the same locality. The new species shows a narrow range of intraspecific and ontogenetic morphologic variations. It is easy distinguishable from the other species of the genus for the outline and ornamentation; it therefore differs from D. grabensis Kittl, 1912, the most similar species, for the longer anterior dorsal margin.Pdf

  11. The ACOnet (Austrian Academic Computer Network) is data carrier for teleradiological consultations; Das ACOnet (Austrian Academic Computer Network) als Datentraeger fuer teleradiologische Konsultationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giacomuzzi, S.M. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Innsbruck (Austria)]|[Universitaetsklinik Innsbruck (Austria). Inst. fuer Medizinische Physik; Springer, P.; Dessl, A.; Waldenberger, P.; Buchberger, W.; Bodner, G.; Bale, R.; Jaschke, W. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Innsbruck (Austria); Stoeger, A. [Universitaetsklinik Innsbruck (Austria). Inst. fuer MRI; Schreder, J.G. [Universitaetsklinik Innsbruck (Austria). Inst. fuer Medizinische Physik; Gell, G. [Universitaetsklinik Innsbruck (Austria). Inst. fuer Medizinische Informatik

    1998-04-01

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility of image transfer for teleradiologic consultations using the Austrian Academic Computer Network (ACOnet). The ACOnet corresponds between the main univerisities to a MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) with a transfer rate of 4 Mbps. Its use is free of charge for university institutions. Materials and methods: 1740 test image data sets and 620 image data sets for teleradiological consultations were exchanged without annotations between the Departments of Diagnostic Radiology of the universities of Innsbruck and Graz, using the ACOnet. Results: Data transmission was reliable and fast with an average transfer capacity of 170.2 kBytes/s (94-341 kBytes/s). There were no major problems with image transfer during the test phase. Conclusion: Due to its high transfer capacity, the ACOnet is considered a reasonable alternative to the ISDN service. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Radiologische Bilddatensaetze sollten fuer telemedizinische Konsultationen mittels des Austrian Academic Computer Network (ACOnet) zwischen den Universitaetskliniken Innsbruck und Graz ausgetauscht werden. Das ACOnet, dessen Benutzung fuer Universitaeten frei ist, entspricht zwischen den Landesuniversitaeten einem MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) mit einer Uebertragungsrate von 4 Mbps. Material und Methode: Die Uebertragung von 1740 Testbilddatensaetzen und 12 radiologischen Konsultationen (620 Bilddatensaetze), ohne Annotationen, zwischen den radiologischen Abteilungen der Universitaetskliniken Innsbruck und Graz zum Zwecke teleradiologischer Konsultationen mittels ACOnet. Ergebnisse: Die Uebertragungen ergaben eine hohe durchschnittliche Uebertragungskapazitaet von 170,2 kBytes/s (94-341 kBytes/s). Das ACOnet erwies sich waehrend der gesamten Testphase als zuverlaessig und praktikabel fuer die Uebertragung teleradiologischer Bilddatensaetze. Schlussfolgerungen: Durch die hohe Uebertragungskapazitaet stellt das ACOnet eine erfolgversprechende Alternative zum ISDN-Service dar

  12. Crustal structure of the Alps as seen by attenuation tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Jessie; Calvet, Marie; Margerin, Ludovic; Vanderhaeghe, Olivier; Traversa, Paola

    2016-04-01

    We develop a simple tomographic approach exploiting the decay rate of coda waves to map the absorption properties of the crust in a region delimited approximately by the Rhine Graben to the North, the Apennines to the South, the Massif Central to the West and the Dinarides to the East. Our dataset comprises 40 000 coda records of about 2000 weak to moderate crustal earthquakes, with magnitude ranging from 2.8 to 6 and recorded by broad-band, accelerometric and short-period stations. After proper choice of a coda window minimizing the effects of variable epicentral distances, we measure the coda quality factor Qc in five non-overlapping frequency windows covering the 1-32 Hz band for all available source station pairs. These measurements are subsequently converted into maps of absorption quality factor (Qi) using a linearized, approximate relation between Qc and Qi. In practice the following procedure is applied in each frequency band: (1) we divide the target region into 40 × 40 km cells; (2) for each source-station pair, we assign the measured Qc value to each pixel intercepted by the direct ray path; (3) the results are averaged over all paths and subsequently smoothed with a 3 × 3 pixels moving window. Our approach is consistent with the high sensitivity of Qc to the value of Qi between source and station. Our tomographic approach reveals strong lateral variations of absorption with length scales ranging from 100 km to 1000 km. At low frequency (˜ 1 Hz), the correlation with the surface geology is clear, Cenozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary basins (resp. crystalline massifs) being recognized as high (resp. low)-absorption regions. Furthermore the Qi map delineates finer geological features such as the Ivrea Body, the Rhône Valley, or felsic intrusions in the central Alps. At high-frequency (>16 Hz), only the thickest Cenozoic sedimentary deposits show up as high-attenuation regions and a north/south dichotomy is apparent in the absorption structure. The limit

  13. The knowledge balance of the inter- and transdisciplinary Austrian Landscape Research programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Begusch-Pfefferkorn

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Austrian Landscape Research, a programme of the Austrian Ministry of Science, has created scientific foundations for the sustainable development of Austrian landscapes and regions (plus bordering regions. Landscapes and regions were to be explored from different angles; implementing the research findings was to be part of the research work. The programme was designed to make room for science open to society, for unconventional ideas, methods, and courses of action. Programmatic targets and research principles supported this intent. The results of the programme met with national and international approval. The ALR knowledge balance is an attempt at presenting and assessing the achievements of this comprehensive contract research programme.Le programme du Ministère autrichien des Sciences, intitulé « Recherche sur le paysage autrichien », visait à construire les fondements scientifiques d’un développement durable des paysages et des régions de l’Autriche et des territoires limitrophes. Les paysages et les régions ont été étudiés selon différentes approches disciplinaires et la mise en pratique des résultats de cette étude était partie prenante du programme de recherche. La vocation de ce programme était de faire la place à une science ouverte sur la société, à des idées, méthodes et pratiques non conventionnelles. Les objectifs du programme et les principes de recherche vont dans le sens de ces exigences. Les résultats du programme ont été reconnus sur le plan national et international. Le bilan des connaissances du programme de recherche sur le paysage autrichien (KLF a pour but de présenter et d’évaluer les performances de ce vaste programme de recherche.

  14. Austrian dose measurements onboard space station MIR and the International Space Station--overview and comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, T; Hajek, M; Summerer, L; Vana, N; Akatov, Y; Shurshakov, V; Arkhangelsky, V

    2004-01-01

    The Atominstitute of the Austrian Universities has conducted various space research missions in the last 12 years in cooperation with the Institute for Biomedical Problems in Moscow. They dealt with the exact determination of the radiation hazards for cosmonauts and the development of precise measurement devices. Special emphasis will be laid on the last experiment on space station MIR the goal of which was the determination of the depth distribution of absorbed dose and dose equivalent in a water filled Phantom. The first results from dose measurements onboard the International Space Station (ISS) will also be discussed. The spherical Phantom with a diameter of 35 cm was developed at the Institute for Biomedical Problems and had 4 channels where dosimeters can be exposed in different depths. The exposure period covered the timeframe from May 1997 to February 1999. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were exposed inside the Phantom, either parallel or perpendicular to the hull of the spacecraft. For the evaluation of the linear energy transfer (LET), the high temperature ratio (HTR) method was applied. Based on this method a mean quality factor and, subsequently, the dose equivalent is calculated according to the Q(LET infinity) relationship proposed in ICRP 26. An increased contribution of neutrons could be detected inside the Phantom. However the total dose equivalent did not increase over the depth of the Phantom. As the first Austrian measurements on the ISS dosimeter packages were exposed for 248 days, starting in February 2001 at six different locations onboard the ISS. The Austrian dosimeter sets for this first exposure on the ISS contained five different kinds of passive thermoluminescent dosimeters. First results showed a position dependent absorbed dose rate at the ISS.

  15. Crustal structure of the Eastern Alps and their foreland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grad, M.; Brückl, E.; Majdanski, M.;

    2009-01-01

    ) and are also characterized by variations in apparent velocity and amplitude. The Moho reflections are usually strong and well correlated, while Pn arrivals are only fragmentarily recorded. Detailed 2-D forward modelling of all refracted, post-critical and reflected phases, identified in the correlation process......) are distinct up to 60-90 km offset and are characterized by large variations in apparent velocity and amplitude. The contact between the Molasse basin and the Eastern Alps represents a barrier for seismic waves. Mid-crustal reflections (Pc) are usually recorded at short distance intervals (20-50 km......, was undertaken using a ray-tracing technique. The P-wave velocity in the crystalline upper crust of the Bohemian Massif and Molasse basin is about 6.15 km s-1, which is slightly higher than in the Alpine area (about 6.0 km s-1). Below the northern accretionary wedge of the Eastern Alps low-velocity sediments...

  16. Ozone measurements along vertical transects in the Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, H; Kirchner, M; Welzl, G; Hangartner, M

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the vertical profiles of air pollutants in the boundary layer, aircraft and balloon-born measurements and measurements using a cable car as an instrument platform have been performed in different parts of the Alps. This on-line monitoring of atmospheric pollutants requires expensive and sophisticated techniques. In order to control ambient air quality in remote regions, where no infrastructure like power supply is available, simple instruments are required. The objective of this study, which was coordinated and evaluated by the GSF-Forschungszentrum für Umwelt und Gesundheit was first, to investigate the vertical distribution of ozone in different parts of the Alps and secondly, in addition to continuous analyser measurements, to test monitoring by means of two types of passive samplers. The selection of these samplers - one for one week use and another one for two week application - was based on a passive sampler intercomparison done in a preliminary study one year earlier.

  17. Progress report 1980/81 of the Austrian Academy of Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the numerous institutes and divisions of the Austrian Academy of Sciences presented in this report the Commission for Arteriosclerosis and Thrombosis Research (application of radioimmunoassay) and the Institute for X-ray Microstructure Research (investigation of biological substances by X-ray and neutron small angle scattering) are partly within the scope of INIS. Fully in scope are short project discriptions of the Institute for Radium Research and Nulear Physics: the Commission for the SIN-project and the Institute for High Energy Physics, completed by publication lists. (G.Q.)

  18. The most important parasitic and saprophytic fungi in Austrian pine and Scots pine plantations in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karadžić Dragan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In Austrian pine plantations in Serbia, the greatest damage is caused by the fungi Mycosphaerella pini, Sphaeropsis sapinea, Cenangium ferruginosum, Germmeniella abietina (in the mountain regions and occasionally Armillaria spp., Lophodermium spp. (seditiosum, conigenum, pinastri and Cyclaneusma niveum. In Scots pine plantations, the greatest damage is caused by the fungi Heterobasidion annosum (especially in plantations on sandy soils, Armillaria spp, Lophodermium seditiosum, L. pinastri, Cyclaneusma minus and Sphaeropsis sapinea. Damage caused by rust fungi (Coleosporium sennecionis, Melampsora pinitorqua and Cronartium flaccidum occurs less frequently. In mountainous regions in Scots pine plantations, great damage is caused by Phacidium infestans, Lophodermella sulcigena and Gremmeniella abietina.

  19. What's new in ALPS-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebrich, Babette; Collaboration: ALPS-II collaboration

    2013-09-15

    This proceedings contribution gives a brief experimental update of the 'Any light particle search (ALPS) -II' at DESY which will be sensitive to sub-eV, very weakly coupled particles beyond the Standard Model. First data on hidden sector photon parameter space through photon-hidden photon oscillations in vacuum is expected in 2014. Axion-like particle search (implying the installation of superconducting HERA magnets) could be realized in 2017.

  20. BSM photon interaction for ALPS-II and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebrich, Babette

    2012-12-15

    High-intensity photon beams can provide for a viable probe for many particles of Standard Model extensions. This workshop contribution briefly reviews the status of the second stage of the Any Light Particle Search (ALPS-II) at DESY, an experiment of the light-shining-through-a-wall type, as well as an idea to test asymptotically safe quantum gravity in a photon-scattering experiment.

  1. ALPtraum: ALP production in proton beam dump experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Döbrich, Babette; Kahlhoefer, Felix; Ringwald, Andreas; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai

    2016-01-01

    With their high beam energy and intensity, existing and near-future proton beam dumps provide an excellent opportunity to search for new very weakly coupled particles in the MeV to GeV mass range. One particularly interesting example is a so-called axion-like particle (ALP), i.e. a pseudoscalar coupled to two photons. The challenge in proton beam dumps is to reliably calculate the production of the new particles from the interactions of two composite objects, the proton and the target atoms. In this work we argue that Primakoff production of ALPs proceeds in a momentum range where production rates and angular distributions can be determined to sufficient precision using simple electromagnetic form factors. Reanalysing past proton beam dump experiments for this production channel, we derive novel constraints on the parameter space for ALPs. We show that the NA62 experiment at CERN could probe unexplored parameter space by running in 'dump mode' for a few days and discuss opportunities for future experiments su...

  2. ALPtraum: ALP production in proton beam dump experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döbrich, Babette; Jaeckel, Joerg; Kahlhoefer, Felix; Ringwald, Andreas; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai

    2016-02-01

    With their high beam energy and intensity, existing and near-future proton beam dumps provide an excellent opportunity to search for new very weakly coupled particles in the MeV to GeV mass range. One particularly interesting example is a so-called axion-like particle (ALP), i.e. a pseudoscalar coupled to two photons. The challenge in proton beam dumps is to reliably calculate the production of the new particles from the interactions of two composite objects, the proton and the target atoms. In this work we argue that Primakoff production of ALPs proceeds in a momentum range where production rates and angular distributions can be determined to sufficient precision using simple electromagnetic form factors. Reanalysing past proton beam dump experiments for this production channel, we derive novel constraints on the parameter space for ALPs. We show that the NA62 experiment at CERN could probe unexplored parameter space by running in `dump mode' for a few days and discuss opportunities for future experiments such as SHiP.

  3. A century of leishmaniasis in Alpes-Maritimes, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, P; Izri, A; Ozon, C; Haas, P; Rosenthal, E; Del Giudice, P; Godenir, J; Coulibaly, E; Gari-Toussaint, M; Delaunay, P; Ferrua, B; Haas, H; Pratlong, F; Le Fichoux, Y

    2007-10-01

    A century of publications on leishmaniasis in Alpes-Maritimes, in southern France, is here reviewed. Autochtonous human and canine leishmaniasis were first recognised in this département, which lies by the Mediterranean Sea and near the Italian border, in 1918 and 1925, respectively. The parasite responsible for the leishmaniasis, Leishmania infantum, is transmitted by Phlebotomus perniciosus and P. ariasi. The human leishmaniasis is zoonotic, with domestic dogs acting as the main 'reservoir' hosts. In prospective surveys over the last two decades, a mean of 12% of the domestic dogs checked in Alpes-Maritimes have been found seropositive for L. infantum but only about 50% of the seropositive animals showed any clinical signs of infection at the time of the surveys. During the last 30 years, 178 cases of human visceral leishmaniasis have been recorded in the area. Such cases are sporadic and often opportunistic, occurring predominantly in children (29% of the 178 cases) or HIV-positive subjects (31%). Recently, it has been demonstrated that, in Alpes-Maritimes, approximately 20% of those found seropositive in leishmanin skin tests are asymptomatic carriers, with amastigotes in their peripheral blood. PMID:17877875

  4. Austrian's syndrome: The first described case of pneumococcal meningitis pneumonia and endocarditis in an injecting drug user.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beadsworth, Mike B J; Wooton, Dan; Chenzbraun, Adrian; Beeching, Nick J

    2007-12-01

    We describe the first reported case of Austrian's syndrome in an injecting drug user (IDU). The triad of endocarditis, meningitis and pneumonia caused by invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is most commonly associated with excess alcohol. Injecting drug use is a recognised risk factor for IPD, whose prevalence and resistance continue to rise. We propose that injecting drug use is associated with Austrian's syndrome and that it should at least be considered in 'at risk' groups presenting with IPD. Furthermore, IDU presenting with IPD, meningitis and pneumonia should be considered for echocardiography.

  5. Swiss AlpArray: deployment of the Swiss AlpArray temporary broad-band stations and their noise characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, Irene; Kissling, Edi; Clinton, John; Hetényi, György; Šipka, Vesna; Stipćević, Josip; Dasović, Iva; Solarino, Stefano; Wéber, Zoltán; Gráczer, Zoltán; Electronics Lab, SED

    2016-04-01

    One of the main actions of the AlpArray European initiative is the deployment of a dense seismic broad-band network, that complements the existing permanent stations. This will ensure a spatially homogeneous seismic coverage of the greater Alpine area for at least two years, allowing a great number of innovative scientific works to be carried out. Our contribution to the AlpArray Seismic Network consists in the deployment of 24 temporary broad-band stations: three in Switzerland, twelve in Italy, three in Croatia, three in Bosnia and Herzegovina and three in Hungary. This deployment is lead by ETH Zurich and founded by the Swiss-AlpArray Sinergia programme by SNSF, and is the result of a fruitful collaboration between five research institutes. Stations were installed between Autumn and Winter 2015. Our installations are both free field and in-house and consist of 21 STS-2 and 3 Trillium Compact sensors equipped with Taurus digitizers and 3G telemetry sending data in real time to the ETH EIDA node. In this work, we present sites and stations setting and we discuss in details the characteristics in terms of site effects and noise level of each station. In particular we analyse the power spectral density estimates investigating the major source of noise and the background noise related to seasons, time of the day, human activities and type of installation. In addition we will show examples of data usage - i.e. earthquake locations, noise cross correlations, measures of surface wave dispersion curves. We thanks the Swiss AlpArray Field Team: Blanchard A., Erlanger E. D., Jarić D., Herak D., M. Herak, Hermann M., Koelemeijer P. J., Markušić S., Obermann A., Sager K., Šikman S., Singer J., Winterberg S. SED Electronic Lab: Barman S., Graf P., Hansemann R., Haslinger F., Hiemer S., Racine R., Tanner R., Weber F.

  6. Meteorological wind energy potential in the Alps using ERA40 and wind measurement sites in the Tyrolean Alps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draxl, Caroline; Mayr, Georg J.

    2011-01-01

    The peculiarities of meteorological wind potential in alpine settings compared to flatland and offshore sites are studied. Four data sources are used: Global reanalysis ERA40 from ECMWF, long-term stations in the Tyrolean Alps, spatially dense measurements near the best site and Doppler sodar wind...... profiles. Due to the decrease of density with height, alpine sites suffer from a nearly linear decrease of harvestable power with altitude, which is more than offset by the increase of wind speed at altitudes above 1.5 km MSL. ERA40 data show higher potential on the northern than on the southern side...... of the Alps. The best locations are not isolated peaks but ridges within wide orographic channels. The best potential sites in the Tyrolean part of the Alps have median wind speeds of up to 7.1 m s−1 and extractable potentials between 2900 and 1600 kWh per year and per square meter of rotor area. The profile...

  7. The relevance and legibility of radio/TV weather reports to the Austrian public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keul, A. G.; Holzer, A. M.

    2013-03-01

    The communicative quality of media weather reports, especially warnings, can be evaluated by user research. It is an interdisciplinary field, still uncoordinated after 35 years. The authors suggest to shift from a cognitive learning model to news processing, qualitative discourse and usability models as the media audience is in an edutainment situation where it acts highly selective. A series of field surveys 2008-2011 tested the relevance and legibility of Austrian radio and television weather reports on fair weather and in warning situations. 247 laypeople heard/saw original, mostly up-to-date radio/TV weather reports and recalled personally relevant data. Also, a questionnaire on weather knowledge was answered by 237 Austrians. Several research hypotheses were tested. The main results were (a) a relatively high level of meteorological knowledge of the general population, with interest and participation of German-speaking migrants, (b) a pluralistic media usage with TV, radio and internet as the leading media, (c) higher interest and attention (also for local weather) after warnings, but a risk of more false recalls after long warnings, (d) more recall problems with radio messages and a wish that the weather elements should always appear in the same order to faciliate processing for the audience. In their narrow time windows, radio/TV weather reports should concentrate on main features (synoptic situation, tomorrow's temperature and precipitation, possible warnings), keep a verbal “speed limit” and restrict show elements to serve the active, selective, multioptional, multicultural audience.

  8. Renal infarction as a presentation of Austrian syndrome: thromboembolic phenomenon of pneumococcal endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankongpaisarnrung, Charoen; Soontrapa, Suthipong; Nantsupawat, Teerapat; Desai, Vipul; Nugent, Kenneth

    2012-09-01

    A 52-year-old unvaccinated and splenectomized man presented with fever, altered sensorium, bilateral flank pain and chest discomfort accompanied with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation with a rapid ventricular response. An abdominal computed tomography scan was performed, which revealed a right renal infarct and splenosis. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed, which demonstrated an echodense structure on the mitral valve with mitral regurgitation and a vegetation on the aortic valve with aortic regurgitation. Subsequently, he was found to have pneumococcal infective endocarditis, pneumococcal pneumonia and bacterial meningitis, namely Austrian syndrome. He underwent an early aortic valve and mitral valve repair but still had a poor clinical outcome. Renal infarction has a mortality of approximately 13.2%, which is strongly influenced by the underlying diseases and infectious complications. Medical and surgical treatment initiated in a timely manner is often inadequate. The authors report the first case of Austrian syndrome presenting with renal infarction as a clue to an embolic event associated with infective endocarditis in this study.

  9. High concentrations of anthocyanins in genuine cherry-juice of old local Austrian Prunus avium varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüller, Elisabeth; Halbwirth, Heidi; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Slatnar, Ana; Veberic, Robert; Forneck, Astrid; Stich, Karl; Spornberger, Andreas

    2015-04-15

    Antioxidant activity and polyphenols were quantified in vapour-extracted juice of nine Austrian, partially endemic varieties of sweet cherry (Prunus avium): cv. 'Spätbraune von Purbach', cv. 'Early Rivers', cv. 'Joiser Einsiedekirsche', cv. 'Große Schwarze Knorpelkirsche' and four unidentified local varieties. Additionally the effect of storage was evaluated for six of the varieties. A variety showing the highest antioxidant capacity (9.64 μmol Trolox equivalents per mL), total polyphenols (2747 mg/L) and total cyanidins (1085 mg/L) was suitable for mechanical harvest and its juice did not show any losses of antioxidant capacity and total anthocyanin concentration during storage. The juice of cv. 'Große Schwarze Knorpelkirsche' had also high concentrations of total anthocyanins (873 mg/L), but showed substantial losses through storage. The local Austrian sweet cherry varieties from the Pannonian climate zone are particularly suitable for the production of processed products like cherry juice with high content of anthocyanins and polyphenols. PMID:25466109

  10. THE AUSTRIAN VACCINATION PARADOX: TICK-BORNE ENCEPHALITIS VACCINATION VERSUS INFLUENZA VACCINATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, Ursula; Kunze, Michael

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes a paradoxical situation in Austria. The vaccination rate against tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in the general population is 82%, which is the highest worldwide, whereas the vaccination rate against influenza is about 8% and is among the lowest worldwide. A high awareness of TBE among the Austrian population achieved by an annual social marketing programme and the wide use of effective and well-tolerated vaccines have led to a successful containment of that disease. The vaccination coverage increased from 6% in 1980 to 82% in 2013 and exceeds 90% in some high-risk areas. This has led to a steady decline in the number of TBE cases from several hundred cases to 50 to 100 cases per year. The situation in regard to influenza vaccination is the opposite. Although Austria has issued one of the most extensive recommendations for influenza vaccination worldwide, the vaccination rate of the general population is extremely low. The possible reasons for the failure in the implementation of recommendations are ignorance, lack of social marketing and the predominance of a distinct discordance within the health system in general, and the Austrian medical fraternity in particular. PMID:26615654

  11. Integrated environmental protection obligations under European law, survey analysis of Austrian legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work focuses on legal instruments serving integrated environmental protection, especially with respect to administrative procedures concerning plant permits, and their inhorent limits. Initially, the legal and scientific approach pursued under the notion of 'integrated environmental protection' and 'environmental impact assessment' is examined and clarified in chapter A. Based thereon, chapter B deals with the obligations resulting from the EIA-Directive and - compared therewith - from the IPPC-Directive with regard to procedures for plant permits. Further, Austria's delay in fully transposing these directives is examined. When dealing with the constitutional basis for transposing the EIA- and IPPC-D into Austrian administrative law (chapter C), the inherent limits of some competence of legislation are discovered to be too narrow to ensure full compliance with EC law; only with regard to EIA, legistation is based on sound constitutional ground. The second part of the work is devoted to three areas of discussion on EIA- and IPPC-procedures under Austrian law: the scope of their applicability (chapter D), the problems of integrated evaluation and the limits of ecological expertise (chapter E) and aspects of public participation (chapter F). The study is concluded by a summary of the main results (chapter G). (author)

  12. The Austrian health reform 2013 is promising but requires continuous political ambition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmarcher, Maria M

    2014-10-01

    The Austrian health system is much more complex and fragmented than in other OECD countries. In 2013 legislation was adopted to enhance efficiency through better balancing care provision across providers by promoting new primary care models and better coordination of care. Reform objectives should be achieved by cooperative and unified decision making across key stakeholders and by adherence to a budget cap that prescribes fiscal containment on the order of 3.4 billion Euros until 2016. This is priced into the envisaged savings of the current consolidation program. Efforts have been made to bridge the accountability divide by establishing agreements and administrative layers to govern the health system by objectives. Yet, more could have been achieved. For example, cross-stakeholder pooling of funds for better contracting governance and effective purchasing across care settings could have been introduced. This would have required addressing over capacity and fragmentation within social security. At the same time, legal provisions for cooperative governance between Sickness Funds and the governments on the regional level should have been stipulated. The Austrian 2013 reform is interesting to other countries as it aims to ensure better-balanced care at a sustainable path by employing a public management approach to governance relations across key payers of care.

  13. Late-stage cooling history of the Eastern and Southern Alps and its linkage to Adria indentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberer, Bianca; Reverman, Rebecca; Fellin, Maria; Neubauer, Franz; Dunkl, István; Zattin, Massimiliano; Seward, Diane; Brack, Peter; Genser, Johann

    2016-04-01

    Late-orogenic indentation by rigid lithospheric plates and microplates into softer orogenic wedges leads to post-collisional shortening, lithospheric thickening and vertical and lateral extrusion. The European Eastern and Southern Alps represent a prime example of indenter tectonics. Their Late Neogene geodynamic framework is influenced primarily by the ca. NW-ward motion and counterclockwise rotation of the Adriatic microplate with respect to Europe, which resulted in an oblique, dextral transpressional setting. In this study we refine the late-stage exhumation pattern related to indentation of the eastern Adriatic indenter, i.e. the still northward pushing triangular northeastern part of the Southalpine block that indented the Eastern Alps. New apatite (U-Th)/He and apatite fission track thermochronometry data come from (1) the Karawanken Mountains adjacent to the eastern Periadriatic fault along the northeastern edge of the indenter and from (2) the central-eastern Southern Alps from within the indenter and from its western edge. We find apatite (U-Th)/He ages from the Karawanken Mountains ranging between 11 and 6 Ma, which indicate an episode of fault-related exhumation leading to the formation of a positive flower structure and an associated peripheral foreland basin as well as lateral activity along the Periadriatic fault system. Apatite (U/Th)/He and fission-track data combined with previous data from the Southern Alps indicate that exhumation largely occurred during the Late Miocene, too, and was maximized along thrust systems, with highly differential amounts of vertical displacement along individual structures. Our new data contribute to mounting evidence for widespread Late Miocene tectonic activity in the Eastern and Southern Alps. They demonstrate a shift from deformation and exhumation concentrated within the Tauern Window at the beginning of the indentation process, to less pronounced, but more widespread exhumation along the edges as well as the

  14. Clinical Significance of Detection of Serum TBA and ALP in Diagnosis of Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the clinical value of serum total bile acid (TBA) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in diagnosis of intahrpatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP), the serum levels of TBA, ALP and cholyglycine (CG) in 47 cases with intahrpatic cholestasis of pregnancy and 60 normal pregnant women were tested by biochemistry analysis and radioimmunoassay. The results showed that the serum levels of TBA and ALP in patients with intahrpatic cholestasis of pregnancy were significantly higher than that of normal pregnancy women. There was a positively correlation between TBA and ALP with CG. The combined determination of serum TBA and ALP could be useful in the diagnosis of intahrpatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Automatic biochemistry analysis of TBA and ALP is more simple and rapid than CG detected by radioimmunoassay,and it is suitable for clinical laboratory application. (authors)

  15. Alluvial fans and megafans along the southern side of the Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Alessandro; Mozzi, Paolo; Marchetti, Mauro

    2014-03-01

    The foreland basin of the southern European Alps is characterized by large fan-shaped alluvial systems fed by the main montane valleys and these depositional systems present an extent of 300-3000 km2, with a length of 30-70 km. Most of them are megafans, characterized by evident longitudinal differentiation in which steep piedmont sector consists of amalgamated gravels, while the distal portion has a gradient Garda Lake, their downstream development was limited by the Po River plain. The thickness of LGM alluvial sedimentation ranges between 30 and 15 m and pinches out about 25 km off the present coast. Soon after ice decay, after 19-17 kyr cal BP, sediment delivery from Alpine catchments to the plain dramatically decreased and in the central Alps large intramontane lakes formed, trapping almost all the bedload. Thus, the ratio between sediment and water discharge dramatically decreased and an erosive phase affected the LGM megafans and fans, leading the rivers to entrench for tens of meters. The funneling effect created by the fluvial incisions allowed the gravels to arrive tens of kilometers further downstream than in the LGM. In the Venetian-Friulian megafans a single valley formed in the piedmont sector, while 2-5 incised valleys developed in the distal sector. These latter valleys have been almost completely filled by a depositional lobe formed in the last 8 kyr, partly triggered by Holocene sea-level rise. The Alpine tributaries of the river Po still flow along a single incised valley from their megafan apex to the junction with the Po and they have not yet been affected by sea-level influence.

  16. Austrian visit

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Hans Hoffmann, Director for Technology Transfer and Scientific Computing, and Maria Rauch-Kallat, Minister of Health and Women's Issues, Austria, signing the visitors' book.Maria Rauch-Kallat, Minister of Health and Women's Issues, Austria, was welcomed by Hans Hoffmann, Director for Technology Transfer and Scientific Computing, on her visit to CERN on 19 May 2003. The theme of the visit was Technology Transfer and spin-offs from CERN for medical applications. Maria Rauch-Kallat toured also the installations of ATLAS.

  17. 87. Austrian ratification of the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the notification of the Austrian ratification of the Convention, resulting in the entry into force of the Convention for Austria on 22 December 1989. The ratification included a declaration concerning Article 10 paragraph 5(b). The text of the Convention is reproduced in English, French and German. (NEA)

  18. What Does It Take to Be an Adult in Austria? Views of Adulthood in Austrian Adolescents, Emerging Adults, and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirsch, Ulrike; Dreher, Eva; Mayr, Eva; Willinger, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the defining features of emerging adulthood, subjects' conceptions of the transition to adulthood, and the perceived adult status in Austria. The sample consisted of 775 subjects (226 adolescents, 317 emerging adults, 232 adults). Results showed that most Austrian emerging adults feel themselves to be between adolescence…

  19. Combining IPPC and emission trading: An assessment of energy efficiency and CO2 reduction potentials in the Austrian paper industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the frame of an innovative project partnership E.V.A. - the Austrian Energy Agency accompanied the Austrian paper industry for the last 2.5 years in developing a branch specific climate change strategy. Within the scope of this project an assessment of the energy efficiency status of the branch was carried out as well as an evaluation of still realisable energy savings and CO2 reduction potentials. The paper presents the methodology applied, which combines a top down approach (benchmarking and best practice) with a bottom up approach (on-site interviews and energy audits), supported by a huge data collection process. Within the benchmarking process all Austrian paper industry installations affected by the EU emission trading directive were benchmarked against their respective IPPC/BAT values. Furthermore an extensive list of best practice examples derived from existing or ongoing studies was compared with the energy efficiency measures already carried out by the companies ('early actions'). These theory-oriented findings were complemented by several on-site interviews with the respective energy managers as well as by detailed energy audits carried out by a consulting company, covering in total more than 80% of the Austrian paper industry's CO2 emissions. The paper concludes with the main results of the project, presenting the pros and cons of working with IPPC documents and BAT values in terms of energy efficiency assessments. Recommendations are presented on how to improve the allocation exercise for the next emission trading period from 2008 to 2012

  20. Isotopic composition of sulfate accumulations, Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojar, Ana-Voica; Halas, Stanislaw; Bojar, Hans-Peter; Trembaczowski, Andrzej

    2015-04-01

    The Eastern Alps are characterised by the presence of three main tectonic units, such as the Lower, Middle and Upper Austroalpine, which overlie the Penninicum (Tollmann, 1977). The Upper Austroalpine unit consists of the Northern Calcareous Alps (NCA) overlying the Greywacke zone and corresponding to the Graz Paleozoic, Murau Paleozoic and the Gurktal Nappe. Evaporitic rocks are lacking in the later ones. The Northern Calcareous Alps are a detached fold and thrust belt. The sedimentation started in the Late Carboniferous or Early Permian, the age of the youngest sediments being Eocene. The NCA are divided into the Bajuvaric, Tirolic and Juvavic nappe complexes. The evaporitic Haselgebirge Formation occurs in connection with the Juvavic nappe complex at the base of the Tirolic units (Leitner et al., 2013). The Haselgebirge Formation consists mainly of salt, shales, gypsum and anhydrite and includes the oldest sediments of the NCA. The age of the Haselgebirge Formation, established by using spors and geochronological data, is Permian to Lower Triassic. For the Northern Calcareous Alps, the mineralogy of sulphate accumulations consists mainly of gypsum and anhydrite and subordonates of carbonates. The carbonates as magnesite, dolomite and calcite can be found either as singular crystals or as small accumulations within the hosting gypsum. Sulfides (sphalerite, galena, pyrite), sulfarsenides (enargite, baumhauerite) and native sulphur enrichments are known from several deposits (Kirchner, 1987; Postl, 1990). The investigated samples were selected from various gypsum and halite rich deposits of the Northern Calcareous Alps. A total of over 20 samples were investigated, and both oxygen and sulfur isotopic composition were determined for anhydrite, gyps, polyhalite, blödite and langbeinite. The sulfur isotopic values vary between 10.1 to 14 ‰ (CDT), with three values higher than 14 ‰. The Oxygen isotopic values show a range from 9 to 23 ‰ (SMOW). The sulfur

  1. Vulnerability and adaptation to water scarcity in the European Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoard, S.; McCallum, S.; Prutsch, A.; Benno Hain, B.; Schauser, I.

