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Sample records for austrian central alps

  1. Badgastein spa—Austrian central Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zötl, J. G.

    1995-12-01

    The Badgastein spa shows almost all the special geological and hydrological features existing in the northeastern central Alps. Situated within the Tauern window, the open joint system enables the infiltration of surface water to great depths. There it becomes heated and loaded with radon and trace elements such as fluor. The water discharges as thermal water springs at the steep right flank of the cascade of the Gastein-Ache. This hydraulic process occurs during a span of 3600 3800 years. The springs are captured in galleries, and the largest discharge is in gallery IX (2518 m3/d-1). The spa became known worldwide in the 19th century by visiting aristocrats from Central and Eastern Europe. The most important event in the 20th century was the discovery of the heat joint in the Böckstein gallery. In 1940 an effort to reactivate gold mining in the Radhausberg near Böckstein south of Badgastein failed. However, the miners had the unexpected experience of being cured of rheumatism. A connection between the great depth and high temperature in the gallery was made by the discovery of the joint set with heat and radon emanation. In the medical stations of the Böckstein gallery treatment of polyarthritis has become especially successful.

  2. Photosynthetic temperature adaptation of Pinus cembra within the timberline ecotone of the Central Austrian Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Gerhard; Oberhuber, Walter; Walder, Lisa; Spieler, Daniela; Gruber, Andreas

    2010-04-01

    Temperature is suggested to determine the upper limit of tree life. Therefore, future climate warming may be of importance for tree distribution within the European Alps, where low temperatures limit carbon metabolism.We focused on the effects of air and soil temperature on net photosynthesis (P(n)) of Pinus cembra an evergreen climax species of the timberline ecotone of the Central Austrian Alps. Light response and temperature response curves were estimated along an altitudinal gradient ranging from the forest limit up to the krummholz limit in both summer and fall.In general, P(n) was significantly lower in fall as compared to summer. Nevertheless, independent from season mean P(n) values tended to increase with elevation and were positively correlated with root zone temperatures. The specific leaf area by contrast declined with increasing elevation. Furthermore, the temperature optimum of net photosynthesis declined with increasing elevation and was positively correlated with the mean maximum air temperature of the 10 days prior the date of measurement.Thus, our findings appear to reflect a long-term adaptation of the photosynthetic apparatus of Pinus cembra to the general temperature conditions with respect to elevation combined with a short term acclimation to the prevailing temperature regime. PMID:21379394

  3. Analysis of ERT data of geoelectrical permafrost monitoring on Hoher Sonnblick (Austrian Central Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiler, Stefan; Schöner, Wolfgang; Reisenhofer, Stefan; Ottowitz, David; Jochum, Birgit; Kim, Jung-Ho; Hoyer, Stefan; Supper, Robert; Heinrich, Georg

    2016-04-01

    In the Alps infrastructure facilities such as roads, routes or buildings are affected by the changes of permafrost, which often cause enormous reparation costs. Investigation on degradation of Alpine Permafrost in the last decade has increased, however, the understanding of the permafrost changes inducing its atmospheric forcing processes is still insufficient. Within the project ATMOperm the application of the geoelectrical method to estimate thawing layer thickness for mountain permafrost is investigated near the highest meteorological observatory of Austria on the Hoher Sonnblick. Therefore, it is necessary to further optimize the transformation of ERT data to thermal changes in the subsurface. Based on an innovative time lapse inversion routine for ERT data (Kim J.-H. et al 2013) a newly developed data analysis software tool developed by Kim Jung-Ho (KIGAM) in cooperation with the Geophysics group of the Geological Survey of Austria allows the statistical analysis of the entire sample set of each and every data point measured by the geoelectrical monitoring instrument. This gives on the one hand of course an enhanced opportunity to separate between „good" and „bad" data points in order to assess the quality of measurements. On the other hand, the results of the statistical analysis define the impact of every single data point on the inversion routine. The interpretation of the inversion results will be supplemented by temperature logs from selected boreholes along the ERT profile as well as climatic parameters. KIM J.-H., SUPPER R., TSOURLOS P. and YI M.-J.: Four-dimensional inversion of resistivity monitoring data through Lp norm minimizations. - Geophysical Journal International, 195(3), 1640-1656, 2013. Doi: 10.1093/gji/ggt324. (No OA) Acknowledgments: The geoelectrical monitoring on Hoher Sonnblick has been installed and is operated in the frame of the project ATMOperm (Atmosphere - permafrost relationship in the Austrian Alps - atmospheric extreme

  4. Enhanced analysis of the community structure of a subsurface radioactive thermal spring in the Austrian Central Alps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A molecular analysis of the community structure of the radioactive subsurface thermal spring 'Franz-Josef Quelle' (FJQ) in the Austrian Central Alps was performed. Besides the high microbial diversity, ammonia oxidizing Crenarchaeota and several bacterial species, which were involved in the nitrogen cycle, were also detected. Additionally several sequences were obtained that were related to sequences from locations, which were e.g. contaminated with radioactivity, suggesting the probable presence of organisms that can interact with the Ra, Rn or U in the spring. Furthermore, biofilms were recognized, which had some similarities to the ones described by Holmes and coworkers in the Nullarbor caves. Holmes suggested that a large part (about 12 %) of the microorganisms inhabiting these mats were related to a Nitrospira sp. Besides the mats, which were present in the spring FJQ, sequences of Nitrospira and related species were found. Nitrifiers are known to build biofilms under suboptimal growth conditions, e.g. the water temperature in the spring is 45oC, but the optimum growth temperature of nitrifiers lies between 25 to 30oC. Preliminary DGGE fingerprinting results of the spring showed the dominance of Nitrospira related organisms in biofilms and on glass slides which were placed into the spring for several days. Therefore an extended examination of these natural and artificial biofilms is in progress by addition of DGGE analysis and culturing approaches. (author)

  5. Integrating field measurements, a geomorphological map and stochastic modelling to estimate the spatially distributed rockfall sediment budget of the Upper Kaunertal, Austrian Central Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckmann, Tobias; Hilger, Ludwig; Vehling, Lucas; Becht, Michael

    2016-05-01

    The estimation of catchment-scale rockfall rates relies on the regionalisation of local measurements. Here, we propose a new framework for such a regionalisation by the example of a case study in the Upper Kaunertal, Austrian Central Alps (62.5 km2). Measurements of rockfall deposition during 12 months onto six collector nets within the study area were combined with published mean annual rates from the literature, and a probability density function was fitted to these data. A numerical model involving a random walk routing scheme and a one-parameter friction model was used to simulate rockfall trajectories, starting from potential rockfall source areas that were delineated from a digital elevation model. Rockfall rates sampled from the fitted probability density function were assigned to these trajectories in order to model the spatial distribution and to estimate the amount of rockfall deposition. By recording all trajectories as edges of a network of raster cells, and by aggregating the latter to landforms (or landform types) as delineated in a geomorphological map of the study area, rockfall sediment flux from sources to different landforms could be quantified. Specifically, the geomorphic coupling of rockfall sources to storage landforms and the glacial and fluvial sediment cascade was investigated using this network model. The total rockfall contribution to the sediment budget of the Upper Kaunertal is estimated at c. 8000 Mg yr- 1, 16.5% of which is delivered to the glaciers, and hence to the proglacial zone. The network approach is favourable, for example because multiple scenarios (involving different probability density functions) can be calculated on the basis of the same set of trajectories, and because deposits can be back-linked to their respective sources. While the methodological framework constitutes the main aim of our paper, we also discuss how the estimation of the budget can be improved on the basis of spatially distributed production rates.

  6. An inventory of glacial lakes in the Austrian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckel, Johannes; Otto, Jan-Christoph; Keuschnig, Markus; Götz, Joachim

    2016-04-01

    The formation of lakes is one of the consequences of glacier retreat due to climate change in mountain areas. Numerous lakes have formed in the past few decades in many mountain regions around the globe. Some of these lakes came into focus due to catastrophic hazard events especially in the Himalayas and the Andes. Glacial lake development and lifetime is controlled by the complex interplay of glacier dynamics, geomorphological process activity and geological boundary conditions. Besides the hazard potential new lakes in formerly glaciated areas will significantly contribute to a new landscape setting and to changing geomorphologic, hydrologic and ecologic conditions at higher alpine altitudes. We present an inventory of high alpine lakes in the Austrian Alps located above an altitude of 1700 m asl. Most of these lakes are assumed to be of glacial origin, but other causes for development, like mass movements are considered as well. The inventory is a central part of the project FUTURELAKES that aims at modelling the potential development of glacial lakes in Austria (we refer to the presentation by Helfricht et al. during the conference for more details on the modelling part). Lake inventory data will serve as one basis for model validation since modelling is performed on different time steps using glacier inventory data. The purpose of the lake inventory is to get new insights into boundary conditions for lake formation and evolution by analysing existing lake settings. Based on these information the project seeks to establish a model of lake sedimentation after glacier retreat in order to assess the potential lifetime of the new lakes in Austria. Lakes with a minimum size of 1000 m² were mapped using multiple aerial imagery sources. The dataset contains information on location, geometry, dam type, and status of sedimentation for each lake. Additionally, various geologic, geomorphic and morphometric parameters describe the lake catchments. Lake data is related to

  7. Management of Austrian black pine on marly lands for sustainable protection against erosion (Southern Alps, France)

    OpenAIRE

    Rey, F.; Berger, F.

    2006-01-01

    The old afforestations of Austrian black pine dating from more than a century ago on marly substrates in the French Southern Alps play a protective role against erosion and torrential floods. However, these forests have now reached maturity and it is necessary to consider their renewal within the framework of minimal management to ensure sustainable protection against erosion. We first present methods for determining and mapping priority areas for forestry actions on different spatial scales,...

  8. Modeling glacier beds in the Austrian Alps: How many lakes will form in future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Dominik; Geilhausen, Martin; Linsbauer, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Glacial retreat exposes landscapes with relief characteristics greatly differing from the former ice covered surfaces. If glacial retreat exposes natural basins capable of forming proglacial lakes, then the downstream hydrologic and geomorphic systems in such catchments will be significantly altered due to discharge modifications, sediment trapping, decoupling effects and long term sediment storage (e.g. Geilhausen et al. 2013). Further implications are related to hydropower management, tourism and natural hazards. Consequently, sound knowledge of present day glacier beds ("proglacial zones of tomorrow") and in particular the total number, locations and characteristics of overdeepenings are of importance. For Austria, however, this important information about significant future changes of high alpine regions is yet missing. An interdisciplinary research project is currently in preparation to close this gap. This paper presents results of a pilot study. We used a novel GIS-based approach (GlabTop, cf. Linsbauer et al. 2012) to compute approximate glacier beds in the Austrian Alps. GlabTop ('Glacier bed Topography') is based on an empirical relation between average basal shear stress and elevation range of individual glaciers and makes use of digital elevation models (DEM), glacier outlines and branch lines (i.e. a set of lines covering all important glacier branches). DEMs and glacier outlines were derived from the Austrian glacier inventory (1998) and branch lines were manually digitized. The inventory includes 911 glaciers of which 876 (96%) were considered and 35 were excluded due to size restrictions ( 0.01 km²) with the potential of forming proglacial lakes when glacier retreat reveals the bed. The total area and volume of all overdeepenings is approx. 10 km² and 236 Mio m³ respectively and 33 lakes will be larger than 1 km³. A total glacier volume of 16 ± 5 km³ with an average ice thickness of 36 ± 11 m was calculated for 1998. Comparisons with

  9. Water demand for ski resort development in the Austrian Alps: an Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiling, M.; Sokratov, S.

    2012-04-01

    Austria has the highest national added value from winter tourism in Europe, as well as worldwide. 15.7 million arrivals were counted in Austrian accommodation establishments in the 2010/11 winter season. There were more than 62 million overnight stays and 51.2 million skier-days were consumed. 588 million transports were carried out by more than 3000 lifts (cable cars, chair lifts and T-bars). Including indirect and induced effects, this resulted in more than 10 billion euros in added value being generated. The lack of snow in many Austrian skiing areas during the 2006/2007 winter season demonstrated the extent to which meteorological conditions influence operations. Declines in the number of skiers transported and total skier days were the result. The cable-car operators also had to struggle with little snow in the 2010/2011 winter. The Austrian Cable Car Operators' Association stated that the opening of 70-80% of all skiing areas outside of the peak season could only be assured through the use of snowmaking equipment. The central criterion for winter sports enthusiasts to make a trip is the guarantee that they will find snow at their destination and Austria's cable-car operators invest more than 100 million euros in the erection and improvement of snowmaking complexes every year to satisfy this deand. In the 2010/2011 season, this provided for 17,800 jobs. Cable car operators set up snowmaking equipment to become independent from meteorological conditions and improve the capacity utilisation of their expensive investments in transport systems in the early winter. Austria has a skiing area of around 25,400 hectares - around 17,000 hectares at altitudes between 600m and 3200m are currently suitable for snowmaking. As much as 70% of the snow is produced immediately before the start of the season. This recent trend is responsible that the irrigation pattern of Austrian land use changed significantly in the last decade. Previously maize fields and low lands in summer

  10. Mapping the value of ecosystem services: A case study from the Austrian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Paletto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem services (ES are considered the conditions and processes through which natural ecosystems sustain and fulfil human life. In the decision making process related to the natural resources management, two key-aspects must be taken into account: the economic value of the benefits provided by ES (provisioning, regulating and cultural services and the spatial distribution of these benefits. The purpose of the paper is to develop a method aimed to capture the economic value of the benefits provided by ES, in order to support the decision makers in the natural resources management. ES are not homogeneous across landscapes nor in space. Consequently, gaining knowledge on the spatial distribution of the economic relevance of ES is a fundamental information to target management actions. This method was tested in a case study in the Austrian Alps (Leiblachtal area in Vorarlberg region, characterized by a high importance of forests and grasslands. The results show that the highest economic values could be achieved for the provisioning services with a range between 200 €/ha year and 1,400€/ha year. The regulating services have also important economic values, but strongly localized in specific areas (i.e. protective forests against natural hazards. The economic values of the cultural services are influenced by the preferences of tourists and varies between 5 €/ha year to 60 €/ha year. The method allowed us to reveal the spatial heterogeneity of provisioning, regulating and cultural ES, depending on the ecological characteristics of the site.

  11. Origin and age of the Eisenkappel gabbro to granite suite (Carinthia, SE Austrian Alps)

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, C.; M. Thöni; Goessler, W.; Tessadri, R.

    2011-01-01

    The northern part of the Karawanken plutonic belt is a gabbro–granite complex located just north of the Periadriatic lineament near the Slovenian–Austrian border. Petrographic and geochemical studies of the Eisenkappel intrusive complex indicate that this multiphase plutonic suite developed by a combination of crystal accumulation, fractional crystallization and assimilation processes, magma mixing and mingling. The mafic rocks are alkaline and have within-plate geochemical characteristics, i...

  12. Advanced catchment characterization with a combination of different methods - a case study from the Austrian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markart, G.; Bieber, G.; Roemer, A.; Jochum, B.; Klebinder, K.; Kohl, B.; Mayerhofer, F.; Pausch, H.; Pfeiler, S.; Pirkl, H.; Sotier, B.; Strasser, M.; Suntinger, K.

    2012-04-01

    of maps of the dominant flow processes at the surface and in the near surface on the one hand and the attribution of bandwidths of shallow interflow velocities to the dominant substrata on the other. This information resulted in a significant improvement of the hydrological modeling results. The authors gratefully acknowledge funding of the project "Shallow Interflow" by the Austrian Academy of Sciences (ÖAW), Commission of Hydrology.

  13. Tertiary LCT and NYF pegmatites of the central Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guastoni, Alessandro; Pennacchioni, Giorgio

    2014-05-01

    A large field (about 100 km in E-W length and 15 km in N-S thickness) of Oligocene pegmatites extends in the central Alps from the Bergell pluton (to the east) to the Ossola Valley (to the west) within the Alpine nappes north of the Periadriatic Lineament. The pegmatite field geographically overlaps (i) the highest temperature domain of the Lepontine Barrovian metamorphic dome, and (ii) the zone of Alpine migmatization. Most pegmatites have a simple mineralogy consisting of K-feldspar, quartz and muscovite, but a minor amount (pegmatite bulk rock, rock-forming and accessory minerals allows the distinction of different pegmatite populations ranging from NYF (niobium, yttrium, fluorine) to LCT (lithium, cesium, tantalum) pegmatites, or mixed LCT-NYF ones. Actually, LCT pegmatites of the Central Alps did not reach a high degree of geochemical evolution. In the Codera Valley (on the western side of the Bergell pluton) LCT and NYF pegmatites are respectively hosted in tonalites and granodiorites; these pegmatites include the most evolved types which contain Mn-fluorelbaite, Mn-phosphates, pink-beryl and Cs-Rb-rich feldspar. From the structural point of view 2 main types of pegmatites can be distinguished: (i) pegmatites that were involved in ductile deformation, and (ii) pegmatite crosscutting the ductile structures of the SSB. Many pegmatites from Codera Valley belong to the first structural type: they were at emplaced at relatively high ambient temperatures (> 450 °C) and locally show pervasive recrystallization of quartz. More to the east (Mesolcina and Bodengo Valleys) the main set of pegmatites crosscut the ductile deformation structures of the SSB, but the area also includes an earlier generation of boudinaged and folded dykes. The undeformed pegmatites from this area may contain large miarolitic pockets. There is no systematic difference in mineralogy and geochemistry between the 2 structural types of pegmatites. Structural data and the few existing radiometric

  14. Evolution of the eastern Austrian Molasse Basin: The Lower Miocene (Burdigalian) as a key to the understanding of the Eastern Alps - Molasse Basin system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palzer, Markus; Knierzinger, Wolfgang; Wagreich, Michael; Meszar, Maria E.; Gier, Susanne; Soliman, Ali; -Elena Kallanxhi, Mǎdǎlina

    2016-04-01

    The eastern Austrian Molasse Basin is situated between the Bohemian Massif, the Waschberg-Zone and the Alps. There, sands of the Lower Miocene (Upper Ottnangian) Traisen Formation represent a clastic interval at the top of pelitic Schlier successions, which is correlated with the global sea level drop Bur3 (Burdigalian). North of the Danube River, the continuation of the Traisen-Formation is overlain by the Karpatian Laa-Formation. Drill cores from OMV-wells predominantly from the continuation of the Traisen Formation in deep parts in the NE of the basin show hundreds of meters of pelites with intersections of sands. Contrary to the exposed, mainly brackish TF, a turbiditic and predominantly fully marine deep-water environment is inferred from the cores. Profiles of carbonate content, XRD, XRF, whole rock chemistry, clay minerals, calcareous nannoplankton and dinoflagellate cysts of 7 wells were investigated representing a NE-SW transect through the LAMB. Based on these data, a new stratigraphy for the Burdigalian distal parts of the LAMB can be defined and correlated with the proximal units. The Traisen Formation and its equivalents are characterized at their base by an increased clastic input in the south and by increasing mica content in the northern parts. The complete interval is characterized by the decreased carbonate content. The XRD data show strongly reduced calcite contents which goe hand in hand with the absence of nannoplankton. Whether the signal is related to a crisis in primary production or to carbonate dissolution remains unclear. The absence of dinoflagellate cysts and the chemical data (reduced B/Al* ratios indicate reduced salinity) are considered as an argument for an environmental crisis. However, the absence of resedimented Cretaceous to Paleocene nannofossils, which usually occur together with the autochthonous NN4-nannofossils, indicates carbonate dissolution. These results enable us to define a basinal interval as equivalent to the

  15. Temporal changes of inorganic ion deposition in the seasonal snow cover for the Austrian Alps (1983-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greilinger, Marion; Schöner, Wolfgang; Winiwarter, Wilfried; Kasper-Giebl, Anne

    2016-05-01

    A long-term record of inorganic ion concentrations in wet and dry deposition sampled from snow packs at two high altitude glaciers was used to assess impacts of air pollution on remote sites in central Europe. Sampling points were located at Wurtenkees and Goldbergkees near the Sonnblick Observatory (3106 m above sea level), a background site for measuring the status of the atmosphere in Austria's Eastern Alps. Sampling was carried out every spring at the end of the winter accumulation period in the years 1983-2014. Concentrations of major ions (NH4+, SO42-, NO3-, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+ and Cl-) were determined using ion chromatography (IC) as well as atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) in the earlier years. Concentration of H+ was calculated via the measured pH of the samples. Trends in deposition and concentration were analysed for all major ions within the period from 1983 to 2014 using Kendall's tau rank correlation coefficient. From 1983 to 2014, total ion concentration declined ∼25%, i.e. solutions became ∼25% more dilute, indicating reduced acidic atmospheric deposition, even at high altitude in winter snow. SO42- and NO3- concentrations decreased significantly by 70% and 30%, respectively, accompanied by a 54% decrease of H+ concentrations. Ionic concentrations in snowpack were dominated by H+ and SO42- in the earliest decade measured, whereas they were dominated by Ca2+ by the most recent decade. SO42- and H+ depositions, i.e. concentrations multiplied by volume, also showed a significant decrease of more than 50% at both sites. This reflects the successful emission reductions of the precursor gases SO2 and NOx. Seasonal values with significantly elevated spring concentrations of NH4+, SO42- and H+ compared to fall snow reflects the beginning of vertical mixing during spring. All other ions do not show any seasonality. Source identification of the ions was performed using a principal component analysis (PCA). One anthropogenic cluster (SO42-, NO3- and

  16. Soil warming increased whole-tree water use of Pinus cembra at the treeline in the Central Tyrolean Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Gerhard; Grams, Thorsten E E; Matyssek, Rainer; Oberhuber, Walter; Gruber, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    This study quantified the effect of soil warming on sap flow density (Qs) of Pinus cembra L. at the treeline in the Central Tyrolean Alps. To enhance soil temperature we installed a transparent roof construction above the forest floor around six trees. Six other trees served as controls in the absence of any manipulation. Roofing enhanced growing season mean soil temperature by 1.6, 1.3 and 1.0 °C at 5, 10 and 20 cm soil depth, respectively, while soil water availability was not affected. Sap flow density (using Granier-type thermal dissipation probes) and environmental parameters were monitored throughout three growing seasons. During the first year of treatment, no warming effect was detected on Qs. However, soil warming caused Qs to increase significantly by 11 and 19% above levels in control trees during the second and third year, respectively. This effect appeared to result from warming-induced root production, a reduction in viscosity and perhaps an increase also in root hydraulic conductivity. Hardly affected were leaf-level net CO2 uptake rate and conductance for water vapour, so that water-use efficiency stayed unchanged as confirmed by needle δ(13)C analysis. We conclude that tree water loss will increase with soil warming, which may alter the water balance within the treeline ecotone of the Central Austrian Alps in a future warming environment. PMID:25737326

  17. Holocene climate change, permafrost, and cryogenic carbonate formation: insights from a recently deglaciated, high-elevation cave in the Austrian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Spötl

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cryogenically formed carbonate particles represent a rather new class of speleothems whose origin is directly linked to the presence of perennial ice in the subsurface. Recent studies concluded that dating these deposits provides important time constraints on the presence and the thickness of permafrost e.g. during the last glacial period. More precisely, these carbonates require the coexistence of water and ice and hence record episodes of permafrost thawing. To shed more light on the origin of the coarsely crystalline variety of these cryogenic cave carbonates – CCCcoarse for short – we examined a high-elevation cave site in the western part of the Austrian Alps which is located in an area dominated by permafrost features and transformed from an ice cave into an essentially ice-free cave during the past decade. Two side chambers of the main gallery revealed cryogenic calcite deposits whose isotopic composition indicates that they formed in individual pools of water carved in ice which underwent very slow freezing under closed-system conditions, i.e. enclosed in ice. 230Th dating shows that most of these carbonates formed ca. 2600 yr BP. Based on comparisons with other palaeoclimate archives in the Alps this thawing episode did not occur during a climate optimum, nor did CCCcoarse form in this cave during e.g. the Roman or the Medieval Warm Periods. Our results suggest that the occurrence of CCCcoarse, at least in mountain regions characterized by discontinuous permafrost, may be more stochastic than previously thought. Given the inherent heterogeneity of karst aquifers and the important role of localized water infiltration in modifying the thermal structure of the subsurface we caution against attributing CCCcoarse occurrences solely to peak warming conditions, while confirming the unique significance of these deposits in providing robust age constraints on permafrost thawing episodes.

  18. Emergence, re-emergence, spread and host species crossing of Mycoplasma bovis in the Austrian Alps caused by a single endemic strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spergser, Joachim; Macher, Kathrin; Kargl, Munkhtsetseg; Lysnyansky, Inna; Rosengarten, Renate

    2013-06-28

    Mycoplasma (M.) bovis was identified and reported in Austria as agent of infection and disease in cattle only once, namely in 2005 associated with a case of mastitis in a smallholding, but in 2007 it unexpectedly emerged as the cause of a devastating disease outbreak in a dairy herd of 100 individuals and spill over infection to pigs, both kept on the same mountain pasture. In 2008, M. bovis remained endemic at a low level in this region followed by the re-emergence of the agent in 2009 and a dramatic spread of the disease to further Alpine areas and their foothills in 2010 and 2011. From these outbreaks, a total of 94 M. bovis isolates including 7 porcine isolates were selected for genotyping. Two molecular tools, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and multi-locus variable number of tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) were chosen to identify strain types involved in these outbreaks and to trace routes of infection and dynamics of dissemination. With both typing methods, the majority of Alpine isolates (96.8%) recovered over time from different areas and hosts was clustered into one group exhibiting a unique and indistinguishable profile which significantly differed from those of geographically unrelated strains including the type strain PG45 and 3 Alpine isolates which suddenly appeared and disappeared in 2009. Stability of the unique profile strongly indicated that a single M. bovis strain initiated the outbreak in 2007, crossed the host species barrier by infecting pigs, re-emerged in 2009 and became widespread in the Austrian Alps in 2010 and 2011. The remarkable dissemination and persistence of a single and unique M. bovis strain may reflect peculiarities of dairy management practices in the Alps based on Alpine transhumance and cooperative use of mountain pastures. As the source of the outbreak strain remains unknown, the findings of this study underscore the importance of continuous surveillance by monitoring further spread and persistence of M

  19. Effects of atmospheric and climate change at the timberline of the Central European Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Gerhard; Matyssek, Rainer; Luzian, Roland; Zwerger, Peter; Pindur, Peter; Oberhuber, Walter; Gruber, Andreas

    2009-06-01

    This review considers potential effects of atmospheric change and climate warming within the timberline ecotone of the Central European Alps. After focusing on the impacts of ozone (O(3)) and rising atmospheric CO(2) concentration, effects of climate warming on the carbon and water balance of timberline trees and forests will be outlined towards conclusions about changes in tree growth and treeline dynamics.Presently, ambient ground-level O(3) concentrations do not exert crucial stress on adult conifers at the timberline of the Central European Alps. In response to elevated atmospheric CO(2)Larix decidua showed growth increase, whereas no such response was found in Pinus uncinata. Overall climate warming appears as the factor responsible for the observed growth stimulation of timberline trees.Increased seedling re-establishment in the Central European Alps however, resulted from invasion into potential habitats rather than upward migration due to climate change, although seedlings will only reach tree size upon successful coupling with the atmosphere and thus loosing the beneficial microclimate of low stature vegetation.In conclusion, future climate extremes are more likely than the gradual temperature increase to control treeline dynamics in the Central European Alps. PMID:21379395

  20. Post-LIA glacier changes along a latitudinal transect in the Central Italian Alps

    OpenAIRE

    R. Scotti; F. Brardinoni; Crosta, G.B.

    2014-01-01

    The variability of glacier response to atmospheric temperature rise in different topo-climatic settings is still matter of debate. To address this question in the Central Italian Alps we compile a post-LIA (Little Ice Age) multitemporal glacier inventory (1860-1954-1990-2003-2007) along a latitudinal transect that originates north of the continental divide in the Livigno mountains, and extends south through the Disgrazia and Orobie ranges, encompassing conti...

  1. Post-LIA glacier changes along a latitudinal transect in the Central Italian Alps

    OpenAIRE

    R. Scotti; F. Brardinoni; Crosta, G.B.

    2014-01-01

    The variability of glacier response to atmospheric temperature rise in different topo-climatic settings is still a matter of debate. To address this question in the Central Italian Alps, we compile a post-LIA (Little Ice Age) multitemporal glacier inventory (1860–1954–1990–2003–2007) along a latitudinal transect that originates north of the continental divide in the Livigno Mountains and extends south through the Disgrazia and Orobie ranges, encompassing continental-to-ma...

  2. Limnological studies on two acid sensitive lakes in the Central Alps (lakes Paione Superiore and Paione Inferiore, Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Rosario MOSELLO; Andrea LAMI; Guilizzoni, Piero; Manca, Marina; Anna Maria NOCENTINI; Alessandra PUGNETTI; Angela BOGGERO; Aldo MARCHETTO; Gabriele A. TARTARI; Roberta BETTINETTI; Bonardi, Maria; Pierluigi CAMMARANO

    1993-01-01

    A limnological study was performed during 1991 and 1992 on lakes Paione Superiore (LPS)and Paione Inferiore (LPI), located in the Ossola Valley, Central Alps. The two lakes are characterized by very low alkalinity values (LPI

  3. Hygiene of Raw Milk from Austrian Spotted, Holstein and Romanian Spotted Breeds, in Three Farms from Central Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Ștețca

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Analysis strictly medical, objective and impartial demonstrate that none of the foods considered to be basic, it is an ideal food, and milk can have some adverse effects on consumers, if the product is subject to changes caused by the improper welfare and health of the animals, but not least the processing technology. This study aimed the analyzing of raw cow milk related to the quality indicators on hygiene. There were considered the samples collected from three farms of the Central part of Romania, each of 24 samples of raw milk. The cows breed were farm A - Austrian spotted, farm B - Holstein and farm C - Romanian spotted. The parameters investigated here were total bacteria count and somatic cell count. The range of the non-conforming milk samples was 1:5.

  4. Austrian highlights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of recent development in the Austrian hydroelectric industry is presented, and details of the installed capacity, the Austrian government's power market reform package, and the promotion of small-scale hydroelectric power plants are given. The operation of Verbund - Austria's largest power generator and distributor - and the restructuring of the Verbund's main Austrian Hydro Power (AHP) generating group are discussed. The export of power, the joint venture of Verbund with CIR Energia in Italy to market power to commercial and industrial users, and the controversy surrounding the Freudenau run-of-the river plant which successfully tested a matrix turbine are reported

  5. Protracted fluid-induced melting during Barrovian metamorphism in the Central Alps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubatto, Daniela; Hermann, Jörg; Berger, Alfons; Engi, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The timing and dynamics of fluid-induced melting in the typical Barrovian sequence of the Central Alps has been investigated using zircon chronology and trace element composition. Multiple zircon domains in leucosomes and country rocks yield U-Pb ages spanning from ~32 to 22 Ma. The zircon formed....... Protracted melting over 10 My followed the fast exhumation of Alpine eclogites contained within the same region and preceded fast cooling in the order of 100°C/Ma to upper crustal levels....

  6. Acidification and recovery at mountain lakes in Central Alps assessed by the MAGIC model

    OpenAIRE

    Michela ROGORA

    2004-01-01

    The dynamic model MAGIC was calibrated and applied to 84 lakes in Central Alps to predict the response of water chemistry to different scenarios of atmospheric deposition of S and N compounds. Selected lakes were representative of a wide range of chemical characteristics and of sensitivity to acidification. The most sensitive lakes have already shown in the latest years signs of recovery in terms of pH and ANC. The model well captured the main trends in lake chemical data. According to the mo...

  7. Earthquake relocations, crustal rheology, and active deformation in the central-eastern Alps (N Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viganò, Alfio; Scafidi, Davide; Ranalli, Giorgio; Martin, Silvana; Della Vedova, Bruno; Spallarossa, Daniele

    2015-10-01

    A revised seismic catalogue (1994-2007) for the central-eastern Alps (N Italy) is presented. 396 earthquake relocations, for local magnitudes in the 1.2-5.3 range, are performed using a 3D crustal velocity structure and probabilistic locations. The location procedure is validated by computing a set of 41 quarry shot solutions and all the results, both about shots and seismic events, are compared with those obtained using the routine location procedure. Results are shown for five contiguous seismotectonic domains, as supported by geological and geophysical evidence (e.g., fault systems, crustal tomography, focal mechanisms types). Earthquake hypocentres are mostly located in the upper crust (0-15 km of depth), in good agreement with thermo-rheological models about the brittle-ductile transitions (8-9 km of depth) and total crustal strengths (1.0-2.0 TN m- 1). Epicentres are clustered and/or aligned along present-day active geological structures. The proposed seismotectonic model shows dominant compression along the Giudicarie and Belluno-Bassano-Montello thrusts, with strain partitioning along the dominant right-lateral strike-slip faults of the Schio-Vicenza domain. The present-day deformation of the Southern Alps and the internal Alpine chain is compatible with Adria indentation and the related crustal stress distribution.

  8. Changes in fluid composition in metamorphic veins along a cross section through the Central Alps, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinek, K.; Wagner, T.; Wälle, M.; Heinrich, C. A.

    2012-04-01

    The classical Alpine fissure veins are large cavities lined by occasionally giant quartz crystals and many other euhedral mineral assemblages. They occur in regionally metamorphosed terranes in the upper crust and record important information about the composition and evolution of metamorphic fluids, and fluid sources and mass transfer during crustal fluid-rock interaction (Oliver & Bons, 2001). Detailed fluid inclusion studies of Alpine veins along a cross section through the Central Alps have established that the fluid composition shows a distinct evolution with increasing metamorphic grade, where consecutive zones are dominated by (1) heavier hydrocarbons, (2) CH4, (3) H2O-NaCl, and (4) H2O-CO2-NaCl (Mullis et al., 1994). This study addresses the chemical evolution of fluids in Alpine fissure veins in the Central Swiss Alps by integrating field work, fluid inclusion studies (microthermometry and LA-ICPMS microanalysis of individual fluid inclusions), and geochemical modeling. The field locations were selected along a cross section through the Central Alps that covers different lithologies and metamorphic conditions. This includes vein systems in the Aar massif (Gauli glacier, Gerstenegg vein in the Grimsel power station, Tiefen glacier), the Nufenen and Griess pass, the Bedretto valley, the Cavagnoli region and a tunnel near Faido. Fluid inclusion studies have been completed for the localities in the Aar massif, the Cavagnoli region and the Faido tunnel. It was possible to analyze a considerable number of elements with LA-ICPMS, including Na, K, Rb, Cs, Li, Ca, Mg, Sr, Ba, Mn, B, As, Sb, S, Pb and Zn. The fluid inclusions from the Aar massif are low-salinity aqueous two-phase, whereas the Cavagnoli and Faido samples dominantly contain aqueous-carbonic fluid inclusions. While the Gauli samples contain fluid inclusions with 4.5-5.0 wt% equivalent (eqv.) NaCl, those from the Gerstenegg and Tiefen glacier have a considerably higher salinity of around 10-11 wt% eqv

  9. From centralized hydro-thermal to decentralized renewable : the Austrian challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austria's electricity production scheme is currently based on 67 per cent hydro power, 25 per cent fossil thermal power and 8 per cent new renewable energy, including wind, biomass, and photovoltaic conversion. As demand on centralized energy systems increases, the power generation, transmission and distribution system in the country will have to be restructured to increase the portion of regenerative generation. Decentralized micro-grid structures are a promising concept for meeting the target of efficiency improvement and renewable generation because they make it possible to use regenerative energy where it is collected. The most efficient way to meet the challenges of efficiency improvement and emission reduction is the replacement of old coal-fired power stations by new combined-cycle gas power stations with combined heat and power. This will reduce both carbon dioxide emissions as well as specific fossil energy demand. However, in just 1 decade the emission reduction achieved by fuel switching and higher efficiency of power stations will be equalized by higher demand, which is growing at an annual rate of 2 per cent. Future energy problems will be characterized by the security of supply; climatic change and the need for clean energy technologies; the lack of transmission-routes; and growing energy demand. The regenerative energy in Austria currently consists of hydraulic large run-of-river hydraulic generation as well as small scale hydro and large scale hydro storage systems. Biomass currently has a total generating capacity of 280 MW and forms 3.14 per cent of generation in Austria. Wind has reached a capacity of 950 MW and forms 3.8 per cent of generation in Austria. It was concluded that the future philosophy in energy supply will not be to try to increase regenerative generation according to growing demand, but to improve end-use efficiency and reduce demand according to the renewable regional potential. 4 refs., 4 figs

  10. Catchment features controlling nitrogen dynamics in running waters above the tree line (Central Italian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Balestrini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of nitrogen cycling in mountain areas has a long tradition, both to better understand and describe ecosystem functioning and to quantify the long-distance effect of human activities on remote environments. Nonetheless, especially in Europe, very few studies paid attention on catchment features controlling nitrogen dynamics above the tree line, with focus on running waters. In this study, relationships between some water chemistry descriptors, including nitrogen species and dissolved organic carbon (DOC, and catchment characteristics were evaluated for a range of sites located above the tree line (1950–2650 m a.s.l. at Val Masino, in the Central Italian Alps. Land cover categories as well as elevation and slope were assessed at each site. Water samples were collected during the 2007 and 2008 snow free periods, with a nearly monthly frequency. Differently to dissolved organic nitrogen, nitrate concentration in running waters showed a spatial pattern strictly connected to the fractional extension of tundra and talus in each basin. Exponential models significantly described the relationships between maximum NO3-N and the fraction of vegetated soil cover (negative relation and talus (positive relation, explaining almost 90% of nitrate variation in running waters. Similarly to nitrate, but with an opposite behavior, DOC was positively correlated with vegetated soil cover and negatively correlated with talus. Therefore, land cover can be considered one of the most important factors affecting water quality in high elevation catchments, with a contrasting effect on N and C pools.

  11. Catchment features controlling nitrogen dynamics in running waters above the tree line (central Italian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Balestrini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of nitrogen cycling in mountain areas has a long tradition, as it was applied to better understand and describe ecosystem functioning, as well as to quantify long-distance effects of human activities on remote environments. Nonetheless, very few studies, especially in Europe, have considered catchment features controlling nitrogen dynamics above the tree line with focus on running waters. In this study, relationships between some water chemistry descriptors – including nitrogen species and dissolved organic carbon (DOC – and catchment characteristics were evaluated for a range of sites located above the tree line (1950–2650 m a.s.l. at Val Masino, in the central Italian Alps. Land cover categories as well as elevation and slope were assessed at each site. Water samples were collected during the 2007 and 2008 snow free periods, with a nearly monthly frequency. In contrast to dissolved organic nitrogen, nitrate concentrations in running waters showed a spatial pattern strictly connected to the fractional extension of tundra and talus in each basin. Exponential models significantly described the relationships between maximum NO3 and the fraction of vegetated soil cover (negative relation and talus (positive relation, explaining almost 90% of nitrate variation in running waters. Similarly to nitrate but with an opposite behavior, DOC was positively correlated with vegetated soil cover and negatively correlated with talus. Therefore, land cover can be considered one of the most important factors affecting water quality in high-elevation catchments with contrasting effects on N and C pools.

  12. Recent changes in glacier area in the Central Southern Alps of New Zealand : - Mapped from ASTER satellite imagery

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Change in glacier extent is a good indication of climate change. Inventories for glaciated areas should therefore be made at certain intervals. For New Zealand a digitized glacial inventory including both the two main islands’ glaciers was made from aerial photographs recorded in 1978. This inventory needed an update. One Aster scene (60*60km) recorded 14. February 2002 covering the central Southern Alps of New Zealand is used for the updating. The area covered by the image contained, in ...

  13. From the Western Alps across Central Europe: Postglacial recolonisation of the tufa stream specialist Rhyacophila pubescens (Insecta, Trichoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haase Peter

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dispersal rates, i.e. the effective number of dispersing individuals per unit time, are the product of dispersal capacity, i.e. a species physiological potential for dispersal, dispersal behaviour, i.e. the decision to leave a habitat patch in favour of another, and connectivity of occupied habitat. Thus, dispersal of species that are highly specialised to a certain habitat is limited by habitat availability. Species inhabiting very stable environments may also adopt a sedentary life-style. Both factors should lead to strong genetic differentiation in highly specialised species inhabiting stable environments. These two factors apply to our model species Rhyacophila pubescens a highly specialised freshwater insect that occurs in tufa springs, a very stable habitat. Results We examined the genetic population structure and phylogeography using range-wide mtCOI sequence and AFLP data from 333 individuals of R. pubescens. We inferred the location of Pleistocene refugia and postglacial colonisation routes of R. pubescens, and examined ongoing local differentiation. Our results indicate intraregional differentiation with a high number of locally endemic haplotypes, that we attributed to habitat specificity and low dispersal rates of R. pubescens. We observed high levels of genetic diversity south of the Alps and genetic impoverishment north of the Alps. Estimates of migrants placed the refugium and the source of the colonisation in the Dauphiné Alps (SW Alps. Conclusions This is the first example of an aquatic insect with a colonisation route along the western margin of the Alps to the Central European highlands. The study also shows that specialisation to a stable environment may have promoted a behavioural shift to decreased dispersal rates, leading to stronger local population differentiation than in less specialised aquatic insects. Alternatively, the occurrence of highly specialised tufa spring habitats may have been more

  14. Collision in the Central Alps: 2. Exhumation of high-pressure fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, F. M.; Burri, T.; Berger, A.; Engi, M.

    2003-04-01

    In the Central Alps high-pressure metamorphic rocks are confined to but a few tectonic units. In the Adula nappe pressures range from about 12 kbar in the north, to 20 kbar in the south [1]. The Southern Steep Belt (SSB) is a high-strain zone at the contact between rocks deriving from Apulia and Eurasia. The SSB contains a tectonic composite of ortho and paragneisses, with widespread bands and lenses of mafic and ultramafic composition. Many of the mafic fragments are garnet-amphibolites or eclogites, with a highly variable degree of retrogression. Our petrological studies indicate that the HP rocks in the SSB show extensive variation in metamorphic pressure. In mafic fragments, pressures retained by assemblages predating the amphibolite facies overprint range from 8 to 21 kbar, while pressure estimates for some peridotites are >30 kbar. Some HP fragments show evidence of substantial heating during decompression. New Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd geochronology, in conjunction with previously published data, indicates a spread in ages obtained from the high-pressure metamorphic assemblage. Thermal models based on simplified kinematics produce computed PTt histories that resemble those documented in individual HP fragments [2]. The SSB is interpreted to represent an exhumed part of a Tectonic Accretion Channel (TAC, cf. [3]), assembled of numerous, relatively small fragments which reflect a variety of paths. The different residence times and exhumation rates reflect a protracted history of subduction and extrusion, in which the fragments moved independently from their current neighbours. Combination of thermal modelling and field-based studies improve our conceptual thinking on the dynamics of exhumation of high-pressure rocks in a convergent orogen. [1] Heinrich (1986) J. Pet. 27: 123-154 [2] Roselle et al. (2002) Amer. J. Sci. 302: 381-409 [3] Engi et al. (2001) Geology 29: 1143-1146

  15. Regional hydrogeochemical groundwater characterization and Natural Arsenic occurrence in Upper Valtellina Valley (Central Italian Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena Reyes, Fredy; Crosta, Giovanni B.; Frattini, Paolo; Basiricò, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the research is the characterization of the alpine Upper Valtellina Valley (central Italian Alps, 800 km2) aquifers by means of hydrogeological, hydrogeochemical, As speciation, isotopic and whole-rock analyses. In particular, the main focus of the study was the understanding of the processes responsible for As release and mobilization into the groundwater. Historical chemical data from springs, wells, lakes, rivers and public fountains were collected from the Lombardy Region Health Agency (ASL) and implemented into a geodatabase. The available groundwater chemistry analyses (3050) from five municipalities (Bormio, Livigno, Valdidentro, Valdisotto and Valfurva) cover a relatively long time span between 1996 and 2011. Moreover, samples across the entire study area and covering one full hydrologic year 2012-2013 were collected during four different campaigns (June 2012, October 2012, May 2013, and September 2013) and analyzed . During these campaigns, water samples have been collected from both cold springs and thermal springs. The hydrogeochemistry of aquifers and superficial waters through the hydrologic year, and the long-term regional As distribution and time variability were analyzed. Although the studied springs belong to different catchments with different hydrochemical and lithological conditions, they present some typical characteristics: (1) the water types are dominated by dissolution of the main ions Ca - Mg and SO4-HCO3; (2) the Cl concentration is always very low, and poorly correlated with other ions; (3) the circulation time obtained from isotopic data ranges between 5 and 10 years for thermal springs and it is lower than 2 years for cold springs; (4) the average yearly temperatures (about 12°C for cold springs, and between 18°C and 42° for thermal springs) are nearly constant through the year; (5) dominant oxidizing environments have been observed for most of the cold springs and also for the thermal springs; (6) anthropogenic

  16. Post-LIA glacier changes along a latitudinal transect in the Central Italian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, R.; Brardinoni, F.; Crosta, G. B.

    2014-12-01

    The variability of glacier response to atmospheric temperature rise in different topo-climatic settings is still a matter of debate. To address this question in the Central Italian Alps, we compile a post-LIA (Little Ice Age) multitemporal glacier inventory (1860-1954-1990-2003-2007) along a latitudinal transect that originates north of the continental divide in the Livigno Mountains and extends south through the Disgrazia and Orobie ranges, encompassing continental-to-maritime climatic settings. In these sub-regions, we examine the area change of 111 glaciers. Overall, the total glacierized area has declined from 34.1 to 10.1 km2, with a substantial increase in the number of small glaciers due to fragmentation. The average annual decrease (AAD) in glacier area has risen by about 1 order of magnitude from 1860-1990 (Livigno: 0.45; Orobie: 0.42; and Disgrazia: 0.39 % a-1) to 1990-2007 (Livigno: 3.08; Orobie: 2.44; and Disgrazia: 2.27 % a-1). This ranking changes when considering glaciers smaller than 0.5 km2 only (i.e., we remove the confounding caused by large glaciers in Disgrazia), so that post-1990 AAD follows the latitudinal gradient and Orobie glaciers stand out (Livigno: 4.07; Disgrazia: 3.57; and Orobie: 2.47 % a-1). More recent (2007-2013) field-based mass balances in three selected small glaciers confirm post-1990 trends showing the consistently highest retreat in continental Livigno and minimal area loss in maritime Orobie, with Disgrazia displaying transitional behavior. We argue that the recent resilience of glaciers in Orobie is a consequence of their decoupling from synoptic atmospheric temperature trends, a decoupling that arises from the combination of local topographic configuration (i.e., deep, north-facing cirques) and high winter precipitation, which ensures high snow-avalanche supply, as well as high summer shading and sheltering. Our hypothesis is further supported by the lack of correlations between glacier change and glacier attributes in

  17. Post-LIA glacier changes along a latitudinal transect in the Central Italian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Scotti

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The variability of glacier response to atmospheric temperature rise in different topo-climatic settings is still matter of debate. To address this question in the Central Italian Alps we compile a post-LIA (Little Ice Age multitemporal glacier inventory (1860-1954-1990-2003-2007 along a latitudinal transect that originates north of the continental divide in the Livigno mountains, and extends south through the Disgrazia and Orobie ranges, encompassing continental-to-maritime climatic settings. In these sub-regions we examine area change of 111 glaciers. Overall, total glacierized area has declined from 34.1 to 10.1 km2, with a substantial increase in the number of small glaciers due to fragmentation. Average annual decrease (AAD in glacier area has risen of about an order of magnitude from 1860–1990 (Livigno: 0.45; Orobie: 0.42; and Disgrazia: 0.39 % a−1 to 1990–2007 (Livigno: 3.08; Orobie: 2.44; and Disgrazia: 2.27 % a−1. This ranking changes when considering glaciers 2 only (i.e., we remove the confounding caused by large glaciers in Disgrazia, so that post-1990 AAD follows the latitudinal gradient and Orobie glaciers stand out (Livigno: 4.07; Disgrazia: 3.57; and Orobie: 2.47 % a−1. More recent (2007–2013 field-based mass balances in three selected small glaciers confirm post-1990 trends showing consistent highest retreat in continental Livigno and minimal area loss in maritime Orobie, with Disgrazia displaying a transitional behaviour. We argue that the recent resilience of glaciers in Orobie is a consequence of their decoupling from synoptic atmospheric temperature trends. A decoupling that arises from the combination of local topographic configuration (i.e., deep, north-facing cirques and high winter precipitation, which ensures high snow-avalanche supply, as well as high summer shading and sheltering. Our hypothesis is further supported by the lack of correlations between glacier change and glacier attributes in Orobie, as well

  18. Rock slope response to fluvial incision in the central Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leith, Kerry; Fox, Matthew; Moore, Jeffrey R.

    2016-04-01

    The longitudinal profile of rivers intersecting the Rhone Valley in the central Swiss Alps suggests the development of topography throughout much of this region has been dominated by interglacial fluvial incision and ongoing tectonic uplift with only minimal glacial erosion since the mid-Pleistocene transition. Evidence indicates bedrock river incision during this period reflects a base level fall of between 500 m and 800 m (depending on the degree of overdeepening following an early period of enhanced glacial incision). This observation raises important questions regarding the preservation, or development of hillslope morphologies through multiple glacial-interglacial cycles. Since the pioneering works of Richter (1900) and Penck and Brückner (1909), Alpine geomorphologists have commented on a sequence of between three and five moderately dipping matched terraces that converge toward inferred paleo-river channels up to 800 m above the axis of many valleys. Here, we use a combination of integral analysis, forward streampower models, and a new method of topographic analysis based on high resolution LiDAR DEMs in order to test the correspondence of valley morphologies in this formerly glaciated landscape, with hillslope processes initiated by fluvial incision up to 700,000 years ago. Results indicate topography adjacent to reaches subjected to transient fluvial incision is characterized by a coherent region of consistently steep slopes, while narrow gorges correspond to rapid incision close to the Rhone valley since MIS 5. A majority of hillslopes converge to our initial fluvial valley floor, or the location of propagating knickpoints. The correspondence between intermediate-level terraces and modeled stages of river incision is, however, currently unclear. These results offer a unique insight into the long-term response of bedrock slopes to varying rates of base level fall, and the cumulative impact of glacial erosion on Alpine valley walls since MIS 11. Penck, A

  19. Molecular characterization of an endolithic microbial community in dolomite rock in the central alps (Switzerland)

    OpenAIRE

    Horath, T; Bachofen, R.

    2009-01-01

    Endolithic microorganisms colonize the pores in exposed dolomite rocks in the Piora Valley in the Swiss Alps. They appear as distinct grayish-green bands about 1–8 mm below the rock surface. Based on environmental small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences, a diverse community driven by photosynthesis has been found. Cyanobacteria (57 clones), especially the genus Leptolyngbya, form the functional basis for an endolithic community which contains a wide spectrum of so far not characterized spe...

  20. Chrysotile asbestos quantification in serpentinite quarries: a case study in Valmalenco, central Alps, northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    Outcrops of serpentinites are usually strongly fractured and cataclastic, and the rock can only be used as ballast. However, in rare cases, like in Valmalenco (Central Alps, Northern Italy), fractures are regular and well spaced, and the rock mass has good geotechnical quality, ideal conditions for the extraction of dimension stone blocks. The Valmalenco Serpentinite is marketed worldwide as dimension and decorative stone, with remarkable mechanical properties and pleasing colours and textures. However, the same area was once subject to chrysotile asbestos mining, in the form of discrete veins along the main discontinuities of the rock mass. For this reason, airborne asbestos contamination can occur during the extraction and processing cycle of the rocks, therefore it is essential to locate and quantify asbestos in the rock mass, to reduce as much as possible the exposure risk. The first step was a detailed geostructural survey of each quarry, in order to characterize the main discontinuities (orientation, spacing, linear persistence, opening, filling), with special attention to the identification of fibrous minerals. The surveys was followed by extensive sampling of massive rocks, mineralized veins and fillings of fractures, and the cutting sludge derived from diamond wire cutting. Preliminary qualitative XRPD was performed on all samples, while quantitative analysis was carried out on the most representative samples of the main rock mass discontinuities. On the other hand, XRPD is not effective in the identification of asbestos percentages of less than 2% by weight, and the accurate distinction among the various serpentine polymorphs (antigorite, lizardite, chrysotile) is very difficult (if not impossible) when they are simultaneously present, due to their very similar basic structure and the strong structural disorder. The same samples were then analyzed by SEM-EDS (fiber counting after filtration on a polycarbonate filter), for a better distinction between

  1. The "green stones" of Valtellina and Valchiavenna (central Alps, northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Valtellina and Val Chiavenna (Sondrio, Central Alps, northern Italy) are traditionally areas of production of building and ornamental stones (e.g. Serizzo Ghiandone, Serizzo Valmasino, San Fedelino Granite), and among these the "green stones" have a leading position. These stones had an extensive use in Lombardy, as well as abroad (e.g Switzerland). The "green stones" are related to the two mafic-ultramafic bodies of Valmalenco and Chiavenna, where the two largest quarrying districts of the Province of Sondrio are located. Until the early decades of the XX century, serpentinites (and other lithologies from Valtellina) were also extracted from the erratic boulders of Brianza (north of Milan), but at present time the law protects the few remaining boulders. The extracted and processed materials are various: serpentinites, ophicalcites, soapstones. Even the "Stone of Tresivio", used in the past in important monuments of Valtellina, could be classified among the "green stones" in a broad sense: it is a green chloritic schist with scarce and thin ferriferous calcitic veins, pertaining to the sedimentary "Servino" Formation. In recent times, the ancient quarries of this stone were rediscovered near the homonymous village, a few kilometers from Sondrio. There are also historic reports about other "green stones", used in ancient times, such as the "Stone of Grosio", a chloritic schist, and the "Bormio Prasinite". Currently the extraction and processing of "green stones" occurs mostly in Valmalenco, with 22 active serpentinite quarries and a gross volume of 70000 m3 extracted per year, with a yield of about 50%. The Malenco serpentinite (interpreted as sub-continental mantle rocks) forms a 1-2 km thick tabular body, outcropping over an area of about 170 km2, almost entirely confined within the boundaries of the valley. The antigoritic serpentinites (with variable amounts of olivine, clinopyroxene, chlorite and magnetite) are moderately up to strongly foliated, sometimes

  2. Competitive advantages of Central European cities in the cross-border region Alpe-Adria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Pichler-Milanović

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the competitive advantages of the major cities in the Alpe-Adria region, defined by the authors on the basis of a survey conducted among experts and leading individuals from various fields. First opinions on the international image of cities, international functions, marketing properties and rivals are shown. The next theme is quality of life, researched through housing, urban services, natural and business environments. A chapter about development projects and interurban cooperation follows. In conclusion there are three chapters dealing with directions for improving the supra-national setting and quality of life in the region’s cities, new urban development strategies and directions for improving the supra-national position of Ljubljana.

  3. Molecular characterization of an endolithic microbial community in dolomite rock in the central Alps (Switzerland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horath, Thomas; Bachofen, Reinhard

    2009-08-01

    Endolithic microorganisms colonize the pores in exposed dolomite rocks in the Piora Valley in the Swiss Alps. They appear as distinct grayish-green bands about 1-8 mm below the rock surface. Based on environmental small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences, a diverse community driven by photosynthesis has been found. Cyanobacteria (57 clones), especially the genus Leptolyngbya, form the functional basis for an endolithic community which contains a wide spectrum of so far not characterized species of chemotrophic Bacteria (64 clones) with mainly Actinobacteria, Alpha-Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Acidobacteria, as well as a cluster within the Chloroflexaceae. Furthermore, a cluster within the Crenarchaeotes (40 clones) has been detected. Although the eukaryotic diversity was outside the scope of the study, an amoeba (39 clones), and several green algae (51 clones) have been observed. We conclude that the bacterial diversity in this endolithic habitat, especially of chemotrophic, nonpigmented organisms, is considerable and that Archaea are present as well. PMID:19172216

  4. Strain rates at high temporal resolution from curved inclusion trails in garnet, Passo del Sole, Central Swiss Alps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, C. A.; Carlson, W. D.; Connelly, James

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative strain rates at outcrop scale are very difficult to obtain, but they may be estimated from crystals with curved inclusion trails by calculating rotation rates from growth rates and corresponding deflections of the internal foliation. Garnet in a quartzose pelite at Passo del Sole in...... the central Swiss Alps is extraordinarily valuable for calculation of strain rates during Alpine orogenesis, because the unusual zoning patterns clearly define the kinetics of its nucleation and growth. Complex concentric zoning patterns can be correlated from one crystal to another in a hand sample......, based on compositional and microstructural similarities; the ubiquity of these features demonstrates that all garnet crystals nucleated at nearly the same time. Compositional bands whose radial widths are proportional to crystal size provide evidence for growth governed by the kinetics of intergranular...

  5. Physico-chemical control on the REE minerals in chloritoid-grade metasediments from a single outcrop (Central Alps, Switzerland)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janots, Emilie; Berger, Alfons; Engi, Martin

    2011-01-01

    detrital core rimmed by newly formed monazite. Significant arsenic contents are found in newly formed monazite, xenotime and apatite. Monazite texture and composition suggest (re)crystallization by pressure solution, at an oxygen fugacity sufficient to partly oxidize As, S, U, and Fe. Whether or not......This study assesses the effects of fluid, whole-rock composition and oxygen fugacity, on the texture and composition of monazite, allanite, and xenotime. For this purpose, these were investigated in 13 monometamorphic metasediments from a single locality of the Central Alps (Switzerland), which......). Allanite formation is texturally coeval with apatite, chloritoid and xenotime, during the main tectono-metamorphic stage. Allanite formation implies significant mass transfer of Ca and P via a fluid phase, which is not clearly related to advective transport. In Ga06, elongate monazite grains have a...

  6. Water versus ice: The competing roles of modern climate and Pleistocene glacial erosion in the Central Alps of Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlunegger, Fritz; Norton, Kevin P.

    2013-08-01

    Recent studies have identified relationships between landscape form, erosion and climate in regions of landscape rejuvenation, associated with increased denudation. Most of these landscapes are located in non-glaciated mountain ranges and are characterized by transient geomorphic features. The landscapes of the Swiss Alps are likewise in a transient geomorphic state as seen by multiple knickzones. In this mountain belt, the transient state has been related to erosional effects during the Late Glacial Maximum (LGM). Here, we focus on the catchment scale and categorize hillslopes based on erosional mechanisms, landscape form and landcover. We then explore relationships of these variables to precipitation and extent of LGM glaciers to disentangle modern versus palaeo controls on the modern shape of the Alpine landscape. We find that in grasslands, the downslope flux of material mainly involves unconsolidated material through hillslope creep, testifying a transport-limited erosional regime. Alternatively, strength-limited hillslopes, where erosion is driven by bedrock failure, are covered by forests and/or expose bedrock, and they display oversteepened hillslopes and channels. There, hillslope gradients and relief are more closely correlated with LGM ice occurrence than with precipitation or the erodibility of the underlying bedrock. We relate the spatial occurrence of the transport- and strength-limited process domains to the erosive effects of LGM glaciers. In particular, strength-limited, rock dominated basins are situated above the equilibrium line altitude (ELA) of the LGM, reflecting the ability of glaciers to scour the landscape beyond threshold slope conditions. In contrast, transport-limited, soil-mantled landscapes are common below the ELA. Hillslopes covered by forests occupy the elevations around the ELA and are constrained by the tree line. We conclude that the current erosional forces at work in the Central Alps are still responding to LGM glaciation, and

  7. On Austrian regional economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijman, W.J.M.; Leen, A.R.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this research note is two-fold, firstly, to clarify the growing interaction between regional science and Austrian economics and their awareness of each other. We elucidate the Austrian methodology, called praxeology, which is especially misunderstood in regional science. Secondly, we tent

  8. Environmental impact of cow milk production in the central Italian Alps using Life Cycle Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara A. Penati

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze environmental impact of cow milk production in an alpine area through a cradle-to-farm-gate Life Cycle Assessment and to identify farming strategies that can improve environmental sustainability without negatively affecting profitability. Data were collected from farmers in 28 dairy farms in an Italian alpine valley. The production of 1 kg of fat protein corrected milk (FPCM needed 3.18 m2 of land; land use on-farm was high because a large part of farm land consisted of pastures in the highland, used extensively during summer. Also the use of energy from non-renewable sources was high, 5.14 MJ kg FPCM-1 on average. Diesel for production and transportation of feed purchased off-farm was mainly used, especially concentrates which were entirely purchased. The average emission of greenhouse and acidification causing gases was 1.14 kg CO2-eq and 0.021 kg SO2-eq kg FPCM-1. Eutrophication was on average 0.077 kg of nitrate-eq kg FPCM-1. Farms with low producing cows had higher environmental impact per kg of milk and lower gross margin per cow compared to the others. Low stocking rate farms had the best results regarding acidification and eutrophication per kg FPCM. Farms with high feed self-sufficiency had significantly lower acidification potential than the others. Increasing milk yield per cow, by selection and feeding, and enhancing feed self-sufficiency, by higher forage production and quality and more exploitation of highland pastures, seem to be the best strategies to improve ecological performances of dairy farms in the Alps while maintaining their profitability.

  9. The seismic signature of rockslides: a review of events in the Central Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammeier, F.; Moore, J. R.; Haslinger, F.; Loew, S.

    2010-12-01

    Seismic recordings from regional networks may be used to identify and locate rockslide events, and can provide unique information on event characteristics that could otherwise only be established by eye witnesses. Here we analyze the seismic signals from 20 large rockslide events that occurred in the Swiss and French Alps during the last twenty years. Rockslide seismic signals have a typical ‘cigar’ shape characterized by an emergent onset and slowly decaying tail. The majority of seismic energy is contained in frequencies below ~4 Hz, and near the source, the signal generally cannot be separated into different wave types. Five seismic metrics were used to quantify differences between rockslide seismograms: seismic duration, peak amplitude of the seismic velocity envelope (ePGV), average ground velocity (AGV), rise time (RT) from event onset to ePGV, and the area of the seismic velocity envelope (EA). Three seismic metrics (EA, AGV, ePGV) exhibited loglog attenuation behavior, RT exhibited semilog attenuation behavior and duration did not show any clear attenuation with distance. For comparison between events, each seismic metric was extrapolated to a common distance of 30 km; for duration the value at the nearest station was used. Event potential energy correlated well with seismic duration and ePGV, and rock/ice avalanches could be identified by unusually low ePGV. Event volume correlated with seismic duration and EA, and rock collapses could be identified by unusually low EA. Analyzing six events that occurred from the same slope with similar runout, the correlation of ePGV and event volume was better than that for all events, indicating that runout path has an important effect on ePGV. For these six events, a plot of EA versus duration showed that rockslides with more than one sub-event lie far from the fitted curve. We also attempted to match seismic waveform features to event dynamics as observed in video footage. A high amplitude signal on a horizontal

  10. New Techniques of LASS-ICPMS Depth Profiling Applied to Detrital Zircon from the Central Alps-Apennines System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anfinson, O. A.; Smye, A.; Stockli, D. F.

    2014-12-01

    Detrital zircon U-Pb age dating has become a widely used tool for determining sediment provenance in basins and orogenic systems. While traditional LA-ICPMS zircon geochronology is powerful, it has limitations when source regions are characterized by monotonous or non-diagnostic crystallization ages or by major sediment recycling and homogenization, leading to minimal zircon age variability. In the central Alps of Switzerland and Italy, for example, similar Cadomian, Caledonian, and Variscan zircons dominate with only minor Alpine ages. Samples collected from Oligocene-Miocene strata deposited in both the northern (Swiss Molasse) and southern (Apenninic foredeep) Alpine foreland basins document shifts in the relative abundance of Cadomian, Caledonian, Variscan and Alpine aged detrital zircon, but the exact source region and genesis of the grains remains poorly constrained based on zircon U-Pb age data alone. Laser Ablation Split Stream (LASS)-ICPMS depth profiling of detrital zircon allows for the simultaneous recovery of multiple ages and of chemical/petrogenetic data from single zircons, and has the potential to shed additional light on provenance. This study applies this approach to Oligocene-Miocene strata of the Swiss Molasse Basin and Apenninic foredeep. Recent advances in LA-ICPMS sample cell technology allow for reliable recovery of age and trace element data during progressive ablation into zircons. Decreased washout (rim-core relationships and REE/trace element abundances from grains of the major orogenic cycles, further constraining the provenance of these strata.

  11. Use of trophic resources and forest habitats by the genus Martes in Adamello-Brenta Park (Central Italian Alps)

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Pedrini; Claudio Prigioni; Gilberto Volcan

    1995-01-01

    Abstract Habitat use and diet of genus Martes (M. martes and M. foina) were studied in alpine forest habitat (Adamello-Brenta Park, Central Italian Alps) from July 1991 to September 1992. Marten scats were looked for along 3 transects representative of 5 forest habitats in order to analyse seasonal variations in habitat selection. The food habits were studied analysing 225 scats collected along the tr...

  12. Lateglacial environmental and climatic changes at the Maloja Pass, Central Swiss Alps, as recorded by chironomids and pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyashuk, Boris; Gobet, Erika; Heiri, Oliver; Lotter, André F.; van Leeuwen, Jacqueline F. N.; van der Knaap, Willem O.; Ilyashuk, Elena; Oberli, Florencia; Ammann, Brigitta

    2009-06-01

    Chironomids and pollen were studied in a radiocarbon-dated sediment sequence obtained from a former lake near the Maloja Pass in the Central Swiss Alps (1865 m a.s.l.) to reconstruct the Lateglacial environment. Pollen assemblages imply a vegetation development around the Maloja Pass from shrub tundra at the beginning of the Allerød to coniferous forest during the early Holocene with a lowering of the timberline during the Younger Dryas. Chironomid assemblages are characterized by several abrupt shifts in dominant taxa through the Lateglacial. The occurrence of taxa able to survive hypoxia in the second part of the Allerød and during the Preboreal, and their disappearance at the onset of the Younger Dryas cold phase suggest summer thermal stratification and unfavourable hypolimnetic oxygen conditions in the palaeo-lake during the warmer periods of the Lateglacial interstadial and early Holocene. Mean July air temperatures were reconstructed using a chironomid-temperature transfer function from the Alpine region. The pattern of reconstructed temperature changes agrees well with the Greenland δ18O record and other Lateglacial temperature inferences from Central Europe. The inferred July temperatures of ca 10.0 °C during most of the Allerød were slightly lower than modern values (10.8 °C) and increased up to ca 11.7 °C (i.e., above present-day values) at the end of the Allerød. The first part of the Younger Dryas was colder (ca 8.8 °C) than the second part (ca 9.8 °C). During most of the Preboreal, the temperatures persisted within the limits of 13.5-14.5 °C (i.e., ca 3 °C above present-day values). The amplitudes of temperature changes at the Allerød-Younger Dryas-Preboreal transitions were ca 3.5-4.0 °C. The temperature reconstruction also shows three short-lived cooling events of ca 1.5-2.0 °C, which may be attributed to the centennial-scale Greenland Interstadial events GI-1d and GI-1b, and the Preboreal Oscillation.

  13. Austrian Economics as Political Philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, J. Mikael

    2015-01-01

    The Austrian school of economics is an unorthodox approach to economics whose adherents have mostly been libertarian in their political outlook. This dissertation explores the connections between Austrian economic theory and libertarian political philosophy, and casts doubt on the claim often propounded that Austrian economics itself naturally leads to libertarianism. Instead it is claimed here that Austrian economics is an open-ended theory that can lead to very different political conclusio...

  14. Anarchism and Austrian economics

    OpenAIRE

    Boettke, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In the 2011 Franz Cuhel Memorial Lecture, I argue that the study of endogenous rule formation in economic life (what I term the positive political economy of anarchism) should be studied in-depth and that the economic analysis of the Austrian school of economics provides many of the key analytical insights necessary for such study.

  15. Asbestos exposure during quarrying and processing of serpentinites: a case study in Valmalenco, Central Alps, Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, A.; Rimoldi, B.

    2012-04-01

    Serpentinites are metamorphic rocks derived from ultramafics such as peridotites (lherzolites and/or harzburgites), with a typical mineralogical assemblage of antigorite, olivine, diopside and minor magnetite, chlorite and chrysotile. If the rock mass has good geotechnical properties, these stones are quarried because of their wide variety of green shades and outstanding technical properties. Excellent stones are produced in the Malenco Valley, Central Alps (northern Italy, Sondrio): here the geological set-up is dominated by the ultramafic Malenco massif (lower crust-mantle complex), exposed at the Penninic to Austroalpine boundary zone. Different processing operations give origin to valuable products like stoves, funeral monuments, design home appliances; important building element as roof slabs, tiles for floor and wall coverings constitute the main commercial line of production. In this area, good quality long fibre chrysotile asbestos was mined since the XIX century, till the seventies. The asbestos fissures (mostly slip-fiber) are well known in Valmalenco, associated to an important ENE-WSW striking fracture and hydrothermal vein system. Some actual serpentinite quarries "cross" at times tunnels of the old asbestos mines, because the fracture and vein system "guides" the extraction. At present time, this area represents an excellent example of naturally occurring asbestos (NOA). For these reasons, workers' exposure to asbestos during quarrying and processing cannot be ruled out, and must be assessed according to national laws. From 2004 to nowadays, the INAIL Regional Management of Lombardia, with the collaboration of University of Milan-Bicocca, carried out extensive monitoring campaigns both in quarries and in processing laboratories. More than 300 massive samples (rocks and veins) and 250 airborne dust samples were collected during the surveys. One of the main problems in the study of massive serpentinites is the accurate identification of the different

  16. Austrian Subsidiaries’ Profitability in the Czech Republic and Slovakia – CESEE Margins with an Austrian Risk Profile

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Kavan; Daniela Widhalm

    2014-01-01

    The Czech Republic and Slovakia belong to the small and increasingly concentrated group of countries in Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe (CESEE) whose banking markets have continued to generate substantial profits for Austrian banks also after the outbreak of the financial crisis in 2008. This short study sheds light on why Austrian subsidiaries have been able to maintain their profitability in these two countries especially when compared to those in other CESEE countries. We find tha...

  17. Interpopulation variability of Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lučić Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multidisciplinary studies (genetic and phytocoenological of 4 populations of Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold were carried out in western and central Serbia. The obtained results gave the same inter-population arrangement in both methods. Dendograms (NTSYS differentiate at the greatest genetic distance the population of Austrian pine in Šargan compared to other populations: Crni Vrh, Goč and Studenica. Using phytocoenological analysis it was determined that population of Austrian pine in Šargan forms a community Erico-Pinetum gocensis, while the other populations form a community Seslerio rigidae-Pinetum gocensis. Multidisciplinary approach that was demonstrated within this paper presents the first studies of Austrian pine that directly link genotype dependence and environmental conditions manifested through the phytocoenological affiliation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31070

  18. The Austrian radon project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the completion of the Austrian Radon Project, the map of the annual mean radon concentrations in Austrian homes is available now. The extrapolation of the indoor data to a standard situation was used to create a 'radon potential' map, which should indicate the radon risk from the ground without the influence of house type, living situation and all other parameters, that could influence the indoor radon concentration. This map specifies areas where radon-safe building techniques should be applied. In the next future the main task for the Austrian radon program will be the transformation of recommendations into use, i. e. to inform the public as well as to teach the persons who are responsible for the construction of a house, how to make a house radon-safe. It seems essential that all people who are involved in the construction of a house, starting from the planning and ending with the people working at the building site, should be informed about the problems with radon because a lack of knowledge in one part of the chain could substantially reduce the effectiveness of any protective measure. The way we try to inform the public as well as several special target groups will be demonstrated. An important question is the effectiveness of such information campaigns. This means: does the information reach the target groups, are the people accepting this information and finally do they apply the recommendations? Therefore it seems necessary to test the methods of information distribution for their efficiency already during the information campaigns. (orig.)

  19. Patterns of landscape form in the upper Rhône basin, Central Swiss Alps, predominantly show lithologic controls despite multiple glaciations and variations in rock uplift rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutenbecker, L. A.; Costa, A.; Schlunegger, F.

    2015-10-01

    The development of topography is mainly dependent on the interplay of uplift and erosion, which are in term controlled by various factors including climate, glaciers, lithology, seismic activity and short-term variables such as anthropogenic impact. While most studies have focused on the role of tectonics and climate on the landscape form and underlying processes, less attention has been paid on exploring the controls of lithology on erosion. The Central European Alps are characterized by a large spatial variability in exposed lithologies and as such offer an ideal laboratory to investigate the lithological controls on erosion and landscape form. Here, we focus on the ca. 5400 km2-large upper Rhône basin situated in the Central Swiss Alps to explore how the lithological architecture of the bedrock conditions the Alpine landscape. To this extent, we extract geomorphological parameters along the channels of ca. 50 tributary basins, whose catchments are located in either granitic basement rocks (External massifs), oceanic meta-sedimentary and ophiolitic rocks (Penninic nappes) or fine-grained continental-margin sediments (Helvetic nappes). The analysis of longitudinal river profiles show that all tributary rivers within the Rhône basin are in topographic transient state as testified by mainly convex or concave-convex longitudinal stream channel profiles with several knickpoints of either tectonic or glacial origin. In addition, although the entire Rhône basin shows a strong glacial inheritance (and is still partly glaciated) and some of the highest uplift rates recently measured in the Alps, the river network has responded differently to those perturbations as revealed by the morphometric data. In particular, tributary basins in the Helvetic nappes are the most equilibrated (concave river profiles, overall lower elevations, less steep slope gradients and lowest hypsometric integrals), while the tributaries located in the External massifs are least equilibrated

  20. Geomorphological response of a landscape to long-term tectonic and glacial processes: the upper Rhône basin, Central Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutenbecker, Laura; Schlunegger, Fritz

    2015-04-01

    The Rhône River in the Central Swiss Alps drains a 5380 km2 large basin that shows a high spatial variability of bedrock lithology, exhumation rate, glacial conditioning and climate. All of these factors were recently discussed to control erosion rates in orogenic settings in general, and particularly in the Alps (e.g. Wittmann et al. 2007, Vernon et al. 2008, Norton et al. 2010a). Thanks to various and densely distributed data, the upper Rhône basin located between the Aar massif and Lake Geneva is a suitable natural laboratory to analyze the landscape's geomorphological state and controlling factors at a basin-scale. In this study, we extract geomorphological parameters along the channels of ca. 50 tributary basins of various sizes that contribute to the sediment budget of the Rhône River either through sediment supply by torrents or debris flows. Their catchments are located in either granitic basement rocks (External Massifs), oceanic meta-sedimentary and ophiolitic rocks (Penninic nappes) or fine-grained continental-margin sediments (Helvetic nappes). The analysis of longitudinal river profiles from DEMs and slope/area relationships show that all tributary rivers within the Rhône basin are in topographic transient state that is expressed by mainly convex or concave-convex channel shapes with several knickpoints of either tectonic-lithological or glacial origin. Furthermore, the frequency distribution of elevations (hypsometry) along the river channel allows identifying glacially inherited morphologies and the recent erosional front. The combination of those different geomorphological data yields to a categorization of the tributary rivers into three endmember groups: (1) streams with highly convex profiles, testifying to a strong glacial inheritance, (2) concave-convex channels with several knickzones and inherited morphologies of past glaciations, (3) predominantly concave, relatively steep rivers with minor knickpoints and inner gorges. Assuming that

  1. Austrian natural scientists in exile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This text was written by E. Broda for the international symposium for exploration of the Austrian exile from 1934 to 1945 (“Internationales Symposiums zur Erforschung des österreichischen Exils von 1934 bis 1945”) in the year 1978. The article is about the specific problems of the Austrian scientific landscape, caused by the political events in the first half of the 20th century. The focus is primarily on the enormous ‘brain drain’, triggered by political repression in the period of Nazi rule (1938 - 1945), the Austro-fascism period (1934 - 1938) and the economic regression, anti-intellectual and anti-Semitic sentiment in the Country since 1918. The article emphasizes the importance of exile organizations, such as the ‘Free Austrian Movement’ or the ‘Association of Austrian Engineers, Chemists and Scientific Workers in Great Britain’ for the reconstruction of a scientific culture in Austria, after the Second World War. (rössner)

  2. Morphology versus U-Pb systematics in zircon: A high-resolution isotopic study of a zircon population from a Variscan dike in the Central Alps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    U/Pb isotopic measurements on individual zircon crystals combined with morphological analyses permit the identification of three distinct components within the zircon population of the Saedelhorn diorite, a Variscan dike from the western Gotthard (Central Alps, Switzerland): (i) 94% of the grains in the zircon population are elongate crystals with pronounced skeletal morphology indicative of rapid growth from a supercooled melt. (ii) 5% of the population consist of turbid, mostly subhedral zircons frequently showing D-type morphology and elevated uranium contents compared to the skeletal variety. Single-crystal and multi-grain U-Pb isotopic data of group (i) and (ii) zircons define an intrusion age of 293 + 5/ -4 m.y. for the dike. (iii) Rare, transparent zircon crystals (< 1% of the zircons population) yield apparent U-Pb ages in the range of 370-490 m.y. and display morphological and isotopic characteristics closely resembling those of a Caledonian orthogneiss intruded by the dike. This implies presence of assimilated wall-rock components in the macroscopically homogeneous dike sample. (orig./WB)

  3. Epidemiological evaluation of concordance between initial diagnosis and central pathology review in a comprehensive and prospective series of sarcoma patients in the Rhone-Alpes region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biron Pierre

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sarcomas are rare malignant tumors. Accurate initial histological diagnosis is essential for adequate management. We prospectively assessed the medical management of all patients diagnosed with sarcoma in a European region over a one-year period to identify the quantity of first diagnosis compared to central expert review (CER. Methods Histological data of all patients diagnosed with sarcoma in Rhone-Alpes between March 2005 and Feb 2006 were collected. Primary diagnoses were systematically compared with second opinion from regional and national experts. Results Of 448 patients included, 366 (82% matched the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Of these, 199 (54% had full concordance between primary diagnosis and second opinion (the first pathologist and the expert reached identical conclusions, 97 (27% had partial concordance (identical diagnosis of conjonctive tumor but different grade or subtype, and 70 (19% had complete discordance (different histological type or invalidation of the diagnosis of sarcoma. The major discrepancies were related to histological grade (n = 68, 19%, histological type (n = 39, 11%, subtype (n = 17, 5%, and grade plus subtype or grade plus histological type (n = 43, 12%. Conclusions Over 45% of first histological diagnoses were modified at second reading, possibly resulting in different treatment decisions. Systematic second expert opinion improves the quality of diagnosis and possibly the management of patients.

  4. The Haselgebirge evaporitic mélange in central Northern Calcareous Alps (Austria): Part of the Permian to Lower Triassic rift of the Meliata ocean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorn, Anja; Neubauer, Franz; Genser, Johann; Bernroider, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    For the reconstruction of Alpine tectonics of the Eastern Alps, the evaporitic Permian to Lower Triassic Haselgebirge Formation plays a key role in (1) the origin of Haselgebirge bearing nappes, (2) the inclusion of magmatic and metamorphic rocks revealing tectonic processes not preserved in other units, and (3) the debated mode of emplacement of the nappes, namely gravity-driven or tectonic. Within the Moosegg quarry of the central Northern Calcareous Alps gypsum/anhydrite bodies are tectonically mixed with lenses of sedimentary rocks and decimeter- to meter-sized tectonic clasts of plutonic and subvolcanic rocks and rare metamorphics. We examined various types of (1) widespread biotite–diorite, meta-syenite, (2) meta-dolerite and rare ultramafic rocks (serpentinite, pyroxenite) as well as (3) rare metamorphic banded meta-psammitic schists and meta-doleritic blueschists. The apparent 40Ar/39Ar biotite ages from three biotite–diorite, meta-dolerite and meta-doleritic blueschist samples with variable composition and fabrics range from 248 to 270 Ma (e.g., 251.2 ± 1.1 Ma) indicating a Permian age of cooling after magma crystallisation or metamorphism. The chemical composition of biotite–diorite and meta-syenite indicates an alkaline trend interpreted to represent a rift-related magmatic suite. These, as well as Permian to Jurassic sedimentary rocks, were incorporated during Cretaceous nappe emplacement forming the sulphatic Haselgebirge mélange. The scattered 40Ar/39Ar white mica ages of a meta-doleritic blueschist (of N-MORB origin) and banded meta-psammitic schist are ca. 349 and 378 Ma, respectively, proving the Variscan age of pressure-dominated metamorphism. These ages are similar to detrital white mica ages reported from the underlying Rossfeld Formations, indicating a close source–sink relationship. According to our new data, the Haselgebirge bearing nappe was transported over the Lower Cretaceous Rossfeld Formations, which include many clasts

  5. The Austrian National Network 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Nikolaus; Hausmann, Helmut; Jia, Yan

    2015-04-01

    In the year 2014, the Austrian National Network( network code OE ), operated by the Austrian Seismological Service at the Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik, consists of 21 strong-motion sites (FBA-23 and Episensor, triggered data acquisition) and 16 broadband stations (STS-2 or STS-2.5, continuous data acquisition). Among the 16 broadband stations there are 14 sites collocated with accelerometers (FAB-23 or Episensor). The Research Group Geophysics at the Vienna University of Technology and the Department of Meteorology and Geophysics at the University of Vienna are operating temporary seismic stations, data from these instruments is integrated in the processing at the Austrian Seismic Network. Data from instruments in neighboring countries is also integrated in the processing. The Austrian Seismological Service collects and evaluates felt reports. A major upgrade of both hard- and software used for processing (Antelope 5.4, Intel based hardware) is planned for the year 2015. Some new tools for data processing processing and evaluation are presented. An overview of the seismic monitoring at the Austrian Seismological Service will be presented for the year 2014. We compare automatic processing and manual evaluation results. Performance of the automated data processing (rate of valid, false and missed events), statistics and information about significant earthquakes and earthquake sequences in Austria will be presented.

  6. Origin and pathways of pro- and retrograde fluids, PTt paths and fluid-mineral equilibria from Alpine veins of the Central Alps : case studies of the Fibbia and Amsteg areas

    OpenAIRE

    Heijboer, Tjerk Cornelis

    2006-01-01

    In order to constrain the conditions of and processes related to vein formation and the origins of mineralising fluids, field work, multiple geochemical methods applied to whole rocks, minerals, and fluid inclusions, as well as thermodynamic modeling on these veinwall rock systems have been carried out. The focus of this study was on vein and fissure systems from two particular areas in the external parts of the Central Alps: the Fibbia area in the southern Gotthard massif and ...

  7. Austrian federated WLCG tier-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The LHC at CERN in Geneva plans to resume operation and start data acquisition in fall 2009. The High Energy Physics Group at the Austrian Academy of Science and the Astro- and Particle Physics Group at the University of Innsbruck are part of the CMS and the ATLAS experiments. Both experiments have a high demand on computing power and data storage. To allow Austrian scientists to analyze the produced data in 2008 the Austrian Ministry of Science signed the Computing Memorandum of Understanding (C-MoU) which defines the Worldwide LHC computing collaboration and its objectives. To conform to this C-MoU the two institutes installed a federated tier-2 computing center. (author)

  8. Austrian Business Cycle Theory: Did Iceland go through an Austrian Business Cycle?

    OpenAIRE

    Ragnar Haukur Ragnarsson 1978

    2012-01-01

    The question this research tries to answer is if an artificial credit expansion caused the Icelandic economy to go into an Austrian style business cycle in the first decade of this century. To answer that question data from the Statistic of Iceland and the Central Bank of Iceland will be studied. The period that will be looked at is the years from 2001 until 2010. The framework that is used is taken from Jesús Huerta de Soto´s book “Money, Bank Credit, and Economic Cycles”, in that book d...

  9. A new restoration of the NFP20-East cross section and possible tectonic overpressure in the Penninic Adula Nappe (Central Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleuger, J.; Podladchikov, Y.

    2012-04-01

    The Adula Nappe in the eastern Central Alps is one of the four units in the Alps from which ultrahigh-pressure rocks have been reported. Several very different models for its tectonic history have been published but none of these models is fully satisfactory. In the models of Schmid et al. (1996) and Engi et al. (2001), the main mechanism of exhumation is assumed to be extrusion. The extrusion models require top-to-the-hinterland, i.e. top-to-the-south faulting in the hanging wall of the exhuming nappe for which there is no evidence. Froitzheim et al. (2003) proposed a scenario with two different subduction zones, an internal one in which the South Penninic and Briançonnais domains were subducted, and an external one in which the North Penninc domain and the European margin, including the Adula nappe, were subducted. In this model, the exhumation of the Adula nappe results from the subduction of the overlying sub-Briançonnais and sub-South-Penninic mantle in the internal subduction zone. The Adula nappe would then have been exhumed from below into a top-to-the-north shear zone also affecting the overriding Briançonnais units. The main shortcoming of this model is that otherwise there is little evidence for two Alpine subduction zones. All the models cited above are based on the conversion of peak pressures obtained from geobarometry to depth by assuming lithostatic pressures. This results in a much greater burial depth of the Adula Nappe with respect to the surrounding units which poses major problems when trying to reconcile maximum burial depths of the Penninic nappes with their structural record. We performed a new restoration of the NFP20-East cross section (Schmid et al. 1996) without applying a lithostatic pressure-to-depth conversion but a purely geometrical restoration of deformation events in the Penninic nappe stack. The major constraints on these reconstructions are given by strain estimates for the major deformation phases in the units overlying the

  10. Austrian Science Fund (FWF) Open Access Compliance Monitoring 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Kunzmann, Martina; Reimann, Ralph; Rieck, Katharina; Reckling, Falk

    2016-01-01

    Since 2008 the Austrian Science Fund (FWF), Austria's central funding organisation for basic research, requires from and supports all project leaders and project staff members to make their peer-reviewed research results freely available through the Internet. All principal investigators of FWF funded projects are obliged to submit a final report three months after the project is finished. The average duration of an FWF funded project from the beginning to the delivery of the final pro...

  11. Austrian economics: application on Norwegian business cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Bjerkenes, Håkon; Kiil, Håkon; Anker-Nilssen, Paal

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the key elements of Austrian macroeconomics and aims to find out whether the Austrian business cycle theory can explain causes to Norwegian business cycles between 1979 and 2009. The Austrian school suggests that monetary interventions disturb the term structure of interest rates. This causes the capital structure to change which accounts for fluctuations of the business cycle. Credit- induced expansions with unchanged time-preferences create unsustaina...

  12. Role of brittle deformation during the initiation of ductile HP-LT shear zone in a metarhyolite (Suretta nappe, Eastern Central Alps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poilvet, Jean-Charles; Goncalves, Philippe; Oliot, Emilien; Marquer, Didier

    2014-05-01

    Although ductile shear zones are common deformation structures in the middle to deep continental lithosphere, the initiation of such structures among homogeneous and isotropic protolith (e.g. granitoid bodies) is still a matter of debate. Indeed, the lack of consensus concerns the presence and the nature of a preexisting heterogeneity (structural or compositional, such as dykes, joints or cracks). This is mainly due to the lack of observation of preserved precursors, which, if they were present initially, are generally obliterated by subsequent intense deformation. Different conceptual models require a structural precursor, which enables fluids to flow and promotes metamorphic and metasomatic reactions via fluid-rock interactions. Those fluid-rock interactions are commonly presented as a key factor controlling strain localization or lateral propagation. The main goal of this contribution is to present the first observations, to our knowledge, of a preserved brittle precursor of a millimeter scale shear zone under blueschist facies metamorphic conditions. This work provides new evidences into how ductile shear zones occurring within homogeneous and isotropic protolith nucleate and develop. The present study exposes shear zones from the Roffna metarhyolite, a subvolcanic intrusion representing most of the northern part of the Suretta nappe (Penninic domain, Eastern Central Alps). This early Permian massif intruded an older basement and was affected only by Tertiary Alpine tectonics. The heterogeneous strain pattern consists, at all scales of anastomosing shear zones surrounding lenses of nearly undeformed rocks The investigated outcrop is characterized by the presence of a shear zone network from millimetric to plurimetric scale developed under blueschist facies conditions related to continental subduction of the European plate. A combined study including field observations, EBSD analysis, SEM-CL and conventional imaging together with thermodynamic modeling of phase

  13. Use of trophic resources and forest habitats by the genus Martes in Adamello-Brenta Park (Central Italian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Pedrini

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Habitat use and diet of genus Martes (M. martes and M. foina were studied in alpine forest habitat (Adamello-Brenta Park, Central Italian Alps from July 1991 to September 1992. Marten scats were looked for along 3 transects representative of 5 forest habitats in order to analyse seasonal variations in habitat selection. The food habits were studied analysing 225 scats collected along the transects. Both percentage frequency of occurrence and relative percentage frequency (Fr% of the different food items were calculated. Arthropods (Fr% = 50.0%, mainly insects (Coleoptera and Hymenoptera, were the staple in the diet of martens and were mostly consumed in spring and in summer. The other main food categories were vegetables (Fr% = 25.9%, mainly Rosaceae fruits, with a peak in autumn/winter, and mammals (Fr% = 10.5, especially small rodents, regularly preyed on throughout the year with a peak in winter. Carrion (marmots and ungulates and partly insects (Orthoptera and Hymenoptera were a fairly important food resource in the winter and at the beginning of the spring. All year round Martes selected coppice forest and mixed high forest, where presumably a major availability of the main food resources used by both species occurred. Riassunto Uso delle risorse trofiche e degli ambienti forestali da parte del genere Martes nel Parco Adamello-Brenta (Alpi Centrali - L'uso dell'habitat e la dieta del genere Martes (M. martes e M. foina sono stati studiati in ambienti forestali del Parco Adamello-Brenta nel periodo luglio 1991-settembre 1992. I1 numero di feci di Martes è stato rilevato in 3 transetti rappresentativi di 5 ambienti forestali, al fine di valutare le variazioni stagionali nell'uso dell'habitat. Le abitudini alimentari sono state investigate mediante analisi di 225 feci raccolte lungo i transetti di

  14. Austrian Economics, Neoclassicism, and the Market Test

    OpenAIRE

    Leland B. Yeager

    1997-01-01

    Professor Sherwin Rosen correctly suggests that the Austrian and neoclassical schools can be complementary, each accepting much from the other. However his recognition of Austrian strengths needs to be amplified and his criticisms need softening. His appeal to the market test risks encouraging anti-intellectual attitudes and practices

  15. The Forgotten Austrian Economics Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bianca Vieru

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In light of the current events, namely the crisisthat economy has to face for quite someyears now, plenty of questions are raised, not only among specialists in the field but also amongordinary people as they prove to be most impoverished by these imbalances. Thus, this paper aims, asa first objective, to explain, froma general perspective and using an inductive-subjectivemethodology based on a brief survey as well as on observation, two of the most important causes that,according to the Austrian Business Cycle Theory, are the leading motives for triggering crises. Weare referring particularly to an excessivestate interventionismmanifested throughout itsexpansionary monetary policy.Secondly, we seek to establish the interconnections between theseelements and the case of the Great Depression as well as the current recession. The results we cameacross point out towards the same pattern designed by the Austrian economists, although thecircumstances are, each time, different. Hence, the contribution of this paper consists of handling thedetails that surround the subject by extracting only the essential aspects regarding the triggering ofcrises; we refer to the main ideas that need to be underlined for a better comprehension of the topic.

  16. Status of the ALPS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehret, Klaus

    2008-12-19

    The ALPS experiment at DESY searches for light particles which are coupling very weakly to photons. Primary physics goal is the search for axion like particles in a photon regeneration experiment. Central part of the experimental setup is a five Tesla strong superconducting HERA dipole magnet. During two operation periods in the years 2007 and 2008 we have collected first data and explored the sensitivity of the setup. A Fabry Perot laser cavity is being set up in order to increase the sensitivity by more than one order of magnitude. (orig.)

  17. Trans-Alps neutrinos

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "A beam of neutrinos manufactured at CERN shot through the Alps for the first time on 18 August. The beam will feed two neutrino oscillation experiments 730km away at the Gran Sasso National Laobratory near Rome, Italy." (1 page)

  18. ALP (Alkaline Phosphatase) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Also known as: ALK PHOS; Alkp Formal name: Alkaline Phosphatase Related tests: AST ; ALT ; GGT ; Bilirubin ; Liver Panel ; Bone Markers ; Alkaline Phosphatase Isoenzymes; Bone Specific ALP All content on ...

  19. Austrian Economics - The Ultimate Achievement of an Intellectual Journey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Salin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this lecture delivered November 2008 on the occasion of the presentation of the Mises Institute’s Gary G. Schlarbaum Prize for lifetime achievement in the cause of liberty, Professor Salin discusses his discovery of Austrian economics and his involvement in “the world of individual liberty,” and draws various lessons from his intellectual journey. The coherence of Austrian economics appealed to Salin—it is not a patchwork of partial theories, but a logical process of thought founded on realistic assumptions about individual action. Salin also discusses differences between the Chicago and Austrian approaches, and his views about monetary systems.The financial crisis beginning in late 2008 is not a crisis of capitalism, but of state intervention, caused by the expansionary monetary policy of the Fed. Capitalism is the solution, not the cause. There is no need to create money. There is never any balance of payments problem. What is required is tax systems more friendly to capital accumulation, a decrease in the role of the state, the end of monetary policy and, if possible, the disappearing of central banks and the IMF.

  20. Schumpeter and Mises as 'Austrian Economists'

    OpenAIRE

    Vanberg, Viktor J.

    2008-01-01

    "Whether and, if so, in what sense Joseph A. Schumpeter (1883-1950) and Ludwig von Mises (1881-1973) may both be classified as ‘Austrian economists’ is a controversial issue. In terms of their biographical background they were, of course, Austrian nationals, and as students of Böhm-Bawerk and von Wieser both qualify in a formal sense as third-generation members of the Austrian School. Yet, whether they so qualify in a substantive sense as well is much more questionable. Apparen...

  1. Austrian emission inventory for dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the first time, Austrian emissions of anthropogenic particulate matter emissions to the atmosphere have been estimated. Results have been reported as total suspended particles (TSP) as well as for the fractions of particles smaller than 10 μm or 2.5 μm aerodynamic diameter (PM10, PM2.5), respectively. Base years for the inventory were 1990, 1995 and 1999. Excluded from this assessment is wind blown dust, which has been considered a natural source here. National statistics have been applied, specifically those also used previously in the Austrian air pollution inventory (OLI). Emission factors have been taken from literature compilations, only for exceptional cases specific Austrian assessments were performed or original literature on emission measurements was consulted. Resuspension of dust by road traffic emerged as the most important source. For the size fraction of PM10 this source contributed about half of the emissions, when applying the calculation scheme by the U.S. EPA. While this scheme is widely used and well documented, its validity is currently subject of intense scientific debate. As these results do not seem to coincide with ambient air measurements, resuspension of road dust is considered separately and not now included in the national total. The sum of all other sources increases from 75,000 t of TSP in 1990 and 1995 to 77,000 t in 1999, while both PM10 and PM2.5 exhibit decreasing tendency (at 45,000 t and 26,000 t in 1999, respectively). The increase in TSP derives from increasing traffic and friction related emissions (tire wear, break wear), decrease of the finer particulate matter is due to reductions in firewood consumption for domestic heating. Most important source sectors are fugitive emissions from material transfer in industry as well as the building industry and the tilling of agricultural land. Common to these sources is the high uncertainty of available data. Wood combustion is the most important of the non-fugitive emissions

  2. Síndrome de Austrian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Estevão Midon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste relato, é descrito o caso de um paciente masculino, 64 anos, sem história de etilismo, que se apresentou com a Tríade de Osler, que consiste no desenvolvimento de endocardite, pneumonia e meningite, por um mesmo agente. A síndrome é denominada síndrome de Austrian, quando a infecção for por Streptococcus pneumoniae. Serão discutidas as manifestações clínicas, fisiopatológicas e a terapêutica mais adequada para esse quadro. Tendo em vista a raridade do caso e a elevada morbimortalidade, serão enfatizadas a importância do diagnóstico precoce e o tratamento adequado, visando reduzir as complicações inerentes a essa doença.

  3. The Consumer in Austrian Economics and the Austrian Perspective on Consumer Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Leen, A.R.

    1999-01-01

    In this thesis I examined the place of the competitive-entrepreneurial consumer in Austrian economic thought. For a neoclassical economist, competition among consumers is hard to find. For an Austrian economist, however, it is a necessity. The introduction puts forward the problem that although an Austrian economist believes that everyone -the consumer included- acts entrepreneurially, in his elucidation of the market process he gives the role of entrepreneur to the producer only.In Part I, "...

  4. How Do Austrians Pay for Online Purchases?

    OpenAIRE

    Helmut Stix; Karin Wagner

    2006-01-01

    The Internet has become an integral part of everyday life for many people: More than 60% of Austrians have access to the World Wide Web at their workplace or at home. The rapidly growing possibilities to access and use the Internet have also given rise to new forms of payment specifically designed for goods and services ordered online. Against this background, this study presents the results of a survey commissioned by the Oesterreichische Nationalbank on the payment methods Austrians choose ...

  5. The chemical and biological response of two remote mountain lakes in the Southern Central Alps (Italy to twenty years of changing physical and chemical climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea LAMI

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Two small high mountain lakes in the Alps were monitored in 1984-2003 to follow their response to changes in human impact, such as deposition of atmospheric pollutants, fish stocking and climate change. The results were compared to occasional samplings performed in the 1940s, and to the remains found in sediment cores. When monitoring started, the most acid-sensitive of them, Lake Paione Superiore, was acidified, with evident effects in its flora and fauna: benthic diatoms assemblage was shifted towards acidophilous species, and zooplankton lost the dominant species, Arctodiaptomus alpinus. Palaeolimnological studies outlined that lake acidification paralleled the increasing input of long-range transported industrial pollutants, traced by spherical carbonaceous particles. On the contrary, the biota of Lake Paione Inferiore appeared to be mainly affected by fish stocking. In the last twenty years, decrease in acid load from the atmosphere led to an improvement in lake water quality, with an increase in both pH and alkalinity. First signs of biological recovery were identified, such as change in diatom flora and appearance of sensitive species among benthic insects. However, climate change and episodic deposition of Saharan dust were important driving factors controlling lake water chemistry. Further monitoring to assess the effects of climate change and of the increasing load of nitrogen and other pollutants is recommended.

  6. Structure and fluid migration in a Late Cenozoic duplex system forming the Main Divide in the central Southern Alps, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Alpine Schist immediately west of the Main Divide of the Southern Alps is a west-dipping duplex system consisting of an imbricated stack of rock slabs, each c. 250-1000 m thick. The imbricated stack has low grade, little deformed pumpellyite-actinolite facies semischists at the base, overlain by progressively higher grade and more deformed schists. The structurally highest slab mapped consists of multiply-deformed biotite zone schist. The duplex lies on the hanging wall of the northwest-dipping Main Divide Fault Zone, which separates semischist from structurally underlying greywacke. Rock slabs are internally disrupted by faults subparallel to layering, and consist of lozenge-shaped blacks of 10-100 m. Fault zones separating rock slabs consist of 18O(SMOW) between 11.4 and 26.1 per thousand, and δ13C(PDB) between -.6 and -11.4 per thousand. Calculated isotopic ratios for the mineralising fluids show little evidence for meteoric origin. The fluid may be meteoric water which has undergone isotopic exchange with host rocks, metamorphic water, or a mixture of these, and mineralisation occurred during rise of the fluids from depth. (author). 56 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs

  7. The Consumer in Austrian Economics and the Austrian Perspective on Consumer Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leen, A.R.

    1999-01-01

    In this thesis I examined the place of the competitive-entrepreneurial consumer in Austrian economic thought. For a neoclassical economist, competition among consumers is hard to find. For an Austrian economist, however, it is a necessity. The introduction puts forward the problem that although an A

  8. Low-grade metamorphism in the eastern Southern Alps: Distribution, conditions, timing and implications for the tectonics of the Alps and NW Dinarides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Franz; Heberer, Bianca; Genser, Johann; Friedl, Getrude

    2014-05-01

    main body of the Alpine orogen exposed north of the E-trending Periadriatic fault. In previous interpretations, the eastern Southalpine unit was considered to differ in many respects from Alpine units north of the Periadriatic fault including (1) no Alpine metamorphic overprint and, therefore, (2) also no Alpine ductile deformation in contrast to amphibolite- and even eclogite- grade metamorphism (ca. 100 - 85 Ma) in Austroalpine units north of the fault, and by (3) S- to SW-, Adria-directed vergency of the deformation of mostly Eocene to Neogene age in contrast to all units basically directed to the north and northwest, towards the stable European plate. The Southalpine unit is considered as back-thrust of the Middle-Late Eocene plate collision between Stable Europe and the Alpine thrust wedge (Doglioni & Bosellini, 1987). The new data from the eastern part of the Southalpine unit challenge this view and imply a steadily but slowly growing Adria-directed thrust wedge between Maastrichtian and Early Eocene times. Acknowledement: The work has been supported by the Austrian Science Fund (project no. 22,110). References Borojević Šoštarić, S. Neubauer, F., Handler, R., Palinkaš, L. A., 2012. Variscan vs. Alpine tectonothermal events in NW-Dinarides: constraints from 40Ar/39Ar dating. Geologica Carpathica, 63, 441-452. Doglioni, C., Bosellini, A., 1987. Eoalpine and mesoalpine tectonics in the Southern Alps. Geologische Rundschaus, 76, 735-754. Feijth, J., 2002. Paleozoic and Mesozoic tectonometamorphic development and geochronology of the Orobic chain (Southern Alps, Lombardy, Italy). PhD thesis, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Geosciences, Technical University of Berlin, 136 p. Ilić, A., Neubauer, F., Handler, R. (submitted). Formation of a structural dome due to transpression: The Lim unit in Central Dinarides. Journal of Structural Geology. Läufer, A.L., Frisch, W., Steinitz, G., Loeschke, J., 1997. Exhumed fault-bounded Alpine blocks along the Periadriatic

  9. Glacial isostatic uplift of the European Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mey, Juergen; Scherler, Dirk; Wickert, Andrew D.; Egholm, David L.; Tesauro, Magdala; Schildgen, Taylor F.; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2016-04-01

    Present-day vertical movements of the Earth's surface are mostly due to tectonic deformation, volcanic processes, and crustal loading/unloading. In tectonically stable regions of North America and Scandinavia, vertical movements are almost entirely attributable to glacial isostatic rebound after the melting of the Laurentide and Fennoscandian ice sheets. In contrast, the Pleistocene Alpine icecap grew on a younger mountain belt that formed by collision of the European and African plates, still subject to shortening. Therefore, measured uplift is potentially a composite signal of tectonic shortening and unloading after deglaciation and concomitant erosion. Deciphering the contributions of tectonics and crustal unloading to present-day uplift rates in formerly-glaciated mountain belts is a prerequisite to using uplift data to estimate the viscosity structure of the Earth's mantle, a key variable in geodynamics. We evaluate the post-LGM glacial-isostatic rebound of the Alps following a 4-tiered procedure. First, we estimated the thickness distribution of sedimentary valley fills to create a bedrock map of the entire mountain belt. Second, this map was used as topographic basis for the reconstruction of the Alpine icecap using a numerical ice-flow model. Third, we estimated the equilibrium deflection of the Alpine lithosphere, using the combined loads of ice and sediments with a variable effective elastic thickness. Finally, we used an exponential decay function to infer the residual deflection and the present-day uplift rate for a range of upper mantle viscosities. Our analysis shows that virtually all of the geodetically measured surface uplift in the Swiss and the Austrian Alps can be attributed to glacial unloading and redistribution of sediments, assuming an upper-mantle viscosity lower than that inferred for an old craton (e.g., Fennoscandia), but higher than that for a region with recent crustal thinning (e.g., Basin and Range province).

  10. Austrian Philosophy. The Legacy of Franz Brentano

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Barry

    1994-01-01

    This book is a survey of the most important developments in Austrian philosophy in its classical period from the 1870s to the Anschluss in 1938. But I hope that the volume will be seen also as a contribution to philosophy in its own right as an attempt to philosophize in the spirit of those, above all Roderick Chisholm, Rudolf Haller, Kevin Mulligan and Peter Simons, who have done so much to demonstrate the continued fertility of the ideas and methods of the Austrian philosophers in our own d...

  11. The Austrian Sawmill Industry - Some Possible Futures

    OpenAIRE

    Loennstedt, L.; Schwarzbauer, P.

    1984-01-01

    The Austrian forest industry consumed about 14.5 million m3/u.b. industrial roundwood in 1980 to compare with a total domestic cutting of 13 million m3/u.b. The dominating primary manufacturer is the sawmilling industry which in 1980 consumed about 70% of the total industrial wood consumption. About 65% of the sawnwood production is exported. In this paper, four scenarios are presented for the Austrian saw mills. These scenarios show that future problems such as (i) overcapacity; (ii) in...

  12. The Continuing Relevance of Austrian Capital Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2012-01-01

    The article presents a speech by Professor Nicolai J. Foss of Copenhagen Business School, delivered at the Austrian Scholars Conference held on March 8, 2012 in Auburn, Alabama, in which he discussed the knowledge essays by economist Friedrich A. von Hayek, the concept of capital theory and the...... works of Hayek on political philosophy and cultural evolution....

  13. Learning in economics: the Austrian insights.

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre Garrouste

    2001-01-01

    In this contribution I first present a selective review of the literature on learning theories in economics. I then show that those theories are often assimilating knowledge to information or considering knowledge as a structure of information. Finally I discuss the possibility for those theories to be defined as Austrian and I conclude with a presentation of a research agenda.

  14. Austrian Airlines:Safety is our Business!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Mighty Capacity Managed "Although Austrian Airlines is a middle-sized company, it has a mighty capacity of over 10 million customers every year. Because it has an extensive European service network." G(o)tz stressed to China's Foreign Trade.

  15. The voice of Austrians at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    On 7 May the Austrian Minister for Science announced that, after over 50 years of membership, Austria would withdraw from CERN. By 18 May the Austrian Chancellor had reversed the decision. The Bulletin spoke to some of the Austrian community at CERN about the rollercoaster of events in between. var flash_video_player=get_video_player_path(); insert_player_for_external('Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056-0753-kbps-640x360-25-fps-audio-64-kbps-44-kHz-stereo', 'mms://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056-Multirate-200-to-753-kbps-640x360-25-fps.wmv', 'false', 533, 300, 'https://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056-posterframe-640x360-at-10-percent.jpg', '1180837', true, 'Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056-0600-kbps-maxH-360-25-fps-audio-128-kbps-48-kHz-stereo.mp4'); To watch this video in German click here. There was jubil...

  16. Mapping the value of ecosystem services: A case study from the Austrian Alps

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Paletto; Clemens Geitner; Gianluca Grilli; Richard Hastik; Fabio Pastorella; Laura Rodrìguez Garcìa

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem services (ES) are considered the conditions and processes through which natural ecosystems sustain and fulfil human life. In the decision making process related to the natural resources management, two key-aspects must be taken into account: the economic value of the benefits provided by ES (provisioning, regulating and cultural services) and the spatial distribution of these benefits. The purpose of the paper is to develop a method aimed to capture the economic value of the benefit...

  17. What ICU nurses in different Austrian hospitals know and think about the Austrian organ donation law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettel, Gabriele; Horvath, Angela; Vorobyeva, Ekaterina; Auburger, Christian; Zink, Michael; Stiegler, Philipp; Stadlbauer, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported a high level of information on the Austrian organ donation law in medical and non-medical students, patients and ICU nurses, whereby ICU nurses at University Hospital in Graz (n = 185) were very well informed and also had the most critical view of the Austrian organ donation law.This letter reports the extension of our previous study to ICU nurses from hospitals with a Christian background (n = 60). We found that ICU nurses in hospitals run by religious congregations considered the Austrian organ donation law to be good more often than did those at the University Hospital in Graz. A positive attitude was also influenced by gender and prior knowledge of the law.Reasons for this could be the Christian orientation of the hospitals or exposure to organ donation and transplantation procedures on the job. PMID:24938119

  18. ALPS: A Linear Program Solver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferencz, Donald C.; Viterna, Larry A.

    1991-01-01

    ALPS is a computer program which can be used to solve general linear program (optimization) problems. ALPS was designed for those who have minimal linear programming (LP) knowledge and features a menu-driven scheme to guide the user through the process of creating and solving LP formulations. Once created, the problems can be edited and stored in standard DOS ASCII files to provide portability to various word processors or even other linear programming packages. Unlike many math-oriented LP solvers, ALPS contains an LP parser that reads through the LP formulation and reports several types of errors to the user. ALPS provides a large amount of solution data which is often useful in problem solving. In addition to pure linear programs, ALPS can solve for integer, mixed integer, and binary type problems. Pure linear programs are solved with the revised simplex method. Integer or mixed integer programs are solved initially with the revised simplex, and the completed using the branch-and-bound technique. Binary programs are solved with the method of implicit enumeration. This manual describes how to use ALPS to create, edit, and solve linear programming problems. Instructions for installing ALPS on a PC compatible computer are included in the appendices along with a general introduction to linear programming. A programmers guide is also included for assistance in modifying and maintaining the program.

  19. Foreign Identities in the Austrian E-Government

    OpenAIRE

    Ivkovic, Mario; Stranacher, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    With the revision of the Austrian E-Government Act [8] in the year 2008, the legal basis for a full integration of foreign persons in the Austrian e-government, has been created. Additionally, the E-Government Equivalence Decree [1] has been published in June 2010. This decree clarifies which foreign electronic identities are considered to be equivalent to Austrian identities and can be electronically registered within the Austrian identity register. Based on this legal framework a concept ha...

  20. ALPS - A LINEAR PROGRAM SOLVER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, L. A.

    1994-01-01

    Linear programming is a widely-used engineering and management tool. Scheduling, resource allocation, and production planning are all well-known applications of linear programs (LP's). Most LP's are too large to be solved by hand, so over the decades many computer codes for solving LP's have been developed. ALPS, A Linear Program Solver, is a full-featured LP analysis program. ALPS can solve plain linear programs as well as more complicated mixed integer and pure integer programs. ALPS also contains an efficient solution technique for pure binary (0-1 integer) programs. One of the many weaknesses of LP solvers is the lack of interaction with the user. ALPS is a menu-driven program with no special commands or keywords to learn. In addition, ALPS contains a full-screen editor to enter and maintain the LP formulation. These formulations can be written to and read from plain ASCII files for portability. For those less experienced in LP formulation, ALPS contains a problem "parser" which checks the formulation for errors. ALPS creates fully formatted, readable reports that can be sent to a printer or output file. ALPS is written entirely in IBM's APL2/PC product, Version 1.01. The APL2 workspace containing all the ALPS code can be run on any APL2/PC system (AT or 386). On a 32-bit system, this configuration can take advantage of all extended memory. The user can also examine and modify the ALPS code. The APL2 workspace has also been "packed" to be run on any DOS system (without APL2) as a stand-alone "EXE" file, but has limited memory capacity on a 640K system. A numeric coprocessor (80X87) is optional but recommended. The standard distribution medium for ALPS is a 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskette. IBM, IBM PC and IBM APL2 are registered trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.

  1. The strata-bound ore deposits in the Eastern Alps, ch. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the geological evolution of the Eastern Alps is summarized, using the global plate tectonics as a basis, and making use of the voluminous literature and the results of the authors' own investigations. The paper is subdivided into various sections. In one of these, a discussion of uranium deposits and copper mineralizations in sandstones is given. The uranium deposits discovered in the Alpine region are divided into two groups. The first group, with epigenetic ore enrichments in fissures and veinlets within the crystalline basement, is of little importance. The second group, with a large number of originally synsedimentary-diagenetic uranium concentrations, has been found in the French, Swiss, Italian, Yugoslavian and Austrian Alps over an area nearly 1000 km long and up to 400 km wide. The latter group is surveyed

  2. Activation in the Austrian Social Assistance Scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leibetseder, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    Activation is an essential part of social assistance schemes. This article provides an insight into the implementation of activation in the Austrian social assistance scheme by analyzing the work requirements and support offered in two provinces, Upper Austria and Styria. The main questions...... pressure based on 11 questions. Current practice incorporates supportive forms of activation to a lesser degree than efforts to force people to find work, due to pressures from the caseworker. Although high conditionality is not found to affect the job search activity, the job search requirement itself...

  3. Holocene temperature variations at a high-altitude site in the Eastern Alps: a chironomid record from Schwarzsee ob Sölden, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyashuk, Elena A.; Koinig, Karin A.; Heiri, Oliver; Ilyashuk, Boris P.; Psenner, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Few well-dated, quantitative Holocene temperature reconstructions exist from high-altitude sites in the Central Eastern Alps. Here, we present a chironomid-based quantitative reconstruction of mean July air temperatures (TJuly) throughout the Holocene for a remote high-mountain lake, Schwarzsee ob Sölden, situated above the treeline at 2796 m a.s.l. in the Austrian Alps. Applying a chironomid-temperature inference model developed from lakes of the Alpine region to a high-resolution chironomid record from the lake provides evidence for early Holocene (ca 10000–8600 cal yr BP) TJuly of up to 8.5 °C, i.e. >4 °C above the modern (1977–2006) mean July temperature. The reconstruction reveals the so-called ‘8.2-ka cold event’ centered at ca 8250–8000 cal yr BP with temperatures ca 3 °C below the early-Holocene thermal maximum. Rather warm (ca 6 °C) and productive conditions prevailed during ca 7900–4500 cal yr BP. The chironomid record suggests a climate transition between ca 5200 and 4500 cal yr BP to cooler TJuly. A distinct cooling trend is evident from ca 4500 until ca 2500 cal yr BP. Thereafter, the study site experienced its coldest conditions (around 4 °C or less) throughout the rest of the Holocene, with the exception of the warming trend during the late 20th century. Beside other factors, the Northern Hemisphere summer insolation seems to be the major driving force for the long-term trends in TJuly at high altitudes in the Eastern Alps. Due to the extreme location of the lake and the limited temperature range represented by the applied calibration data set, the chironomid-based temperature reconstruction fails to track phases of the late-Holocene climatic history with TJuly cooler than 4 °C. Further chironomid-based palaeoclimate model and down-core studies are required to address this problem, provide more realistic TJuly estimates from undisturbed high-altitude lakes in the Alps, and extract a reliable regional

  4. Crustal structure and active tectonics in the Eastern Alps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brückl, E.; Behm, M.; Decker, K.;

    2010-01-01

    During the last decade, a series of controlled source seismic experiments brought new insight into the crustal and lithospheric structure of the Eastern Alps and their adjacent tectonic provinces. A fragmentation of the lithosphere into three blocks, Europe (EU), Adria (AD), and the new Pannonian...... compensated by the lateral extrusion of the central Eastern Alps. The Periadriatic (Insubric) line east of the triple junction and the mid-Hungarian fault zone have relatively recently lost their role as first-order active structures. We favor the idea that the Pannonian fragment and the TISZA block merged to...

  5. THE ECOLOGIST SPIRIT UNDERNEATH AUSTRIAN ECONOMIST CLOTHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bianca Vieru

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Capital is strongly related to growth and development. Unfortunately, nowadays not many are those who actually understand the meaning underneath these connections. Our main concern becomes providing strong proof for the idea according to which a misallocation of capital betrays disastrous consequences, both from a pure economical as well as from an ecological perspective. Thus, the purpose of our paper finds its roots in revealing the answer to the question whether society requires a new economico-ecological mentality oriented towards a sane and efficient resource allocation along the productive process. The response we found is that it desperately does so. Formulating the argument benefits from the Austrian School precepts as it bifurcates into separate paths to follow along the paper. The first one highlights our main assumption according to which Austrian economics are, from a certain perspective, ecological oriented as their capital theory is thoroughly linked to an environmental friendly growth. The second trail entails the development of a plan under the form of possible solutions for escaping the recurrence of imbalances. A considerable part is also allocated to pointing out the main indicators that emphasize the guiding alarm signals: prices and private property.