    2009-04-01

    The European Environment Agency (EEA) has recently undertaken a project addressing vulnerability and adaptation to water availability in the European Alps. Mountains are indeed one of the most vulnerable regions to climate change in Europe (EEA 2008, IPCC 2007).The Alps, in particular, can be presented as the ‘water towers' of Europe (the amount of water delivered by the Alps allocates 40% of EU consumption) where changes in water availability affect all socio-economical sectors. This therefore makes adaptation actions a regional topic with an outstanding European dimension. The specific objectives of the study were to highlight the importance of the Alps in their function as ‘water towers' for Europe and analyse the vulnerability of the Alpine Region with regard to impacts of climate change (but also to global change as a whole) focussing on water availability. Given the EU and regional policy background with regard to adaptation and water issues, the study assessed the possible needs, constraints and opportunities for adaptation to the adverse impacts for various sectors pending on water resources. Findings of this activity expanded the knowledge base, fed into the preparation of European Commission's 2009 White Paper and the Alpine Convention 2009 Report on the State of the Alps, and complemented other recent studies (e.g. OECD 2007, European Parliament Committee on Agriculture & Rural Development 2008). The method used for the study relied on the one hand on findings from recent key publications on climate change impacts (EEA 2008, IPCC 2007) and EU research projects (e.g. ClimChAlp, ProClim); on the other side it was based on selected case studies chosen within the four climatic regions of the eight Alpine countries for which an extensive series of interviews with local and regional stakeholders and decision makers has been undertaken. The interviewees had been directly involved in designing and implementing water availability-related adaptation measures

  2. Novel high-pressure phases of AlP from first principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Hu, Meng; Luo, Kun; Yu, Dongli; Zhao, Zhisheng; He, Julong

    2016-05-01

    By utilizing a crystal structure prediction software via particle swarm optimization, this study proposes three new high-pressure phases of aluminum phosphide (AlP) with high density and high hardness, in addition to previously proposed phases (wz-, zb-, rs-, NiAs-, β-Sn-, CsCl-, and Cmcm-AlP). These new phases are as follows: (1) an I 4 ¯ 3d symmetric structure (cI24-AlP) at 55.2 GPa, (2) an R 3 ¯ m symmetric structure (hR18-AlP) at 9.9 GPa, and (3) a C222 symmetric structure (oC12-AlP) at 20.6 GPa. Based on first-principle calculations, these phases have higher energetic advantage than CsCl- and β-Sn-AlP at ambient pressure. The independent elastic constants and phonon dispersion spectra are calculated to check the mechanical and dynamic stabilities of these phases. According to mechanical property studies, these new AlP phases have higher hardness than NiAs-AlP, and oC12-AlP has the highest hardness of 7.9 GPa. Electronic band structure calculations indicate that NiAs- and hR18-AlP have electrical conductivity. Additionally, wz-, zb-, and oC12-AlP possess semiconductive properties with indirect bandgaps, and cI24-AlP has a semiconductive property with a direct bandgap.

  3. Ophiolitic detritus in Kimmeridgian resedimented limestones and its provenance from an eroded obducted ophiolitic nappe stack south of the Northern Calcareous Alps (Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawlick Hans-Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The causes for the Middle to Late Jurassic tectonic processes in the Northern Calcareous Alps are still controversially discussed. There are several contrasting models for these processes, formerly designated “Jurassic gravitational tectonics”. Whereas in the Dinarides or the Western Carpathians Jurassic ophiolite obduction and a Jurassic mountain building process with nappe thrusting is widely accepted, equivalent processes are still questioned for the Eastern Alps. For the Northern Calcareous Alps, an Early Cretaceous nappe thrusting process is widely favoured instead of a Jurassic one, obviously all other Jurassic features are nearly identical in the Northern Calcareous Alps, the Western Carpathians and the Dinarides. In contrast, the Jurassic basin evolutionary processes, as best documented in the Northern Calcareous Alps, were in recent times adopted to explain the Jurassic tectonic processes in the Carpathians and Dinarides. Whereas in the Western Carpathians Neotethys oceanic material is incorporated in the mélanges and in the Dinarides huge ophiolite nappes are preserved above the Jurassic basin fills and mélanges, Jurassic ophiolites or ophiolitic remains are not clearly documented in the Northern Calcareous Alps. Here we present chrome spinel analyses of ophiolitic detritic material from Kimmeridgian allodapic limestones in the central Northern Calcareous Alps. The Kimmeridgian age is proven by the occurrence of the benthic foraminifera Protopeneroplis striata and Labyrinthina mirabilis, the dasycladalean algae Salpingoporella pygmea, and the alga incertae sedis Pseudolithocodium carpathicum. From the geochemical composition the analysed spinels are pleonastes and show a dominance of Al-chromites (Fe3+–Cr3+–Al3+ diagram. In the Mg/(Mg+ Fe2+ vs. Cr/(Cr+ Al diagram they can be classified as type II ophiolites and in the TiO2 vs. Al2O3 diagram they plot into the SSZ peridotite field. All together this points to a harzburgite

  4. New ALPS Results on Hidden-Sector Lightweights

    CERN Document Server

    Ehret, Klaus; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Hildebrandt, Matthias; Knabbe, Ernst-Axel; Kracht, Dietmar; Lindner, Axel; List, Jenny; Meier, Tobias; Meyer, Niels; Notz, Dieter; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas; Wiedemann, Günter; Willke, Benno

    2010-01-01

    The ALPS collaboration runs a "Light Shining through a Wall" (LSW) experiment to search for photon oscillations into "Weakly Interacting Sub-eV Particles" (WISPs) often predicted by extensions of the Standard Model. The experiment is set up around a superconducting HERA dipole magnet at the site of DESY. Due to several upgrades of the experiment we are able to place limits on the probability of photon-WISP-photon conversions of a few 10^{-25}. These limits result in today's most stringent laboratory constraints on the existence of low mass axion-like particles, hidden photons and minicharged particles.

  5. Geomorphology of the Hérens valley (Swiss Alps)

    OpenAIRE

    Lambiel, Christophe; Maillard, Benoît; Kummert, Mario; Reynard, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a geomorphological map of the Hérens valley in the Western Swiss Alps. With an area of 270 km2 and altitudes ranging from 470 to 4357 m a.s.l., this valley is one of the main secondary catchments of the Upper Rhône valley. The high differences in altitudes, combined with a varied geology, create an important geomorphic diversity. The main processes active in mountain areas, that is, glacial, periglacial, gravitational and fluvial processes, are well represented. The map wa...

  6. Precipitation and snow cover variability in the french alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Eric; Durand, Yves

    The distribution of winter precipitation as analysed by the meteorological analysis system SAFRAN is validated using data from two test sites. This system, applied to the French Alps, shows that the frequency of high precipitation events is not necessarily linked to mean precipitation. Using a downscaling procedure, the system was run with General Circulation Model (GCM) outputs. The corresponding snow cover is derived with the snow model CROCUS. The results are very sensitive to the quality of the GCM run. The analyses of two future climate scenarios show that drastic changes in precipitation distribution may occur in the future.

  7. PHENOALP: a new project on phenology in the Western Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremonese, E.

    2009-04-01

    PHENOALP is a new EU co-funded Interreg Project under the operational programme for cross-border cooperation "Italy-France (Alps-ALCOTRA)" 2007 - 2013, aiming to get a better understanding of phenological changes in the Alps. The major goals of the project are: 1- The implementation of an observation network in the involved territories (i.e. the Aosta Valley and the Savoies in the Western Alps); 2- The definition of a common observation strategy and common protocols; 3- The involvement of local community members (e.g. through schools) in the observation activities as a way to increase the awareness on the issue of the effects of climate change. Project leader is the Environmental Protection Agency of Aosta Valley (ARPA Valle d'Aosta - IT) and the partners are the Research Center on High Altitude Ecosystem (CREA - FR), Mont Avic Regional Parc (IT), Bauges Massif Regional Natural Parc (FR) and the Protected Area Service of Aosta Valley (IT). Project activities are: 1. Pheno-plantes: definition of common observation protocols (e.g. field observation and webcams) of different alpine species (trees and herbaceous) and implementation of the observation network; analysis of the relations between climate and phenological events; application and evaluation of phenological models. 2. Pheno-detection: remote sensing of European larch and high elevation pastures with MODIS data; multitemporal analysis (2000-2011) of phenological variations in the Western Alps. 3. Pheno-flux: analysis of the relation between the seasonal and interannual variability of plant phenology and productivity, assessed measuring CO2 fluxes (eddy-covariance technique), radiometric indexes and phenological events at specific (European larch stand and alpine pastures) monitoring site. 4. Pheno-zoo: definition of common observation protocols for the phenology of animal taxa (birds, mammals, amphibians and insects) along altitudinal gradients; implementation of the observation network. 5. Inter

  8. Assessment of climate change impact on SOM balance with the Austrian Carbon Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franko, Uwe; Gründling, Ralf; Sedy, Katrin; Zethner, Gerhard; Formayer, Herbert

    2015-04-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) balance depends on climate and climate change due to the impact on SOM turnover conditions as well as on cropping and crop yields. The Austrian Carbon calculator (ACC) is a tool for the comparison of future land use scenarios with the current agriculture in order to identify opportunities to sustain the SOM balance. The ACC can be used in a regional mode as well as in local mode for the assessment of single farm fields. The assessment is based on the concept of Biologic Active Time (BAT). BAT is calculated based on soil data from the Austrian eBod map and climate data for past and future on a 1 km grid. The ACC was implemented for the regions Mühlviertel and Marchfeld. Crop yields are calculated based on statistics from the Austrian agricultural sub regions "Kleinproduktionsgebiet" for the most common crops. The regional scenarios consist of the abundance of crops, the part of nitrogen added as mineral fertilizer and the part of irrigation. The local soil management is calculated based on crop rotations with yields, organic amendments, irrigation and the tillage system (ploughed or not ploughed). The SOM balance is assessed with the reproduction index (REP_IX) that is calculated as the quotient from carbon reproduction (Carbon flux into SOM) and the BAT value. This way REP_IX includes the impact from management as well as from climate. If the future management will not change REP_IX the SOM balance will be the same as well. This methodology helps to adapt the management to future conditions to sustain the current SOM conditions without an absolute assessment if the current SOM state is optimal or not. The regional results of ACC will be made available as thematic maps on the project web site. For local applications farmer can use the tool to analyze their special site conditions and management plans to assess the management options under climate change conditions. The described concept can be improved if reliable information about the

  9. Projected Numbers of Ischemic Strokes Recorded in the Austrian Stroke-Unit Registry from 2012 to 2075

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinka, Eugen; Seyfang, Leonard; Mutzenbach, Sebastian; Stadler, Katharina; Pikija, Slaven; Killer, Monika; Broussalis, Erasmia

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose This study analyzed the number of patients with ischemic strokes recorded in the Austrian Stroke-Unit Registry with the aim of projecting this number from 2012 to 2075 and to highlight that the Austrian health system will face a dramatic increase in older patients within the next few decades. Methods Current demographic information was obtained from EUROSTAT, and information on age- and sex-stratified 1-year incidence rates of ischemic stroke were obtained from the Austrian Stroke-Unit Registry. Sensitivity analysis was performed by analyzing the projections based on predicted ageing, main, and growth population scenarios, and with stratification by age and gender. Results The total number of ischemic strokes recorded in the Austrian Stroke-Unit Registry was 8,690 in 2012 and is expected to increase to 15,826, 15,626, or 18,134 in 2075 according to the ageing, main, and growth scenarios, respectively. The corresponding numbers of patients are projected to increase or decrease within different age strata as follows (100%=number of registered ischemic strokes in 2012): 0–40 years, 100%/99% (males/females); 40–50 years, 83%/83%; 50–60 years, 98%/97%; 60–70 years, 126%/119%; 70–80 years, 159%/139%; 80–90 years, 307%/199%; and 90+ years, 894%/413%. Conclusions The ageing population in Austria will result in the number of patients increasing considerably from 2012 to 2075, to 182%, 180%, or 208% (relative to 100% in 2012) according to the ageing, main, and growth scenarios, respectively; the corresponding value among those aged 80+ years is 315%, 290%, or 347%. These figures demonstrated the importance of improving primary preventive measures. The results of this study should provide a basis for discussions among health-care professionals and economists to face the future large financial burden of ischemic stroke on the Austrian health system.

  10. Chemical denudation rates of a small torrential catchment in the Northern Calcareous Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, Georg; Robl, Jörg; Hauzenberger, Christoph; Hilberg, Sylke; Schmidt, Rudolf

    2016-04-01

    Our understanding on the decay of alpine landscapes and the pace of landscape adjustment to climatic or tectonic changes rely on catchment wide erosion rates. In general, these data stem from cosmogenic isotope dating of quartz grains and are therefore only applicable at catchments providing suitable bedrock. However, denudation caused by the dissolution of rocks is not explicitly considered by this method. In the Northern Calcareous Alps (NCA) crystalline rocks are missing and intensive karstification suggests that chemical denudation is an important player for destroying topography. In this study we present chemical denudation rates derived from measuring the dissolved load of an alpine catchment located in the country of Salzburg, Austria. The catchment has a drainage area of about 7 km2 and is predominantly covered by limestone rich glacial deposits and carbonatic rocks as characteristic for the NCA. In order to obtain catchment wide chemical denudation rates we have integrated discharge time series that where measured by a permanent water gauge of the Austrian Service for Torrent and Avalanche Control to compute the total discharge of the investigated catchment over a period of one year. During the same period samples were taken at several campaigns to consider variations of the dissolved load. Samples were taken at high and low run-off conditions to study the effect of precipitation and at different locations along the tributaries to account for lithological variations of the river beds on the dissolved load. The concentrations of various cations in water samples were measured by the ICP-MS facility at the University of Graz. For the investigation period of one year 3.02 ∗ 106m3 of discharge was measured at the catchment outlet. The summed cation-concentration is varying between about 85 mg/l for dry-conditions and 75 mg/l for rainy-conditions at the gauge and consists predominantly of Ca+ cations. Based on the total discharge of the river integrated over a

  11. Requirements for Electronic Delivery Systems in eGovernment - An Austrian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, Arne

    Electronic mailing systems are the dominant communication systems in private and business matters. Public administrations deliver documents to citizens and businesses - subpoenas, legal verdicts, notifications, administrative penalties etc. However, official activities are more strongly linked to legal regulations than in civil law. Delivery of crucial and strictly personal documents raises the demand for qualified identification and non-repudiation services as featured by registered mail in the paper world. Legal requirements for electronic delivery carried-out by public administrations (eDelivery) cannot be fulfilled by standard certified mailing systems. Although the requirements for eDelivery systems may differ due to national legal regulations, this paper discusses common requirements and challenges on an abstract level. Moreover, we show how these requirements have been addressed by introducing the Austrian eDelivery system for eGovernment applications.

  12. Case study of a fast propagating bacteriogenically induced concrete corrosion in an Austrian sewer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grengg, Cyrill; Mittermayr, Florian; Baldermann, Andre; Böttcher, Michael; Leis, Albrecht; Koraimann, Günther; Dietzel, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Reaction mechanisms leading to microbially induced concrete corrosion (MICC) are highly complex and often not fully understood. The aim of the present case study is to contribute to a deeper understanding of reaction paths, environmental controls, and corrosion rates related to MICC in a modern Austrian sewer system by introducing an advanced multi proxy approach that comprises gaseous, hydro-geochemical, bacteriological, and mineralogical analyses. Various crucial parameters for detecting alteration features were determined in the field and laboratory, including (i) temperature, pH, alkalinity, chemical compositions of the solutions, (ii) chemical and mineralogical composition of solids, (iii) bacterial analysis, and (iv) concentrations of gaseous H2S, CH4 and CO2 within the sewer pipe atmosphere. An overview of the field site and analytical results, focusing on reaction mechanisms causing the corrosion, as well as possible remediation strategies will be presented.

  13. Austrian Business Cycle Theory: Are 100 Percent Reserves Sufficient to Prevent a Business Cycle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Bagus

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Authors in the Austrian tradition have made the credit expansion of a fractional reserve banking system as the prime cause of business cycles. Authors such as Selgin (1988 and White (1999 have argued that a solution to this problem would be a free banking system. They maintain that the competition between banks would limit the credit expansion effectively. Other authors such as Rothbard (1991 and Huerta de Soto (2006 have gone further and advocated a 100 percent reserve banking system ruling out credit expansion altogether. In this article it is argued that a 100 percent reserve system can still bring about business cycles through excessive maturity mismatching between deposits and loans.

  14. The radiation protection units of the Austrian fire brigades; Die Strahlenschutz-Einheiten der oesterreichischen Feuerwehren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aspek, W. [Oesterreichischer Bundesfeuerwehr, Wien (Austria); Schoenhacker, S. [WIRK.ZONE, Wien (Austria)

    2009-07-01

    Since the 1960s, Austrian fire brigades have been involved in radiation protection. With the preparations for the NPP Zwentendorf and the building of the research reactor in Seibersdorf, the first radiation protection units of the fire brigade were founded. 45 years later: The NPP Zwentendorf never saw its start-up, the use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity is prohibited by a constitutional law, and the research reactor is being decommissioned. What's left are the radiation protection units of the fire brigades. The contribution gives an overview of similarities and differences of the radiation protection units in the nine federal states of Austria, with a special focus on equipment, training and organisation. Nation-wide guidelines and regulations for the tactics of first responders at radiological emergencies are presented and a couple of incidents will be analysed. (orig.)

  15. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of Austrian wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of major, minor and trace elements in Austrian wine was determined by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence using gallium as internal standard. A multi-elemental analysis was possible by pipetting 6 μl of wine directly on the reflector and drying. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis was performed with Atomika EXTRA II A (Cameca) X-rays from a Mo tube with a high-energy cut-off at 20 keV in total-reflection geometry. The results showed that it was possible to identify only by the elemental analysis as fingerprint the vineyards and year of vintage among 11 different wines

  16. Development of soil taxation and soil classification as furthered by the Austrian Soil Science Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Soil taxation and soil classification are important drivers of soil science in Austria. However, the tasks are quite different: whereas soil taxation aims at the evaluation of the productivity potential of the soil, soil classification focusses on the natural development and - especially nowadays - on functionality of the soil. Since the foundation of the Austrian Soil Science Society (ASSS), representatives both directions of the description of the soil have been involved in the common actions of the society. In the first years it was a main target to improve and standardize field descriptions of the soil. Although both systems differ in the general layout, the experts should comply with identical approaches. According to this work, a lot of effort has been put into the standardization of the soil classification system, thus ensuring a common basis. The development, state of the art and further development of both classification and taxation systems initiated and carried out by the ASSS will be shown.

  17. Scientific support, soil information and education provided by the Austrian Soil Science Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Sigbert; Baumgarten, Andreas; Birli, Barbara; Englisch, Michael; Tulipan, Monika; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie

    2015-04-01

    The Austrian Soil Science Society (ASSS), founded in 1954, is a non-profit organisation aiming at furthering all branches of soil science in Austria. The ASSS provides information on the current state of soil research in Austria and abroad. It organizes annual conferences for scientists from soil and related sciences to exchange their recent studies and offers a journal for scientific publications. Annually, ASSS awards the Kubiena Research Prize for excellent scientific studies provided by young scientists. In order to conserve and improve soil science in the field, excursions are organized, also in cooperation with other scientific organisations. Due to well-established contacts with soil scientists and soil science societies in many countries, the ASSS is able to provide its members with information about the most recent developments in the field of soil science. This contributes to a broadening of the current scientific knowledge on soils. The ASSS also co-operates in the organisation of excursions and meetings with neighbouring countries. Several members of the ASSS teach soil science at various Austrian universities. More detail on said conferences, excursions, publications and awards will be given in the presentation. Beside its own scientific journal, published once or twice a year, and special editions such as guidebooks for soil classification, the ASSS runs a website providing information on the Society, its activities, meetings, publications, awards and projects. Together with the Environment Agency Austria the ASSS runs a soil platform on the internet. It is accessible for the public and thus informs society about soil issues. This platform offers a calendar with national and international soil events, contacts of soil related organisations and networks, information on national projects and publications. The society has access to products, information material and information on educational courses. Last but not least information on specific soil

  18. The Austrian radon activities on the way to the national radon action plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, V; Ringer, W; Wurm, G; Haider, W

    2014-07-01

    Based on the new Euratom Basic Safety Standards (BSS), all EU member states will be obliged to design a strategy to address long-term risks from radon exposure, which is laid down in the 'national radon action plan'. In Austria, the National Radon Centre is responsible for the development of the action plan. This paper presents the current and planned radon protection activities on the way to establish the radon action plan--like the national radon database, the definition of radon risk areas by improving the existing radon map, as well as strategies and activities to increase the radon awareness of the public and decision-makers and to involve the building sector. The impact of and the need for actions caused by the BSS requirements on the Austrian radon legislation, strategy and programme are discussed.

  19. The Austrian social festival Keep the Ball Rolling in a peripheral region of Upper Styria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gstach Isabell

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The “Steirische Eisenstraße” is a region located in the province of Styria in Austria, which has been struggling with a massive shift in population and age structure for some time. In 2012/13 the Austrian social festival Keep the Ball Rolling is taking place in this region. Over a period of 18 months, the social festival is providing opportunities to think of their own environment. Consequently, they can develop and implement ideas for good cohabitation and put these into practice. The main focus of this article is the demographic presentation of the “Steirische Eisenstraße” region, according to population, employment and age structure. The introduction of the social festival is fundamental in initiating successful change processes.

  20. Average snowcover density values in Eastern Alps mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valt, M.; Moro, D.

    2009-04-01

    The Italian Avalanche Warning Services monitor the snow cover characteristics through networks evenly distributed all over the alpine chain. Measurements of snow stratigraphy and density are very frequently performed with sampling rates of 1 -2 times per week. Snow cover density values are used to compute the dimensions of the building roofs as well as to design avalanche barriers. Based on the measured snow densities the Electricity Board can predict the amount of water resources deriving from snow melt in high relieves drainage basins. In this work it was possible to compute characteristic density values of the snow cover in the Eastern Alps using the information contained in the database from the ARPA (Agenzia Regionale Protezione Ambiente)-Centro Valanghe di Arabba, and Ufficio Valanghe- Udine. Among the other things, this database includes 15 years of stratigraphic measurements. More than 6,000 snow stratigraphic logs were analysed, in order to derive typical values as for geographical area, altitude, exposure, snow cover thickness and season. Computed values were compared to those established by the current Italian laws. Eventually, experts identified and evaluated the correlations between the seasonal variations of the average snow density and the variations related to the snowfall rate in the period 1994-2008 in the Eastern Alps mountain range

  1. Distributed landsurface skin temperature sensing in Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Giesen, N.; Baerenbold, F.; Nadeau, D. F.; Pardyjak, E.; Parlange, M. B.

    2010-12-01

    The ZyTemp TN9 is a mass-produced thermal infrared (TIR) sensor that is normally used to build handheld non-contact thermometers. The measurement principle of the TN9 is similar to that of very costly meteorological pyrgeometers. The costs of the TN9 are less than 10. The output of the TN9 consists of observed thermal radiation, the temperature of the measurement instrument, and the emissivity used. The output is provided through a Serial Peripheral Interface protocol. The TN9 was combined with an Arduino board that registered data onto a USB memory stick. A solar cell, lead acid battery, housing and stand completed the meausrement set up. Total costs per set was in the order of 200 Land surface atmosphere interactions in mountainous areas, such as the Swiss Alps, are spatially heterogeneous. Shading, multi-layer cloud formation, and up- and downdrafts make for a very dynamic exchange of mass and energy along and across slopes. In order to better understand these exchanges, the Swiss Slope Experiment at La Fouly (SELF) has built a distributed sensing network consisting of eight micro-met stations and two flux towers in the "La Fouly" watershed in the upper Alps. To obtain a better handle on surface temperature, fifteen TIR sensing stations were installed that made observations during the 2010 Summer. Methods and results will be presented. Overview La Fouly watershed (source: http://eflum.epfl.ch/research/images/fouly_2.jpg)

  2. COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT OF WHITEWATER SPORTS IN THE SOUTHERN ALPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BERNARD MASSIERA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In order to better understand how certain sports tourism professionals have overcome the economic crisis, this paper focuses on how they have innovated on technical, managerial and marketing levels. Analyzing these strategies in the sector of “recreational white-water sports tourism” appears as a way to prospect.Design/methodology/approach: The offer of white-water sports tourism does not fall under tradition forms of organization known to work in the tourism sector. Since the end of the nineties its mode of development seems to have enabled this sector to avoid undergoing the economic crisis. The methodology, based on interviews withentrepreneurs in the sector of white-water sports tourism in the Southern Alps, addresses their managerial strategies and strategic modes of operation in the development of their businesses. The aim is to explore the managerial factors that have resulted in both economic and environmental sustainability. The concept of sustainable development is employed to understand how these entrepreneurial activities are embedded in the social, economic and natural environments of the Southern Alps valleys. Findings: The investigation shows that, rather than focusing on business strategy, professionals in this sector focus primarily on community relations. The supply of white-water sports tourism is presented in a lattice form which develops as a community. The modes of development of this sector, far from corresponding to standard business rationale, amount to a form of sustainable development which may explain the relative success of sport tourism in this period of crisis.

  3. Cultivation-independent analysis of microbial communities on Austrian raw milk hard cheese rinds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schornsteiner, Elisa; Mann, Evelyne; Bereuter, Othmar; Wagner, Martin; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan

    2014-06-16

    "Vorarlberger Bergkäse" (VB) is an Austrian artisanal hard cheese produced from raw cow's milk. The composition of its rind microbiota and the changes in the microbial communities during ripening have not previously been investigated. This study used 16S and 18S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing to characterize the bacterial and fungal communities of seven pooled cheese rind samples taken in seven different ripening cellars of three Austrian dairy facilities. A total of 408 clones for 16S and 322 clones for 18S rRNA gene libraries were used for taxonomic classification, revealing 39 bacterial and seven fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Bacterial OTUs belonged to four different phyla. Most OTUs were affiliated to genera often found in cheese, including high numbers of coryneforms. The most abundant OTU from 16S rRNA gene libraries showed highest similarity to Halomonas. Young cheese rinds were dominated by Actinobacteria or Proteobacteria, particularly by Halomonas and Brevibacterium aurantiacum, while Staphyloccocus equorum was most abundant in old cheeses. The most abundant 18S rRNA OTU had highest similarity to the filamentous fungus Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. Pairwise correlation analyses revealed putative co-occurrences between a number of OTUs. It was possible to discriminate the different cheese rind microbiota at the community-level by facility affiliation and ripening time. This work provides insights into the microbial composition of VB cheese rinds and might allow the processing- and ripening conditions to be improved to enhance the quality of the product. PMID:24794620

  4. Risk factors for lameness in cubicle housed Austrian Simmental dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dippel, Sabine; Dolezal, Marlies; Brenninkmeyer, Christine; Brinkmann, Jan; March, Solveig; Knierim, Ute; Winckler, Christoph

    2009-07-01

    Austrian dairy farming is characterised by predominant use of Simmental cows on small-scale farms. Our aim was to identify lameness risk factors related to housing and management in cubicle housed Austrian dairy cows. Furthermore, we used animal-based parameters (ABP) as integrated measures of cubicle quality and feeding management. The first author visited 30 farms in eastern Austria with 24-54 cows (mean=35) in the milking herd during winter housing period, and collected data on housing, management, behaviour, and lameness via direct observations and an interview (part of Welfare Quality project). Mean lameness prevalence was 31% (range 6-70%). Data were analysed using logistic regression with generalised estimating equations (GEE). The final model was based on 832 cows and included six risk variables, five ABP, and the significant confounders 'county' and 'lactation number'. Odds for lameness increased with decreasing lying comfort, except for cubicle width. The following lying-related factors were significant in the final model (odds ratios (OR) in brackets): mats/mattresses as opposed to deep bedded cubicle base (1.61), length of lying area (OR 186-191 vs. loafing area (0.57). Regarding metabolic parameters, cows with a body condition score >3.5 had at least 0.39 lower odds of being lame, while cows with suboptimal milk protein content (3.8%) had 1.37 times higher odds. Odds for lameness clearly increased with age (OR lactation > or =4 vs. 1=3.38). In sum, lying comfort and nutrition are key areas for lameness prevention on modern dairy farms in Austria with herd sizes above 30 cows. PMID:19409629

  5. Coseismic landsliding estimates for an Alpine Fault earthquake and the consequences for erosion of the Southern Alps, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, T. R.; Davies, T. R. H.; Wilson, T. M.; Orchiston, C.

    2016-06-01

    Landsliding resulting from large earthquakes in mountainous terrain presents a substantial hazard and plays an important role in the evolution of mountain ranges. However estimating the scale and effect of landsliding from an individual earthquake prior to its occurrence is difficult. This study presents first order estimates of the scale and effects of coseismic landsliding resulting from a plate boundary earthquake in the South Island of New Zealand. We model an Mw 8.0 earthquake on the Alpine Fault, which has produced large (M 7.8-8.2) earthquakes every 329 ± 68 years over the last 8 ka, with the last earthquake ~ 300 years ago. We suggest that such an earthquake could produce ~ 50,000 ± 20,000 landslides at average densities of 2-9 landslides km- 2 in the area of most intense landsliding. Between 50% and 90% are expected to occur in a 7000 km2 zone between the fault and the main divide of the Southern Alps. Total landslide volume is estimated to be 0.81 + 0.87/- 0.55 km3. In major northern and southern river catchments, total landslide volume is equivalent to up to a century of present-day aseismic denudation measured from suspended sediment yields. This suggests that earthquakes occurring at century-timescales are a major driver of erosion in these regions. In the central Southern Alps, coseismic denudation is equivalent to less than a decade of aseismic denudation, suggesting precipitation and uplift dominate denudation processes. Nevertheless, the estimated scale of coseismic landsliding is considered to be a substantial hazard throughout the entire Southern Alps and is likely to present a substantial issue for post-earthquake response and recovery.

  6. Germline FAS gene mutation in a case of ALPS and NLP Hodgkin lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Anke; Maggio, Ewerton; Diepstra, A; de Jong, Doetje; van Krieken, J; Poppema, S

    2002-01-01

    FAS germline mutations have been associated with the development of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS). Occurrence of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) has been reported in 2 families with ALPS. In both families an uncle of the index patient developed HL. A 15-year-old boy with autoommune thrombopen

  7. Contribution to knowledge of the bryophyte flora of the western Alps (Italy, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabovljević M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The study is a contribution to knowledge of the bryophyte flora of the Alps. The huge bryophyte collection made during 1997 in the Western Alps is presented. A total of 152 bryophyte species were recorded, including 113 mosses and 39 hepatics.

  8. Contribution to knowledge of the bryophyte flora of the western Alps (Italy, France)

    OpenAIRE

    Sabovljević M.

    2006-01-01

    The study is a contribution to knowledge of the bryophyte flora of the Alps. The huge bryophyte collection made during 1997 in the Western Alps is presented. A total of 152 bryophyte species were recorded, including 113 mosses and 39 hepatics.

  9. Magnetic fabric study of rock deformation during alpine tectonic evolution on a cross section through the Eastern Alps (Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, K.; Scholger, R.; Pueyo, E. L.

    2010-05-01

    steeper NE or SW dipping k1-axis are present. In a previous paleomagnetic study of the same samples (Pueyo et al., 2002) both, primary and secondary remanent magnetization vectors were observed. No significant rotations were detected in the Flysh units. All samples from the Bajuvaric system show dominantly very low susceptibility values and isotropic fabrics and were therefore excluded from further investigations. Bajuvaric nappes hardly show any significant rotations based on paleomagnetic data (Pueyo et al., 2002). The nappes of the Tirolic and Juvavic systems have very low susceptibility values but they increase slightly towards the south. The shape of the anisotropy ellipsoid remains oblate (group A) in most cases and the degree of anisotropy is very weak. Also more prolate fabrics (group B) are present. Group A and B show a trend to shallow N or S dipping k1-axis in the North. Further in the south the k1-axis of group A tend to dip steeply NE. Shallow NE or SW dipping and slightly steeper NE or SW dipping oriented prolate susceptibility ellipsoids are dominant in group B. Tirolic and Juvavic units display clockwise rotation ranging between 30 and more than 100° (Pueyo et al., 2002), which was assigned to block rotation. Shallow E dipping and NNW dipping oblate susceptibility ellipsoids are dominant in the Basement. A general increase of the degree of rotation (Pueyo et al., 2002) as well as better defined susceptibility ellipsoids with mainly oblate fabrics towards the south can be observed. Six Tertiary deviatoric paleostress tensor groups are described by Peresson & Decker (1997). The new AMS data will be presented and correlated to the young tectonic history of the Eastern Alps. The study was funded by the Austrian Academy of Sciences (ÖAW) in the frame of the Geophysics of the Earths Crust Programme. Peresson, H. and Decker, K., 1997. The Tertiary dynamics of the northern Eastern Alps (Austria): Changing palaeostresses in a collisional plate boundary

  10. Cultures and politics in the present-day Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Debarbieux

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Plus que jamais, l’espace alpin est marqué par le déploiement de flux toujours plus variés, toujours plus puissants, et symétriquement par la multiplication d’initiatives destinées à conforter ou à régénérer l’idée de localité. Quelles spatialités et quelles territorialités travaillent les populations alpines aujourd’hui ? Quelles sont les figures contemporaines de la circulation et des flux, et les figures complémentaires de l’ancrage et de la refondation territoriale ? Voici les questions que cet essai se propose de développer. Ce texte reprend le contenu d’une conférence donnée dans le cadre de la célébration du centenaire de l’Institut de Géographie Alpine. Cette conférence, comme les autres données à cette occasion, avait adopté une forme libre dressant un bilan et des perspectives de la situation alpine. La trace écrite adoptée ici prend alors logiquement la forme d’un essai.More than ever before, the Alps are affected by increasingly varied and powerful flows and equally by the multiplication of initiatives designed to strengthen or regenerate the idea of “locality” (place. What spatialities and what territorialities activate the populations of the Alps today? What are the contemporary figures relating to circulation and flows and the complementary figures concerning spatial “anchoring” or fixity and new territorial foundations? These are the questions that this essay, proposes to develop. This text takes another look at the subject of a lecture given as part of celebrations to mark the centenary of the Institut de Géographie Alpine. This lecture, like the others given on this occasion, adopted a free format, presenting a report on the current situation in the Alps and prospects for the future. The written format adopted here logically takes the form of an essay. Readers looking for detailed illustrations and references are referred to three scientific articles published by the same

  11. Medical ethnobotany of the Albanian Alps in Kosovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Ethnobotanical studies are crucial in South-Eastern Europe for fostering local development and also for investigating the dynamics of Traditional Environmental Knowledge (TEK) related to plants in one of the most crucial European hotspots for biocultural diversity. The current medico-ethnobotanical survey was conducted in rural alpine communities in Kosovo. The aims of the study were twofold: 1) to document the state of TEK of medicinal plants in these communities; 2) to compare these findings with that of similar field studies previously conducted among local populations inhabiting the Montenegrin and Albanian side of the same Alpine range. Methods Field research was conducted in 36 villages on the Kosovar side of the Albanian Alps. Snowball sampling techniques were used to recruit 91 elderly informants (≥ 50 years-old) for participation in semi-structured interviews and structured surveys regarding the use of the local flora for medicinal and food purposes. Standard ethnobotanical methods were employed and prior informed consent was obtained for all study participants. Results and Conclusion The uses of 98 plants species belonging to 39 families were recorded; the most quoted botanical families were Rosaceae, Asteraceae, and Lamiaceae. Mainly decoctions and infusions were quoted as folk medicinal preparations and the most common uses referred to gastrointestinal and respiratory disorders, as well as illnesses of the uro-genital system. Among the most uncommon medicinal taxa quoted by the informants, Carduus nutans L., Echinops bannaticus Rochel ex Schrad., and Orlaya grandiflora Hoffm. may merit phytochemical and phytopharmacological investigations. Comparison of the data with other ethnobotanical field studies recently conducted on the Albanian and Montenegrin sides of the same Alps has shown a remarkable link between the medical ethnobotany of Montenegrin and Kosovar side of the Albanian Alps. Moreover, folk uses of the most quoted wild medicinal

  12. Morphological expression of active tectonics in the Southern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robl, Jörg; Heberer, Bianca; Neubauer, Franz; Hergarten, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Evolving drainage pattern and corresponding metrics of the channels (e.g. normalized steepness index) are sensitive indicators for tectonic or climatic events punctuating the evolution of mountain belts and their associated foreland basins. The analysis of drainage systems and their characteristic properties represents a well-established approach to constrain the impact of tectonic and climatic drivers on mountainous landscapes in the recent past. The Southern Alps (SA) are one of the seismically most active zones in the periphery of northern Adria. Recent deformation is caused by the ongoing convergence of the Adriatic and European plate and is recorded by numerous earthquakes in the domain of the SA. Deformation in the SA is characterized by back-thrusting causing crustal thickening and should therefore result in uplift and topography formation. The vertical velocity field determined by GPS-data clearly indicates a belt of significant uplift in the south South alpine indenter between Lake Garda in the west and the Triglav in the east and strong subsidence of the foreland basin surrounding the Mediterranean Sea near Venice, although subsidence is often related to ongoing subduction of the Adriatic microplate underneath Appennines. Despite of these short term time series, timing, rates and drivers of alpine landscape evolution are not well constrained and the linkage between crustal deformation and topographic evolution of this highly active alpine segment remains unclear for the following reasons: (1) The eastern Southern Alps were heavily overprinted by the Pleistocene glaciations and tectonic signals in the alpine landscape are blurred. Only the transition zone to the southern foreland basin remained unaffected and allows an analysis of a glacially undisturbed topography. (2) The major part of this domain is covered by lithology (carbonatic rocks) which is unsuitable for low temperature geochronology and cosmogenic isotope dating so that exhumation and erosion

  13. New ALPS results on hidden-sector lightweights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehret, Klaus; Ghazaryan, Samvel [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Frede, Maik [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (DE)] (and others)

    2010-04-08

    The ALPS collaboration runs a ''Light Shining through a Wall'' (LSW) experiment to search for photon oscillations into ''Weakly Interacting Sub-eV Particles'' (WISPs) often predicted by extensions of the Standard Model. The experiment is set up around a superconducting HERA dipole magnet at the site of DESY. Due to several upgrades of the experiment we are able to place limits on the probability of photon-WISP-photon conversions of a few x 10{sup -25}. These limits result in today's most stringent laboratory constraints on the existence of low mass axion-like particles, hidden photons and minicharged particles. (orig.)

  14. Chinese President Hu Jintao and Austrian President Heinz Fischer Send Messages of Congratulations on 2006 China Year in Austria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>Editor’s note: In January 2004, Benita Ferrero-Waldner, Austrian foreign minister at the time, announced that China Year would be held in Austria in 2006 to mark the 35th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between Austria and China and to promote understanding of China and bilateral cooperation. The two sides decided after consultation that the activities for the China Year would be jointly organized by the Austria-China Friendship Association and the Chinese People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries. The governments of the two countries attach great importance to the holding of the China Year. Chinese President Hu Jintao, Austrian President Heinz Fischer and Federal Chancellor Wolfgang Schussel and other state leaders

  15. Connectedness to nature and public (skin) health perspectives: results of a representative, population-based survey among Austrian residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluza, Daniela; Simic, Stana; Höltge, Jan; Cervinka, Renate; Moshammer, Hanns

    2014-01-20

    Connectedness to nature (CN) influences motivation to have contact with outdoor natural environments. Spending leisure time in natural environments is beneficial for human health and well-being. Besides these positive effects, health risks of open-air activities are mainly related to unprotected sun light exposure-associated acute and chronic skin hazards. Thus, we conducted a cross-sectional, representative telephone survey among Austrian residents to study the association of perceived CN level with sun-exposure knowledge, tanning habits, and sun protective behaviour. In total, 1,500 study subjects (50.5% females) participated in this questionnaire survey. Although knowledge about tanning and motives to tan were similar among genders, females performed more photoprotective measures and were more connected to nature (all p nature connectedness and skin health-relevant recreational habits of Austrian residents. The findings suggest to integrate hitherto neglected gender-specific Public (Skin) Health promotion when counselling on the manifold health advantages of outdoor activities.

  16. Education Standards and Competence-oriented Curricula - The Austrian Technical Colleges Take a New Approach to Excellence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Pachatz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In Austria, Technical Colleges are those educational institutions that train and educate the skilled technical staff required by the Austrian labour market and the universities. These colleges have contributed a lot to Austria’s economic success and every year about 8,000 young engineers leave the technical schools to form a powerful work and study force. Therefore, it is particularly important that the education they receive meets the requirements of prospective employers and that innovative developments are anticipated. As a consequence, the Austrian Technical Colleges have developed curricula that rely on learning outcomes and competence-based results. This new orientation towards skills, knowledge and competences shall be achieved through learning objectives that precisely describe the education chosen. How these standards have been designed, matched with the curricula, and implemented at the Colleges will be described in this paper.

  17. Connectedness to nature and public (skin) health perspectives: results of a representative, population-based survey among Austrian residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluza, Daniela; Simic, Stana; Höltge, Jan; Cervinka, Renate; Moshammer, Hanns

    2014-01-01

    Connectedness to nature (CN) influences motivation to have contact with outdoor natural environments. Spending leisure time in natural environments is beneficial for human health and well-being. Besides these positive effects, health risks of open-air activities are mainly related to unprotected sun light exposure-associated acute and chronic skin hazards. Thus, we conducted a cross-sectional, representative telephone survey among Austrian residents to study the association of perceived CN level with sun-exposure knowledge, tanning habits, and sun protective behaviour. In total, 1,500 study subjects (50.5% females) participated in this questionnaire survey. Although knowledge about tanning and motives to tan were similar among genders, females performed more photoprotective measures and were more connected to nature (all p habits of Austrian residents. The findings suggest to integrate hitherto neglected gender-specific Public (Skin) Health promotion when counselling on the manifold health advantages of outdoor activities. PMID:24448634

  18. Crenarchaeota and Their Role in the Nitrogen Cycle in a Subsurface Radioactive Thermal Spring in the Austrian Central Alps▿

    OpenAIRE

    Weidler, Gerhard W.; Gerbl, Friedrich W.; Stan-Lotter, Helga

    2008-01-01

    Previous results from a 16S rRNA gene library analysis showed high diversity within the prokaryotic community of a subterranean radioactive thermal spring, the “Franz-Josef-Quelle” (FJQ) in Bad Gastein, Austria, as well as evidence for ammonia oxidation by crenarchaeota. This study reports further characterization of the community by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and semiquantitative nitrification measurements. DGGE bands f...

  19. Distribution of mustelids in Adamello-Brenta Park and surroundings areas (Central Italian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Pedrini

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The survey, conducted in 1991-93 on a study area of 1085 km², has permitted to define the distribution maps according to 6.4x5.5 km grid of the following species: Meles meles, Mustela erminea, Mustela nivalis, Martes foina and Martes martes. Mustela putorius and Lutra lutra, recorded since 1960 and 1970 respectively, were not checked. From the analysis of 201 records (sightings, signs of presence, animals found dead and skins, we found that the badger, weasel and stone marten selected middle-low altitude (since 1000 m a.s.l., the pine marten and stoat the middle-high altitude. The former species frequented mainly agricultural lands of bottom of the valley with built-up areas, the latter ones occurred mainly in forest habitat of secluded valleys (the pine marten, and in stony ground and alpine prairies (the stoat. The badger was the most diffuse species, the pine marten the least one. On a total of 46 grids of the study area, 32.6% presented three mustelid species, 17.4% five species. The badger and the stone marten were the species with the greatest overlapping range (61.7% of the grids, the weasel and the stoat with the smallest one (23.4% of the grids. Riassunto Distribuzione dei Mustelidi nel Parco Adamello-Brenta e aree limitrofe (Trentino, Alpi centrali - L'indagine, condotta nel 1991-93, ha interessato un'area di 1085 km² e ha permesso di definire le mappe di distribuzione, secondo una griglia di 6,4x5,5 km desunta dalla Carta Topografica generale (scala 1:10000 edita dalla Provincia Autonoma di Trento, di cinque specie: Meles meles, Mustela erminea, Mustela nivalis, Martes foina e Martes martes. La presenza di Mustela putorius e di Lutra lutra, accertata fino intorno agli anni '60 e '70 rispettivamente, non è stata invece confermata. Dall'analisi di 201 segnalazioni (osservazioni dirette, segni di presenza, animali trovati morti o imbalsamati è stato rilevato che le fasce altitudinali medio-basse (fino a 1000 m sono selezionate da tasso, donnola e faina che frequentano soprattutto ambienti coltivati di fondovalle con presenza di centri abitati, quelle medio-alte da martora e ermellino che utilizzano rispettivamente comprensori forestali delle vallate interne e ambienti con presenza di versanti detritici, praterie alpine e malghe. La specie più diffusa è risultata il tasso, quella meno diffusa la martora. Il 32,6% delle 46 griglie, in cui è stata suddivisa l'area di studio, mostra la presenza di 3 specie, il 17,4% di 5 specie. I1 tasso e la faina sono risultate le specie con maggior sovrapposizione di areale di distribuzione (61,7% delle griglie, la donnola e l'ermellino quelle con minor sovrapposizione (23,4% delle griglie.

  20. Water relations in millipedes from some alpine habitat types (Central Alps, Tyrol) (Diplopoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, Erwin; Eisenbeis, Gerhard

    1985-01-01

    Five species of millipedes, living cither in a mixed oak wood (alt. 670 m) (Enantiulus nanus, Mastigona mutabilis) or in an Alnus viridis community (alt. 2000 m) ( Leptoiulus saltuvagus, Haasea fonticulorum and Ochogona caroli) and the nival species Trimerophorella nivicomes are compared in respect

  1. Ectomycorrhiza succession patterns in Pinus sylvestris forests after stand-replacing fire in the Central Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipfer, Tabea; Moser, Barbara; Egli, Simon; Wohlgemuth, Thomas; Ghazoul, Jaboury

    2011-09-01

    Fires shape fundamental properties of many forest ecosystems and climate change will increase their relevance in regions where fires occur infrequently today. In ecosystems that are not adapted to fire, post-fire tree recruitment is often sparse, a fact that might be attributed to a transient lack of mycorrhizae. Ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi play an important role for recruitment by enhancing nutrient and water uptake of their hosts. The questions arise whether and for how long the EcM community is transformed by fire. We investigated the resistance and resilience of EcM fungal communities on a chronosequence of 12 Pinus sylvestris stands in Valais (Switzerland) and Val d'Aosta (Italy) affected by fire between 1990 and 2006. Soil samples from burnt and non-burnt forests were analyzed with respect to EcM fungi by means of a bioassay. The number of EcM species was significantly lower in samples from recently (2-5 years) burnt sites than non-burnt forest, and increased with time since fire reaching levels of adjacent forests after 15-18 years. Community composition changed after fire but did not converge to that of non-burnt sites over the 18 year period. Only Rhizopogon roseolus and Cenococcum geophilum were abundant in both burnt sites and adjacent forest. Our data indicate fire resistance of some EcM fungal species as well as rapid resilience in terms of species number, but not in species composition. As long as the function of different EcM species for seedling establishment is unknown, the consequences of long-term shifts in EcM community composition for tree recruitment remain unclear. PMID:21468664

  2. Old Monarchy in the New Cyberspace: Empirical Examination of Information Security Awareness among Austrian and Hungarian Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Sasvari, Peter; Nemeslaki, Andras; Rauch, Wolf

    2015-01-01

    Information security awareness is part of organizational culture, a way of thinking and be-havior which ensures that the employees of the organizations are committed to acknowledging the legitimacy of security measures, they abide by them and they also make them known to others and enforce their application. After collecting empirical data from 280 Austrian and 470 Hungarian employees of different companies we concluded that the level of information security awareness of managers and employee...

  3. German-austrian recommendations for HIV1-therapy in pregnancy and in HIV1-exposed newborn - update 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Buchholz Bernd; Beichert Matthias; Marcus Ulrich; Grubert Thomas; Gingelmaier Andrea; Haberl Annette; Schmied Brigitte

    2009-01-01

    Abstract German-Austrian recommendations for HIV1-therapy in pregnancy - Update 2008 Bernd Buchholz (University Medical Centre Mannheim, Pediatric Clinic), Matthias Beichert (Mannheim, Gynecology and Obstetrics Practice), Ulrich Marcus (Robert Koch Institute, Berlin), Thomas Grubert, Andrea Gingelmaier (Gynecology Clinic of the Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich), Dr. med. Annette Haberl (HIV-Department, J. W. Goethe-University Hospital, Frankfurt), Dr. med. Brigitte Schmied (Otto-Wagner...

  4. Connectedness to Nature and Public (Skin) Health Perspectives: Results of a Representative, Population-Based Survey among Austrian Residents

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Haluza; Stana Simic; Jan Höltge; Renate Cervinka; Hanns Moshammer

    2014-01-01

    Connectedness to nature (CN) influences motivation to have contact with outdoor natural environments. Spending leisure time in natural environments is beneficial for human health and well-being. Besides these positive effects, health risks of open-air activities are mainly related to unprotected sun light exposure-associated acute and chronic skin hazards. Thus, we conducted a cross-sectional, representative telephone survey among Austrian residents to study the association of perceived CN le...

  5. Putting 600,000 Books Online: the Large-Scale Digitisation Partnership between the Austrian National Library and Google

    OpenAIRE

    Max Kaiser

    2012-01-01

    In a public-private partnership with Google, the Austrian National Library is digitising its historical book holdings. Some 600,000 volumes from the sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries will be digitised and made available free of charge. The project demonstrates that public-private partnerships can be successful in enabling our heritage institutions to provide large-scale access to their holdings, provided that such partnerships are not exclusive and free access is ensured. The article outl...

  6. Normal weight estonian prepubertal boys show a more cardiovascular-risk-associated adipose tissue distribution than austrian counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra J; Moeller, Reinhard; Horejsi, Renate; Jürimäe, Toivo; Jürimäe, Jaak; Mäestu, Jarek; Purge, Priit; Saar, Meeli; Tafeit, Erwin; Kaimbacher, Petra; Kruschitz, Renate; Weghuber, Daniel; Schnedl, Wolfgang J; Mangge, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Risk phenotypes for cardiovascular disease (CVD) differ markedly between countries, like the reported high difference in CVD mortality in Austria and Estonia. Hitherto, the goal of this study was to find out risk profiles in body fat distribution yet present in childhood, paving the way for later clinical end points. Methods. he subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) distribution patterns in 553 Austrian (A) and Estonian (E) clinically healthy normal weight boys aged 11.1 (±0.8) years were analysed. We applied the patented optical device Lipometer which determines the individual subcutaneous adipose tissue topography (SAT-Top). Results. Total body fat did not differ significantly between E and A boys. A discriminant analysis using all Lipometer data, BMI, and the total body fat (TBF) yielded 84.6% of the boys correctly classified in Estonians and Austrians by 9 body sites. A factor analysis identified the SAT distribution of E as critically similar to male adult patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Conclusions. We show in normal weight Estonian boys a highly significant decreased fat accumulation on the lower body site compared to age matched Austrian males. This SAT-Top phenotype may play an important role for the increased cardiovascular risk seen in the Estonian population.

  7. Sun Exposure Prevalence and Associated Skin Health Habits: Results from the Austrian Population-Based UVSkinRisk Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluza, Daniela; Simic, Stana; Moshammer, Hanns

    2016-01-01

    Recreational sun exposure accounts for a large number of acute and chronic dermatological diseases, including skin cancer. This study aimed at estimating the one-year prevalence of sun exposure and skin health-associated knowledge and attitudes among Austrian citizens. The population-based UVSkinRisk survey investigated a representative sample of Austrian adults using a structured questionnaire. In total, 1500 study subjects (median age 33.0 years, 50.5% females) participated in this questionnaire survey. Among study participants, prevalence of sun exposure was 47%, with slightly higher rates in males (48%) compared to females (46%). Younger age, lower professional category, darker skin type, motives to tan, sunbed use, sunburn, and outdoor sport activity increased the odds for prevalent sun exposure. This is the first population-based study evaluating the prevailing sun exposure and recreational habits influencing skin health among Austrian citizens. Despite public media campaigns educating on the harmful effects of sunlight exposure, we found a high prevalence of self-reported sunlight exposure. The results suggest that multifaceted socio-cultural characteristics stimulate recreational sun exposure and tanning habits. Communicating individualized Public (Skin) Health messages might be the key to prevent photo-induced skin health hazards in light-skinned populations. The practical and theoretical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:26797627

  8. Rise, use and treatment of works in Austria. Compiled for the Austrian Federal Waste Management Plan 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Austrian Waste Management Act (AWG) entered into force on 1 July 1990. Paragraph 1 of the act defines the following objectives: to keep detrimental, unbeneficial or otherwise unhealthy influences on man, as well as on animals, plants, their living conditions and their natural environment as low as possible; to preserve raw material and energy resources; to keep the demand for landfill capacities as low as possible; to ensure that only such materials should remain as waste, the dumping of which does not present any potential hazard for future generations (precautionary principle). The waste management act thus places the highest priority on the protection of human beings and the environment and upon the preservation of natural resources. Accordingly, it must be the aim of waste management to handle waste in such a way that environmental pollution is kept as low as possible by prevention, recovery and disposal. Paragraph 5 of the Austrian waste management act stipulates that the Federal Minister of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management has to issue the Federal Waste Management Plan in order to reach the objectives and observing the rules of modern waste management. Following the first waste management plan in 1992 an amendment is required every three years. This is why the Austrian Federal Environment Agency elaborated the following studies: waste generation, recovery and disposal in Austria; hazardous waste and waste oils in Austria; non-hazardous waste in Austria. Further information on waste management facilities in Austria is presented on our homepage (http://www.ubavie.gv.at). (author)

  9. Tracer and hydrometric techniques to determine the contribution of glacier melt to a proglacial stream in the Ötztal Alps (Tyrol, Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmieder, Jan; Marke, Thomas; Strasser, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    Glaciers are important seasonal water contributors in many mountainous landscapes. For water resources management it is important to know about the timing and amount of released glacier melt water, especially in downstream regions where the water is needed (hydropower, drinking water) or where it represents a potential risk (drought, flood). Seasonal availability of melt water is strongly dependent on boundary layer atmospheric processes and becomes even more relevant in a changing climate. Environmental tracers are a useful tool in the assessment of snow and ice water resources, because they provide information about the sources, flow paths and traveling times of water contributing to streamflow at the catchment scale. Previously, high-elevation tracer studies throughout the Alps have been scarce as they require intense field work in remote areas. However, hydrometric and meteorological measurements combined with tracer analyses help to unravel streamflow composition and improve the understanding of hydroclimatological processes. On top of that, empirical studies are necessary to parameterize and validate hydrological models in more process-oriented ways, rather than comparing total measured and simulated runoff only. In the present study three approaches are applied to derive glacier melt contributions to a proglacial stream at the seasonal scale and to identify their individual advances and limitations. Tracers used for each approach are (1) electrical conductivity, (2) stable isotopes of water and (3) heavy metals. The field work was conducted during the summer of 2015 in the glaciated (35%) high-elevation catchment of the Hochjochbach, a small sub-basin (17 km²) of the Ötztaler Ache river in the Austrian Alps, ranging from 2400 to 3500 m.a.s.l. in elevation. Hydroclimatological data was provided by an automatic weather station and a gauging station equipped with a pressure transducer. Water samples from shallow groundwater, streamflow, glacier and snow melt

  10. Diagnosis value of serum ALP and osteocalcin in early prostate cancer bone metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong-Yong Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the role and significance of the joint detection of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin in prostate cancer bone metastases.Methods:A total of 87 cases of prostate cancer patients were diagnosed by radionuclide bone imaging, and 51 cases of them were included in the bone metastases group, while the other 36 cases were selected as the non-metastases group. Serum levels of ALP and osteocalcin of all patients were detected. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, likelihood ratio and the predictive value of patients in the two groups were analyzed. The sensitivity and specificity of the combined detection of ALP and osteocalcin and their expression levels in different bone metastases degrees were analyzed.Results:Serum ALP and osteocalcin levels of patients in metastases group were higher than those in non-metastases group and normal control group. In non-metastases group, the ALP level was higher than that in normal control group, while its osteocalcin level was lower than that in control group (P<0.05); The sensitivities of ALP and osteocalcin were 77.2% and 70.6%, respectively, and their specificities were 61.1% and 54.6%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity became 93.3% and 82.33% in combined detection of ALP and osteocalcin, which was significantly higher than the single detection (P<0.05). The expression levels of ALP and osteocalcin increased with the increase of the metastases degrees (P<0.05). Conclusions:Combined detection of ALP and osteocalcin can be used in the early diagnosis of prostate cancer with improved diagnostic efficiency.

  11. The quest for an intermediate-scale accidental axion and further ALPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, A.G.; Nishi, C.C. [Univ. Federal do ABC - UFABC, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Machado, A.C.B. [Teorica-Univ. Estadual Paulista, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Ringwald, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Vaudrevange, P. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Excellence Cluster Universe

    2014-03-15

    The recent detection of the cosmic microwave background polarimeter experiment BICEP2 of tensor fluctuations in the B-mode power spectrum basically excludes all plausible axion models where its decay constant is above 10{sup 13} GeV. Moreover, there are strong theoretical, astrophysical, and cosmological motivations for models involving, in addition to the axion, also axion-like particles (ALPs), with decay constants in the intermediate scale range, between 10{sup 9} GeV and 10{sup 13} GeV. Here, we present a general analysis of models with an axion and further ALPs and derive bounds on the relative size of the axion and ALP photon (and electron) coupling. We discuss what we can learn from measurements of the axion and ALP photon couplings about the fundamental parameters of the underlying ultraviolet completion of the theory. For the latter we consider extensions of the Standard Model in which the axion and the ALP(s) appear as pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons from the breaking of global chiral U(1) (Peccei-Quinn (PQ)) symmetries, occuring accidentally as low energy remnants from exact discrete symmetries. In such models, the axion and the further ALP are protected from disastrous explicit symmetry breaking effects due to Planck-scale suppressed operators. The scenarios considered exploit heavy right handed neutrinos getting their mass via PQ symmetry breaking and thus explain the small mass of the active neutrinos via a seesaw relation between the electroweak and an intermediate PQ symmetry breaking scale. We show some models that can accommodate simultaneously an axion dark matter candidate, an ALP explaining the anomalous transparency of the universe for γ-rays, and an ALP explaining the recently reported 3.55 keV gamma line from galaxies and clusters of galaxies, if the respective decay constants are of intermediate scale.

  12. Impact of permafrost degradation on debris flow initiation - a case study from the north Italian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, Bodo; Felderer, Astrid

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric warming in high mountain environments causes a range of impacts, including glacier recession, reduction of permafrost extent and distribution as well as changes in thermal permafrost properties. Furthermore, it is likely that climate change affects the occurrence of natural hazards, like shallow landslides and debris flows, as their initiation is related to the degradation of the cryosphere. The present study demonstrates the importance of recent atmospheric warming for the spatial distribution of debris flow initiation in a central alpine area of the Italian Alps (Europe). It is primarily based on the modelling of the spatial distribution of permafrost using a database of geomorphologic, hydrologic, and physical permafrost indicators and the CRYOSNOW-approach. There is first evidence that it is possible to quantify the regional debris flow hazard potential based on field survey, in-situ measurements, climate data analyses, and GIS-based simulations for different climate scenarios and variable geomorphic stability. In particular, permafrost degradation due to increasing mean annual air temperature (MAAT) since the end of the Little Ice Age (LIA) caused mechanical instabilities of sediments and slopes. In the study area it can be shown that almost half of the debris flow initiation zones originate in areas with loose rock that were still stabilized by glacier ice and/or permafrost about 150 years ago. Compared to present conditions the permafrost area would decrease by approximately 72% by the middle of the 21st century with regard to an increased air temperature of +1 to +2 K. Moreover, glaciers widely disappear in this scenario. This may presumed to be a moderate increase of temperature in relation to the predicted climate development of the IPCC. Ongoing glacier recession and permafrost degradation increase the amount of instable debris as well as the potential of debris flow detachment zones in the future. References Damm, B., Felderer, A. (2013

  13. Joint Annual Meeting of the Swiss Physical Society and the Austrian Physical Society together with the Swiss and Austrian Societies for Astronomy and Astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual meeting 2011 which took place at the EPFL in Lausanne on June 15-17, was organized jointly with the Austrian Physical Society OePG, and both national societies of Astronomy and Astrophysics (SSAA and OeGAA), as a successful follow-up of the Innsbruck meeting in 2009. With 10 parallel sessions, more than 470 submitted abstracts and nearly 650 participants, one can claim that our goal to make our meeting more attractive to the physics community was achieved. The commercial exhibition with the presence of 22 companies was the largest ever organized by our society. The 10 plenary talks of the three morning sessions covered a broad spectrum of modern physics from condensed matter physics (Bose Einstein condensation of photons, Quantum cascade lasers, 2D electron gas between insulators, stretchable electronics, superconductivity) to large scale physics (LHC at CERN, the ITER project at Cadarache) without forgetting Earth and planetary science (high velocity impacts in the solar system) and simulation of the universe by computational astrophysics. The presence of our Austrian colleagues had also an impact on the parallel sessions. For example a session 'Surfaces, Interfaces and Thin films' was organized as a complement to the Condensed Matter one. To our great pleasure a session on 'Theory and Simulations', composed of the three suptopics 'Large Scale Computing', 'Theoretical Physics Today' and 'Computational Astrophysics' was part of the program. Another novelty was the session on Geophysics which covered topics like geophysical fluid dynamics, Earth and planetary magnetism or even the safety assessment of deep geological nuclear waste depositories. On the first evening, a public lecture given in the Polydome by M. Marthaler and colleagues on the topic 'Le Cervin est-il africain? Une histoire de la derive des oceans et continents' unravelled the mystery of the origin of our most famous Swiss mountain, the Matterhorn. For the second time a successful series of

  14. Identification and assessment of groundwater flow and storage components of the relict Schöneben Rock Glacier, Niedere Tauern Range, Eastern Alps (Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Gerfried; Wagner, Thomas; Pauritsch, Marcus; Birk, Steffen; Kellerer-Pirklbauer, Andreas; Benischke, Ralf; Leis, Albrecht; Morawetz, Rainer; Schreilechner, Marcellus G.; Hergarten, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    More than 2,600 relict rock glaciers are known in the Austrian Alps but the knowledge of their hydraulic properties is severely limited. The relict Schöneben Rock Glacier (Niedere Tauern Range, Austria), with an extension of 0.17 km2, was investigated based on spring data (2006-2014) and seismic refraction survey. Spring-discharge hydrographs and natural and artificial tracer data suggest a heterogeneous aquifer with a layered internal structure for the relict rock glacier. The discharge behavior exhibits a fast and a delayed flow component. The spring discharge responds to recharge events within a few hours but a mean residence time of several months can also be observed. The internal structure of the rock glacier (up to several tens of meters thick) consists of: an upper blocky layer with a few meters of thickness, which lacks fine-grained sediments; a main middle layer with coarse and finer-grained sediments, allowing for fast flow; and an approximately 10-m-thick basal till layer as the main aquifer body responsible for the base flow. The base-flow component is controlled by (fine) sandy to silty sediments with low hydraulic conductivity and high storage capacity, exhibiting a difference in hydraulic conductivity to the upper layer of about three orders of magnitude. The high storage capacity of relict rock glaciers has an impact on water resources management in alpine catchments and potentially regulates the risk of natural hazards such as floods and related debris flows. Thus, the results highlight the importance of such aquifer systems in alpine catchments.

  15. Central-European Jesuit Scientists in China, and Their Impact on Chinese Science

    OpenAIRE

    Stanislav Jože JUŽNIČ

    2015-01-01

    This article describes nine Central European Jesuits from the Austrian province who embarked for China in the 17th and 18th centuries. Their European educational networks provide useful insights into the abilities of the absburg Monarchy to meet Chinese Imperial demands. The focus is on feedback of their adopted Chinese network back to their own homes. The Europeans and Chinese-based Jesuits exchanged instruments, books, artifacts, and letters. The exception was Johannes Grueber, who personal...

  16. Quantifying glacial erosion in the European Alps using apatite fission track dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangenheim, Cornelia; Glotzbach, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the impact of glacial erosion on landscape evolution during the Quaternary, problems may occur in choosing the best method, because many methods only reflect parts of the era. Erosion rate calculations based on cosmogenic nuclides only cover the Holocene and erosion rate calculations based on river load gauging reflect even shorter timescales (e.g. von Blanckenburg 2005). In this study we investigate the potential of thermochronological methods, especially apatite fission track dating (AFT) to quantify glacial erosion in the European Alps. The topography of the European Alps is strongly influenced by Quaternary glaciations, as it formed characteristic features like overdeepened and hanging valleys. The study area is located in the Central Alps of Switzerland, which is a high mountain area. At ~0.9 Ma glacial erosion has led to a considerable increase in valley incision rates in this area (Haeuselmann et al. 2007) and therefore it is ideally suited to study the glacial impact on landscape evolution. The advantage of using AFT dating, while studying changes in erosional processes, is that possibly arising nonsteady-state erosion will be recorded within the spatial distribution of thermochronological ages. In this study we applied AFT dating on both bedrock and sediments. The bedrock samples derive from different elevations to figure out whether or not spatial differences and elevation dependencies exist. Combined with already published data we have a relatively high sample density distributed throughout the whole study area. The detrital samples originate from stream sediments and from glacial deposits in the form of late glacial moraines and cave sediments from the last ~0.5 Ma in order to obtain possible lateral variations in erosion. The AFT ages of the bedrocks vary between ~4 Ma and ~9 Ma, resulting in an average long-term exhumation rate of ~0.5 km/Ma. Most of the ages range between 7 and 9 Ma, confirmed by prevailing ages of stream sediment

  17. Natural radionuclides in Austrian mineral water and their sequential measurement by fast methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten samples of Austrian mineral water were investigated with regard to the natural radionuclides 228Ra, 226Ra, 210Pb, 210Po, 238U and 234U. The radium isotopes as well as 210Pb were measured by liquid scintillation counting (LSC) after separation on a membrane loaded with element-selective particles (EmporeTM Radium Disks) and 210Po was determined by α-spectroscopy after spontaneous deposition onto a copper planchette. Uranium was determined by ICP-MS as well as by α-spectroscopy after ion separation and microprecipitation with NdF3. From the measured activity concentrations the committed effective doses for adults and babies were calculated and compared to the total indicative dose of 0.1 mSv/a given in the EC Drinking Water Directive as a maximum dose. The dominant portion of the committed effective dose was due to the radium isotopes; the dose from 228Ra in most samples clearly exceeded the dose from 226Ra

  18. Success Factors for an E-Government Strategy: Austrian Experiences, Indonesian Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Behrens

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Focus of this paper are success factors for the implementation of an E-Government strategy. While concepts for a sophisticated strategy process in Public Sector are delivered on a regular basis, the gap between ambitious planning and its implementation seems to get wider. Authors seek to define what makes a “good strategy” in order to enhance management capacity. Meanwhile some scholars from Political Science see limitation of Governments on announcements which are not followed up by sufficient action rather as systematic problems, challenging concept and rules of liberal western democracy, or owed to growing complexity of Governance under the conditions of globalization. In context of the introduction of New Public Management and its perception of citizens as customers and on the basis of new available technical options in Information Society, a key Governance reform project in European and other Countries over the last fifteen years has been the introduction of E-Government. European market leader in this field is Austria. The author reviews concept and implementation experiences of the Austrian E-Government strategy, analyzes key success factors and opens a discussion, under which conditions a successful implementation of E-Government can take place in Indonesia.