  6. HORA - an Austrian platform for natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlatky, T.

    2009-04-01

    HORA - an Austrian platform for natural hazards as a new way in risk communication One initiatives launched in Austria demonstrate that public participation not only bears the risk of a partial transfer of responsibility by the authorities; it may above all prepare the ground for entirely new approaches and create new links. The recent installation of the first internet risk zoning system in Austria underscores the importance of involving private parties in natural disaster protection. This public-private partnership (PPP) between the Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management (BMLFUW) and the Austrian Insurance Association (VVO) was launched in the wake of the 2002 flood disaster. The first project phase, the Austrian flood risk zoning system called HORA (screenshot see fig. 1), has now been accessible on the Web since 1st June 2006. In accordance with a risk partnership concluded between federal government, insurance companies and private parties, the project initiators seek to offer the public a preliminary risk assessment tool for evaluation of their home, industrial enterprise, of infrastructure. Digital risk maps shall provide information on 30-year, 100-year and 200-year flood events as they occur alongside the 26.000-km-long domestic river network. The probability with which a certain block of land is immersed in water during a flood event can be calculated by means of hydraulic engineering methods. These have traditionally relied on statistical figures, which are known to be very inaccurate, especially when major events such as flooding are concerned. The Vienna University of Technology (TU) (Institute of Hydraulic and Water Resources Engineering) has dedicated many years to developing more accurate, process oriented risk assessment techniques. The starting points was to identify different flood-triggering processes and to divide them into specific categories as long-duration rainfalls, short-duration rainfalls, storms

  7. Austrian tritium monitoring network - annual report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Federal Research and Testing Institute Arsenal (BFPZ Arsenal) and the Austrian Federal Environmental Agency (UBA) cooperate in the frame of a research contract concerning the monitoring of the tritium concentrations of precipitation in Austria. Monthly mixed samples of 20 stations have been analysed in the year 1993. Compared to 1992 the tritium concentration in precipitation has increased about 10%. The stations N-77 (Bregenz) and N-64 (Patscherkofel) show slightly higher values compared to the other stations. The concentrations at Patscherkofel N-64 (2,245 m above sea-level), which have been significant higher in comparison with the other stations since about the end of the seventies (the cause for this special behaviour is not known until now), have been further decreasing in comparison to 1992. (author)

  8. Austrian tritium monitoring network - annual report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Federal Research and Testing Institute Arsenal (BFPZ Arsenal) and the Austrian Federal Environment Agency (UBA) cooperate in the frame of a research contract concerning the monitoring of the tritium concentrations of precipitation in Austria. Monthly mixed samples of 20 stations have been analysed in the year 1994. Compared to 1993 the tritium concentration in precipitation did not change very substancially. The measured concentrations are far below critical values concerning health. The stations N-77 (Bregenz) and N-64 (Patscherkofel) show slightly higher values compared to the other stations. The concentrations at Patscherkofel N-64 (2,245 m above sea-level), which have been significant higher in comparison with the other stations since the early eighties (the cause for this special behaviour is not known until now), have been further decreasing in comparison to 1993. Possible causes are discussed for the raised 3H-content of precipitation at the Patscherkofel near Innsbruck. (author)

  9. Network Topology of the Austrian Airline Flights

    CERN Document Server

    Han, D D; Qian, J H

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the directed, weighted and evolutionary Austrian airline flight network. It is shown that such a specific airline flight network displays features of small-world networks, namely large clustering coefficient and small average shortest-path length. We study the detailed flight information both in a week and on a whole. In both cases, the degree distributions reveal power law with exponent value of 2 $\\sim$ 3 for the small degree branch and a flat tail for the large degree branch. Similarly, the flight weight distributions have power-law for the small weight branch. The degree-degree correlation analysis shows the network has disassortative behavior, i.e. the large airports are likely to link to smaller airports.

  10. The internationalization of Austrian firms in Central and Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Ninan, Schien; Puck, Jonas F.

    2010-01-01

    Dieser Beitrag testet und erweitert das Uppsala Modell anhand eines Samples von 1.271 Markteintritten durch 109 österreichische Firmen in der CEE Region. Unsere Erweiterung bezieht sich einerseits auf kollektives Lernen, ein Phänomen welches bisher in der IB Literatur weitgehend vernachlässigt wurde. Andererseits erweitern wir das Modell durch die Einbeziehung von zwei weiteren abhängigen Variablen. Der Artikel leistet einen Beitrag zur Forschung in dem drei unterschiedliche Internationalisie...

  11. Austrian Carbon Calculator (ACC) - modelling soil carbon dynamics in Austrian soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedy, Katrin; Freudenschuss, Alexandra; Zethner, Gehard; Spiegel, Heide; Franko, Uwe; Gründling, Ralf; Xaver Hölzl, Franz; Preinstorfer, Claudia; Haslmayr, Hans Peter; Formayer, Herbert

    2014-05-01

    Austrian Carbon Calculator (ACC) - modelling soil carbon dynamics in Austrian soils. The project funded by the Klima- und Energiefonds, Austrian Climate Research Programme, 4th call Authors: Katrin Sedy, Alexandra Freudenschuss, Gerhard Zethner (Environment Agency Austria), Heide Spiegel (Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety), Uwe Franko, Ralf Gründling (Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research) Climate change will affect plant productivity due to weather extremes. However, adverse effects could be diminished and satisfying production levels may be maintained with proper soil conditions. To sustain and optimize the potential of agricultural land for plant productivity it will be necessary to focus on preserving and increasing soil organic carbon (SOC). Carbon sequestration in agricultural soils is strongly influenced by management practice. The present management is affected by management practices that tend to speed up carbon loss. Crop rotation, soil cultivation and the management of crop residues are very important measures to influence carbon dynamics and soil fertility. For the future it will be crucial to focus on practical measures to optimize SOC and to improve soil structure. To predict SOC turnover the existing humus balance model the application of the "Carbon Candy Balance" was verified by results from Austrian long term field experiments and field data of selected farms. Thus the main aim of the project is to generate a carbon balancing tool box that can be applied in different agricultural production regions to assess humus dynamics due to agricultural management practices. The toolbox will allow the selection of specific regional input parameters for calculating the C-balance at field level. However farmers or other interested user can also apply their own field data to receive the result of C-dynamics under certain management practises within the next 100 years. At regional level the impact of predefined changes in agricultural management

  12. France and the Austrian Empire 1815-1918

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horel Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Relations between France and the Habsburg Empire during the long nineteenth century went through several phases bounded by the events crucial not just to the two countries' mutual relations but to all of Europe. The Congress of Vienna defined their mutual relations for the next thirty years. The Habsburgs and their omnipresent minister Metternich were fearful of revolutionary and liberal movements traditionally having their origins in France. And it was the revolutionary events of 1848 that brought about a change in the balance of power and their mutual relations. Metternich's retirement and, more importantly, the arrival of the Russian armies in Central Europe and the subsequent strengthening of Prussia, conferred a new importance to the role of the Habsburg Monarchy as a bulwark against the advancement of Russia and a vital counterweight to Prussia. With the defeat of Napoleon III and the creation of Germany with Alsace and Lorraine Franco-Austrian relations entered a new phase. The destiny of the two provinces alienated the Habsburgs from the French Republic, especially after the reorganization of Europe into two confronting blocs. The logic of alliances led to their being adversaries in the world conflict, although Napoleon III's geo-strategic analyses remained present almost to its very end, when Clemenceau's government gave support to the nationality principle thereby crucially contributing to the collapse of the Habsburg Monarchy.

  13. The Austrian Approach: Entering the World of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feistritzer, Patricia; Balcerack, Carl

    1979-01-01

    This photo-essay describes a Waldorf School. Developed by Austrian Rudolf Steiner, the Waldorf plan is dedicated to allowing the child a childlike environment. It emphasizes storytelling, creative dramatics, flexibility, improvisation, crafts, and movement. (SJL)

  14. Capital Market-Oriented Financing Prospects for Austrian SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Halling; Josef Zechner

    2005-01-01

    The performance and growth of the Austrian economy largely depend on small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Despite their diminutive size, SMEs offer attractive investment opportunities that are, however, financed primarily by debt for a variety of reasons. The financing concept presented in this study adopts an innovative approach to provide access to quasi-equity forms of financing to Austrian SMEs, which have successfully and responsibly generated business in recent years and which cur...

  15. Acidification and Nitrogen Eutrophication of Austrian Forest Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Jandl; Stefan Smidt; Franz Mutsch; Alfred Fürst; Harald Zechmeister; Heidi Bauer; Thomas Dirnböck

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of acidic deposition and nitrogen on Austrian forests soils. Until thirty years ago air pollution had led to soil acidification, and concerns on the future productivity of forests were raised. Elevated rates of nitrogen deposition were believed to cause nitrate leaching and imbalanced forest nutrition. We used data from a soil monitoring network to evaluate the trends and current status of the pH and the C : N ratio of Austrian forest soils. Deposition measurements and...

  16. The Meaning of Market : Comparing Austrian and Institutional Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Dulbecco, Philippe; DUTRAIVE

    1997-01-01

    Our contribution aims at revealing the terms of a confrontation between Austrian and Institutional schools concerning the nature and the role of markets. Such an approach is justified by, on the one hand, the characteristics shared by both theoretical traditions, and on the other by the existence of complementarity, which founds a representation of market mechanisms in terms of process. The point is that if the economic analysis of institutions constitutes an essential link in the Austrian pr...

  17. First results of the Austrian radon mitigation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives of the Austrian radon mitigation research project were to find cost-effective methods for characterizing the radon situation of dwellings and to evaluate the implementation of remedial actions for Austrian house types. Three houses in regions with elevated radon levels were closely examined. The methods used for radon diagnosis and the mitigation concept are described. The conception and implementation of proposed remedial actions are highlighted. Preliminary results of the investigations and remedial actions are presented. (A.K.)

  18. Publications of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf 1976-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About 3000 publications, written by staff members of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf (OEFZS) within the period 1976-1985 are cited. The bibliography includes citations of journal articles, proceedings, books, technical reports as well as dissertations and diploma works, carried out in Seibersdorf by students of Austrian universities. It covers the subject areas of chemistry, physics, biology, radiation protection, reactor safety, isotope applications, materials technology, environmental research, mathematics and information, electronics and agriculture. 10 refs. (Author)

  19. Bericht der AG Primo-Implementierung an die Vollversammlung des österreichischen Bibliothekenverbundes zum möglichen Einsatz des Dienstes Primo Central

    OpenAIRE

    Pipp, Eveline; Knitel, Markus; Mayer, Wolfgang; Putz, Michaela

    2011-01-01

    Applicability of the discovery service Primo Central for Austrian academic libraries. A Report of the task force PrimoImplementation for the Austrian Library Network. In winter 2010/11 the task force PrimoImplementation of the Austrian Library Network evaluated Primo Central, the Discovery and Delivery Service from Ex Libris, by means of a three month test account and several Q&A sessions with product developers from Ex Libris. Primo Central integrates hundreds of millions of metadata from va...

  20. PEGASUS - An Austrian Nanosatellite for QB50

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharlemann, Carsten; Seifert, Bernhard; Kohl, Dominik; Birschitzky, David; Gury, Lionel; Kerschbaum, Franz; Obertscheider, Christof; Ottensamer, Roland; Reissner, Alexander; Riel, Thomas; Sypniewski, Richard; Taraba, Michael; Trausmuth, Robert; Turetschek, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    PEGASUS - An Austrian Nanosatellite for QB50 C. Scharlemann* David Birschitzky* Lionel Gury*, Franz Kerschbaum~, Dominik Kohl#, Christof Obertscheider*, Roland Ottensamer~, Alexander Reissner+, Thomas Riel#, B. Seifert+, Richard Sypniewski*, Michael Taraba?, Robert Trausmuth*, Thomas Turetschek?, …. (*)University of Applied Sciences Wiener Neustadt, Austria (+)FOTEC GmbH, Wiener Neustadt, Austria (+) Spaceteam, TU Wien, Austria (~) University Wien, Wien, Austria The QB50 project is an international project with the goal to send up to 50 Nanosatellites, a.k.a. CubeSat, into the Thermosphere. The scientific goal of this mission is to monitor over a period of up to nine months the prevailing conditions in this rather unknown part of Earth's atmosphere. Each of the 50 nanosatellites will be equipped with one of three possible scientific instruments: (i) a set of Langmuir probes, (ii) atomic oxygen measurement device, (iii) ion/neutral mass spectrometer. All satellites will be launched together and released in a string-of-pearls type fashion. It is predicted that the satellites will drift apart rather rapidly following the release. Therefore, the QB50 missions offers the possibility of a measurement grid in the thermosphere of unprecedented scope and accuracy. One of the satellites, named PEGASUS, is designed and build by a team of Austrian researches and students. PEGASUS will be equipped with the aforementioned Langmuir probes and will provide information about essential properties of the plasma in the thermosphere such as the electrontemperature and -density. In order to ensure the capability to collect and downlink the data over several months, PEGASUS requires about the same types of subsystems as one would find on large-scale satellites. This includes an attitude control system, an on-board computer, telecommunication devices, an electrical power systems allowing to harvest the solar power and either distribute or store it for later use, a thermal control system

  1. Regional Ambient Noise Tomography in the Eastern Alps of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behm, Michael; Nakata, Nori; Bokelmann, Götz

    2016-08-01

    We present results from ambient noise tomography applied to temporary seismological stations in the easternmost part of the Alps and their transition to the adjacent tectonic provinces (Vienna Basin, Bohemian Massif, Southern Alps, Dinarides). By turning each station into a virtual source, we recover surface waves in the frequency range between 0.1 and 0.6 Hz, which are sensitive to depths of approximately 2-15 km. The utilization of horizontal components allows for the analysis of both Rayleigh and Love waves with comparable signal-to-noise ratio. Measured group wave dispersion curves between stations are mapped to local cells by means of a simultaneous inverse reconstruction technique. The spatial reconstruction for Love-wave velocities fails in the central part of the investigated area, and we speculate that a heterogeneous noise source distribution is the cause for the failure. Otherwise, the obtained group velocity maps correlate well with surface geology. Inversion of Rayleigh-wave velocities for shear-wave velocities along a vertical N-S section stretching from the Bohemian Massif through the Central Alps to the Southern Alps and Dinarides reveals a mid-crustal low-velocity anomaly at the contact between the Bohemian Massif and the Alps, which shows a spatial correlation with the P-wave velocity structure and the low-frequency component of the magnetic anomaly map. Our study is validated by the analysis of resolution and accuracy, and we further compare the result to shear-wave velocity models estimated from other active and passive experiments in the area.

  2. Fatal familial insomnia: a new Austrian family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almer, G; Hainfellner, J A; Brücke, T; Jellinger, K; Kleinert, R; Bayer, G; Windl, O; Kretzschmar, H A; Hill, A; Sidle, K; Collinge, J; Budka, H

    1999-01-01

    We present clinical, pathological and molecular features of the first Austrian family with fatal familial insomnia. Detailed clinical data are available in five patients and autopsy in four patients. Age at onset of disease ranged between 20 and 60 years, and disease duration between 8 and 20 months. Severe loss of weight was an early symptom in all five patients. Four patients developed insomnia and/or autonomic dysfunction, and all five patients developed motor abnormalities. Analysis of the prion protein (PrP) gene revealed the codon 178 point mutation and methionine homozygosity at position 129. In all brains, neuropathology showed widespread cortical astrogliosis, widespread brainstem nuclei and tract degeneration, and olivary 'pseudohypertrophy' with vacuolated neurons, in addition to neuropathological features described previously, such as thalamic and olivary degeneration. Western blotting of one brain and immunocytochemistry in four brains revealed quantitative and regional dissociation between PrP(res)(the protease resistant form of PrP) deposition and histopathology. In the cerebellar cortex of one patient, PrP(res) deposits were prominent in the molecular layer and displayed a peculiar patchy and strip-like pattern with perpendicular orientation to the surface. In another patient, a single vacuolated neuron in the inferior olivary nuclei contained prominent intravacuolar granular PrP(res) deposits, resembling changes of brainstem neurons in bovine spongiform encephalopathy. PMID:10050890

  3. [The Austrian Stroke-Unit-Registry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Christine; Kiechl, Stefan; Lang, Wilfried

    2008-01-01

    Since 2003 the Austrian Stroke-Unit-Registry has been administered by the Gesundheit Osterreich GmbH. A total of 26 out of the 32 existing Stroke Units in Austria take part in the project, financed by the Federal Ministry of Health and accompanied by a steering group. This paper provides a description of the objectives, organisation, methodology and the data set of the registry. The main objective of the registry is quality assurance and quality improvement of stroke-treatment in stroke units. Therefore, the participating stroke units document their cases using a web-based database. The data are discussed in the steering group and the stroke units get feedback in terms of benchmarking-graphs. The data set follows a modular approach and contains information about stroke, transport, admission to the hospital, stroke unit discharge and the 3-month follow-up. Between 2003 and 2007 about 27,000 cases (containing about 20,000 strokes) were documented in the registry. PMID:18766309

  4. Assessment of sustainability in Austrian wine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosner Franz Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the project was to find out whether environmental sustainability can be measured not only with regard to climate change and carbon consumption but also as to other criteria concerning material consumption, energy, soil, biodiversity and water. We investigated which measures in the vineyard and wine cellar can lead to “better” sustainability while ensuring a high quality standard. 343 activities were identified to fulfill 61 quality objectives. Of the 2,191 sustainability assessments that were determined the measurements of the individual sustainability criteria vary and are in some cases even negatively correlated. Nevertheless, it was still possible to differentiate sustainably managed wineries from others in all of the Austrian wine producing areas. In our approach, a specifically developed online tool can calculate the expression of ecological, economic and social sustainability and show the effects in a spider diagram in the form of a traffic light rating system. Moreover, an algorithm suggests adequately which quality improvements can be achieved. If part of the management system is changed the online tool will show the positive and negative sustainability effects.

  5. Natural radionuclides in Austrian bottled mineral waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All commercially available mineral waters of Austrian origin were investigated with regard to the natural radionuclides 228Ra, 226Ra, 210Pb, 210Po, 238U and 234U. From 1 to 1.5 L of sample the nuclides were extracted and measured sequentially: the radium isotopes as well as 210Pb were measured by liquid scintillation counting after separation on a membrane loaded with element-selective particles (Empore Radium Disks), 210Po was determined by α-particle spectroscopy after spontaneous deposition onto a copper planchette and uranium was determined also by α-particle spectroscopy after anion separation and microprecipitation with NdF3. The calculated committed effective doses for adults, teens and babies were compared to the total indicative dose of 0.1 mSv/year given in the EC Drinking Water Directive. The dominant portion of the committed effective dose was due to 228Ra. Highly mineralised waters showed also higher 226Ra and 228Ra levels. (author)

  6. Austrian Economics and the Transaction Cost Approach to the Firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai J. Foss

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available As the transaction cost theory of the firm was taking shape in the 1970s, another important movement in economics was emerging: a revival of the ‘Austrian’ tradition in economic theory associated with such economists as Ludwig von Mises and F. A. Hayek (1973; Dolan, 1976; Spadaro, 1978. As Oliver Williamson has pointed out, Austrian economics is among the diverse sources for transaction cost economics. In particular, Williamson frequently cites Hayek (e.g., Williamson, 1985, p. 8; 1991, p. 162, particularly Hayek’s emphasis on adaptation as a key problem of economic organisation (Hayek, 1945. Following Williamson’s lead, a reference to Hayek’s ‘The Use of Knowledge in Society’ (Hayek, 1945 has become almost mandatory in discussions of economic organisation (e.g., Ricketts, 1987, p. 59; Milgrom and Roberts, 1992, p. 56; Douma and Schreuder 1991, p. 9. However, there are many other potential links between Austrian and transaction cost economics that have not been explored closely and exploited.This article argues that characteristically Austrian ideas about property, entrepreneurship, economic calculation, tacit knowledge, and the temporal structure of capital have important implications for theories of economic organisation, transaction cost economics in particular. Austrian economists have not, however, devoted substantial attention to the theory of the firm, preferring to focus on business-cycle theory, welfare economics, political economy, comparative economic systems, and other areas. Until recently the theory of the firm was an almost completely neglected area in Austrian economics, but over the last decade, a small Austrian literature on the firm has emerged. While these works cover a wide variety of theoretical and applied topics, their authors share the view that Austrian insights have something to offer students of firm organisation.

  7. Any Light Particle Search (ALPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Aaron; Any Light Particle Search (ALPS) Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    High power laser fields enabled by technologies developed for ground-based gravitational-wave observatories open up new opportunities for fundamental physics studies. One of these options is the search for axions and axion-like particles in a pure laboratory experiment. The axion is a solution to the strong CP-problem and a potential dark matter candidate. The axion has also been proposed as an additional channel to cool stars as well as a potential explanation for the TeV transparency problem. The German-US ALPS collaboration is setting up a light-shining-through-walls (LSW) experiment at DESY. LSW experiments are based on the simple idea that a high power laser field traversing a static magnetic field will transform partly into a relativistic axion field. This axion field will travel through an opaque wall into a second static magnetic field region where it turns partly back into an electromagnetic wave field with the same frequency as the laser. The ALPS collaboration is working towards a large scale LSW experiment at DESY in Hamburg, Germany. I will report on the status of the ALPS experiment. This work is supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, PRISMA, the Helmholtz Association, the National Science Foundation and the Heising-Simons Foundation.

  8. Review: Natural tracers in fractured hard-rock aquifers in the Austrian part of the Eastern Alps—previous approaches and future perspectives for hydrogeology in mountain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilberg, Sylke

    2016-03-01

    Extensive in-depth research is required for the implementation of natural tracer approaches to hydrogeological investigation to be feasible in mountainous regions. This review considers the application of hydrochemical and biotic parameters in mountain regions over the past few decades with particular reference to the Austrian Alps, as an example for alpine-type mountain belts. A brief introduction to Austria's hydrogeological arrangement is given to show the significance of fractured hard-rock aquifers for hydrogeological science as well as for water supply purposes. A literature search showed that research concerning fractured hard-rock aquifers in Austria is clearly underrepresented to date, especially when taking the abundance of this aquifer type and the significance of this topic into consideration. The application of abiotic natural tracers (hydrochemical and isotope parameters) is discussed generally and by means of examples from the Austrian Alps. The potential of biotic tracers (microbiota and meiofauna) is elucidated. It is shown that the meiofauna approach to investigating fractured aquifers has not yet been applied in the reviewed region, nor worldwide. Two examples of new approaches in mountainous fractured aquifers are introduced: (1) use of CO2 partial pressure and calcite saturation of spring water to reconstruct catchments and flow dynamics (abiotic approach), and, (2) consideration of hard-rock aquifers as habitats to reconstruct aquifer conditions (biotic approach).

  9. Review: Natural tracers in fractured hard-rock aquifers in the Austrian part of the Eastern Alps—previous approaches and future perspectives for hydrogeology in mountain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilberg, Sylke

    2016-08-01

    Extensive in-depth research is required for the implementation of natural tracer approaches to hydrogeological investigation to be feasible in mountainous regions. This review considers the application of hydrochemical and biotic parameters in mountain regions over the past few decades with particular reference to the Austrian Alps, as an example for alpine-type mountain belts. A brief introduction to Austria's hydrogeological arrangement is given to show the significance of fractured hard-rock aquifers for hydrogeological science as well as for water supply purposes. A literature search showed that research concerning fractured hard-rock aquifers in Austria is clearly underrepresented to date, especially when taking the abundance of this aquifer type and the significance of this topic into consideration. The application of abiotic natural tracers (hydrochemical and isotope parameters) is discussed generally and by means of examples from the Austrian Alps. The potential of biotic tracers (microbiota and meiofauna) is elucidated. It is shown that the meiofauna approach to investigating fractured aquifers has not yet been applied in the reviewed region, nor worldwide. Two examples of new approaches in mountainous fractured aquifers are introduced: (1) use of CO2 partial pressure and calcite saturation of spring water to reconstruct catchments and flow dynamics (abiotic approach), and, (2) consideration of hard-rock aquifers as habitats to reconstruct aquifer conditions (biotic approach).

  10. 75 FR 8424 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Leaves From an Austrian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Leaves From an Austrian Mahzor... that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Leaves from an Austrian Mahzor,'' imported...

  11. On the way to an Austrian radon action plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the draft of the new European Basic Safety Standards (EU-BSS) all member states are obliged to develop a national radon action plan, to control the long term risks from radon exposure in dwellings, public buildings and workplaces. The National Radon Centre, embedded in the Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety (AGES), was assigned by the Ministry for Environment (BMLFUW) to develop this Austrian action plan and the strategy behind. This conference contribution discusses where we still have a need for actions and how the new BSS will influence the Austrian radon legislation (reference levels, responsibilities, standards, building law). Currently running and planned projects regarding the radon action plan like developing a national radon data base, definition of radon prone areas by improving the radon map and strategies to increase public radon awareness and involve the building sector are presented. (orig.)

  12. Austrian Books Online. Das Google Books-Projekt an der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiser, Max

    2012-01-01

    Austrian Books Online. The Austrian National Library’s Google Books Project (Translation of the title). In cooperation with Google, the Austrian National Library is digitising its historical, public-domain book holdings. Some 600,000 volumes from the sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries will be digitised. The project "Austrian Books Online" demonstrates that public-private partnerships can be successful in enabling heritage institutions to provide large-scale access to their holdings, provid...

  13. CONFERENCE: Physics in the Alps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the annual features of the European particle physics scene is the traditional 'Rencontre de Moriond' organized by G. Tran Thanh Van at Orsay, which for almost twenty years has been attracting a balanced blend of experimentalists and theoreticians to mountain resorts in Haute Savoie (French Alps) in late February/early March. This year the conference took place at La Plagne-Bellecote, with the first week given over to electroweak interactions and unified theories. A conference on astrophysics (a more recent arrival to the Moriond series) was held in parallel, covering the composition, spectrum and origin of cosmic rays

  14. The Austrian Business Cycle Theory: Validity and Implications

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis the Austrian business cycle theory is analyzed. Based on the work of Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk (1959[1889]), Knut Wicksell (1962[1898]) and Ludwig von Mises (1953[1912]), the theory was further developed and made famous by Friedrich von Hayek in the 1930s. Arguably, Hayek was the main rival of Keynes during this decade, but after heavy criticism and the publication of the General Theory (Keynes, 1936), the Austrian business cycle theory was left with few advocates by the end of Wor...

  15. An Austrian framework for PET quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The European patient protection directive (97/43 EURATOM) requires regular routine quality control (QC) of PET imaging devices. Since no standards were available covering this area and in order to comply with the directive a joint working party of the Austrian societies of nuclear medicine and of medical physics have developed a set of procedures suitable for both dedicated PET scanners and gamma cameras operating in coincidence mode (GCPET). The routine procedures proposed include both manufacturer recommended procedures and tests for specific parameters and calibration procedures. Wherever possible, procedures adapted or derived from NEMA standards publication NU 2-2001 were used to permit direct comparison with specified parameters of image quality. For dedicated PET scanners the most important procedures are the checking of detector sensitivities and the attenuation calibration scan. With full ring scanners the attenuation calibration scan is a blank scan, with partial ring devices a special attenuation calibration phantom has to be used. Test protocols are specific to manufacturer and scanner type. They are usually performed automatically overnight. In addition, some instruments require special calibrations, e.g. gain adjustments or coincidence timing calibration. GCPET procedures include the frequent assessment in coincidence mode of detector uniformity, energy resolution and system sensitivity. Common to both dedicated PET and GCPET are the regular quarterly assessment of tomographic spatial resolution and the calibration of the system for quantitative measurements. As a total performance test for both systems assessment of image quality following NU 2-2001 was included, to be carried out after major system changes or repairs. The suite of QC procedures was tested on several dedicated PET and GCPET systems including all major manufacturers' systems. Due to missing hardware or software not all tests could be performed on all systems. Some of the

  16. The onset of alpine pastoral systems in the Eastern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeggl, Klaus; Festi, Daniela; Putzer, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Since the discovery of the Neolithic glacier mummy "Ötzi" in the nival belt of the main Alpine ridge, the onset of alpine pasture is matter of a highly controversial debate both in archaeology and in palaeo-ecology of the Eastern Alps. The implication is that his sojourn in the high-altitudes of the Alps is considered to be connected with pastoral nomadism. Regrettably any archaeological evidence for the existence of such Neolithic alpine pastoral systems is missing up to now and the assumption is based on palynological data only. However, also the palynological record is ambiguous, because pasture indicators in the alpine regions react positive on grazing as well as on fertilization induced by a higher runoff of precipitation. Thus alpine pasture indicators reflect both grazing pressure and climatic change. Anyhow, alpine pastoral systems are a common practice in Alpine animal husbandry, but from an economic point of view such a seasonal vertical transhumance is costly. There are three main reasons for its practice: i) climatic, ii) economic (mainly in connection with population pressure or mining activities), and iii) cultural ideology. In this study we tested the above mentioned reasons in an interdisciplinary study on the beginning of pastoral activities in high altitudes in the central part of the Eastern Alps. This is conducted by palynological analyses of peat deposits situated in the vicinity of the timberline (1600 - 2400 m a.s.l.) combined with archaeological surveys. The investigated sites are located in traditional Alpine transhumance regions and aligned on a transect through the central part of the Eastern Alps. The studies reveal that grazing pressure is reflected since the Bronze Age, which is corroborated by archaeological findings in the vicinity of the investigated sites.

  17. 48. annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains short communications of lectures and posters of the 48th Symposium of the Austrian Physical Society which had been held at the University of Graz (Austria) in 1998. The following topics are included: atomic physics, molecular physics, plasma physics, solid state physics, nuclear and particle physics, polymer physics, biophysics, environmental physics, quantum electronics and quantum optics. (Suda)

  18. English, French, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese? Code Choice and Austrian Export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavric, Eva; Back, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    This article deals with how "export oriented Austrian companies effect code choice in their business relationships with customers from Romance language speaking countries". The focus lies on the most widespread Romance languages, therefore on French, Spanish, Italian and Portuguese speaking customers.The question of code choice in export should be…

  19. 49. annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains short communications of lectures and poster sessions of the 49th symposium of the Austrian Physical Society which has been held at the University of Innsbruck (Austria) in 1999. The following topics are included: atomic physics, molecular physics, plasma physics, solid state physics, nuclear and particle physics, polymer physics, biophysics, environmental physics, quantum electronics and quantum optics. (Suda)

  20. 50. Annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference held from 25. - 29. 9. 2000 at the University of Graz was elaborated by the Austrian society of physics in the fields of solid state physics, polymers physics, quantum electronics, electrodynamics, optics, nuclear and particle physics, atomic, molecules and plasma physics, acoustics, physics - industry - energy and physics teaching. (botek)

  1. 40. annual convention 1990 of the Austrian physical society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titles and abstracts of the 1990 Convention of the Austrian Physical Society, 17-21 September 1990 at Salzburg, Austria, are given. The topical sections are: 1. Atomic, Molecular- and Plasma Physics; 2. Solid State Physics; 3. Polymer Physics; 4. Nuclear- and Particle Physics; 5. Medical Physics and Biophysics. There are alltogether 193 contributions, 61 thereof of INIS interest

  2. 47. annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains lectures (short communications) of the 47. symposium of the Austrian Physical Society which had been held at the University of Vienna (Austria) in 1997. The following topics are included: atomic physics, molecular physics, plasma physics, solid state physics, nuclear and particle physics, biophysics, environmental physics, quantum electronics and quantum optics. (Suda)

  3. Report 1985 of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf. Abridged version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report gives a short survey of the work carried out by the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf in 1985. The working programme comprises five main areas: Energy and safety; Materials research, isotope and radiation techniques; Measuring techniques and information processing; Environmental protection, health and food; Industrial consulting. (Author)

  4. Annual convention 1986 of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are 152 contributions, 58 thereof of INIS interest. The subject matters are indicated by the grouping of contributions into topical sessions on 1) nuclear and particle physics 2) physics of high polymers 3) atomic and plasma physics. There is additionally a session for teachers contimation training and one page informations on the Austrian Physical Society. (G.Q.)

  5. 45. Annual Convention of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains lectures of the 45th symposium of the Austrian Physical Society which had been held in Leoben, Austria in 1995. The following topics are included: Atomic physics, molecular physics, plasma physics, solid state physics, nuclear and particle physics, biophysics, environmental physics, quantum electronics and quantum optics. (Suda)

  6. Brief Report: Coping among Austrian Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Petra

    2007-01-01

    The study investigated age and gender effects on coping with common stressors among 494 Austrian children and adolescents (age 8-14 years). Participants were subdivided into subgroups of late children comprising third and fourth graders, early adolescents consisting of fifth and sixth graders, and middle adolescents including seventh graders.…

  7. Acidification and Nitrogen Eutrophication of Austrian Forest Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Jandl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of acidic deposition and nitrogen on Austrian forests soils. Until thirty years ago air pollution had led to soil acidification, and concerns on the future productivity of forests were raised. Elevated rates of nitrogen deposition were believed to cause nitrate leaching and imbalanced forest nutrition. We used data from a soil monitoring network to evaluate the trends and current status of the pH and the C : N ratio of Austrian forest soils. Deposition measurements and nitrogen contents of Norway spruce needles and mosses were used to assess the nitrogen supply. The pH values of soils have increased because of decreasing proton depositions caused by reduction of emissions. The C : N ratio of Austrian forest soils is widening. Despite high nitrogen deposition rates the increase in forest stand density and productivity has increased the nitrogen demand. The Austrian Bioindicator Grid shows that forest ecosystems are still deficient in nitrogen. Soils retain nitrogen efficiently, and nitrate leaching into the groundwater is presently not a large-scale problem. The decline of soil acidity and the deposition of nitrogen together with climate change effects will further increase the productivity of the forests until a limiting factor such as water scarcity becomes effective.

  8. Shallow and deep rotations in the Miocene Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubscher, H.

    Mapping and the construction of balanced cross-sections reveal dextral rotation in addition to N-S contraction during the late middle to late Miocene Jura phase both at the northern and the southern front of the Central Alps (Jura and Lombardic Southern Alps, respectively). These rotations may be ascribed to one and the same shallow domain or sublid, rotated clockwise around a pivot somewhere at the southwestern end of the Aar massif. In a crude first approximation model the sublid may be considered rigid, although the data indicate differential rotations and longitudinal stretching within the lid. The eastern boundary of the sublid crosses the Alps at the Giudicarie-Brenner line, which, according to very recent data, in the Jura phase formed a kinematically linked system, whereas from Innsbruck to the northwest it is postulated to join, as a diffuse or accommodation zone, the eastern tip of the Jura. In the southwest, the Lombardic thrusts enter into the interior of the Western Alps. From there to the southwestern end of the Jura the lid boundary is tentatively chosen arbitrarily to pass somewhere near the northern end of the Belledonne Massif. A similar sublid, though less well substantiated, may comprise the Tauern and the Venetian Southern Alps. The rotational components are superimposed on elements of internal strain, particularly transverse contraction and longitudinal stretching due to simple dextral shear and lateral escape. The model of dextrally rotating sublids pulls together a number of hitherto unexplained structures and opens new perspectives on such recalcitrant problems as the eastward disappearance of the Jura and the Adige embayment in the Southern Alps. Dextral rotation of such shallow sublids may be considered to constitute ``mode 1'' of the dextral component at the Europa-Adria plate boundary. There is also a ``mode 2'' that affects its deep parts. At the surface, its manifestation is a dextral belt of en échelon folds and pull-apart domains

  9. Present status and distribution of the Lynx in the Swiss Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Molinari-Jobin

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To evaluate the population trend of lynx in the Swiss Alps, we analysed the spatial and numerical development of signs of presence found from 1995 to 1999 and compared them with previous years. Three sources of information on the presence of lynx are available: (1 reports of lynx killed or found dead; (2 records of livestock killed by lynx; (3 records of wild prey remains, tracks, scats, sightings, and vocalisations. We distinguished three levels of reliability: Quality 1 represent the hard facts, e.g. all reports of lynx killed or found dead, photographs of lynx as well as young orphaned lynx caught in the wild and taken into captivity. Quality 2 include all records of livestock killed, wild prey remains, tracks and scats reported by people who have attended special courses, e.g. mainly game wardens. Quality 3 are all wild prey remains and tracks reported by the general public as well as all sightings, scats and vocalisations, e.g. signs that cannot be verified. More than 1600 signs of presence were recorded in the Swiss Alps in this 5-year-period. A high number of quality 1 and 2 records showed that (1 the lynx population in the north-western Swiss Alps increased from 1994 to 1999, that (2 there is a moderate presence of the species in the central and south-western parts and (3 none or hardly any lynx are found in the eastern Alps of Switzerland. Based on a radio-telemetry study and the number of quality 2 data, we were able to estimate the number of lynx in the Swiss Alps at 70 individuals. To counterpart the uneven distribution of lynx in Switzerland, lynx are being translocated from the north-western Alps to the eastern Swiss Alps, as the expansion of the Swiss lynx population is crucial for the conservation of the lynx in the whole Alps.

  10. Two centuries of the Austrian Civil code (1811-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Dušan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Austrian civil code (Allgemeines bürgerliches Gesetzbuch - ABGB, ACC succeeded in resisting the challenges of time for two centuries. A number of factors influenced it's longevity. First of all, prior to adoption of the law, a long lasting and well designed work, which has been described in greater detail in this article, was done. The Code was written gradually, with lots of recalculations, checks and public debates. In legal literature, it is often written about a unique lawmaking experiment, which Austrian authorities made by implementing the Code in one part of the state territory. The Code was written for feudal order, but according to principles of natural law. This second thing has, in addition to widely formulated and flexible legal norms, left enough space for extensive interpretation of outdated rules, and filling in the legal lacunas, whose number was increasing as the time passed. Courts often used this opportunity in a creative manner, contributing to survival of the Code. Many additions and changes were made to the Code, but there were few of those who thought that it should be changed by a new one Code. Austrians are preparing a more detailed revision of the ACC, which will allow modernization of the national law and it's synchronization with trends in current European law, but on the other hand, to preserve the two century old legal heritage. The second part of this article is dedicated to the influence of the Austrian Civil Code on the development of civil law in the former Yugoslavia and Serbia. ACC served as model for adoption of the Serbian Civil Code of 1844. It was applied as a positive law in the first half of XX century, in one part of the territory of today's Autonomous Province of Vojvodina. Formally, legal rules of the Austrian Civil Code can even be applied today, according to the Law on Nullity of Legal Regulations Enacted Prior to 6th of April 1941, and During the Enemy Occupation. However, that possibility is more

  11. ALPES: an advanced logic programming environment

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Ruggieri

    1988-01-01

    This paper introduces a software programming environment for an extended Prolog language, called ALPES. The purpose of ALPES is to enable a logic programming paradigm to become a software engineering tool to design, develop and prototype traditional software systems, as well as artificial intelligence applications. The key structuring concepts for programs, as well as for the system architecture as a whole are those of contexts, processes and communication. The software design and development...

  12. 57. annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society. Conference programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This annual symposium was devoted to present advances in physics research performed in Austrian scientific organizations. It covered a variety of physical topics as well as the 'symposium on carbon nanophysics'. The contributions were speeches and poster sessions on the research fields of acoustics; atoms, molecules, quantum optics and plasma; solid state physics; polymer physics; physics history; nuclear and particle physics; medical, bio- and environmental physics; neutrons and synchrotron radiation physics; and surfaces and thin films. Specific topics such as the application of accelerator mass spectrometry, age dating, ATLAS experiment, electron detachment, electronic structure calculation, nanostructures, international linear collider, isobar suppression, magnetic field analysis, neutron interferometry, neutron experiments, neutron sources, nTOF project results, pionic atoms, quantum simulation, quantum well, quantum dots, quantum entanglement, quark confinement, quark gluon, quantum optics, silicon detectors, string theory development, synchrotron radiation, Austria UV indexing, Austrian radon potential, UV dosimetry were addressed. Those contributions which are in the INIS subject scope are indexed individually. (nevyjel)

  13. Austrian Households’ Equity Capital – Evidence from Microdata

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Andreasch; Pirmin Fessler

    2009-01-01

    To date, research on household wealth has seldom focused on households’ business equity holdings. Such equity stakes represent above all ownership in domestic limited liability companies. This study for the first time provides an empirical analysis of the distribution of Austrian households’ equity stakes in limited liability companies. For our analysis, we draw on data from three sources: the Company Register, a commercial database and the OeNB’s 2004 Survey on Financial Household Wealth. In...

  14. Knowledge: a Challenge for the Austrian Theory of the Firm.

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre Garrouste

    2001-01-01

    In this paper I argue that the unequal distribution of knowledge implies that an Austrian theory of the firm must investigate two items. The first is the growth of knowledge within the firm (learning process), the second the way in the rights to decide over the distribution of knowledge are assigned and controlled. Finally, because those two elements are interdependent, we must define what their possible relations can be.

  15. Austrian Economics, Evolutionary Psychology and Methodological Dualism: Subjectivism Reconsidered

    OpenAIRE

    Vanberg, Viktor J.

    2004-01-01

    The methodological individualism and subjectivism of the Austrian tradition in economics is often associated with a methodological dualism, i.e. the claim that the nature of its subject matter, namely purposeful and intentional human action, requires economics to adopt a methodology that is fundamentally different from the causal explanatory approach of the natural sciences. This paper critically examines this claim and advocates an alternative, explicitly naturalistic and empiricist outlook ...

  16. Babesia Species Occurring in Austrian Ixodes ricinus Ticks▿

    OpenAIRE

    Blaschitz, Marion; Narodoslavsky-Gföller, Melanie; Kanzler, Michaela; Stanek, Gerold; Walochnik, Julia

    2008-01-01

    Babesiosis is a tick-transmitted disease of veterinary and medical importance. The first Austrian case of human babesiosis was recently recorded. In the current study, ticks at all life cycle stages (instars), including 853 Ixodes ricinus and 11 Haemaphysalis concinna ticks, from sampling sites throughout Austria were examined for the presence of Babesia spp. by using 18S rRNA gene PCR and sequencing, and the overall mean infection rate was 51.04%. The infection rates for sampling sites were ...

  17. Some specific Austrian insights on markets and the "new economy"

    OpenAIRE

    Arena, Richard; Festré, Agnès

    2004-01-01

    In section 1 of this contribution, we will recall the usual arguments which are put forward to analyze the New Economy (NE) as the empirical realization of the Competitive Economic Equilibrium (CEE) model. After having stressed the limits of these arguments, we will try to show that some Austrian concepts and developments better fit to explain the economic impact of Information Technologies on present markets. This purpose is characterized in section 2 of this contribution. Finally, in sectio...

  18. The Austrian Legal Measures in course of the Financial Turmoil

    OpenAIRE

    Putzer, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    I. INITIAL POSITION. II. A EUROPEAN FRAMEWORK IN THE FIELDS OF COMPETITION LAW. III. OVERVIEW OF THE LEGAL MEASURES AGAINST THE FINANCIAL TURMOIL. IV. LIQUIDITY CARE (IBSG): 1. Measures of liquidity care. 2. Austrian Clearingbank AG. 3. Guarantees for debentures. 4. Stipulation of a time of the IBSG. V. RE-CAPITALISATION (FINSTAG): 1. Measures of re-capitalisation. 2. Instrument of the FinStaG. 3. Conditions and requirements for the re-capitalisation and also for emission liability accoding t...

  19. Austrian meat: Authenticity control by stable isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The EU has declared that all foodstuff must be able to be traced back from 'fork to farm' to increase the safety of food and the confidence of the consumers in food quality and safety. Additionally, several incidents of 'food diseases and scandals' related with meat (e.g.: BSE, foot and mouth disease, antibiotics abuse, avian flu, etc.) have demonstrated the necessity to trace back the origin of meat, to be able to locate sources of infection/mismanagement. Besides the conventional method of the control of documentation there is the possibility of control of origin by analysing the isotopic composition of meat and herewith controlling the questioned good itself. Stable isotope ratios of the elements HCNOS are varying geographically due to different environmental conditions (e.g.: climate, geology, soil, altitude, geography, etc.) thus every region possesses an individual pattern. The isotopic pattern is imprinted on plants and animals growing in a certain region, and therefore analysis of the stable isotope pattern can allow the identification of agricultural goods from different regions. For the control of origin of Austrian meat about 500 beef and 500 pork samples have been collected from slaughterhouses and were analysed for the isotopic composition of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulphur and compared with the isotopic composition of meat samples from neighbouring countries. As Austria, despite being a small country, is very heterogeneous in its environmental conditions, thus there are significant differences in the isotopic patterns of individual Austrian provinces. The isotopic signature of meat samples from neighbouring countries can overlap with the 'Austrian isotope pattern' due to similar environmental conditions. However, a correct statistical classification has been achieved for 80% and 84% of the analysed beef and pork samples, respectively. If the declared origin of meat can be pinned down to an Austrian province, the discrimination power of

  20. The emergence, development and demilitarization of the military border of the Austrian Monarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Kulauzov Maša

    2008-01-01

    Military border of the Austrian Monarchy was formed gradually in border areas for the purpose of defending the border from Turkish invasions. In time, as the international political circumstances have changed, the Border itself also modified its primary function. From the beginning of the 18th century soldiers of the Military Border together with the regular troops of Austrian army participate in all wars in which Austria took part. Thanks to those soldiers the military force of the Austrian ...

  1. A Contribution to the Austrian Business Cycle Theory: Uncertainty and Price Expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Frömmel, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Common critique of the Austrian business cycle theory states that the Austrian cycle could not be initiated under the rational expectations hypothesis. This thesis therefore investigates the role of price expectations of entrepreneurs in the Austrian cycle theory. We conclude that this theory might be compatible with rational expectations only under several assumptions. The rational expectations hypothesis is, however, evaluated rather critically concluding it is quite strong and unrealistic ...

  2. An overview on geophysical structures in the Eastern Alps revealed by recent seismic experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behm, M.; Brueckl, E. P.; Grad, M.

    2009-12-01

    CELEBRATION 2000 and ALP 2002 were two large seismic wide-angle experiments which targeted the lithospheric structure of Central Europe. This presentation highlights crustal features of the Eastern Alps and their transition into adjacent tectonic provinces (Bohemian Massif, Carpathians, Pannonian Basin, Southern Alps and Dinarides) which were unknown prior to these experiments. The Eastern Alps result from the collision of the European platform with the Adriatic plate which got initiated in the Eocene. From the late Oligocene on, escape tectonics towards the unconstrained eastern margin contributed to the evolution of the Eastern Alps. Both processes left their imprints on the surface geology which differs significantly from the Western Alps. Considering the layout of the experiments, an innovative 3D processing scheme was implemented and supplemented by traditional 2D interpretation techniques. The 3D approach provides robust models with large spatial coverage, while the evaluation of 2D profiles allows resolving details at locations of particular interest. The P-wave velocity distribution of crust shows a clear separation into a low-velocity European plate and a high-velocity Adriatic plate. Crustal velocities below the Pannonian Basin are moderate to low. Velocity structures in the uppermost crust correlate well with surface geology and tectonic divisions. One of the most important results is a new map of the Moho discontinuity. Its depth varies between 52 and 24 km, and from its structure we deduce the new crustal fragment Pannonia. Pannonia has shallow crust and is underthrusted by both the European Moho in the North and the Adriatic Moho in the South-West. Although solely vertical component receivers were used, strong S-waves can be observed on some seismograms. Their evaluation confirms the separation into three crustal fragments and provides constraints on Poisson’s ratio. A subhorizontal mantle reflector in a depth range from approximately 55 km is found

  3. State aid in the Austrian electricity industry law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work deals with the existence of State aid in the Austrian electricity industry and focuses on three selected areas of the Austrian legal system, which are examined for their compatibility with Community law. Subject of the first part of this work is a representation of the article 87 ff Treaty of Rome and its impact on Austrian provisions on the promotion of electricity from renewable energies or on the promotion of cogeneration energy. In this context, the first principles of the European state aid law and in particular the European Court are presented regarding the existence of State aid. Here, the Rsp of the Court in connection with the use of State resources in the Rs PreussenElektra Stardust Marine and Pearle is paid in connection with para-fiscal levies special attention. The evaluation of the Austrian support model is based on PreussenElektra, Stardust Marine and Pearle. Then the system of green electricity production in Austria represented. In addition to the Community law principles (green power directive, frameworks and guidelines for environmental aid) is here in particular the 'Oekostromgesetz' and treated it's novellas. It is an intensive discussion with the Commission's decisions on the compatibility of the green power and CHP funding and the funding of the countries with state aid rules. As part of this analysis is to attempt a classification of the Commission's practice in the Community legal system. The second part of the work deals with the determination of absorbed. System utilization rates and their distribution to the network operator. After a presentation of the Community legislation (EC regulations, the internal electricity market directives) and Rsp of the European Court of Justice (Case ADBHu, Ferring, Altmark Trans) to services of general economic interest is first attempted to determine the presence of these services in the 216 Austrian legislation. Here, the question will be, entrusted with services of general economic

  4. Austrian Daily Climate Data Rescue and Quality Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkovic, A.; Lipa, W.; Adler, S.; Albenberger, J.; Lechner, W.; Swietli, R.; Vossberg, I.; Zehetner, S.

    2010-09-01

    Checked climate datasets are a "conditio sine qua non" for all projects that are relevant for environment and climate. In the framework of climate change studies and analysis it is essential to work with quality controlled and trustful data. Furthermore these datasets are used as input for various simulation models. In regard to investigations of extreme events, like strong precipitation periods, drought periods and similar ones we need climate data in high temporal resolution (at least in daily resolution). Because of the historical background - during Second World War the majority of our climate sheets were sent to Berlin, where the historical sheets were destroyed by a bomb attack and so important information got lost - only several climate sheets, mostly duplicates, before 1939 are available and stored in our climate data archive. In 1970 the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics in Vienna started a first attempt to digitize climate data by means of punch cards. With the introduction of a routinely climate data quality control in 1984 we can speak of high-class-checked daily data (finally checked data, quality flag 6). Our group is working on the processing of digitization and quality control of the historical data for the period 1872 to 1983 for 18 years. Since 2007 it was possible to intensify the work (processes) in the framework of an internal project, namely Austrian Climate Data Rescue and Quality Control. The aim of this initiative was - and still is - to supply daily data in an outstanding good and uniform quality. So this project is a kind of pre-project for all scientific projects which are working with daily data. In addition to routine quality checks (that are running since 1984) using the commercial Bull Software we are testing our data with additional open source software, namely ProClim.db. By the use of this spatial and statistical test procedure, the elements air temperature and precipitation - for several sites in Carinthia - could

  5. The liberalization of the European energy market from the perspective of the Austrian regional power company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dissertation addresses the liberalization of the European energy sector from an Austrian perspective, emphasizing its effect on a regional power company (KELAG). The energy market's changing conditions are creating new opportunities for consumers that allow them to optimize their ability to fulfill their power requirements. Decentralized solutions are now just as viable for large industrial customers as the ability to have all energy supplied through the utility network. In addition, partnerships with independent power producers (IPP's) or cooperation between the large customers in energy production can be considered. From a regional perspective, the central management concept of KELAG is the answer to an altered market situation, since this concept created tremendous potential for streamlining the management of energy production and operation of the network. The liberalization of the energy market for large industrial customers in Carinthia's electricity sector was preceded by a series of important decisions. The Verbundgesellschaft combine their generating facilities. In the future the power plants of Draukraft in Carinthia will be supervised and controlled remotely from KELAG's central control unit in Klagenfurt, as a result of which the central control unit becomes the primary energy control for Carinthia. (author)

  6. Hydrogeological interpretation of natural radionuclide contents in Austrian groundwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Gerhard; Berka, Rudolf; Hörhan, Thomas; Katzlberger, Christian; Landstetter, Claudia; Philippitsch, Rudolf

    2010-05-01

    The Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety (AGES) stores comprehensive data sets of radionuclide contents in Austrian groundwater. There are several analyses concerning Rn-222, Ra-226, gross alpha and gross beta as well as selected analyses of Ra-228, Pb-210, Po-210, Uranium and U-234/U-238. In a current project financed by the Austrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management, AGES and the Geological Survey of Austria (GBA) are evaluating these data sets with regard to the geological backgrounds. Several similar studies based on groundwater monitoring have been made in the USA (for instance by Focazio, M.J., Szabo, Z., Kraemer, T.F., Mullin, A.H., Barringer, T.H., De Paul, V.T. (2001): Occurrence of selected radionuclides in groundwater used for drinking water in the United States: a reconnaissance survey, 1998. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 00-4273). The geological background for the radionuclide contents of groundwater will be derived from geological maps in combination with existing Thorium and Uranium analyses of the country rocks and stream-sediments and from airborne radiometric maps. Airborne radiometric data could contribute to identify potential radionuclide hot spot areas as only airborne radiometric mapping could provide countrywide Thorium and Uranium data coverage in high resolution. The project will also focus on the habit of the sampled wells and springs and the hydrological situation during the sampling as these factors can have an important influence on the Radon content of the sampled groundwater (Schubert, G., Alletsgruber, I., Finger, F., Gasser, V., Hobiger, G. and Lettner, H. (2010): Radon im Grundwasser des Mühlviertels (Oberösterreich) Grundwasser. - Springer (in print). Based on the project results an overview map (1:500,000) concerning the radionuclide potential should be produced. The first version should be available in February 2011.

  7. Underground electromagnetic activity in two regions with contrasting seismicity: a case study from the Eastern Alps and Bohemian Massif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroň, Ivo; Koktavý, Pavel; Stemberk, Josef; Macků, Robert; Trčka, Tomáš; Škarvada, Pavel; Lenhardt, Wolfgang; Meurers, Bruno; Rowberry, Mattew; Marti, Xavi; Plan, Lukas; Grasemann, Berhnard; Mitrovic, Ivanka

    2016-04-01

    observed in Obir Caves. From May to the end of July the data were characterised by a series of irregular high energy anomalies, lasting from hours to days, along with a series of regular nightly anomalies which are thought to relate to the VLF transmitters. From the beginning of August to October the data were characterised (except for the artificial nightly signals) by relative quiescence of other signals with only a few distinct anomalies. Data relating to rock deformation along active tectonic faults is also recorded at Zbrašov Aragonite Caves and Obir Caves using a type of automated moiré extensometer called a TM-71. These data have been interrogated alongside other environmental factors such as seismicity, precipitation, earth tides, and extraterrestrial magnetic radiation (all data provided by the Central Institution for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG)). It has been possible to compare all the phenomena with our data of natural electromagnetic activity. This pilot study was supported by the Institute of Physics at the Brno University of Technology, the Institute of Rock Structure & Mechanics CAS, and the Austrian Science Foundation (Project P25884-N29 "Active tectonics and recent dynamics of microdisplacements along major fault systems of the Eastern Alps registered in caves (SPELEOTECT)".

  8. Direct rockfall measurements in the Northern Alps - spatio-temporal patterns and the significance for long-term studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, O.

    2009-04-01

    The number of field studies dealing with the distribution and quantity of rockfall at alpine rock faces is still comparatively low. In previous investigations, debris falls were quantified by means of more than 60 collectors in six study areas in the northern and central Alps. In all study areas, the weathering rate was strongly influenced by three factors: Firstly, a combination of joint density and porosity of the bedrock; secondly, rockwall orientation with north faces delivering thrice the amount of rockfall than south faces; thirdly, the presence or non-presence of permafrost in the rock. Conversely, no general increase of rockfall with elevation was found. According to the results, the water supply of the rockwalls during freeze-thaw conditions is supposed to be a prominent controlling factor of frost weathering rates. This is confirmed by the observed temporal distribution of rockfalls. Sediment delivery to the collectors was highest in summer periods with "wet" freeze-thaw cycles caused by passing cold fronts. Conversely, strong winter frost turned out to be virtually inefficient without liquid water supply. Talus volumes were derived from geophysical, mainly ground-penetrating radar profiling on more than 30 scree slopes. According to the scree cubature, the weathering rates at north faces are two times higher than at south faces, the rockwalls in which permafrost is present showed the highest retreat rates, and no interrelation between rockwall retreat and elevation could be found. These patterns agree with the recent rockfall measurements. However, the absolute rates of rockwall retreat derived from scree volumes (200-850 mm/ka) are generally much higher than the measured recent removal rates (50-300 mm/ka). The possible reasons for this discrepancy include accelerated weathering during cold phases and the contribution of boulder and block falls to the sediment budget which are not registered by the small collectors. In order to cover an intermediate

  9. Updated Core Libraries of the ALPS Project

    CERN Document Server

    Gaenko, A; Carcassi, G; Chen, T; Chen, X; Dong, Q; Gamper, L; Gukelberger, J; Igarashi, R; Iskakov, S; Könz, M; LeBlanc, J P F; Levy, R; Ma, P N; Paki, J E; Shinaoka, H; Todo, S; Troyer, M; Gull, E

    2016-01-01

    The open source ALPS (Algorithms and Libraries for Physics Simulations) project provides a collection of physics libraries and applications, with a focus on simulations of lattice models and strongly correlated systems. The libraries provide a convenient set of well-documented and reusable components for developing condensed matter physics simulation code, and the applications strive to make commonly used and proven computational algorithms available to a non-expert community. In this paper we present an updated and refactored version of the core ALPS libraries geared at the computational physics software development community, rewritten with focus on documentation, ease of installation, and software maintainability.

  10. Treatment of liquid wastes at the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a review of the different categories, ammounts, types and sources of liquid wastes, arising at the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf, the collection and distribution of these wastes are described. The treatment of these effluents in the categories Cooling Water, Faeces, Inactive Line, Active Line and Alpha Line is shown in several examples. Special attention is given on the treatment of wastes containing organic liquids. A review of the release rates shows the efficiency of the treatment system. A short view on future installations closes the paper. (author)

  11. Regional Networks in Education: A Case Study of an Austrian Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Franz

    2013-01-01

    This case study presents the development of networks in education, using the Austrian IMST (Innovations Make Schools Top) project as illustration. The regional networks are coordinated in every Austrian federal province by groups made up of teachers, representatives of the educational authorities, and members of academia. In the framework of the…

  12. AlpArray - a broad(band) seismology initiative on the European Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetényi, G.