  19. Inbreeding and its Effect on Performance Traits in Austrian Meat Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Maximini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of inbreeding of meat performance tested herd book sheep in Austria and to evaluate the effect of individual inbreeding on growth and CT (computer tomography scan carcass traits. Performance data (13,614 records, five breeds: Merinoland, Suff olk, Texel, German Blackheaded Meat sheep, Jura were collected in the years 2000-2010. The traits analysed were live weight and average daily gain, as well as traits of body frame, back fat and eye muscle area, all measured on live animals with CT. Inbreeding coefficients (F were calculated with the soft ware PEDIG. F was nested within breed and tested in a mixed model using ASReml. Levels of inbreeding were low with O F of 1.5-3.1%. Only few traits were significantly affected by inbreeding. Both positive and negative effects were found. The effects were small, most oft en nonlinear and vary across breeds. Inbreeding and its effects on performance traits do not seem to be an issue in Austrian meat sheep populations at the moment. However, monitoring and further analyses are recommended.

  20. Inbreeding and its Effect on Performance Traits in Austrian Meat Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Maximini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of inbreeding of meat performance tested herd book sheep in Austria and to evaluate the effect of individual inbreeding on growth and CT (computer tomography scan carcass traits. Performance data (13,614 records, five breeds: Merinoland, Suff olk, Texel, German Blackheaded Meat sheep, Jura were collected in the years 2000-2010. The traits analysed were live weight and average daily gain, as well as traits of body frame, back fat and eye muscle area, all measured on live animals with CT. Inbreeding coefficients (F were calculated with the soft ware PEDIG. F was nested within breed and tested in a mixed model using ASReml. Levels of inbreeding were low with O F of 1.5-3.1%. Only few traits were significantly affected by inbreeding. Both positive and negative effects were found. The effects were small, most oft en nonlinear and vary across breeds. Inbreeding and its effects on performance traits do not seem to be an issue in Austrian meat sheep populations at the moment. However, monitoring and further analyses are recommended.

  1. Enduring Power of Attorney (EPoA – comparison between Austrian and German Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ganner

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ENGLISH: With the establishment of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD the treatment of people with disabilities is changing from a protective perspective to a rights - based approach. The Enduring Power of Attorney (EPoA is an important instrument, which helps with the implementation of the CRPD into national law. As an instrument of self - determined substituted decision - making it is recognised as the best practice model to safeguard the autonomy of people suffering the deprivations of age and other disabilities. This article touches briefly on general supported and substituted decision - making instruments and then goes on to examine the differences and similarities, advantages and disadvantages b e- tween Austrian and German laws concerning EPoAs. DEUTSCH: Mit der Umsetzung der UN-Behindertenrechtskonvention findet ein Paradigmenwechsel und Umdenken im Umgang mit Personen mit Behinderungen statt. Der Primat der Fürsorge weicht einem liberalen, auf Menschenrechten basierenden Ansatz. In diesem Kontext ist die Vorsorgevollmacht ein effektives Mittel, das die Implementation der UN-Behindertenrechtskonvention in nationales Recht vorantreibt und die Selbstbestimmung und Eigenständigkeit altersbedingt eingeschränkter Menschen und von Menschen mit Behinderungen gewährleistet. Dieser Artikel beschäftigt sich einleitend mit allgemeinen Rechtsinstrumenten der (unterstützten Entscheidungsfindung bei nicht selbst entscheidungsfähigen Personen und analysiert in weiterer Folge Gemeinsamkeiten und Unterschiede sowie Vor- und Nachteile der Vorsorgevollmacht nach österreichischem und deutschem Recht.

  2. Influences of updated land-use datasets on WRF simulations for two Austrian regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schicker, Irene; Arnold Arias, Dèlia; Seibert, Petra

    2016-06-01

    Numerical simulations were carried out with the weather research and forecasting model to study the influence of different land-use datasets for two Austrian regions, the high-alpine Inn Valley area and the hilly Vienna Basin area. The three land-use datasets used were USGS, MODIS and a reclassified European dataset based on the CORINE CLC06 data. Simulations covered an episode in July 2007 applying a resolution of 0.8 km. Results were compared with surface observation data, radiosoundings, and satellite data. It was found that land-use both in the original CLC06 and the version where it had been reclassified to USGS classes for use in WRF was significantly more realistic than the built-in land-use datasets (USGS and MODIS). Synoptic processes during the episode considered were reproduced well by all simulations, where CLC06 and MODIS improved the model performance in both regions in terms of the surface temperatures and other meteorological parameters.

  3. The Austrian Botanic Gardens Work Group, an Example of Active Networking to Promote Small Botanic Gardens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Roland K. EBERWEIN

    2011-01-01

    The continuously increasing demands on botanic gardens during the last few decades have led to a huge in increase administration and an urgent need for additional specialized personnel, especially botanists, teachers, database specialists and administrative staff. Instead of meeting these requirements, many botanic gardens are faceing a severe decrease in funding and personnel. Larger gardens provide the opportunity to distribute several tasks to different employees, whereas small gardens are short staffed and often nn by a single curator who has to fulfill all functions. In order to meet actual demands more easily, the Austrian botanic gardens are linked nationally via an active workgroup.This network not only allows the distribution of information but also facilitates the sharing of duties. A listserver speeds up the communication and correspondence within the workgroup, collection priorities and projects (e. g., GSPC) are coordinated, seedbanking becomes decentralized, printedmatters are shared and distributed, etc. Small gardens with only few employees can participate in projects by taking on small-ideally using with their special resources-in order not to fall behind. In addition, there is also an urgent need for international networking by means of plant and seed exchange (Index Semihum), BGCI membership, discussion groups, personal contacts and projects. Mission statements,special marketing strategies for public relations, integrating projects of other workgroup members and adapted public awareness programs are important to focus attention to small gardens and to help them keep alive.

  4. Teleconsultation 2001 - working group report of the Austrian Roentgen Society (OeRG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1997, the working group ''Teleconsultation'' of the Austrian Roentgen Society (OeRG) has performed a first survey about the status of teleradiological applications in Austria. Now, in 2001, a second survey was performed in order to adapt the OeRG's approach in this field to the most actual needs. Most of the 38 teleradiological projects in Austria already working or shortly before inauguration are aiming at an improvement of the medical service in favour of our patients (expert consultation, image transfer to doctors requesting radiological examinations, clinical case discussion). However, a small but not unimportant fraction of teleradiology projects in Austria (11%) is performed for replacement of radiologists on duty, therefore for reasons mainly directed to minimising costs for the hospital administration. Other purposes of teleradiology projects, like quality assurance and medical education have even lost their small importance the 1997 survey already has shown. This paper discusses the professional implications from the results of the 2001 survey and the legal framework for the application of telecommunication in diagnostic radiology. The most important goal of all professional activities in radiology is the well-being of our patients, based on the immediacy of the medical profession in accordance with the ''physician law''. (orig.)

  5. Cornerstones of the Austrian radon risk communication strategy; Eckpfeiler der oesterreichischen Radonrisikokommunikationsstrategie (OeRRKS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunte, A.; Ringer, W. [AGES, Linz (Austria). Oesterreichische Fachstelle fuer Radon

    2015-07-01

    On behalf of the Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management (BMLFUW), the National Radon Centre of Austria developed the National Radon Risk Communication Strategy. The superior goal is the reduction of the radon exposure of Austrian citizens as well as the reduction of radon-related lung cancer deaths. Austria, like many other countries, follows the approach to raise awareness and to inform the public to achieve this goal. The presented strategy deals with the question of how radon protection issues can be communicated to the public, existing fears can be reduced and affected people can be motivated to take action (perform a radon test, if necessary, mitigate or install preventive measures in new buildings). The cornerstones of the National Radon Risk Communication Strategy can be summarized as follows: - Definition of communication goals - Identification and categorization of target groups - Development of specific key messages for each of the target groups - Determination of communication channels and assessment of their efficiency - Integration of the radon issue in education and training - Cooperation with relevant organizations and platforms. The communication objectives, target groups and communication paths (and their evaluation) will be discussed during the presentation in detail.

  6. Sustainability Management with the Sustainability Balanced Scorecard in SMEs: Findings from an Austrian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Falle

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the economic importance of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs and their need for strategic sustainability management, this paper examines the concept of Sustainability Balanced Scorecard (SBSC with respect to SMEs. This case study describes the development of an SBSC in a middle-sized Austrian brewery. The existing methods used in SBSC creation were adapted to suit the company’s specific needs. The findings show that when developing an SBSC it is important to take specific SME characteristics into account and apply methods that allow for adaptation to the prevailing conditions, such as strategic management, organizational structure and resources. In the case study special attention was paid to strategy analysis and thereby the creation of a solid basis for the SBSC. Furthermore, the results show SBSC development is not a process of distinct consecutive steps, as it is often suggested in the literature, but rather that it is a complex process marked by iterative steps. Moreover, the paper highlights the supporting factors and challenges experienced. Whereas top management support, the presence of a project team and high employee involvement were identified as key supporting factors, a lack of specific resources and blurry strategy formulation exert negative influence on the development process. The results presented here should help other SMEs in their development of an SBSC. The paper stimulates scientific discourse on sustainability and strategic management by highlighting the relevant supporting factors and challenges.

  7. [Burnout symptoms in Austrian student nurses in their third year of training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Clemens

    2009-08-01

    Burnout is considered a major negative outcome of work related distress in social and health care services, especially in nursing. In the present study 179 student nurses in their third year of training and 47 registered nurses, all working in the Austrian province of Salzburg, were examined with the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Satisfaction With Life Scale. Compared on a regional and national level, burnout scores of student nurses were equal to those of registered nurses and workers in social and nursing professions. The specific stressors of education and training lead to strain comparable to years of professional experience and exposure to stressors. The relatively high level of satisfaction with life in student nurses may be due to specific resources and ways of compensation, that require further examination. Differences between urban and rural districts (with lower burnout scores and higher satisfaction with life sores in rural districts) were strong in student nurses. Compared with international nurse and health care samples, burnout is relatively low in the examined groups. Registered nurses and student nurses in rural districts show the lowest scores of all in emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, respectively.

  8. Haunted Encounters: Exile and Holocaust Literature in German and Austrian Post-war Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Lang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In an essay titled ‘The Exiled Tongue’ (2002, Nobel Prize winner Imre Kertész develops a genealogy of Holocaust and émigré writing, in which the German language plays an important, albeit contradictory, role. While the German language signified intellectual independence and freedom of self-definition (against one’s roots for Kertész before the Holocaust, he notes (based on his engagement with fellow writer Jean Améry that writing in German created severe difficulties in the post-war era. Using the examples of Hilde Spiel and Friedrich Torberg, this article explores this notion and asks how the loss of language experienced by Holocaust survivors impacted on these two Austrian-Jewish writers. The article argues that, while the works of Spiel and Torberg are haunted by the Shoah, the two writers do not write in the post-Auschwitz language that Kertész delineates in his essays, but are instead shaped by the exile experience of both writers. At the same time though, Kertész’ concept seems to be haunted by exile, as his reception of Jean Améry’s works, which form the basis of his linguistic genealogies, shows an inability to integrate the experience of exile.

  9. Natural radionuclides in Austrian mineral water and their sequential measurement by fast methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallner, Gabriele [University of Vienna, Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie, Waehringerstrasse 42, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: gabriele.wallner@univie.ac.at; Wagner, Rosmarie [University of Vienna, Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie, Waehringerstrasse 42, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Katzlberger, Christian [Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety, CC Radiation Protection and Radiochemistry, Spargelfeldstrasse 191, A-1226 Vienna (Austria)

    2008-07-15

    Ten samples of Austrian mineral water were investigated with regard to the natural radionuclides {sup 228}Ra, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Po, {sup 238}U and {sup 234}U. The radium isotopes as well as {sup 210}Pb were measured by liquid scintillation counting (LSC) after separation on a membrane loaded with element-selective particles (Empore{sup TM} Radium Disks) and {sup 210}Po was determined by {alpha}-spectroscopy after spontaneous deposition onto a copper planchette. Uranium was determined by ICP-MS as well as by {alpha}-spectroscopy after ion separation and microprecipitation with NdF{sub 3}. From the measured activity concentrations the committed effective doses for adults and babies were calculated and compared to the total indicative dose of 0.1 mSv/a given in the EC Drinking Water Directive as a maximum dose. The dominant portion of the committed effective dose was due to the radium isotopes; the dose from {sup 228}Ra in most samples clearly exceeded the dose from {sup 226}Ra.

  10. Runs of Homozygosity Reveal Genome-wide Autozygosity in the Austrian Fleckvieh Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Ferencakovic

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Runs of homozygosity (ROH are recognized as potential inbreeding measure in studies on humans. Inbreeding coefficients derived from ROH (FROH measure proportion of the genome arranged in long homozygous segments and highly correlate with those derived from pedigree (Fped. From that we assumed that ROH represent an alternative to pedigree inbreeding levels in studies on animals too, because pedigree can be incorrect, incomplete and can not fully explain what happened in meiosis. To confirm our premise we used pedigree and genotype data from 500 Austrian dual purpose Simmental bulls to determine correlation between FROH and Fped. ROH were obtainedusing Fortran 90 soft ware created by the authors. Proportions of genome in ROH were calculated for lengths of ROH of >1, >2, >4, >8 and >16 Mb. Pedigree data were analyzed and inbreeding coefficients for complete pedigree (FpedT and five generations (Fped5 were calculated using ENDOG soft ware. We found low FpedT and Fped5 (means of 1.5% and 0.9% while FROH for segments >1Mb suggested much higher values (9.0% indicating old inbreeding that can not be traced using pedigree. The highest correlations were found between FROH calculated from ROH of length >4Mb and FpedT (0.68 that is consistent with studies on humans. We conclude that inbreeding coefficients derived from ROH are useful for measuring levels of inbreeding in cattle, because ROH are not subject to mistakes as pedigrees and calculations made from those.

  11. Modeling Sustainable Bioenergy Feedstock Production in the Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraxner, Florian; Leduc, Sylvain; Kindermann, Georg; Fuss, Sabine; Pietsch, Stephan; Lakyda, Ivan; Serrano Leon, Hernan; Shchepashchenko, Dmitry; Shvidenko, Anatoly

    2016-04-01

    Sustainability of bioenergy is often indicated by the neutrality of emissions at the conversion site while the feedstock production site is assumed to be carbon neutral. Recent research shows that sustainability of bioenergy systems starts with feedstock management. Even if sustainable forest management is applied, different management types can impact ecosystem services substantially. This study examines different sustainable forest management systems together with an optimal planning of green-field bioenergy plants in the Alps. Two models - the biophysical global forest model (G4M) and a techno-economic engineering model for optimizing renewable energy systems (BeWhere) are implemented. G4M is applied in a forward looking manner in order to provide information on the forest under different management scenarios: (1) managing the forest for maximizing the carbon sequestration; or (2) managing the forest for maximizing the harvestable wood amount for bioenergy production. The results from the forest modelling are then picked up by the engineering model BeWhere, which optimizes the bioenergy production in terms of energy demand (power and heat demand by population) and supply (wood harvesting potentials), feedstock harvesting and transport costs, the location and capacity of the bioenergy plant as well as the energy distribution logistics with respect to heat and electricity (e.g. considering existing grids for electricity or district heating etc.). First results highlight the importance of considering ecosystem services under different scenarios and in a geographically explicit manner. While aiming at producing the same amount of bioenergy under both forest management scenarios, it turns out that in scenario (1) a substantially larger area (distributed across the Alps) will need to be used for producing (and harvesting) the necessary amount of feedstock than under scenario (2). This result clearly shows that scenario (2) has to be seen as an "intensification

  12. Une espèce nouvelle de Drusus Stephens (Trichoptera) des Alpes maritimes (France)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botosaneanu, L.; Giudicelli, J.

    1983-01-01

    Description of a new species of Drusus Stephens (Insecta: Trichoptera) from the Maritime Alps of France; the new species belongs to the mixtus-group, and is possibly a geographic vicariant of D. biguttatus Pictet and of D. mixtus Pictet.

  13. ALP conversion and the soft X-ray excess in the outskirts of the Coma cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was recently found that the soft X-ray excess in the center of the Coma cluster can be fitted by conversion of axion-like-particles (ALPs) of a cosmic axion background (CAB) to photons. We extend this analysis to the outskirts of Coma, including regions up to 5 Mpc from the center of the cluster. We extract the excess soft X-ray flux from ROSAT All-Sky Survey data and compare it to the expected flux from ALP to photon conversion of a CAB. The soft X-ray excess both in the center and the outskirts of Coma can be simultaneously fitted by ALP to photon conversion of a CAB. Given the uncertainties of the cluster magnetic field in the outskirts we constrain the parameter space of the CAB. In particular, an upper limit on the CAB mean energy and a range of allowed ALP-photon couplings are derived

  14. ALP conversion and the soft X-ray excess in the outskirts of the Coma cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraljic, David; Rummel, Markus; Conlon, Joseph P., E-mail: David.Kraljic@physics.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: Markus.Rummel@physics.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: j.conlon1@physics.ox.ac.uk [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3NP (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-01

    It was recently found that the soft X-ray excess in the center of the Coma cluster can be fitted by conversion of axion-like-particles (ALPs) of a cosmic axion background (CAB) to photons. We extend this analysis to the outskirts of Coma, including regions up to 5 Mpc from the center of the cluster. We extract the excess soft X-ray flux from ROSAT All-Sky Survey data and compare it to the expected flux from ALP to photon conversion of a CAB. The soft X-ray excess both in the center and the outskirts of Coma can be simultaneously fitted by ALP to photon conversion of a CAB. Given the uncertainties of the cluster magnetic field in the outskirts we constrain the parameter space of the CAB. In particular, an upper limit on the CAB mean energy and a range of allowed ALP-photon couplings are derived.

  15. Detecting an infrared photon within an hour. Transition-edge detector at ALPS-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreyling-Eschweiler, Jan [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik; Horns, Dieter [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik; Collaboration: ALPS-II collaboration

    2013-09-15

    An essential design requirement of the ALPS-II experiment is the efficient detection of single photons with a very low instrumental background of 10 {mu}Hz. In 2011 the ALPS collaboration started to set up a TES detector (Transition-Edge Sensor) for ALPS-II, the second phase of the experiment. Since mid of 2013 the setup is ready for characterization in the ALPS laboratory: an ADR cryostat (Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator) as millikelvin environment, a low noise SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) with electronics for read-out and a fiber-coupled high-efficient TES for near-infrared photons as sensor. First measurements have shown a good discrimination between noise and 1064 nm signals.

  16. Exploration of the South-Eastern Alps lithosphere with 3D refraction seismics project Alp 2002 – data acquisition in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Gosar

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Using combined seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection method project Alp 2002 explored the contact zone between South-Eastern Alps, Dinarides and Pannonian basin. In a network of 12 profiles of 4100 km total length, which are spread over seven countries,1055 portable seismographs were deployed and 31 strong (300 kg explosions fired. In Slovenia 127 seismographs were deployed along five profiles totalling 575 km and two explosions fired near Vojnik and Gradin. The collected data will allow construction of athree-dimensional model of the lithosphere and will contribute to the understanding of the tectonics and geodynamics at the junction of European, Adriatic and Tisza plates.

  17. Negative elevation-dependent warming trend in the Eastern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudoroiu, M.; Eccel, E.; Gioli, B.; Gianelle, D.; Schume, H.; Genesio, L.; Miglietta, F.

    2016-04-01

    Mountain regions and the important ecosystem services they provide are considered to be very vulnerable to the current warming, and recent studies suggest that high-mountain environments experience more rapid changes in temperature than environments at lower elevations. Here we analysed weather records for the period 1975–2010 from the Eastern Italian Alps that show that warming occurred both at high and low elevations, but it was less pronounced at high elevations. This negative elevation–dependent trend was consistent for mean, maximum and minimum air temperature. Global radiation data measured at different elevations, surface energy fluxes measured above an alpine grassland and above a coniferous forest located at comparable elevations for nine consecutive years as well as remote sensing data (MODIS) for cloud cover and aerosol optical depth were analysed to interpret this observation. Increasing global radiation at low elevations turned out to be a potential driver of this negative elevation–dependent warming, but also contributions from land use and land cover changes at high elevations (abandonment of alpine pastures, expansion of secondary forest succession) were taken into account. We emphasise though, that a negative elevation–dependent warming is not universal and that future research and in particular models should not neglect the role of land use changes when determining warming rates over elevation.

  18. Advanced Large Area Plastic Scintillator Project (ALPS): Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, David V.; Reeder, Paul L.; Todd, Lindsay C.; Warren, Glen A.; McCormick, Kathleen R.; Stephens, Daniel L.; Geelhood, Bruce D.; Alzheimer, James M.; Crowell, Shannon L.; Sliger, William A.

    2008-02-05

    The advanced Large-Area Plastic Scintillator (ALPS) Project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory investigated possible technological avenues for substantially advancing the state-of-the-art in gamma-ray detection via large-area plastic scintillators. The three predominant themes of these investigations comprised the following: * Maximizing light collection efficiency from a single large-area sheet of plastic scintillator, and optimizing hardware event trigger definition to retain detection efficiency while exploiting the power of coincidence to suppress single-PMT "dark current" background; * Utilizing anti-Compton vetoing and supplementary spectral information from a co-located secondary, or "Back" detector, to both (1) minimize Compton background in the low-energy portion of the "Front" scintillator's pulse-height spectrum, and (2) sharpen the statistical accuracy of the front detector's low-energy response prediction as impelmented in suitable energy-windowing algorithms; and * Investigating alternative materials to enhance the intrinsic gamma-ray detection efficiency of plastic-based sensors.

  19. The Quest for an Intermediate-Scale Accidental Axion and Further ALPs

    CERN Document Server

    Dias, A G; Nishi, C C; Ringwald, A; Vaudrevange, P

    2014-01-01

    The recent detection of the cosmic microwave background polarimeter experiment BICEP2 of tensor fluctuations in the B-mode power spectrum basically excludes all plausible axion models where its decay constant is above $10^{13}$ GeV. Moreover, there are strong theoretical, astrophysical, and cosmological motivations for models involving, in addition to the axion, also axion-like particles (ALPs), with decay constants in the intermediate scale range, between $10^9$ GeV and $10^{13}$ GeV. Here, we present a general analysis of models with an axion and further ALPs and derive bounds on the relative size of the axion and ALP photon (and electron) coupling. We discuss what we can learn from measurements of the axion and ALP photon couplings about the fundamental parameters of the underlying ultraviolet completion of the theory. For the latter we consider extensions of the Standard Model in which the axion and the ALP(s) appear as pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons from the breaking of global chiral $U(1)$ (Peccei-Quinn ...

  20. Mars Analog Mission: Glacier Simulation AMADEE-15 by Austrian Space Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groemer, Gernot; Losiak, Anna; Soucek, Alexander; Plank, Clemens; Zanardini, Laura; Sejkora, Nina; Sams, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    Austrian Space Forum: The Austrian Space Forum (OeWF, Österreichisches Weltraum Forum) is a non-profit, citizen-science organization of aerospace specialists and enthusiasts. One of its specialisations is Mars analog research. Analog studies and analog instrument validation supported all planetary surface missions so far [1] and are considered as an effective tool to prepare for future missions to Mars [2,3,4,5,6,7]. Since 2006, OeWF has conducted 11 Mars analog field campaigns in diverse locations that represented: 1) average current Mars conditions (the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) in Utah in 2006 [8] and the Northern Sahara near Erfoud, Morocco in 2013 [9]); 2) the early and wet Mars (analog site of Rio Tinto Spain in 2011 [10]); and 3) subsurface exploration (Dachstein Ice Caves in 2012). During these campaigns, 68 experiments and major engineering tests were performed, whichwere mostly focused on astrobiology, robotics, human factors, geoscience and spacesuit operations. Major assets of OeWF include two advanced spacesuit simulators Aouda [11], an increasingly evolving Mission Support Center, a dedicated Remote Science Support team [12], and a growing set of Standard Operating Procedures defining major workflows within a mission team. The spacesuit simulators were operated by a total of 18 analog astronauts, who were selected and trained during a >6 month program. Total EVA time is nearly 600 hours, leading to a significant experience in analog field simulations. AMADEE-15: The mission took place between August 2nd and 14th 2015 at the Kaunertal Glacier in Tyrol, Austria. This glacier was selected as a study site because of its accessibility and high number of micro-landscapes analogous to those expected on Mars in locations where abundant water ice is present. As such it is considered a first-tier Mars analog [13]. The Base station was located at N 46.86320, E 10.71401 at 2800 masl, the highest reached location was on elevation of 2887 m. Eleven

  1. From the new Austrian tunneling method to the geoengineering condition evaluation and dynamic controlling method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Shang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The new Austrian tunneling method (NATM is widely applied in design and construction of underground engineering projects. When the type and distribution of unfavorable geological bodies (UGBs associated with their influences on geoengineering are complicated or unfortunately are overlooked, we should pay more attentions to internal features of rocks grades IV and V (even in local but mostly controlling zones. With increasing attentions to the characteristics, mechanism and influences of engineering construction-triggered geohazards, it is crucial to fully understand the disturbance of these geohazards on project construction. A reasonable determination method in construction procedure, i.e. the shape of working face, the type of engineering support and the choice of feasible procedure, should be considered in order to mitigate the construction-triggered geohazards. Due to their high sensitivity to groundwater and in-situ stress, various UGBs exhibit hysteretic nature and failure modes. To give a complete understanding on the internal causes, the emphasis on advanced comprehensive geological forecasting and overall reinforcement treatment is therefore of more practical significance. Comprehensive evaluation of influential factors, identification of UGB, and measures of discontinuity dynamic controlling comprises the geoengineering condition evaluation and dynamic controlling method. In a case of a cut slope, the variations of UGBs and the impacts of key environmental factors are presented, where more severe construction-triggered geohazards emerged in construction stage than those predicted in design and field investigation stages. As a result, the weight ratios of different influential factors with respect to field investigation, design and construction are obtained.

  2. From the new Austrian tunneling method to the geoengineering condition evaluation and dynamic controlling method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanjun Shang; Kun Li; Wantong He; Chunbo Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The new Austrian tunneling method (NATM) is widely applied in design and construction of under-ground engineering projects. When the type and distribution of unfavorable geological bodies (UGBs) associated with their influences on geoengineering are complicated or unfortunately are overlooked, we should pay more attentions to internal features of rocks grades IV and V (even in local but mostly controlling zones). With increasing attentions to the characteristics, mechanism and influences of en-gineering construction-triggered geohazards, it is crucial to fully understand the disturbance of these geohazards on project construction. A reasonable determination method in construction procedure, i.e. the shape of working face, the type of engineering support and the choice of feasible procedure, should be considered in order to mitigate the construction-triggered geohazards. Due to their high sensitivity to groundwater and in-situ stress, various UGBs exhibit hysteretic nature and failure modes. To give a complete understanding on the internal causes, the emphasis on advanced comprehensive geological forecasting and overall reinforcement treatment is therefore of more practical significance. Compre-hensive evaluation of influential factors, identification of UGB, and measures of discontinuity dynamic controlling comprises the geoengineering condition evaluation and dynamic controlling method. In a case of a cut slope, the variations of UGBs and the impacts of key environmental factors are presented, where more severe construction-triggered geohazards emerged in construction stage than those pre-dicted in design and field investigation stages. As a result, the weight ratios of different influential factors with respect to field investigation, design and construction are obtained.

  3. The Austrian radiation monitoring network ARAD - best practice and added value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olefs, Marc; Baumgartner, Dietmar; Obleitner, Friedrich; Bichler, Christoph; Foelsche, Ulrich; Pietsch, Helga; Rieder, Harald; Weihs, Philipp; Geyer, Florian; Haiden, Thomas; Schöner, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    The Austrian RADiation monitoring network (ARAD) has been established to advance the national climate monitoring and to support satellite retrieval, atmospheric modelling and solar energy techniques development. Measurements cover the downwelling solar and thermal infrared radiation using instruments according to Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) standards. A unique feature of ARAD is its vertical dimension of five stations, covering an air column between about 200 m a.s.l. (Vienna) and 3100 m a.s.l. (BSRN site Sonnblick). The contribution outlines the aims and scopes of ARAD, its measurement and calibration standards, methods, strategies and station locations. ARAD network operation uses innovative data processing for quality assurance and quality control, applying manual and automated control algorithms. A combined uncertainty estimate for the broadband shortwave radiation fluxes at all five ARAD stations indicates that accuracies range from 1.5 to 23 %. If a directional response error of the pyranometers and the temperature response of the instruments and the data acquisition system (DAQ) is corrected, this expanded uncertainty reduces to 1.4 to 5.2 %. Thus, for large signals (global: 1000 W m-2, diffuse: 500 W m-2) BSRN target accuracies are met or closely met for 70 % of valid measurements at the ARAD stations after this correction. For small signals (50 W m-2), the targets are not achieved as a result of uncertainties associated with the DAQ or the instrument sensitivities. Additional accuracy gains can be achieved in future by additional measurements and corrections. However, for the measurement of direct solar radiation improved instrument accuracy is needed. ARAD could serve as a powerful example for establishing state-of-the-art radiation monitoring at the national level with a multiple-purpose approach. Instrumentation, guidelines and tools (such as the data quality control) developed within ARAD are best practices which could be adopted in other

  4. The evolutionary history of the rediscovered Austrian population of the giant centipede Scolopendra cingulata Latreille 1829 (Chilopoda, Scolopendromorpha.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Philip Oeyen

    Full Text Available The thermophilous giant centipede Scolopendra cingulata is a voracious terrestrial predator, which uses its modified first leg pair and potent venom to capture prey. The highly variable species is the most common of the genus in Europe, occurring from Portugal in the west to Iran in the east. The northernmost occurrences are in Hungary and Romania, where it abides in small isolated fringe populations. We report the rediscovery of an isolated Austrian population of Scolopendra cingulata with the first explicit specimen records for more than 80 years and provide insights into the evolutionary history of the northernmost populations utilizing fragments of two mitochondrial genes, COI and 16S, comprising 1,155 base pairs. We test the previously proposed hypothesis of a speciation by distance scenario, which argued for a simple range expansion of the species from the southeast, via Romania, Hungary and finally to Austria, based on a comprehensive taxon sampling from seven countries, including the first European mainland samples. We argue that more complex patterns must have shaped the current distribution of S. cingulata and that the Austrian population should be viewed as an important biogeographical relict in a possible microrefugium. The unique haplotype of the Austrian population could constitute an important part of the species genetic diversity and we hope that this discovery will initiate protective measures not only for S. cingulata, but also for its habitat, since microrefugia are likely to host further rare thermophilous species. Furthermore, we take advantage of the unprecedented sampling to provide the first basic insights into the suitability of the COI fragment as a species identifying barcode within the centipede genus Scolopendra.

  5. Natural gas seeps in the French Alps: Sources and pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloppmann, Wolfram; Blessing, Michaela; Proust, Eric; Gal, Frédéric; Bentivegna, Gaetan; Henry, Benoit; Defossez, Pierrick; Catherine, Lerouge; Humez, Pauline; Mayer, Bernhard; Millot, Romain; Gaucher, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Natural gas emanations are part of the geochemical baseline to take into account when assessing global greenhouse gas emissions and potential impacts of conventional and unconventional gas exploration and exploitation on groundwater. Examples of such natural gas macro-seeps are known in several parts of the world (Etiope et al., 2009). Only a limited number of them have been characterized for their gas and isotopic compositions. Such analyses can provide essential information for baseline studies, providing insight in the sources (biogenic vs. thermogenic or modified thermogenic) and pathways of such seeps and may allow for distinction of natural seeps from stray gas leakage associated with human activities. Here, we report gas concentrations and multi-isotope data (δ13C and δ2H of methane and ethane, δ13C and δ18O of CO2, 3He/4He ratio) of two gas seeps in the French subalpine chains, both in a similar geological and structural position within Middle Jurassic claystones along the eastern border of the large synclinal structures of the Vercors and the Chartreuse massifs (Moss, 1992). The "ardent fountain" (fontaine ardente) of Le Gua, 30 km south of Grenoble has most likely the longest continuous written record of existence of any individual natural gas seep, mentioned explicitly as early as the first quarter of the 5th century (Augustin of Hippo (St. Augustin), approx. 426) This natural seep was described in the past as a "wet seep" associated with a spring, whereas the second investigated seep, Rochasson near Meylan north of Grenoble, is a dry seep. Both seeps contain methane and ethane with thermogenic C and H isotope signatures, comparable with a seep in the Northern Swiss Alps at Giswil (Etiope et al., 2010) but with a higher dryness (C1/(C2+C3)>1000) for the Le Gua seep, possibly due to molecular fractionation upon advective fluid+gas migration (Etiope et al., 2009). Maturity (R0) of the reservoir rocks deduced from δ13C(CH4), δ13C(C2H6) is similar to

  6. Dating the polyphase evolution of the Western Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Igor M.

    2016-04-01

    A traverse through the Western Alps from the Zone Houillère to the Monte Rosa eclogites includes an oceanic basin (filled with Hercynian detrital muscovite) which was subducted during Alpine convergence and eclogitized; the eclogites were sheared in greenschist facies and exhumed to the surface. In the W the Zone Houillère sediments are weakly metamorphosed; further ESE, in the Ruitor Unit, higher strain rates and high pressure parageneses are observed; the Piemont-Ligurian (PL) Oceanic Unit consists of eclogites. Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd dating of prograde (55±4 Ma) and retrograde (41±7 Ma) garnet (Villa et al, JPetrol 55 (2014) 803) constrains eclogitization to the Eocene. 39Ar-40Ar ages of white mica show a spatial regularity: Zone Houillère (T ≈ 300 °C) muscovite ages are 270-100 Ma, Ar loss reaching 80 %; eclogitic phengite ages (P¬L Unit, T ≈ 500 °C, and Monte Rosa, T ≥ 600 °C) are constant at 47 Ma, independently of peak T, and agree with garnet Lu-Hf ages; Ruitor white mica ages depend on total strain and especially on the degree of phengitic substitution in detrital muscovite. The observation that Ar can be lost at T 500-600 °C appears counterintuitive if one assumes that ages are a unique function of T. The Zone Houillère pattern is explained by sedimentology: during diagenesis, sediments are dehydrated, and large amounts of circulating water very efficiently promote recrystallization and Ar loss. In the Ruitor Unit, an different eastward age decrease is observed: mica rejuvenation correlates with phengite content, whereby HP phengite replaced detrital muscovite. These samples record a progressive increase of retrogression reactions that produce a heterochemical replacement mineral with associated Ar loss. The Cl/K ratio in white mica is an essential discriminator, as retrogression can be associated with more or less saline fluids. In the Monte Rosa and P-L Oceanic Units, the constant 47 Ma ages are best explained as complete Ar retention. The Ar

  7. Eclogitic metatrondhjemites from metaophiolites of the Western Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Silvana; Tartarotti, Paola; Meyzen, Chrstine; Benciolini, Luca; Toffolo, Luca

    2016-04-01

    Eclogitic metatrondhjemites from metaophiolites of the Western Alps Martin S.**, Tartarotti P.*, Meyzen C. **, Benciolini L.***, Toffolo L. ** *Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Milano ** Dipartimento di Geoscienze, Università di Padova *** Dipartimento di Chimica, Fisica e Ambiente, Università di Udine In the Urtier valley (southern Aosta Valley, Italy), the Piemonte metaophiolites mainly consist of serpentinized peridotites including pods and boudinaged layers of Fe-metagabbro and trondhjemite transposed in the main eclogitic foliation. The contact between serpentinized peridotites and Fe-metagabbro/trondhjemite is locally lined by chloriteschist and rodingite. The high pressure parageneses in the Fe-metagabbro are omphacite-garnet-rutile-glaucophane-phengite, and in the metatrondhjemite plagioclase-quartz-phengite-clinozoisite-epidote-garnet, respectively. Bulk-rock major and trace elements in addition to O isotope analyses were performed in both rock types. Fe-metagabbros are characterized by MgO wt% ranging between 6.11 and 9.63%, ∑REE= 20-101 ppm, (La/Yb)N = 0.22-0.91; trondhjemites have SiO2 43%, Al2O3 ranging between 21 and 24%, CaO ranging between 17 and 20%, ∑REE = 172 - 272 ppm, (La/Yb)N ranging between 7.78 and 13.70. The δ18O is 5.9 ‰ in a Fe-metagabbro sample and 7.4 ‰ in a trondhjemite sample, suggesting that these rocks have been affected by a weak oceanic low temperature alteration. The high CaO content may indicate a metasomatic process which could have occurred during the oceanic stage or at high pressure conditions.

  8. A statistical permafrost distribution model for the European Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Boeckli

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Permafrost distribution modeling in densely populated mountain regions is an important task to support the construction of infrastructure and for the assessment of climate change effects on permafrost and related natural systems. In order to analyze permafrost distribution and evolution on an Alpine-wide scale, one consistent model for the entire domain is needed.

    We present a statistical permafrost model for the entire Alps based on rock glacier inventories and rock surface temperatures. Starting from an integrated model framework, two different sub-models were developed, one for debris covered areas (debris model and one for steep rock faces (rock model. For the debris model a generalized linear mixed-effect model (GLMM was used to predict the probability of a rock glacier being intact as opposed to relict. The model is based on the explanatory variables mean annual air temperature (MAAT, potential incoming solar radiation (PISR and the mean annual sum of precipitation (PRECIP, and achieves an excellent discrimination (area under the receiver-operating characteristic, AUROC = 0.91. Surprisingly, the probability of a rock glacier being intact is positively associated with increasing PRECIP for given MAAT and PISR conditions. The rock model was calibrated with mean annual rock surface temperatures (MARST and is based on MAAT and PISR. The linear regression achieves a root mean square error (RMSE of 1.6 °C. The final model combines the two sub-models and accounts for the different scales used for model calibration. Further steps to transfer this model into a map-based product are outlined.

  9. Infrasonic monitoring of snow avalanches in the Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, E.; Ulivieri, G.; Ripepe, M.; Chiambretti, I.; Segor, V.

    2012-04-01

    Risk assessment of snow avalanches is mostly related to weather conditions and snow cover. However a robust risk validation requires to identify all avalanches occurring, in order to compare predictions to real effects. For this purpose on December 2010 we installed a permanent 4-element, small aperture (100 m), infrasound array in the Alps, after a pilot experiment carried out in Gressonay during the 2009-2010 winter season. The array has been deployed in the Ayas Valley, at an elevation of 2000 m a.s.l., where natural avalanches are expected and controlled events are regularly performed. The array consists into 4 Optimic 2180 infrasonic microphones, with a sensitivity of 10-3 Pa in the 0.5-50 Hz frequency band and a 4 channel Guralp CMG-DM24 A/D converter, sampling at 100 Hz. Timing is achieved with a GPS receiver. Data are transmitted to the Department of Earth Sciences of the University of Firenze, where data is recorded and processed in real-time. A multi-channel semblance is carried out on the continuous data set as a function of slowness, back-azimuth and frequency of recorded infrasound in order to detect all avalanches occurring from the back-ground signal, strongly affected by microbarom and mountain induced gravity waves. This permanent installation in Italy will allow to verify the efficiency of the system in short-to-medium range (2-8 km) avalanche detection, and might represent an important validation to model avalanches activity during this winter season. Moreover, the real-time processing of infrasonic array data, might strongly contribute to avalanche risk assessments providing an up-to-description of ongoing events.

  10. Interaction with customers: The Application of Social Media within the Austrian Supply Chain for Food and Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Meixner

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Social media marketing has become a powerful tool of interaction with stakeholders. An increasing number of companies are using social media platforms to initiate active interaction and communication with current and prospective customers. Within this study, certain content and contact features, as well as social media activities of companies of the Austrian food and beverage industry were evaluated. Empirical findings concerning the threats, risks, and opportunities connected with the application of social media are presented. The results imply that social media applications are innovative alternatives for customer relationship management. However, more knowledge on how to properly use social media marketing seems to be necessary.

  11. Development of Investment Activities of Commercial Insurance Companies in Slovak, Czech and Austrian Insurance Markets in 2004-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Meheš

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with investments of commercial insurance companies operating in Slovak, Czech and Austrian insurance market in the period of 2004–2009. First of all, development of technical reserves volume as an important prerequisite of investing of commercial insurance companies will be characterized. After that, we evaluate financial placements and investment activities – ratio of total investments and technical reserves. We also present statistical tests by means of which we examine the existence of the relation between the volume of technical reserves and the volume of investments of commercial insurance companies.

  12. Putting 600,000 Books Online: the Large-Scale Digitisation Partnership between the Austrian National Library and Google

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Kaiser

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In a public-private partnership with Google, the Austrian National Library is digitising its historical book holdings. Some 600,000 volumes from the sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries will be digitised and made available free of charge. The project demonstrates that public-private partnerships can be successful in enabling our heritage institutions to provide large-scale access to their holdings, provided that such partnerships are not exclusive and free access is ensured. The article outlines the preparatory phase and work flows established in the project.

  13. Avalanche risk assessment for mountain roads - a comparison of case studies from Iceland and the Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastl, M.; Stötter, J.

    2009-04-01

    ðarvegur between Siglufjörður and Straumnes in northern Iceland (Wastl et al. 2008). The total length of the public road network in Iceland is ca. 13000 km, mostly low-volume roads outside built-up areas. Almost 10500 km of these roads are open all year. Substantial parts of the public road network e.g. in central northern Iceland, northwestern and eastern Iceland lie in alpine mountain areas and are affected by characteristic natural hazard processes. Though the resulting road maintenance costs are considerable there is no general overview of the natural hazard situation up to now. The case study for Siglufjarðarvegur shows that a regional scale risk based approach is practical to determine, analyse and assess the natural hazard situation on mountain roads in Iceland and helps to assign priorities in following detailed investigations and the planning of measures. Thus road sections of a high risk level which should be given priority for possible protective measures can be identified and distinguished from areas of avalanche hazard where the collective avalanche death risk is low and acceptable according to international practice. The calculated risks can further be reduced by measures like temporary closing of parts of the road, which can bring the risk to an acceptable level almost everywhere in the investigated road section. This requires, however, a systematic monitoring of the development of the natural hazard situation along the road. The cumulative risk for the investigated section of Siglufjarðarvegur, for the case that no measures of avalanche prevention or control or temporary closing of the road are taken, agrees well with values determined for mountain roads in the Alps. References Borter P. (1999a) Risikoanalyse bei gravitativen Naturgefahren - Methode. Bundesamt für Umwelt, Wald und Landschaft (ed) Umwelt-Materialien 107/I Naturgefahren, Bern. Borter P. (1999b) Risikoanalyse bei gravitativen Naturgefahren - Fallbeispiele und Daten. Bundesamt für Umwelt, Wald

  14. Genetic variants of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in wild caprine and cervid ungulates from the Alps in Tyrol, Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silaghi, Cornelia; Hamel, Dietmar; Thiel, Claudia; Pfister, Kurt; Passos, Lygia Maria Friche; Rehbein, Steffen

    2011-04-01

    The occurrence of genetic variants of Anaplasma phagocytophilum was studied in wild ungulates from the northern and central eastern Alps in Tyrol, Austria. For this purpose, spleen samples collected from 53 game animals during the hunting season 2008/2009 (16 roe deer [Capreolus capreolus], 10 red deer [Cervus elaphus], 16 Alpine chamois [Rupicapra r. rupicapra], 7 Alpine ibex [Capra i. ibex], and 4 European mouflons [Ovis orientalis musimon]) were analyzed. Thirty-five animals originated from the Karwendel mountains, 12 from the Kaunertal area (Ötztal Alps), and the remaining from other mountainous areas in Tyrol. DNA extracts were screened with a real-time polymerase chain reaction targeting the msp2 gene of A. phagocytophilum. A total of 23 (43.4%) samples, from all ungulate species studied, were A. phagocytophilum positive. As of the date of this article, A. phagocytophilum has not been reported in the Alpine ibex. The positive samples were investigated further with polymerase chain reactions for amplification of the partial 16S rRNA, groEL, and msp4 genes. Sequence analysis using forward and reverse primers revealed seven different 16S rRNA gene variants. No variant could be attributed to any particular ungulate species. The groEL gene revealed 11 different variants, which grouped in the phylogenetic analysis into two distinct clusters: one cluster contained the sequences from roe deer, whereas the sequences of the other species formed the second cluster. The msp4 gene showed a high degree of variability in the amplified part with a total of 10 different sequence types. The results show that the wild mountain ungulates were infected to a considerable extent with various variants of A. phagocytophilum. The pathogenicity of the variants and the reservoir competence of the species investigated in this study deserve further attention in future studies.

  15. The Water Balance of the Alps – What do we need to protect the water resources of the Alps? Proceedings of the Conference held at Innsbruck University, 28-29 September 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Psenner, Roland; Lackner, Reinhard

    2007-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the conference “The Water Balance of the Alps. What do we need to protect the water resources of the Alps?” held in Innsbruck in September 2006. The aim of the conference was to present the view of researchers as well as of administrators, and to discuss the best way to protect sensitive waters, including ice and snow, of the Alps. Intensive discussions about the best way to protect sensitive water bodies in the Alps – either by implementing specific and ...

  16. Morphology and ecology of Daphnia middendorffiana, Fisher 1851 (Crustacea, Daphniidae) from four new populations in the Alps

    OpenAIRE

    Tiberti, Rocco

    2011-01-01

    Daphnia middendorffiana has an arctic, circumpolar distribution, with some isolated southerly populations restricted to mountainous areas, including the Alps. In this paper, new records of Daphnia middendorffiana on the Alps are reported. The species was regularly recorded in several samples collected from 2006 to 2009 in four high altitude lakes in the Gran Paradiso National Park (GPNP) during the ice free period. This is the third finding for the Alps and the described populations are the l...

  17. Joint annual meeting of the Austrian physical society, Swiss physical society, Austrian society of astronomy and astrophysics in Innsbruck. Bulletin SPG / SSP Vol 26, 2009; OEPG Tagungsband Nr. 59

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This was the first joint annual meeting of the Austrian physical society, the Swiss physical society and the Austrian society of astronomy and astrophysics with the participation of the Swiss society for astrophysics and astronomy. Its objective was to improve the scientific communication and cooperation of researchers of both countries in all fields of physics and astronomy. The plenary sessions gave an overview of the present status from topics such as atomic clusters interactions to nuclear physics and physics of nanostructures. The topical sessions were dedicated to: atomic- and molecular physics and quantum optics; applied physics (medical physics, thin films, molecular physics and materials); nuclear and particle physics (nuclear physics, colliders (LHCb, Belle, CMS I, CMS II and HERA, ATLAS I and II, PANDA), low and medium energy (UCN, OPERA), astrophysics and particle physics; plasma physics; solid state physics (x-rays and neutrons, spins, magnetism, nano and photonics); surfaces, boundary layers and thin films; history of physics and physics in the school. Those contributions which are in the INIS subject scope are indexed individually. (nevyjel)

  18. The discharge of certain amounts of industrial microplastic from a production plant into the River Danube is permitted by the Austrian legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Aaron; Ramler, David

    2015-05-01

    Numerous studies have quantified the amount of plastic litter in aquatic ecosystems and tried to assess its impacts and threats. This reflects a rising awareness of plastic as an environmental problem. As a next logical step, identifying and regulating the sources must be in the focus of scientific efforts. We report on a spillage of industrial microplastic (IMP) from a production plant situated at an Austrian Danube tributary. This is the first identified point source of IMP litter in freshwater systems. However, due to generous thresholds established by the Austrian government substantial amounts of IMP are legally introduced into running waters. PMID:25734504

  19. Application of various statistical methods to analyze genetic diversity of Austrian (Pinus nigra Arn. and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. based on protein markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lučić Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of studies on protein polymorphism in seeds of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn. as the most important economic species of the genus Pinus in Serbia. Polymorphism of protein markers was determined in selected genotypes originating from seven populations (Scots pine and six populations (Austrian pine. Analysis of protein markers was performed using two statistical methods, NTSYS and correspondence analysis. Both methods give the same arrangement of the analyzed populations, whereby, because of a different view of genetic distances, they can and should be combined, enabling easier and more precise understanding of mutual relationships of the observation units.

  20. A multidisciplinary methodology for the characterization of a large rock spread in the Northern Calcareous Alps (Eastern Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzner, Sandra; Ottowitz, David; Pfeiler, Stefan; Moser, Michael; Motschka, Klaus; Lotter, Michael; Mandl, Gerhard Walter; Rohn, Joachim; Otter, Juergen; Wimmer-Frey, Ingeborg

    2015-04-01

    The Northern Calcareous Alps are characterized by complex lithological and tectonic settings, which are a consequence of the multiphase Alpine orogeny. Several tectonic events caused a varying structural anisotropy with a high susceptibility towards certain types of gravitational mass movement. Mt. Plassen is situated west of the Hallstatt village (Upper Austria). It is composed of Jurassic limestone, which overlies Permotriassic fine-grained clastic rocks and evaporites (mainly part of the so-called Haselgebirge). This geotechnical predisposition causes rock spreading of the more hard and rigid limestone on the weak, mainly clayey rocks. Associated to this large slope instability are secondary rockfall and sliding processes. Further common process chains include rockfall triggering slides and/or earth flows by undrained loading of the ductile clay material. Thus, such fast moving flows/slides may endanger the houses and infrastructures in the Salzberg high valley and Hallstatt village. Recent rockfall activity at Mt. Plassen provide evidences for greater, perhaps accelerating displacement rates of the rock spread. A multidisciplinary assessment strategy was chosen to analyse the ground conditions, to characterize the potential failure mechanisms in more detail and to evaluate the hazard potential of future events. Methods include field mapping (geologic, engineering geologic and geomorphologic), sampling and determination of soil parameters in active process areas, geophysical surveys (airborne geophysics and geoelectric measurements) and kinematic measurements (tape dilatometer and geodetic measurements over a period of 50 years). Results of this multidisciplinary approach form the basis for further decision making such as the installation of a monitoring system or other preventive measures.

  1. Nuclear translocation of the cytoskeleton-associated protein, smALP, upon induction of skeletal muscle differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cambier, Linda [CNRS UMR5237, Universite Montpellier 1, Universite Montpellier 2, Centre de Recherche en Biochimie Macromoleculaire, Montpellier (France); Pomies, Pascal, E-mail: pascal.pomies@crbm.cnrs.fr [CNRS UMR5237, Universite Montpellier 1, Universite Montpellier 2, Centre de Recherche en Biochimie Macromoleculaire, Montpellier (France)

    2011-06-17

    Highlights: {yields} The cytoskeleton-associated protein, smALP, is expressed in differentiated skeletal muscle. {yields} smALP is translocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus of C2C12 myoblasts upon induction of myogenesis. {yields} The differentiation-dependent nuclear translocation of smALP occurs in parallel with the nuclear accumulation of myogenin. {yields} The LIM domain of smALP is essential for the nuclear accumulation of the protein. {yields} smALP might act in the nucleus to control some critical aspect of the muscle differentiation process. -- Abstract: The skALP isoform has been shown to play a critical role in actin organization and anchorage within the Z-discs of skeletal muscles, but no data is available on the function of the smALP isoform in skeletal muscle cells. Here, we show that upon induction of differentiation a nuclear translocation of smALP from the cytoplasm to the nucleus of C2C12 myoblasts, concomitant to an up-regulation of the protein expression, occurs in parallel with the nuclear accumulation of myogenin. Moreover, we demonstrate that the LIM domain of smALP is essential for the nuclear translocation of the protein.

  2. Expression of Helicobacter pylori AlpA protein and its immunogenicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Xue; Yang Bai; Ye Chen; Ji-De Wang; Zhao-Shan Zhang; Ya-Li Zhang; Dian-Yuan Zhou

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To construct a recombinant strain which expresses adhesin AlpA of Helicobacter pylori(H pylori) and to study the immunogenicity of adhesin AlpA.METHODS: Gene Ab, which was amplified from H pylori chromosomal DNA by PCR technique, was sequenced and the biological information was analyzed, and inserted into the Nco Ⅰ and NotⅠ restriction fragments of the expression vector pET-22b(+) using T4 DNA ligase. The resulting plasmid pET-AlpA was transformed into competent E.coli BL21(DE3) cells using ampicillin resistance for selection.Recombinant strains were incubated in 5 mL LB with 100 μg/mL ampicillin overnight at 37 ℃. Sonication of BL21(DE3)pET-22b(+)/AlpA was analyzed by Western blot to detect AlpA immunogenicity.RESULTS: The gene encoding AlpA protein was amplified by PCR with chromosomal DNA of H pylori Sydney strain (SS1) as templates. It revealed that AlpA DNA fragment amplified by PCR had approximately 1 500 nucleotides,compatible with the previous reports. The recombinant plasmid pET-22b(+)/AB was successfully constructed. DNA sequencing showed one open reading frame with the length of 588 bp. It encoded seven conservative regions that showed good antigenicity and hydrophobicity by Parker and Welling method. Furthermore, INTERNET EXPASY,NNPREDICT and ISREC predicted that it was a porin-like structure consisting of β-pleated sheets that were embedded in the outer membrane. BLAST analyzed 836 767 protein sequences and found that the similar sequences were all belonging to H pylori OMP sequences. SDS-PAGE and scan analysis showed that the molecular weight of AB was 22.5 ku and recombinant protein amounted to 29% of the total bacterial protein, among which dissolved expression amounted to 21.9% of sonicated supernatant. The rAB purity amounted to 96% through affinity chromatography.Western blot analysis of rAB confirmed that it could be specially recognized by serum form rabbit immunized with AlpA and H pylori infected.CONCLUSION: Adhesin Alp

  3. Non-perturbative over-production of axion-like-particles (ALPs) via derivative interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Mazumdar, Anupam

    2015-01-01

    Axion like particles (ALPs) are quite generic in many scenarios for physics beyond the Standard Model, they are pseudoscalar Nambu-Goldstone bosons, and appear once any global $U(1)$ symmetry is broken spontaneously. The ALPs can gain mass from various non-perturbative quantum effects, such as anomalies or instantons. ALPs can couple to the matter sector incluidng a scalar condensate such as inflaton or moduli field via derivative interactions, which are suppressed by the axion {\\it decay constant}, $f_\\chi$ . Although weakly interacting, the ALPs can be produced abundantly from the coherent oscillations of a homogeneous condensate. In this paper we will study such a scenario where the ALPs can be produced abundantly, and in some cases can even overclose the Universe via odd and even dimensional operators, as long as $f_\\chi/\\Phi_{\\rm I} \\ll 1$, where $\\Phi_{\\rm I}$ denotes the initial amplitude of the coherent oscillations of the scalar condensate, $\\phi$. We will briefly mention how such dangerous overprodu...

  4. Hydrological and meteorological aspects of floods in the Alps: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldassare Bacchi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This introductory paper presents and summarises recent research on meteorological and hydrological aspects of floods in the Alps. The research activities were part of the international research project RAPHAEL (Runoff and Atmospheric Processes for flood HAzard forEcasting and controL together with experiments within the Special Observing Period-SOP conducted in autumn 1999 for the Mesoscale Alpine Programme —MAP. The investigations were based on both field experiments and numerical simulations, using meteorological and hydrological models, of ten major floods that occurred in the past decade in the European Alps. The two basins investigated were the Ticino (6599 km2 at the Lago Maggiore outlet on the southern side of the Alps and the Ammer catchment (709 km2 in the Bavarian Alps. These catchments and their sub-catchments cover an appropriate range of spatial scales with which to investigate and test in an operational context the potential of both mesoscale meteorological and distributed hydrological models for flood forecasting. From the data analyses and model simulations described in this Special Issue, the major sources of uncertainties for flood forecasts in mid-size mountain basins are outlined and the accuracy flood forecasts is assessed. Keywords: floods, mountain hydrology, meteorological models, Alps

  5. Adjacent Lone Pair (ALP) Effect: A Computational Approach for Its Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huaiyu; Wu, Wei; Ahmed, Basil M; Mezei, Gellert; Mo, Yirong

    2016-05-23

    The adjacent lone pair (ALP) effect is an experimental phenomenon in certain nitrogenous heterocyclic systems exhibiting the preference of the products with lone pairs separated over other isomers with lone pairs adjacent. A theoretical elucidation of the ALP effect requires the decomposition of intramolecular energy terms and the isolation of lone pair-lone pair interactions. Here we used the block-localized wavefunction (BLW) method within the ab initio valence bond (VB) theory to derive the strictly localized orbitals which are used to accommodate one-atom centered lone pairs and two-atom centered σ or π bonds. As such, interactions among electron pairs can be directly derived. Two-electron integrals between adjacent lone pairs do not support the view that the lone pair-lone pair repulsion is responsible for the ALP effect. Instead, the disabling of π conjugation greatly diminishes the ALP effect, indicating that the reduction of π conjugation in deprotonated forms with two σ lone pairs adjacent is one of the major causes for the ALP effect. Further electrostatic potential analysis and intramolecular energy decomposition confirm that the other key factor is the favorable electrostatic attraction within the isomers with lone pairs separated. PMID:27139318

  6. Dating the onset of LGM ice surface lowering in the High Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirsig, Christian; Zasadni, Jerzy; Christl, Marcus; Akçar, Naki; Ivy-Ochs, Susan

    2016-07-01

    The general chronological outline of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in the Alps is well known after more than two centuries of ice age research in Europe. Current studies focus on resolving the details of the deglaciation process after the LGM. Particularly few data in this context are available from the High Alps. Here we report chronological constraints on the onset of deglaciation in two different study areas from the Western and Eastern Alps: the Mont Blanc (Italy) and Zillertal Alps (Austria). We sampled 32 bedrock and boulder surfaces from high elevation ridges beneath the glacial trimline. The oldest 10Be exposure ages of ∼18.5 ka correspond to the initiation of lowering of the LGM ice surface. Identical ages from both study areas suggest synchronous decay of the LGM glaciers in the accumulation zones of the Western and Eastern Alps. Thus, the High Alpine ice surface lowered roughly synchronously to the downwasting of the glacier tongues in the forelands that was completed 19-18 ka. In both study areas, ages of numerous samples that are consistently 2-3 ka younger than 18.5 ka suggest the persistance of remnant ice patches at high elevations in the Lateglacial accumulation zones approximately until the Bølling-Allerød interstadial.

  7. Results of a first look into the Austrian animal phenological records

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheifinger, H.; Koch, E. [Central Inst. for Meteorology and Geodynamics, Vienna (Austria); Winkler, H. [Konrad Lorenz Inst. for Ethology, Vienna (Austria)

    2005-04-01

    The year to year variability and trends of animal phenological phases (honey bee, cockchafer, 3 butterfly species, swallow and cuckoo) of the Austrian phenological observational network were related to each other and to mean monthly temperatures over the time period 1951-1998. Insect phases were well correlated with each other (r{sup 2} = 0.4 to 0.6) and with temperature (r{sup 2} = 0.25 to 0.55), whereas both bird phases were only well correlated with each other (r{sup 2} = 0.57), but showed low common variance values with temperature and with other animal phases. The slope of the temperature-pheno regression, also termed as temperature sensitivity of the phenological phase, was high in the case of the insect phases (-3 to -5 days/ C), but low in the cases of both bird phases (about -1 days/ C). All animal phenological time series showed a trend towards later occurrence dates. The trends of the bird phases were even significant (p<0.1). There was a marked discrepancy between the trends of all animal phenological and temperature time series, especially between the insects and temperature: the mean temperature time series of February, March and April with the highest common variance with the insect phases showed a strongly increasing trend (0.027 C/year), whereas the first appearance dates of the insects tended to occur later (0.06 to 0.15 days/year). Both bird phases correlated weakly with the mean April temperature (r{sup 2} about 0.1). The temperature trend of April was 0.0003 C/year, whereas the trend of the bird phases was 0.2 days/year for the cuckoo and 0.25 days/year for the swallow. From these observations we conclude that a strong temperature sensitivity of the phenological phase based on the year to year variability (in days/ C) does not necessarily result in corresponding trends of temperature and phenological phase. A strong trend of non-atmospheric factors such as population density influencing the animal phases is suspected. Factors other than local

  8. Modelling tunnel jet emissions with LASAT: evaluation study with two Austrian data sets (Ehrentalerbergtunnel and Kaisermuhlentunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Hirtl

    2011-02-01

    model parameters derived for the Ehrentalerbergtunnel are also applied to this site. It is shown that LASAT is able to simulate the position of the plume and that the modelled and the measured concentration values do not deviate more than 30 %. This study reveals that LASAT can be applied to tunnel portal emissions. The model simulations for both the Ehrentalerbergtunnel and Kaisermühlentunnel meet the requirements specified in the Austrian design guideline RVS 9.263 “Ventilation Systems - Pollutant burden at portals”.

  9. Wood pellet production costs under Austrian and in comparison to Swedish framework conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thek, Gerold [Bios Bioenergiesysteme GmbH, Graz (Austria); Obernberger, Ingwald [Bios Bioenergiesysteme GmbH, Graz (Austria); Graz Univ. of Technology, Inst. for Resource Efficient and Sustainable Systems, Graz (Austria)

    2004-12-01

    pellet production costs to be considerably lower due to larger plant capacities, the combination of pellet production and biomass CHP or biomass district heating plants and the implementation of technologies which allow an efficient heat recovery from the dryers. Moreover, another difference between the Austrian and the Swedish framework conditions is the price of electricity, which is much lower in Sweden. (Author)

  10. The Austrian radiation monitoring network ARAD - best practice and added value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olefs, Marc; Baumgartner, Dietmar J.; Obleitner, Friedrich; Bichler, Christoph; Foelsche, Ulrich; Pietsch, Helga; Rieder, Harald E.; Weihs, Philipp; Geyer, Florian; Haiden, Thomas; Schöner, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    The Austrian RADiation monitoring network (ARAD) has been established to advance the national climate monitoring and to support satellite retrieval, atmospheric modeling and the development of solar energy techniques. Measurements cover the downward solar and thermal infrared radiation using instruments according to Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) standards. A unique feature of ARAD is its vertical dimension of five stations, covering an altitude range between about 200 m a.s.l (Vienna) and 3100 m a.s.l. (BSRN site Sonnblick). The paper outlines the aims and scopes of ARAD, its measurement and calibration standards, methods, strategies and station locations. ARAD network operation uses innovative data processing for quality assurance and quality control, utilizing manual and automated control algorithms. A combined uncertainty estimate for the broadband shortwave radiation fluxes at all five ARAD stations, using the methodology specified by the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement indicates that relative accuracies range from 1.5 to 2.9 % for large signals (global, direct: 1000 W m-2, diffuse: 500 W m-2) and from 1.7 to 23 % (or 0.9 to 11.5 W m-2) for small signals (50 W m-2) (expanded uncertainties corresponding to the 95 % confidence level). If the directional response error of the pyranometers and the temperature response of the instruments and the data acquisition system (DAQ) are corrected, this expanded uncertainty reduces to 1.4 to 2.8 % for large signals and to 1.7 to 5.2 % (or 0.9-2.6 W m-2) for small signals. Thus, for large signals of global and diffuse radiation, BSRN target accuracies are met or nearly met (missed by less than 0.2 percentage points, pps) for 70 % of the ARAD measurements after this correction. For small signals of direct radiation, BSRN targets are achieved at two sites and nearly met (also missed by less than 0.2 pps) at the other sites. For small signals of global and diffuse radiation, targets are achieved

  11. Identification of relevant micropollutants in Austrian municipal wastewater and their behaviour during wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clara, M; Windhofer, G; Weilgony, P; Gans, O; Denner, M; Chovanec, A; Zessner, M

    2012-06-01

    The European Union has defined environmental quality standards (EQSs) for surface waters for priority substances and several other pollutants. Furthermore national EQSs for several chemicals are valid in Austria. The study investigated the occurrence of these compounds in municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents. In a first screening of 15 WWTPs relevant substances were identified, which subsequently were monitored in 9 WWTPs over 1 year (every 2 months). Out of 77 substances or groups of substances (including more than 90 substances) 13 were identified as potentially relevant in respect to water pollution and subjected to the monitoring, whereas most other compounds were detected in concentrations far below the respective EQS for surface waters and therefore not further considered. The preselected 13 compounds for monitoring were cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), diuron, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), di(ethyl-hydroxyl)phthalate (DEHP), tributyltin compounds (TBT), nonylphenoles (NP), adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) and the complexing agents ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as well as nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA). In the effluents of WWTPs the concentrations of the priority substances Cd, NP, TBT and diuron frequently exceeded the respective EQS, whereas the concentrations for DEHP and Ni were below the respective EQS. The effluent concentrations for AOX, EDTA, NTA, Cu, Se and Zn frequently are in the range or above the Austrian EQS for surface waters. Besides diuron and EDTA all compounds are removed at least partially during wastewater treatment and for most substances the removal via the excess sludge is the major removal pathway. For the 13 compounds which were monitored in WWTP effluents population equivalent specific discharges were calculated. Since for many compounds no or only few information is available, these population equivalent specific discharges can be used to assess emissions from

  12. Use of the TRIGA Reactor by the Radiochemistry Group of the Atominstitute of the Austrian Universities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radiochemistry Group of the Atominstitute of the Austrian Universities uses the TRIGA Mark II Reactor mainly for neutron activation analysis. Transport of samples to and from the irradiation positions in the reactor is performed by fast pneumatic transfer systems (transfer time 20 msec and 300 msec) and slow conventional transport facilities. Gamma-spectrometric instrumentation equipped with loss free counting systems is used to handle the high count rates up to 500 000 counts/sec. During the last years neutron activation analysis was applied to investigate environmental samples (soil, dust, incineration ash), geological samples (rocks, sediments, fossils, volcanic gases), biological materials (lichens, mushrooms and other plant materials, human diet, biological reference materials), raw materials (phosphate, coal) and archaeological materials (ancient glass). Lichen analysis was used for environmental monitoring. The content of some of the trace elements can be correlated with industrial activities, like manganese content with steel industry, the occurrence of vanadium and nickel with oil firing plants and stainless steel industry, selenium is found in lichen near coal firing plants. The amount of chlorine and sodium indicates the application of salt for road treatment during winter time, aluminum, scandium and hafnium content depends on the amount of dust in the environment. A further environmental application of neutron activation analysis is the determination of trace elements in volcanic gases. The halogens, arsenic, antimony, selenium, tellurium and mercury were determined and their daily output was calculated. The distribution of trace elements in fossils of known age gives us a geochemical key to condition and development of the paleo-environment. For this purpose we determined rare earth elements in 250 million years old microfossils (conodonts). Neutron activation analysis served also for some non scientific but nevertheless useful purposes: Organic

  13. Derivation of GNSS derived station velocities for a surface deformation model in the Austrian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umnig, Elke; Weber, Robert; Maras, Jadre; Brückl, Ewald

    2016-04-01

    This contribution deals with the first comprehensive analysis of GNSS derived surface velocities computed within an observation network of about 100 stations covering the whole Austrian territory and parts of the neighbouring countries. Coordinate time series are available now, spanning a period of 5 years (2010.0-2015.0) for one focus area in East Austria and one and a half year (2013.5-2015.0) for the remaining part of the tracking network. In principle the data series are stemming from two different GNSS campaigns. The former was set up to investigate intra plate tectonic movements within the framework of the project ALPAACT (seismological and geodetic monitoring of ALpine-PAnnonian ACtive Tectonics), the latter was designed to support a number of various requests, e.g. derivation of GNSS derived water vapour fields, but also to expand the foresaid tectonic studies. In addition the activities within the ALPAACT project supplement the educational initiative SHOOLS & QUAKES, where scholars contribute to seismological research. For the whole period of the processed coordinate time series daily solutions have been computed by means of the Bernese software. The processed coordinate time series are tied to the global reference frame ITRF2000 as well as to the frame ITRF2008. Due to the transition of the reference from ITRF2000 to ITRF2008 within the processing period, but also due to updates of the Bernese software from version 5.0 to 5.2 the time series were initially not fully consistent and have to be re-aligned to a common frame. So the goal of this investigation is to derive a nationwide consistent horizontal motion field on base of GNSS reference station data within the ITRF2008 frame, but also with respect to the Eurasian plate. In this presentation we focus on the set-up of the coordinate time series and on the problem of frame alignment. Special attention is also paid to the separation into linear and periodic motion signals, originating from tectonic or non

  14. Connectedness to Nature and Public (Skin Health Perspectives: Results of a Representative, Population-Based Survey among Austrian Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Haluza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Connectedness to nature (CN influences motivation to have contact with outdoor natural environments. Spending leisure time in natural environments is beneficial for human health and well-being. Besides these positive effects, health risks of open-air activities are mainly related to unprotected sun light exposure-associated acute and chronic skin hazards. Thus, we conducted a cross-sectional, representative telephone survey among Austrian residents to study the association of perceived CN level with sun-exposure knowledge, tanning habits, and sun protective behaviour. In total, 1,500 study subjects (50.5% females participated in this questionnaire survey. Although knowledge about tanning and motives to tan were similar among genders, females performed more photoprotective measures and were more connected to nature (all p < 0.001 compared to males. Older age and outdoor sport were significant gender-independent predictor variables influencing perceived CN level. Additionally, level of education was relevant in male CN, whereas non-smoking and higher knowledge were predictive of female CN. This survey provides so far unreported empirical data on the relationship between nature connectedness and skin health-relevant recreational habits of Austrian residents. The findings suggest to integrate hitherto neglected gender-specific Public (Skin Health promotion when counselling on the manifold health advantages of outdoor activities.