    2012-12-01

    AlpArray is a new initiative to study the greater Alpine area with a large-scale broadband seismological network. The interested parties (currently 57 institutes in 16 countries) plan to combine their existing infrastructures into an all-out transnational effort that includes data acquisition, processing, imaging and interpretation. The experiment will encompass the greater Alpine area from the Black Forest and the Bohemian Massif in the north to the Northern Apennines in the south and from the Pannonian Basin in the east to the French Massif Central in the west. We aim to cover this region with a high-quality broadband seismometer backbone by combining the ca. 220 existing permanent stations with additional 300-340 instruments from mobile pools, all of them to be deployed between August 2014 and August 2016. In this way, we plan to achieve homogeneous and high resolution coverage (ca. 40 km average station spacing). Furthermore, we also plan to deploy a few densely spaced targeted networks along swaths across - and in regions of - key parts of the Alpine chain on shorter time scales. These efforts on land will be combined with deployments of ca. 40-45 ocean bottom seismometers in the Mediterranean Sea. We also aim to implement the best practice for synchronizing mobile pool operation procedures and data handling: common data centre and data management procedure, free access to data to participants as soon as possible through EIDA. Data will be open to the public 3 years after the experiment ends. The main scientific goal of AlpArray is to investigate the structure and evolution of the lithosphere beneath the Alps. A primary target is the geometry and configuration of subducting slabs and their polarity switch beneath the arc. Numerous regional questions such as seismic hazard will be tackled. Targets will be imaged at several depths (e.g., from near-surface structure down to upper mantle anisotropy), scales (e.g., from local seismicity to mantle transition zone

  13. Building positive nature awareness in pupils using the "Rainforest of the Austrians" in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrecht, Margit; Hölzl, Irmgard; Huber, Werner; Weissenhofer, Anton

    2013-04-01

    20 years ago, Michael Schnitzler founded the NGO "Rainforest of the Austrians" to help save one of the most diverse rainforests in Central America, the Esquinas rainforest on the Pacific coast of SW Costa Rica, from being destroyed through logging. In this abstract we present an interdisciplinary upper Austrian school project aiming at building positive awareness in pupils towards rainforest conservation by fund-raising to help purchase endangered forest areas. The acquired rainforest was donated to the Costa Rican government and became part of the National Park "Piedras Blancas". In the following, we present a chronology of events and actions of the school project. We started our rainforest project by face-to-face encounters, letting involved persons speak directly to the pupils. Dr. Huber, coordinator of the tropical rainforest station La Gamba in Costa Rica (www.lagamba.at), together with Dr. Weissenhofer, presented an introductory slide show about the "Rainforest of the Austrians". With rainforest images and sounds in their mind the pupils wrote "trips of a lifetime" stories, thus creating idyllic images of rainforest habitats. Following up on that, we visited the exhibition "Heliconia and Hummingbirds" at the Biology Center in Linz. Reports about the slide show and the exhibition followed. Tropical sites were compared by producing climate graphs of La Gamba, Costa Rica, and Manaus in Brazil. The global distribution and the decrease of rainforests were also analyzed. In biology lessons the symbiosis between plants and animals of the rainforest were worked out by searching the Internet. Flyers with profiles of rainforest animals were produced. We also discussed the ecotourism project "RICANCIE" in Ecuador using fact sheets. "RICANCIE" is a Spanish acronym standing for "Indigenous Community Network of the Upper Napo for Intercultural Exchange and Ecotourism". It was founded in 1993 aiming to improve the quality of life for some 200 indigenous Kichwa families

  14. Neotectonics of the Periadriatic Fault System (Eastern and Southern Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Sebastian; Handy, Mark R.; Rosenberg, Claudio L.

    2010-05-01

    ; the dextral displacement is consistent with that inferred for early Miocene tectonics and consistent with that expected for accommodating the currently measured counter-clockwise rotation and WNW indentation of the Adriatic plate [e.g., Vrabec et al., 2006]. Unfortunately, geomorphological markers with unequivocal offsets are lacking along the Pustertal Fault. We can only speculate that the westernmost part of the PFS (i.e., the Pustertal fault) is either inactive or creeps at much lower rates than the eastern part (the Gailtal fault). If so, the PFS could be interpreted as a stretching fault. This interpretation is consistent with the concentration of seismicity in the "Gurktal block" rather than in the "Tauern window block". References Devoti, R., F. Riguzzi, M. Cuffaro, and C. Doglioni, New GPS constraints on the kinematics of the Apennines subduction, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 273, 163-174, 2008. Martin, S., G. Bigazzi, M. Zattin, G. Viola, and M.L. Balestrieri, Neogene kinematics of the Giudicarie fault (Central-Eastern Alps, Italy): new apatite fission-track data, Terra Nova, 10, 217-221, 1998. Müller, W., S.P. Kelley, and I.M. Villa, Dating fault-generated pseudotachylytes: comparison of 40Ar/39Ar stepwise-heating, laser ablation and Rb-Sr microsampling analyses, Contribution to Mineralogy and Petrology, 144, 57-77, 2002. Müller, W., G. Prosser, N.S. Mancktelow, I.M. Villa, S.P. Kelley, G. Viola, and F. Oberli, Geochronological constraints on the evolution of the Periadriatic Fault System (Alps), The International Journal of Earth Sciences, 90, 623-653, 2001. Vrabec, M., P. Pavlovcic Preseren, and B. Stopar, GPS study (1996-2002) of active deformation along the Periadriatic fault system in northeastern Slovenia: tectonic model, Geologica Carpathica, 57, 57-65, 2006.

  15. Dyscalculia and the Minicalculator: The ALP Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Gerald H.

    1980-01-01

    The author points out the usefulness of the ALP minicalculator program with learning disabled learners and introduces a novel aspect of the program--a new method of dealing with fractions via the calculator in which decimal answers are converted to equivalent fractions. (SBH)

  16. Urbanization and depopulation in the Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batzing, W; Perlik, M; Dekleva, M

    1996-11-01

    Demographic developments in the European Alpine region are analyzed over the period 1870-1990. The region is defined as including parts of Germany, France, Italy, Liechtenstein, Austria, Switzerland, and Slovenia. "Studies of growth, stagnation, decline, commune size, and altitude in almost 6,000 communes are presented on three colored maps.... It is apparent that two highly divergent processes are at work and, accordingly, statistical mean values reveal little of importance. Approximately one-half of Alpine Europe is undergoing general economic and demographic growth and has experienced significant increase in population since the end of the agricultural era. This development has taken place primarily in low-lying valleys and basins and in areas bordering the Alps that have good access to transport routes. Tourism is not as widespread as generally assumed and is usually characterized by a punctate pattern. Only in the western part of the Eastern Alps does tourism account for widespread population growth at higher altitudes; elsewhere the Alps have not been affected by modern development and the economy and population are declining, with some areas in danger of becoming completely abandoned. The results challenge the earlier concept of the Alps as a rural region, once populated by peasants, where tourism now plays a major role." (EXCERPT) PMID:12292860

  17. 69 The Multicultural Education in Bucovina during the Austrian Domination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Baltag

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1775, the territory of Bucovina became part of the Habsburg monarchy and it stayed like that for 143 years. All throughout this period when the Romanians lived here next to Ukrainians, Germans, Jews and other nationalities, the Austrian government took into consideration their need for culture, which resulted in the development of a multicultural teaching system. This implied that the languages of teaching in the Bukovinian schools were: Latin, Greek, Romanian, Ukrainian and, more often than not, German. Although the weighty presence of the German language in the academic institutions limited the number of young Romanians in schools, the teaching in German enabled the access of the Bukovinian students to the great European universities from Vienna, Salzburg, Lemberg, Kraków or Prague, before the founding of the Chernivtsi University (1875. Thus, beyond the negative aspects of the separation of this territory from Romania, the Austrian occupation represented an effervescent period from a cultural viewpoint, which lent a specific identity to the teaching system in Bukovina.

  18. First annual report of the Austrian CML registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stefan; Wolf, Dominik; Thaler, Josef; Burgstaller, Sonja; Linkesch, Wolfgang; Petzer, Andreas; Fridrik, Michael; Lang, Alois; Agis, Hermine; Valent, Peter; Krieger, Otto; Walder, Alois; Korger, Markus; Schlögl, Ernst; Sliwa, Tamer; Wöll, Ernst; Mitterer, Manfred; Eisterer, Wolfgang; Pober, Michael; Gastl, Günther

    2010-10-01

    The Austrian chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) registry monitors individual disease courses, treatments applied, clinical outcome, and side effects of CML patients on a nationwide basis to provide data on the "real-life" situation and to complement the information and interpretation gained from the selected patient population observed in clinical trials. This report summarizes the Austrian CML registry data as of March 2009. A total of 179 patients have been registered with a median number of 1012 follow-up visits and median observation duration of 20 months. At diagnosis most patients (n = 163) were in chronic phase (early, late, and secondary), whereas only 4 were in advanced phase. A total of 137 patients were treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), of which 14 received first and second generation TKIs sequentially. Other treatment modalities included chemotherapy or interferon and stem cell transplantation (SCT). Cumulative incidence rates for complete hematological responses (CHR) were 91.6% and 94.4% at 12 and 24 months, respectively, compared to cumulative incidence rates of complete cytogenetical response rates of 64% and 80% at these timepoints. A total of 5 patients progressed from chronic phase to accelerated (n = 3) and blastic phase (n = 2) while receiving imatinib standard dose. Estimated overall survival (OS) rate at 60 months was 90% and progression free survival (PFS) according to European Leukemia Net (ELN) failure definition was 58%. PMID:20936366

  19. Radiation dosimetry and standards at the austrian dosimetry laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Austrian Dosimetry Laboratory, established and operated in cooperation between the Austrian Research Center Seibersdorf and the Federal Office of Metrology and Surveying (Bundesamt and Eich- und Vermessungswesen) maintains the national primary standards for radiation dosimetry. Furthermore its tasks include routine calibration of dosemeters and dosimetric research. The irradiation facilities of the laboratory comprise three X-ray machines covering the voltage range from 5 kV to 420 kV constant potential, a 60Co teletherapy unit, a circular exposure system for routine batch calibration of personnel dosemeters with four gamma ray sources (60Co and 137Cs) and a reference source system with six gamma ray sources (60Co and 137Cs). In addition a set of calibrated beta ray sources are provided (147Pm, 204Tl and 90Sr). The dosimetric equipment consists of three free-air parallelplate ionization chambers serving as primary standards of exposure for the X-ray energy region, graphite cavity chambers with measured volume as primary standards for the gamma radiation of 137Cs and 60Co as well as different secondary standard ionization chambers covering the dose rate range from the natural background level up to the level of modern therapy accelerators. In addition for high energy photon and electron radiation a graphite calorimeter is provided as primary standard of absorbed dose. The principle experimental set-ups for the practical use of the standards are presented and the procedures for the calibration of the different types of dosemeters are described. (Author)

  20. Allanite behaviour during incipient melting in the southern Central Alps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregory, C.J.; Rubatto, D.; Hermann, J.;

    2012-01-01

    in metamorphic allanite with low Th/U (Gabudianu et al., 2009). All of these effects have significant implications for allanite geochronology. This paper details the response of allanite to incipient melting and its performance as a chronometer by examining its occurrence, trace element composition, and age...... to amphibolite-grade rocks of the SSB (Burri et al., 2005). In situ melting of granitic gneisses occurred in the mid-crust at temperatures close to the wet granite solidus (~630 °C) and in some cases produced up to ~30 vol.% leucosomes (Burri et al., 2005). At outcrop, leucosomes are variably deformed...... of allanite was conducted over five separate sessions using the SHRIMP II and SHRIMP RG (Reverse Geometry) ion microprobes at the Research School of Earth Sciences, ANU. Analyses were performed on allanite in polished grain mounts with a 2.0–3.5 nA, 10 kV primary beam focused through a ~100 µm aperture...

  1. Shaping Disciplinary Boundaries: Scientific Practice and Politics in the Methodenstreit Between the German Historical School and the Austrian School of Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Filomena

    In view of the great success enjoyed by the natural sciences by the end of the nineteenth century, scholars working in the social field felt the need to highlight the importance of the human sciences as piece and part of the broad scientific scene. Discussions purporting to the limits and status of the sciences devoted to the study of human behaviour, especially in relation to the logic of the natural sciences, led to the articulation of the conceptual pair Erklären/Verstehen as corresponding to the demarcation between Naturwissenschaften and Geisteswissenschaften. The differentiation between History and Society took central stage in the context of the debates about the scientific parameters shaping disciplinary boundaries and gave rise to the famous Methodenstreit opposing Gustav Schmoller the leader of the German Younger School of Economics to Carl Menger, the founding father of the Austrian School of Economics. The relevance of this episode can be measured by its impact not only on economics, but on the broader context of twentieth century social science, as the Methodenstreit turned on the dispute between Methodological Individualism and Holism. In this essay I tell the story of the divergences between German and Austrian scholars and suggest that the gap between the German Historical School and the Austrian School of Economics may be narrower than standard textbooks suggest.

  2. A Thought Experiment Comparing Austrian and Keynesian Stimulus Packages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir Kraus

    Full Text Available Essentially, there are two competing views of how to overcome an economy-wide recession/depression. The Austrian view understands the free-play of competition as the most potent means to overcome the short-run mismatch between an excessive boom-level of nominal wages/prices and depressed crisis-level volume of aggregate spending. In the Keynesian view, the disastrous mismatch between desired saving and planned investment inherent in capitalist economies requires the government to step in and take up the burden of spending to infuse the lacking demand for products and labor.The thought experiment presented in the paper is designed to provide the reader with a direct comparison of major analytical claims of the two competing approaches to assess the ability of each of the two to affect, positively or negatively, employment, capital accumulation, and the general standard of living/real wages.

  3. 1993 energy report and energy concept of the Austrian government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ''1993 Energy Report'' and the ''1993 Energy Concept'' were drawn up by the Federal Minister of Economics and published by the Austrian government. Earlier reports were published in 1986 and 1990. The 1990 energy report covered the period of 1970 through 1988, the new update the years 1989 through 1991. The section on useful energy is supplemented by a coloured representation of the 1990 energy flow chart for Austria. Appendices 1 to 3 present the development of the energy economy in 1992, the publication ''Development and situation of energy research in Austria'', which was compiled in May 1993 by the Federal Minister of Science and Research, and the ''Reports on the decision of the National Council of 19 January 1993. (orig.)

  4. Austrian WBC intercomparison by means of a BOMAB phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellani, C.M.; Battisti, P.; Tarroni [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; Edelmeier, R. [Bundesamt fuer Eich- und Vermessungswesen, Wien (Austria)

    1998-07-01

    The paper discusses the results obtained in the intercomparison between the Austrian Institute for Legal Metrology and the ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) Institute for Radiation Protection, which gave a BOMAB phantom. Values related to potassium content and MBA (minimum detectable activity) for each identified nuclide are also discussed. [Italian] L'Istituto Austriaco di Metrologia Legale ha organizzato l'interconfronto usando un fantoccio gelificato di tipo BOMAB fornito dall'Istituto di Radioprotezione dell'ENEA nel periodo marzo-giugno 1996. Vengono riportati i risultati ottenuti relativi al contenuto di potassio e all'attivita' minima rilevabile (MDA) per ogni nuclide identificato.

  5. 51. Annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 51th Symposium of the Austrian Physical Society was held from 17-21 September 2001 at the Technical University of Vienna (Austria). The topics covered deal with: energy (greenhouse effect, climatic change, environment protection, energy system transformation, innovative energy technologies), neutrons and synchrotron radiation, quantum mechanics, microscopy, accelerator-driven systems, physics aspects of radiotherapy, nano world, micro cosmos, modern physics, life in the universe, x-ray fluorescence, heavy-ion accelerator mass spectrometry, acoustics, atomic-, molecular- and plasma physics, solid-state physics, nuclear and particle physics, medical-, bio-and environmental physics, quantum electronics, electrodynamics and optics. Those contributions which are in the INIS subject scope are indexed separately. (nevyjel)

  6. 64th Annual Meeting of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 64th Annual Meeting of the Austrian physical society, including a special topical Energy Day. was held at the Echophysics – European Centre for the History of Physics, Schloss Pöllau 1, 8225 Pöllau, Austria. The plenary sessions gave an overview of the present status of research in quantum mechanics, particle physics and solid state physics.The topical sessions were dedicated to: nuclear and particle physics; atoms, molecules, quantum optics and plasmas; solid state physics and research with neutron and synchrotron radiation; history of physics; surfaces, interfaces and thin films; nanostructures; fundamental interactions; gravity, quantum chromodynamics; particle theory and collider physics; detectors and methods. Those contributions which are in the INIS subject scope are indexed individually

  7. Investigations of biological processes in Austrian MBT plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanical biological treatment (MBT) of municipal solid waste (MSW) has become an important technology in waste management during the last decade. The paper compiles investigations of mechanical biological processes in Austrian MBT plants. Samples from all plants representing different stages of degradation were included in this study. The range of the relevant parameters characterizing the materials and their behavior, e.g. total organic carbon, total nitrogen, respiration activity and gas generation sum, was determined. The evolution of total carbon and nitrogen containing compounds was compared and related to process operation. The respiration activity decreases in most of the plants by about 90% of the initial values whereas the ammonium release is still ongoing at the end of the biological treatment. If the biogenic waste fraction is not separated, it favors humification in MBT materials that is not observed to such extent in MSW. The amount of organic carbon is about 15% dry matter at the end of the biological treatment.

  8. Investigations of biological processes in Austrian MBT plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tintner, J; Smidt, E; Böhm, K; Binner, E

    2010-10-01

    Mechanical biological treatment (MBT) of municipal solid waste (MSW) has become an important technology in waste management during the last decade. The paper compiles investigations of mechanical biological processes in Austrian MBT plants. Samples from all plants representing different stages of degradation were included in this study. The range of the relevant parameters characterizing the materials and their behavior, e.g. total organic carbon, total nitrogen, respiration activity and gas generation sum, was determined. The evolution of total carbon and nitrogen containing compounds was compared and related to process operation. The respiration activity decreases in most of the plants by about 90% of the initial values whereas the ammonium release is still ongoing at the end of the biological treatment. If the biogenic waste fraction is not separated, it favors humification in MBT materials that is not observed to such extent in MSW. The amount of organic carbon is about 15% dry matter at the end of the biological treatment. PMID:20580543

  9. [Theoretical implications of health economic evaluations in an Austrian context].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Evelyn; Zehetmayr, Susanne

    2006-12-01

    It is a well acknowledged fact that steep increases in health expenditures are mainly due to improvements in health technologies as well as the ageing of population combined with mounting societal preferences towards health. This "natural" tendency increasingly faces constraints of public budgets. Therefore, both efficiency and effectiveness considerations have to be put in place in order to allocate financial resources in such a way as to foster optimal results. This can best be done by implementing the analytical tool of health economic evaluations. However, in the Austrian context health economic evaluations only play a minor role as yet. The major hindrance for this unsatisfactory situation is the complex system of health finance which impedes overall considerations beyond the array of particular budgets. PMID:17211767

  10. The Herschel space telescope and the Austrian participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The biggest space telescope ever, Herschel was successfully launched on May 14, 2009. ESA's Space Horizon 2000 cornerstone mission will perform imaging photometry and spectroscopy in the 60-670 micron range and will address astrophysical questions ranging from our planetary system, the galaxy, the local universe out to cosmological distances. The Austrian participation in one of Herschels instruments, namely PACS is lead by the Institute for Astronomy at the University Vienna and carried out in collaboration with partners at the Technical University, Vienna and Joanneum Research, Graz in the framework of an European consortium. Both the technical contributions in the field of the on-board data reduction and compression as well as the scientific projects in the fields of late stages of stellar evolution and astro-mineralogy are outlined in the contribution. First prospective space based data sets will be available in the late August 2009 timeframe well timed for the conference. (author)

  11. Flood Change Assessment and Attribution in Austrian alpine Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claps, Pierluigi; Allamano, Paola; Como, Anastasia; Viglione, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The present paper aims to investigate the sensitivity of flood peaks to global warming in the Austrian alpine basins. A group of 97 Austrian watersheds, with areas ranging from 14 to 6000 km2 and with average elevation ranging from 1000 to 2900 m a.s.l. have been considered. Annual maximum floods are available for the basins from 1890 to 2007 with two densities of observation. In a first period, until 1950, an average of 42 records of flood peaks are available. From 1951 to 2007 the density of observation increases to an average amount of contemporary peaks of 85. This information is very important with reference to the statistical tools used for the empirical assessment of change over time, that is linear quantile regressions. Application of this tool to the data set unveils trends in extreme events, confirmed by statistical testing, for the 0.75 and 0.95 empirical quantiles. All applications are made with specific (discharges/area) values . Similarly of what done in a previous approach, multiple quantile regressions have also been applied, confirming the presence of trends even when the possible interference of the specific discharge and morphoclimatic parameters (i.e. mean elevation and catchment area). Application of a geomorphoclimatic model by Allamano et al (2009) can allow to mimic to which extent the empirically available increase in air temperature and annual rainfall can justify the attribution of change derived by the empirical statistical tools. An comparison with data from Swiss alpine basins treated in a previous paper is finally undertaken.

  12. Between resentment and aid: German and Austrian psychiatrist and neurologist refugees in Great Britain since 1933.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenau, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    This article is a historiographical exploration of the experiences that German and Austrian émigré psychiatrists and neurologists made in Great Britain since 1933, after the Nazi Governments in Central Europe had ousted them from their positions. When placing these occurrences in a wider historiographical perspective, the in-depth analysis provided here also describes the living and working conditions of the refugee neuroscientists on the British Isles. In particular, it looks at the very elements and issues that influenced the international forced migration of physicians and psychiatrists during the 1930s and 1940s. Only a fraction of refugee neuroscientists had however been admitted to Britain. Those lucky ones were assisted by a number of charitable, local, and academic organizations. This article investigates the rather lethargic attitude of the British government and medical circles towards German-speaking Jewish refugee neuroscientists who wished to escape Nazi Germany. It will also analyze the help that those refugees received from the academic establishment and British Jewish organizations, while likewise examining the level and extent of the relationship between social and scientific resentments in Great Britain. A special consideration will be given to the aid programs that had already began in the first year after the Nazis had seized power in Germany, with the foundation of the British Assistance Council by Sir William Henry Beveridge (1879-1963) in 1933. PMID:27388257

  13. From retreating to resisting How Austrian-Turkish women deal with experiences of racism

    OpenAIRE

    Katharina Hametner

    2014-01-01

    Recent European integration discourses are increasingly structured by neo-racist topoi based on orientalist markers of difference. In the Austrian debate, people of Turkish origin are particularly affected by such ascriptions. They are marked as a group not willing to integrate and culturally not fitting into Austrian society. In this discursive conglomerate, women are identified as oppressed victims, lacking education and being in need of help. Using the biographical narratives of young Aust...

  14. Edaphic characteristics of Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) forests in the Višegrad area

    OpenAIRE

    Blagojević Velibor D.; Knežević Milan N.; Košanin Olivera D.; Kapović-Solomun Marijana B.; Lučić Radovan J.; Eremija Saša M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of soil research in Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) forest communities in the Višegrad area, carried out to determine the basic soil characteristics and eco-production potential of forest habitats as an important basis and framework for the successful management of these forests on the principles of sustainable development. Austrian pine forests in this region are an important and ecologically valuable community. The complex...

  15. On nonneutral relative price effects in monetarist thought : some Austrian misconceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas M. Humphrey

    1984-01-01

    The rise in the rate of inflation during the 1970s was paralleled by a rise in interest in monetarism, which offered the means for controlling inflation. Despite the increased interest, monetarism is still often misunderstood, as Thomas M. Humphrey points out in “On Nonneutral Relative Price Effects in Monetarist Thought: Some Austrian Misconceptions.” Economists of the Austrian school have portrayed monetarism as oblivious to the effects of monetary disturbances on the real economy of output...

  16. Transactional Economics: John Dewey's Ways of Knowing and the Radical Subjectivism of the Austrian School

    OpenAIRE

    Mulligan, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The radical subjectivism of the Austrian school of economics is a special case of Dewey’s ways of knowing. Austrian economists adopted an Aristotelian deductive approach to economic issues such as social behavior and exchange. In Dewey’s contrasting view, the scientist commends new, alternative ways of knowing to the scientific community, offering more profound insight or more efficacious practical applications. Alternative ways of knowing which do not offer practical or intellectual benefits...

  17. Assessing the Relevance of Austrian Investment Companies and Mutual Funds for Financial Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Kavan; Günther Sedlacek; Reinhardt Seliger; Eva Ubl

    2010-01-01

    This paper looks at the role Austrian investment companies and the mutual funds managed by them play in the context of financial stability. At the end of the third quarter 2009, the 30 Austrian investment companies (of which 5 manage real estate funds) had invested around EUR 114 billion in the market. Given the repercussions arising from interlocks between investment companies and other financial intermediaries (such as credit institutions, insurance companies, pension funds and severance fu...

  18. Streptococcus agalactiae Alpha-Like Protein 1 Possesses Both Cross-Reacting and Alp1-Specific Epitopes▿

    OpenAIRE

    Kvam, Augusta I.; Mavenyengwa, Rooyen T.; Radtke, Andreas; Maeland, Johan A.

    2011-01-01

    Most isolates of group B streptococci (GBS) express an alpha-like protein (Alp), Cα (encoded by bca), Alp1 (also called epsilon; alp1), Alp2 (alp2), Alp3 (alp3), Alp4 (alp4), or R4/Rib (rib). These proteins are chimeras with a mosaic structure and with antigenic determinants with variable immunological cross-reactivities between the Alps, including Alp1 and Cα cross-reactivity. This study focused on antigenic domains of Alp1, studied by using rabbit antisera in immunofluorescence, Western blo...

  19. Occupational radiation exposure in upper Austrian water supplies and Spas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Council Directive 96/29/EURATOM lays down the basic safety standards for the protection of the workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionising radiation, including natural radiation. Based on the directive and on the corresponding Austrian legislation a comprehensive study was conducted to determine the occupational radiation exposure in Upper Austrian water supplies and spas. The study comprises 45 water supplies and 3 spas, one of them being a radon spa. Most measurements taken were to determine the radon concentration in air at different workplaces (n = 184), but also measurements of the dose rate at dehumidifiers (n = 7) and gamma spectrometric measurements of back washing water (n = 4) were conducted. To determine the maximum occupational radon exposure in a water supply measurements were carried out in all water purification buildings and in at least half o f the drinking water reservoirs of the water supply. The results were combined with the respective working times in these locations (these data having been collected by means of a questionnaire). Where the calculated exposure was greater than 1 MBq h/m then all drinking water reservoirs of the concerned water suppl y were measured for their radon concentration to ensure a reliable assessment of the exposure. The results show that the radon concentrations in the water supplies were lower as expected, being in 55% of all measurement sites below 1000 Bq/m in 91% below 5000 Bq/m and with a maximum value of 38700 Bq/m.This leads to exposures that are below 2 MBq h/m (corresponding to approx. 6 mSv/a) in 42 water supplies. However, for the remaining three water supplies maximal occupational exposures due to radon of 2.8 MBq h/m (∼ 10 mSv/a), 15 MBq h/m (∼ 50 mSv/a), and 17 MBq h/m ( ∼ 56 mSv/a), respectively, were determined. In these water supplies remediation measures were proposed, based mainly on improved ventilation of and/or reduction of working time in the building

  20. Ice cap melting and low-viscosity crustal root explain the narrow geodetic uplift of the Western Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chéry, J.; Genti, M.; Vernant, P.

    2016-04-01

    More than 10 years of geodetic measurements demonstrate an uplift rate of 1-3 mm/yr of the high topography region of the Western Alps. By contrast, no significant horizontal motion has been detected. Two uplift mechanisms have been proposed: (1) the isostatic response to denudation responsible for only a fraction of the observed uplift and (2) the rebound induced by the Wurmian ice cap melting which predicts a broader uplifting region than the one evidenced by geodetic observations. Using a numerical model to fit the geodetic data, we show that a crustal viscosity contrast between the foreland and the central part of the Alps, the latter being weaker with a viscosity of 1021 Pa s, is needed. The vertical rates are enhanced if the strong uppermost mantle beneath the Moho is interrupted across the Alps, therefore allowing a weak vertical rheological anomaly over the entire lithosphere.

  1. Links between meteorological conditions and spatial/temporal variations in long-term isotope records from the Austrian precipitation network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The isotope records from the Austrian Network for Isotopes in Precipitation (ANIP) show significant but not uniform long-term trends. While the 10-year running means of some mountain stations exhibit a pronounced increase in δ18O of about 1 per mille since 1975, the change of δ18O at the valley stations is much lower. There are also differences in the time behaviour. The differences in the δ18O-values of sampling stations at similar altitudes can be explained by different origins of the air moisture (Atlantic or Mediterranean influence). Furthermore, a significant difference in the behaviour of the deuterium excess at neighbouring mountain and valley stations has been observed. There is a slight increase of the yearly mean of the deuterium excess with increasing altitude of the sampling station. But moreover, the seasonal pattern of the deuterium excess is quite different. While the valley stations exhibit the expected minimum in summer, the mountain stations show a distinct maximum between June and October. As a first step into a comprehensive analysis of the meteorological effects on the isotope patterns, the role of advection of different air masses is studied by trajectory statistics. Back trajectories, based on the three dimensional wind fields of the ECMWF model, are calculated for each hour within each precipitation event. Thus, the frequency of the origin of air masses and their contribution to the isotope patterns of the monthly precipitation samples are studied for two selected mountain stations north and south of the main ridge of the Alps. (author)

  2. Potentials to mitigate climate change using biochar - the Austrian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckman, Viktor J.; Klinglmüller, Michaela; Liu, Jay; Uzun, Basak B.; Varol, Esin A.

    2015-04-01

    Biomass utilization is seen as one of various promising strategies to reduce additional carbon emissions. A recent project on potentials of biochar to mitigate climate change (FOREBIOM) goes even a step further towards bioenergy in combination of CCS or "BECS" and tries to assess the current potentials, from sustainable biomass availability to biochar amendment in soils, including the identification of potential disadvantages and current research needs. The current report represents an outcome of the 1st FOREBIOM Workshop held in Vienna in April, 2013 and tries to characterize the Austrian perspective of biochar for climate change mitigation. The survey shows that for a widespread utilization of biochar in climate change mitigation strategies, still a number of obstacles have to be overcome. There are concerns regarding production and application costs, contamination and health issues for both producers and customers besides a fragmentary knowledge about biochar-soil interactions specifically in terms of long-term behavior, biochar stability and the effects on nutrient cycles. However, there are a number of positive examples showing that biochar indeed has the potential to sequester large amounts of carbon while improving soil properties and subsequently leading to a secondary carbon sink via rising soil productivity. Diversification, cascadic utilization and purpose designed biochar production are key strategies overcoming initial concerns, especially regarding economic aspects. A theoretical scenario calculation showed that relatively small amounts of biomass that is currently utilized for energy can reduce the gap between Austria's current GHG emissions and the Kyoto target by about 30% if biomass residues are pyrolized and biochar subsequently used as soil amendment. However, by using a more conservative approach that is representing the aims of the underlying FOREBIOM project (assuming that 10% of the annual biomass increment from forests is used for biochar

  3. Propositions for the Building of a Quantitative Austrian Modelling: An Answer to Prof. Rizzo and to Prof. Vriend

    OpenAIRE

    Rodolphe Buda

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we try to promote the building of a Quantitative Austrian Modelling (QAM). QAM must be viewed as a complementary quantitative prolongation of the Austrian methods and as a complementary approach to the already existing quantitative approaches - especially we would like here to answer to the appeal of Prof. N.J.Vriend [61]. As we explain it in the first part, our approach resulted from a critical view of the econometric procedures by Austrian methods and, from a theoretical inst...

  4. The Central and Eastern European Earthquake Research Network - CE3RN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragato, Pier Luigi; Costa, Giovanni; Gallo, Antonella; Gosar, Andrej; Horn, Nikolaus; Lenhardt, Wolfgang; Mucciarelli, Marco; Pesaresi, Damiano; Steiner, Rudolf; Suhadolc, Peter; Tiberi, Lara; Živčić, Mladen; Zoppé, Giuliana

    2014-05-01

    The region of the Central and Eastern Europe is an area characterised by a relatively high seismicity. The active seismogenic structures and the related potentially destructive events are located in the proximity of the political boundaries between several countries existing in the area. An example is the seismic region between the NE Italy (FVG, Trentino-Alto Adige and Veneto), Austria (Tyrol, Carinthia) and Slovenia. So when a destructive earthquake occurs in the area, all the three countries are involved. In the year 2001 the Agencija Republike Slovenije za Okolje (ARSO) in Slovenia, the Department of Mathematics and Geoscience of the University of Trieste (DMG), the OGS (Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale) in Italy and the Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik (ZAMG) in Austria signed an agreement for the real-time seismological data exchange in the Southeastern Alps region. Soon after the Interreg IIIa Italia-Austria projects "Trans-National Seismological Networks in the South-Eastern Alps" and "FASTLINK" started. The main goal of these projects was the creation of a transfrontier network for the common seismic monitoring of the region for scientific and civil defense purposes. During these years the high quality data recorded by the transfrontier network has been used, by the involved institutions, for their scientific research, for institutional activities and for the civil defense services. Several common international projects have been realized with success. The instrumentation has been continuously upgraded, the installations quality improved as well as the data transmission efficiency. In the 2013 ARSO, DMG, OGS and ZAMG decided to name the cooperative network "Central and Eastern European Earthquake Research Network - CE3RN". The national/regional seismic networks actually involved in the CE3RN network are: • Austrian national BB network (ZAMG - OE) • Friuli Veneto SP network (OGS - FV) • Friuli VG

  5. 55. Annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The 55th Annual Symposium of the Austrian Physical Society was held from 27.-29. September 2005 at the University of Vienna (Austria), it consisted of a plenary session, oral and poster sessions devoted to: acoustics; women and physics; atomic-, molecular- and plasma physics; solid physics; nuclear and particle physics; medical-, bio-and environmental physics; neutrons and synchrotron radiation physics; surface and thin film analysis and quantum electronics, electrodynamics and optics. Topics such as graphs quantization, molecular interferometry, Brownian movement, ion beam diagnostics, electron emission, optical pumping, Bose-Einstein condensates, molecular matter waves, double-wall carbon nanotubes, quantum dots, ferromagnetic nanocomposites, nanowires, transmission electron microscopy analysis of nanostructures, nanocrystals studies, atomic defects in intermetallic compounds, electron energy loss spectroscopy of intermetallic compounds, CHIRALTEM project, covariance data, nuclear astrophysics, kaonic atoms, pionic hydrogen, geometric phase measurements with neutrons, International linear collider project, ATLAS muon spectrometer, ATLAS detector, LHC's protection system, baryon structure, QCD, lattice QCD, coherent tomography, light microscopy, high resolution magnetic resonance imaging, polymer gel dosimetry, radon microdosimetry, traffic air pollutants, BVOC seasonal variations, biogenic VOC emissions, ice dating, synchrotron small angle x-ray diffraction, small angle neutron scattering, stepped surfaces oxidation, grazing incidence synchrotron reflexion studies, magnetic thin films, atoms quantum dynamics, quantum entanglement, BEC and quantum gases experiments were discussed. This book of abstracts contains their summaries and those contributions which are in the INIS subject scope are indexed individually. (nevyjel)

  6. Cs-137 transfer into plants from contaminated Austrian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Austria, the activity deposit per square meter due to the Chernobyl reactor accident ranges between 740 Bq in the northeastern part of Lower Austria and 90761 Bq in Upper Austria. The resulting high Cs-137 concentrations in the Austrian soils make soil to plant transfer studies desireable. Another question, the present work deals with, is to see the influence of K-, Mg- and NH4NO3- applications on the Cs plant uptake. Pot experiments with two contaminated brown soils and a chernozem were conducted. The following mean Cs- transfer factors (FW/DW) were obtained: barley (grains: 0,00094; straw: 0,009), corn (grains: 0,0028; straw: 0,0057), rye (grains: 0,020; straw: 0,048) and endive (0,0028). The transfer factors were hardly influenced by potassium- and magnesium- applications, due to the high clay contents of the soils and the adequate autochthonous supply with potassium and magnesium. NH4NO3- treatments increased the Cs-uptake into rye (grains and straw) distinctly. 13 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs. (Author)

  7. 52. Annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 52th Symposium of the Austrian Physical Society was held from 23.-26. September 2002 at the Montan University of Leoben (Austria). The papers presented were organized under the following sessions: main session (intermetallic materials, nanostructures as sensors, volcanic products as dating materials); Fritz-Kohlrausch-price 2002 (electronic structure and charge transfer in doped single-walled carbon nanotubes), Max-Auwaerter-price 2002 ( growth phenomena of thin overlayers on semiconductor surfaces), Viktor-Hess-price 2002 (analysis of rare Ke4 - decays), Roman-Ulrich-Sexl-price 2002 (experienced physics); acoustics; atomic-, molecular- and plasma physics (plasma ion mass spectrometers, proton-transfer-reaction-mass-spectrometry, radiation damage, electron-molecule interactions, decay); solid physics (nanoopticcs, nanocrystalline magnetic materials, nanostructure, nanoelectronics); nuclear and particle physics (CP-violations, neutral kaons, quark-antiquark systems, QCD, kaonic atoms spectroscopy, hadronic decay, long-lived radionuclides); medical-, bio-and environmental physics (biological radiation damage, photons therapy, Med-AUSTRON, doses rate, endovascular brachytherapy); physics-industry-energy (ski-simulation, acoustic surface wave); neutrons and synchrotron radiation physics (neutron quantum interferometry, AUSTRON, synchrotron-induced x-ray analysis); polymer physics(micro-Raman spectroscopy, x-ray analysis); quantum electronics, electrodynamics and optics (solid-state lasers, doped lasers, quantum purification and teleportation, Bose-Einstein condensates, quantum optics, Talbot-Lau interferometry, neutron quantum phases) and two poster sessions with topics dealing with the subjects above mentioned. Those contributions which are in the INIS subject scope are indexed separately. (nevyjel)

  8. Structures and perspectives of the Austrian energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical tools for projecting future energy demand can be grouped into two broad categories: Firstly, time series or cross section data based econometric models which contain information about customers' past behavior and thus enable to judge the causal effects of economic factors like incomes and prices on energy demand (passive forecasting). Secondly, structural simulation models which indicate how energy services transform to flows of useful, final and primary energy. These models enable to estimate the technical potential of improving the energy application and energy transformation systems (active scenario approach). Comparison of the two approaches with respect to projections for future energy demand yields that, typically, in the short run of econometric approach will dominate the structural simulation model. In the long run, however, this relation will be reversed. The econometric models suffer lack of technical information necessary to describe the demand for energy. The structural simulation model enables an incorporation of technical factors like efficiencies and fuel shares. An application of the structural model is a simulation run describing a scenario in order to reduce the Austrian CO2-emissions according to the recommendations of the conference of Toronto

  9. Cornerstones of the Austrian radon risk communication strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On behalf of the Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management (BMLFUW), the National Radon Centre of Austria developed the National Radon Risk Communication Strategy. The superior goal is the reduction of the radon exposure of Austrian citizens as well as the reduction of radon-related lung cancer deaths. Austria, like many other countries, follows the approach to raise awareness and to inform the public to achieve this goal. The presented strategy deals with the question of how radon protection issues can be communicated to the public, existing fears can be reduced and affected people can be motivated to take action (perform a radon test, if necessary, mitigate or install preventive measures in new buildings). The cornerstones of the National Radon Risk Communication Strategy can be summarized as follows: - Definition of communication goals - Identification and categorization of target groups - Development of specific key messages for each of the target groups - Determination of communication channels and assessment of their efficiency - Integration of the radon issue in education and training - Cooperation with relevant organizations and platforms. The communication objectives, target groups and communication paths (and their evaluation) will be discussed during the presentation in detail.

  10. Distribution of radiocaesium in an Austrian forest stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within an Austrian spruce stand, vertical distribution of radiocaesium in soil as well as 137Cs concentration in different forest ecosystem compartments including spruce and surface water were investigated 10 years after the Chernobyl accident. The total 137Cs inventory in the forest was estimated to be 46 kBq m-2 (ref. date: 86-05-01). From the collected data annual input rates via litterfall of 0.48% per year and output rates through waterflows of only 0.02% per year were derived. The results identify the high importance of forest soils as a sink for radiocaesium. The estimated ecological residence half-times turned out to be highest in the organic soil horizons (1-3 years per cm), whereas in mineral horizons the values decrease significantly. As a consequence, soil inventory represents more than 95% of the total, whereas only approximately 3.3% of the 137Cs inventory is stored in the living biomass of spruce trees and a further 0.5% in the phytomass of understorey vegetation

  11. Assessment of radiocaesium behaviour in an Austrian forest ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A monitoring program has been carried out since 1988 in Weinsberger Wald, an Austrian forest stand severely affected by the Chernobyl plume. Analyses of forest soils, understorey vegetation and mushrooms showed that 137Cs values decreased significantly between 1988 and 1993. In ferns, mosses and bilberry sprouts the concentrations did decrease to about 35% of the concentrations measured in 1988, however, seven years after the deposition event, the 137Cs contamination of edible forest products and game browse is still considerable. Derived ecological half-times are the longest in mushrooms (5.8 years), followed by values between 3.1-3.7 years in mosses, ferns and dwarf shrubs. Ecological half-times of 2.1 years were determined in grasses and the shortest values (1.9 years) were found in herbs (Oxalis acetosella). Annual measurements of 137Cs content in soil samples from different layers showed that the 137Cs values decreased in the litter layer, whereas they increased in mineral strata between 1988 and 1993. (author)

  12. SARSTEINIA BABAI N. GEN., N. SP., A NEW PROBLEMATIC SPONGE (INOZOA? FROM THE LATE JURASSIC OF THE NORTHERN CALCAREOUS ALPS, AUSTRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FELIX SCHLAGINTWEIT

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The new problematic sponge Sarsteinia babai n. gen., n. sp. is described from the Kimmeridgian to Tithonian Plassen and Lärchberg Formations of the Northern Calcareous Alps of Austria. The type-locality is the Sarsteinalm north of Mount Hoher Sarstein in the Austrian Salzkammergut, other findings come from Mount Sandling, Mount Jainzen, Mount Trisselwand and the Litzlkogel-Gerhardstein-complex west of Lofer. Most findings can be attributed to a fore-reef to upper slope facies or slope-of-toe breccias, small fragments can occasionally also be found in the back-reef facies. The suprageneric systematic position of the new sponge is unknown so far since it shows morphological characteristics known from Inozoa but also from "stromatoporoids".

  13. ALPS: An advanced loading pattern search program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-core fuel management continues to be affected by trends toward longer cycles, increased discharge burnup, increasingly complex fuel assembly features such as axial blankets and reduced-length burnable absorbers. Obtaining efficient core loading patterns which meet several, often conflicting, design criteria is becoming difficult to perform manually. To address this need, Westingouse has developed the Advanced Loading Pattern Search program, ALPS, a self-contained fuel management tool. The computer program establishes a variety of loading pattern candidates, based on the existing fuel inventory of spent and fresh fuel assemblies, and burnable absorber configurations defined by the user. The possible loading pattern candidates are established based on a reactivity distribution target and an appropriate matching of available fuel and burnable absorber configurations. An extensive search algorithm evaluates thousands of alternatives, and selects the candidates that meet specific design criteria. This search approach offers several advantages over conventional methods, as no specific knowledge and/or constraints are fixed in the algorithm. ALPS includes an innovative approach to take into account the reactivity effects of three-dimensional features. Such an approach permits accurate and fast representation of 3D features, using a two-dimensional core physics model. The software is now operational on a workstation computer, with an advanced graphical user interface of streamline input setup and output review. (author). 2 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  14. A regional analysis of elements at risk exposed to mountain hazards in the Eastern European Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Sven; Zischg, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    We present a method to quantify the number and value of buildings exposed to torrents and snow avalanches in the Austrian Alps, as well as the number of exposed people. Based on a unique population and building register dataset, a relational SQL database was developed that allows in combination with GIS data a rule-based nation-wide automated analysis. Furthermore, possibilities and challenges are discussed with respect to the use of such data in vulnerability assessment and with respect to resilience measures. We comprehensively address the challenge of data accuracy, scale and uncertainties. From the total of approximately 2.4 million buildings with a clearly attributable geographical location, around 120,000 are exposed to torrent processes (5 %) and snow avalanches (0.4 %); exposition was defined here as located within the digitally available hazard maps of the Austrian Torrent and Avalanche Control Service. Around 5 % of the population (360,000 out of 8.5 million inhabitants), based on those people being compulsory listed in the population register, are located in these areas. The analysis according to the building category resulted in 2.05 million residential buildings in Austria (85 %), 93,000 of which (4.5 %) are exposed to these hazards. In contrast, 37,300 buildings (1.6 %) throughout the country belong to the category of accommodation facilities, 5,600 of which are exposed (15 %). Out of the 140,500 commercial buildings, 8,000 (5 %) are exposed. A considerable spatial variation was detectable within the communities and Federal States. In general, an above-average exposition of buildings to torrent process and snow avalanches was detectable in communities located in the Federal State of Salzburg, Styria and Vorarlberg (torrents), and Tyrol and Vorarlberg (snow avalanches). In the alpine part of Austria, the share of exposed accommodation buildings was two times (Salzburg) and three times (Vorarlberg) higher than the regional average of exposed buildings

  15. Climate Modeling at the Austrian Weather Service (ZAMG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matulla, C.; Anders, I.; Auer, I.

    2009-05-01

    In later 2007 the Austrian Weather Service (ZAMG) established a group that shall deal with climate change modeling. Two of the group's main goals are to provide climate change scenarios for the assessment of the impact on ecosystems and to reconstruct past climate states along with their change. The former aim is to derive estimates of might happen to our ecosystems under different emission-pathways, whilst the latter goal is to better understand what has caused characteristical changes, which are to be found in proxies. Both aims can be achieved by empirical or dynamical downscaling models, which are ultimately based on the reliability of the driving GCMs results. It is well known that empirical and dynamical downscaling models do have advantages and disadvantages, which are different. As such it appears reasonable to use the approach which is better adapted to the considered question. It may be meaningful to apply empirical downscaling if long periods of time (such as substantial parts of the Holocene) are in the center of attention, whereas dynamical downscaling may be better suited to address questions that are related to decades. Up to now we were more involved with empirical downscaling that helped us to work together with scientists assessing the impact on ecosystems, as for instance, fish in a river (Matulla et al. 2007), forests (Lexer et al. 2002) or phenological phases (Scheifinger et al. 2007). After catching a glimpse of those results, we will turn to dynamical modeling. Here we would like to present findings from case studies, which are related to the more recent past. Our next target is the modelling of possible future climate conditions within the Greater Alpine Region (GAR, see e.g. Auer et al. 2007) as well as some characteristical periods throughout the Holocene as for instance the 8.2k event. This event is to be found in a variety of proxies within and also outside GAR. Auer I., Boehm R., Jurkovic A., Lipa W., Orlik A., Potzmann R., Schoener W

  16. What did we learn from the Austrian radon project?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximately 40000 measurements of indoor radon concentrations were performed in randomly selected homes during the Austrian Radon Project. These measurements were carried out by using long-term measuring devices (SSNTD and Electret detectors) and short-term charcoal detectors with liquid scintillation counting as the method of analysis. In addition to the equilibrium factor, soil gas measurements and quasi-continuous indoor measurements, parallel-measurements with different detector systems in randomly selected homes were also performed. Very different results were occasionally obtained for one and the same room at the same time. This was so not only when comparing the long-term and short-term measuring devices; actually, different long-term detector systems also often showed significant discrepancies in results, although all detector systems had been carefully calibrated and tested in laboratories. The essential conclusion was that during a longer exposure in randomly selected homes, the detectors may be moved, opened, or handled in other unfavourable ways which introduce additional uncertainties in the measuring results. The aim of the Austrian Radon Project was to estimate the radon risk for geographic areas (municipalities). This task is different from the evaluation of the mean radon concentration in a single home. Generally, while long-term measurements (a year or even longer) are necessary to get reliable results for a particular house, this is not so where only the mean indoor radon concentrations for an area are of interest. Observed indoor radon concentrations give information about the actual radon exposures of the inhabitants but not about the radon risk from the ground. The house type, the way the house is constructed, the storey where people live, and some living patterns (ventilation rate etc.) modify the geological risk significantly, although it is the geological situation that has to be primarily taken into account when planning and constructing

  17. Occupational accidents with mowing machines in Austrian agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogler, Robert; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef

    2015-01-01

    The number of recognized accidents during agricultural work is still very high in Austria. In the years 2008 to 2009, there occurred 84 approved work accidents with mowing machines. The main causes of accidents were the loss of control of machines, transportations or conveyances, hand tools, objects or animals. In the literature, numerous studies of general agricultural and forestry accident situations are available. Detailed studies on specific types of agricultural machines, which describe concrete circumstances and causes of accidents, are in limited numbers. The accident database from the General Accident Insurance Institution and the Austrian Social Insurance Institution of Farmers, with personal and accidental data information about mowing machine accidents, were analyzed. The results showed that most accidents occurred on mixed agricultural farms (68%). The majority of the injured persons were male (86%), over 40-years-old (86%) with an agricultural or forestry education (91%). The most common accidents occurred in the summer months (69%) and on afternoons during the working week (79%). The majority of accidents were caused by contact with the machine (55%) and the loss of control (73%) during their operation (60%) and harvesting work (63%). The most frequently injuries were wounds, fractures and superficial injuries (81%) to the upper and lower extremities (66%). The results of the chi-square test showed significant correlations between the specific task with the form of contact, the working process, the day and season. Results of the odds ratio determination showed an increased risk of suffering serious injury for men in the first half of the year and half of the day due to loss of control over the machine during agricultural harvesting work. PMID:25780843

  18. Occupational accidents with mowing machines in Austrian agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kogler

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The number of recognized accidents during agricultural work is still very high in Austria. In the years 2008 to 2009, there occurred 84 approved work accidents with mowing machines. The main causes of accidents were the loss of control of machines, transportations or conveyances, hand tools, objects or animals. In the literature, numerous studies of general agricultural and forestry accident situations are available. Detailed studies on specific types of agricultural machines, which describe concrete circumstances and causes of accidents, are in limited numbers. The accident database from the General Accident Insurance Institution and the Austrian Social Insurance Institution of Farmers, with personal and accidental data information about mowing machine accidents, were analyzed. The results showed that most accidents occurred on mixed agricultural farms (68%. The majority of the injured persons were male (86%, over 40-years-old (86% with an agricultural or forestry education (91%. The most common accidents occurred in the summer months (69% and on afternoons during the working week (79%. The majority of accidents were caused by contact with the machine (55% and the loss of control (73% during their operation (60% and harvesting work (63%. The most frequently injuries were wounds, fractures and superficial injuries (81% to the upper and lower extremities (66%. The results of the chi-square test showed significant correlations between the specific task with the form of contact, the working process, the day and season. Results of the odds ratio determination showed an increased risk of suffering serious injury for men in the first half of the year and half of the day due to loss of control over the machine during agricultural harvesting work.

  19. Impacts of Austrian Climate Variability on Honey Bee Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switanek, Matt; Brodschneider, Robert; Crailsheim, Karl; Truhetz, Heimo

    2015-04-01

    Global food production, as it is today, is not possible without pollinators such as the honey bee. It is therefore alarming that honey bee populations across the world have seen increased mortality rates in the last few decades. The challenges facing the honey bee calls into question the future of our food supply. Beside various infectious diseases, Varroa destructor is one of the main culprits leading to increased rates of honey bee mortality. Varroa destructor is a parasitic mite which strongly depends on honey bee brood for reproduction and can wipe out entire colonies. However, climate variability may also importantly influence honey bee breeding cycles and bee mortality rates. Persistent weather events affects vegetation and hence foraging possibilities for honey bees. This study first defines critical statistical relationships between key climate indicators (e.g., precipitation and temperature) and bee mortality rates across Austria, using 6 consecutive years of data. Next, these leading indicators, as they vary in space and time, are used to build a statistical model to predict bee mortality rates and the respective number of colonies affected. Using leave-one-out cross validation, the model reduces the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) by 21% with respect to predictions made with the mean mortality rate and the number of colonies. Furthermore, a Monte Carlo test is used to establish that the model's predictions are statistically significant at the 99.9% confidence level. These results highlight the influence of climate variables on honey bee populations, although variability in climate, by itself, cannot fully explain colony losses. This study was funded by the Austrian project 'Zukunft Biene'.

  20. Galaxy Clusters as Tele-ALP-scopes

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Axion-like particles have good theoretical motivation and are characterized by conversion to photons in astrophysical magnetic fields. Galaxy clusters are the most efficient convertors of axion-like particles to photons in the universe. I discuss the physics and phenomenology of ALPs, and describe their astrophysical implications, with particular reference to the recently observed 3.5 keV X-ray line that is a candidate for a dark matter decay line. I discuss interpretations of this line in terms of dark matter decaying to an axion-like particle, that then converts to a photon in cluster magnetic fields, and describe the compatibility of this scenario with data and the different phenomenology for cool-core and non-cool-core clusters.

  1. Autochthonous Linguistic Minorities in the Italian Alps:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernst Steinicke

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available More than any other area in Western Europe, the Alps, especially the Italian Alps, are home to great ethno-cultural diversity: there, no less than seven autochthonous linguistic minorities coexist side by side with the respective official majority. Now being considered an important cultural heritage by the state as well as by the regions, new legislation offers protection to all ‘linguistic-historic minorities’ in Italy. Our study shows, however, that it is quite difficult to maintain such groups, since it is largely unknown where exactly the minority areas are situated. Based on that, local actor groups in various communities take advantage of this lack of knowledge and declare themselves minority territories although they show no linguistic varieties. An important objective of this project is therefore to present a cartographic representation of this linguistic diversity. Subsequently, the contribution discusses case studies of distinct ethno-linguistic self-awareness. Even though with Law No. 482 a first important step was taken to preserve the linguistic minorities, their progressive decline by territorial and numerical criteria cannot be denied. Today, besides unfavorable bio-demographic factors and “diffuse ethnicity,” other causes are current demographic processes. In this framework the amenity migrants, those new immigrants who have discovered the mountains as a new, desirable settlement space, play a decisive role by reinforcing the assimilation process.Les Alpes, plus précisément les Alpes italiennes, plus que toute autre région d'Europe Occidentale, sont un lieu de grande diversité ethnoculturelle : pas moins de sept minorités linguistiques autochtones y coexistent, côte à côte avec la majorité officielle correspondante. Maintenant considérées comme un héritage culturel important par les états ainsi que par les régions, une nouvelle législation offre une protection à toutes les « minorités linguistiques

  2. On the way to an Austrian radon action plan; Auf dem Weg zum oesterreichischen Radonaktionsplan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, V.; Ringer, W.; Wurm, G. [Oesterreichische Agentur fuer Gesundheit und Ernaehrungssicherheit (AGES), Linz (Austria). Oesterreichische Fachstelle fuer Radon; Haider, W. [Bundesministerium fuer Land- und Forstwirtschaft, Umwelt und Wasserwirtschaft (BMLFUW), Wien (Austria). Abt. Strahlenschutz

    2013-07-01

    According to the draft of the new European Basic Safety Standards (EU-BSS) all member states are obliged to develop a national radon action plan, to control the long term risks from radon exposure in dwellings, public buildings and workplaces. The National Radon Centre, embedded in the Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety (AGES), was assigned by the Ministry for Environment (BMLFUW) to develop this Austrian action plan and the strategy behind. This conference contribution discusses where we still have a need for actions and how the new BSS will influence the Austrian radon legislation (reference levels, responsibilities, standards, building law). Currently running and planned projects regarding the radon action plan like developing a national radon data base, definition of radon prone areas by improving the radon map and strategies to increase public radon awareness and involve the building sector are presented. (orig.)

  3. Deuterium Measurements on Snow Samples from the Alps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of the deuterium content of snow samples from different regions of the western and eastern Alps revealed a general difference between samples of fresh snow and pack snow. The deuterium content of fresh snow was found to decrease approximately linearly with increase in elevation. When ΔδD = -4%0 ± 2%o per 100 m rise in elevation, the deuterium content corresponded to the altitude effect measured so far for rain in Central Europe. Pack snow, on the other hand, showed an increase in deuterium content with rise in elevation which, for the samples examined, fell within the range of ΔδD = 5% ±3% per 100 m rise in elevation. Natural snow samples were used to follow and interpret the variation with time of the deuterium content caused by the ageing of the snow. In addition to the dependence of the deuterium content on elevation, there is also an annual pattern for the deterium content of snow samples which corresponds to the known curve for deuterium in precipitations. (author)

  4. Streptococcus agalactiae alpha-like protein 1 possesses both cross-reacting and Alp1-specific epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvam, Augusta I; Mavenyengwa, Rooyen T; Radtke, Andreas; Maeland, Johan A

    2011-08-01

    Most isolates of group B streptococci (GBS) express an alpha-like protein (Alp), Cα (encoded by bca), Alp1 (also called epsilon; alp1), Alp2 (alp2), Alp3 (alp3), Alp4 (alp4), or R4/Rib (rib). These proteins are chimeras with a mosaic structure and with antigenic determinants with variable immunological cross-reactivities between the Alps, including Alp1 and Cα cross-reactivity. This study focused on antigenic domains of Alp1, studied by using rabbit antisera in immunofluorescence, Western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based tests and whole cells of GBS or trypsin-extracted and partially purified antigens from the strains A909 (serotype Ia/Cα, Cβ) and 335 (Ia/Alp1). Alp1 and Cα shared an antigenic determinant, Alp1/Cα common, not harbored by other Alps, probably located in the Alp1 and Cα repeat units, as these units are nearly identical in genomic sequence. An antigenic Alp1 determinant was Alp1 specific and was most likely located in the N-terminal unit of Alp1 in which an Alp1-specific primer site for PCR is also located. In addition, Alp1 possessed a domain with low immunogenicity which cross-reacted immunologically with Alp2 and Alp3, with unknown location in Alp1. Alp1 was partially degraded by trypsin during antigen extraction but with the antigenic domains preserved. The results indicate that Cα and Alp1 are immunologically related in the same manner that R4 (Rib) and Alp3 are related. The domain called Alp1 specific should be important in GBS serotyping as a surface-anchored serosubtype marker. The Alp1/Cα common determinant may be of prime interest as an immunogenic domain in a GBS vaccine. PMID:21653744

  5. Social, psychological and demographic reflections on the Austrian nuclear power question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The political history of an Austrian referendum in 1978, which led to abandonment of a nuclear power station, is reviewed, and an attempt is made to analyse the reasons for the 'No' vote. Surveys are presented which attempt to classify the yes, no and undecided voters in terms of political views. The effects of the Harrisburg accident on Austrian public opinion is examined and the possibility of accentuated differences between 'for' and 'against' groups is stated. It is noted that success in energy saving may reduce the significance of the atomic energy question. (G.M.E.)