  15. Natural gas seeps in the French Alps: Sources and pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloppmann, Wolfram; Blessing, Michaela; Proust, Eric; Gal, Frédéric; Bentivegna, Gaetan; Henry, Benoit; Defossez, Pierrick; Catherine, Lerouge; Humez, Pauline; Mayer, Bernhard; Millot, Romain; Gaucher, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Natural gas emanations are part of the geochemical baseline to take into account when assessing global greenhouse gas emissions and potential impacts of conventional and unconventional gas exploration and exploitation on groundwater. Examples of such natural gas macro-seeps are known in several parts of the world (Etiope et al., 2009). Only a limited number of them have been characterized for their gas and isotopic compositions. Such analyses can provide essential information for baseline studies, providing insight in the sources (biogenic vs. thermogenic or modified thermogenic) and pathways of such seeps and may allow for distinction of natural seeps from stray gas leakage associated with human activities. Here, we report gas concentrations and multi-isotope data (δ13C and δ2H of methane and ethane, δ13C and δ18O of CO2, 3He/4He ratio) of two gas seeps in the French subalpine chains, both in a similar geological and structural position within Middle Jurassic claystones along the eastern border of the large synclinal structures of the Vercors and the Chartreuse massifs (Moss, 1992). The "ardent fountain" (fontaine ardente) of Le Gua, 30 km south of Grenoble has most likely the longest continuous written record of existence of any individual natural gas seep, mentioned explicitly as early as the first quarter of the 5th century (Augustin of Hippo (St. Augustin), approx. 426) This natural seep was described in the past as a "wet seep" associated with a spring, whereas the second investigated seep, Rochasson near Meylan north of Grenoble, is a dry seep. Both seeps contain methane and ethane with thermogenic C and H isotope signatures, comparable with a seep in the Northern Swiss Alps at Giswil (Etiope et al., 2010) but with a higher dryness (C1/(C2+C3)>1000) for the Le Gua seep, possibly due to molecular fractionation upon advective fluid+gas migration (Etiope et al., 2009). Maturity (R0) of the reservoir rocks deduced from δ13C(CH4), δ13C(C2H6) is similar to

  16. Torrential activity facing global change in Southern French Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissak, Candide; Cossart, Etienne; Viel, Vincent; Fort, Monique; Arnaud-Fassetta, Gilles; Carlier, Benoit

    2016-04-01

    Geomorphic activity in a torrential catchment may be highly sporadic, erratic, especially because it depends on the sediment transfers. For a better flood risk management in large river catchments, where torrential tributaries provide significant sediment supply, it is essential to assess the amount of sediment transfers and deposition of such tributaries so that hazard assessment can be apprehended globally. This is one major issue of the SAMCO project (ANR 12 SENV-0004 SAMCO), which was designed for mountain hazard mitigation in a context of Global Change. Here, our objective is to understand how sediment cascades are coupled (or not) with climatic parameters. Here we focus on the Guil River catchment (Queyras, Southern French Alps - 317 km²). This catchment is prone to devastating summer floods (19 events since 1918: June 1957 (> R.I. 100 yr), June 2000 (R.I. 30 yr)...) characterized by considerable sediment transport from tributaries down to the Guil valley, highly facilitated by strong hillslope-channel coupling (≈ 12,000 m3 volume of sediment aggraded during the June 2000 flood event). During the last flood events several infrastructures and buildings were seriously damaged because the Guil River was carrying a large volume of sediments. For risk mitigation some protection equipments were built after the 1957 flood event, but most of them are now poorly maintained and might be not very effective in case of forthcoming flood events, especially if tributaries provide large volumes of sediment. Geomorphic data acquired through fieldwork and archives investigations were carried out to formalize the overall functioning of the sediment cascade. The initial phase of our study consists in identifying sediment sources and storage grounded on geomorphological analysis and mapping. The volumes of the sediment stores were then estimated and sedimentary transfers assessed using Terrestrial Laser Scanning survey (fine grained sediment inputs in the cascade), and the

  17. Crustal structure, seismicity and seismotectonics of the Trentino region (Southern Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viganò, Alfio; Scafidi, Davide; Martin, Silvana; Spallarossa, Daniele; Froner, Luca; Groaz, Oscar

    2013-04-01

    The Trentino region is located at the junction between the central and eastern Southern Alps (Italy), at the intersection between the Giudicarie, Schio-Vicenza and Valsugana fault systems. This area is characterized by relevant lithological and structural lateral heterogeneities, both at the crustal and lithospheric scales. A low-to-moderate seismicity is located in the upper crust, where faults are seismically active under a dominant compressive with variable strike-slip component regime. Here we study the crustal structure of this portion of the Southern Alps (Adria plate) from interpretation of local earthquake tomography images, in relation with distribution of relocated seismicity and regional tectonic patterns. Local earthquake tomography derives from a set of 476 selected earthquakes in the period 1994-2007, with local magnitudes comprised between 0.8 and 5.3. Hypocenter distribution, and number and quality of manually-repicked phases (6322 P and 5483 S) ensure optimal seismic ray coverage. Original recordings are principally from the Provincia Autonoma di Trento (PAT), that manages the Trentino seismic network since 1981, and from other networks (Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale - INOGS; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - INGV; others available via the European Integrated Data Archive). The code HYPOELLIPSE is used to perform initial earthquake relocations. The code VELEST is then used to calculate a new minimum 1-D velocity model, as input for tomography. The 3-D tomographic inversion (V P and V P-V S ratio) is obtained via the code SIMULPS, with the implementation of an accurate shooting ray-tracer. The crustal volume is discretized in order to have a regular grid with a homogenous horizontal spatial resolution of 7.5 km. The resolution in depth varies according to the obtained minimum 1-D velocity model. Reliability and accuracy of results are estimated by analyzing the Resolution Diagonal Elements of the

  18. Soil-plant system development 9 to 136 years after marly gully beds rehabilitation (French Southern Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erktan, Amandine; Cohen, Marianne; Zerouali, Laila; Poulenard, Jérôme; Cécillon, Lauric; Rey, Freddy

    2013-04-01

    Marly badlands, showing active eroded gullies and low soil fertility, are found in the French Southern Alps for around 250 years. Negative ecological, social and and economical consequences of such intense erosion historically promoted the ecological restoration of these terrains. In a small catchment of 390 ha (Saignon catchment, France), a first wave of restoration was run in 1876-78, mainly through Austrian black pine plantation on eroded gully sides. A second wave occurred in 2002 and focused on gullies partly vegetated on their sides but still showing active gully beds. Bioengineering works, made of barriers of Salix cuttings, were implanted in gully beds to increase sedimentation and in turn to re-initiate soil formation. This strategy proved to be efficient to retain sediment and to favor plant colonization. The aim of this study was to investigate soil fertility of sediment mounds retained in gully beds 9 to 136 years after their rehabilitation. To answer this question, we compared the topsoil (0-10 cm depth) chemical fertility of 6 gully beds restored in 2002 with bioengineering works to the one of 5 gully beds belonging to gullies stabilized by pine plantation 136 years ago. As a control, sediment mounds found in 15 bare gully beds were also studied. In each gully, basic soil characteristics of composite samples were assessed. Vegetative cover, plant richness and litter accumulation were also measured. We found that soil organic carbon and total nitrogen content significantly increased with time since gully bed rehabilitation (4.3±0.4 / 12±1 / 21±2 g.kg-1 and 0.80±0.02 / 1.4±0.02 / 1.7±0.07 g.kg-1) for bare gully beds and gully beds rehabilitated 9 and 140 years ago, respectively. Carbonate content was lower in restored gullies (average value of 242±5 g.kg-1) compared to control ones (547±13 g.kg-1). These results suggest that pedogenesis was engaged in both sets of restored gullies (decarbonatation process). Available phosphorus was lowest in

  19. Study geomorphology, past and present, linear trench, tectonics relationship between Pyrenees and Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemot, J. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 images obviously show up some large linear features trending N 80 E or N 30 E common to both Alps and Pyrenees. One of them, the Ligurian Fault, had been previously forecast by Laubscher in an interpretation of the Alps by the plate tectonic theory, but it extends westward farthest from the Alps, cutting the Pyrenees axis. These lineaments have been interpreted as reflections of deep seated wrench faults in the surficial part of the sedimentary series. A large set of such lineaments is perceptible in western Europe, such as the Guadalquivir Fault in southern Spain, Ligurian Fault, Insubrian Fault, Northern-Jura Fault, Metz Fault. Perhaps these may be interpreted as transform faults of the mid-Atlantic ridge or of a paleo-rift seated in the Rhine-Rhone graben.

  20. The Alps as an area of cultural, social and political contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Bufon

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the Alps as an area of both cultural, social and political contact and division. From this perspective the relation between different "border lines", which can be detected in the alpine regions, is examined, suggesting that all these "border lines" maz be seen as a result of a complex relationship between spatial, social and cultural partition and integration processes. As a result, the Alps represent a special and particularlz interesting natural, social and cultural environment in which processes of social and political moderniyation maz coexist with persistent forms of cultural and territorial identitz, but also with different forms of functional social and spatial cooperation on an international and inter-regional level. The article finallz opens up the question of how traditional forms of social and cultural coexistence in the Alps are now challenged bz a growing demand for social and spatial integration.

  1. Rainfall thresholds for the possible initiation of shallow landslides in the Italian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, M. T.; Peruccacci, S.; Luciani, S.; Bartolini, D.; Gariano, S. L.; Palladino, M. R.; Vessia, G.; Viero, A.; Antronico, L.; Deganutti, A. M.; Iovine, G.; Luino, F.; Parise, M.; Guzzetti, F.

    2012-04-01

    Rainfall induced shallow landslides are frequent events in the Italian Alps. In this very large area, shallow landslides, including soil slips and debris flows, cause damage every year, including human and economic losses. To foster the currently limited ability to forecast the occurrence of shallow landslides in Italy, the Italian National Department for Civil Protection is funding a research project aimed at defining the regional and sub-regional rainfall conditions that can results in landslides in Italy. In this work, we report preliminary results of this project for the Italian Alps, northern Italy. We have compiled a catalogue of about 350 rainfall events that have resulted in landslides - mostly shallow landslides - in the Italian Alps in the 12-year period 2000-2011. For the purpose, we searched national and local newspapers, technical reports and historical sources, to collect new information on the occurrence of rainfall-induced landslides in the study area. National and regional databases with hourly and sub-hourly rainfall measurements were used to reconstruct the cumulated amount (E) and the duration (D) of the rainfall responsible of the documented slope failures. The catalogue represents the largest collection of chronicles-derived information on rainfall events with landslides in the Italian Alps. Adopting a consolidated statistical approach for the definition of rainfall thresholds and the associated uncertainties, we defined new sets of ED rainfall thresholds for possible landslide occurrence in the Italian Alps. The new thresholds are compared with similar thresholds in the same general area. We expect the results of our study to improve the ability to forecast shallow landslides in the Italian Alps and, more generally, in the wider Alpine region.

  2. Escape tectonics and foreland basin evolution: The Austrian-German Molasse basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortner, Hugo

    2016-04-01

    at the Alpine front. Active thrusting in the Subalpine Molasse, and probably also in more internal parts of the Alps, would bring the orogen closer the foreland, and therefore cause more loading in the foreland, but at a much smaller rate, as material was continuously transported out of the zone of shortening by lateral escape. The contemporanous onset of the second megasequence of the foreland basin fill, and of escape tectonics is therefore not a coincidence. East of the Subalpine Molasse thrust belt, onset of lateral escape terminated shortening and thus lower plate flexure. Marine conditions in the lower part of the second megasequence, that exist also in the eastern part of the forland basin, are therefore not dependent on flexure, but rather on reduced sediment input into the basin. Ortner, H., Aichholzer, S., Zerlauth, M., Pilser, R. & Fügenschuh, B. (2015): Geometry, amount and sequence of thrusting in the Subalpine Molasse of Western Austria and Southern Germany, European Alps.- Tectonics, 34: 1-30, doi: 10.1002/2014TC003550

  3. Structure and evolution of a rocksalt-mudrock-tectonite: The haselgebirge in the Northern Calcareous Alps

    OpenAIRE

    Leitner, Christoph; Neubauer, Franz; Urai, János L.; Schoenherr, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    The Northern Calcareous Alps are part of the Eastern Alps in Austria and Germany. The Mesozoic units of this fold-and-thrust belt were detached, thrusted and stacked along the evaporitic Haselgebirge Formation. Exposed in salt mines, rocksalt and mudrock form a two component tectonite: The rock type “haselgebirge” consists of 10–70 wt % halite with silt- to gravel- or block-sized components within a halite matrix, and the “kerngebirge” with >70 wt % halite. All rock types studied are fault ro...

  4. The evolution of mountain permafrost in the context of climate change Alps: towards a comprehensive analysis of permafrost monitoring data from the Swiss Alps

    OpenAIRE

    Staub, Benno; Delaloye, Reynald

    2016-01-01

    In the Swiss Alps, permafrost occurs discontinuously and commonly has a temperature close to 0 °C. A reduction of Alpine permafrost area and volume is expected in the course of atmospheric warming, but to date, limited evidence is available for Alpine permafrost degradation. Permafrost warming or thaw is accompanied by structural changes in the subsurface, which endanger infrastructure by increasing kinematic activity or slope instability. Changes in the permafrost impact sediment transport t...

  5. Morphostructural study of the Belledonne faults system (French Alps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billant, Jérémy; Bellier, Olivier; Hippolyte, Jean-Claude; Godard, Vincent; Manchuel, Kevin

    2016-04-01

    The NE trending Belledonne faults system, located in the Alps, is a potentially active faults system that extends from the Aiguilles Rouges and Mont Blanc massifs in the NE to the Vercors massif in the SW (subalpine massifs). It includes the Belledonne border fault (BBF), defined by an alignment of micro earthquakes (ML≤3.5) along the eastern part of the Grésivaudan valley (Thouvenot et al., 2003). Focal mechanisms and their respective depths tend to confirm a dextral strike-slip faulting at crustal scale. In the scope of the Sigma project (http://projet-sigma.com/index.html, EDF), this study aims at better constraining the geometry, kinematic and seismogenic potential of the constitutive faults of the Belledonne fault system, by using a multidisciplinary approach that includes tectonics, geomorphology and geophysics. Fault kinematic analysis along the BBF (Billant et al., 2015) and the Jasneuf fault allows the determination of a strike-slip tectonic regime characterised by an ENE trending σ1 stress axes, which is consistent with stress state deduced from the focal mechanisms. Although no morphological anomalies could be related to recent faulting along the BBF, new clues of potential Quaternary deformations were observed along the other faults of the system: -right lateral offset of morphologic markers (talwegs...) along the NE trending Arcalod fault located at the north-eastern terminations of the BBF; -left lateral offset of the valley formed by the Isère glacier along the NW trending Brion fault which is consistent with its left-lateral slip inferred from the focal mechanisms; -fault scarps and right lateral offsets of cliffs bordering a calcareous plateau and talwegs along the four fault segments of the NE trending Jasneuf fault located at the south-western termination of the BBF in the Vercors massif. Some offsets were measured using a new method that does not require the identification of piercing points and take advantage of the high resolution

  6. Modelling site-specific N2O emission factors from Austrian agricultural soils for targeted mitigation measures (NitroAustria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, Barbara; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Kasper, Martina; Foldal, Cecilie; Schiefer, Jasmin; Kitzler, Barbara; Schwarzl, Bettina; Zethner, Gerhard; Anderl, Michael; Sedy, Katrin; Gaugitsch, Helmut; Dersch, Georg; Baumgarten, Andreas; Haas, Edwin; Kiese, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    Results from a previous project "FarmClim" highlight that the IPCC default emission factor is not able to reflect region specific N2O emissions from Austrian arable soils. The methodology is limited in identifying hot spots and hot moments of N2O emissions. When estimations are based on default emission factors no recommendations can be given on optimisation measures that would lead to a reduction of soil N2O emissions. The better the knowledge is about Nitrogen and Carbon budgets in Austrian agricultural managed soils the better the situation can be reflected in the Austrian GHG emission inventory calculations. Therefore national and regionally modelled emission factors should improve the evidence for national deviation from the IPCC default emission factors and reduce the uncertainties. The overall aim of NitroAustria is to identify the drivers for N2O emissions on a regional basis taking different soil types, climate, and agricultural management into account. We use the LandscapeDNDC model to update the N2O emission factors for N fertilizer and animal manure applied to soils. Key regions in Austria were selected and region specific N2O emissions calculated. The model runs at sub-daily time steps and uses data such as maximum and minimum air temperature, precipitation, radiation, and wind speed as meteorological drivers. Further input data are used to reflect agricultural management practices, e.g., planting/harvesting, tillage, fertilizer application, irrigation and information on soil and vegetation properties for site characterization and model initialization. While at site scale, arable management data (crop cultivation, rotations, timings etc.) is obtained by experimental data from field trials or observations, at regional scale such data need to be generated using region specific proxy data such as land use and management statistics, crop cultivations and yields, crop rotations, fertilizer sales, manure resulting from livestock units etc. The farming

  7. The Central Role of Neuroscientists under National Socialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidman, Lawrence A

    2016-01-01

    Neuroscientists played central roles in the victimization of colleagues and their patients during the era of National Socialism from 1933 to 1945. After helping dismiss Jewish and nonideologically aligned colleagues, German neuroscientists were among the physicians and researchers who joined the Nazi Party and affiliated groups in record numbers. Forced sterilization and then so-called 'euthanasia' of neurological and psychiatric patients were planned and executed by prominent German and Austrian neuroscientists. Other neuroscientists collaborated indirectly by using patients for unethical experimentation to discover the cause of multiple sclerosis or to try to induce epileptic convulsions in a hypoxic state. Some merely used neuropathological material from murdered patients for publications in scientific journals. In the totalitarian state, research funding and academic advancement were awarded to physicians engaged in eugenics research. Opportunism and ideologically tainted science without regard to medical ethics were the motivating factors for collaborating neuroscientists. Some German and Austrian neuroscientists tried to resist Nazi policies, although much more passively than their colleagues in German-occupied countries. French, Dutch, Norwegian, and Danish neuroscientists actively resisted the Nazification of their profession from the beginning and helped to save some patients and colleagues, at great personal risk. Many German, Austrian, Czech, and Polish neurologists were murdered in the Holocaust, and hundreds of thousands of neurological and psychiatric patients were sterilized or murdered in just 12 years. The Nazis used the 'successful' techniques developed in the 'euthanasia' programs to carry out the mass murder of millions in the Holocaust. Today's neuroscientists are obligated to learn of the ethical violations of their predecessors 70-80 years ago. No law will prevent abandonment of the basic principles of ethical patient care and professionalism

  8. The Central Role of Neuroscientists under National Socialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidman, Lawrence A

    2016-01-01

    Neuroscientists played central roles in the victimization of colleagues and their patients during the era of National Socialism from 1933 to 1945. After helping dismiss Jewish and nonideologically aligned colleagues, German neuroscientists were among the physicians and researchers who joined the Nazi Party and affiliated groups in record numbers. Forced sterilization and then so-called 'euthanasia' of neurological and psychiatric patients were planned and executed by prominent German and Austrian neuroscientists. Other neuroscientists collaborated indirectly by using patients for unethical experimentation to discover the cause of multiple sclerosis or to try to induce epileptic convulsions in a hypoxic state. Some merely used neuropathological material from murdered patients for publications in scientific journals. In the totalitarian state, research funding and academic advancement were awarded to physicians engaged in eugenics research. Opportunism and ideologically tainted science without regard to medical ethics were the motivating factors for collaborating neuroscientists. Some German and Austrian neuroscientists tried to resist Nazi policies, although much more passively than their colleagues in German-occupied countries. French, Dutch, Norwegian, and Danish neuroscientists actively resisted the Nazification of their profession from the beginning and helped to save some patients and colleagues, at great personal risk. Many German, Austrian, Czech, and Polish neurologists were murdered in the Holocaust, and hundreds of thousands of neurological and psychiatric patients were sterilized or murdered in just 12 years. The Nazis used the 'successful' techniques developed in the 'euthanasia' programs to carry out the mass murder of millions in the Holocaust. Today's neuroscientists are obligated to learn of the ethical violations of their predecessors 70-80 years ago. No law will prevent abandonment of the basic principles of ethical patient care and professionalism

  9. Why air quality in the Alps remains a matter of concern. The impact of organic pollutants in the alpine area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, P; Belis, C A; Schnelle-Kreis, J; Herzig, R; Prevot, A S H; Raveton, M; Kirchner, M; Catinon, M

    2014-01-01

    In the middle of Europe, the Alps form a geographical and meteorological trap for atmospheric pollutants including volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds emitted in the surrounding lowlands. This is due to their barrier effects, high precipitation rates, and low ambient temperatures. Also the pollutants emitted in the cities inside the Alps spread in the region depending on orographic and meteorological conditions. Although a number of studies on the distribution and effect of pollutants in the Alps has been published, comprehensive information on potential hazards, and ways to improve this sensible environment are lacking. This opinion paper is the result of a discussion during the Winterseminar of the AlpsBioCluster project in Munich. It summarizes the current literature and presents some case studies on local pollution sources in the Alps, and the possibility of using biomonitoring techniques to assess critical pollution loads and distributions. PMID:24046224

  10. IT adoption of clinical information systems in Austrian and German hospitals: results of a comparative survey with a focus on nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaubmayr Christine

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background IT adoption is a process that is influenced by different external and internal factors. This study aimed 1. to identify similarities and differences in the prevalence of medical and nursing IT systems in Austrian and German hospitals, and 2. to match these findings with characteristics of the two countries, in particular their healthcare system, and with features of the hospitals. Methods In 2007, all acute care hospitals in both countries received questionnaires with identical questions. 12.4% in Germany and 34.6% in Austria responded. Results The surveys revealed a consistent higher usage of nearly all clinical IT systems, especially nursing systems, but also PACS and electronic archiving systems, in Austrian than in German hospitals. These findings correspond with a significantly wider use of standardised nursing terminologies and a higher number of PC workstations on the wards (average 2.1 PCs in Germany, 3.2 PCs in Austria. Despite these differences, Austrian and German hospitals both reported a similar IT budget of 2.6% in Austria and 2.0% in Germany (median. Conclusions Despite the many similarities of the Austrian and German healthcare system there are distinct differences which may have led to a wider use of IT systems in Austrian hospitals. In nursing, the specific legal requirement to document nursing diagnoses in Austria may have stimulated the use of standardised terminologies for nursing diagnoses and the implementation of electronic nursing documentation systems. Other factors which correspond with the wider use of clinical IT systems in Austria are: good infrastructure of medical-technical devices, rigorous organisational changes which had led to leaner processes and to a lower length of stay, and finally a more IT friendly climate. As country size is the most pronounced difference between Germany and Austria it could be that smaller countries, such as Austria, are more ready to translate innovation into

  11. Human Nature, Flourishing, and Happiness: Toward a Synthesis of Aristotelianism, Austrian Economics, Positive Psychology, and Ayn Rand’s Objectivism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward W. Younkins

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a skeleton of a potential paradigm of human flourishing and happiness in a free society. It is an exploratory attempt to construct an understanding from various disciplines and to integrate them into a clear, consistent, coherent, and systematic whole. Holding that there are essential interconnections among objective ideas, the article specifically emphasizes the compatibility of Aristotelianism, Austrian Economics, Positive Psychology, and Ayn Rand’s Objectivism arguing that particular ideas from these areas can be integrated into a paradigm of human flourishing and happiness based on the nature of man and the world. Such a paradigm will help people to understand the world and to survive and flourish in it. It is hoped that the paradigm will grow and evolve as scholars engage, question, critique, interpret, and extend its ideas. Our goal is to have a paradigm that accords with reality and there is always more to learn from reality.

  12. LC-MS/MS analysis of neonicotinoid insecticides in honey: methodology and residue findings in Austrian honeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Gina; Czerwenka, Christoph

    2011-12-14

    An analytical method for the simultaneous determination of residues of eight neonicotinoid insecticides and two metabolites in honey using LC-MS/MS was developed and validated. Two approaches of sample preparation were investigated, with the final method involving acetonitrile extraction and subsequent cleanup by dispersive solid-phase extraction (QuEChERS type). Validation was based on quintuplicate analysis at three fortification levels and showed satisfactory recoveries (60-114%) and high precision (RSDs between 2.7 and 12.8%). Low limits of detection and quantification could be achieved for all analytes ranging from 0.6 to 5 μg/kg and from 2 to 10 μg/kg, respectively. Investigations of Austrian honey samples revealed the presence of acetamiprid, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam residues in honey; however, no sample exceeded the maximum residue limits. On average, flower honey samples contained neonicotinoid residues in higher quantities compared to forest honey samples.

  13. Modality-dependent dose requirements in the Austrian breast cancer early detection program. First results from technical quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Austrian Breast Cancer Early Detection Program (BKFP) has officially started in January 2014. In order to ensure that all participating women can rely on a sufficient cancer detection rate while at the same time the required dose is as low as reasonably achievable, all participating radiology institutes (approx. 200) have to fulfill strict quality assurance requirements. The control and certification is performed by the Reference Center for Technical Quality Assurance (RefZQS), which has been developing the methods and tolerances in a pilot project since 2007. The limits are defined in the EUREF-Oeprotocol which is based on the European EPQC guidelines. From the requirement for optimized image quality while simultaneously following the ALARA principle, we found modality-dependent dose requirements, which we had expected but which have now been compiled for the first time for Austria.

  14. Demodicosis in Chamois ( Rupicapra rupicapra subsp. rupicapra) in the Italian Alps, 2013-14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvadori, Claudia; Formenti, Nicoletta; Trogu, Tiziana; Lanfranchi, Paolo; Papini, Roberto A; Poli, Alessandro

    2016-04-28

    We report demodicosis in five alpine chamois ( Rupicapra rupicapra subsp. rupicapra) from the Italian Alps that showed moderate crusts on the head and dorsal aspect of the trunk. We detected intramural folliculitis, moderate dermatitis, and T-lymphocytes and macrophages associated with Demodex spp. in follicles and sebaceous glands. PMID:26981687

  15. Petrofabrics, microtextures and dislocation substructures of olivine in a peridotite mylonite (Alpe Arami, Switzerland)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buiskool Toxopeus, J.M.A.

    1978-01-01

    The development of preferred crystallographic orientation and dimensional fabric of olivine in relation to deformation were investigated in a thin, continuous chlorite peridotite mylonite rim around the garnet peridotite body of Alpe Arami, Ticino, Switzerland. The mylonite is a foliated rock contai

  16. Dating emplacement and evolution of the orogenic magmatism in the internal Western Alps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Alfons; Thomsen, Tonny B.; Ovtcharova, Maria;

    2012-01-01

    The Canavese Line in the Western Alps represents the position in the Alpine chain, where alkaline and calc-alkaline magmatism occur in close spatial and temporal association. In addition to available data on the alkaline Valle del Cervo Pluton, we present petrological and geochemical data on the ...

  17. Biodiversity governance and social-ecological system dynamics: transformation in the Australian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lockwood

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity conservation continues to be a challenging task for societies worldwide. We undertook a resilience assessment to address the following question: What are the ramifications of social-ecological system dynamics for biodiversity governance of a nationally significant landscape? Resilience assessment offers promise for guiding response strategies, potentially enabling consideration of ecological, social, economic, and governance influences on biodiversity-related activities. Most resilience assessments have, however, struggled to effectively incorporate governance influences. We applied a modified version of the Resilience Alliance workbook approach to explicitly address governance influences at each stage of an assessment of internationally significant biodiversity features in protected areas of the Australian Alps. The vulnerability of the Alps system to climate change suggests that it is moving into a release stage, with subsequent transformation hypothesized. Network governance is argued as enabling flexible, adaptive management and comprehensive engagement of stakeholders, both of which are critical to shaping how this transformation of the Alps as a valued focal system will occur. The Australian Alps Liaison Committee provides a promising governance structure for collaboration and comanagement across multiple jurisdictions. Our contribution was to demonstrate how a resilience assessment that explicitly embeds governance influences in social-ecological system dynamics can point to pathways for governance reform in the context of system transformation.

  18. Attrition in the Austrian Generations and Gender Survey: Is there a bias by fertility-relevant aspects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Buber-Ennser

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: In longitudinal research the loss of sample members between waves is a possible source of bias. It is therefore crucial to analyse attrition. Objective: This paper analyses attrition in a longitudinal study on family and fertility, by distinguishing between attrition due to non-contact and attrition due to non-cooperation. Methods: Based on the first two waves of the Austrian Generations and Gender Survey, the two components of attrition are studied separately by using bivariate as well as multivariate methods. Moreover, overall dropout - the combination of both components - isanalysed. Apart from various socio-economic characteristics and data collection information, the study focuses on fertility-relevant variables such as fecundity, fertility intentions, sexual orientation, and traditional attitudes. Results: Fecundity, fertility intentions, and homosexual relationships are associated with higher attrition due to non-cooperation in bivariate analyses, but have no explanatory power inthe multivariate model. Pregnancy and traditional attitudes towards marriage are associated with significantly lower attrition due to non-cooperation in the multivariate context. Overall dropout is significantly lower only among persons with traditionalattitudes towards marriage, although small in size and statistical significance. Moreover, various individual and regional characteristics are significantly associated with dropout, with differences between attrition due to non-contact and attrition due to non-cooperation. Conclusions: Detailed insights into attrition are not only important when using longitudinal data and interpreting results, but also for the design of future data collections. The Austrian GGS panel has a relatively low dropout (22Š and is affected by a small bias towards familyoriented persons as well as less-educated respondents and persons with migrationbackgrounds, but the data can be used without concern about selectivity.

  19. Long-Term Socio-Ecological Research in Practice: Lessons from Inter- and Transdisciplinary Research in the Austrian Eisenwurzen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Gingrich

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Long-Term Socio-Ecological Research (LTSER is an inter- and transdisciplinary research field addressing socio-ecological change over time at various spatial and temporal scales. In the Austrian Eisenwurzen region, an LTSER platform was founded in 2004. It has fostered and documented research projects aiming at advancing LTSER scientifically and at providing regional stakeholders with relevant information for sustainable regional development. Since its establishment, a broad range of research activities has been pursued in the region, integrating information from long-term ecological monitoring sites with approaches from social sciences and the humanities, and in cooperation with regional stakeholders. Based on the experiences gained in the Eisenwurzen LTSER platform, this article presents current activities in the heterogeneous field of LTSER, identifying specific (inter-disciplinary contributions of three research strands of LTSER: long-term ecological research, socio-ecological basic research, and transdisciplinary research. Given the broad array of diverse contributions to LTSER, we argue that the platform has become a relevant “boundary organization,” linking research to its regional non-academic context, and ensuring interdisciplinary exchange among the variety of disciplines. We consider the diversity of LTSER approaches an important resource for future research. Major success criteria of LTSER face specific challenges: (1 existing loose, yet stable networks need to be maintained and extended; (2 continuous generation of and access to relevant data needs to be secured and more data need to be included; and (3 consecutive research projects that have allowed for capacity building in the past may be threatened in the future if national Austrian research funders cease to provide resources.

  20. Determination of eye lens doses and identification of risk groups among radiation exposed workers. An Austrian pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On European level, in 2014 the dose limit for the lens of the eye of radiation exposed workers has been reduced from 150 to 20 mSv per year (2013/59/Euratom). Data about eye lens exposition measured under realistic operational conditions of Austrian radiation exposed workers is sparse and there is no information to verify, if all professional groups identified to be at risk for elevated eye doses will remain below the new annual dose limit. Therefore, financed by the Austrian Workers Compensation Board, AUVA, a pilot study has been initiated to answer this question. Based on published information professional groups of radiation exposed workers and operational tasks with an enhanced risk of elevated eye lens doses have been identified. By dosimetric measurements with volunteers (forehead dose meters and parallel measurements with whole-body TL-dose meters above and under the lead apron) realistic lens doses will be estimated during selected radiation exposed tasks. Comparison of yielded doses will show whether a TLD outside the apron could serve as an alternative to forehead dose meters dedicated to measure eye lens doses. Measurements with leaded protective eyewear based on IEC61331 yield results for lead equivalent in good agreement with manufacturers' information. Results for eye lens doses determined by use of a RANDO head phantom and a standardized phantom simulating a body in a typical exposition situation for interventional radiologists show that wearing of leaded goggles allows for a 90% dose reduction. Under such conditions the eye lens dose is dominated by backscatter and stray radiation from the operator's head and patient body. This has to be considered for the evaluation of protective effectiveness for leaded eye wear.

  1. 4 August 2011 - Austrian Head of Protocol, Directorate General III, Federal Ministry of Science and Research I. Friedrich (3rd from left) in the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with M. Benedkit, C. Wulz and C. Fabjan.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    4 August 2011 - Austrian Head of Protocol, Directorate General III, Federal Ministry of Science and Research I. Friedrich (3rd from left) in the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with M. Benedkit, C. Wulz and C. Fabjan.

  2. 11 June 2012 - Austrian Federal Minister of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection R. Hundstorfer signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Ambassador to the UN C. Strohal (CERN-HI-120611334)

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    11 June 2012 - Austrian Federal Minister of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection R. Hundstorfer signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Ambassador to the UN C. Strohal (CERN-HI-120611334)

  3. Soils evolution and treeline fluctuations under late Holocene climatic changes: a case study from Upper Valtellina (European Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masseroli, Anna; Leonelli, Giovanni; Pelfini, Manuela; Trombino, Luca

    2016-04-01

    High-altitude areas in the European Alps have been widely investigated through time for reconstructing the Holocene climate fluctuations, by analyzing both biological and abiological indicators. In high-altitude areas the ongoing temperature increase caused some effects in the natural environments such as the upward shift of the vegetation belts and, in particular, of the treeline. In fact, the treeline is considered a sensitive climate indicator; in high-altitude areas, the vegetation growth and dynamics are strongly influenced not only by climate but also by abiotic factors, like geomorphological processes and soil development. The aim of this study is the reconstruction of late Holocene soil evolution and environmental changes at the treeline on the SW slope of the Monte Confinale in the Upper Valtellina, Central Italian Alps. We performed a detailed reconstruction of the treeline altitudinal dynamics together with the field and laboratory characterization of a transect of nine soil profiles developing at an altitude ranging from 1800 m a.s.l. (closed forest) to 2600 m a.s.l. (species line), in order to understand the relationship between colonization by arboreal vegetation and soil development. The upward shift of the treeline was assessed analyzing tree age distribution on the slope by means of a tree-ring based approach. The treeline elevation over time (based on the years in which the trees reached 2 m in height) increased from 2505 m a.s.l. (period 1990-1999) to 2531 m (period 2000-2009) to 2545 m (in 2013) with a rate of upward shift of up to 2.6 m/y in the period 2000-2009. The investigated soils showed a decreasing development with increasing altitude, in fact at higher altitude we found less developed soils (i.e. Ranker), on the contrary in the forest area (about 2000 m a.s.l.) we found a more developed soil (i.e. Podzol). Moreover, the soil development may also be affected by the conditions of the slope, characterized by broad alpine grasslands that

  4. Money Supply as the Target of the Central Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jędruchniewicz Andrzej

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the article is a critical analysis of the monetary policy strategy that is based on the adoption of money supply as an intermediate target. The analysis is conducted from the perspective of the theory of the Austrian school. The first part of the article presents an influence of the supply of money on changes of categories in economy according to mainstream theories of economics. The second part discusses the essence of the strategy of monetary policy using money supply as an intermediate target from the point of view of the main trend in economics. It is demonstrated that in order to use it, two elementary conditions must be met: the function of demand for money must be at least relatively stable and the central bank must practically shape changes in the money supply at the planned level. The third part is of key importance for the purpose of this article. It involves the criticism of Friedman’s principle, i.e. a constant increase in money supply as a monetary strategy. According to the Austrian theory, an increase in the quantity of money which is not financed by voluntary savings separates the time structure of production and consumption. Thus, after the period of prosperity there a collapse in production must take place. It is also pointed out that the crisis can be postponed only when the quantity of money increases at an ever faster rate.

  5. Interactions between recent tectonic activity and the evolution of mountain relief of the Inner Cottians Alps (Western Alps): preliminary morphotectonic map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacenetti, Marco; Morelli, Michele; Cadoppi, Paola; Giardino, Marco; Perotti, Luigi; Perrone, Gianluigi

    2014-05-01

    Possible interactions between recent tectonic activity and the evolution of mountain relief have been investigated at the regional (1:50,000) and local (1:5,000) scale in the Germanasca Valley (Cottian Alps, NW-Italy) through an integrated, multidisciplinary approach combining Structural analysis, Quaternary Geology, Geomorphology and Geomatics. The inner edge of the Cottians Alps and the adjacent Po Plain are among the most densely populated portions of the Piemonte Region (NW-Italy). This area corresponds to the junction between the Alpine and Apennine chains and it is affected by a diffuse low- to moderate- seismicity (MlAGEA Orthophoto 2009), aerial stereo couples and DEMs (LiDAR5x5 meters, Regione Piemonte 2009). The morphotectonic lineament analysis was conducted using TerraExplorer® Software Systems, Inc. For the field mapping activities, it was used an application called "SRG2" (Support to Geological / Geomorphological Surveys), an extension for ArcPad (ESRI mobile GIS). Into ArcPad, the SRG2 application adds a toolbar made up of several functions for a useful mapping and classification of geological/geomorphological features. Currently, all data collected were included in a GIS project in order to obtain a preliminary morphotectonic map whose interpretation showed a significant tectonic uplift of the area. Data verified the existence of strong geomorphological anomalies which affected the stream network, the slope morphology and the distribution of Quaternary deposits.Results are particularly important for this sector of the Alps, where "active structures", capable of generating earthquakes of this magnitude, have not been identified so far.

  6. Revealing heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si by AlP in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Jiehua Li; Hage, Fredrik S.; Xiangfa Liu; Quentin Ramasse; Peter Schumacher

    2016-01-01

    The heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si can be attributed to the presence of AlP. Although P, in the form of AlP particles, is usually observed in the centre of primary Si, there is still a lack of detailed investigations on the distribution of P within primary Si and eutectic Si in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys at the atomic scale. Here, we report an atomic-scale experimental investigation on the distribution of P in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys. P, in the form of AlP particles...

  7. Growth dynamics and climatic sensitivity of Silver fir (Abies alba Mill. in the European important site (SIC at the Alpe della Luna - Bocca Trabaria (PU - Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A dendroecological and dendroclimatic analysis was carried out in silver fir stand of Fonte Abeti, in the Apennines of central Italy. This small forest is the only one present in the northern side of the Marche region and it is currently included as a priority habitat in the Site of Community Interest “ Luna-Bocca Trabaria”. The study aimed to assess the sensitivity of silver fir to the current climate variability and was carried out on 40 dominant trees, for which we reconstructed radial growth dynamics, pointer years and climate-growth relationships. These were computed for the period 1892-2003, using monthly mean temperatures and precipitation drawn from the ALP-IMP climate dataset using simple and moving correlations in order to verify response stationarity through time.

  8. The Austrian Biosphere Reserves. A (connoisseur’s) world beyond the cookery book. eco.mont (Journal on Protected Mountain Areas Research)|eco.mont Vol. 5 No. 2 5 2|

    OpenAIRE

    Diry, Christian; Köck, Günter (Hrsg.); Umhack, Martha

    2013-01-01

    In many instances the Austrian UNESCO Biosphere Reserves as model regions of sustainable development are outshone by other conservation categories, such as national parks or world heritage sites, and are largely unknown to the wider population. This shadowy existence is ill deserved. The modern concept of biosphere reserves (BRs) is more important today than it ever was if we want to maintain valuable cultural landscapes for later generations. The Austrian MAB National Committee therefore mad...

  9. Evidence for enhanced debris flow activity in the Northern Calcareous Alps since the 1980s (Plansee, Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Andreas; Krautblatter, Michael

    2016-04-01

    -vegetated catchment area and the annual debris flow volume. This might indicate a decadal positive feedback between enhanced rainstorm frequency and the occurrence of debris flows. The study contributes to a better understanding of the sensitivity of alpine catchments to heavy rainfall events in the context of climate change. Beniston, M., Douglas, G.F., 1996. Impacts of climate change on mountain regions. In: Watson, R.T., Zinyowera, M.C., Moss, R.H., Dokken, D.J. (Eds.), Climate Change 1995. Impacts, Adaptations and Mitigation of Climate Change: Scientific-Technical Analysis. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, pp. 191-213. Dowling, C.A., Santi, P.M., 2014. Debris flows and their toll on human life: a global analysis of debris-flow fatalities from 1950 to 2011. Nat. Hazards 71, 203-227. doi: 10.1007/s11069-013-0907-4 Pelfini, M., Santilli, M., 2008. Frequency of debris flows and their relation with precipitation: A case study in the Central Alps, Italy. Geomorphology 101, 721-730. doi:10.1016/j.geomorph.2008.04.002

  10. End of the "Little Ice Age" in the Alps not forced by industrial black carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigl, Michael; Osmont, Dimtri; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Barbante, Carlo; Schwikowski, Margit

    2016-04-01

    Light absorbing aerosols present in the atmosphere and cryosphere play an important role in the climate system. Their presence in ambient air and snow changes radiative properties of these media, thus contributing to increased atmospheric warming and snowmelt. High spatio-temporal variability of aerosol concentrations in these media and a shortage of long-term observations contribute to large uncertainties in properly assigning the climate effects of these aerosols through time. Glaciers in the European Alps began to retreat abruptly from their mid-19th century maximum, marking what appeared to be the end of the Little Ice Age. Radiative forcing by increasing deposition of industrial black carbon to snow has been suggested as the main driver of the abrupt glacier retreats in the Alps (Painter et al. 2012). Basis for this hypothesis were model simulations using ice-core measurements of elemental carbon at low temporal resolution from two ice cores in the Alps. Here we present sub-annually resolved, well replicated ice-core measurements of refractory black carbon (rBC; using a SP2 soot photometer), mineral dust (Fe, Ca), biomass burning (NH4, K) and distinctive industrial pollution tracers (Bi, Pb, SO4) from an ice core in the Alps covering the past 250 years. These reconstructions allow to precisely compare the timing of observed acceleration of glacier melt in the mid-19th century with that of the increase of soot deposition on ice-sheets caused by the industrialization of Western Europe. Our study suggests that at the time when European rBC emission rates started to significantly increase Alpine glaciers have already experienced more than 70% of their total 19th century length reduction. Industrial BC emissions can therefore not been considered as the primary forcing of the rapid deglaciation at the end of the Little Ice Age in the Alps. References: Painter, T. H., M. G. Flanner, G. Kaser, B. Marzeion, R. A. VanCuren, and W. Abdalati (2013), End of the Little Ice

  11. Modeling of Nitrogen Dynamics in an Austrian Alpine Forest Ecosystem on Calcareous Soils: A Scenario-Based Risk Assessment under Changing Environmental Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Friedl Herman; Stefan Smidt; Klaus Butterbach-Bahl; Michael Englisch; Ernst Gebetsroither; Robert Jandl; Klaus Katzensteiner; Manfred Lexer; Friederike Strebl; Sophie Zechmeister-Boltenstern

    2007-01-01

    We modeled the behavior of an Austrian alpine forest ecosystem on calcareous soils under changing climate and atmospheric nitrogen deposition scenarios. The change of nitrate leaching, emission rates of nitrogen compounds, and forest productivity were calculated using four process-oriented models for the periods 1998–2002 and 2048–2052. Each model reflects with high detail a segment of the ecosystem: PnET-N-DNDC (photosynthesis-evapotranspiration-nitrification-denitrification-decomposition; s...

  12. The impact of risk and protective factors on mental health and well-being-Austrian adolescents and migrant adolescents from war-affected countries

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Buchegger-Traxler; Ulrike Sirsch

    2012-01-01

    Background: young persons are most strongly affected by displacement through political/military actions. This is also a European problem as well as an issue for the European Union. Applying the social-ecological model by Bronfenbrenner we concentrated on micro- and mesosystems of Austrian adolescents and migrant adolescents of war-affected countries.

    Methods: a questionnaire was administered to adolescents in...

  13. Impact of depression and anxiety on burden and management of episodic and chronic headaches – a cross-sectional multicentre study in eight Austrian headache centres

    OpenAIRE

    Zebenholzer, Karin; Lechner, Anita; Broessner, Gregor; Lampl, Christian; Luthringshausen, Gernot; Wuschitz, Albert; Obmann, Sonja-Maria; Berek, Klaus; Wöber, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Background Recurrent and especially chronic headaches are associated with psychiatric comorbidities such as depression and anxiety. Only few studies examined the impact of depression and anxiety on episodic (EH) and chronic headache (CH), and data for Austria are missing at all. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the impact of depression and anxiety on burden and management of EH and CH in patients from eight Austrian headache centres. Methods We included 392 patients (84.1...

  14. Prevalence, management and burden of episodic and chronic headaches—a cross-sectional multicentre study in eight Austrian headache centres

    OpenAIRE

    Zebenholzer, Karin; Andree, Colette; Lechner, Anita; Broessner, Gregor; Lampl, Christian; Luthringshausen, Gernot; Wuschitz, Albert; Obmann, Sonja-Maria; Berek, Klaus; Wöber, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Background Episodic and chronic headaches (EH, CH) are highly prevalent disorders. Severely affected patients are usually referred to headache centres. In Austria, at least one headache centre is available in seven of nine states, but detailed multicentre data are missing. Therefore we studied prevalence rates, use of medication and health care services, impact of headaches, and comorbid depression and anxiety. Methods We included consecutive patients from eight Austrian outpatient headache c...

  15. 24th International Conference on Robotics in Alpe-Adria-Danube Region

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This volume includes the Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Robotics in Alpe-Adria-Danube Region, RAAD 2015, which was held in Bucharest, Romania, on May 27-29, 2015. The Conference brought together academic and industry researchers in robotics from the 11 countries affiliated to the Alpe-Adria-Danube space: Austria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia and Slovenia, and their worldwide partners. According to its tradition, RAAD 2015 covered all important areas of research, development and innovation in robotics, including new trends such as: bio-inspired and cognitive robots, visual servoing of robot motion, human-robot interaction, and personal robots for ambient assisted living. The accepted papers have been grouped in nine sessions: Robot integration in industrial applications; Grasping analysis, dexterous grippers and component design; Advanced robot motion control; Robot vision and sensory control; Human-robot interaction and collaboration;...

  16. Description of the larva of Protanypus sp. A (Diptera, Chironomidae from the Italian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Rossaro

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe the larva of Protanypus sp. A from the Italian Alps. All the larval characteristics fit the diagnosis of the genus, but it is impossible to assign the specimens examined to one of the known species. The low number of labral scales (12-14 and the serrated median lamellae of the medioventral appendix of the prementum exclude the identity of the species with P. morio or with the East Palaearctic P. pseudomorio. The antennal ratio (2.3 excludes the identity with P. caudatus or P. forcipatus, which are the other two Protanypus species known from the Alpine region. In Sæther’s key (1975 the larva fits with the Nearctic P. ramosus, but identification of the species needs to be supported by pupal and adult material. In the Southern Alps, the genus is restricted to cold lakes at high altitude and is confirmed as an indicator of oligotrophic lakes.

  17. THERMAL HISTORY OF THE CARNIC ALPS (NE ITALY-S. AUSTRIA USING CAI ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MONICA PONDRELLI

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Thermal patterns of an area which underwent a polyphase deformation history such as the Carnic Alps were analyzed using the Colour Alteration Index (CAI of conodonts in order to constrain some aspects of the metamorphic history of this part of the Southern Alps. Hercynian and alpine tectonothermal events were distinguished using CAI analysis.  The Hercynian event developed temperatures up to low metamorphic conditions. Alpine tectonogenesis did not produce thermal levels in excess of the diagenetic zone. Moreover, CAI patterns allow recognition and evaluation of a hydrothermal metamorphic overprint of Permo-Triassic or Oligocene age that was superimposed on the pre-existing regional metamorphic zonation.   

  18. Swiss-AlpArray temporary broadband seismic stations deployment and noise characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, Irene; Clinton, John; Kissling, Edi; Hetényi, György; Giardini, Domenico; Stipčević, Josip; Dasović, Iva; Herak, Marijan; Šipka, Vesna; Wéber, Zoltán; Gráczer, Zoltán; Solarino, Stefano; Swiss-AlpArray Field Team; AlpArray Working Group

    2016-10-01

    AlpArray is a large collaborative seismological project in Europe that includes more than 50 research institutes and seismological observatories. At the heart of the project is the collection of top-quality seismological data from a dense network of broadband temporary seismic stations, in compliment to the existing permanent networks, that ensures a homogeneous station coverage of the greater Alpine region. This Alp Array Seismic Network (AASN) began operation in January 2016 and will have a duration of at least 2 years. In this work we report the Swiss contribution to the AASN, we concentrate on the site selection process, our methods for stations installation, data quality and data management. We deployed 27 temporary broadband stations equipped with STS-2 and Trillium Compact 120 s sensors. The deployment and maintenance of the temporary stations across 5 countries is managed by ETH Zurich and it is the result of a fruitful collaboration between five institutes in Europe.

  19. Extreme heat and runoff extremes in the Swiss Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zappa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The hydrological response of Swiss river basins to the 2003 European summer heatwave was evaluated by a combined analysis of historical discharge records and specific applications of distributed hydrological modeling. In the summer of 2003, the discharge from headwater streams of the Swiss Central Plateau was only 40%–60% of the long-term average. For alpine basins runoff was about 60%–80% of the average. Glacierized basins showed the opposite behavior. According to the degree of glacierization, the average summer runoff was close or even above average. The hydrological model PREVAH was applied for the period 1982–2005. Even if the model was not calibrated for such extreme meteorological conditions, it was well able to simulate the hydrological responses of three basins. The aridity index φ describes feedbacks between hydrological and meteorological anomalies, and was adopted as an indicator of hydrological drought. The anomalies of φ and temperature in the summer of 2003 exceeded the 1982–2005 mean by more than 2 standard deviations. Catchments without glaciers showed negative correlations between φ and discharge R. In basins with about 15% glacierization, φ and R were not correlated. River basins with higher glacier percentages showed a positive correlation between φ and R. Icemelt was positively correlated with φ and reduced the variability of discharge with larger amounts of meltwater. Runoff generation from the non-glaciated sub-areas was limited by high evapotranspiration and reduced precipitation. The 2003 summer heatwave could be a precursor to similar events in the near future. Hydrological models and further data analysis will allow the identification of the most sensitive regions where heatwaves may become a recurrent natural hazard with large environmental, social and economical impacts.

  20. Changes in equipment and image quality. Impact of one year Austrian breast cancer early detection programme; Aenderungen in der Geraetelandschaft und Bildqualitaet. Auswirkungen nach einem Jahr Oesterreichischem Brustkrebsfrueherkennungsprogramm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menhart, S.; Osanna-Elliott, A.; Semturs, F.; Schloegl, C.; Wildner, S.; Zwettler, G. [AGES, Wien (Austria). Referenzzentrum fuer technische Qualitaetssicherung im Brustkrebsfrueherkennungsprogramm

    2015-07-01

    The nationwide Austrian Breast Cancer Early Detection Programme (''BKFP'') started in January 2014. The Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety Ltd. was entrusted with running the reference center for technical quality control (''RefZQS'') on April 1, 2014. The quality of the radiologists' equipment is evaluated against the standards described in the EUREF-Oeprotocol, which is based on the European guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening and diagnosis (EPQC V4, 2006) and has been optimized for Austrian requirements. In its first year of operation the RefZQS has controlled the entire equipment (mammography, periphery and ultrasound system) of all participating radiologists. A significant number of systems had to be adjusted to meet the EUREF-Oecriteria. Some of the systems could not be adjusted accordingly, and had to be replaced. In the wake of the start of the screening programme, several sites switched from CR to more modern DR systems, yielding a significant benefit by reduction of radiation burden. The most important data after one year of RefZQS, especially according to adjustments and replacements, are presented.

  1. The effectiveness of the Austrian disease management programme for type 2 diabetes: a cluster-randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klima Gert

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disease management programmes (DMPs are costly and impose additional work load on general practitioners (GPs. Data on their effectiveness are inconclusive. We therefore conducted a cluster-randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of the Austrian DMP for diabetes mellitus type 2 on HbA1c and quality of care for adult patients in primary care. Methods All GPs of Salzburg-province were invited to participate. After cluster-randomisation by district, all patients with diabetes type 2 were recruited consecutively from 7-11/2007. The DMP, consisting mainly of physician and patient education, standardised documentation and agreement on therapeutic goals, was implemented in the intervention group while the control group received usual care. We aimed to show superiority of the intervention regarding metabolic control and process quality. The primary outcome measure was a change in HbA1c after one year. Secondary outcomes were days in the hospital, blood pressure, lipids, body mass index (BMI, enrolment in patient education and regular guideline-adherent examination. Blinding was not possible. Results 92 physicians recruited 1489 patients (649 intervention, 840 control. After 401 ± 47 days, 590 intervention-patients and 754 controls had complete data. In the intention to treat analysis (ITT of all 1489 patients, HbA1c decreased 0.41% in the intervention group and 0.28% in controls. The difference of -0.13% (95% CI -0.24; -0.02 was significant at p = 0.026. Significance was lost in mixed models adjusted for baseline value and cluster-effects (adjusted mean difference -0.03 (95% CI -0.15; 0.09, p = 0.607. Of the secondary outcome measures, BMI and cholesterol were significantly reduced in the intervention group compared to controls in ITT after adjustments (-0.53 kg/m²; 95% CI -1.03;-0.02; p = 0.014 and -0.10 mmol/l; 95% CI -0.21; -0.003; p = 0.043. Additionally, more patients received patient education (49.5% vs. 20

  2. Natural gamma logging of borehole I on Vernagtferner (Oetztal Alps, Austria)

    OpenAIRE

    Drost, W.; Hofreiter, G.

    1982-01-01

    Natural gamma logging was executed in borehole I on the Vernagtferner (Oetztal Alps, Austria) down to a depth of 60 m below surface. The radioactivity profile reflects the atmospheric injection history. Above a borehole depth of 28 m the log is enriched in bomb produced 137CS along with 4°K and elements of the uranium series. The highest gamma level, which originates from 1963 precipitation with high fallout load, is found in a depth of 18.5 m.

  3. Livestock systems and farming styles in Eastern Italian Alps: an on-farm survey

    OpenAIRE

    Maurizio Ramanzin; Meriam Mrad; Luigi Gallo; Giampaolo Cocca; Enrico Sturaro

    2010-01-01

    This research aimed to study the relationships between livestock systems, landscape maintenance and farming styles in the Belluno Province, a mountainous area of the Eastern Italian Alps. A total of 65 farms were sampled on the basis of livestock category farmed and herd size. Farms were visited to collect information on technical and productive aspects, on landscape features of land managed, which was identified by aerial photographs and digitised in a GIS environment, and on the farmers&rsq...

  4. Nanosynthesis routes to new tetrahedral crystalline solids: silicon-like Si3AlP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Tylan; Chizmeshya, Andrew V G; Jiang, Liying; Smith, David J; Beeler, Richard T; Grzybowski, Gordon; Poweleit, Christian D; Menéndez, José; Kouvetakis, John

    2011-10-12

    We introduce a synthetic strategy to access functional semiconductors with general formula A(3)XY (A = IV, X-Y = III-V) representing a new class within the long-sought family of group IV/III-V hybrid compounds. The method is based on molecular precursors that combine purposely designed polar/nonpolar bonding at the nanoscale, potentially allowing precise engineering of structural and optical properties, including lattice dimensions and band structure. In this Article, we demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed strategy by growing a new monocrystalline AlPSi(3) phase on Si substrates via tailored interactions of P(SiH(3))(3) and Al atoms using gas source (GS) MBE. In this case, the high affinity of Al for the P ligands leads to Si(3)AlP bonding arrangements, which then confer their structure and composition to form the corresponding Si(3)AlP target solid via complete elimination of H(2) at ∼500 °C. First principle simulations at the molecular and solid-state level confirm that the Si(3)AlP building blocks can readily interlink with minimal distortion to produce diamond-like structures in which the P atoms are arranged on a common sublattice as third-nearest neighbors in a manner that excludes the formation of unfavorable Al-Al bonds. High-resolution XRD, XTEM, and RBS indicate that all films grown on Si(100) are tetragonally strained and fully coherent with the substrate and possess near-cubic symmetry. The Raman spectra are consistent with a growth mechanism that proceeds via full incorporation of preformed Si(3)AlP tetrahedra with residual orientational disorder. Collectively, the characterization data show that the structuro-chemical compatibility between the epilayer and substrate leads to flawless integration, as expected for pseudohomoepitaxy of an Si-like material grown on a bulk Si platform. PMID:21877711

  5. The high alpine bee fauna (Hymenoptera: Apoidea of the Zillertal Alps, Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silas Bossert

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bees from the Zemmgrund area in the Zillertal Alps (Austria, Tyrol were collected and determined to investigate the species composition of the area. A total of 61 specimens were collected over a two year period; they represent 24 species from 8 genera. Building on these records, the first commented checklist for the area is presented, with notes on habitats and visited flowers.

  6. Climate, glaciers and permafrost in the Swiss Alps 2050: scenarios, consequences and recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Haeberli, W.; Hohmann, R.

    2008-01-01

    Climate scenarios for the time horizon of 2050 in the Swiss Alps as simulated by using high-resolution ensemble modeling indicate most likely changes in temperature /precipitation by + 2°C / + 10% in winter and + 3°C / - 20% in summer. Such a development would lead to the vanishing of about 75% of the existing glacier surface and deep warming of permafrost in mountain peaks. Corresponding impacts would mainly concern rather dramatic changes in landscape appearance, slope stability and the...

  7. Climate anomalies associated to the occurrence of rockfalls at high-elevation in the Italian Alps

    OpenAIRE

    Paranunzio, Roberta; Laio, Francesco; Chiarle, Marta; Nigrelli, Guido; GUZZETTI Fausto

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is seriously affecting the cryosphere, in terms, for example of permafrost thaw, alteration of rain/snow ratio, glacier shrinkage. There is concern about the increasing number of rockfalls at high elevation in the last decades. Nevertheless, the impact of climate variables on slope instability at high elevation has not been fully explored yet. In this paper, we investigate 41 rockfalls occurred at high elevation in the Italian Alps between 1997 and 2013 in the absence of an evi...

  8. New stratigraphic constraints for the Messinian-Pliocene transition in the Southern Alps

    OpenAIRE

    Monegato, G.; Università di Padova; Scardia, G.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Milano-Pavia, Milano, Italia; Pini, R.; CNR-IDPA

    2009-01-01

    The Messinian succession of the Southern Alps is widely exposed in the Venetian-Friulian Basin, whilst more westwards in the Po Basin only isolated outcrops are preserved in the Lake Garda and Lake Como areas. The Alpine Messinian deposits are characterized by the lack of evaporites and Lago-Mare type sequences and, because of the lacking of marine deposits, their chronology is still loosely constrained. Pliocene marine deposits are located in very confined outcrops at the outlet of the main ...

  9. Fluvial response to horizontal shortening: a study in the Southern Alps of New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Herman, Frédéric; Braun, Jean

    2006-01-01

    International audience It has been postulated that a steady state between erosional and tectonic processes may develop in continental collision. However, it is not clear whether steady state conditions can be reached for all components of the landscape. Here we show, using landscape evolution models and field evidence, that a true geomorphic steady state may never be reached in the Southern Alps of New Zealand. The strong asymmetries in tectonic uplift and tectonic advection and the onset ...

  10. Structures, microfabrics and textures of the Cordilleran-type Rechnitz metamorphic core complex, Eastern Alps

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Shuyun; Neubauer, Franz; Bernroider, Manfred; Liu, Junlai; Genser, Johann

    2013-01-01

    Rechnitz window group represents a Cordilleran-style metamorphic core complex, which is almost entirely located within nearly contemporaneous Neogene sediments at the transition zone between the Eastern Alps and the Neogene Pannonian basin. Two tectonic units are distinguished within the Rechnitz metamorphic core complex (RMCC): (1) a lower unit mainly composed of Mesozoic metasediments, and (2) an upper unit mainly composed of ophiolite remnants. Both units are metamorphosed within greenschi...

  11. Sustainable regional development: Reconciling global and local dynamics and stakes in the Swiss Alps

    OpenAIRE

    Sommer, Rosmarie; Wallner, Astrid; Wiesmann, Urs Martin

    2010-01-01

    This article explores how global and local dynamics and stakes can be brought together when trying to combine conservation and regional development. For this purpose we analyse a series of studies carried out in the area of the Swiss Alps Jungfrau-Aletsch World Heritage Site (WHS). The approaches used in these studies to analyse the diversity and development of the region included data collection and evaluation of indicators such as population development, number of working places, occupation...

  12. Stellar Evolution Bounds on the ALP-Photon Coupling: new Results and Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Giannotti, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Stellar evolution considerations are of fundamental importance in our understanding of the axion/ALP-photon coupling, g_{a\\gamma}. Helium burning stars are the best laboratories to study this coupling. Here, we will review the bounds from massive and low mass helium burning stars, and present a new analysis of the bound from the horizontal branch stars. The analysis provides the strongest bound to date on g_{a\\gamma} in a wide mass range.

  13. Seismic Tomography Around the Eastern Edge of the Alps From Ambient-Noise-Based Rayleigh Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigone, Dimitri; Fuchs, Florian; Kolinsky, Petr; Gröschl, Gidera; Apoloner, Maria-Theresia; Qorbani, Ehsan; Schippkus, Sven; Löberich, Eric; Bokelmann, Götz; AlpArray Working Group

    2016-04-01

    Inspecting ambient noise Green's functions is an excellent tool for monitoring the quality of seismic data, and for swiftly detecting changes in the configuration of a seismological station. Those Green's functions readily provide stable information about structural variations near the Earth's surface. We apply the technique to a network consisting of about 40 broadband stations in the area of the Easternmost Alps, in particular those operated by the University of Vienna (AlpArrayAustria) and the Vienna University of Technology. Those data are used to estimate Green's functions between station pairs; the Green's function consist mainly of surface waves, and we use them to investigate crustal structure near the Eastern edge of the Alps. To obtain better signal-to-noise ratios in the noise correlation functions, we adopt a procedure using short time windows (2 hr). Energy tests are performed on the data to remove effects of transient sources and instrumental problems. The resulting 9-component correlation tensor is used to make travel time measurements on the vertical, radial and transverse components. Those measurements can be used to evaluate dispersion using frequency-time analysis for periods between 5-30 seconds. After rejecting paths without sufficient signal-to-noise ratio, we invert the velocity measurements using the Barmin et al. (2001) approach on a 10 km grid size. The obtained group velocity maps reveal complex structures with clear velocity contrasts between sedimentary basins and crystalline rocks. The Bohemian Massif and the Northern Calcareous Alps are associated with fast-velocity bodies. By contrast, the Vienna Basin presents clear low-velocity zones with group velocities down to 2 km/s at period of 7 s. The group velocities are then inverted to 3D images of shear wave speeds using the linear inversion method of Herrmann (2013). The results highlight the complex crustal structure and complement earthquake tomography studies in the region. Updated

  14. Adapting to Socioeconomic Developments by Changing Rules in the Governance of Common Property Pastures in the Swiss Alps

    OpenAIRE

    Ivo Baur; Binder, Claudia R.

    2013-01-01

    The common property meadows in the Swiss Alps have been managed by local self-organized governance systems since the Middle Ages, thus preventing their overuse. During the past century, socioeconomic developments, such as industrialization and rapid nonagricultural economic growth, have shifted employment opportunities from the agricultural sector towards the service sector. In the agricultural sector, this has led to less intensive use and maintenance of the meadows in the Alps and consequen...