  6. Austrian Banks’ Lending and Loan Pricing Strategies against the Background of Basel II

    OpenAIRE

    Johannes Jäger; Vanessa Redak

    2006-01-01

    Although the New Basel Capital Accord (Basel II) makes no direct reference to loan pricing and lending terms, it is widely held that Basel II does, in fact, impact on loan pricing. A survey among Austrian banks on loan pricing strategies after Basel II aimed to identify the potential effects of Basel II on loan pricing. This article summarizes and analyzes the results of this survey and their implications for the Austrian lending business. The survey found a significant trend toward risk-adeq...

  7. Mineral dust radiative effect on snow in European Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mauro, Biagio; Fava, Francesco; Ferrero, Luca; Garzonio, Roberto; Baccolo, Giovanni; Delmonte, Barbara; Colombo, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    reached 153 W/m2 in the highest concentrated plot. During the survey, an overflight of a four-rotors Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) equipped with an RGB digital camera sensor was organized. Data from UAV were analysed in order to produce a high resolution Digital Surface Model and an orthomosaic image of the area. Furthermore, RBG channels were combined to produce a detailed SDI map of the study area. Finally, a Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) tile was atmospherically and topographically corrected and maps of SDI in central European Alps were calculated from red and green reflectances. MD in snow showed high spatial variability with higher concentration in South facing slopes. These results represent the first evidence that aeolian transported MD from desert region can strongly influence snow and ice radiative balance in European Alps.

  8. Cosmogenic nuclide-derived rates of diffusive and episodic erosion in the glacially sculpted upper Rhone Valley, Swiss Alps

    OpenAIRE

    Norton, K. P.; Friedhelm von Blanckenburg; Kubik, P. W.

    2010-01-01

    Denudation rates of small tributary valleys in the upper Rhone valley of the Swiss Central Alps vary by more than an order of magnitude within a very small distance (tens of kilometers). Morphometric data indicate two distinct erosion processes operate in these steep mountain valleys. We determined the rates of these processes using cosmogenic beryllium-10 (10Be) in pooled soil and stream sediment samples. Denudation in deep, glacially scoured valleys is characterized by rapid, non-uniform pr...

  9. The occurrence of an upper decomposed peat layer, or “kultureller Trockenhorizont”, in the Alps and Jura Mountains

    OpenAIRE

    Sjögren, P.; van der Knaap, W.O.; van Leeuwen, J.F.N.; Andrič, M.; A. Grünig

    2007-01-01

    Many European mires show a layer of increased decomposition and minerogenic content close to the mire surface. Although the phenomenon is widely recognised, there have been few investigations of its distribution, cause and effect. In this study, nine peat profiles from the Alps and Jura Mountains in central Europe were studied to assess general trends in the upper peat stratigraphy. Analyses of pollen and fungal spore content in two profiles indicates that near-surface changes in decompositio...

  10. A NEW DAONELLA FROM THE LADINIAN PLATFORM OF THE ESINO LIMESTONE (SOUTHERN ALPS, ITALY)

    OpenAIRE

    CRISTIANO LARGHI; MARCO BALINI; VALENTINA TORTI

    2006-01-01

    The bivalve Daonella Mojsisovics, 1874 is very common in the Middle Triassic pelagic facies, whereas the record of this genus from shallow water limestones is rare. In the present paper a new species of Daonella, named D. pseudograbensis, is described from the Esino Limestone, a Ladinian (Middle Triassic) carbonate platform in the central Southern Alps. The species is described from Brembana Valley, where the Esino Limestone is rather rich in bioclastic lenses yielding faunas with bivalves, c...

  11. Density, diet and productivity of Long-eared Owls Asio otus in the Italian Alps: The importance of Microtus voles

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio, Fabrizio; Marchesi, Luigi; Pedrini, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    Capsule: Relatively large populations, feeding predominantly upon voles, were present at higher elevations. Aims: To determine the density, productivity and diet composition of Long-eared Owls breeding at higher elevations. Methods: Population census and breeding biology were investigated, and dietary analysis performed for 32 Long-eared Owl territories that were occupied over a six-year period (2000-05), in a 155 km2 study area located in the Noce Valley of the central-eastern Italian Alps. ...

  12. The lynx in the Italian South-Eastern Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Molinari

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract From 1986 to May 1995 I collected records of signs of lynx presence in the region of Friuli Venezia Giulia. A series of regularly checked trail transects, explorative excursions, and the collection of second-hand observations led to a total of 150 records. They confirm lynx presence and allow an assessment of the situation. The first lynx are believed to have immigrated to the northern part of the study area from Austria. An increase and the distribution in the signs of presence show a south-westerly expansion. The trend in the Julian Alps and Pre-Alps is also increasing. Some interpretations of the status of this new population are made. The study area is in the far south-eastern Alps. This area is important as a corridor between the Alps and the Balkans, where a reintroduced lynx population exists which would be able to support the Alpine lynx population through dispersing lynx.

  13. Text Reference Panel at ALPS Annual General Meeting

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Joyce; Flewelling, Debra; WHITE, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    A panel discussion on text reference initiatives at the Simon Fraser University Library, Langara College Library and Douglas College Library. This panel was held at the 2011 ALPS (Academic Librarians in Public Service section of BCLA) Annual General Meeting.

  14. Western Italian Alps Monthly Snowfall and Snow Cover Duration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of snow observations for 18 stations in the western Italian Alps. Two types of data are included: monthly snowfall amounts and monthly snow...

  15. SNOW PRECIPITATION IN THE LAST YEARS ON ITALIAN ALPS

    OpenAIRE

    Valt, Mauro; Cagnati, Anselmo; Crepaz, Andrea; Marigo, Gianni

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: Recent papers showed a general decrease of winter precipitation in the last years on Italian Alps and particularly snowy precipitations, both in the Western Italian Alps and in the Eastern part. In the Dolomites snowfall decreased of 28% during the period 1988-2003, comparing with average precipitations in 30 years (1971-2000). In this paper it is carried out an analysis of seasonal snowfall in the Dolomites and first results of a regional climatic evolution using the adimensional i...

  16. Pragmatics of Content-Based Instruction: Teacher and Student Directives in Finnish and Austrian Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton-Puffer, Christiane; Nikula, Tarja

    2006-01-01

    Using a pragmatic framework, this paper examines how directives are performed by teachers and students in Finnish and Austrian CLIL classrooms, that is settings where a foreign language (in this case English) is used as the medium of instruction in non-language subjects such as history or chemistry. We explore how interpersonal aspects of…

  17. 1983 Annual convention of the Austrian Physical Society, University of Linz, 28 - 30 September 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proceedings of lectures and poster presentations given at the 1983 convention of the Austrian Physical Society, with (German) abstracts only. The four topical sessions were: 1) electrodynamics and optics 2) solid state physics 3) nuclear and particle physics 4) physics of high polymers Only part of the presentations pertain to the subject scope of INIS. (G.Q.)

  18. Progress Report 1985 of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf. Abridged version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report gives a short survey of the work carried out by the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf in 1985. The working programme comprises five main areas: Energy and safety; Materials research, isotope and radiation techniques; Measuring techniques and information processing; Environmental protection, health and food; Industrial consulting. (Author)

  19. Quality of Austrian and Dutch Falls-Prevention Information: A Comparative Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoberer, Daniela; Mijnarends, Donja M.; Fliedner, Monica; Halfens, Ruud J. G.; Lohrmann, Christa

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the quality of written patient information material available in Austrian and Dutch hospitals and nursing homes pertaining to falls prevention. Design: Comparative descriptive study design Setting: Hospitals and nursing homes in Austria and the Netherlands. Method: Written patient…

  20. The emergence, development and demilitarization of the military border of the Austrian Monarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulauzov Maša

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Military border of the Austrian Monarchy was formed gradually in border areas for the purpose of defending the border from Turkish invasions. In time, as the international political circumstances have changed, the Border itself also modified its primary function. From the beginning of the 18th century soldiers of the Military Border together with the regular troops of Austrian army participate in all wars in which Austria took part. Thanks to those soldiers the military force of the Austrian Empire was significantly strengthened. Except for military tasks, the Military Border served to a great extent as a defensive corridor that stopped spreading infections diseases, invasions of robberies, smuggling goods from Turkey, as well as deserting and emigration to Turkish territory. Because of great importance that Military Border has had for the Austrian Monarchy, the author in this paper gives a summary review of its development in the military, territorial and administrative-political sense. Special attention was given to the administrative system that was introduced in Border in the second half of the 19th century.

  1. Progress Report 1984 of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf. Abridged version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report gives a short survey of the work carried out by the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf in 1984. The working programme comprises five main areas: Energy and safety; Materials research, isotope and radiation techniques; Measuring techniques and information processing; Environmental protection, health and food; Industrial consulting. (Author)

  2. Experience in the operation and maintenance of the Austrian TRIGA Mark II reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Austrian TRIGA Mark II reactor ia in operation since March 1962. The reactor instrumentation, core design and irradiation facilities and operation are described. Besides steady state power and pulse operation, square wave operation has been installed 1968, allowing power squares up to 750 kW. A Survey of reactor operation and experiments is given

  3. Results of extensive environment monitoring of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All the methods used for environmental monitoring in the surveillance of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf are described shortly and the values obtained are reported. The results show that neither the research reactor (ASTRA, 8 MW) nor an incineration plant of the waste management department nor the radionuclide laboratories contribute significantly the contamination of the environment. 8 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  4. 46th annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society. Programme and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains lectures (short communications) of the 46th symposium of the Austrian Physical Society which had been held at the University of Linz (Austria) in 1996. The following topics are included: atomic physics, molecular physics, plasma physics, solid state physics, nuclear and particle physics, biophysics, environmental physics, quantum electronics and quantum optics. (Suda)

  5. Overt and Disguised Discrimination against Women in Collective Agreements: Findings of an Austrian Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzker, Maria

    1980-01-01

    An Austrian survey of discriminatory practices in the texts of all collective agreements in force in March 1978 (except those covering public employees) identified six main forms of potential discrimination. Examples found among white-collar workers in the private sector and among textile, clothing, and leather workers are cited. (CT)

  6. Networking for Education for Sustainable Development in Austria: The Austrian ECOLOG-Schools Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Franz

    2016-01-01

    This case describes networking for education for sustainable development within the Austrian ECOLOG-schools network. The article presents theoretical concepts of networks in education in general, and the organization of the ECOLOG-network in particular. Based upon these foundations, the concept and results of a participatory evaluation study are…

  7. Innovation in the Construction Industry. Determinants of Innovation Activities by the Austrian Construction Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Fabian Unterlass

    2010-01-01

    An investigation of the determinants of innovation activities by the Austrian construction industry delivers heterogeneous results, indicating that the determinants in the construction industry deviate from those found for manufacturing and services. Innovation determinants also vary considerably depending on the specific sector within the construction industry and the type of innovation (product innovation, technical or commercial process innovation).

  8. Examples of the work of the Health Physics Division of the Austrian TRIGA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It will be reported about some problems of radiation protection which arise during the operation of the Austrian TRIGA reactor. Determination of noble gas concentration in the gaseous effluent. Determination of aerosol activity in the gaseous effluent. Levels of dose- equivalent rate on the shieldings of the beam holes. Cases of contamination during the reactor operation. (author)

  9. 1982 Annual convention of the Austrian Physical Society, University of Graz, 22 - 24 September 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proceedings of lectures and poster presentations given at the 1982 convention of the Austrian Physical Society, with (German) abstracts only. The three topical sessions were: 1) solid state physics 2) physics of high polymers 3) nuclear and particle physics Only part of the presentations pertain to the subject matter of INIS. (G.Q.)

  10. Photon-ALP conversions inside AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Tavecchio, F; Roncadelli, M

    2014-01-01

    An intriguing possibility to partially circumvent extragalactic background light (EBL) absorption in very-high-energy (VHE) observations of blazars is that photons convert into axion-like particles (ALPs) $\\gamma \\to a$ inside or close to a blazar and reconvert into photons $a \\to \\gamma$ in the Milky Way magnetic field. This idea has been put forward in 2008 and has attracted a considerable interest. However, while the probability for the back-conversion $a \\to \\gamma$ has been computed in detail (using the maps of the Galatic magnetic field), regretfully no realistic estimate of the probability for the conversion $\\gamma \\to a$ inside a blazar has been performed, in spite of the fact that the present-day knowledge allows this task to be accomplished in a reliable fashion. We present a detailed calculation that fills this gap, considering both types of blazars, namely BL Lac objects (BL Lacs) and flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQ) with their specific structural and environmental properties. We also include t...

  11. A 3D gravity model of crustal structure in the Central-Eastern Alpine sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Scarascia

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Assuming as a starting model the pattern of the Moho boundary as interpreted in a recent study on the basis of the available DSS profiles, a preliminary 3D gravity model of the crustal structures in the Central-Eastern Alpine sector is proposed. The aim of the present work is to confirm the seismic results concerning the Moho and to better shape the main discontinuities in the intermediate and upper crust, where the seismic data are too scattered to allow a reliable interpretation. The gravity field is calculated along twelve cross-sections oriented S-N and crossing the Alpine range from the Padan-Venetian plain to the Bavarian molasse and to the Austrian calcareous Alps. The westernmost section coincides with the European Geotraverse while the easternmost one is positioned at the longitude of about 14ºeast. The assumed density model is very simple (only 6 layers; for each unit the density is maintained constant. The model describes a European mantle dipping southwards underneath an overlapping, uplifted Adriatic mantle. As far as the lower crust is concerned, its top is found at depths between 18 and 28 km, the deepest values being reached in the south-eastern sector; the density appears higher in the Adriatic domain than in the European one and the Adriatic lower crust seems to be deeply indented northwards. The low density surface layers appear very thin in a large area of the northwestern sector, while in the south and southeast their thickness reaches about 10 km. This study must be considered as a complement to the seismic interpretation both as a validation of the model of the deep crust and Moho boundary and as an additional source of information on the upper crust.

  12. Hydrologic vulnerability to climate change of the Mandrone glacier (Adamello-Presanella group, Italian Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Giovanna; Caronna, Paolo; Ranzi, Roberto

    2013-05-01

    In order to assess the annual mass balance of the Mandrone glacier in the Central Alps an energy-balance model was applied, supported by snowpack, meteorological and glaciological observations, together with satellite measurements of snow covered areas and albedo. The Physically based Distributed Snow Land and Ice Model (PDSLIM), a distributed multi-layer model for temperate glaciers, which was previously tested on both basin and point scales, was applied. Verification was performed with a network of ablation stakes over two summer periods. Satellite images processed within the Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) project were used to estimate the ice albedo and to verify the position of the simulated transient snowline on specific dates. The energy balance was estimated for the Mandrone and Presena glaciers in the Central Italian Alps. Their modeled balances (-1439 and -1503 mm w.e. year-1, respectively), estimated over a 15 year period, are in good agreement with those obtained with the glaciological method for the Caresèr glacier, a WGMS (World Glacier Monitoring Service) reference located in the nearby Ortles-Cevedale group. Projections according to the regional climate model COSMO-CLM (standing for COnsortium for Small-scale MOdeling model in CLimate Mode) indicate that the Mandrone glacier might not survive the current century and might be halved in size by 2050.

  13. Searching for axions and ALPs from string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringwald, Andreas

    2012-09-15

    We review searches for closed string axions and axion-like particles (ALPs) in IIB string flux compactifications. For natural values of the background fluxes and TeV scale gravitino mass, the moduli stabilisation mechanism of the LARGE Volume Scenario predicts the existence of a QCD axion candidate with intermediate scale decay constant, f{sub a} {proportional_to}10{sup 9/12} GeV, associated with the small cycles wrapped by the branes hosting the visible sector, plus a nearly massless and nearly decoupled ALP associated with the LARGE cycle. In setups where the visible sector branes are wrapping more than the minimum number of two intersecting cycles, there are more ALPs which have approximately the same decay constant and coupling to the photon as the QCD axion candidate, but which are exponentially lighter. There are exciting phenomenological opportunities to search for these axions and ALPs in the near future. For f{sub a} {proportional_to}10{sup 11/12} GeV, the QCD axion can be the dominant part of dark matter and be detected in haloscopes exploiting microwave cavities. For f{sub a} {proportional_to}10{sup 9/10} GeV, the additional ALPs could explain astrophysical anomalies and be searched for in the upcoming generation of helioscopes and light-shining-through-a-wall experiments.

  14. Status and distribution of the lynx in the German Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Kaczensky

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The lynx (Lynx lynx had been eradicated in the German Alps by the middle of the 19th century. Since the early 1970s there have been several attempts to initiate the re-introduction of lynx into the German Alps, but none of the projects could be carried out because of the still very controversial attitudes towards the species, and because of competition between institutions. Natural re-colonization of the German Alps by lynx can be expected sooner or later from Switzerland or Austria. Although lynx are already present in some parts of Germany outside the Alps, neither an organized monitoring system nor compensation regulations for losses of livestock exist. For a successful comeback of lynx into Germany, including the German Alps, more efforts than a year-round protection by the federal hunting law is needed. Initiative management actions and intensive public education are necessary to obtain and secure public acceptance of the lynx.

  15. Searching for axions and ALPs from string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review searches for closed string axions and axion–like particles (ALPs) in IIB string flux compactifications. For natural values of the background fluxes and TeV scale gravitino mass, the moduli stabilisation mechanism of the LARGE Volume Scenario predicts the existence of a QCD axion candidate with intermediate scale decay constant, fa ∼ 109÷12 GeV, associated with the small cycles wrapped by the branes hosting the visible sector, plus a nearly massless and nearly decoupled ALP associated with the LARGE cycle. In setups where the visible sector branes are wrapping more than the minimum number of two intersecting cycles, there are more ALPs which have approximately the same decay constant and coupling to the photon as the QCD axion candidate, but which are exponentially lighter. There are exciting phenomenological opportunities to search for these axions and ALPs in the near future. For fa ∼ 1011÷12 GeV, the QCD axion can be the dominant part of dark matter and be detected in haloscopes exploiting microwave cavities. For fa ∼ 109÷10 GeV, the additional ALPs could explain astrophysical anomalies and be searched for in the upcoming generation of helioscopes and light–shining–through–a–wall experiments

  16. Why Credit Deflation Is More Likely than Mass Inflation: An Austrian Overview of the Inflation Versus Deflation Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Boyapati

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an Austrian overview of the inflation versus deflation debate which has captured the attention of the economics profession in the years following the US housing bust. Much of the Austrian analysis of this debate has focused on the massive expansion of the Federal Reserve’s balance sheet and attendant creation of new reserves. Several Austrian economists have predicted that the creation of new reserves will cause a massive increase in inflation. The money multiplier theory, on which these predictions are based, is criticized and an overview of the Austrian business cycle theory is provided to explain why banks are reluctant to issue new credit. Finally, an analysis of the politics of deflation is provided and a class theory is presented to explain why a policy of controlled credit deflation is more likely than a policy that would result in mass inflation or hyperinflation.

  17. Phenology in the Western Alps: first results of the PhenoALP project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremonese, Edoardo; Tracol, Yann

    2010-05-01

    PHENOALP is a EU co-funded Interreg Project under the operational programme for cross-border cooperation "Italy-France (Alps-ALCOTRA)" 2007 - 2013, started in 2009, aiming to get a better understanding of phenological changes in the Alps and build a long term monitoring network. The results obtained after the first year of the project are mainly related to the definition of observation protocols and to the implementation of the observation networks. In particular, we focused on the comparison of different approaches for monitoring alpine grasslands phenology. We developed a new protocol for vegetative and reproductive phases of the seven most common plant growth life forms of alpine pastures: cyperaceae, poaceae (palatable and non palatable), evergreen and deciduous shrubs, forbs and leguminous. For each group quantitative and qualitative variables (e.g. leaves length, bud number, fruits number and phenophases) are monitored during the growing season. Study sites are located along an elevation gradient from 1560 to 2580 m asl and measurements are carried out on marked individuals in permanent plots. The other techniques used to monitor grassland phenology are: analysis of webcam images, weekly nadiral digital images, visual estimations of greening percentage, canopy structural measurements (i.e. height, fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation, leaf are index, etc..) and high frequency radiometric measurements of vegetation indexes related to canopy structure. All methods are providing promising results and our goal is to define a protocol suitable for long term observation based on a reasonable trade-off between the quality and robustness of collected data and the heaviness of the observations. For animal phenology we are focusing on many animal taxa among birds, mammals, amphibians and insects. First results are coming from birds and amphibians. In the case of birds, observations of reproductive phenology of some common alpine species are done

  18. Culture standards and their impact on teamwork: An empirical analysis of Austrian, German, Hungarian and Spanish culture differences

    OpenAIRE

    Dunkel, Amanda; Meierewert, Sylvia

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the impact of different cultural standards on the processes and performances of Austrian, Spanish, German and Hungarian task groups. We therefore analyzed 201 qualitative interviews with Austrians, Spaniards, Germans and Hungarians, which were conducted from 1996 to 2001. This paper uses the cultural standard framework as its theoretical background as well as the concepts of team development. The emphasis of our research is on those culture standards that have been ident...

  19. Assessment of erosion and sedimentation rates using 137Cs, 210Pbex and conventional erosion measurements within an Austrian watershed (Mistelbach)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnitude of sedimentation processes was evaluated using Fallout RadioNuclides 'FRNs' (137Cs and 210Pbex) and the mid-term (13 years) magnitude of erosion rates was quantified through conventional runoff plot measurements in a small Austrian watershed. Our objectives were to measure the magnitude of soil erosion under conventional and conservation cropping practices using runoff plots and to test and validate the potential use of FRNs as soil tracers to assess sedimentation rates under Austrian field conditions

  20. Peak metamorphic temperature and thermal history of the Southern Alps (New Zealand)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyssac, O.; Cox, S. C.; Vry, J.; Herman, F.

    2016-04-01

    The Southern Alps orogen of New Zealand results from late Cenozoic convergence between the Indo-Australian and Pacific plates and is one of the most active mountain belts in the world. Metamorphic rocks carrying a polymetamorphic legacy, ranging from low-greenschist to high-grade amphibolites, are exhumed in the hanging wall of the Alpine Fault. On a regional scale, the metamorphic grade has previously been described in terms of metamorphic zones and mineral isograds; application of quantitative petrology being severely limited owing to unfavorable quartzofeldspathic lithologies. This study quantifies peak metamorphic temperatures (T) in a 300 × 20 km area, based on samples forming 13 transects along-strike from Haast in the south to Hokitika in the north, using thermometry based on Raman spectroscopy of carbonaceous material (RSCM). Peak metamorphic T decreases across each transect from ≥ 640 °C locally in the direct vicinity of the Alpine Fault to less than 330 °C at the drainage divide 15-20 km southeast of the fault. Thermal field gradients exhibit a degree of similarity from the southernmost to the northernmost transects, are greater in low-grade semischist than high-grade schist, are affected by folding or discontinuous juxtaposition of metamorphic zones, and contain limited information on crustal-scale geothermal gradients. Temperatures derived by RSCM thermometry are slightly (≤ 50 °C) higher than those derived by traditional quantitative petrology using garnet-biotite thermometry and THERMOCALC modeling. The age of RSCM T appears to be mostly pre-Cenozoic over most of the area except in central Southern Alps (Franz Josef-Fox area), where the amphibolite facies schists have T of likely Cenozoic age. The RSCM T data place some constraints on the mode of exhumation along the Alpine Fault and have implications for models of Southern Alps tectonics.

  1. Postcollisional cooling history of the Eastern and Southern Alps and its linkage to Adria indentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberer, Bianca; Reverman, Rebecca Lee; Fellin, Maria Giuditta; Neubauer, Franz; Dunkl, István; Zattin, Massimiliano; Seward, Diane; Genser, Johann; Brack, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Indentation of rigid blocks into rheologically weak orogens is generally associated with spatiotemporally variable vertical and lateral block extrusion. The European Eastern and Southern Alps are a prime example of microplate indentation, where most of the deformation was accommodated north of the crustal indenter within the Tauern Window. However, outside of this window only the broad late-stage exhumation pattern of the indented units as well as of the indenter itself is known. In this study we refine the exhumational pattern with new (U-Th-Sm)/He and fission-track thermochronology data on apatite from the Karawanken Mountains adjacent to the eastern Periadriatic fault and from the central-eastern Southern Alps. Apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He ages from the Karawanken Mountains range between 12 and 5 Ma and indicate an episode of fault-related exhumation leading to the formation of a positive flower structure and an associated peripheral foreland basin. In the Southern Alps, apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He and fission-track data combined with previous data also indicate a pulse of mainly Late Miocene exhumation, which was maximized along thrust systems, with highly differential amounts of displacement along individual structures. Our data contribute to mounting evidence for widespread Late Miocene tectonic activity, which followed a phase of major exhumation during strain localization in the Tauern Window. We attribute this exhumational phase and more distributed deformation during Adriatic indentation to a major change in boundary conditions operating on the orogen, likely due to a shift from a decoupled to a coupled system, possibly enhanced by a shift in convergence direction.

  2. Negotiating Partnership: How Serbian Hauzmajstor Established a Business Relationship with Austrian Rustler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Vučinić-Nešković

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is an account of how Serbian Hauzmajstor negotiated and entered into partnership with the Austrian Rustler. The introduction is devoted to the development of Hauzmajstor, a small real estate maintenance firm, founded by a Serbian repatriate in 2004. Beginning with its start up as the first daughter firm of Komon sens, a consulting and project development firm, the study follows its adaptation to the local business environment, concentrating on its organizational and business culture. The focus of the study is on the detailed description and analysis of experiences of the Hauzmajstor insiders with the Austrian Rustler, first as a potential, and later as an actual partner. In the end, a view from the other side, i.e. perceptions of Hauzmajstor by the Rustler Group area manager are given.

  3. Francesco Saverio Amman: an Austrian cotton entrepreneur in Lombardy,1838-82.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licini, S

    1999-01-01

    This article examines the cotton manufacturing industry in Lombardy during the period when Austrian rule was being restored in the wake of the Congress of Vienna. It adopts Pollard's emphasis on the regional nature of industrialisation, drawing on the surviving accounts of Francesco Saverio Amman - the Austrian-born founder of a major cotton-mill - and attempts to identify differences and similarities between his career and achievements and those of his many counterparts in the rest of Europe. The article begins by looking at Amman's economic and social advancement, and then discusses the development of his business interests. It concludes by examining how he chose to invest his earnings, both within and without the cotton industry. PMID:19455762

  4. Austrian Capital Theory and the Link Between Entrepreneurship and the Theory of the Firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.;

    2005-01-01

    tangible and intangible,are heterogeneous; arranging these assets to minimize contractual hazards, toprovide efficient investment incentives, or to exploit competitive advantage isconceived as the prime task of economic organization. None of these approaches,however, is based on a systematic theory of...... capital heterogeneity. Inthis paper we outline the approach to capital developed by the Austrian schoolof economics and integrate it into an entrepreneurial theory of the firm. We refineAustrian capital theory by defining capital heterogeneity in terms of subjectivelyperceived attributes, that is, the...... firm, and it suggests testable implications abouthow and where entrepreneurship is manifested.Keywords: Entrepreneurship, heterogeneous assets, judgment, ownership, firmboundaries, internal organization.JEL Codes: B53, D23, L2...

  5. Praxeology and the firm: a contribution to the Austrian redefinition of the economic organization problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Ivan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to syntetize theory of entrepreneurship of the Austrian School of economics with the contractual theory of the firm. Transaction cost theory of Ronald Coase and his followers holds that the firm is the organization with dominant component of ordering, while market is defined by competition and rivalry. But, market also includes interdependency and cooperation, such as in the case of cartel. Therefore non-competitive forms of economic coordination are not specificity for the firm, and can be observed in the open market as well. Agency theory rejects the notion of the firm as a hierarchy, and it is based on completeness of knowledge and contract. Theory of entrepreneurship and monetary calculation of Austrian School enables us to integrate contractual theory into the theoretical setting characterized by uncertainty, information asymmetry and positive transaction costs.

  6. Manmade radionuclide vector in Austrian soil and vegetation near Temelin nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinojmeri, M.; Ringer, V. [Oesterreichische Agentur fuer Gesundheit und Ernaehrungssicherheit - AGES (Austria)

    2014-07-01

    Since Chernobyl NPP accident an environmental monitoring program concerning the Upper Austrian region near Czech Republic Nuclear Power Plant, NPP Temelin, is in progress between AGES and BMLFUV, the Austrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment, Water and Food, in Austria. This paper presents the results obtained during the sampling campaign over biennial period of 2010-2011. Soil samples, grass and different cereal species were collected. Beside Cs-134, Cs-137 and Sr-89, Sr-90 isotopes, at this phase the number of isotopes determined was extended with plutonium isotopes Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241 and Am-241. A comparison of these results with the existing data so far is presented. New knowledge was obtained related the bio-kinetic parameters of these elements in the environment. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  7. Is adult education a ‘white’ business? Professionals with migrant backgrounds in Austrian adult education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Kukovetz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on an applied research project, which examines the participation of migrants (first and second generation as professionals in Austrian adult education. We present selected outcomes concerning barriers and encouraging factors in the careers of professionals with migrant background. Our main findings show the importance of the recognition of credentials, of social capital and of strategies to avoid discrimination on behalf of the institutions of adult education. Introducing the analytical perspective of critical whiteness, we conclude that Austrian adult education still has to reflect its own role in terms of white privileges. Finally we point out some approaches and strategies to widening participation and reducing discrimination in the professional field.

  8. Out-of-pocket expenditures for pharmaceuticals: Lessons from the Austrian household budget survey

    OpenAIRE

    Sanwald, Alice; Theurl, Engelbert

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Paying pharmaceuticals out-of-pocket is an important source of financing pharmaceutical consumption. Only limited empirical knowledge is available on the determinants of these expenditures. OBJECTIVES: In this paper we analyze which characteristics of private households influence out-of-pocket pharmaceutical expenditure (OOPPE) in Austria. DESIGN & METHODS: We use cross-sectional information on OOPPE and on household characteristics provided by the Austrian household budget survey...

  9. Drugs from nature targeting inflammation (DNTI): a successful Austrian interdisciplinary network project

    OpenAIRE

    Waltenberger, Birgit; Atanasov, Atanas G.; Heiss, Elke H; Bernhard, David; Rollinger, Judith M.; Breuss, Johannes M.; Schuster, Daniela; Bauer, Rudolf; Kopp, Brigitte; Franz, Chlodwig; Bochkov, Valery; Marko D Mihovilovic; Dirsch, Verena M.; Stuppner, Hermann

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Inflammation is part of numerous pathological conditions, which are lacking satisfying treatment and effective concepts of prevention. A national research network project, DNTI, involving scientists from six Austrian universities as well as several external partners aimed to identify and characterize natural products capable of combating inflammatory processes specifically in the cardiovascular system. The combined use of computational techniques with traditional knowledge, high-tech...

  10. Decision Criteria in Ethical Dilemma Situations: Empirical Examples from Austrian Managers

    OpenAIRE

    Litschka, Michael; Suske, Michaela; Brandtweiner, Roman

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the result of an empirical research project analysing the decision behaviour of Austrian managers in ethical dilemma situations. While neoclassical economic theory would suggest a pure economic rational basis for management decisions, the empirical study conducted by the authors put other concepts to a test, thereby analysing their importance for managerial decision making: specific notions of fairness, reciprocal altruism, and commitment. After reviewing some of ...

  11. Locational choice and price competition: Some empirical results for the Austrian retail gasoline market

    OpenAIRE

    Gerhard Clemenz; Klaus Gugler

    2002-01-01

    Using data from the Austrian retail gasoline market we test the following two hypotheses derived from spatial economics: (i) Retail shops are more densely located in areas with a higher population density. (ii) Spatial competition equilibrium prices are decreasing in the density of seller locations. Both hypotheses are well supported by the data. Population density explains more than 95% of the cross-district variation in the density of gasoline stations. With respect to the relationship betw...

  12. Sustainability Management with the Sustainability Balanced Scorecard in SMEs: Findings from an Austrian Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Susanna Falle; Romana Rauter; Sabrina Engert; Rupert J. Baumgartner

    2016-01-01

    Given the economic importance of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) and their need for strategic sustainability management, this paper examines the concept of Sustainability Balanced Scorecard (SBSC) with respect to SMEs. This case study describes the development of an SBSC in a middle-sized Austrian brewery. The existing methods used in SBSC creation were adapted to suit the company’s specific needs. The findings show that when developing an SBSC it is important to take specific SME c...

  13. Financial and Economic Education Products and Services of Austrian Institutions and Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Sabine Schlögl

    2007-01-01

    Austrian institutions and enterprises offer a broad range of economic and financial literacy products and services, including online products, brochures, folders, economic simulation games, TV and radio programs, presentations, seminars, company visits and guided tours. On closer inspection, however, it turns out that some areas and target groups remain largely neglected: Education products and services for students attending primary and compulsory school are still scarce, while comprehensive...

  14. Susceptibility of Austrian Clinical Klebsiella and Enterobacter Isolates Linked to Patient-Related Data

    OpenAIRE

    Badura, Alexandra; Pregartner, Gudrun; Holzer, Judith C.; Feierl, Gebhard; Grisold, Andrea J.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the antimicrobial susceptibility of Austrian clinical Klebsiella sp. and Enterobacter sp. isolates linked to patient-related data over a time period from 1998 to 2014. The main findings of this study were (i) a marked difference of antibiotic susceptibility rates between different infection sites for both Klebsiella sp. and Enterobacter sp., (ii) significantly greater percentages of resistant isolates among both Klebsiella sp. and Enterobacter sp. in male p...

  15. Academic Anti-Semitism and the Austrian School: Vienna, 1918–1945

    OpenAIRE

    Hansjoerg Klausinger

    2013-01-01

    The theme of academic anti-Semitism has been much discussed recently in histories of the interwar period of the University of Vienna, in particular its Faculty of Law and Policy Sciences. This paper complements these studies by focusing in this regard on the economics chairs at this faculty and, more generally, on the fate of the younger generation of the Austrian school of economics. After some introductory remarks the paper concentrates on three case studies: the neglect of Mises in a...

  16. Towards a Dynamic Resource-Based View Insights from Austrian Capital and Entrepreneurship Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolai J. Foss; Ishikawa, Ibuki

    2006-01-01

    The dominant view in the strategic management field is the resource-based view ("RBV"). It has often been observed that the RBV is lacking in the dynamic dimension. For example, processes of building competitive advantages by means of combining existing complementary resources in novel ways are not inquired into. We argue that the RBV may profitably draw on Austrian (Misesian) and Knightian insights in entrepreneurship and capital theory, particularly in its Lachmannian manifestation, in orde...

  17. Praxeology and the firm: a contribution to the Austrian redefinition of the economic organization problem

    OpenAIRE

    Janković Ivan

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to syntetize theory of entrepreneurship of the Austrian School of economics with the contractual theory of the firm. Transaction cost theory of Ronald Coase and his followers holds that the firm is the organization with dominant component of ordering, while market is defined by competition and rivalry. But, market also includes interdependency and cooperation, such as in the case of cartel. Therefore non-competitive forms of economic coordination are not specificity f...

  18. Austrian Partners in Joint Ventures With Companies from CMEA Countries: Problems Today

    OpenAIRE

    Razvigorova, E.; Plasonig, G.; Horak, C.

    1990-01-01

    International research institutes involved in comparative global studies are not normally involved in the education of students or their respective studies. However, this study on joint ventures between Austrian enterprises and companies from CMEA countries was undertaken by students of the Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration with the assistance of IIASA scientists. This exceptional example proves that such cooperation can be most successful and mutually beneficial. ...

  19. the term structure of interest rates: a first look at the austrian case

    OpenAIRE

    Jäger, Albert

    1985-01-01

    abstract: first, the basic idea of the expectations theory on the term structure of interest rates is sketched. a brief review of empirical evidence on the expectations theory is presented. the paper then derives and estimates a term structure equation for austrian interest rates. the empirical results for this equation seem not to be at variance with the basic idea of the expectations theory, i. e., representing the long term interest rates as a weighted average of expected short rates. a li...

  20. Mitochondrial Haplogroup T Is Associated with Obesity in Austrian Juveniles and Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ebner, Sabine; Mangge, Harald; Langhof, Helmut; Halle, Martin; Siegrist, Monika; Aigner, Elmar; Paulmichl, Katharina; Paulweber, Bernhard; Datz, Christian; Sperl, Wolfgang; Kofler, Barbara; Weghuber, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent publications have reported contradictory data regarding mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation and its association with body mass index. The aim of the present study was to compare the frequencies of mtDNA haplogroups as well as control region (CR) polymorphisms of obese juveniles (n = 248) and obese adults (n = 1003) versus normal weight controls (njuvenile = 266, nadults = 595) in a well-defined, ethnically homogenous, age-matched comparative cohort of Austrian Caucasians. Me...

  1. Revealed comparative advantage index: an analysis of export trade in the Austrian district of Burgerland

    OpenAIRE

    Granabetter, Doris

    2016-01-01

    The Austrian District of Burgenland is located in the eastern part of the country. In the last decade, the region has benefited from different subsidy programs from the European Union. The aim of this paper is to analyze and evaluate the export competitiveness of Burgenland in relation to the foreign trade of Austria as a whole from 2010 to 2014, which is the period showing the highest increase in exports since the Iron Curtain fell. The Revealed Comparative Advantage index (RCA) was used ...

  2. European parliament in Strasbourg more courageous against 'atomic neighbours' than Austrian politicians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author is refering to a notice in the german journal VDI-Nachrichten that the European Parliament claims that nuclear power stations should be put into operation upon agreement of the neighbouring member state up to a distance of 100 km from the border. The presently accepted distance is 30 km only. The author gives a list of claims the Austrian authorities should insist on when negotiating with neighbours operating nuclear power plants, primarily West Germany and Czechoslovakia. 1 fig. (qui)

  3. Is Bitcoin money? An analysis from the Austrian school of economic thought

    OpenAIRE

    Ísak Andri Ólafsson 1989

    2014-01-01

    This thesis aims to explore whether digital crypto-currencies such as Bitcoin can be considered money from the perspective of the Austrian school of economics. It begins by describing the functions and design of the Bitcoin system in detail. Other innovations that either build on or improve Bitcoin will be explained as well. The functions of money are then defined from the origins of money, providing a categorical approach toward a comparison between Bitcoin and incumbent money. The risks and...

  4. Welcome address: Alois Posch on behalf of the Austrian presidency for the European Union (A)

    OpenAIRE

    Posch, Dipl.-Ing. Alois

    2006-01-01

    In Austria, organic farming has been playing an important role in the national agricultural policy. Thus, Austria has advocated to foster the development of organic farming also at the level of the EU. It is the aim of the Austrian Presidency to support the European Commission in its actions. Like other EU countries, Austria is trying to make use of the Action programme for organic farming in the best possible way for the further development of organic farming. The rural development p...

  5. Bioactive Ingredients and Antioxidant Activity of Austrian Wine and Grape Juice

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Navarro, Roser

    2008-01-01

    Wine has already been investigated for its potential nutritional quality, such as high amount of phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds, well-known as natural antioxidants, are reported due their radical scavenging capacity. In the present work, the bioactive ingredients of nine Austrian wines (four red wines: Zweigelt, Blaufränkisch, Syrah and Cuvée; two white wines: Pinot Blanc and Chardonnay; one rosé Blaufränkisch; and two grape juice: red and white) have been quantified an...

  6. Matrix ALPS: Accelerated Low Rank and Sparse Matrix Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Kyrillidis, Anastasios

    2012-01-01

    We propose Matrix ALPS for recovering a sparse plus low-rank decomposition of a matrix given its corrupted and incomplete linear measurements. Our approach is a first-order projected gradient method over non-convex sets, and it exploits a well-known memory-based acceleration technique. We theoretically characterize the convergence properties of Matrix ALPS using the stable embedding properties of the linear measurement operator. We then numerically illustrate that our algorithm outperforms the existing convex as well as non-convex state-of-the-art algorithms in computational efficiency without sacrificing stability.

  7. OLIGOCENE STRATIGRAPHY BASED ON A SEDIMENT-BASALT ASSOCIATION IN CENTRAL MONGOLIA(TAATSIIN GOL AND TAATSIIN TSAGAAN NUUR AREA,VALLEY OF LAKES):REVIEW OF A MONGOLIAN-AUSTRIAN PROJECT%蒙古中部湖泊之谷沉积岩-玄武岩共存的渐新世地层:蒙古-奥地利合作项目回顾

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gudrun DAXNER-H(O)CK; Demchig BADAMGARAV; Margarita ERBAJEVA

    2010-01-01

    The Oligocene sedimentary sequence of the Taatsiin Gol and Taatsiin Tsagaan Nuur area is of unique stratigraphic importance:here,the exposed sediments of the Hsanda Gol and the Loh Formations display multiple fossil horizons and interbedded basah layers.In the frame of a Mongolian-Austrian pro-ject,289 fossil taxa(11 Gastropoda,2 Amphibia,9 Reptilia and 267 Mammalia)were collected from 85 fossil horizons of 33 sections/fossil sites of the study area.The taxa were identified by an interna-tional team of specialists.This contribution presents comprehensive mammal lists of all localities.By integrating the new data on large and small mammals,the Mongolian informal biozones A,B,C,C1 were updated.40Ar/39Ar-datings provide at least two groups of basalt ages,the Early Oligocene ba-salt I group around 31.5 Ma and the Late Oligocene basalt II group around 28 Ma.They serve as chronological tie points in the Oligocene mammalian stratigraphy.From the Early to the Late Oligocene the mammal associations underwent remarkable changes involving a ignificant decrease of species numbers in the Late Oligocene.This trend was most strik-ing in creodont,carnivore and ruminant communities.%Taatsiin Col和Taatsiin Tsagaan Nuur地区的渐新世沉积序列具有重要的地层学意义:这里出露的三达河组和Loh组沉积含有多个化石层和玄武岩夹层.在蒙古-奥地利合作项目中,从研究区域的33个剖面/化石地点的85个化石层中采集了289种化石(11种腹足类、2种两柄类、9种爬行类和267种哺乳类).本文提供了所有地点的完整哺乳动物清单,并结合大、小哺乳动物的新资料,对蒙古非正式的生物带A,B,C和Cl进行了更新.40Ar/39Ar测年给出了至少两组玄武岩年龄:早渐新世玄武岩Ⅰ组大约31.5 Ma,晚渐新世玄武岩Ⅱ组大约28 Ma.它们可以用作渐新世哺乳动物地层学的年代校正点.从早渐新世至晚渐新世,哺乳动物群发生了显著的变化,包括晚渐新世种

  8. Joint Annual Meeting of the Austrian Physical Society and the Swiss Physical Society together with the Austrian and Swiss Societies for Astronomy and Astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Joint Annual Meeting of the Austrian Physical Society and the Swiss Physical Society was organized together with both national societies of Astronomy and Astrophysics (SSAA and ÖGAA) at the Johannes Kepler University Linz, Altenberger Straße 69, 4040 Linz, Austria. The plenary sessions gave an overview of the present status of research in quantum mechanics, particle, atomic and molecular physics. The topical sessions were dedicated to: nuclear, particle- and astro particle physics; physics teachers; acoustics; atoms, molecules, quantum optics and plasmas; solid state physics and research with neutron and synchrotron radiation; history of physics; medical, bio and environmental physics; surfaces, interfaces and thin films; careers in physics. There were special sessions on thermoelectrics and photovoltaics. In addition to the regular program, an Energy Day (Energietag) with several parallel sessions on recent topics of energy generation, -transport and -storage was jointly organized by the Energy and Industry Subdivisions of the Austrian Physical Society and by the Johannes Kepler Universität Linz. Those contributions which are in the INIS subject scope are indexed individually

  9. The economic situation of Austrian power industry after the plebiscite on nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report tries to give a survey of the economic situation of Austrian energy industry after the plebiscite on the Zwentendorf nuclear power plant. Basing on the energy situation before 1978 it deals in particular with the consequences of the plebiscite and points to the revised energy prognoses. Furthermore, the international entanglements of Austria because of its membership in the International Energy Agency is discussed. The calendar of operations of the Austrian Federal Government lists a great deal of measures where an active, in parts a very centralistic energy policy becomes evident. The limits and possibilities of Austrian economic and financial policy are set forth in the chapters dealing with financing and the development of the balance of trade and payment. Austria's policy of neutrality is closely related to these factors. In spite of increasing difficulties, however, it seems feasible to sanitate the existing problems. As in other countries the emotions concerning the peaceful use of nuclear energy is still keeping on in Austria. New decisions shall have to be made next winter or spring. (orig.)

  10. Österreichs Wirtschaftsbeziehungen in Südostasien [Austrian Economic Relations to South-East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhart Zimmermann

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Der süd- und südostasiatische Raum befindet sich im Aufholprozess. Der anhaltende Wachstumstrend geht einher mit der steigenden Nachfrage aus den Industriestaaten sowie dem Binnenmarkt und führt auch zu erhöhtem Bedarf an Infrastruktur. Auch die österreichische Wirtschaft profitiert vom Asien-Boom. Dies zeigt das stete Wachstum österreichischer Warenexporte in die Region, der Anstieg heimischer Direktinvestitionen sowie die wachsende Präsenz österreichischer Firmen. Ziel der österreichischen WirtschaftsvertreterInnen ist es, die Tigerstaaten Südostasiens mehr aus dem Schatten der aufstrebenden Wirtschaftssupermacht China zu holen und die österreichische Wirtschaftsverflechtung mit diesen Ländern zu intensivieren.The South and South East Asian Area has been catching up with the developed world. The sustained economic growth trend goes hand in hand with a higher demand from industrialized nations and a stronger internal demand, pushing for better infrastructure. The Austrian economy is also benefiting from booming Asia, underscored by the steady increase of Austrian exports to this region, the rise of foreign direct investment and companies doing business in these countries. The Austrian business community would like to see the South East Asian tiger states more out of the shadow of the new super power China. The overall objective is to intensify the economic integration with South and South East Asia.

  11. Edaphic characteristics of Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn. forests in the Višegrad area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Velibor D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of soil research in Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn. forest communities in the Višegrad area, carried out to determine the basic soil characteristics and eco-production potential of forest habitats as an important basis and framework for the successful management of these forests on the principles of sustainable development. Austrian pine forests in this region are an important and ecologically valuable community. The complexity of the geological structure and relief dynamics are dominant environmental factors that condition the expressed variability of soils in the study area. Forest communities of Austrian pine are formed on the peridotites and serpentinites, eutric ranker (haplic leptosol, eutric cambisol (haplic cambisols and pseudogley (haplic planosol, dense granular and marl limestones calcomelanosol (mollic leptosol, rendzina (rendzic leptosol and calcocambisol (leptic cambisol. The productivity of these soils is highly correlated with depth and texture composition, and the impact of these factors is linked with soil type, climate and other site conditions. In the research area, soil types with low production potential such as rankers, rendzinas, limestone and dolomite calcomelanosol are dominant. Deeper variants of eutric cambisol, pseudogley and calcocambisol can be classified as soils with moderate to high production potential.

  12. Changes in equipment and image quality. Impact of one year Austrian breast cancer early detection programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nationwide Austrian Breast Cancer Early Detection Programme (''BKFP'') started in January 2014. The Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety Ltd. was entrusted with running the reference center for technical quality control (''RefZQS'') on April 1, 2014. The quality of the radiologists' equipment is evaluated against the standards described in the EUREF-Oeprotocol, which is based on the European guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening and diagnosis (EPQC V4, 2006) and has been optimized for Austrian requirements. In its first year of operation the RefZQS has controlled the entire equipment (mammography, periphery and ultrasound system) of all participating radiologists. A significant number of systems had to be adjusted to meet the EUREF-Oecriteria. Some of the systems could not be adjusted accordingly, and had to be replaced. In the wake of the start of the screening programme, several sites switched from CR to more modern DR systems, yielding a significant benefit by reduction of radiation burden. The most important data after one year of RefZQS, especially according to adjustments and replacements, are presented.

  13. Hazardous wastes and waste oils in Austria. Compiled for the Austrian Federal Waste Management Plan 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Austrian Waste Management Act (AWG) entered into force on 1 July 1990. Paragraph 1 of the act defines the following objectives: to keep detrimental, unbeneficial or otherwise unhealthy influences on man, as well as on animals, plants, their living conditions and their natural environment as low as possible; to preserve raw material and energy resources; to keep the demand for landfill capacities as low as possible; to ensure that only such materials should remain as waste, the dumping of which does not present any potential hazard for future generations (precautionary principle). The waste management act thus places the highest priority on the protection of human beings and the environment and upon the preservation of natural resources. Accordingly, it must be the aim of waste management to handle waste in such a way that environmental pollution is kept as low as possible by prevention, recovery and disposal. Paragraph 5 of the Austrian waste management act stipulates that the Federal Minister of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management has to issue the Federal Waste Management Plan in order to reach the objectives and observing the rules of modern waste management. Following the first waste management plan in 1992 an amendment is required every three years. This is why the Austrian Federal Environment Agency elaborated the following studies: waste generation, recovery and disposal in Austria; hazardous waste and waste oils in Austria; non-hazardous waste in Austria. Further information on waste management facilities in Austria is presented on our homepage (http://www.ubavie.gv.at). (author)

  14. THE ESSENCE OF THE AUSTRIAN SCHOOL AND THE CONCEPT OF DYNAMIC EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Huerta DE SOTO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Now let me begin by making a few points on the true origin of the Austrian School of Economics, which should be traced back to the works of the Spanish Scholastics of what is known as the “Siglo de Oro Español” (in english the “Spanish Golden Age”, which ran from the mid 16th century through the 17th century. The great austrian scholar Murray N. Rothbard (one of the brightest followers and pupils of Ludwig von Mises first developed the thesis that the Austrian School is of spanish origin in 1974. The Nobel Prize winner Friedrich A. Hayek shared this view, particularly after meeting Bruno Leoni, the great italian scholar and author of the book, freedom and the law. The two met in the 1950s, and Leoni convinced Hayek that the intellectual origins of classical economic liberalism lay in Mediterranean Europe and not in Scotland.I have here a letter from Hayek dated january 7, 1979, in which Hayek writes that Rothbard “demonstrates that the basic principles of the theory of the competitive market were worked out by the spanish scholastics of the 16th century and that economic liberalism was not designed by the calvinists but by the spanish jesuits.” Hayek concludes his letter by telling us: “i can assure you from my personal knowledge of the sources that Rothbard’s case is extremely strong.”

  15. Neogene-Quaternary tectonic stratigraphy of the eastern Southern Alps, NE Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, R.; Poli, M. E.; Zanferrari, A.

    2010-07-01

    In order to reconstruct the Neogene-Quaternary Tectonic Stratigraphy of the eastern Southern Alps, the late Tortonian-lower Pleistocene foredeep clastic sequences, cropping out in the Veneto and Friuli piedmont areas have been extensively investigated focusing on the contractional features observed in the frequent conglomerate layers (pitted pebbles). The eastern Southern Alps is the result of a typical polyphase tectonic activity initiated in Late Oligocene, characterised by the occurrence of several non-coaxial stress regimes. Based on careful analyses of the pebbles' surfaces (shape and orientation of the indented features) and following a systematic and statistical approach, the mean orientation of the maximum compressive stress axis (σ 1) has been obtained for more than 30 sites of measurements along the ca. 120 km-long investigated piedmont area. The affected lithostratigraphic units and the orientation (pre- versus post-tilting) of the stereonets density peaks make it possible to recognize four distinct deformational events and characterize them in terms of mean σ 1 direction and timing: late Tortonian ( σ1 = 313°/00°), late Messinian-Early Pliocene (338°/04°), Late Pliocene (314°/03°), and Early-Middle Pleistocene (160°/03°). The Tectonic Stratigraphy of the eastern Southern Alps during the last ca. 10 Ma shows the occurrence of several variations of the stress field characterized by a repeated oscillation of the σ 1 axis between an NNW-SSE and NW-SE directions (Twist Tectonics). Taking also into account literature data about older deformational events (Chattian-Burdigalian and Serravallian-Tortonian), we analyse the Neogene-Quaternary tectonic evolution in the frame of the central Mediterranean realm and compare it with the convergence direction between the Adria-Africa and Europe lithospheric plates. We show that compressional directions within the eastern Southern Alps are basically governed by the remote plate convergence, though since late

  16. Slab rollback orogeny in the Alps inferred from the stratigraphic evolution of the Swiss Molasse basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlunegger, Fritz; Kissling, Edi

    2016-04-01

    move south while the overriding Adriatic plate shifted north. In conclusion, a rollback mechanism yields an orogeny/foreland basin ensemble where subsidence and thrusting are partly decoupled at the scale of the orogeny. These mechanisms explain the formation of the Alps through the delamination and accretion of crustal rocks from the subducting plate, yielding in the stacking of Alpine nappes. Such a model is capable of reconciling previously conflicting stratigraphic, palaeotopographic, seismic and plate tectonic observations in the Central Alps and the Molasse Basin (Schlunegger and Kissing, 2015). Schlunegger, F., Kissling, E. (2015) Slab rollback orogeny in the Alps and evolution of the Swiss Molasse basin. Nature Communications, 6, 8605, DOI: 10.1038/ncomms9605 | www.nature.com/naturecommunications

  17. The expansion of hazel ( Corylus avellana L.) in the southern Alps: a key for understanding its early Holocene history in Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsinger, Walter; Tinner, Willy; van der Knaap, W. O.; Ammann, Brigitta

    2006-03-01

    In Northwestern and Central Europe the Holocene expansion of Corylus occurred before or at the same time as that of other thermophilous trees (e.g. Quercus). This sequence of expansion has been explained by migrational lag, competition, climatic changes, human assistance, or disturbance by fire. In the southern Alps, however, hazel expanded around 10,500 cal yr BP, more than two millennia after oak had become important. This delayed expansion is in contrast with the rapid expansion often assumed for hazel in central Northern Europe. We use two well-dated pollen and charcoal records from the southern forelands of the Alps: Lago Piccolo di Avigliana and Lago di Origlio. We conclude that distance of refugia, speed of seed dispersal, and competition cannot sufficiently explain the absence of the hazel expansion prior to the establishment of mixed oak forests in the southern Alps. Instead our records indicate that higher moisture availability and low temperatures inhibited hazel and favoured the establishment of pine and mixed oak forests during the Allerød. The expansion of hazel ˜11,000-10,500 cal yr BP was favoured by a combination of high seasonality, summer drought and frequent fires, which helped hazel to out-compete oak in the south as well as north of the Alps.

  18. Mature vs. Active Deep-Seated Landslides: A Comparison Through Two Case Histories in the Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delle Piane, Luca; Perello, Paolo; Baietto, Alessandro; Giorza, Alessandra; Musso, Alessia; Gabriele, Piercarlo; Baster, Ira

    2016-06-01

    Two case histories are presented, concerning the still poorly known alpine deep-seated gravitational slope deformations (DSD) located nearby Lanzada (central Italian Alps), and Sarre (north-western Italian Alps). The Lanzada DSD is a constantly monitored, juvenile, and active phenomenon, partly affecting an existing hydropower plant. Its well-developed landforms allow a precise field characterization of the instability-affected area. The Sarre DSD is a mature, strongly remodeled phenomenon, where the only hazard factor is represented by secondary instability processes at the base of the slope. In this case, the remodeling imposed the adoption of complementary analytical techniques to support the field work. The two presented studies had to be adapted to external factors, namely (a) available information, (b) geological and geomorphological setting, and (c) final scope of the work. The Lanzada case essentially relied upon accurate field work; the Sarre case was mostly based on digital image and DTM processing. In both cases a sound field structural analysis formed the necessary background to understand the mechanisms leading to instability. A back-analysis of the differences between the study methods adopted in the two cases is finally presented, leading to suggestions for further investigations and design.

  19. Constraining ALP-photon coupling using galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlederer, Martin; Sigl, Günter

    2016-01-01

    We study photon-ALP conversion by resonance effects in the magnetized plasma of galaxy clusters and compare the predicted distortion of the cosmic microwave background spectrum in the direction of such objects to measurements of the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect. Using galaxy cluster models based on current knowledge, we obtain upper limits on the photon-ALP coupling constant g of lesssim Script O(10-11 GeV-1). The constraints apply to the mass range of 2 · 10-14 eV lesssim mALP lesssim 3 · 10-12 eV in which resonant photon-ALP conversions can occur. These limits are slightly stronger than current limits, and furthermore provide an independent constraint. We find that a next generation PRISM-like experiment would allow limits down to g ≈ Script O (10-14 GeV-1), two orders of magnitude stronger than the currently strongest limits in this mass range.

  20. Searching for axions and ALPs from string theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ringwald, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    We review searches for closed string axions and axion-like particles (ALPs) in IIB string flux compactifications. For natural values of the background fluxes and TeV scale gravitino mass, the moduli stabilisation mechanism of the LARGE Volume Scenario predicts the existence of a QCD axion candidate with intermediate scale decay constant, f_a ~ 10^9 ... 10^12 GeV, associated with the small cycles wrapped by the branes hosting the visible sector, plus a nearly massless and nearly decoupled ALP associated with the LARGE cycle. In setups where the visible sector branes are wrapping more than the minimum number of two intersecting cycles, there are more ALPs which have approximately the same decay constant and coupling to the photon as the QCD axion candidate, but which are exponentially lighter. There are exciting phenomenological opportunities to search for these axions and ALPs in the near future. For f_a ~ 10^11 ... 10^12 GeV, the QCD axion can be the dominant part of dark matter and be detected in haloscopes ...

  1. Constraining ALP-photon coupling using galaxy clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlederer, Martin; Sigl, Günter [II. Institut für theoretische Physik, Universität Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-01-21

    We study photon-ALP conversion by resonance effects in the magnetized plasma of galaxy clusters and compare the predicted distortion of the cosmic microwave background spectrum in the direction of such objects to measurements of the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect. Using galaxy cluster models based on current knowledge, we obtain upper limits on the photon-ALP coupling constant g of ≲O(10{sup −11} GeV{sup −1}). The constraints apply to the mass range of 2⋅10{sup −14} eV ≲m{sub ALP}≲3⋅10{sup −12} eV in which resonant photon-ALP conversions can occur. These limits are slightly stronger than current limits, and furthermore provide an independent constraint. We find that a next generation PRISM-like experiment would allow limits down to g≈O(10{sup −14} GeV{sup −1}), two orders of magnitude stronger than the currently strongest limits in this mass range.

  2. 78 FR 29787 - ALPS ETF Trust, et al.;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION ALPS ETF Trust, et al.; Notice of Application May 14, 2013. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission''). ACTION: Notice of an application for an order under section 6(c) of...

  3. Monochroa bronzella sp. n. from the southwestern Alps (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsholt, Ole; Nel, Jacques; Fournier, François;

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Monochroa bronzella sp. n. is described from the southwestern Alps (France, Italy). It is closely related to M. nomadella (Zeller, 1868), with which it was hitherto confused. Literature records of M. nomadella from France and northwestern Italy refer to M. bronzella sp. n. The two speci...

  4. The Geology of the Bergamasc Alps Lombardia Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitter, de L.U.; Sitter-Koomans, de C.M.

    1949-01-01

    In the Bergamasc Alps we have observed one major unconformity between the Basement rock and the overlying Permian. The total absence of any recognisable Palaeozoic sedimentary rocks accentuates this unconformity, and moreover this enormous hiatus makes the dating of any Palaeozoic event impossible.

  5. Adapting the ALP Model for Student and Institutional Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sides, Meredith

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing adoption of accelerated models of learning comes the necessary step of adapting these models to fit the unique needs of the student population at each individual institution. One such college adapted the ALP (Accelerated Learning Program) model and made specific changes to the target population, structure and scheduling, and…

  6. 13 CFR 120.841 - Qualifications for the ALP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Risk Rating, among other factors, will be considered in determining satisfactory SBA performance. Other... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualifications for the ALP. 120.841 Section 120.841 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS...

  7. Green light for neutrino beam to pass below the Alps

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, A

    1999-01-01

    CERN council have approved a plan to send a beam of muon neutrinos under the Alps from Geneva to the Gran Sasso laboratories near Rome. INFN is organising two experiments - OPERA and ICANOE, to study the neutrino oscillations as they travel (1/2 pg)

  8. Present-day uplift of the western Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocquet, J.-M.; Sue, C.; Walpersdorf, A.; Tran, T.; Lenôtre, N.; Vernant, P.; Cushing, M.; Jouanne, F.; Masson, F.; Baize, S.; Chéry, J.; van der Beek, P. A.

    2016-06-01

    Collisional mountain belts grow as a consequence of continental plate convergence and eventually disappear under the combined effects of gravitational collapse and erosion. Using a decade of GPS data, we show that the western Alps are currently characterized by zero horizontal velocity boundary conditions, offering the opportunity to investigate orogen evolution at the time of cessation of plate convergence. We find no significant horizontal motion within the belt, but GPS and levelling measurements independently show a regional pattern of uplift reaching ~2.5 mm/yr in the northwestern Alps. Unless a low viscosity crustal root under the northwestern Alps locally enhances the vertical response to surface unloading, the summed effects of isostatic responses to erosion and glaciation explain at most 60% of the observed uplift rates. Rock-uplift rates corrected from transient glacial isostatic adjustment contributions likely exceed erosion rates in the northwestern Alps. In the absence of active convergence, the observed surface uplift must result from deep-seated processes.

  9. Algorithms used in the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, David B.; Wright, C. Wayne

    2016-01-01

    The Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS) analyzes Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) data—digitized laser-return waveforms, position, and attitude data—to derive point clouds of target surfaces. A full-waveform airborne lidar system, the EAARL seamlessly and simultaneously collects mixed environment data, including submerged, sub-aerial bare earth, and vegetation-covered topographies.ALPS uses three waveform target-detection algorithms to determine target positions within a given waveform: centroid analysis, leading edge detection, and bottom detection using water-column backscatter modeling. The centroid analysis algorithm detects opaque hard surfaces. The leading edge algorithm detects topography beneath vegetation and shallow, submerged topography. The bottom detection algorithm uses water-column backscatter modeling for deeper submerged topography in turbid water.The report describes slant range calculations and explains how ALPS uses laser range and orientation measurements to project measurement points into the Universal Transverse Mercator coordinate system. Parameters used for coordinate transformations in ALPS are described, as are Interactive Data Language-based methods for gridding EAARL point cloud data to derive digital elevation models. Noise reduction in point clouds through use of a random consensus filter is explained, and detailed pseudocode, mathematical equations, and Yorick source code accompany the report.

  10. The occurrence of an upper decomposed peat layer, or “kultureller Trockenhorizont”, in the Alps and Jura Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sjögren

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Many European mires show a layer of increased decomposition and minerogenic content close to the mire surface. Although the phenomenon is widely recognised, there have been few investigations of its distribution, cause and effect. In this study, nine peat profiles from the Alps and Jura Mountains in central Europe were studied to assess general trends in the upper peat stratigraphy. Analyses of pollen and fungal spore content in two profiles indicates that near-surface changes in decomposition are related to recent historical changes in grazing intensity of the surrounding landscape. Reduced trampling pressure and/or decreased nutrient input allowed partial Sphagnum regeneration in the western Alps and Jura Mountains from AD 1940–60, and in the eastern Alps from AD 1820–60. The results are considered in the context of climate and land use, and future implications for mire development in a changing environment are discussed. Many high-altitude mires in the area are now in a Sphagnum peat re-growth state, but future land use and climatic change will determine whether they will develop towards raised bog or forest carr.

  11. Comment diffuser les savoirs à travers les Alpes ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Pfefferkorn

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available CIPRA’s Future in the Alps Project aims at showcasing examples of successful implementation and successful projects in the Alps, and making available to others the extensive pool of experience and practical knowledge that lies in these projects. But how to transfer knowledge in an area of some 14 million inhabitants with several linguistic and cultural regions in which thousands of projects are carried out each year, that all kinds of players who work and life in completely different contexts are able to learn and benefit from one another? How do you go about something like that?Le projet « Avenir dans les Alpes » de la CIPRA (Commission Internationale pour la Protection des Alpes a pour objectif de présenter des exemples de réalisations et de projets réussis dans les Alpes, et de mettre à disposition du public l’ensemble de l’expérience et des connaissances pratiques acquises dans le cadre de ces projets. Cependant, comment transférer les savoirs dans une zone comptant quelque 14 millions d’habitants, composée de plusieurs régions linguistiques et culturelles dans lesquelles des milliers de projets sont menés à bien chaque année, et dont tous les acteurs, qui travaillent et vivent dans des contextes complètement différents, sont capables d’apprendre et de tirer profit les uns des autres ? Comment aborder ce genre de cas ?

  12. New, rare or remarkable microfungi in the Italian Alps (Carnic Alps)--part I--ascomycotina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feige, G B; Ale-Agha, N; Jensen, M; Christiaans, B; Kricke, R

    2004-01-01

    During our observations in the SE part of the Carnic Alps in the year 2003 we were able to collect and identify 35 ascomycetes on trees and dead wood. Among these one can find numerous ascomycetes of different orders e.g. Pyrenomycetes, Loculoascomycetes and Discomycetes. Some species like Botryosphaeria ribis GROSENLUCHER & DUGGAR on Ribes alpinum L., Dothiora pyrenophora (FR.) FR. on Sorbus aucuparia L., Gemmamyces piceae (BORTH.) CASAGO. on Picea excelsa (LAM.) LINK, Glomerella montana (SACC.) v. ARX & E. MULLER on Sesleria caerulea (L.) ARD, Hymenoscyphus immutabilis (Fuck.) Dennis on Alnus incana (L.) Moench, Hysterographium fraxini (PERS. Ex. FR.) de Not. on Fraxinus ornus L., Lachnellula willkommii (Hartig) DENNIS [= Trichascyphella willkommii (Hartig) NANNF.] on Larix decidua MILL.,Leptosphaeria lycopodina (Mont.) SACC. on Lycopodium annotinum L., Mollisia adenostylidis REHM. on Adenostyles glabra (MILL.) DC., Pezicula cinnamomea (DC.)SACC. [ana: Cryptosporiopsis quercina PETRAK] on Quercus robur L., Pyrenopeziza petiolaris (A. & S. Ex FR.) NANNF. on Acer pseudoplatanus L., Tapesia rosae (PERS.) FUCKEL on Rosa canina L., are new for this area. All specimen are deposited in the Herbarium ESS Mycotheca Parva, Collection G.B. Feige/N. Ale-Agha. PMID:15756826

  13. Gene Expression of Lytic Endopeptidases AlpA and AlpB from Lysobacter sp. XL1 in Pseudomonads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsfasman, Irina M; Lapteva, Yulia S; Krasovskaya, Ludmila A; Kudryakova, Irina V; Vasilyeva, Natalia V; Granovsky, Igor E; Stepnaya, Olga A

    2015-01-01

    Development of an efficient expression system for (especially secreted) bacterial lytic enzymes is a complicated task due to the specificity of their action. The substrate for such enzymes is peptidoglycan, the main structural component of bacterial cell walls. For this reason, expression of recombinant lytic proteins is often accompanied with lysis of the producing bacterium. This paper presents data on the construction of an inducible system for expression of the lytic peptidases AlpA and AlpB from Lysobacter sp. XL1 in Pseudomonas fluorescens Q2-87, which provides for the successful secretion of these proteins into the culture liquid. In this system, the endopeptidase gene under control of the T7lac promoter was integrated into the bacterial chromosome, as well as the Escherichia coli lactose operon repressor protein gene. The T7 pol gene under lac promoter control, which encodes the phage T7 RNA polymerase, is maintained in Pseudomonas cells on the plasmids. Media and cultivation conditions for the recombinant strains were selected to enable the production of AlpA and AlpB by a simple purification protocol. Production of recombinant lytic enzymes should contribute to the development of new-generation antimicrobial drugs whose application will not be accompanied by selection of resistant microorganisms. PMID:26138026

  14. Morphology and ecology of Daphnia middendorffiana, Fisher 1851 (Crustacea, Daphniidae from four new populations in the Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco TIBERTI

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Daphnia middendorffiana has an arctic, circumpolar distribution, with some isolated southerly populations restricted to mountainous areas, including the Alps. In this paper, new records of Daphnia middendorffiana on the Alps are reported. The species was regularly recorded in several samples collected from 2006 to 2009 in four high altitude lakes in the Gran Paradiso National Park (GPNP during the ice free period. This is the third finding for the Alps and the described populations are the largest. Chemical and morphometric features of the lakes are provided, the morphology of the Daphnia middendorffiana from GPNP is described as well as some aspects concerning its ecology. The studied lakes are small, oligotrophic (total phosphorus ranged from 0 to 7 μg L-1 and well preserved from acidification risk (pH ranged from 6.45 to 8.14. D. middendorffiana is the largest zooplanktonic crustacean inhabiting the Alpine lakes in GPNP reaching 3.43 mm in length; the morphological analysis noted some differences within the studied populations; however there is a clear resemblance to the only Alpine population previously described (from Central Alps, Bognanco Valley, Lake Campo IV and to the arctic populations. D. middendorffiana in GPNP lives at low density levels, reaching higher densities in late August and early September. No males have been found during the sample campaign confirming its ability to produce asexual viable diapauses eggs. This study confirms the attitude of this species for cold and oligotrophic waters and increases the current knowledge on the geographical distribution, morphology and ecology of this species in Alpine environments. The finding of D. middendordorffiana in the GPNP poses interesting issues concerning the phylogeography of Alpine Daphnia middendorffiana, as well as raising need for conservation efforts aimed at keeping the populations safe from several global and local threats, such as climate warming and the ecological

  15. A NEW DAONELLA FROM THE LADINIAN PLATFORM OF THE ESINO LIMESTONE (SOUTHERN ALPS, ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIANO LARGHI

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The bivalve Daonella Mojsisovics, 1874 is very common in the Middle Triassic pelagic facies, whereas the record of this genus from shallow water limestones is rare. In the present paper a new species of Daonella, named D. pseudograbensis, is described from the Esino Limestone, a Ladinian (Middle Triassic carbonate platform in the central Southern Alps. The species is described from Brembana Valley, where the Esino Limestone is rather rich in bioclastic lenses yielding faunas with bivalves, cephalopods, gastropods, brachiopods, corals and calcareous algae. Daonella pseudograbensis n. sp. is based on very well preserved specimens, which are often articulated and closed, all coming from the same locality. The new species shows a narrow range of intraspecific and ontogenetic morphologic variations. It is easy distinguishable from the other species of the genus for the outline and ornamentation; it therefore differs from D. grabensis Kittl, 1912, the most similar species, for the longer anterior dorsal margin.Pdf

  16. Crustal structure of the Alps as seen by attenuation tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Jessie; Calvet, Marie; Margerin, Ludovic; Vanderhaeghe, Olivier; Traversa, Paola

    2016-04-01

    We develop a simple tomographic approach exploiting the decay rate of coda waves to map the absorption properties of the crust in a region delimited approximately by the Rhine Graben to the North, the Apennines to the South, the Massif Central to the West and the Dinarides to the East. Our dataset comprises 40 000 coda records of about 2000 weak to moderate crustal earthquakes, with magnitude ranging from 2.8 to 6 and recorded by broad-band, accelerometric and short-period stations. After proper choice of a coda window minimizing the effects of variable epicentral distances, we measure the coda quality factor Qc in five non-overlapping frequency windows covering the 1-32 Hz band for all available source station pairs. These measurements are subsequently converted into maps of absorption quality factor (Qi) using a linearized, approximate relation between Qc and Qi. In practice the following procedure is applied in each frequency band: (1) we divide the target region into 40 × 40 km cells; (2) for each source-station pair, we assign the measured Qc value to each pixel intercepted by the direct ray path; (3) the results are averaged over all paths and subsequently smoothed with a 3 × 3 pixels moving window. Our approach is consistent with the high sensitivity of Qc to the value of Qi between source and station. Our tomographic approach reveals strong lateral variations of absorption with length scales ranging from 100 km to 1000 km. At low frequency (˜ 1 Hz), the correlation with the surface geology is clear, Cenozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary basins (resp. crystalline massifs) being recognized as high (resp. low)-absorption regions. Furthermore the Qi map delineates finer geological features such as the Ivrea Body, the Rhône Valley, or felsic intrusions in the central Alps. At high-frequency (>16 Hz), only the thickest Cenozoic sedimentary deposits show up as high-attenuation regions and a north/south dichotomy is apparent in the absorption structure. The limit

  17. Progress report 1980/81 of the Austrian Academy of Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the numerous institutes and divisions of the Austrian Academy of Sciences presented in this report the Commission for Arteriosclerosis and Thrombosis Research (application of radioimmunoassay) and the Institute for X-ray Microstructure Research (investigation of biological substances by X-ray and neutron small angle scattering) are partly within the scope of INIS. Fully in scope are short project discriptions of the Institute for Radium Research and Nulear Physics: the Commission for the SIN-project and the Institute for High Energy Physics, completed by publication lists. (G.Q.)

  18. Pathways to Habitability (PatH): An Austrian National Research Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The 'Pathways to Habitability' project started in 2012 as a national key science project of the Austrian FWF; its principal goal is the study of the astrophysical conditions for habitable environments on planets. In particular, the project studies the earliest atmospheric conditions on forming planets, the planetary formation processes themselves, transport mechanisms for water and organic molecules, interactions with the stellar radiative, particle and wind output, interactions between planetary magnetospheres and upper atmospheres, and the role of stellar binarity for habitability. This presentation discusses the overall goals of the project, shows first results, and indicates strategies for future work. (author)

  19. Crustal structure of the Eastern Alps and their foreland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grad, M.; Brückl, E.; Majdanski, M.;

    2009-01-01

    ) are distinct up to 60-90 km offset and are characterized by large variations in apparent velocity and amplitude. The contact between the Molasse basin and the Eastern Alps represents a barrier for seismic waves. Mid-crustal reflections (Pc) are usually recorded at short distance intervals (20-50 km...... low-velocity sediments penetrate towards the southwest (SW) down to about 10 km depth. In the middle crust of the Alpine part, a reflective zone was modelled by a lamellae structure with alternating high and low velocities and thicknesses of about 2-3 km. The lower crust in this part of the model is...... of significant features alongside the CEL10/Alp04 profile. This area is affected by both collision and escape tectonics. The high-reflectivity zone in the middle crust is explained by intermediate to mafic intrusions, rather than by ductile extensional deformation as generally observed in the lower...

  20. BSM photon interaction for ALPS-II and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-intensity photon beams can provide for a viable probe for many particles of Standard Model extensions. This workshop contribution briefly reviews the status of the second stage of the Any Light Particle Search (ALPS-II) at DESY, an experiment of the light-shining-through-a-wall type, as well as an idea to test asymptotically safe quantum gravity in a photon-scattering experiment.

  1. What's new in ALPS-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebrich, Babette; Collaboration: ALPS-II collaboration

    2013-09-15

    This proceedings contribution gives a brief experimental update of the 'Any light particle search (ALPS) -II' at DESY which will be sensitive to sub-eV, very weakly coupled particles beyond the Standard Model. First data on hidden sector photon parameter space through photon-hidden photon oscillations in vacuum is expected in 2014. Axion-like particle search (implying the installation of superconducting HERA magnets) could be realized in 2017.

  2. ALPtraum: ALP production in proton beam dump experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Döbrich, Babette; Kahlhoefer, Felix; Ringwald, Andreas; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai

    2016-01-01

    With their high beam energy and intensity, existing and near-future proton beam dumps provide an excellent opportunity to search for new very weakly coupled particles in the MeV to GeV mass range. One particularly interesting example is a so-called axion-like particle (ALP), i.e. a pseudoscalar coupled to two photons. The challenge in proton beam dumps is to reliably calculate the production of the new particles from the interactions of two composite objects, the proton and the target atoms. In this work we argue that Primakoff production of ALPs proceeds in a momentum range where production rates and angular distributions can be determined to sufficient precision using simple electromagnetic form factors. Reanalysing past proton beam dump experiments for this production channel, we derive novel constraints on the parameter space for ALPs. We show that the NA62 experiment at CERN could probe unexplored parameter space by running in 'dump mode' for a few days and discuss opportunities for future experiments su...

  3. A century of leishmaniasis in Alpes-Maritimes, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, P; Izri, A; Ozon, C; Haas, P; Rosenthal, E; Del Giudice, P; Godenir, J; Coulibaly, E; Gari-Toussaint, M; Delaunay, P; Ferrua, B; Haas, H; Pratlong, F; Le Fichoux, Y

    2007-10-01

    A century of publications on leishmaniasis in Alpes-Maritimes, in southern France, is here reviewed. Autochtonous human and canine leishmaniasis were first recognised in this département, which lies by the Mediterranean Sea and near the Italian border, in 1918 and 1925, respectively. The parasite responsible for the leishmaniasis, Leishmania infantum, is transmitted by Phlebotomus perniciosus and P. ariasi. The human leishmaniasis is zoonotic, with domestic dogs acting as the main 'reservoir' hosts. In prospective surveys over the last two decades, a mean of 12% of the domestic dogs checked in Alpes-Maritimes have been found seropositive for L. infantum but only about 50% of the seropositive animals showed any clinical signs of infection at the time of the surveys. During the last 30 years, 178 cases of human visceral leishmaniasis have been recorded in the area. Such cases are sporadic and often opportunistic, occurring predominantly in children (29% of the 178 cases) or HIV-positive subjects (31%). Recently, it has been demonstrated that, in Alpes-Maritimes, approximately 20% of those found seropositive in leishmanin skin tests are asymptomatic carriers, with amastigotes in their peripheral blood. PMID:17877875

  4. Late-stage cooling history of the Eastern and Southern Alps and its linkage to Adria indentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberer, Bianca; Reverman, Rebecca; Fellin, Maria; Neubauer, Franz; Dunkl, István; Zattin, Massimiliano; Seward, Diane; Brack, Peter; Genser, Johann

    2016-04-01

    Late-orogenic indentation by rigid lithospheric plates and microplates into softer orogenic wedges leads to post-collisional shortening, lithospheric thickening and vertical and lateral extrusion. The European Eastern and Southern Alps represent a prime example of indenter tectonics. Their Late Neogene geodynamic framework is influenced primarily by the ca. NW-ward motion and counterclockwise rotation of the Adriatic microplate with respect to Europe, which resulted in an oblique, dextral transpressional setting. In this study we refine the late-stage exhumation pattern related to indentation of the eastern Adriatic indenter, i.e. the still northward pushing triangular northeastern part of the Southalpine block that indented the Eastern Alps. New apatite (U-Th)/He and apatite fission track thermochronometry data come from (1) the Karawanken Mountains adjacent to the eastern Periadriatic fault along the northeastern edge of the indenter and from (2) the central-eastern Southern Alps from within the indenter and from its western edge. We find apatite (U-Th)/He ages from the Karawanken Mountains ranging between 11 and 6 Ma, which indicate an episode of fault-related exhumation leading to the formation of a positive flower structure and an associated peripheral foreland basin as well as lateral activity along the Periadriatic fault system. Apatite (U/Th)/He and fission-track data combined with previous data from the Southern Alps indicate that exhumation largely occurred during the Late Miocene, too, and was maximized along thrust systems, with highly differential amounts of vertical displacement along individual structures. Our new data contribute to mounting evidence for widespread Late Miocene tectonic activity in the Eastern and Southern Alps. They demonstrate a shift from deformation and exhumation concentrated within the Tauern Window at the beginning of the indentation process, to less pronounced, but more widespread exhumation along the edges as well as the

  5. The relevance and legibility of radio/TV weather reports to the Austrian public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keul, A. G.; Holzer, A. M.

    2013-03-01

    The communicative quality of media weather reports, especially warnings, can be evaluated by user research. It is an interdisciplinary field, still uncoordinated after 35 years. The authors suggest to shift from a cognitive learning model to news processing, qualitative discourse and usability models as the media audience is in an edutainment situation where it acts highly selective. A series of field surveys 2008-2011 tested the relevance and legibility of Austrian radio and television weather reports on fair weather and in warning situations. 247 laypeople heard/saw original, mostly up-to-date radio/TV weather reports and recalled personally relevant data. Also, a questionnaire on weather knowledge was answered by 237 Austrians. Several research hypotheses were tested. The main results were (a) a relatively high level of meteorological knowledge of the general population, with interest and participation of German-speaking migrants, (b) a pluralistic media usage with TV, radio and internet as the leading media, (c) higher interest and attention (also for local weather) after warnings, but a risk of more false recalls after long warnings, (d) more recall problems with radio messages and a wish that the weather elements should always appear in the same order to faciliate processing for the audience. In their narrow time windows, radio/TV weather reports should concentrate on main features (synoptic situation, tomorrow's temperature and precipitation, possible warnings), keep a verbal “speed limit” and restrict show elements to serve the active, selective, multioptional, multicultural audience.

  6. High concentrations of anthocyanins in genuine cherry-juice of old local Austrian Prunus avium varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüller, Elisabeth; Halbwirth, Heidi; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Slatnar, Ana; Veberic, Robert; Forneck, Astrid; Stich, Karl; Spornberger, Andreas

    2015-04-15

    Antioxidant activity and polyphenols were quantified in vapour-extracted juice of nine Austrian, partially endemic varieties of sweet cherry (Prunus avium): cv. 'Spätbraune von Purbach', cv. 'Early Rivers', cv. 'Joiser Einsiedekirsche', cv. 'Große Schwarze Knorpelkirsche' and four unidentified local varieties. Additionally the effect of storage was evaluated for six of the varieties. A variety showing the highest antioxidant capacity (9.64 μmol Trolox equivalents per mL), total polyphenols (2747 mg/L) and total cyanidins (1085 mg/L) was suitable for mechanical harvest and its juice did not show any losses of antioxidant capacity and total anthocyanin concentration during storage. The juice of cv. 'Große Schwarze Knorpelkirsche' had also high concentrations of total anthocyanins (873 mg/L), but showed substantial losses through storage. The local Austrian sweet cherry varieties from the Pannonian climate zone are particularly suitable for the production of processed products like cherry juice with high content of anthocyanins and polyphenols. PMID:25466109

  7. EVALUATIVE DESCRIPTION OF THE PERSON’S MENTAL ABILITIES IN THE AUSTRIAN NATIONAL VARIANT OF GERMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebrina Larisa Nikolaevna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The national variant of language is studied as a metasystem of all variations of the national language, as a parity form of language existence and adapting to its functioning conditions. In the article the paradigmatic class of lexical items in the Austrian national variant of German, which are used to evaluate a person in terms of their mental abilities, are studied. The inner structure of this class incorporates two subclasses of lexical items, which actualize positive and negative evaluations. The onomasiological approach allows to define subject codes as nomination motivating factors. Subject codes point to identification spheres of a certain object, generate images and metaphorical shifts, allow to determine the elements of the mental processes and their features relevant for positive or negative evaluation. The results of linguistic analysis reveal that in comparison to the negative evaluation, the positive one is less completely represented in the lexical and semantic system of the Austrian national variant of German. Relevant features for an evaluative description of person's mental abilities are temporal and qualitative characteristics of mental processes, quantitative characteristics of objects, qualitative characteristics of a person, such as age, physical, social and gender. The most productive subject codes are objective, zoological, botanical, physiological and anatomical codes. The spatial and temporal subject codes are less productive.

  8. THE AUSTRIAN VACCINATION PARADOX: TICK-BORNE ENCEPHALITIS VACCINATION VERSUS INFLUENZA VACCINATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, Ursula; Kunze, Michael

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes a paradoxical situation in Austria. The vaccination rate against tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in the general population is 82%, which is the highest worldwide, whereas the vaccination rate against influenza is about 8% and is among the lowest worldwide. A high awareness of TBE among the Austrian population achieved by an annual social marketing programme and the wide use of effective and well-tolerated vaccines have led to a successful containment of that disease. The vaccination coverage increased from 6% in 1980 to 82% in 2013 and exceeds 90% in some high-risk areas. This has led to a steady decline in the number of TBE cases from several hundred cases to 50 to 100 cases per year. The situation in regard to influenza vaccination is the opposite. Although Austria has issued one of the most extensive recommendations for influenza vaccination worldwide, the vaccination rate of the general population is extremely low. The possible reasons for the failure in the implementation of recommendations are ignorance, lack of social marketing and the predominance of a distinct discordance within the health system in general, and the Austrian medical fraternity in particular. PMID:26615654

  9. Integrated environmental protection obligations under European law, survey analysis of Austrian legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work focuses on legal instruments serving integrated environmental protection, especially with respect to administrative procedures concerning plant permits, and their inhorent limits. Initially, the legal and scientific approach pursued under the notion of 'integrated environmental protection' and 'environmental impact assessment' is examined and clarified in chapter A. Based thereon, chapter B deals with the obligations resulting from the EIA-Directive and - compared therewith - from the IPPC-Directive with regard to procedures for plant permits. Further, Austria's delay in fully transposing these directives is examined. When dealing with the constitutional basis for transposing the EIA- and IPPC-D into Austrian administrative law (chapter C), the inherent limits of some competence of legislation are discovered to be too narrow to ensure full compliance with EC law; only with regard to EIA, legistation is based on sound constitutional ground. The second part of the work is devoted to three areas of discussion on EIA- and IPPC-procedures under Austrian law: the scope of their applicability (chapter D), the problems of integrated evaluation and the limits of ecological expertise (chapter E) and aspects of public participation (chapter F). The study is concluded by a summary of the main results (chapter G). (author)

  10. Swiss AlpArray: deployment of the Swiss AlpArray temporary broad-band stations and their noise characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, Irene; Kissling, Edi; Clinton, John; Hetényi, György; Šipka, Vesna; Stipćević, Josip; Dasović, Iva; Solarino, Stefano; Wéber, Zoltán; Gráczer, Zoltán; Electronics Lab, SED

    2016-04-01

    One of the main actions of the AlpArray European initiative is the deployment of a dense seismic broad-band network, that complements the existing permanent stations. This will ensure a spatially homogeneous seismic coverage of the greater Alpine area for at least two years, allowing a great number of innovative scientific works to be carried out. Our contribution to the AlpArray Seismic Network consists in the deployment of 24 temporary broad-band stations: three in Switzerland, twelve in Italy, three in Croatia, three in Bosnia and Herzegovina and three in Hungary. This deployment is lead by ETH Zurich and founded by the Swiss-AlpArray Sinergia programme by SNSF, and is the result of a fruitful collaboration between five research institutes. Stations were installed between Autumn and Winter 2015. Our installations are both free field and in-house and consist of 21 STS-2 and 3 Trillium Compact sensors equipped with Taurus digitizers and 3G telemetry sending data in real time to the ETH EIDA node. In this work, we present sites and stations setting and we discuss in details the characteristics in terms of site effects and noise level of each station. In particular we analyse the power spectral density estimates investigating the major source of noise and the background noise related to seasons, time of the day, human activities and type of installation. In addition we will show examples of data usage - i.e. earthquake locations, noise cross correlations, measures of surface wave dispersion curves. We thanks the Swiss AlpArray Field Team: Blanchard A., Erlanger E. D., Jarić D., Herak D., M. Herak, Hermann M., Koelemeijer P. J., Markušić S., Obermann A., Sager K., Šikman S., Singer J., Winterberg S. SED Electronic Lab: Barman S., Graf P., Hansemann R., Haslinger F., Hiemer S., Racine R., Tanner R., Weber F.

  11. Meteorological wind energy potential in the Alps using ERA40 and wind measurement sites in the Tyrolean Alps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draxl, Caroline; Mayr, Georg J.

    2011-01-01

    The peculiarities of meteorological wind potential in alpine settings compared to flatland and offshore sites are studied. Four data sources are used: Global reanalysis ERA40 from ECMWF, long-term stations in the Tyrolean Alps, spatially dense measurements near the best site and Doppler sodar wind...... profiles. Due to the decrease of density with height, alpine sites suffer from a nearly linear decrease of harvestable power with altitude, which is more than offset by the increase of wind speed at altitudes above 1.5 km MSL. ERA40 data show higher potential on the northern than on the southern side of...... the Alps. The best locations are not isolated peaks but ridges within wide orographic channels. The best potential sites in the Tyrolean part of the Alps have median wind speeds of up to 7.1 m s−1 and extractable potentials between 2900 and 1600 kWh per year and per square meter of rotor area. The...

  12. Clinical Significance of Detection of Serum TBA and ALP in Diagnosis of Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the clinical value of serum total bile acid (TBA) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in diagnosis of intahrpatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP), the serum levels of TBA, ALP and cholyglycine (CG) in 47 cases with intahrpatic cholestasis of pregnancy and 60 normal pregnant women were tested by biochemistry analysis and radioimmunoassay. The results showed that the serum levels of TBA and ALP in patients with intahrpatic cholestasis of pregnancy were significantly higher than that of normal pregnancy women. There was a positively correlation between TBA and ALP with CG. The combined determination of serum TBA and ALP could be useful in the diagnosis of intahrpatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Automatic biochemistry analysis of TBA and ALP is more simple and rapid than CG detected by radioimmunoassay,and it is suitable for clinical laboratory application. (authors)

  13. Austrian visit

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Hans Hoffmann, Director for Technology Transfer and Scientific Computing, and Maria Rauch-Kallat, Minister of Health and Women's Issues, Austria, signing the visitors' book.Maria Rauch-Kallat, Minister of Health and Women's Issues, Austria, was welcomed by Hans Hoffmann, Director for Technology Transfer and Scientific Computing, on her visit to CERN on 19 May 2003. The theme of the visit was Technology Transfer and spin-offs from CERN for medical applications. Maria Rauch-Kallat toured also the installations of ATLAS.

  14. Ophiolitic detritus in Kimmeridgian resedimented limestones and its provenance from an eroded obducted ophiolitic nappe stack south of the Northern Calcareous Alps (Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawlick Hans-Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The causes for the Middle to Late Jurassic tectonic processes in the Northern Calcareous Alps are still controversially discussed. There are several contrasting models for these processes, formerly designated “Jurassic gravitational tectonics”. Whereas in the Dinarides or the Western Carpathians Jurassic ophiolite obduction and a Jurassic mountain building process with nappe thrusting is widely accepted, equivalent processes are still questioned for the Eastern Alps. For the Northern Calcareous Alps, an Early Cretaceous nappe thrusting process is widely favoured instead of a Jurassic one, obviously all other Jurassic features are nearly identical in the Northern Calcareous Alps, the Western Carpathians and the Dinarides. In contrast, the Jurassic basin evolutionary processes, as best documented in the Northern Calcareous Alps, were in recent times adopted to explain the Jurassic tectonic processes in the Carpathians and Dinarides. Whereas in the Western Carpathians Neotethys oceanic material is incorporated in the mélanges and in the Dinarides huge ophiolite nappes are preserved above the Jurassic basin fills and mélanges, Jurassic ophiolites or ophiolitic remains are not clearly documented in the Northern Calcareous Alps. Here we present chrome spinel analyses of ophiolitic detritic material from Kimmeridgian allodapic limestones in the central Northern Calcareous Alps. The Kimmeridgian age is proven by the occurrence of the benthic foraminifera Protopeneroplis striata and Labyrinthina mirabilis, the dasycladalean algae Salpingoporella pygmea, and the alga incertae sedis Pseudolithocodium carpathicum. From the geochemical composition the analysed spinels are pleonastes and show a dominance of Al-chromites (Fe3+–Cr3+–Al3+ diagram. In the Mg/(Mg+ Fe2+ vs. Cr/(Cr+ Al diagram they can be classified as type II ophiolites and in the TiO2 vs. Al2O3 diagram they plot into the SSZ peridotite field. All together this points to a harzburgite

  15. Combining IPPC and emission trading: An assessment of energy efficiency and CO2 reduction potentials in the Austrian paper industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the frame of an innovative project partnership E.V.A. - the Austrian Energy Agency accompanied the Austrian paper industry for the last 2.5 years in developing a branch specific climate change strategy. Within the scope of this project an assessment of the energy efficiency status of the branch was carried out as well as an evaluation of still realisable energy savings and CO2 reduction potentials. The paper presents the methodology applied, which combines a top down approach (benchmarking and best practice) with a bottom up approach (on-site interviews and energy audits), supported by a huge data collection process. Within the benchmarking process all Austrian paper industry installations affected by the EU emission trading directive were benchmarked against their respective IPPC/BAT values. Furthermore an extensive list of best practice examples derived from existing or ongoing studies was compared with the energy efficiency measures already carried out by the companies ('early actions'). These theory-oriented findings were complemented by several on-site interviews with the respective energy managers as well as by detailed energy audits carried out by a consulting company, covering in total more than 80% of the Austrian paper industry's CO2 emissions. The paper concludes with the main results of the project, presenting the pros and cons of working with IPPC documents and BAT values in terms of energy efficiency assessments. Recommendations are presented on how to improve the allocation exercise for the next emission trading period from 2008 to 2012

  16. 87. Austrian ratification of the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the notification of the Austrian ratification of the Convention, resulting in the entry into force of the Convention for Austria on 22 December 1989. The ratification included a declaration concerning Article 10 paragraph 5(b). The text of the Convention is reproduced in English, French and German. (NEA)

  17. Novel high-pressure phases of AlP from first principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Hu, Meng; Luo, Kun; Yu, Dongli; Zhao, Zhisheng; He, Julong

    2016-05-01

    By utilizing a crystal structure prediction software via particle swarm optimization, this study proposes three new high-pressure phases of aluminum phosphide (AlP) with high density and high hardness, in addition to previously proposed phases (wz-, zb-, rs-, NiAs-, β-Sn-, CsCl-, and Cmcm-AlP). These new phases are as follows: (1) an I 4 ¯ 3d symmetric structure (cI24-AlP) at 55.2 GPa, (2) an R 3 ¯ m symmetric structure (hR18-AlP) at 9.9 GPa, and (3) a C222 symmetric structure (oC12-AlP) at 20.6 GPa. Based on first-principle calculations, these phases have higher energetic advantage than CsCl- and β-Sn-AlP at ambient pressure. The independent elastic constants and phonon dispersion spectra are calculated to check the mechanical and dynamic stabilities of these phases. According to mechanical property studies, these new AlP phases have higher hardness than NiAs-AlP, and oC12-AlP has the highest hardness of 7.9 GPa. Electronic band structure calculations indicate that NiAs- and hR18-AlP have electrical conductivity. Additionally, wz-, zb-, and oC12-AlP possess semiconductive properties with indirect bandgaps, and cI24-AlP has a semiconductive property with a direct bandgap.

  18. Assessment of climate change impact on SOM balance with the Austrian Carbon Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franko, Uwe; Gründling, Ralf; Sedy, Katrin; Zethner, Gerhard; Formayer, Herbert

    2015-04-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) balance depends on climate and climate change due to the impact on SOM turnover conditions as well as on cropping and crop yields. The Austrian Carbon calculator (ACC) is a tool for the comparison of future land use scenarios with the current agriculture in order to identify opportunities to sustain the SOM balance. The ACC can be used in a regional mode as well as in local mode for the assessment of single farm fields. The assessment is based on the concept of Biologic Active Time (BAT). BAT is calculated based on soil data from the Austrian eBod map and climate data for past and future on a 1 km grid. The ACC was implemented for the regions Mühlviertel and Marchfeld. Crop yields are calculated based on statistics from the Austrian agricultural sub regions "Kleinproduktionsgebiet" for the most common crops. The regional scenarios consist of the abundance of crops, the part of nitrogen added as mineral fertilizer and the part of irrigation. The local soil management is calculated based on crop rotations with yields, organic amendments, irrigation and the tillage system (ploughed or not ploughed). The SOM balance is assessed with the reproduction index (REP_IX) that is calculated as the quotient from carbon reproduction (Carbon flux into SOM) and the BAT value. This way REP_IX includes the impact from management as well as from climate. If the future management will not change REP_IX the SOM balance will be the same as well. This methodology helps to adapt the management to future conditions to sustain the current SOM conditions without an absolute assessment if the current SOM state is optimal or not. The regional results of ACC will be made available as thematic maps on the project web site. For local applications farmer can use the tool to analyze their special site conditions and management plans to assess the management options under climate change conditions. The described concept can be improved if reliable information about the

  19. Geomorphology of the Hérens valley (Swiss Alps)

    OpenAIRE

    Lambiel, Christophe; Maillard, Benoît; Kummert, Mario; Reynard, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a geomorphological map of the Hérens valley in the Western Swiss Alps. With an area of 270 km2 and altitudes ranging from 470 to 4357 m a.s.l., this valley is one of the main secondary catchments of the Upper Rhône valley. The high differences in altitudes, combined with a varied geology, create an important geomorphic diversity. The main processes active in mountain areas, that is, glacial, periglacial, gravitational and fluvial processes, are well represented. The map wa...

  20. Austrian Business Cycle Theory: Are 100 Percent Reserves Sufficient to Prevent a Business Cycle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Bagus

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Authors in the Austrian tradition have made the credit expansion of a fractional reserve banking system as the prime cause of business cycles. Authors such as Selgin (1988 and White (1999 have argued that a solution to this problem would be a free banking system. They maintain that the competition between banks would limit the credit expansion effectively. Other authors such as Rothbard (1991 and Huerta de Soto (2006 have gone further and advocated a 100 percent reserve banking system ruling out credit expansion altogether. In this article it is argued that a 100 percent reserve system can still bring about business cycles through excessive maturity mismatching between deposits and loans.

  1. A geostatistical autopsy of the Austrian indoor radon survey (1992-2002)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor radon (Rn) concentrations have been measured intensively in many countries to assess the burden of diseases associated with exposure to this radioactive gas. So-called radon-risk maps have consequently been produced to delineate areas with high levels. Geostatistical techniques are commonly used nowadays to map a range of environmental variables, in particular to generate probability maps of exceeding a given threshold. However, very few case studies in which indoor radon measurements have been investigated using geostatistical techniques have been published so far. By analyzing around 12,000 Rn measurements made in Austrian ground floors during a 10-year survey, we aim here to review and discuss the potential of geostatistics for mapping an environmental variable that shows very strong local variability. In particular, we show how kriging of the scale components can shed new light on various factors that affect the very high spatial variability of the variable

  2. Case study of a fast propagating bacteriogenically induced concrete corrosion in an Austrian sewer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grengg, Cyrill; Mittermayr, Florian; Baldermann, Andre; Böttcher, Michael; Leis, Albrecht; Koraimann, Günther; Dietzel, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Reaction mechanisms leading to microbially induced concrete corrosion (MICC) are highly complex and often not fully understood. The aim of the present case study is to contribute to a deeper understanding of reaction paths, environmental controls, and corrosion rates related to MICC in a modern Austrian sewer system by introducing an advanced multi proxy approach that comprises gaseous, hydro-geochemical, bacteriological, and mineralogical analyses. Various crucial parameters for detecting alteration features were determined in the field and laboratory, including (i) temperature, pH, alkalinity, chemical compositions of the solutions, (ii) chemical and mineralogical composition of solids, (iii) bacterial analysis, and (iv) concentrations of gaseous H2S, CH4 and CO2 within the sewer pipe atmosphere. An overview of the field site and analytical results, focusing on reaction mechanisms causing the corrosion, as well as possible remediation strategies will be presented.

  3. The Austrian social festival Keep the Ball Rolling in a peripheral region of Upper Styria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gstach Isabell

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The “Steirische Eisenstraße” is a region located in the province of Styria in Austria, which has been struggling with a massive shift in population and age structure for some time. In 2012/13 the Austrian social festival Keep the Ball Rolling is taking place in this region. Over a period of 18 months, the social festival is providing opportunities to think of their own environment. Consequently, they can develop and implement ideas for good cohabitation and put these into practice. The main focus of this article is the demographic presentation of the “Steirische Eisenstraße” region, according to population, employment and age structure. The introduction of the social festival is fundamental in initiating successful change processes.

  4. Scientific support, soil information and education provided by the Austrian Soil Science Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Sigbert; Baumgarten, Andreas; Birli, Barbara; Englisch, Michael; Tulipan, Monika; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie

    2015-04-01

    The Austrian Soil Science Society (ASSS), founded in 1954, is a non-profit organisation aiming at furthering all branches of soil science in Austria. The ASSS provides information on the current state of soil research in Austria and abroad. It organizes annual conferences for scientists from soil and related sciences to exchange their recent studies and offers a journal for scientific publications. Annually, ASSS awards the Kubiena Research Prize for excellent scientific studies provided by young scientists. In order to conserve and improve soil science in the field, excursions are organized, also in cooperation with other scientific organisations. Due to well-established contacts with soil scientists and soil science societies in many countries, the ASSS is able to provide its members with information about the most recent developments in the field of soil science. This contributes to a broadening of the current scientific knowledge on soils. The ASSS also co-operates in the organisation of excursions and meetings with neighbouring countries. Several members of the ASSS teach soil science at various Austrian universities. More detail on said conferences, excursions, publications and awards will be given in the presentation. Beside its own scientific journal, published once or twice a year, and special editions such as guidebooks for soil classification, the ASSS runs a website providing information on the Society, its activities, meetings, publications, awards and projects. Together with the Environment Agency Austria the ASSS runs a soil platform on the internet. It is accessible for the public and thus informs society about soil issues. This platform offers a calendar with national and international soil events, contacts of soil related organisations and networks, information on national projects and publications. The society has access to products, information material and information on educational courses. Last but not least information on specific soil

  5. The radiation protection units of the Austrian fire brigades; Die Strahlenschutz-Einheiten der oesterreichischen Feuerwehren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aspek, W. [Oesterreichischer Bundesfeuerwehr, Wien (Austria); Schoenhacker, S. [WIRK.ZONE, Wien (Austria)

    2009-07-01

    Since the 1960s, Austrian fire brigades have been involved in radiation protection. With the preparations for the NPP Zwentendorf and the building of the research reactor in Seibersdorf, the first radiation protection units of the fire brigade were founded. 45 years later: The NPP Zwentendorf never saw its start-up, the use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity is prohibited by a constitutional law, and the research reactor is being decommissioned. What's left are the radiation protection units of the fire brigades. The contribution gives an overview of similarities and differences of the radiation protection units in the nine federal states of Austria, with a special focus on equipment, training and organisation. Nation-wide guidelines and regulations for the tactics of first responders at radiological emergencies are presented and a couple of incidents will be analysed. (orig.)

  6. Comprehensive investigation of radon exposure in Austrian tourist mines and caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to Austrian Law, dose assessments in workplaces with potentially enhanced radon exposures are mandatory since 2008, including tourist mines and caves. A pilot study was carried out to evaluate the situation to test the measurement methods and to specify the main parameters controlling the radon concentration in tourist mines and caves. Radon was measured in six mines and three caves for 1 y, along with determining thoron and equilibrium factors and taking into account climatic, geological and site-related effects. The radon concentrations have a seasonal dependence with maximum in summer and minimum in winter, related to natural ventilation. Radon concentrations in the karst caves were quite low, as it was in the salt mine, whereas radon concentrations in copper and silver mines were high. The dose assessment of the employees yielded doses above 6 mSv a-1 only in the copper mine. (authors)

  7. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of Austrian wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of major, minor and trace elements in Austrian wine was determined by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence using gallium as internal standard. A multi-elemental analysis was possible by pipetting 6 μl of wine directly on the reflector and drying. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis was performed with Atomika EXTRA II A (Cameca) X-rays from a Mo tube with a high-energy cut-off at 20 keV in total-reflection geometry. The results showed that it was possible to identify only by the elemental analysis as fingerprint the vineyards and year of vintage among 11 different wines

  8. Development of soil taxation and soil classification as furthered by the Austrian Soil Science Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Soil taxation and soil classification are important drivers of soil science in Austria. However, the tasks are quite different: whereas soil taxation aims at the evaluation of the productivity potential of the soil, soil classification focusses on the natural development and - especially nowadays - on functionality of the soil. Since the foundation of the Austrian Soil Science Society (ASSS), representatives both directions of the description of the soil have been involved in the common actions of the society. In the first years it was a main target to improve and standardize field descriptions of the soil. Although both systems differ in the general layout, the experts should comply with identical approaches. According to this work, a lot of effort has been put into the standardization of the soil classification system, thus ensuring a common basis. The development, state of the art and further development of both classification and taxation systems initiated and carried out by the ASSS will be shown.

  9. Cultivation-independent analysis of microbial communities on Austrian raw milk hard cheese rinds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schornsteiner, Elisa; Mann, Evelyne; Bereuter, Othmar; Wagner, Martin; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan

    2014-06-16

    "Vorarlberger Bergkäse" (VB) is an Austrian artisanal hard cheese produced from raw cow's milk. The composition of its rind microbiota and the changes in the microbial communities during ripening have not previously been investigated. This study used 16S and 18S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing to characterize the bacterial and fungal communities of seven pooled cheese rind samples taken in seven different ripening cellars of three Austrian dairy facilities. A total of 408 clones for 16S and 322 clones for 18S rRNA gene libraries were used for taxonomic classification, revealing 39 bacterial and seven fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Bacterial OTUs belonged to four different phyla. Most OTUs were affiliated to genera often found in cheese, including high numbers of coryneforms. The most abundant OTU from 16S rRNA gene libraries showed highest similarity to Halomonas. Young cheese rinds were dominated by Actinobacteria or Proteobacteria, particularly by Halomonas and Brevibacterium aurantiacum, while Staphyloccocus equorum was most abundant in old cheeses. The most abundant 18S rRNA OTU had highest similarity to the filamentous fungus Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. Pairwise correlation analyses revealed putative co-occurrences between a number of OTUs. It was possible to discriminate the different cheese rind microbiota at the community-level by facility affiliation and ripening time. This work provides insights into the microbial composition of VB cheese rinds and might allow the processing- and ripening conditions to be improved to enhance the quality of the product. PMID:24794620

  10. Post-irradiation examination of HTR-fuel at the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austrian R and D activities in the HTR-field reach back almost to the beginning of this advanced reactor line. For more than 20 years post-irradiation examination (PIE) of HTR-fuel has been performed at the laboratories of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf Ltd. (OEFZS) (formerly OESGAE) and a high degree of qualification has been achieved in the course of that time. Most of the PIE-work has been carried out by international cooperation on contract basis with the OECD-DRAGON-project and with KFA-Juelich (FRG). There has also been some collaboration with GA (USA), Belgonucleaire and others in the past. HTR-fuel elements contain the fissile and fertile materials in form of coated particles (CPs) which are embedded in a graphite matrix. Because of this special design it has been necessary from the very beginning of the PIE work up to now to develop new methods (i.e. fuel element disintegration methods, chlorine gas leach, single particle examination techniques...) as well as to adapt and improve already existing methods (i.e. gamma spectrometry, mass-spectrometry, optical methods...). The main interests on PIE-work at Seibersdorf are concentrated on particle performance, fission product distribution and the 'free' Uranium content (contamination and broken particles) of the fuel elements (fuel spheres or cylindrical compacts). A short compilation of the applied methods and of available instrumental facilities is given as follows: deconsolidation of fuel elements; equipment for electrochemical deconsolidation; examinations and measurements of graphite and electrolyte samples; examination of coated particles; single particle examinations

  11. Risk factors for lameness in cubicle housed Austrian Simmental dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dippel, Sabine; Dolezal, Marlies; Brenninkmeyer, Christine; Brinkmann, Jan; March, Solveig; Knierim, Ute; Winckler, Christoph

    2009-07-01

    Austrian dairy farming is characterised by predominant use of Simmental cows on small-scale farms. Our aim was to identify lameness risk factors related to housing and management in cubicle housed Austrian dairy cows. Furthermore, we used animal-based parameters (ABP) as integrated measures of cubicle quality and feeding management. The first author visited 30 farms in eastern Austria with 24-54 cows (mean=35) in the milking herd during winter housing period, and collected data on housing, management, behaviour, and lameness via direct observations and an interview (part of Welfare Quality project). Mean lameness prevalence was 31% (range 6-70%). Data were analysed using logistic regression with generalised estimating equations (GEE). The final model was based on 832 cows and included six risk variables, five ABP, and the significant confounders 'county' and 'lactation number'. Odds for lameness increased with decreasing lying comfort, except for cubicle width. The following lying-related factors were significant in the final model (odds ratios (OR) in brackets): mats/mattresses as opposed to deep bedded cubicle base (1.61), length of lying area (OR 186-191 vs. loafing area (0.57). Regarding metabolic parameters, cows with a body condition score >3.5 had at least 0.39 lower odds of being lame, while cows with suboptimal milk protein content (3.8%) had 1.37 times higher odds. Odds for lameness clearly increased with age (OR lactation > or =4 vs. 1=3.38). In sum, lying comfort and nutrition are key areas for lameness prevention on modern dairy farms in Austria with herd sizes above 30 cows. PMID:19409629

  12. Coseismic landsliding estimates for an Alpine Fault earthquake and the consequences for erosion of the Southern Alps, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, T. R.; Davies, T. R. H.; Wilson, T. M.; Orchiston, C.

    2016-06-01

    Landsliding resulting from large earthquakes in mountainous terrain presents a substantial hazard and plays an important role in the evolution of mountain ranges. However estimating the scale and effect of landsliding from an individual earthquake prior to its occurrence is difficult. This study presents first order estimates of the scale and effects of coseismic landsliding resulting from a plate boundary earthquake in the South Island of New Zealand. We model an Mw 8.0 earthquake on the Alpine Fault, which has produced large (M 7.8-8.2) earthquakes every 329 ± 68 years over the last 8 ka, with the last earthquake ~ 300 years ago. We suggest that such an earthquake could produce ~ 50,000 ± 20,000 landslides at average densities of 2-9 landslides km- 2 in the area of most intense landsliding. Between 50% and 90% are expected to occur in a 7000 km2 zone between the fault and the main divide of the Southern Alps. Total landslide volume is estimated to be 0.81 + 0.87/- 0.55 km3. In major northern and southern river catchments, total landslide volume is equivalent to up to a century of present-day aseismic denudation measured from suspended sediment yields. This suggests that earthquakes occurring at century-timescales are a major driver of erosion in these regions. In the central Southern Alps, coseismic denudation is equivalent to less than a decade of aseismic denudation, suggesting precipitation and uplift dominate denudation processes. Nevertheless, the estimated scale of coseismic landsliding is considered to be a substantial hazard throughout the entire Southern Alps and is likely to present a substantial issue for post-earthquake response and recovery.

  13. Chemical denudation rates of a small torrential catchment in the Northern Calcareous Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, Georg; Robl, Jörg; Hauzenberger, Christoph; Hilberg, Sylke; Schmidt, Rudolf

    2016-04-01

    Our understanding on the decay of alpine landscapes and the pace of landscape adjustment to climatic or tectonic changes rely on catchment wide erosion rates. In general, these data stem from cosmogenic isotope dating of quartz grains and are therefore only applicable at catchments providing suitable bedrock. However, denudation caused by the dissolution of rocks is not explicitly considered by this method. In the Northern Calcareous Alps (NCA) crystalline rocks are missing and intensive karstification suggests that chemical denudation is an important player for destroying topography. In this study we present chemical denudation rates derived from measuring the dissolved load of an alpine catchment located in the country of Salzburg, Austria. The catchment has a drainage area of about 7 km2 and is predominantly covered by limestone rich glacial deposits and carbonatic rocks as characteristic for the NCA. In order to obtain catchment wide chemical denudation rates we have integrated discharge time series that where measured by a permanent water gauge of the Austrian Service for Torrent and Avalanche Control to compute the total discharge of the investigated catchment over a period of one year. During the same period samples were taken at several campaigns to consider variations of the dissolved load. Samples were taken at high and low run-off conditions to study the effect of precipitation and at different locations along the tributaries to account for lithological variations of the river beds on the dissolved load. The concentrations of various cations in water samples were measured by the ICP-MS facility at the University of Graz. For the investigation period of one year 3.02 ∗ 106m3 of discharge was measured at the catchment outlet. The summed cation-concentration is varying between about 85 mg/l for dry-conditions and 75 mg/l for rainy-conditions at the gauge and consists predominantly of Ca+ cations. Based on the total discharge of the river integrated over a

  14. COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT OF WHITEWATER SPORTS IN THE SOUTHERN ALPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BERNARD MASSIERA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In order to better understand how certain sports tourism professionals have overcome the economic crisis, this paper focuses on how they have innovated on technical, managerial and marketing levels. Analyzing these strategies in the sector of “recreational white-water sports tourism” appears as a way to prospect.Design/methodology/approach: The offer of white-water sports tourism does not fall under tradition forms of organization known to work in the tourism sector. Since the end of the nineties its mode of development seems to have enabled this sector to avoid undergoing the economic crisis. The methodology, based on interviews withentrepreneurs in the sector of white-water sports tourism in the Southern Alps, addresses their managerial strategies and strategic modes of operation in the development of their businesses. The aim is to explore the managerial factors that have resulted in both economic and environmental sustainability. The concept of sustainable development is employed to understand how these entrepreneurial activities are embedded in the social, economic and natural environments of the Southern Alps valleys. Findings: The investigation shows that, rather than focusing on business strategy, professionals in this sector focus primarily on community relations. The supply of white-water sports tourism is presented in a lattice form which develops as a community. The modes of development of this sector, far from corresponding to standard business rationale, amount to a form of sustainable development which may explain the relative success of sport tourism in this period of crisis.

  15. Distributed landsurface skin temperature sensing in Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Giesen, N.; Baerenbold, F.; Nadeau, D. F.; Pardyjak, E.; Parlange, M. B.

    2010-12-01

    The ZyTemp TN9 is a mass-produced thermal infrared (TIR) sensor that is normally used to build handheld non-contact thermometers. The measurement principle of the TN9 is similar to that of very costly meteorological pyrgeometers. The costs of the TN9 are less than 10. The output of the TN9 consists of observed thermal radiation, the temperature of the measurement instrument, and the emissivity used. The output is provided through a Serial Peripheral Interface protocol. The TN9 was combined with an Arduino board that registered data onto a USB memory stick. A solar cell, lead acid battery, housing and stand completed the meausrement set up. Total costs per set was in the order of 200 Land surface atmosphere interactions in mountainous areas, such as the Swiss Alps, are spatially heterogeneous. Shading, multi-layer cloud formation, and up- and downdrafts make for a very dynamic exchange of mass and energy along and across slopes. In order to better understand these exchanges, the Swiss Slope Experiment at La Fouly (SELF) has built a distributed sensing network consisting of eight micro-met stations and two flux towers in the "La Fouly" watershed in the upper Alps. To obtain a better handle on surface temperature, fifteen TIR sensing stations were installed that made observations during the 2010 Summer. Methods and results will be presented. Overview La Fouly watershed (source: http://eflum.epfl.ch/research/images/fouly_2.jpg)

  16. Contribution to knowledge of the bryophyte flora of the western Alps (Italy, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabovljević M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The study is a contribution to knowledge of the bryophyte flora of the Alps. The huge bryophyte collection made during 1997 in the Western Alps is presented. A total of 152 bryophyte species were recorded, including 113 mosses and 39 hepatics.