  15. The AlpArray Seismic Network: current status and next steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetényi, György; Molinari, Irene; Clinton, John; Kissling, Edi

    2016-04-01

    The AlpArray initiative (http://www.alparray.ethz.ch) is a large-scale European collaboration to study the entire Alpine orogen at high resolution and in 3D with a large variety of geoscientific methods. The core element of the initiative is an extensive and dense broadband seismological network, the AlpArray Seismic Network (AASN), which complements the permanent seismological stations to ensure homogeneous coverage of the greater Alpine area. The some 260 temporary stations of the AlpArray Seismic Network are operated as a joint effort by a number of institutions from Austria, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Slovakia and Switzerland. The first stations were installed in Spring 2015 and the full AASN is planned to be operational by early Summer 2016. In this poster we present the actual status of the deployment, the effort undertaken by the contributing groups, station performance, typical noise levels, best practices in installation as well as in data management, often encountered challenges, and planned next steps including the deployment of ocean bottom seismometers in the Ligurian Sea.

  16. Distribution, geometry, age and origin of overdeepened valleys and basins in the Alps and their foreland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preusser, F.; Reitner, J. M. [Institut fuer Geologie, Universitaet Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Schluechter, Ch. [Geologische Bundesanstalt, Wien (Austria)

    2010-12-15

    Overdeepened valleys and basins are commonly found below the present landscape surface in areas that were affected by Quaternary glaciations. Overdeepened troughs and their sedimentary fillings are important in applied geology, for example, for geotechnics of deep foundations and tunnelling, groundwater resource management, and radioactive waste disposal. This publication is an overview of the areal distribution and the geometry of overdeepened troughs in the Alps and their foreland, and summarises the present knowledge of the age and potential processes that may have caused deep erosion. It is shown that overdeepened features within the Alps concur mainly with tectonic structures and/or weak lithologies as well as with Pleistocene ice confluence and partly also diffluence situations. In the foreland, overdeepening is found as elongated buried valleys, mainly oriented in the direction of former ice flow, and glacially scoured basins in the ablation area of glaciers. Some buried deeply incised valleys were generated by fluvial down-cutting during the Messinian crisis but this mechanism of formation applies only for the southern side of the Alps. Lithostratigraphic records and dating evidence reveal that overdeepened valleys were repeatedly occupied and excavated by glaciers during past glaciations. However, the age of the original formation of (non-Messinian) overdeepened structures remains unknown. The mechanisms causing overdeepening also remain unidentified and it can only be speculated that pressurised meltwater played an important role in this context. (authors)

  17. Distribution, geometry, age and origin of overdeepened valleys and basins in the Alps and their foreland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overdeepened valleys and basins are commonly found below the present landscape surface in areas that were affected by Quaternary glaciations. Overdeepened troughs and their sedimentary fillings are important in applied geology, for example, for geotechnics of deep foundations and tunnelling, groundwater resource management, and radioactive waste disposal. This publication is an overview of the areal distribution and the geometry of overdeepened troughs in the Alps and their foreland, and summarises the present knowledge of the age and potential processes that may have caused deep erosion. It is shown that overdeepened features within the Alps concur mainly with tectonic structures and/or weak lithologies as well as with Pleistocene ice confluence and partly also diffluence situations. In the foreland, overdeepening is found as elongated buried valleys, mainly oriented in the direction of former ice flow, and glacially scoured basins in the ablation area of glaciers. Some buried deeply incised valleys were generated by fluvial down-cutting during the Messinian crisis but this mechanism of formation applies only for the southern side of the Alps. Lithostratigraphic records and dating evidence reveal that overdeepened valleys were repeatedly occupied and excavated by glaciers during past glaciations. However, the age of the original formation of (non-Messinian) overdeepened structures remains unknown. The mechanisms causing overdeepening also remain unidentified and it can only be speculated that pressurised meltwater played an important role in this context. (authors)

  18. Bacterial composition and survival on Sahara dust particles transported to the European Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eMeola

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Deposition of Sahara dust (SD particles is a frequent phenomenon in Europe, but little is known about the viability and composition of the bacterial community transported with SD. The goal of this study was to characterize SD-associated bacteria transported to the European Alps, deposited and entrapped in snow. During two distinct events in February and May 2014, SD particles were deposited and promptly covered by falling snow, thus preserving them in distinct ochre layers within the snowpack. In June 2014, we collected samples at different depths from a snow profile at the Jungfraujoch (Swiss Alps; 3621 m a.s.l.. After filtration, we performed various microbiological and physicochemical analyses of the snow and dust particles therein that originated in Algeria.Our results show that bacteria survive and are metabolically active after the transport to the European Alps. Using high throughput sequencing, we observed distinct differences in bacterial community composition and structure in SD-layers as compared to clean snow layers. Sporulating bacteria were not enriched in the SD-layers; however, phyla with low abundance such as Gemmatimonadetes and Deinococcus-Thermus appeared to be specific bio-indicators for SD. Since many members of these phyla are known to be adapted to arid oligotrophic environments and UV radiation, they are well suited to survive the harsh conditions of long-range airborne transport.

  19. The Occurrence of Cold Spells in the Alps Related to ClimateChange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon Ki Park

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is not only a likely prospect for the end of this century, but it is already occurring. Part of the changes will include global warming and increasing temperature variability, both at global and regional scales. This increased variability was investigated in this paper from the point of view of the occurrence of cold spells in the Alps in the future climate (2071–2100, compared with the present climate (1961–1990. For this purpose, a regionalisation of the climate change effects was performed within the Alps. To avoid possible errors in the estimate of the 2m air temperature, the analysis was performed on the soil surface temperature. To get realistic values for this variable, a land surface scheme, UTOPIA, has been run on the selected domain, using the output of the Regional Climate Model (RegCM3 simulations as the driving force. The results show that, in general, the number of cold breaks is decreasing over the Alps, due to the temperature increment. However, there are certain zones where the behaviour is more complicated. The analysis of the model output also allowed a relationship to be found between the number of cold breaks and their duration. The significance of these results over the whole area was assessed.

  20. Revealing heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si by AlP in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiehua; Hage, Fredrik S; Liu, Xiangfa; Ramasse, Quentin; Schumacher, Peter

    2016-04-28

    The heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si can be attributed to the presence of AlP. Although P, in the form of AlP particles, is usually observed in the centre of primary Si, there is still a lack of detailed investigations on the distribution of P within primary Si and eutectic Si in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys at the atomic scale. Here, we report an atomic-scale experimental investigation on the distribution of P in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys. P, in the form of AlP particles, was observed in the centre of primary Si. However, no significant amount of P was detected within primary Si, eutectic Si and the Al matrix. Instead, P was observed at the interface between the Al matrix and eutectic Si, strongly indicating that P, in the form of AlP particles (or AlP 'patch' dependent on the P concentration), may have nucleated on the surface of the Al matrix and thereby enhanced the heterogeneous nucleation of eutectic Si. The present investigation reveals some novel insights into heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si by AlP in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys and can be used to further develop heterogeneous nucleation mechanisms based on adsorption.

  1. Revealing heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si by AlP in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiehua; Hage, Fredrik S.; Liu, Xiangfa; Ramasse, Quentin; Schumacher, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si can be attributed to the presence of AlP. Although P, in the form of AlP particles, is usually observed in the centre of primary Si, there is still a lack of detailed investigations on the distribution of P within primary Si and eutectic Si in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys at the atomic scale. Here, we report an atomic-scale experimental investigation on the distribution of P in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys. P, in the form of AlP particles, was observed in the centre of primary Si. However, no significant amount of P was detected within primary Si, eutectic Si and the Al matrix. Instead, P was observed at the interface between the Al matrix and eutectic Si, strongly indicating that P, in the form of AlP particles (or AlP ‘patch’ dependent on the P concentration), may have nucleated on the surface of the Al matrix and thereby enhanced the heterogeneous nucleation of eutectic Si. The present investigation reveals some novel insights into heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si by AlP in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys and can be used to further develop heterogeneous nucleation mechanisms based on adsorption.

  2. Characterization and manipulation of the pathway-specific late regulator AlpW reveals Streptomyces ambofaciens as a new producer of Kinamycins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunet, Robert; Song, Lijiang; Mendes, Marta Vaz; Corre, Christophe; Hotel, Laurence; Rouhier, Nicolas; Framboisier, Xavier; Leblond, Pierre; Challis, Gregory L; Aigle, Bertrand

    2011-03-01

    The genome sequence of Streptomyces ambofaciens, a species known to produce the congocidine and spiramycin antibiotics, has revealed the presence of numerous gene clusters predicted to be involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Among them, the type II polyketide synthase-encoding alp cluster was shown to be responsible for the biosynthesis of a compound with antibacterial activity. Here, by means of a deregulation approach, we gained access to workable amounts of the antibiotics for structure elucidation. These compounds, previously designated as alpomycin, were shown to be known members of kinamycin family of antibiotics. Indeed, a mutant lacking AlpW, a member of the TetR regulator family, was shown to constitutively produce kinamycins. Comparative transcriptional analyses showed that expression of alpV, the essential regulator gene required for activation of the biosynthetic genes, is strongly maintained during the stationary growth phase in the alpW mutant, a stage at which alpV transcripts and thereby transcripts of the biosynthetic genes normally drop off. Recombinant AlpW displayed DNA binding activity toward specific motifs in the promoter region of its own gene and that of alpV and alpZ. These recognition sequences are also targets for AlpZ, the γ-butyrolactone-like receptor involved in the regulation of the alp cluster. However, unlike that of AlpZ, the AlpW DNA-binding ability seemed to be insensitive to the signaling molecules controlling antibiotic biosynthesis. Together, the results presented in this study reveal S. ambofaciens to be a new producer of kinamycins and AlpW to be a key late repressor of the cellular control of kinamycin biosynthesis. PMID:21193612

  3. Debris-covered glaciers extend the lifespan of water supplies in the European Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardeux, Pierre; Glasser, Neil; Holt, Tom; Hubbard, Bryn

    2016-04-01

    Debris-covered glaciers have a slower melting rate than clean-ice glaciers due to the insulating effect of their debris layer. In the European Alps, debris-covered glaciers have received little attention due to their small contribution to sea-level rise. However, glaciers provide water supplies for the five main watersheds draining the European Alps (Danube, Rhine, Rhone, Po and Adige, in order of size), an area inhabited by more than 145 million people (20% of Europe's population). It is unclear what volume of ice (and so quantity of potential meltwater) is affected by a debris layer, and what the effect of this layer is for water resources in the Alps. Combining the Randolph Glacier Inventory (RGI) and online imagery services, we calculated that more than 40% of ice volume in the Alps is influenced by debris cover. In this presentation, we will show the different elements leading to this number, including our evaluation of the RGI, the volume calculation method and what percentage of ice is actually covered (0.6 to 99% of glacier surface area). Our analysis has allowed a comprehensive understanding of the debris-covered glaciers in each watershed by revealing their distribution (i.e. where they will extend water supply lifespan), and hypsometry and equilibrium line altitude (how sensitive they are to climate change). The prolonged lifespan of water supply is visible at the scale of an individual debris-covered glacier: comparing the evolution of Glacier Noir and Glacier Blanc (France) over the last 150 years indicates that Glacier Noir (debris covered) has retained 2.5 times more ice than Glacier Blanc (clean-ice) under the same climatic conditions. The number of debris-covered glaciers will increase as the >1°C rise in temperature in the European Alps since the start of the 20th Century increases the instability of rock faces and scree slopes. The evolution of these glaciers is therefore likely to have a major impact on human populations. This work shows that

  4. Statistical downscaling of regional climate scenarios for the French Alps : Impacts on snow cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousselot, M.; Durand, Y.; Giraud, G.; Mérindol, L.; Déqué, M.; Sanchez, E.; Pagé, C.; Hasan, A.

    2010-12-01

    Mountain areas are particularly vulnerable to climate change. Owing to the complexity of mountain terrain, climate research at scales relevant for impacts studies and decisive for stakeholders is challenging. A possible way to bridge the gap between these fine scales and those of the general circulation models (GCMs) consists of combining high-resolution simulations of Regional Climate Models (RCMs) to statistical downscaling methods. The present work is based on such an approach. It aims at investigating the impacts of climate change on snow cover in the French Alps for the periods 2021-2050 and 2071-2100 under several IPCC hypotheses. An analogue method based on high resolution atmospheric fields from various RCMs and climate reanalyses is used to simulate local climate scenarios. These scenarios, which provide meteorological parameters relevant for snowpack evolution, subsequently feed the CROCUS snow model. In these simulations, various sources of uncertainties are thus considered (several greenhouse gases emission scenarios and RCMs). Results are obtained for different regions of the French Alps at various altitudes. For all scenarios, temperature increase is relatively uniform over the Alps. This regional warming is larger than that generally modeled at the global scale (IPCC, 2007), and particularly strong in summer. Annual precipitation amounts seem to decrease, mainly as a result of decreasing precipitation trends in summer and fall. As a result of these climatic evolutions, there is a general decrease of the mean winter snow depth and seasonal snow duration for all massifs. Winter snow depths are particularly reduced in the Northern Alps. However, the impact on seasonal snow duration is more significant in the Southern and Extreme Southern Alps, since these regions are already characterized by small winter snow depths at low elevations. Reference : IPCC (2007a). Climate change 2007 : The physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the

  5. Investigation of the Sultan Alp Arslan tomb with geophysical methods, in the historical Merv city (Turkestan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadioglu, Selma; Kagan Kadioglu, Yusuf

    2016-04-01

    Sultan Alp Arslan (1029-1072) was the second Sultan of the Seljuq Empire and great-grandson of Seljuq the eponymous founder of the dynasty. Sultan Alp Arslan's victories changed the balance in near Asia completely in favour of the Seljuq Turks and Sunni Muslims. His victory at Manzikert (26 August 1071) is often cited as the beginning of the end of Byzantine power in Anatolia, and the beginning of Turkish identity in Anatolia. Sultan Alp Arslan eliminated theobstacles to the conquest of Anatolia and played a major role in making this territory a homeland for the Seljuqs. By taking the Emperor captive, Sultan Alp Arslan gained great fame but in 1072, on an expedition to Western Turkestan, he met with death in an unexpected way and at a relatively early age, in his 42nd year. There have been found different stories of the death of this great Turkish Sultan in certain sources. Unfortunately, there has not been found The Sultan's resting place until now. This paper is concerned with the investigation of the Sultan Alp Arslan Tomb in the historical Merv (Marv) city in Turkestan, by using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and gradiometer methods. The GPR and gradiometer surveys have been realized in Gavur Fortress, Sultan Fortress, Er Fortress districts and between two big Fortresses in old Merv city in selected nine study areas. We also gathered data in and around Sultan Sancar Tomb. GPR surveys were performed during January 2014 employing Ramac CU-II system equipped with a 250 MHz shielded antenna, on one meter spaced profiles. Similarly a Geoscan system was used to take magnetic data. The results of all these investigation revealed that there were possible traces for the buried tomb of the Sultan Alparslan in Gavur Kale around Cuma Mosque and around Sultan Sancar Tomb in the study region. However, the project team was changed after our study, and the new team did not excavated our determined areas. Acknowledgement This project has been supported by Republic of Turkey

  6. The views and motives of environmental ethics in the articles of Austrian nature and environmental protection associations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study deals with the views and motives of environmental ethics in the articles of Austrian nature and environmental protection associations. There are different ways of arguing: In an anthropocentric point of view nature is seen as a resource for man; human life needs protection an cultivation of nature. The non-anthropocentric point of view is more popular. Nature is not only seen as a resource for human needs and interests. It follows its own aims and purposes, seems to be a valuable being and has to be protected for itself. The study presents the two parent organizations 'Umweltdachverband - OeGNU' and 'Oeko-Buero' and their 45 members. The associations mainly argue from an anthropocentric point of view for the protection of nature and environment. Their motives are the care for human health and quality of life, the ensuring of resources, the leisure-time in nature and patriotism. The anthropocentric arguments perfectly fit into the other articles of these organizations: many of them are dealing with economical, scientifical, recreational and pedagogical affairs. And often they represent interests of agriculture, forestry ore trade. Non-anthropocentric statements are of minor importance and seem to be a way to present the seriousness of their demand for protection of nature and environment. (author)

  7. Proteins in seed and seedlings of selected Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold trees as genetic markers tolerant to drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mataruga Milan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A precondition necessary for creation and selection of genotypes tolerant of stress conditions is a study of physiological, biochemical and molecular bases of their adaptive reaction to stress. The study includes 40 lines of free pollination originating from 5 provenances: Sutjeska, Višegrad, Tara, Teslić and Durmitor (B&H, Serbia and Montenegro. Two populations were selected from each provenance, i.e.: 5 lines of free pollination represent the population growing on the cliffs and 3 lines of free pollination represent the population growing at the best site of Austrian pine. Specific characteristics of the studied provenances, populations, and free pollination lines were confirmed by the analyses in the salt-soluble proteins. The identical protein composition was proved in a small number of cases in the replicates of the same free pollination line, which indicates a high intra-line variability, which can be the result of the effect of father, as well as of heterozygosity of mother trees. The analyses of protein composition of seed showed considerable differences at provenance level. Inter-line, population and provenance differences, and also, the interaction between the origin and drought factor, were recorded for 9-day-old seedlings germinated in induced drought conditions and in normal conditions.

  8. [Outbreak of subclinical mastitis due to beta hemolytic group L streptococci (S. dysgalactiae ssp. equisimilis) in an Austrian dairy herd].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Martina; Giffinger, Friederike; Hoppe, Jan Christoph; Spergser, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    This study is reporting an outbreak of subclinical mastitis due to beta-hemolytic group L streptococci in an Austrian dairy herd with a history of high somatic cell count. At the first survey 16 of 33 lactating cows (28 quarters of 132) were cultured positive for beta-hemolytic, CAMP and esculin negative cocci that grew on Columbia blood agar with small grey catalase negative colonies. With the commercial API 20 Strep system (bioMerieux, F) isolates were classified as members of streptococci group L. All tested strains (eight of 28) produced acid from ribose, lactose, trehalose, amidon and glycogen; they hydrolysed hippurate and showed beta-glucuronidase, beta-galactosidase, alkaline phosphatase, leucinaminopeptidase and arginindehydrolase activity. Isolates were sensitive to bacitracin but resistant to tetracycline. Using phenotypic characterisation as well as sequence analysis of the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region of a representative strain, recovered isolates were identified as Streptococcus (S.) dysgalactiae ssp. equisimilis. Mastitis was characterized by normal milk secretions and absence of clinical abnormalities but high elevations of somatic cell count. Based on the characteristics of the strains and on the observations during the first herd survey, contagious transmission during milking as a result of poor milking hygiene was assumed. The mastitis was controlled through implementation of a strict hygiene protocol including use of single-use udder towels, post milking teat desinfection and cluster disinfection between milking cows in combination with antibiotic treatment of infected udders.

  9. Landfill mining: Resource potential of Austrian landfills--Evaluation and quality assessment of recovered municipal solid waste by chemical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfsberger, Tanja; Aldrian, Alexia; Sarc, Renato; Hermann, Robert; Höllen, Daniel; Budischowsky, Andreas; Zöscher, Andreas; Ragoßnig, Arne; Pomberger, Roland

    2015-11-01

    Since the need for raw materials in countries undergoing industrialisation (like China) is rising, the availability of metal and fossil fuel energy resources (like ores or coal) has changed in recent years. Landfill sites can contain considerable amounts of recyclables and energy-recoverable materials, therefore, landfill mining is an option for exploiting dumped secondary raw materials, saving primary sources. For the purposes of this article, two sanitary landfill sites have been chosen for obtaining actual data to determine the resource potential of Austrian landfills. To evaluate how pretreating waste before disposal affects the resource potential of landfills, the first landfill site has been selected because it has received untreated waste, whereas mechanically-biologically treated waste was dumped in the second. The scope of this investigation comprised: (1) waste characterisation by sorting analyses of recovered waste; and (2) chemical analyses of specific waste fractions for quality assessment regarding potential energy recovery by using it as solid recovered fuels. The content of eight heavy metals and the net calorific values were determined for the chemical characterisation tests. PMID:26347181

  10. 137Cs-migration in soils and its transfer to roe deer in an Austrian forest stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The depth distribution of 137Cs in an Austrian spruce forest stand was investigated in soil profiles sampled in thin layers (2 cm) and in pooled soil samples over an area of 200 ha. The 137Cs concentrations both from Chernobyl and global fallout decrease exponentially with depth. Forty-six percent of Chernobyl-derived caesium and 26% from global fallout are still to be found in the litter layer; 137Cs content in samples on organic matter as well as cation exchange capacity. Using a compartment model, average residence half-times of 5.3, 9.9, 1.78 and 0.8 years were calculated for the layers litter, 0-5 (Ah1), 5-10 (Ah2) and 10-20 cm (A/B) of mineral soil, respectively. Using the model predictions of soil contamination as a basis and considering that roe deer forage plants' rooting depths, the development of 137Cs contamination of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) (1987-1993) was well described by applying an aggregated transfer factor

  11. Digital structural interpretation of mountain-scale photogrammetric 3D models (Kamnik Alps, Slovenia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolžan, Erazem; Vrabec, Marko

    2015-04-01

    From the earliest days of geological science, mountainous terrains with their extreme topographic relief and sparse to non-existent vegetation were utilized to a great advantage for gaining 3D insight into geological structure. But whereas Alpine vistas may offer perfect panoramic views of geology, the steep mountain slopes and vertical cliffs make it very time-consuming and difficult (if not impossible) to acquire quantitative mapping data such as precisely georeferenced traces of geological boundaries and attitudes of structural planes. We faced this problem in mapping the central Kamnik Alps of northern Slovenia, which are built up from Mid to Late Triassic succession of carbonate rocks. Polyphase brittle tectonic evolution, monotonous lithology and the presence of temporally and spatially irregular facies boundary between bedded platform carbonates and massive reef limestones considerably complicate the structural interpretation of otherwise perfectly exposed, but hardly accessible massif. We used Agisoft Photoscan Structure-from-Motion photogrammetric software to process a series of overlapping high-resolution (~0.25 m ground resolution) vertical aerial photographs originally acquired by the Geodetic Authority of the Republic of Slovenia for surveying purposes, to derive very detailed 3D triangular mesh models of terrain and associated photographic textures. Phototextures are crucial for geological interpretation of the models as they provide additional levels of detail and lithological information which is not resolvable from geometrical mesh models alone. We then exported the models to Paradigm Gocad software to refine and optimize the meshing. Structural interpretation of the models, including mapping of traces and surfaces of faults and stratigraphic boundaries and determining dips of structural planes, was performed in MVE Move suite which offers a range of useful tools for digital mapping and interpretation. Photogrammetric model was complemented by

  12. A new Geo-Information Architecture for Risk Management in the Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruffini, Mi.; Thuering, M.

    2009-04-01

    During the last decades land-use increased significantly in the Swiss (and European) mountain regions. Due to the scarceness of areas suitable for development, anthropic activities were extended into areas prone to natural hazards such as avalanches, debris flows and rockfalls (Smith 2001). Furthermore, the transalpine transport system necessity to develop effective links in an important area collides with the need to ensure the safety of travelers and the health of the population. Consequently, an increase in losses due to hazards can be observed. To mitigate these associated losses, both traditional protective measures and land-use planning policies are to be developed and implemented to optimize future investments. Efficient protection alternatives can be obtained considering the concept of integral risk management. Risk analysis, as the central part of risk management, has become gradually a generally accepted approach for the assessment of current and future scenarios (Loat & Zimmermann 2004). The procedure aims at risk reduction which can be reached by conventional mitigation on one hand and the implementation of land-use planning on the other hand: a combination of active and passive mitigation measures is applied to prevent damage to buildings, people and infrastructures. As part of the Swiss National Science Foundation Project 54 "Evaluation of the optimal resilience for vulnerable infrastructure networks - An interdisciplinary pilot study on the transalpine transportation corridors" we study the vulnerability of infrastructures due to natural hazards. The project aims to study various natural hazards (and later, even man-made) and to obtain an evaluation of the resilience according to an interdisciplinary approach, considering the possible damage by means of risk criteria and pointing out the feasibility of conceivable measures to reduce potential damage. The project consists of a geoscientific part and an application. The fist part consists in studying

  13. Climatic change and contemporaneous land-use phases north and south of the Alps 2300 BC to 800 AD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinner, Willy; Lotter, André F.; Ammann, Brigitta; Conedera, Marco; Hubschmid, Priska; van Leeuwen, Jacqueline F. N.; Wehrli, Michael

    2003-06-01

    Fluctuations in the Δ 14C curve and subsequent gaps of archaeological findings at 800-650 and 400-100 BC in western and central Europe may indicate major climate-driven land-abandonment phases. To address this hypothesis radiocarbon-dated sediments from four lakes in Switzerland were studied palynologically. Pollen analysis indicates contemporaneous phases of forest clearances and of intensified land-use at 1450-1250 BC, 650-450 BC, 50 BC-100 AD and around 700 AD. These land-use expansions coincided with periods of warm climate as recorded by the Alpine dendroclimatic and Greenland oxygen isotope records. Our results suggest that harvest yields would have increased synchronously over wide areas of central and southern Europe during periods of warm and dry climate. Combined interpretation of palaeoecological and archaeological findings suggests that higher food production led to increased human populations. Positive long-term trends in pollen values of Cerealia and Plantago lanceolata indicate that technical innovations during the Bronze and Iron Age (e.g. metal ploughs, scythes, hay production, fertilising methods) gradually increased agricultural productivity. The successful adoption of yield-increasing advances cannot be explained by climatic determinism alone. Combined with archaeological evidence, our results suggest that despite considerable cycles of spatial and demographic reorganisation (repeated land abandonments and expansions, as well as large-scale migrations and population decreases), human societies were able to shift to lower subsistence levels without dramatic ruptures in material culture. However, our data imply that human societies were not able to compensate rapidly for harvest failures when climate deteriorated. Agriculture in marginal areas was abandoned, and spontaneous reforestations took place on abandoned land south and north of the Alps. Only when the climate changed again to drier and warmer conditions did a new wide-spread phase of

  14. Strain rates at high temporal resolution from curved inclusion trails in garnet, Passo del Sole, Central Swiss Alps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, C. A.; Carlson, W. D.; Connelly, James

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative strain rates at outcrop scale are very difficult to obtain, but they may be estimated from crystals with curved inclusion trails by calculating rotation rates from growth rates and corresponding deflections of the internal foliation. Garnet in a quartzose pelite at Passo del Sole in ...

  15. Physico-chemical control on the REE minerals in chloritoid-grade metasediments from a single outcrop (Central Alps, Switzerland)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janots, Emilie; Berger, Alfons; Engi, Martin

    2011-01-01

    ). Allanite formation is texturally coeval with apatite, chloritoid and xenotime, during the main tectono-metamorphic stage. Allanite formation implies significant mass transfer of Ca and P via a fluid phase, which is not clearly related to advective transport. In Ga06, elongate monazite grains have...... record greenschist facies conditions (T~400–450 °C). Two of the samples contain hydrothermal veins dominated by quartz and calcite+quartz, respectively. In metasediments devoid of veins, the light rare earth elements (LREE) are concentrated in allanite in all samples except for one metamarl (Ga06...

  16. The environmental features of the Monte Corchia cave system (Apuan Alps, central Italy and their effects on speleothem growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piccini Leonardo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The Monte Corchia cave system, one of the most famous and popular caves in Italy, has in recent times been the subject of investigation on its speleothems as paleoclimate archives. This paper describes the geology, geomorphology and water chemistry of the cave system with the aim to elucidate the processes that have generated these speleothems and the properties they contain that are so useful for paleoclimatology. Some general conclusions can be drawn: i the Corchia system is a cave developed over different altitudes during progressive uplift of the mountain chain in which it is located, probably under drainage conditions very different to those of the present. This has allowed the development of a large (ca. 60 km and deep (-1187 m karst system; ii the dewatering phases have left the deepest chambers far away from clastic input and with long drip pathways; iii the peculiar geological context has permitted the water to intercept and dissolve a significant source of U (still unknown that facilitates radiometric dating; iv in the last 1 Ma at least, no significant changes have occurred in the relief and in the epikarst, in the sense that speleothems have grown under very similar conditions. In addition the extremely low Ca concentration of drip waters have permitted low speleothem growth rates and, at least for the “Galleria delle Stalattiti”, the zone under paleoclimate studies,a stable plumbing system (i.e. chemistry and stable isotopes of drip waters has produced calcite close to isotopic equilibrium.

  17. Wildfire history and fire ecology of the Swiss National Park (Central Alps): new evidence from charcoal, pollen and plant macrofossils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stähli, M.; Finsinger, W.; Tinner, W.; Allgöwer, B.

    2006-01-01

    Microscopic (> 10 mm) and macroscopic (> 200 mm) charcoal particles were analysed in sediments from two mires in subalpine coniferous forests at c. 1800 m a.s.l. in southeastern Switzerland. Pollen and plant macrofossils suggest that since 6000 BC, Pinus mugo ssp. uncinata (DC) Domin (‘upright mount

  18. Phytosociological Description of Ostrya Carpinifolia and Fraxinus Ornus Communities in the Julian Alps and in the Northern Part of the Dinaric Alps (NW and W Slovenia, NE Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakskobler Igor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Na podlagi primerjav s podobnimi združbami v severovzhodni Italiji, južni Avstriji, osrednji in jugovzhodni Sloveniji ter zahodni Hrvaški smo fitocenoze črnega gabra in malega jesena na strmih skalnatih rastiščih v pasu bukovih gozdov v severozahodni in zahodni Sloveniji uvrstili v asociacijo Fraxinio orni-Ostryetum Aichinger 1933 in v prigorju Julijskih Alp in v severnem delu Dinarskega gorstva opisali njeno novo subasociacijo -phyteumatetosum columnae. Sestoje črnega gabra in malega jesena na strmih osojnih pobočjih z večjim deležem diagnostičnih vrst bukovih in smrekovih gozdov uvrščamo v novo asociacijo Rhododendro hirsuti-Ostryetum Franz ex Dakskobler, ass. nov. hoc loco in v novo subasociacijo -mercurialietosum perennis ter v provizorno varianto var. Hemerocallis lilioasphodelus, katere sestoji so floristično precej podobni sestojem asociacije Hemerocallido- Ostryetum.

  19. 3D modelling of the Austroalpine-Penninic collisional wedge of the NW Alps: dataset management and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monopoli, Bruno; Bistacchi, Andrea; Bertolo, Davide; Dal Piaz, Giovanni; Gouffon, Yves; Massironi, Matteo; Sartori, Mario; Vittorio Dal Piaz, Giorgio

    2016-04-01

    considered as a sort of pseudo-stratigraphy, since they are the oldest feature that can be traced continuously at the map scale. For this reason we have developed a set of attributes identifying the tectonic and lithological units (a "legend"), implemented both in the GIS database and in the 3D models, which at the same time is compatible with the data structure of 3D modelling packages like Move and Skua/Gocad, and allows tracing the complex hierarchic classification of the units mapped in the GIS. This allows for the almost automatic and consistent two-way transfer of data between the GIS and geomodelling environments. E.g. results of 3D modelling, which is based on input data originally stored in the GIS, will eventually be transferred back to the GIS. The results of this study, which are preliminarily presented here, will open new opportunities to study the collision- and subduction-related nappe architecture and kinematics with younger deformations removed, and will eventually lead (with additional studies) to a step-by-step retrodeformation supported by modern technologies, following the path traced by Argand at the beginning of the 20th century. Argand E. 1909. L'exploration géologique des Alpes pennines centrales. Bull. Soc. Vaudoise Sci. Nat., 45, 217-276. Argand A. 1911. Les nappes de recouvrement des Alpes pennines et leurs prolongements structuraux. Mat. Carte Géol. Suisse, 31, 25. Argand A. 1916. Sur l'arc des Alpes occidentales. Eclogae Geol. Helv., 14, 145-191. Franchi S., Mattirolo E., Novarese V., Stella A. & Zaccagna D. 1908. Carta geologica delle Alpi Occidentali alla scala 1:400.000. Regio Ufficio Geologico, Roma. Gerlach H. 1869. Die Penninischen Alpen. N. Denkschr. Schweiz. Natf. Ges., 23, 132. Gerlach H. 1871. Das Suedwestliche Wallis. Beitraege Geol. Karte Schweiz, 9, 175. Giordano F. 1869. Sulla orografia e sulla geologica costituzione del Gran Cervino. Atti R. Acc. Sci. Torino, 4, 304-321.

  20. Group and phase velocities from deterministic and ambient sources measured during the AlpArray-EASI experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolínský, Petr; Zigone, Dimitri; Fuchs, Florian; Bianchi, Irene; Qorbani, Ehsan; Apoloner, Maria-Theresia; Bokelmann, Götz; AlpArray-EASI Working Group

    2016-04-01

    The Eastern Alpine Seismic Investigation (EASI) was a complementary experiment to the AlpArray project. EASI was composed of 55 broadband seismic stations deployed in a winding swath of 540 km length along longitude 13.350 E from the Czech-German border to the Adriatic Sea. Average north-south inter-station distance was 10 km, the distance of each station to either side of the central line was 6 km. Such a dense linear network allows for surface wave dispersion measurements by both deterministic and ambient noise sources along the same paths. During the experiment (July 2014 - August 2015), three earthquakes ML = 2.6, 2.9 and 4.2 occurred in Austria and Northern Italy only several kilometers off the swath. We measure Rayleigh and Love wave group velocities between the source and a single station for the recorded earthquakes, as well as phase velocities between selected pairs of stations using the standard two-station method. We also calculate cross-correlations of ambient noise between selected pairs of stations and we determine the corresponding group velocity dispersion curves. We propose a comparison of phase velocities between two stations measured from earthquakes with group velocities obtained from cross-correlations for the same station pairs. We also compare group velocities measured at single station using earthquakes, which occurred along the swath, with group velocities measured from cross-correlations. That way we analyze velocities of both deterministic and ambient noise reconstructed surface waves propagating along the same path. We invert the resulting dispersion curves for 1D shear wave velocity profiles with depth and we compile a quasi-2D velocity model along the EASI swath.