  17. Magnetic fabric study of rock deformation during alpine tectonic evolution on a cross section through the Eastern Alps (Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, K.; Scholger, R.; Pueyo, E. L.

    2010-05-01

    steeper NE or SW dipping k1-axis are present. In a previous paleomagnetic study of the same samples (Pueyo et al., 2002) both, primary and secondary remanent magnetization vectors were observed. No significant rotations were detected in the Flysh units. All samples from the Bajuvaric system show dominantly very low susceptibility values and isotropic fabrics and were therefore excluded from further investigations. Bajuvaric nappes hardly show any significant rotations based on paleomagnetic data (Pueyo et al., 2002). The nappes of the Tirolic and Juvavic systems have very low susceptibility values but they increase slightly towards the south. The shape of the anisotropy ellipsoid remains oblate (group A) in most cases and the degree of anisotropy is very weak. Also more prolate fabrics (group B) are present. Group A and B show a trend to shallow N or S dipping k1-axis in the North. Further in the south the k1-axis of group A tend to dip steeply NE. Shallow NE or SW dipping and slightly steeper NE or SW dipping oriented prolate susceptibility ellipsoids are dominant in group B. Tirolic and Juvavic units display clockwise rotation ranging between 30 and more than 100° (Pueyo et al., 2002), which was assigned to block rotation. Shallow E dipping and NNW dipping oblate susceptibility ellipsoids are dominant in the Basement. A general increase of the degree of rotation (Pueyo et al., 2002) as well as better defined susceptibility ellipsoids with mainly oblate fabrics towards the south can be observed. Six Tertiary deviatoric paleostress tensor groups are described by Peresson & Decker (1997). The new AMS data will be presented and correlated to the young tectonic history of the Eastern Alps. The study was funded by the Austrian Academy of Sciences (ÖAW) in the frame of the Geophysics of the Earths Crust Programme. Peresson, H. and Decker, K., 1997. The Tertiary dynamics of the northern Eastern Alps (Austria): Changing palaeostresses in a collisional plate boundary

  18. Battle of methods between the Austrian school of economics and the German historical school as the most important methodological dispute in history of economics

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Loužek

    1999-01-01

    The presented article is concerned with the Methodenstreit between the Austrian School of Economics and the German Historical School in 19th century. The Methodenstreit between the Austrians and Germans is considered the most important methodological dispute in economics. Three main topics of the argument are distinguished: a) dispute concerning a role of induction and deduction in economics, b) dispute about exact or empirical laws in economics and c) dispute about application of methodologi...

  19. Risk assessment of mountain infrastructure destabilization in the French Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvillard, Pierre-Allain; Ravanel, Ludovic; Deline, Philip

    2015-04-01

    In the current context of imbalance of geosystems in connection with the rising air temperature for several decades, high mountain environments are especially affected by the shrinkage of glaciers and the permafrost degradation which can trigger slope movements in the rock slopes (rockfall, rock avalanches) or in superficial deposits (slides, rock glacier rupture, thermokarst). These processes generate a risk of direct destabilization for high mountain infrastructure (huts, cable-cars...) in addition to indirect risks for people and infrastructure located on the path of moving rock masses. We here focus on the direct risk of infrastructure destabilization due to permafrost degradation and/or glacier shrinkage in the French Alps. To help preventing these risks, an inventory of all the infrastructure was carried out with a GIS using different data layers among which the Alpine Permafrost Index Map and inventories of the French Alps glaciers in 2006-2009, 1967-1971 and at the end of the Little Ice Age. 1769 infrastructures have been identified in areas likely characterized by permafrost and/or possibly affected by glacier shrinkage. An index of risk of destabilization has been built to identify and to rank infrastructure at risk. This theoretical risk index includes a characterization of hazards and a diagnosis of the vulnerability. The value of hazard is dependent on passive factors (topography, lithology, geomorphological context...) and on so-considered active factors (thermal state of the permafrost, and changing constraints on slopes related to glacier shrinkage). The diagnosis of vulnerability has meanwhile been established by combining the level of potential damage to the exposed elements with their operational and financial values. The combination of hazard and vulnerability determines a degree of risk of infrastructure destabilization (from low to very high). Field work and several inventories of infrastructure damages were used to validate it. The

  20. Medical ethnobotany of the Albanian Alps in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Behxhet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnobotanical studies are crucial in South-Eastern Europe for fostering local development and also for investigating the dynamics of Traditional Environmental Knowledge (TEK related to plants in one of the most crucial European hotspots for biocultural diversity. The current medico-ethnobotanical survey was conducted in rural alpine communities in Kosovo. The aims of the study were twofold: 1 to document the state of TEK of medicinal plants in these communities; 2 to compare these findings with that of similar field studies previously conducted among local populations inhabiting the Montenegrin and Albanian side of the same Alpine range. Methods Field research was conducted in 36 villages on the Kosovar side of the Albanian Alps. Snowball sampling techniques were used to recruit 91 elderly informants (≥ 50 years-old for participation in semi-structured interviews and structured surveys regarding the use of the local flora for medicinal and food purposes. Standard ethnobotanical methods were employed and prior informed consent was obtained for all study participants. Results and Conclusion The uses of 98 plants species belonging to 39 families were recorded; the most quoted botanical families were Rosaceae, Asteraceae, and Lamiaceae. Mainly decoctions and infusions were quoted as folk medicinal preparations and the most common uses referred to gastrointestinal and respiratory disorders, as well as illnesses of the uro-genital system. Among the most uncommon medicinal taxa quoted by the informants, Carduus nutans L., Echinops bannaticus Rochel ex Schrad., and Orlaya grandiflora Hoffm. may merit phytochemical and phytopharmacological investigations. Comparison of the data with other ethnobotanical field studies recently conducted on the Albanian and Montenegrin sides of the same Alps has shown a remarkable link between the medical ethnobotany of Montenegrin and Kosovar side of the Albanian Alps. Moreover, folk uses of the

  1. Medical ethnobotany of the Albanian Alps in Kosovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Ethnobotanical studies are crucial in South-Eastern Europe for fostering local development and also for investigating the dynamics of Traditional Environmental Knowledge (TEK) related to plants in one of the most crucial European hotspots for biocultural diversity. The current medico-ethnobotanical survey was conducted in rural alpine communities in Kosovo. The aims of the study were twofold: 1) to document the state of TEK of medicinal plants in these communities; 2) to compare these findings with that of similar field studies previously conducted among local populations inhabiting the Montenegrin and Albanian side of the same Alpine range. Methods Field research was conducted in 36 villages on the Kosovar side of the Albanian Alps. Snowball sampling techniques were used to recruit 91 elderly informants (≥ 50 years-old) for participation in semi-structured interviews and structured surveys regarding the use of the local flora for medicinal and food purposes. Standard ethnobotanical methods were employed and prior informed consent was obtained for all study participants. Results and Conclusion The uses of 98 plants species belonging to 39 families were recorded; the most quoted botanical families were Rosaceae, Asteraceae, and Lamiaceae. Mainly decoctions and infusions were quoted as folk medicinal preparations and the most common uses referred to gastrointestinal and respiratory disorders, as well as illnesses of the uro-genital system. Among the most uncommon medicinal taxa quoted by the informants, Carduus nutans L., Echinops bannaticus Rochel ex Schrad., and Orlaya grandiflora Hoffm. may merit phytochemical and phytopharmacological investigations. Comparison of the data with other ethnobotanical field studies recently conducted on the Albanian and Montenegrin sides of the same Alps has shown a remarkable link between the medical ethnobotany of Montenegrin and Kosovar side of the Albanian Alps. Moreover, folk uses of the most quoted wild medicinal

  2. Crenarchaeota and Their Role in the Nitrogen Cycle in a Subsurface Radioactive Thermal Spring in the Austrian Central Alps▿

    OpenAIRE

    Weidler, Gerhard W.; Gerbl, Friedrich W.; Stan-Lotter, Helga

    2008-01-01

    Previous results from a 16S rRNA gene library analysis showed high diversity within the prokaryotic community of a subterranean radioactive thermal spring, the “Franz-Josef-Quelle” (FJQ) in Bad Gastein, Austria, as well as evidence for ammonia oxidation by crenarchaeota. This study reports further characterization of the community by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and semiquantitative nitrification measurements. DGGE bands f...

  3. Teaching in Bukovina at the time of the Austrian domination. The Foundation of the University of Tchernivtsi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Baltag

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Teaching is a mirror that reveals how a nation defines and limits its identity in history, taking its landmarks at cultural level. The situation of education in Bukovina during the Austrian occupation was precarious, especially in the presence of the Romanian language in schools. In that sense, the Romanians of Bukovina fought against the preponderance of German language, imposed by the Austrian occupation and against the pressure exerted by the Ukrainians to impose their mother tongue in educational institutions. If the quality of the teaching of the first schools remained at a fairly low level, the time has come when, following the Western model, Bukovina raised the level of its institutions. The Theological Institute which turns into the Faculty of Theology so that the University of Tchernivtsi allowed students to complete their studies in Bukovina, without having to study in the academic centers of Liov or Vienna.

  4. Education Standards and Competence-oriented Curricula - The Austrian Technical Colleges Take a New Approach to Excellence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Pachatz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In Austria, Technical Colleges are those educational institutions that train and educate the skilled technical staff required by the Austrian labour market and the universities. These colleges have contributed a lot to Austria’s economic success and every year about 8,000 young engineers leave the technical schools to form a powerful work and study force. Therefore, it is particularly important that the education they receive meets the requirements of prospective employers and that innovative developments are anticipated. As a consequence, the Austrian Technical Colleges have developed curricula that rely on learning outcomes and competence-based results. This new orientation towards skills, knowledge and competences shall be achieved through learning objectives that precisely describe the education chosen. How these standards have been designed, matched with the curricula, and implemented at the Colleges will be described in this paper.

  5. 'A civilizing mission'? Austrian medicine and the reform of medical structures in the Ottoman Empire, 1838-1850.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahrour, Marcel

    2007-12-01

    During the 1840s, physicians from the Habsburg Empire played a decisive role in the reform of medical structures in the Ottoman Empire. This paper discusses different aspects of this scientific and cultural encounter. It emphasizes the importance of Austrian health care structures as a model for the work of these physicians in the Ottoman Empire and studies the role of the medical school ran by the Austrians as a means of representing, on the one hand, the reformatory efforts of the Ottoman Empire and, on the other hand, the motivations of the Habsburg monarchy for an involvement in Ottoman health care affairs, strongly bound up with its own quarantine politics towards the Ottoman Empire. PMID:18053928

  6. Connectedness to nature and public (skin) health perspectives: results of a representative, population-based survey among Austrian residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluza, Daniela; Simic, Stana; Höltge, Jan; Cervinka, Renate; Moshammer, Hanns

    2014-01-01

    Connectedness to nature (CN) influences motivation to have contact with outdoor natural environments. Spending leisure time in natural environments is beneficial for human health and well-being. Besides these positive effects, health risks of open-air activities are mainly related to unprotected sun light exposure-associated acute and chronic skin hazards. Thus, we conducted a cross-sectional, representative telephone survey among Austrian residents to study the association of perceived CN level with sun-exposure knowledge, tanning habits, and sun protective behaviour. In total, 1,500 study subjects (50.5% females) participated in this questionnaire survey. Although knowledge about tanning and motives to tan were similar among genders, females performed more photoprotective measures and were more connected to nature (all p habits of Austrian residents. The findings suggest to integrate hitherto neglected gender-specific Public (Skin) Health promotion when counselling on the manifold health advantages of outdoor activities. PMID:24448634

  7. New ALPS results on hidden-sector lightweights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehret, Klaus; Ghazaryan, Samvel [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Frede, Maik [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (DE)] (and others)

    2010-04-08

    The ALPS collaboration runs a ''Light Shining through a Wall'' (LSW) experiment to search for photon oscillations into ''Weakly Interacting Sub-eV Particles'' (WISPs) often predicted by extensions of the Standard Model. The experiment is set up around a superconducting HERA dipole magnet at the site of DESY. Due to several upgrades of the experiment we are able to place limits on the probability of photon-WISP-photon conversions of a few x 10{sup -25}. These limits result in today's most stringent laboratory constraints on the existence of low mass axion-like particles, hidden photons and minicharged particles. (orig.)

  8. Distribution of mustelids in Adamello-Brenta Park and surroundings areas (Central Italian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Pedrini

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The survey, conducted in 1991-93 on a study area of 1085 km², has permitted to define the distribution maps according to 6.4x5.5 km grid of the following species: Meles meles, Mustela erminea, Mustela nivalis, Martes foina and Martes martes. Mustela putorius and Lutra lutra, recorded since 1960 and 1970 respectively, were not checked. From the analysis of 201 records (sightings, signs of presence, animals found dead and skins, we found that the badger, weasel and stone marten selected middle-low altitude (since 1000 m a.s.l., the pine marten and stoat the middle-high altitude. The former species frequented mainly agricultural lands of bottom of the valley with built-up areas, the latter ones occurred mainly in forest habitat of secluded valleys (the pine marten, and in stony ground and alpine prairies (the stoat. The badger was the most diffuse species, the pine marten the least one. On a total of 46 grids of the study area, 32.6% presented three mustelid species, 17.4% five species. The badger and the stone marten were the species with the greatest overlapping range (61.7% of the grids, the weasel and the stoat with the smallest one (23.4% of the grids. Riassunto Distribuzione dei Mustelidi nel Parco Adamello-Brenta e aree limitrofe (Trentino, Alpi centrali - L'indagine, condotta nel 1991-93, ha interessato un'area di 1085 km² e ha permesso di definire le mappe di distribuzione, secondo una griglia di 6,4x5,5 km desunta dalla Carta Topografica generale (scala 1:10000 edita dalla Provincia Autonoma di Trento, di cinque specie: Meles meles, Mustela erminea, Mustela nivalis, Martes foina e Martes martes. La presenza di Mustela putorius e di Lutra lutra, accertata fino intorno agli anni '60 e '70 rispettivamente, non è stata invece confermata. Dall'analisi di 201 segnalazioni (osservazioni dirette, segni di presenza, animali trovati morti o imbalsamati è stato rilevato che le fasce altitudinali medio-basse (fino a 1000 m sono selezionate da tasso, donnola e faina che frequentano soprattutto ambienti coltivati di fondovalle con presenza di centri abitati, quelle medio-alte da martora e ermellino che utilizzano rispettivamente comprensori forestali delle vallate interne e ambienti con presenza di versanti detritici, praterie alpine e malghe. La specie più diffusa è risultata il tasso, quella meno diffusa la martora. Il 32,6% delle 46 griglie, in cui è stata suddivisa l'area di studio, mostra la presenza di 3 specie, il 17,4% di 5 specie. I1 tasso e la faina sono risultate le specie con maggior sovrapposizione di areale di distribuzione (61,7% delle griglie, la donnola e l'ermellino quelle con minor sovrapposizione (23,4% delle griglie.

  9. Ectomycorrhiza succession patterns in Pinus sylvestris forests after stand-replacing fire in the Central Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipfer, Tabea; Moser, Barbara; Egli, Simon; Wohlgemuth, Thomas; Ghazoul, Jaboury

    2011-09-01

    Fires shape fundamental properties of many forest ecosystems and climate change will increase their relevance in regions where fires occur infrequently today. In ecosystems that are not adapted to fire, post-fire tree recruitment is often sparse, a fact that might be attributed to a transient lack of mycorrhizae. Ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi play an important role for recruitment by enhancing nutrient and water uptake of their hosts. The questions arise whether and for how long the EcM community is transformed by fire. We investigated the resistance and resilience of EcM fungal communities on a chronosequence of 12 Pinus sylvestris stands in Valais (Switzerland) and Val d'Aosta (Italy) affected by fire between 1990 and 2006. Soil samples from burnt and non-burnt forests were analyzed with respect to EcM fungi by means of a bioassay. The number of EcM species was significantly lower in samples from recently (2-5 years) burnt sites than non-burnt forest, and increased with time since fire reaching levels of adjacent forests after 15-18 years. Community composition changed after fire but did not converge to that of non-burnt sites over the 18 year period. Only Rhizopogon roseolus and Cenococcum geophilum were abundant in both burnt sites and adjacent forest. Our data indicate fire resistance of some EcM fungal species as well as rapid resilience in terms of species number, but not in species composition. As long as the function of different EcM species for seedling establishment is unknown, the consequences of long-term shifts in EcM community composition for tree recruitment remain unclear. PMID:21468664

  10. Old Monarchy in the New Cyberspace: Empirical Examination of Information Security Awareness among Austrian and Hungarian Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Sasvari, Peter; Nemeslaki, Andras; Rauch, Wolf

    2015-01-01

    Information security awareness is part of organizational culture, a way of thinking and be-havior which ensures that the employees of the organizations are committed to acknowledging the legitimacy of security measures, they abide by them and they also make them known to others and enforce their application. After collecting empirical data from 280 Austrian and 470 Hungarian employees of different companies we concluded that the level of information security awareness of managers and employee...

  11. Trade Barriers in Services and Competitive Strengths in the Austrian Service Sector - An Analysis at the Detailed Sector Level

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfmayr, Yvonne

    2008-01-01

    This study provides a thourough and detailed analysis of the competitiveness of the Austrian service sectors. It combines several industry classifications reflecting different structural features and international regulatory regimes that might be relevant for a sector?s export potential and international competitiveness. These features are the skill and factor intensity, the intrinsic tradability and different regulatory regimes in international trade. For the first time this study applies a ...

  12. Interaction with customers: The Application of Social Media within the Austrian Supply Chain for Food and Beverages

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver Meixner; Rainer Haas; Helmut Moosbrugger; Philipp Magdits

    2013-01-01

    Social media marketing has become a powerful tool of interaction with stakeholders. An increasing number of companies are using social media platforms to initiate active interaction and communication with current and prospective customers. Within this study, certain content and contact features, as well as social media activities of companies of the Austrian food and beverage industry were evaluated. Empirical findings concerning the threats, risks, and opportunities connected with the applic...

  13. German-austrian recommendations for HIV1-therapy in pregnancy and in HIV1-exposed newborn - update 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Buchholz Bernd; Beichert Matthias; Marcus Ulrich; Grubert Thomas; Gingelmaier Andrea; Haberl Annette; Schmied Brigitte

    2009-01-01

    Abstract German-Austrian recommendations for HIV1-therapy in pregnancy - Update 2008 Bernd Buchholz (University Medical Centre Mannheim, Pediatric Clinic), Matthias Beichert (Mannheim, Gynecology and Obstetrics Practice), Ulrich Marcus (Robert Koch Institute, Berlin), Thomas Grubert, Andrea Gingelmaier (Gynecology Clinic of the Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich), Dr. med. Annette Haberl (HIV-Department, J. W. Goethe-University Hospital, Frankfurt), Dr. med. Brigitte Schmied (Otto-Wagner...

  14. Dating and forecasting turning points by Bayesian clustering with dynamic structure: A suggestion with an application to Austrian data.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The information contained in a large panel data set is used to date historical turning points of the Austrian business cycle and to forecast future ones. We estimate groups of series with similar time series dynamics and link the groups with a dynamic structure. The dynamic structure identifies a group of leading and a group of coincident series. Robust results across data vintages are obtained when series specific information is incorporated in the design of the prior group probability distr...

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions from selected Austrian dairy production systems-model calculations considering the effects of land use change

    OpenAIRE

    Hörtenhuber, Stefan; Lindenthal, Thomas; Amon, Barbara; Markurt, Theresia; Kirner, Leopold; Zollitsch, Werner

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze various Austrian dairy production systems (PS) concerning their greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) in a life-cycle chain, including effects of land-use change (LUC). Models of eight PS that differ, on the one hand, in their regional location (alpine, uplands and lowlands) and, on the other hand, in their production method (conventional versus organic, including traditional and recently emerging pasture-based dairy farming) were designed. In general, the GH...

  16. Putting 600,000 Books Online: the Large-Scale Digitisation Partnership between the Austrian National Library and Google

    OpenAIRE

    Max Kaiser

    2012-01-01

    In a public-private partnership with Google, the Austrian National Library is digitising its historical book holdings. Some 600,000 volumes from the sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries will be digitised and made available free of charge. The project demonstrates that public-private partnerships can be successful in enabling our heritage institutions to provide large-scale access to their holdings, provided that such partnerships are not exclusive and free access is ensured. The article outl...

  17. Connectedness to Nature and Public (Skin) Health Perspectives: Results of a Representative, Population-Based Survey among Austrian Residents

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Haluza; Stana Simic; Jan Höltge; Renate Cervinka; Hanns Moshammer

    2014-01-01

    Connectedness to nature (CN) influences motivation to have contact with outdoor natural environments. Spending leisure time in natural environments is beneficial for human health and well-being. Besides these positive effects, health risks of open-air activities are mainly related to unprotected sun light exposure-associated acute and chronic skin hazards. Thus, we conducted a cross-sectional, representative telephone survey among Austrian residents to study the association of perceived CN le...

  18. Central-European Jesuit Scientists in China, and Their Impact on Chinese Science

    OpenAIRE

    Stanislav Jože JUŽNIČ

    2015-01-01

    This article describes nine Central European Jesuits from the Austrian province who embarked for China in the 17th and 18th centuries. Their European educational networks provide useful insights into the abilities of the absburg Monarchy to meet Chinese Imperial demands. The focus is on feedback of their adopted Chinese network back to their own homes. The Europeans and Chinese-based Jesuits exchanged instruments, books, artifacts, and letters. The exception was Johannes Grueber, who personal...

  19. Radiocarbon ages of soil charcoals from the southern Alps, Ticino, Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiocarbon dating of macroscopic charcoal is a useful tool for paleoclimatic and paleoecologic reconstructions. Here we present results of 14C dating of charcoals found in charcoal-rich soils of Ticino and the Misox Valley (southern Switzerland) which indicate that the Late Glacial and early Holocene fires coincided with warm phases in the North Atlantic region and low lake levels in the Central Europe. Late Holocene charcoals found in these soils document an earlier than believed presence of sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) in southern Switzerland. Sweet chestnut trees play a key role in Mediterranean woodlands, and for longer than two millennia have been used as a food source. Based on palynological evidence it is commonly believed that in southern Switzerland C. sativa was first introduced 2000 years ago by the Romans, who cultivated it for wood and fruit production. Our results indicate that this tree species was present on the southern slopes of the Alps ∼1500 years earlier than previously assumed, and therefore was likely introduced independently from cultivation by the Romans

  20. Relating safety, productivity and company type for motor-manual logging operations in the Italian Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montorselli, Niccolò Brachetti; Lombardini, Carolina; Magagnotti, Natascia; Marchi, Enrico; Neri, Francesco; Picchi, Gianni; Spinelli, Raffaele

    2010-11-01

    The study compared the performance of four different logging crews with respect to productivity, organization and safety. To this purpose, the authors developed a data collection method capable of providing a quantitative analysis of risk-taking behavior. Four crews were tested under the same working conditions, representative of close-to-nature alpine forestry. Motor-manual working methods were applied, since these methods are still prevalent in the specific study area, despite the growing popularity of mechanical processors. Crews from public companies showed a significantly lower frequency of risk-taking behavior. The best safety performance was offered by the only (public) crew that had been administered formal safety training. The study seems to deny the common prejudice that safety practice is inversely proportional to productivity. Instead, productivity is increased by introducing more efficient working methods and equipment. The quantitative analysis of risk-taking behavior developed in this study can be applied to a number of industrial fields besides forestry. Characterizing risk-taking behavior for a given case may eventually lead to the development of custom-made training programmes, which may address problem areas while avoiding that the message is weakened by the inclusion of redundant information. In the specific case of logging crews in the central Alps, the study suggests that current training courses may be weak on ergonomics, and advocates a staged training programme, focusing first on accident reduction and then expanding to the prevention of chronic illness. PMID:20728656

  1. Quality assurance and quality control methodologies used within the austrian UV monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Austrian UVB monitoring network is operational since 1997. Nine detectors for measuring erythemally weighted solar UV irradiance are distributed over Austria in order to cover the main populated areas as well as different levels of altitude. The detectors are calibrated to indicate the UV-Index, the internationally agreed unit for erythemally weighted solar UV irradiance. Calibration is carried out in the laboratory for determination of spectral sensitivity of each detector, and under the sun for absolute comparison with a well-calibrated, double-monochromator spectro-radiometer. For the conversion from detector-weighted units to erythemally weighted units a lookup table is used, which is calculated using a radiative transfer model and which reflects the dependence of the conversion on the solar zenith angle and total ozone content of the atmosphere. The uncertainty of the calibration is about ±7%, dominated by the uncertainty of the calibration lamp for the spectro-radiometer (±4%). The long-term stability of this type of detectors has been found to be not satisfactory. Therefore, routinely every year all detectors are completely re-calibrated. Variations of the calibration factors up to ±10% are found. Thus, during routine operation, several measures take place for quality control. The measured data are compared to results of model calculations with a radiative transfer model, where clear sky and an aerosol-free atmosphere are assumed. At each site, the UV data are also compared with data from a co-located pyrano-meter measuring total solar irradiance. These two radiation quantities are well correlated, especially on clear days and when the ozone content is taken into account. If suspicious measurements are found for one detector in the network, a well-calibrated travelling reference detector of the same type is set up side-by-side, allowing the identification of relative differences of ∼3%. If necessary, a recalibration is carried out. As the main aim

  2. Sun Exposure Prevalence and Associated Skin Health Habits: Results from the Austrian Population-Based UVSkinRisk Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluza, Daniela; Simic, Stana; Moshammer, Hanns

    2016-01-01

    Recreational sun exposure accounts for a large number of acute and chronic dermatological diseases, including skin cancer. This study aimed at estimating the one-year prevalence of sun exposure and skin health-associated knowledge and attitudes among Austrian citizens. The population-based UVSkinRisk survey investigated a representative sample of Austrian adults using a structured questionnaire. In total, 1500 study subjects (median age 33.0 years, 50.5% females) participated in this questionnaire survey. Among study participants, prevalence of sun exposure was 47%, with slightly higher rates in males (48%) compared to females (46%). Younger age, lower professional category, darker skin type, motives to tan, sunbed use, sunburn, and outdoor sport activity increased the odds for prevalent sun exposure. This is the first population-based study evaluating the prevailing sun exposure and recreational habits influencing skin health among Austrian citizens. Despite public media campaigns educating on the harmful effects of sunlight exposure, we found a high prevalence of self-reported sunlight exposure. The results suggest that multifaceted socio-cultural characteristics stimulate recreational sun exposure and tanning habits. Communicating individualized Public (Skin) Health messages might be the key to prevent photo-induced skin health hazards in light-skinned populations. The practical and theoretical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:26797627

  3. Rise, use and treatment of works in Austria. Compiled for the Austrian Federal Waste Management Plan 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Austrian Waste Management Act (AWG) entered into force on 1 July 1990. Paragraph 1 of the act defines the following objectives: to keep detrimental, unbeneficial or otherwise unhealthy influences on man, as well as on animals, plants, their living conditions and their natural environment as low as possible; to preserve raw material and energy resources; to keep the demand for landfill capacities as low as possible; to ensure that only such materials should remain as waste, the dumping of which does not present any potential hazard for future generations (precautionary principle). The waste management act thus places the highest priority on the protection of human beings and the environment and upon the preservation of natural resources. Accordingly, it must be the aim of waste management to handle waste in such a way that environmental pollution is kept as low as possible by prevention, recovery and disposal. Paragraph 5 of the Austrian waste management act stipulates that the Federal Minister of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management has to issue the Federal Waste Management Plan in order to reach the objectives and observing the rules of modern waste management. Following the first waste management plan in 1992 an amendment is required every three years. This is why the Austrian Federal Environment Agency elaborated the following studies: waste generation, recovery and disposal in Austria; hazardous waste and waste oils in Austria; non-hazardous waste in Austria. Further information on waste management facilities in Austria is presented on our homepage (http://www.ubavie.gv.at). (author)

  4. Sun Exposure Prevalence and Associated Skin Health Habits: Results from the Austrian Population-Based UVSkinRisk Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluza, Daniela; Simic, Stana; Moshammer, Hanns

    2016-01-01

    Recreational sun exposure accounts for a large number of acute and chronic dermatological diseases, including skin cancer. This study aimed at estimating the one-year prevalence of sun exposure and skin health-associated knowledge and attitudes among Austrian citizens. The population-based UVSkinRisk survey investigated a representative sample of Austrian adults using a structured questionnaire. In total, 1500 study subjects (median age 33.0 years, 50.5% females) participated in this questionnaire survey. Among study participants, prevalence of sun exposure was 47%, with slightly higher rates in males (48%) compared to females (46%). Younger age, lower professional category, darker skin type, motives to tan, sunbed use, sunburn, and outdoor sport activity increased the odds for prevalent sun exposure. This is the first population-based study evaluating the prevailing sun exposure and recreational habits influencing skin health among Austrian citizens. Despite public media campaigns educating on the harmful effects of sunlight exposure, we found a high prevalence of self-reported sunlight exposure. The results suggest that multifaceted socio-cultural characteristics stimulate recreational sun exposure and tanning habits. Communicating individualized Public (Skin) Health messages might be the key to prevent photo-induced skin health hazards in light-skinned populations. The practical and theoretical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:26797627

  5. Tracer and hydrometric techniques to determine the contribution of glacier melt to a proglacial stream in the Ötztal Alps (Tyrol, Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmieder, Jan; Marke, Thomas; Strasser, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    Glaciers are important seasonal water contributors in many mountainous landscapes. For water resources management it is important to know about the timing and amount of released glacier melt water, especially in downstream regions where the water is needed (hydropower, drinking water) or where it represents a potential risk (drought, flood). Seasonal availability of melt water is strongly dependent on boundary layer atmospheric processes and becomes even more relevant in a changing climate. Environmental tracers are a useful tool in the assessment of snow and ice water resources, because they provide information about the sources, flow paths and traveling times of water contributing to streamflow at the catchment scale. Previously, high-elevation tracer studies throughout the Alps have been scarce as they require intense field work in remote areas. However, hydrometric and meteorological measurements combined with tracer analyses help to unravel streamflow composition and improve the understanding of hydroclimatological processes. On top of that, empirical studies are necessary to parameterize and validate hydrological models in more process-oriented ways, rather than comparing total measured and simulated runoff only. In the present study three approaches are applied to derive glacier melt contributions to a proglacial stream at the seasonal scale and to identify their individual advances and limitations. Tracers used for each approach are (1) electrical conductivity, (2) stable isotopes of water and (3) heavy metals. The field work was conducted during the summer of 2015 in the glaciated (35%) high-elevation catchment of the Hochjochbach, a small sub-basin (17 km²) of the Ötztaler Ache river in the Austrian Alps, ranging from 2400 to 3500 m.a.s.l. in elevation. Hydroclimatological data was provided by an automatic weather station and a gauging station equipped with a pressure transducer. Water samples from shallow groundwater, streamflow, glacier and snow melt

  6. Joint Annual Meeting of the Swiss Physical Society and the Austrian Physical Society together with the Swiss and Austrian Societies for Astronomy and Astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual meeting 2011 which took place at the EPFL in Lausanne on June 15-17, was organized jointly with the Austrian Physical Society OePG, and both national societies of Astronomy and Astrophysics (SSAA and OeGAA), as a successful follow-up of the Innsbruck meeting in 2009. With 10 parallel sessions, more than 470 submitted abstracts and nearly 650 participants, one can claim that our goal to make our meeting more attractive to the physics community was achieved. The commercial exhibition with the presence of 22 companies was the largest ever organized by our society. The 10 plenary talks of the three morning sessions covered a broad spectrum of modern physics from condensed matter physics (Bose Einstein condensation of photons, Quantum cascade lasers, 2D electron gas between insulators, stretchable electronics, superconductivity) to large scale physics (LHC at CERN, the ITER project at Cadarache) without forgetting Earth and planetary science (high velocity impacts in the solar system) and simulation of the universe by computational astrophysics. The presence of our Austrian colleagues had also an impact on the parallel sessions. For example a session 'Surfaces, Interfaces and Thin films' was organized as a complement to the Condensed Matter one. To our great pleasure a session on 'Theory and Simulations', composed of the three suptopics 'Large Scale Computing', 'Theoretical Physics Today' and 'Computational Astrophysics' was part of the program. Another novelty was the session on Geophysics which covered topics like geophysical fluid dynamics, Earth and planetary magnetism or even the safety assessment of deep geological nuclear waste depositories. On the first evening, a public lecture given in the Polydome by M. Marthaler and colleagues on the topic 'Le Cervin est-il africain? Une histoire de la derive des oceans et continents' unravelled the mystery of the origin of our most famous Swiss mountain, the Matterhorn. For the second time a successful series of

  7. The quest for an intermediate-scale accidental axion and further ALPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent detection of the cosmic microwave background polarimeter experiment BICEP2 of tensor fluctuations in the B-mode power spectrum basically excludes all plausible axion models where its decay constant is above 1013 GeV. Moreover, there are strong theoretical, astrophysical, and cosmological motivations for models involving, in addition to the axion, also axion-like particles (ALPs), with decay constants in the intermediate scale range, between 109 GeV and 1013 GeV. Here, we present a general analysis of models with an axion and further ALPs and derive bounds on the relative size of the axion and ALP photon (and electron) coupling. We discuss what we can learn from measurements of the axion and ALP photon couplings about the fundamental parameters of the underlying ultraviolet completion of the theory. For the latter we consider extensions of the Standard Model in which the axion and the ALP(s) appear as pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons from the breaking of global chiral U(1) (Peccei-Quinn (PQ)) symmetries, occuring accidentally as low energy remnants from exact discrete symmetries. In such models, the axion and the further ALP are protected from disastrous explicit symmetry breaking effects due to Planck-scale suppressed operators. The scenarios considered exploit heavy right handed neutrinos getting their mass via PQ symmetry breaking and thus explain the small mass of the active neutrinos via a seesaw relation between the electroweak and an intermediate PQ symmetry breaking scale. We show some models that can accommodate simultaneously an axion dark matter candidate, an ALP explaining the anomalous transparency of the universe for γ-rays, and an ALP explaining the recently reported 3.55 keV gamma line from galaxies and clusters of galaxies, if the respective decay constants are of intermediate scale.

  8. The quest for an intermediate-scale accidental axion and further ALPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, A.G.; Nishi, C.C. [Univ. Federal do ABC - UFABC, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Machado, A.C.B. [Teorica-Univ. Estadual Paulista, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Ringwald, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Vaudrevange, P. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Excellence Cluster Universe

    2014-03-15

    The recent detection of the cosmic microwave background polarimeter experiment BICEP2 of tensor fluctuations in the B-mode power spectrum basically excludes all plausible axion models where its decay constant is above 10{sup 13} GeV. Moreover, there are strong theoretical, astrophysical, and cosmological motivations for models involving, in addition to the axion, also axion-like particles (ALPs), with decay constants in the intermediate scale range, between 10{sup 9} GeV and 10{sup 13} GeV. Here, we present a general analysis of models with an axion and further ALPs and derive bounds on the relative size of the axion and ALP photon (and electron) coupling. We discuss what we can learn from measurements of the axion and ALP photon couplings about the fundamental parameters of the underlying ultraviolet completion of the theory. For the latter we consider extensions of the Standard Model in which the axion and the ALP(s) appear as pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons from the breaking of global chiral U(1) (Peccei-Quinn (PQ)) symmetries, occuring accidentally as low energy remnants from exact discrete symmetries. In such models, the axion and the further ALP are protected from disastrous explicit symmetry breaking effects due to Planck-scale suppressed operators. The scenarios considered exploit heavy right handed neutrinos getting their mass via PQ symmetry breaking and thus explain the small mass of the active neutrinos via a seesaw relation between the electroweak and an intermediate PQ symmetry breaking scale. We show some models that can accommodate simultaneously an axion dark matter candidate, an ALP explaining the anomalous transparency of the universe for γ-rays, and an ALP explaining the recently reported 3.55 keV gamma line from galaxies and clusters of galaxies, if the respective decay constants are of intermediate scale.

  9. Impact of permafrost degradation on debris flow initiation - a case study from the north Italian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, Bodo; Felderer, Astrid

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric warming in high mountain environments causes a range of impacts, including glacier recession, reduction of permafrost extent and distribution as well as changes in thermal permafrost properties. Furthermore, it is likely that climate change affects the occurrence of natural hazards, like shallow landslides and debris flows, as their initiation is related to the degradation of the cryosphere. The present study demonstrates the importance of recent atmospheric warming for the spatial distribution of debris flow initiation in a central alpine area of the Italian Alps (Europe). It is primarily based on the modelling of the spatial distribution of permafrost using a database of geomorphologic, hydrologic, and physical permafrost indicators and the CRYOSNOW-approach. There is first evidence that it is possible to quantify the regional debris flow hazard potential based on field survey, in-situ measurements, climate data analyses, and GIS-based simulations for different climate scenarios and variable geomorphic stability. In particular, permafrost degradation due to increasing mean annual air temperature (MAAT) since the end of the Little Ice Age (LIA) caused mechanical instabilities of sediments and slopes. In the study area it can be shown that almost half of the debris flow initiation zones originate in areas with loose rock that were still stabilized by glacier ice and/or permafrost about 150 years ago. Compared to present conditions the permafrost area would decrease by approximately 72% by the middle of the 21st century with regard to an increased air temperature of +1 to +2 K. Moreover, glaciers widely disappear in this scenario. This may presumed to be a moderate increase of temperature in relation to the predicted climate development of the IPCC. Ongoing glacier recession and permafrost degradation increase the amount of instable debris as well as the potential of debris flow detachment zones in the future. References Damm, B., Felderer, A. (2013

  10. Identification and assessment of groundwater flow and storage components of the relict Schöneben Rock Glacier, Niedere Tauern Range, Eastern Alps (Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Gerfried; Wagner, Thomas; Pauritsch, Marcus; Birk, Steffen; Kellerer-Pirklbauer, Andreas; Benischke, Ralf; Leis, Albrecht; Morawetz, Rainer; Schreilechner, Marcellus G.; Hergarten, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    More than 2,600 relict rock glaciers are known in the Austrian Alps but the knowledge of their hydraulic properties is severely limited. The relict Schöneben Rock Glacier (Niedere Tauern Range, Austria), with an extension of 0.17 km2, was investigated based on spring data (2006-2014) and seismic refraction survey. Spring-discharge hydrographs and natural and artificial tracer data suggest a heterogeneous aquifer with a layered internal structure for the relict rock glacier. The discharge behavior exhibits a fast and a delayed flow component. The spring discharge responds to recharge events within a few hours but a mean residence time of several months can also be observed. The internal structure of the rock glacier (up to several tens of meters thick) consists of: an upper blocky layer with a few meters of thickness, which lacks fine-grained sediments; a main middle layer with coarse and finer-grained sediments, allowing for fast flow; and an approximately 10-m-thick basal till layer as the main aquifer body responsible for the base flow. The base-flow component is controlled by (fine) sandy to silty sediments with low hydraulic conductivity and high storage capacity, exhibiting a difference in hydraulic conductivity to the upper layer of about three orders of magnitude. The high storage capacity of relict rock glaciers has an impact on water resources management in alpine catchments and potentially regulates the risk of natural hazards such as floods and related debris flows. Thus, the results highlight the importance of such aquifer systems in alpine catchments.

  11. Identification and assessment of groundwater flow and storage components of the relict Schöneben Rock Glacier, Niedere Tauern Range, Eastern Alps (Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Gerfried; Wagner, Thomas; Pauritsch, Marcus; Birk, Steffen; Kellerer-Pirklbauer, Andreas; Benischke, Ralf; Leis, Albrecht; Morawetz, Rainer; Schreilechner, Marcellus G.; Hergarten, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    More than 2,600 relict rock glaciers are known in the Austrian Alps but the knowledge of their hydraulic properties is severely limited. The relict Schöneben Rock Glacier (Niedere Tauern Range, Austria), with an extension of 0.17 km2, was investigated based on spring data (2006-2014) and seismic refraction survey. Spring-discharge hydrographs and natural and artificial tracer data suggest a heterogeneous aquifer with a layered internal structure for the relict rock glacier. The discharge behavior exhibits a fast and a delayed flow component. The spring discharge responds to recharge events within a few hours but a mean residence time of several months can also be observed. The internal structure of the rock glacier (up to several tens of meters thick) consists of: an upper blocky layer with a few meters of thickness, which lacks fine-grained sediments; a main middle layer with coarse and finer-grained sediments, allowing for fast flow; and an approximately 10-m-thick basal till layer as the main aquifer body responsible for the base flow. The base-flow component is controlled by (fine) sandy to silty sediments with low hydraulic conductivity and high storage capacity, exhibiting a difference in hydraulic conductivity to the upper layer of about three orders of magnitude. The high storage capacity of relict rock glaciers has an impact on water resources management in alpine catchments and potentially regulates the risk of natural hazards such as floods and related debris flows. Thus, the results highlight the importance of such aquifer systems in alpine catchments.

  12. The Austrian Botanic Gardens Work Group, an Example of Active Networking to Promote Small Botanic Gardens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Roland K. EBERWEIN

    2011-01-01

    The continuously increasing demands on botanic gardens during the last few decades have led to a huge in increase administration and an urgent need for additional specialized personnel, especially botanists, teachers, database specialists and administrative staff. Instead of meeting these requirements, many botanic gardens are faceing a severe decrease in funding and personnel. Larger gardens provide the opportunity to distribute several tasks to different employees, whereas small gardens are short staffed and often nn by a single curator who has to fulfill all functions. In order to meet actual demands more easily, the Austrian botanic gardens are linked nationally via an active workgroup.This network not only allows the distribution of information but also facilitates the sharing of duties. A listserver speeds up the communication and correspondence within the workgroup, collection priorities and projects (e. g., GSPC) are coordinated, seedbanking becomes decentralized, printedmatters are shared and distributed, etc. Small gardens with only few employees can participate in projects by taking on small-ideally using with their special resources-in order not to fall behind. In addition, there is also an urgent need for international networking by means of plant and seed exchange (Index Semihum), BGCI membership, discussion groups, personal contacts and projects. Mission statements,special marketing strategies for public relations, integrating projects of other workgroup members and adapted public awareness programs are important to focus attention to small gardens and to help them keep alive.

  13. Natural radionuclides in Austrian mineral water and their sequential measurement by fast methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten samples of Austrian mineral water were investigated with regard to the natural radionuclides 228Ra, 226Ra, 210Pb, 210Po, 238U and 234U. The radium isotopes as well as 210Pb were measured by liquid scintillation counting (LSC) after separation on a membrane loaded with element-selective particles (EmporeTM Radium Disks) and 210Po was determined by α-spectroscopy after spontaneous deposition onto a copper planchette. Uranium was determined by ICP-MS as well as by α-spectroscopy after ion separation and microprecipitation with NdF3. From the measured activity concentrations the committed effective doses for adults and babies were calculated and compared to the total indicative dose of 0.1 mSv/a given in the EC Drinking Water Directive as a maximum dose. The dominant portion of the committed effective dose was due to the radium isotopes; the dose from 228Ra in most samples clearly exceeded the dose from 226Ra

  14. Adjusting stream-sediment geochemical maps in the Austrian Bohemian Massif by analysis of variance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J.C.; Hausberger, G.; Schermann, O.; Bohling, G.

    1995-01-01

    The Austrian portion of the Bohemian Massif is a Precambrian terrane composed mostly of highly metamorphosed rocks intruded by a series of granitoids that are petrographically similar. Rocks are exposed poorly and the subtle variations in rock type are difficult to map in the field. A detailed geochemical survey of stream sediments in this region has been conducted and included as part of the Geochemischer Atlas der Republik O??sterreich, and the variations in stream sediment composition may help refine the geological interpretation. In an earlier study, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was applied to the stream-sediment data in order to minimize unwanted sampling variation and emphasize relationships between stream sediments and rock types in sample catchment areas. The estimated coefficients were used successfully to correct for the sampling effects throughout most of the region, but also introduced an overcorrection in some areas that seems to result from consistent but subtle differences in composition of specific rock types. By expanding the model to include an additional factor reflecting the presence of a major tectonic unit, the Rohrbach block, the overcorrection is removed. This iterative process simultaneously refines both the geochemical map by removing extraneous variation and the geological map by suggesting a more detailed classification of rock types. ?? 1995 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  15. Influences of updated land-use datasets on WRF simulations for two Austrian regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schicker, Irene; Arnold Arias, Dèlia; Seibert, Petra

    2016-06-01

    Numerical simulations were carried out with the weather research and forecasting model to study the influence of different land-use datasets for two Austrian regions, the high-alpine Inn Valley area and the hilly Vienna Basin area. The three land-use datasets used were USGS, MODIS and a reclassified European dataset based on the CORINE CLC06 data. Simulations covered an episode in July 2007 applying a resolution of 0.8 km. Results were compared with surface observation data, radiosoundings, and satellite data. It was found that land-use both in the original CLC06 and the version where it had been reclassified to USGS classes for use in WRF was significantly more realistic than the built-in land-use datasets (USGS and MODIS). Synoptic processes during the episode considered were reproduced well by all simulations, where CLC06 and MODIS improved the model performance in both regions in terms of the surface temperatures and other meteorological parameters.

  16. Short communication: Genetic relationships between functional longevity and direct health traits in Austrian Fleckvieh cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, C; Fuerst, C; Ducrocq, V; Fuerst-Waltl, B

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a multitrait 2-step approach applied to yield deviations and deregressed breeding values to get genetic parameters of functional longevity, clinical mastitis, early fertility disorders, cystic ovaries, and milk fever of Austrian Fleckvieh cattle. An approximate multitrait approach allows the combination of information from pseudo-phenotypes derived from different statistical models in routine genetic evaluation, which cannot be estimated easily in a full multitrait model. A total of 66,890 Fleckvieh cows were included in this study. For estimating genetic parameters, a simple linear animal model with year of birth as a fixed effect and animal as a random genetic effect was fitted. The joint analysis of yield deviations and deregressed breeding values was feasible. As expected, heritabilities were low, ranging from 0.03 (early fertility disorders) to 0.15 (functional longevity). Genetic correlations between functional longevity and clinical mastitis, early fertility disorders, cystic ovaries, and milk fever were 0.63, 0.29, 0.20, and 0.20, respectively. Within direct health traits genetic correlations were between 0.14 and 0.45. Results suggest that selecting for more robust disease-resistant cows would imply an improvement of functional longevity. PMID:26277309

  17. Sustainability Management with the Sustainability Balanced Scorecard in SMEs: Findings from an Austrian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Falle

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the economic importance of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs and their need for strategic sustainability management, this paper examines the concept of Sustainability Balanced Scorecard (SBSC with respect to SMEs. This case study describes the development of an SBSC in a middle-sized Austrian brewery. The existing methods used in SBSC creation were adapted to suit the company’s specific needs. The findings show that when developing an SBSC it is important to take specific SME characteristics into account and apply methods that allow for adaptation to the prevailing conditions, such as strategic management, organizational structure and resources. In the case study special attention was paid to strategy analysis and thereby the creation of a solid basis for the SBSC. Furthermore, the results show SBSC development is not a process of distinct consecutive steps, as it is often suggested in the literature, but rather that it is a complex process marked by iterative steps. Moreover, the paper highlights the supporting factors and challenges experienced. Whereas top management support, the presence of a project team and high employee involvement were identified as key supporting factors, a lack of specific resources and blurry strategy formulation exert negative influence on the development process. The results presented here should help other SMEs in their development of an SBSC. The paper stimulates scientific discourse on sustainability and strategic management by highlighting the relevant supporting factors and challenges.

  18. Teleconsultation 2001 - working group report of the Austrian Roentgen Society (OeRG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1997, the working group ''Teleconsultation'' of the Austrian Roentgen Society (OeRG) has performed a first survey about the status of teleradiological applications in Austria. Now, in 2001, a second survey was performed in order to adapt the OeRG's approach in this field to the most actual needs. Most of the 38 teleradiological projects in Austria already working or shortly before inauguration are aiming at an improvement of the medical service in favour of our patients (expert consultation, image transfer to doctors requesting radiological examinations, clinical case discussion). However, a small but not unimportant fraction of teleradiology projects in Austria (11%) is performed for replacement of radiologists on duty, therefore for reasons mainly directed to minimising costs for the hospital administration. Other purposes of teleradiology projects, like quality assurance and medical education have even lost their small importance the 1997 survey already has shown. This paper discusses the professional implications from the results of the 2001 survey and the legal framework for the application of telecommunication in diagnostic radiology. The most important goal of all professional activities in radiology is the well-being of our patients, based on the immediacy of the medical profession in accordance with the ''physician law''. (orig.)

  19. Cornerstones of the Austrian radon risk communication strategy; Eckpfeiler der oesterreichischen Radonrisikokommunikationsstrategie (OeRRKS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunte, A.; Ringer, W. [AGES, Linz (Austria). Oesterreichische Fachstelle fuer Radon

    2015-07-01

    On behalf of the Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management (BMLFUW), the National Radon Centre of Austria developed the National Radon Risk Communication Strategy. The superior goal is the reduction of the radon exposure of Austrian citizens as well as the reduction of radon-related lung cancer deaths. Austria, like many other countries, follows the approach to raise awareness and to inform the public to achieve this goal. The presented strategy deals with the question of how radon protection issues can be communicated to the public, existing fears can be reduced and affected people can be motivated to take action (perform a radon test, if necessary, mitigate or install preventive measures in new buildings). The cornerstones of the National Radon Risk Communication Strategy can be summarized as follows: - Definition of communication goals - Identification and categorization of target groups - Development of specific key messages for each of the target groups - Determination of communication channels and assessment of their efficiency - Integration of the radon issue in education and training - Cooperation with relevant organizations and platforms. The communication objectives, target groups and communication paths (and their evaluation) will be discussed during the presentation in detail.

  20. Multi-methodical realisation of the new Austrian climate maps for 1971-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, I.; Böhm, R.; Hiebl, J.; Reisenhofer, S.; Schöner, W.

    2010-09-01

    Constantly changing climate, the further development of geostatistical interpolation methods and the availability of a higher resolved digital elevation model gave reason for updating the most frequently demanded climate maps out of the Austrian digital climate atlas (ÖKLIM) from 1961-1990 to 1971-2000. The resulting 19 grids concern 30-year-means of air temperature (annual, January, July means) and derived indices (ice days, frost days, freeze-thaw days, summer days, hot days, heating degree days), precipitation (annual, winter half-year, summer half-year sums) and derived indices (days with precipitation, percentage of solid precipitation), snow (sum of fresh-fallen snow, snow cover duration, maximum snow depth) and sunshine (January, July absolute sunshine duration) parameters. For application in all branches of geosciences (e.g. climate variability and modelling, hydrology, biogeography, natural hazards) as well as for planning in all kinds of contexts (e.g. agriculture, tourism, generation of renewable energy, climate change adaption) such digital grids of standard climate information are greatly demanded and likely to gain even more importance in the near future. Data preparation was carried out with large effort. In order to avoid adverse border effects and to guarantee an equal state of quality across all parts of the country, the study region was extended beyond the national borders and stations from all neighbouring countries were requested. The final data collection includes between 319 (percentage of solid precipitation) and 1,399 (annual precipitation sum) records from eleven national and foreign institutes. To achieve a station density as high as possible, data gaps of up to five or ten years were filled considering the same parameter at reference stations or a related parameter station-wise. According to the climate parameter, different geostatistical interpolation methods were applied. Multiple regressions against elevation, longitude, latitude and

  1. Runs of Homozygosity Reveal Genome-wide Autozygosity in the Austrian Fleckvieh Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Ferencakovic

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Runs of homozygosity (ROH are recognized as potential inbreeding measure in studies on humans. Inbreeding coefficients derived from ROH (FROH measure proportion of the genome arranged in long homozygous segments and highly correlate with those derived from pedigree (Fped. From that we assumed that ROH represent an alternative to pedigree inbreeding levels in studies on animals too, because pedigree can be incorrect, incomplete and can not fully explain what happened in meiosis. To confirm our premise we used pedigree and genotype data from 500 Austrian dual purpose Simmental bulls to determine correlation between FROH and Fped. ROH were obtainedusing Fortran 90 soft ware created by the authors. Proportions of genome in ROH were calculated for lengths of ROH of >1, >2, >4, >8 and >16 Mb. Pedigree data were analyzed and inbreeding coefficients for complete pedigree (FpedT and five generations (Fped5 were calculated using ENDOG soft ware. We found low FpedT and Fped5 (means of 1.5% and 0.9% while FROH for segments >1Mb suggested much higher values (9.0% indicating old inbreeding that can not be traced using pedigree. The highest correlations were found between FROH calculated from ROH of length >4Mb and FpedT (0.68 that is consistent with studies on humans. We conclude that inbreeding coefficients derived from ROH are useful for measuring levels of inbreeding in cattle, because ROH are not subject to mistakes as pedigrees and calculations made from those.

  2. Natural radionuclides in Austrian mineral water and their sequential measurement by fast methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallner, Gabriele [University of Vienna, Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie, Waehringerstrasse 42, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: gabriele.wallner@univie.ac.at; Wagner, Rosmarie [University of Vienna, Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie, Waehringerstrasse 42, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Katzlberger, Christian [Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety, CC Radiation Protection and Radiochemistry, Spargelfeldstrasse 191, A-1226 Vienna (Austria)

    2008-07-15

    Ten samples of Austrian mineral water were investigated with regard to the natural radionuclides {sup 228}Ra, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Po, {sup 238}U and {sup 234}U. The radium isotopes as well as {sup 210}Pb were measured by liquid scintillation counting (LSC) after separation on a membrane loaded with element-selective particles (Empore{sup TM} Radium Disks) and {sup 210}Po was determined by {alpha}-spectroscopy after spontaneous deposition onto a copper planchette. Uranium was determined by ICP-MS as well as by {alpha}-spectroscopy after ion separation and microprecipitation with NdF{sub 3}. From the measured activity concentrations the committed effective doses for adults and babies were calculated and compared to the total indicative dose of 0.1 mSv/a given in the EC Drinking Water Directive as a maximum dose. The dominant portion of the committed effective dose was due to the radium isotopes; the dose from {sup 228}Ra in most samples clearly exceeded the dose from {sup 226}Ra.

  3. Inbreeding and its Effect on Performance Traits in Austrian Meat Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Maximini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of inbreeding of meat performance tested herd book sheep in Austria and to evaluate the effect of individual inbreeding on growth and CT (computer tomography scan carcass traits. Performance data (13,614 records, five breeds: Merinoland, Suff olk, Texel, German Blackheaded Meat sheep, Jura were collected in the years 2000-2010. The traits analysed were live weight and average daily gain, as well as traits of body frame, back fat and eye muscle area, all measured on live animals with CT. Inbreeding coefficients (F were calculated with the soft ware PEDIG. F was nested within breed and tested in a mixed model using ASReml. Levels of inbreeding were low with O F of 1.5-3.1%. Only few traits were significantly affected by inbreeding. Both positive and negative effects were found. The effects were small, most oft en nonlinear and vary across breeds. Inbreeding and its effects on performance traits do not seem to be an issue in Austrian meat sheep populations at the moment. However, monitoring and further analyses are recommended.

  4. Natural radionuclides in Austrian mineral water and their sequential measurement by fast methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Gabriele; Wagner, Rosmarie; Katzlberger, Christian

    2008-07-01

    Ten samples of Austrian mineral water were investigated with regard to the natural radionuclides (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (210)Pb, (210)Po, (238)U and (234)U. The radium isotopes as well as (210)Pb were measured by liquid scintillation counting (LSC) after separation on a membrane loaded with element-selective particles (Empore Radium Disks) and (210)Po was determined by alpha-spectroscopy after spontaneous deposition onto a copper planchette. Uranium was determined by ICP-MS as well as by alpha-spectroscopy after ion separation and microprecipitation with NdF(3). From the measured activity concentrations the committed effective doses for adults and babies were calculated and compared to the total indicative dose of 0.1 mSv/a given in the EC Drinking Water Directive as a maximum dose. The dominant portion of the committed effective dose was due to the radium isotopes; the dose from (228)Ra in most samples clearly exceeded the dose from (226)Ra. PMID:18243442

  5. Estimate of the radiation exposure of the Austrian population due to the reactor accident Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One year after the reactor accident at Chernobyl an estimate as objective as possible of the average exposure of the Austrian population in the first year after the accident is attempted. Besides the exposure path of external radiation from the cloud and ground and the exposure due to inhalation the most important path, that caused by ingestion of radionuclides via contaminated food is described in detail. The contribution of various food stuffs to the ingestion dose is described. The effective equivalent dose estimated from the average activity concentration and the average consumption per year of the respective food stuffs amounts to 0.46 mSv for the adult and 0.40 mSv for the one year old infant in the first year. In addition to the dose due to external radiation and inhalation this results in a total dose of 0.53 mSv for the adult and 0.47 mSv for the infant. The ingestion dose estimated in this way poses possibly a substantial overestimation since the whole body activity content measured in numerous whole body counter measurements results in only one third of the dose estimated from food activity concentrations. 18 refs., 11 figs. (Author)

  6. Mitochondrial and Nuclear DNA Survey of Zootoca vivipara across the Eastern Italian Alps: Evolutionary Relationships, Historical Demography and Conservation Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornetti, Luca; Menegon, Michele; Giovine, Giovanni; Heulin, Benoit; Vernesi, Cristiano

    2014-01-01

    The European common lizard Zootoca vivipara exhibits reproductive bimodality, with populations being either viviparous or oviparous. In the central-eastern Italian Alps oviparous populations (Z. v. carniolica) and viviparous populations (Z. v. vivipara) partly overlap geographically. Studying the evolutionary relationship between these taxa presents an interesting opportunity to gain insight into the evolution of this trait. We aim to: i) test whether Z. v. carniolica, which is endangered, constitutes an ESU (Evolutionary Significant Unity); ii) infer mtDNA divergence time between the Z. v. carniolica clade and all the other Z. vivipara subspecies with the aid of an external calibration point; and iii) describe the phylogeographical and demographic scenarios in the area. To do so we sequenced about 200 individuals for mitochondrial variation; 64 of them were also analysed for three nuclear genes. Furthermore, we analysed the same nuclear markers in 17 individuals from the other oviparous subspecies Z. v. louislantzi and 11 individuals of Z. v. vivipara from widespread geographical origins. The mtDNA and nDNA loci that we examined supported the monophyly of Z. v. carniolica. The mtDNA-based estimate of divergence time between Z. v. carniolica and all the other subspecies indicated a separation at 4.5 Mya (95% CI 6.1–2.6), with about 5% of sequence divergence. Considering that Z. v. carniolica harbours higher genetic diversity, while Z. v. vivipara from central-eastern Alps shows a signature of recent population and spatial expansion, we argue that Z. v. carniolica represents a distinct evolutionary unit, with a presumably long-term evolutionary history of separation. Z. v. carniolica populations, occurring at higher latitudes and altitudes than insofar supposed, live in peat bogs, a seriously threatened habitat: taking into account also its evolutionary distinctness, specific conservation measures should be considered. PMID:24465784

  7. Alpe kot območje kulturnega, družbenega in političnega stika = The Alps as an area of cultural, social and political contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Bufon

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Thearticle deals with the Alps as an area of both cultural, social andpolitical contact and division. From this perspective the relation betweendifferent "border lines", which can be detected in the alpine regions, isexamined, suggesting that all these "border lines" maz be seen as a resultof a complex relationship between spatial, social and cultural partitionand integration processes. As a result, the Alps represent a special andparticularlz interesting natural, social and cultural environment in whichprocesses of social and political moderniyation maz coexist with persistentforms of cultural and territorial identitz, but also with different formsof functional social and spatial cooperation on an international andinter-regional level. The article finallz opens up the question of howtraditional forms of social and cultural coexistence in the Alps are nowchallenged bz a growing demand for social and spatial integration.

  8. Modeling Sustainable Bioenergy Feedstock Production in the Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraxner, Florian; Leduc, Sylvain; Kindermann, Georg; Fuss, Sabine; Pietsch, Stephan; Lakyda, Ivan; Serrano Leon, Hernan; Shchepashchenko, Dmitry; Shvidenko, Anatoly

    2016-04-01

    Sustainability of bioenergy is often indicated by the neutrality of emissions at the conversion site while the feedstock production site is assumed to be carbon neutral. Recent research shows that sustainability of bioenergy systems starts with feedstock management. Even if sustainable forest management is applied, different management types can impact ecosystem services substantially. This study examines different sustainable forest management systems together with an optimal planning of green-field bioenergy plants in the Alps. Two models - the biophysical global forest model (G4M) and a techno-economic engineering model for optimizing renewable energy systems (BeWhere) are implemented. G4M is applied in a forward looking manner in order to provide information on the forest under different management scenarios: (1) managing the forest for maximizing the carbon sequestration; or (2) managing the forest for maximizing the harvestable wood amount for bioenergy production. The results from the forest modelling are then picked up by the engineering model BeWhere, which optimizes the bioenergy production in terms of energy demand (power and heat demand by population) and supply (wood harvesting potentials), feedstock harvesting and transport costs, the location and capacity of the bioenergy plant as well as the energy distribution logistics with respect to heat and electricity (e.g. considering existing grids for electricity or district heating etc.). First results highlight the importance of considering ecosystem services under different scenarios and in a geographically explicit manner. While aiming at producing the same amount of bioenergy under both forest management scenarios, it turns out that in scenario (1) a substantially larger area (distributed across the Alps) will need to be used for producing (and harvesting) the necessary amount of feedstock than under scenario (2). This result clearly shows that scenario (2) has to be seen as an "intensification

  9. ALP conversion and the soft X-ray excess in the outskirts of the Coma cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was recently found that the soft X-ray excess in the center of the Coma cluster can be fitted by conversion of axion-like-particles (ALPs) of a cosmic axion background (CAB) to photons. We extend this analysis to the outskirts of Coma, including regions up to 5 Mpc from the center of the cluster. We extract the excess soft X-ray flux from ROSAT All-Sky Survey data and compare it to the expected flux from ALP to photon conversion of a CAB. The soft X-ray excess both in the center and the outskirts of Coma can be simultaneously fitted by ALP to photon conversion of a CAB. Given the uncertainties of the cluster magnetic field in the outskirts we constrain the parameter space of the CAB. In particular, an upper limit on the CAB mean energy and a range of allowed ALP-photon couplings are derived

  10. ALP conversion and the soft X-ray excess in the outskirts of the Coma cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraljic, David; Rummel, Markus; Conlon, Joseph P., E-mail: David.Kraljic@physics.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: Markus.Rummel@physics.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: j.conlon1@physics.ox.ac.uk [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3NP (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-01

    It was recently found that the soft X-ray excess in the center of the Coma cluster can be fitted by conversion of axion-like-particles (ALPs) of a cosmic axion background (CAB) to photons. We extend this analysis to the outskirts of Coma, including regions up to 5 Mpc from the center of the cluster. We extract the excess soft X-ray flux from ROSAT All-Sky Survey data and compare it to the expected flux from ALP to photon conversion of a CAB. The soft X-ray excess both in the center and the outskirts of Coma can be simultaneously fitted by ALP to photon conversion of a CAB. Given the uncertainties of the cluster magnetic field in the outskirts we constrain the parameter space of the CAB. In particular, an upper limit on the CAB mean energy and a range of allowed ALP-photon couplings are derived.

  11. Detecting an infrared Photon within an Hour -- Transition-Edge Detector at ALPS-II

    CERN Document Server

    Dreyling-Eschweiler, Jan

    2013-01-01

    An essential design requirement of the ALPS-II experiment is the efficient detection of single photons with a very low instrumental background of 10 {\\mu}Hz. In 2011 the ALPS collaboration started to set up a TES detector (Transition-Edge Sensor) for ALPS-II, the second phase of the experiment. Since mid of 2013 the setup is ready for characterization in the ALPS laboratory: an ADR cryostat (Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator) as millikelvin environment, a low noise SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) with electronics for read-out and a fiber-coupled high-efficient TES for near-infrared photons as sensor. First measurements have shown a good discrimination between noise and 1064 nm signals.

  12. Detecting an infrared photon within an hour. Transition-edge detector at ALPS-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreyling-Eschweiler, Jan [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik; Horns, Dieter [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik; Collaboration: ALPS-II collaboration

    2013-09-15

    An essential design requirement of the ALPS-II experiment is the efficient detection of single photons with a very low instrumental background of 10 {mu}Hz. In 2011 the ALPS collaboration started to set up a TES detector (Transition-Edge Sensor) for ALPS-II, the second phase of the experiment. Since mid of 2013 the setup is ready for characterization in the ALPS laboratory: an ADR cryostat (Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator) as millikelvin environment, a low noise SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) with electronics for read-out and a fiber-coupled high-efficient TES for near-infrared photons as sensor. First measurements have shown a good discrimination between noise and 1064 nm signals.

  13. Bone scintigraphy, plasma ALP, TAP and PAP in patients with prostatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study assessed the ability of bone scintigraphy, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total acid phosphatase (TAP), and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) to diagnose bone metastasis in a series of 62 patients with histologically proven prostatic cancer. Abnormal uptake was seen on the bone scan in 49 patients (79 %). A final diagnosis of bone metastasis was made in 40 patients (65 %). The sensitivity and specificity were 100 % and 59 %, respectively, for bone scintigraphy; 50 % and 96 % for ALP; 65 % and 82 % for TAP; and 73 % and 77 % for PAP. For 40 patients with bone metastasis, all of the ALP, TAP, and PAP were positive in 17 patients (43 %) and negative in 8 patients (20 %). Higher levels of ALP, TAP, and PAP tended to be associated with more extensive bone metastasis. Although serological examination showed lower sensitivity than bone scintigraphy in the diagnosis of bone metastasis, PAP may be most frequently used as a screening procedure of bone metastasis. (Namekawa, K.)

  14. Three-dimensional lithospheric structure below the New Zealand Southern Alps

    OpenAIRE

    Kohler, Monica D.; Eberhart-Phillips, Donna

    2002-01-01

    Uppermost mantle seismic structure below the Southern Alps in South Island, New Zealand, is investigated by teleseismic P wave travel time residual inversion. The three-dimensional tomographic images show a near-vertical, high-velocity (2–4%) structure in the uppermost mantle that directly underlies thickened crust along the NNESSW axis of the Southern Alps. The center of the high-velocity anomaly lies to the east of the Alpine fault which bounds Pacific and Australian plate rocks. The ...

  15. Exploration of the South-Eastern Alps lithosphere with 3D refraction seismics project Alp 2002 – data acquisition in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Gosar

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Using combined seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection method project Alp 2002 explored the contact zone between South-Eastern Alps, Dinarides and Pannonian basin. In a network of 12 profiles of 4100 km total length, which are spread over seven countries,1055 portable seismographs were deployed and 31 strong (300 kg explosions fired. In Slovenia 127 seismographs were deployed along five profiles totalling 575 km and two explosions fired near Vojnik and Gradin. The collected data will allow construction of athree-dimensional model of the lithosphere and will contribute to the understanding of the tectonics and geodynamics at the junction of European, Adriatic and Tisza plates.

  16. Interannual variability of winter precipitation in the European Alps: relations with the North Atlantic Oscillation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bartolini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Alps rely on winter precipitation for various needs in terms of hydropower and other water uses. Major European rivers originate from the Alps and depend on winter precipitation and the consequent spring snow melt for their summer base flows. Understanding the fluctuations in winter rainfall in this region is crucially important to the study of changes in hydrologic regime in river basins, as well as to the management of their water resources. Despite the recognized relevance of winter precipitation to the water resources of the Alps and surrounding regions, the magnitude and mechanistic explanation of interannual precipitation variability in the Alpine region remains unclear and poorly investigated. Here we use gridded precipitation data from the CRU TS 1.2 to study the interannual variability of winter alpine precipitation. We found that the Alps are the region with the highest interannual variability in winter precipitation in Europe. This variability cannot be explained by large scale climate patterns such as the Arctic Oscillation (AO, North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO or the East Atlantic/West Russia (EA/WR, even though regions below and above the Alps demonstrate connections with these patterns. Significant trends were detected only in small regions located in the Eastern part of the Alps.

  17. Interannual variability of winter precipitation in the European Alps: relations with the North Atlantic Oscillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bartolini

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The European Alps rely on winter precipitation for various needs in terms of hydropower and other water uses. Major European rivers originate from the Alps and rely on winter precipitation and the consequent spring snow melt for their summer base flows. Understanding the fluctuations in winter rainfall in this region is crucially important to the study of changes in hydrologic regime in streams and rivers, as well as to the management of their water resources. Despite the recognized relevance of winter precipitation to the water resources of the Alps and surrounding regions, the magnitude and mechanistic explanation of interannual precipitation variability in the Alpine region remain unclear and poorly investigated. Here we use gridded precipitation data from the CRU TS 1.2 to study the interannual variability of winter alpine precipitation. We found that the Alps are the region with the highest interannual variability in winter precipitation in Europe. This variability cannot be completely explained by large scale climate patterns such as the AO, NAO or the EA-WR, even though regions below and above the Alps demonstrate connections with these patterns. Significant trends were detected only in small areas within this region, and were of opposite sign between the eastern and western part of the Alps.

  18. Possible room temperature ferromagnetism in Ca-doped AlP: First-principles study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on first-principle calculations, we have studied the electronic and magnetic properties of AlP with aluminium vacancy and calcium doping. It was found that while Al vacancy and Ca impurity themselves are nonmagnetic, they generate holes residing in P 2p orbitals that lead to magnetic moments in AlP. The coupling between two Al vacancies in AlP are always antiferromagnetic because of half-filled t2 level. However, the coupling becomes ferromagnetic with large magnetic energy when vacancies are replaced by nonmagnetic Ca atoms. Moreover, the presence of Ca dopants reduces the formation energy of Al vacancy. These results suggest that Ca-doped AlP is a promising room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductor free of magnetic precipitates, and it may find applications in the field of spintronics. - Highlights: • “d0 ferromagnetism” has been found in Ca-doped AlP. • Unpaired t2 state of P atoms has an important impact on magnetic properties. • Room temperature TC may be expected in Ca-doped AlP

  19. Advanced Large Area Plastic Scintillator Project (ALPS): Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, David V.; Reeder, Paul L.; Todd, Lindsay C.; Warren, Glen A.; McCormick, Kathleen R.; Stephens, Daniel L.; Geelhood, Bruce D.; Alzheimer, James M.; Crowell, Shannon L.; Sliger, William A.

    2008-02-05

    The advanced Large-Area Plastic Scintillator (ALPS) Project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory investigated possible technological avenues for substantially advancing the state-of-the-art in gamma-ray detection via large-area plastic scintillators. The three predominant themes of these investigations comprised the following: * Maximizing light collection efficiency from a single large-area sheet of plastic scintillator, and optimizing hardware event trigger definition to retain detection efficiency while exploiting the power of coincidence to suppress single-PMT "dark current" background; * Utilizing anti-Compton vetoing and supplementary spectral information from a co-located secondary, or "Back" detector, to both (1) minimize Compton background in the low-energy portion of the "Front" scintillator's pulse-height spectrum, and (2) sharpen the statistical accuracy of the front detector's low-energy response prediction as impelmented in suitable energy-windowing algorithms; and * Investigating alternative materials to enhance the intrinsic gamma-ray detection efficiency of plastic-based sensors.

  20. Negative elevation-dependent warming trend in the Eastern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudoroiu, M.; Eccel, E.; Gioli, B.; Gianelle, D.; Schume, H.; Genesio, L.; Miglietta, F.

    2016-04-01

    Mountain regions and the important ecosystem services they provide are considered to be very vulnerable to the current warming, and recent studies suggest that high-mountain environments experience more rapid changes in temperature than environments at lower elevations. Here we analysed weather records for the period 1975–2010 from the Eastern Italian Alps that show that warming occurred both at high and low elevations, but it was less pronounced at high elevations. This negative elevation–dependent trend was consistent for mean, maximum and minimum air temperature. Global radiation data measured at different elevations, surface energy fluxes measured above an alpine grassland and above a coniferous forest located at comparable elevations for nine consecutive years as well as remote sensing data (MODIS) for cloud cover and aerosol optical depth were analysed to interpret this observation. Increasing global radiation at low elevations turned out to be a potential driver of this negative elevation–dependent warming, but also contributions from land use and land cover changes at high elevations (abandonment of alpine pastures, expansion of secondary forest succession) were taken into account. We emphasise though, that a negative elevation–dependent warming is not universal and that future research and in particular models should not neglect the role of land use changes when determining warming rates over elevation.

  1. Mars Analog Mission: Glacier Simulation AMADEE-15 by Austrian Space Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groemer, Gernot; Losiak, Anna; Soucek, Alexander; Plank, Clemens; Zanardini, Laura; Sejkora, Nina; Sams, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    Austrian Space Forum: The Austrian Space Forum (OeWF, Österreichisches Weltraum Forum) is a non-profit, citizen-science organization of aerospace specialists and enthusiasts. One of its specialisations is Mars analog research. Analog studies and analog instrument validation supported all planetary surface missions so far [1] and are considered as an effective tool to prepare for future missions to Mars [2,3,4,5,6,7]. Since 2006, OeWF has conducted 11 Mars analog field campaigns in diverse locations that represented: 1) average current Mars conditions (the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) in Utah in 2006 [8] and the Northern Sahara near Erfoud, Morocco in 2013 [9]); 2) the early and wet Mars (analog site of Rio Tinto Spain in 2011 [10]); and 3) subsurface exploration (Dachstein Ice Caves in 2012). During these campaigns, 68 experiments and major engineering tests were performed, whichwere mostly focused on astrobiology, robotics, human factors, geoscience and spacesuit operations. Major assets of OeWF include two advanced spacesuit simulators Aouda [11], an increasingly evolving Mission Support Center, a dedicated Remote Science Support team [12], and a growing set of Standard Operating Procedures defining major workflows within a mission team. The spacesuit simulators were operated by a total of 18 analog astronauts, who were selected and trained during a >6 month program. Total EVA time is nearly 600 hours, leading to a significant experience in analog field simulations. AMADEE-15: The mission took place between August 2nd and 14th 2015 at the Kaunertal Glacier in Tyrol, Austria. This glacier was selected as a study site because of its accessibility and high number of micro-landscapes analogous to those expected on Mars in locations where abundant water ice is present. As such it is considered a first-tier Mars analog [13]. The Base station was located at N 46.86320, E 10.71401 at 2800 masl, the highest reached location was on elevation of 2887 m. Eleven

  2. Mitochondrial Haplogroup T Is Associated with Obesity in Austrian Juveniles and Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Ebner

    Full Text Available Recent publications have reported contradictory data regarding mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA variation and its association with body mass index. The aim of the present study was to compare the frequencies of mtDNA haplogroups as well as control region (CR polymorphisms of obese juveniles (n = 248 and obese adults (n = 1003 versus normal weight controls (njuvenile = 266, nadults = 595 in a well-defined, ethnically homogenous, age-matched comparative cohort of Austrian Caucasians.Using SNP analysis and DNA sequencing, we identified the nine major European mitochondrial haplogroups and CR polymorphisms. Of these, only the T haplogroup frequency was increased in the juvenile obese cohort versus the control subjects [11.7% in obese vs. 6.4% in controls], although statistical significance was lost after adjustment for sex and age. Similar data were observed in a local adult cohort, in which haplogroup T was found at a significantly higher frequency in the overweight and obese subjects than in the normal weight group [9.7% vs. 6.2%, p = 0.012, adjusted for sex and age]. When all obese subjects were considered together, the difference in the frequency of haplogroup T was even more clearly seen [10.1% vs. 6.3%, p = 0.002, OR (95% CI 1.71 (1.2-2.4, adjusted for sex and age]. The frequencies of the T haplogroup-linked CR polymorphisms C16294T and the C16296T were found to be elevated in both the juvenile and the adult obese cohort compared to the controls. Nevertheless, no mtDNA haplogroup or CR polymorphism was robustly associated with any of several investigated metabolic and cardiovascular parameters (e.g., blood pressure, blood glucose concentration, triglycerides, cholesterol in all obese subjects.By investigation of this large ethnically and geographically homogenous cohort of Middle European Caucasians, only mtDNA haplogroup T was identified as an obesity risk factor.

  3. From the new Austrian tunneling method to the geoengineering condition evaluation and dynamic controlling method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Shang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The new Austrian tunneling method (NATM is widely applied in design and construction of underground engineering projects. When the type and distribution of unfavorable geological bodies (UGBs associated with their influences on geoengineering are complicated or unfortunately are overlooked, we should pay more attentions to internal features of rocks grades IV and V (even in local but mostly controlling zones. With increasing attentions to the characteristics, mechanism and influences of engineering construction-triggered geohazards, it is crucial to fully understand the disturbance of these geohazards on project construction. A reasonable determination method in construction procedure, i.e. the shape of working face, the type of engineering support and the choice of feasible procedure, should be considered in order to mitigate the construction-triggered geohazards. Due to their high sensitivity to groundwater and in-situ stress, various UGBs exhibit hysteretic nature and failure modes. To give a complete understanding on the internal causes, the emphasis on advanced comprehensive geological forecasting and overall reinforcement treatment is therefore of more practical significance. Comprehensive evaluation of influential factors, identification of UGB, and measures of discontinuity dynamic controlling comprises the geoengineering condition evaluation and dynamic controlling method. In a case of a cut slope, the variations of UGBs and the impacts of key environmental factors are presented, where more severe construction-triggered geohazards emerged in construction stage than those predicted in design and field investigation stages. As a result, the weight ratios of different influential factors with respect to field investigation, design and construction are obtained.

  4. The Austrian radiation monitoring network ARAD – best practice and added value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Olefs

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Austrian RADiation monitoring network (ARAD has been established to advance the national climate monitoring and to support satellite retrieval, atmospheric modelling and solar energy techniques development. Measurements cover the downwelling solar and thermal infrared radiation using instruments according to Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN standards. A unique feature of ARAD is its vertical dimension of five stations, covering an air column between about 200 m a.s.l. (Vienna and 3100 m a.s.l. (BSRN site Sonnblick. The paper outlines the aims and scopes of ARAD, its measurement and calibration standards, methods, strategies and station locations. ARAD network operation uses innovative data processing for quality assurance and quality control, applying manual and automated control algorithms. A combined uncertainty estimate for the broadband shortwave radiation fluxes at all five ARAD stations indicates that accuracies range from 1.5 to 23 %. If a directional response error of the pyranometers and the temperature response of the instruments and the data acquisition system (DAQ is corrected, this expanded uncertainty reduces to 1.4 to 5.2 %. Thus, for large signals (global: 1000 W m−2, diffuse: 500 W m−2 BSRN target accuracies are met or closely met for 70 % of valid measurements at the ARAD stations after this correction. For small signals (50 W m−2, the targets are not achieved as a result of uncertainties associated with the DAQ or the instrument sensitivities. Additional accuracy gains can be achieved in future by additional measurements and corrections. However, for the measurement of direct solar radiation improved instrument accuracy is needed. ARAD could serve as a powerful example for establishing state-of-the-art radiation monitoring at the national level with a multiple-purpose approach. Instrumentation, guidelines and tools (such as the data quality control developed within ARAD are best practices which could be

  5. Influences of Climate Warming and Facility Management on Continuous Permafrost at Matterhorn Glacier Paradise, Zermatt, Swiss Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Lorenz; Duishonakunov, Murataly; Imbery, Stephan

    2014-05-01

    In many parts of the Alps, hazardous bedrock instabilities occur more often during the past 30 years. In many cases, permafrost degradation played a central role for instability (e.g. in 1987 the Val Pola rockslide, Italy). At other events, the role of permafrost degradation is more complex or unpredictable (e.g. in 1991 the Randa rockfall, Wallis, Swiss Alps). However, instabilities in perennially frozen bedrock may also be provoked by human influence. This is exemplarily shown at touristic facilities in the Alps. Human impact on permafrost is often underestimated, or even carelessly taken into account. The tourist resort Zermatt with more than 1.8 million overnight stays per year is located at 1600 m a.s.l. and is surrounded by high mountain ranges that often reach above 4000 m. The dry and sunny climate results in a high glacier equilibrium line thus leaving space for vast non-glaciated permafrost terrain. Numerous tourist facilities provide excellent logistics and easy access to permafrost sites, and the region is thus especially suitable for permafrost research. The infrastructure erected on permafrost consists of hotels, restaurants and mountain huts, station buildings of railways, funiculars, ski lifts and installations for artificial snowing the ski-runs. Some problems at these constructions due to permafrost degradation are shown. At the Matterhorn Glacier Paradise station at an altitude of 3820 meters, todays MAAT ranges between -6 °C and -8°C. During the construction of a tunnel in 1981 bedrock temperatures were at -12°C. Over the past 30 years, these bedrock temperatures have risen to -3 to -2°C, due to the heat brought into the tunnel by facilities and more than 490,000 visitors per year. In an elevator shaft, the temperature temporarily even rose above freezing point. Several new construction sites in continuous permafrost are described and new research data is presented. Another interesting site for permafrost and ice studies at Matterhorn

  6. Evaluation of recommendations on limits of exposure to ultraviolet radiation on the basis of data from the Austrian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the application of solaria at present the following international recommendations on limits of exposure exist, which differ strongly: 1. IRPA/INIRC (1991): 30 MED/a (i.e. 7.5 kJ/a). 2. IEC 335-2-27 (1978, 1989): 25 kJ/m2/a for each region of the body, that is 100 MED/a. On the basis of our data from the Austrian population we give an evaluation of these recommendations for the entire population. This evaluation shows that 100 MED/a is much too high, it seduces rather to use solaria than to restrict their application

  7. Putting 600,000 Books Online: the Large-Scale Digitisation Partnership between the Austrian National Library and Google

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Kaiser

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In a public-private partnership with Google, the Austrian National Library is digitising its historical book holdings. Some 600,000 volumes from the sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries will be digitised and made available free of charge. The project demonstrates that public-private partnerships can be successful in enabling our heritage institutions to provide large-scale access to their holdings, provided that such partnerships are not exclusive and free access is ensured. The article outlines the preparatory phase and work flows established in the project.

  8. Development of Investment Activities of Commercial Insurance Companies in Slovak, Czech and Austrian Insurance Markets in 2004-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Meheš

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with investments of commercial insurance companies operating in Slovak, Czech and Austrian insurance market in the period of 2004–2009. First of all, development of technical reserves volume as an important prerequisite of investing of commercial insurance companies will be characterized. After that, we evaluate financial placements and investment activities – ratio of total investments and technical reserves. We also present statistical tests by means of which we examine the existence of the relation between the volume of technical reserves and the volume of investments of commercial insurance companies.

  9. Interaction with customers: The Application of Social Media within the Austrian Supply Chain for Food and Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Meixner

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Social media marketing has become a powerful tool of interaction with stakeholders. An increasing number of companies are using social media platforms to initiate active interaction and communication with current and prospective customers. Within this study, certain content and contact features, as well as social media activities of companies of the Austrian food and beverage industry were evaluated. Empirical findings concerning the threats, risks, and opportunities connected with the application of social media are presented. The results imply that social media applications are innovative alternatives for customer relationship management. However, more knowledge on how to properly use social media marketing seems to be necessary.

  10. Post-disturbance dynamics in forest-atmosphere fluxes: Observations from a windthrow site in the European Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Bradley; Mayer, Mathias; Katzensteiner, Klaus; Schume, Helmut

    2015-04-01

    Natural disturbances can cause abrupt and substantial changes in ecosystem properties regulating forest-atmosphere exchange. Although forest sites disturbed by e.g. wind, fire, and insects have become important targets of micrometeorological research, investigations of intact and disturbed forests in mountainous areas remain comparatively scarce. This discrepancy is likely explained by the additional methodological challenges posed by mountainous ecosystems, especially with respect to the eddy covariance technique. Nonetheless, the lack of such experiments constitutes a significant void in global and regional flux networks, particularly in the Central European context, where the Alps are forecasted as potential hotspots of intensifying windthrow and bark beetle disturbance regimes. We therefore began a micrometeorological investigation at a forest site in the Northern Calcareous Alps of Austria disturbed by windthrow and subsequent bark beetle infestation in 2009. The objectives of the study were to determine 1) whether the eddy covariance technique provides robust measurements of turbulent surface-atmosphere exchange at the site and 2) how net exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapor, sensible heat and shortwave radiation develop over 3 subsequent growing seasons (2011 to 2013) following disturbance. According to a flux quality assessment looking at turbulence, stationarity, flux footprint and energy balance closure, eddy covariance provides defensible estimates of net turbulent exchange at the site, despite the non ideal conditions for its application. While the site remained a CO2 source in 2013, decreasing net CO2 release over the three subsequent growing seasons indicated that the ecosystem was in a state of recovery. Moreover, it appeared that this recovery also significantly influenced the net exchange of shortwave radiation and the partitioning between sensible and latent heat fluxes. Taking into account the varying climate over the three campaign

  11. How does shear zone nucleate? An example from the Suretta nappe (Swiss Eastern Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Philippe; Poilvet, Jean-Charles; Oliot, Emilien; Trap, Pierre; Marquer, Didier

    2016-05-01

    In order to address the question of the processes involved during shear zone nucleation, we present a petro-structural analysis of millimetre-scale shear zones within the Roffna rhyolite (Suretta nappe, Eastern central Alps). Field and microscopic evidences show that ductile deformation is localized along discrete fractures that represent the initial stage of shear zone nucleation. During incipient brittle deformation, a syn-kinematic metamorphic assemblage of white mica + biotite + epidote + quartz precipitated at ca. 8.5 ± 1 kbar and 480 ± 50 °C that represent the metamorphic peak conditions of the nappe stacking in the continental accretionary wedge during Tertiary Alpine subduction. The brittle to ductile transition is characterized by the formation of two types of small quartz grains. The Qtz-IIa type is produced by sub-grain rotation. The Qtz-IIb type has a distinct CPO such that the orientation of c-axis is perpendicular to the shear fracture and basal and rhombhoedric slip systems are activated. These Qtz-IIb grains can either be formed by recrystallization of Qtz-IIa or by precipitation from a fluid phase. The shear zone widening stage is characterized by a switch to diffusion creep and grain boundary sliding deformation mechanisms. During the progressive evolution from brittle nucleation to ductile widening of the shear zone, fluid-rock interactions play a critical role, through chemical mass-transfer, metasomatic reactions and switch in deformation mechanisms.

  12. The Water Balance of the Alps – What do we need to protect the water resources of the Alps? Proceedings of the Conference held at Innsbruck University, 28-29 September 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Psenner, Roland; Lackner, Reinhard

    2007-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the conference “The Water Balance of the Alps. What do we need to protect the water resources of the Alps?” held in Innsbruck in September 2006. The aim of the conference was to present the view of researchers as well as of administrators, and to discuss the best way to protect sensitive waters, including ice and snow, of the Alps. Intensive discussions about the best way to protect sensitive water bodies in the Alps – either by implementing specific and ...

  13. Dating the polyphase evolution of the Western Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Igor M.

    2016-04-01

    A traverse through the Western Alps from the Zone Houillère to the Monte Rosa eclogites includes an oceanic basin (filled with Hercynian detrital muscovite) which was subducted during Alpine convergence and eclogitized; the eclogites were sheared in greenschist facies and exhumed to the surface. In the W the Zone Houillère sediments are weakly metamorphosed; further ESE, in the Ruitor Unit, higher strain rates and high pressure parageneses are observed; the Piemont-Ligurian (PL) Oceanic Unit consists of eclogites. Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd dating of prograde (55±4 Ma) and retrograde (41±7 Ma) garnet (Villa et al, JPetrol 55 (2014) 803) constrains eclogitization to the Eocene. 39Ar-40Ar ages of white mica show a spatial regularity: Zone Houillère (T ≈ 300 °C) muscovite ages are 270-100 Ma, Ar loss reaching 80 %; eclogitic phengite ages (P¬L Unit, T ≈ 500 °C, and Monte Rosa, T ≥ 600 °C) are constant at 47 Ma, independently of peak T, and agree with garnet Lu-Hf ages; Ruitor white mica ages depend on total strain and especially on the degree of phengitic substitution in detrital muscovite. The observation that Ar can be lost at T 500-600 °C appears counterintuitive if one assumes that ages are a unique function of T. The Zone Houillère pattern is explained by sedimentology: during diagenesis, sediments are dehydrated, and large amounts of circulating water very efficiently promote recrystallization and Ar loss. In the Ruitor Unit, an different eastward age decrease is observed: mica rejuvenation correlates with phengite content, whereby HP phengite replaced detrital muscovite. These samples record a progressive increase of retrogression reactions that produce a heterochemical replacement mineral with associated Ar loss. The Cl/K ratio in white mica is an essential discriminator, as retrogression can be associated with more or less saline fluids. In the Monte Rosa and P-L Oceanic Units, the constant 47 Ma ages are best explained as complete Ar retention. The Ar

  14. Eclogitic metatrondhjemites from metaophiolites of the Western Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Silvana; Tartarotti, Paola; Meyzen, Chrstine; Benciolini, Luca; Toffolo, Luca

    2016-04-01

    Eclogitic metatrondhjemites from metaophiolites of the Western Alps Martin S.**, Tartarotti P.*, Meyzen C. **, Benciolini L.***, Toffolo L. ** *Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Milano ** Dipartimento di Geoscienze, Università di Padova *** Dipartimento di Chimica, Fisica e Ambiente, Università di Udine In the Urtier valley (southern Aosta Valley, Italy), the Piemonte metaophiolites mainly consist of serpentinized peridotites including pods and boudinaged layers of Fe-metagabbro and trondhjemite transposed in the main eclogitic foliation. The contact between serpentinized peridotites and Fe-metagabbro/trondhjemite is locally lined by chloriteschist and rodingite. The high pressure parageneses in the Fe-metagabbro are omphacite-garnet-rutile-glaucophane-phengite, and in the metatrondhjemite plagioclase-quartz-phengite-clinozoisite-epidote-garnet, respectively. Bulk-rock major and trace elements in addition to O isotope analyses were performed in both rock types. Fe-metagabbros are characterized by MgO wt% ranging between 6.11 and 9.63%, ∑REE= 20-101 ppm, (La/Yb)N = 0.22-0.91; trondhjemites have SiO2 43%, Al2O3 ranging between 21 and 24%, CaO ranging between 17 and 20%, ∑REE = 172 - 272 ppm, (La/Yb)N ranging between 7.78 and 13.70. The δ18O is 5.9 ‰ in a Fe-metagabbro sample and 7.4 ‰ in a trondhjemite sample, suggesting that these rocks have been affected by a weak oceanic low temperature alteration. The high CaO content may indicate a metasomatic process which could have occurred during the oceanic stage or at high pressure conditions.

  15. Morphology and ecology of Daphnia middendorffiana, Fisher 1851 (Crustacea, Daphniidae) from four new populations in the Alps

    OpenAIRE

    Tiberti, Rocco

    2011-01-01

    Daphnia middendorffiana has an arctic, circumpolar distribution, with some isolated southerly populations restricted to mountainous areas, including the Alps. In this paper, new records of Daphnia middendorffiana on the Alps are reported. The species was regularly recorded in several samples collected from 2006 to 2009 in four high altitude lakes in the Gran Paradiso National Park (GPNP) during the ice free period. This is the third finding for the Alps and the described populations are the l...

  16. Joint annual meeting of the Austrian physical society, Swiss physical society, Austrian society of astronomy and astrophysics in Innsbruck. Bulletin SPG / SSP Vol 26, 2009; OEPG Tagungsband Nr. 59

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This was the first joint annual meeting of the Austrian physical society, the Swiss physical society and the Austrian society of astronomy and astrophysics with the participation of the Swiss society for astrophysics and astronomy. Its objective was to improve the scientific communication and cooperation of researchers of both countries in all fields of physics and astronomy. The plenary sessions gave an overview of the present status from topics such as atomic clusters interactions to nuclear physics and physics of nanostructures. The topical sessions were dedicated to: atomic- and molecular physics and quantum optics; applied physics (medical physics, thin films, molecular physics and materials); nuclear and particle physics (nuclear physics, colliders (LHCb, Belle, CMS I, CMS II and HERA, ATLAS I and II, PANDA), low and medium energy (UCN, OPERA), astrophysics and particle physics; plasma physics; solid state physics (x-rays and neutrons, spins, magnetism, nano and photonics); surfaces, boundary layers and thin films; history of physics and physics in the school. Those contributions which are in the INIS subject scope are indexed individually. (nevyjel)

  17. The discharge of certain amounts of industrial microplastic from a production plant into the River Danube is permitted by the Austrian legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Aaron; Ramler, David

    2015-05-01

    Numerous studies have quantified the amount of plastic litter in aquatic ecosystems and tried to assess its impacts and threats. This reflects a rising awareness of plastic as an environmental problem. As a next logical step, identifying and regulating the sources must be in the focus of scientific efforts. We report on a spillage of industrial microplastic (IMP) from a production plant situated at an Austrian Danube tributary. This is the first identified point source of IMP litter in freshwater systems. However, due to generous thresholds established by the Austrian government substantial amounts of IMP are legally introduced into running waters. PMID:25734504

  18. Derivation of GNSS derived station velocities for a surface deformation model in the Austrian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umnig, Elke; Weber, Robert; Maras, Jadre; Brückl, Ewald

    2016-04-01

    This contribution deals with the first comprehensive analysis of GNSS derived surface velocities computed within an observation network of about 100 stations covering the whole Austrian territory and parts of the neighbouring countries. Coordinate time series are available now, spanning a period of 5 years (2010.0-2015.0) for one focus area in East Austria and one and a half year (2013.5-2015.0) for the remaining part of the tracking network. In principle the data series are stemming from two different GNSS campaigns. The former was set up to investigate intra plate tectonic movements within the framework of the project ALPAACT (seismological and geodetic monitoring of ALpine-PAnnonian ACtive Tectonics), the latter was designed to support a number of various requests, e.g. derivation of GNSS derived water vapour fields, but also to expand the foresaid tectonic studies. In addition the activities within the ALPAACT project supplement the educational initiative SHOOLS & QUAKES, where scholars contribute to seismological research. For the whole period of the processed coordinate time series daily solutions have been computed by means of the Bernese software. The processed coordinate time series are tied to the global reference frame ITRF2000 as well as to the frame ITRF2008. Due to the transition of the reference from ITRF2000 to ITRF2008 within the processing period, but also due to updates of the Bernese software from version 5.0 to 5.2 the time series were initially not fully consistent and have to be re-aligned to a common frame. So the goal of this investigation is to derive a nationwide consistent horizontal motion field on base of GNSS reference station data within the ITRF2008 frame, but also with respect to the Eurasian plate. In this presentation we focus on the set-up of the coordinate time series and on the problem of frame alignment. Special attention is also paid to the separation into linear and periodic motion signals, originating from tectonic or non

  19. Results of a first look into the Austrian animal phenological records

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheifinger, H.; Koch, E. [Central Inst. for Meteorology and Geodynamics, Vienna (Austria); Winkler, H. [Konrad Lorenz Inst. for Ethology, Vienna (Austria)

    2005-04-01

    The year to year variability and trends of animal phenological phases (honey bee, cockchafer, 3 butterfly species, swallow and cuckoo) of the Austrian phenological observational network were related to each other and to mean monthly temperatures over the time period 1951-1998. Insect phases were well correlated with each other (r{sup 2} = 0.4 to 0.6) and with temperature (r{sup 2} = 0.25 to 0.55), whereas both bird phases were only well correlated with each other (r{sup 2} = 0.57), but showed low common variance values with temperature and with other animal phases. The slope of the temperature-pheno regression, also termed as temperature sensitivity of the phenological phase, was high in the case of the insect phases (-3 to -5 days/ C), but low in the cases of both bird phases (about -1 days/ C). All animal phenological time series showed a trend towards later occurrence dates. The trends of the bird phases were even significant (p<0.1). There was a marked discrepancy between the trends of all animal phenological and temperature time series, especially between the insects and temperature: the mean temperature time series of February, March and April with the highest common variance with the insect phases showed a strongly increasing trend (0.027 C/year), whereas the first appearance dates of the insects tended to occur later (0.06 to 0.15 days/year). Both bird phases correlated weakly with the mean April temperature (r{sup 2} about 0.1). The temperature trend of April was 0.0003 C/year, whereas the trend of the bird phases was 0.2 days/year for the cuckoo and 0.25 days/year for the swallow. From these observations we conclude that a strong temperature sensitivity of the phenological phase based on the year to year variability (in days/ C) does not necessarily result in corresponding trends of temperature and phenological phase. A strong trend of non-atmospheric factors such as population density influencing the animal phases is suspected. Factors other than local

  20. Modelling tunnel jet emissions with LASAT: evaluation study with two Austrian data sets (Ehrentalerbergtunnel and Kaisermuhlentunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Hirtl

    2011-02-01

    model parameters derived for the Ehrentalerbergtunnel are also applied to this site. It is shown that LASAT is able to simulate the position of the plume and that the modelled and the measured concentration values do not deviate more than 30 %. This study reveals that LASAT can be applied to tunnel portal emissions. The model simulations for both the Ehrentalerbergtunnel and Kaisermühlentunnel meet the requirements specified in the Austrian design guideline RVS 9.263 “Ventilation Systems - Pollutant burden at portals”.

  1. Use of the TRIGA Reactor by the Radiochemistry Group of the Atominstitute of the Austrian Universities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radiochemistry Group of the Atominstitute of the Austrian Universities uses the TRIGA Mark II Reactor mainly for neutron activation analysis. Transport of samples to and from the irradiation positions in the reactor is performed by fast pneumatic transfer systems (transfer time 20 msec and 300 msec) and slow conventional transport facilities. Gamma-spectrometric instrumentation equipped with loss free counting systems is used to handle the high count rates up to 500 000 counts/sec. During the last years neutron activation analysis was applied to investigate environmental samples (soil, dust, incineration ash), geological samples (rocks, sediments, fossils, volcanic gases), biological materials (lichens, mushrooms and other plant materials, human diet, biological reference materials), raw materials (phosphate, coal) and archaeological materials (ancient glass). Lichen analysis was used for environmental monitoring. The content of some of the trace elements can be correlated with industrial activities, like manganese content with steel industry, the occurrence of vanadium and nickel with oil firing plants and stainless steel industry, selenium is found in lichen near coal firing plants. The amount of chlorine and sodium indicates the application of salt for road treatment during winter time, aluminum, scandium and hafnium content depends on the amount of dust in the environment. A further environmental application of neutron activation analysis is the determination of trace elements in volcanic gases. The halogens, arsenic, antimony, selenium, tellurium and mercury were determined and their daily output was calculated. The distribution of trace elements in fossils of known age gives us a geochemical key to condition and development of the paleo-environment. For this purpose we determined rare earth elements in 250 million years old microfossils (conodonts). Neutron activation analysis served also for some non scientific but nevertheless useful purposes: Organic

  2. Radon measurements in Austrian buildings and estimation of collective doses for the population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear track etch detectors were used for the determination of radon and radon daughter levels in Austrian dwelling houses. A diffusion chamber, developed at Karlsruhe, FRG, was used to construct a passive radon detector. It consists of a plastic beaker covered with a glass fibre filter. It is shielded by a cover which has openings on the side so that air can diffuse through and on the top there is a mounted thermoluminescent detector card. The TLD dosimeter was used to determine beta and gamma radiation levels. A polycarbonate foil was placed at the bottom of the diffusion chamber which served as a detector for the alphas emitted by radon daughters. The dosimeters were exposed for a period of three months. The mean concentration of radon in all rooms in dwelling houses in Austria were clearly higher in winter than in summer time. This was interpreted as the effect of reduced ventilation rates in winter time. This effect of ventilation on radon concentration is more significant in living and sleeping rooms than in the cellar. Compared to all rooms in a dwelling house the level of radon concentration was distinctly higher in the cellar. Higher values of radon concentration were found in famous radon spa of Gastein and in the Waldviertel and in a landscape near the Czechoslovakian border. In Vienna a mean value for radon concentration in the living and sleeping rooms was found to be 47 bq/m3 which corresponds to an estimated effective dose equivalent to the lung of 10.7 mSv per annum. The whole body effective dose equivalent was estimated to be 1.27 mSv per annum. These estimations were based on the radon equilibrium factor of 0.5. The exposure to radon at such concentration is estimated to cause 3-4% incidence of excess lung cancer in Vienna within the next 20 years. The value of 47 bq/m3 of radon in Vienna and its surrounding areas corresponds well with the mean values in Switzerland and Germany, but it is lower than those found in Great Britain, Canada, Sweden

  3. Identification of relevant micropollutants in Austrian municipal wastewater and their behaviour during wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clara, M; Windhofer, G; Weilgony, P; Gans, O; Denner, M; Chovanec, A; Zessner, M

    2012-06-01

    The European Union has defined environmental quality standards (EQSs) for surface waters for priority substances and several other pollutants. Furthermore national EQSs for several chemicals are valid in Austria. The study investigated the occurrence of these compounds in municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents. In a first screening of 15 WWTPs relevant substances were identified, which subsequently were monitored in 9 WWTPs over 1 year (every 2 months). Out of 77 substances or groups of substances (including more than 90 substances) 13 were identified as potentially relevant in respect to water pollution and subjected to the monitoring, whereas most other compounds were detected in concentrations far below the respective EQS for surface waters and therefore not further considered. The preselected 13 compounds for monitoring were cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), diuron, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), di(ethyl-hydroxyl)phthalate (DEHP), tributyltin compounds (TBT), nonylphenoles (NP), adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) and the complexing agents ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as well as nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA). In the effluents of WWTPs the concentrations of the priority substances Cd, NP, TBT and diuron frequently exceeded the respective EQS, whereas the concentrations for DEHP and Ni were below the respective EQS. The effluent concentrations for AOX, EDTA, NTA, Cu, Se and Zn frequently are in the range or above the Austrian EQS for surface waters. Besides diuron and EDTA all compounds are removed at least partially during wastewater treatment and for most substances the removal via the excess sludge is the major removal pathway. For the 13 compounds which were monitored in WWTP effluents population equivalent specific discharges were calculated. Since for many compounds no or only few information is available, these population equivalent specific discharges can be used to assess emissions from

  4. The Austrian radiation monitoring network ARAD - best practice and added value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olefs, Marc; Baumgartner, Dietmar J.; Obleitner, Friedrich; Bichler, Christoph; Foelsche, Ulrich; Pietsch, Helga; Rieder, Harald E.; Weihs, Philipp; Geyer, Florian; Haiden, Thomas; Schöner, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    The Austrian RADiation monitoring network (ARAD) has been established to advance the national climate monitoring and to support satellite retrieval, atmospheric modeling and the development of solar energy techniques. Measurements cover the downward solar and thermal infrared radiation using instruments according to Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) standards. A unique feature of ARAD is its vertical dimension of five stations, covering an altitude range between about 200 m a.s.l (Vienna) and 3100 m a.s.l. (BSRN site Sonnblick). The paper outlines the aims and scopes of ARAD, its measurement and calibration standards, methods, strategies and station locations. ARAD network operation uses innovative data processing for quality assurance and quality control, utilizing manual and automated control algorithms. A combined uncertainty estimate for the broadband shortwave radiation fluxes at all five ARAD stations, using the methodology specified by the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement indicates that relative accuracies range from 1.5 to 2.9 % for large signals (global, direct: 1000 W m-2, diffuse: 500 W m-2) and from 1.7 to 23 % (or 0.9 to 11.5 W m-2) for small signals (50 W m-2) (expanded uncertainties corresponding to the 95 % confidence level). If the directional response error of the pyranometers and the temperature response of the instruments and the data acquisition system (DAQ) are corrected, this expanded uncertainty reduces to 1.4 to 2.8 % for large signals and to 1.7 to 5.2 % (or 0.9-2.6 W m-2) for small signals. Thus, for large signals of global and diffuse radiation, BSRN target accuracies are met or nearly met (missed by less than 0.2 percentage points, pps) for 70 % of the ARAD measurements after this correction. For small signals of direct radiation, BSRN targets are achieved at two sites and nearly met (also missed by less than 0.2 pps) at the other sites. For small signals of global and diffuse radiation, targets are achieved

  5. Expression of Helicobacter pylori AlpA protein and its immunogenicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Xue; Yang Bai; Ye Chen; Ji-De Wang; Zhao-Shan Zhang; Ya-Li Zhang; Dian-Yuan Zhou

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To construct a recombinant strain which expresses adhesin AlpA of Helicobacter pylori(H pylori) and to study the immunogenicity of adhesin AlpA.METHODS: Gene Ab, which was amplified from H pylori chromosomal DNA by PCR technique, was sequenced and the biological information was analyzed, and inserted into the Nco Ⅰ and NotⅠ restriction fragments of the expression vector pET-22b(+) using T4 DNA ligase. The resulting plasmid pET-AlpA was transformed into competent E.coli BL21(DE3) cells using ampicillin resistance for selection.Recombinant strains were incubated in 5 mL LB with 100 μg/mL ampicillin overnight at 37 ℃. Sonication of BL21(DE3)pET-22b(+)/AlpA was analyzed by Western blot to detect AlpA immunogenicity.RESULTS: The gene encoding AlpA protein was amplified by PCR with chromosomal DNA of H pylori Sydney strain (SS1) as templates. It revealed that AlpA DNA fragment amplified by PCR had approximately 1 500 nucleotides,compatible with the previous reports. The recombinant plasmid pET-22b(+)/AB was successfully constructed. DNA sequencing showed one open reading frame with the length of 588 bp. It encoded seven conservative regions that showed good antigenicity and hydrophobicity by Parker and Welling method. Furthermore, INTERNET EXPASY,NNPREDICT and ISREC predicted that it was a porin-like structure consisting of β-pleated sheets that were embedded in the outer membrane. BLAST analyzed 836 767 protein sequences and found that the similar sequences were all belonging to H pylori OMP sequences. SDS-PAGE and scan analysis showed that the molecular weight of AB was 22.5 ku and recombinant protein amounted to 29% of the total bacterial protein, among which dissolved expression amounted to 21.9% of sonicated supernatant. The rAB purity amounted to 96% through affinity chromatography.Western blot analysis of rAB confirmed that it could be specially recognized by serum form rabbit immunized with AlpA and H pylori infected.CONCLUSION: Adhesin Alp

  6. Connectedness to Nature and Public (Skin Health Perspectives: Results of a Representative, Population-Based Survey among Austrian Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Haluza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Connectedness to nature (CN influences motivation to have contact with outdoor natural environments. Spending leisure time in natural environments is beneficial for human health and well-being. Besides these positive effects, health risks of open-air activities are mainly related to unprotected sun light exposure-associated acute and chronic skin hazards. Thus, we conducted a cross-sectional, representative telephone survey among Austrian residents to study the association of perceived CN level with sun-exposure knowledge, tanning habits, and sun protective behaviour. In total, 1,500 study subjects (50.5% females participated in this questionnaire survey. Although knowledge about tanning and motives to tan were similar among genders, females performed more photoprotective measures and were more connected to nature (all p < 0.001 compared to males. Older age and outdoor sport were significant gender-independent predictor variables influencing perceived CN level. Additionally, level of education was relevant in male CN, whereas non-smoking and higher knowledge were predictive of female CN. This survey provides so far unreported empirical data on the relationship between nature connectedness and skin health-relevant recreational habits of Austrian residents. The findings suggest to integrate hitherto neglected gender-specific Public (Skin Health promotion when counselling on the manifold health advantages of outdoor activities.

  7. ERT of seasonal changes in steep permafrost rocks with laboratory-calibrated temperature-resistivity behavior, an incorporated resistance error model, and temperature validation (Zugspitze, German/Austrian Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krautblatter, M.; Verleysdonk, S.; Flores-Orozco, A.; Kemna, A.

    2008-12-01

    Rockwall instability at the Zugspitze North Face is evident due to the 3.5(±0.5)*108 m3 rockslide that occurred in 3700 B.P from the permafrost-affected Zugspitze (2962 m a.s.l.) North Face and was interpreted as a delayed permafrost response to the Holocene Climatic Optimum (Gude and Barsch, 2005; Jerz and Poschinger, 1995). Thawing of rock permafrost is a key promoting and triggering factor for rock instability, rock creep, and rockfalls. Rock instability in permafrost-affected bedrock is governed by shear stress, hydrostatic pressures, and friction along one or several planes of weaknesses in the rock mass. Friction along planes of weaknesses (without fine-grained cleft fillings) is susceptible to subzero temperature changes due to alterations in intact rock mass strength and ice-mechanical properties along planes of weaknesses. We argue that rock permafrost geophysical surveys have the potential to provide spatially resolved information on subzero temperatures that could serve as highly-important input for stability models. Here we present the first monthly ERT (electrical resistance tomography) results in steep permafrost rocks over the whole summer thaw period. Temperature-resistivity behavior of limestone from the study site was measured in the laboratory during repeated cycles of freezing at 0.2-0.4°C increments and exhibited a two-fold linear relationship divided by a freezing point at about -0.5°C. Field measurements were taken from February to October 2007 in a gallery close to the Zugspitze North Face at 2800 m a.s.l. and display thawing and refreezing behavior up to 30 m depth from the north face. We applied high-resolution, time-lapse 2D ERT with 140 electrodes and ca. 2000 resistance measurements per time frame. Local topographic settings and electrode positions were accommodated in an 8600 finite-element mesh with three different resolutions and varying boundary conditions according to the field setup. Resistivity images were computed using a smoothness-constrained inversion routine. In the inversion, we applied an empirically-derived resistance error model based on normal and reciprocal measurements to obtain adequately and consistently fitted resistivity images at the different time steps. Five temperature loggers were installed at 2.5m, 5m, 10m, 15m, and 20m from the north face to validate whether imaged resistivity values match laboratory-calibrated temperature-resistivity paths. Here we discuss whether high-resolution ERT in homogeneous rock walls with (i) laboratory-calibrated temperature-resistivity behavior, (ii) an incorporated resistance error model to ensure optimum and consistent fitting of the data, and (iii) field validation with temperature logger data provides reliable, spatially- resolved subzero temperature-information in permafrost rocks.

  8. Adjacent Lone Pair (ALP) Effect: A Computational Approach for Its Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huaiyu; Wu, Wei; Ahmed, Basil M; Mezei, Gellert; Mo, Yirong

    2016-05-23

    The adjacent lone pair (ALP) effect is an experimental phenomenon in certain nitrogenous heterocyclic systems exhibiting the preference of the products with lone pairs separated over other isomers with lone pairs adjacent. A theoretical elucidation of the ALP effect requires the decomposition of intramolecular energy terms and the isolation of lone pair-lone pair interactions. Here we used the block-localized wavefunction (BLW) method within the ab initio valence bond (VB) theory to derive the strictly localized orbitals which are used to accommodate one-atom centered lone pairs and two-atom centered σ or π bonds. As such, interactions among electron pairs can be directly derived. Two-electron integrals between adjacent lone pairs do not support the view that the lone pair-lone pair repulsion is responsible for the ALP effect. Instead, the disabling of π conjugation greatly diminishes the ALP effect, indicating that the reduction of π conjugation in deprotonated forms with two σ lone pairs adjacent is one of the major causes for the ALP effect. Further electrostatic potential analysis and intramolecular energy decomposition confirm that the other key factor is the favorable electrostatic attraction within the isomers with lone pairs separated. PMID:27139318

  9. Hydrological and meteorological aspects of floods in the Alps: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldassare Bacchi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This introductory paper presents and summarises recent research on meteorological and hydrological aspects of floods in the Alps. The research activities were part of the international research project RAPHAEL (Runoff and Atmospheric Processes for flood HAzard forEcasting and controL together with experiments within the Special Observing Period-SOP conducted in autumn 1999 for the Mesoscale Alpine Programme —MAP. The investigations were based on both field experiments and numerical simulations, using meteorological and hydrological models, of ten major floods that occurred in the past decade in the European Alps. The two basins investigated were the Ticino (6599 km2 at the Lago Maggiore outlet on the southern side of the Alps and the Ammer catchment (709 km2 in the Bavarian Alps. These catchments and their sub-catchments cover an appropriate range of spatial scales with which to investigate and test in an operational context the potential of both mesoscale meteorological and distributed hydrological models for flood forecasting. From the data analyses and model simulations described in this Special Issue, the major sources of uncertainties for flood forecasts in mid-size mountain basins are outlined and the accuracy flood forecasts is assessed. Keywords: floods, mountain hydrology, meteorological models, Alps

  10. Non-perturbative over-production of axion-like-particles (ALPs) via derivative interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Mazumdar, Anupam

    2015-01-01

    Axion like particles (ALPs) are quite generic in many scenarios for physics beyond the Standard Model, they are pseudoscalar Nambu-Goldstone bosons, and appear once any global $U(1)$ symmetry is broken spontaneously. The ALPs can gain mass from various non-perturbative quantum effects, such as anomalies or instantons. ALPs can couple to the matter sector incluidng a scalar condensate such as inflaton or moduli field via derivative interactions, which are suppressed by the axion {\\it decay constant}, $f_\\chi$ . Although weakly interacting, the ALPs can be produced abundantly from the coherent oscillations of a homogeneous condensate. In this paper we will study such a scenario where the ALPs can be produced abundantly, and in some cases can even overclose the Universe via odd and even dimensional operators, as long as $f_\\chi/\\Phi_{\\rm I} \\ll 1$, where $\\Phi_{\\rm I}$ denotes the initial amplitude of the coherent oscillations of the scalar condensate, $\\phi$. We will briefly mention how such dangerous overprodu...

  11. Dating the onset of LGM ice surface lowering in the High Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirsig, Christian; Zasadni, Jerzy; Christl, Marcus; Akçar, Naki; Ivy-Ochs, Susan

    2016-07-01

    The general chronological outline of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in the Alps is well known after more than two centuries of ice age research in Europe. Current studies focus on resolving the details of the deglaciation process after the LGM. Particularly few data in this context are available from the High Alps. Here we report chronological constraints on the onset of deglaciation in two different study areas from the Western and Eastern Alps: the Mont Blanc (Italy) and Zillertal Alps (Austria). We sampled 32 bedrock and boulder surfaces from high elevation ridges beneath the glacial trimline. The oldest 10Be exposure ages of ∼18.5 ka correspond to the initiation of lowering of the LGM ice surface. Identical ages from both study areas suggest synchronous decay of the LGM glaciers in the accumulation zones of the Western and Eastern Alps. Thus, the High Alpine ice surface lowered roughly synchronously to the downwasting of the glacier tongues in the forelands that was completed 19-18 ka. In both study areas, ages of numerous samples that are consistently 2-3 ka younger than 18.5 ka suggest the persistance of remnant ice patches at high elevations in the Lateglacial accumulation zones approximately until the Bølling-Allerød interstadial.

  12. Natural gas seeps in the French Alps: Sources and pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloppmann, Wolfram; Blessing, Michaela; Proust, Eric; Gal, Frédéric; Bentivegna, Gaetan; Henry, Benoit; Defossez, Pierrick; Catherine, Lerouge; Humez, Pauline; Mayer, Bernhard; Millot, Romain; Gaucher, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Natural gas emanations are part of the geochemical baseline to take into account when assessing global greenhouse gas emissions and potential impacts of conventional and unconventional gas exploration and exploitation on groundwater. Examples of such natural gas macro-seeps are known in several parts of the world (Etiope et al., 2009). Only a limited number of them have been characterized for their gas and isotopic compositions. Such analyses can provide essential information for baseline studies, providing insight in the sources (biogenic vs. thermogenic or modified thermogenic) and pathways of such seeps and may allow for distinction of natural seeps from stray gas leakage associated with human activities. Here, we report gas concentrations and multi-isotope data (δ13C and δ2H of methane and ethane, δ13C and δ18O of CO2, 3He/4He ratio) of two gas seeps in the French subalpine chains, both in a similar geological and structural position within Middle Jurassic claystones along the eastern border of the large synclinal structures of the Vercors and the Chartreuse massifs (Moss, 1992). The "ardent fountain" (fontaine ardente) of Le Gua, 30 km south of Grenoble has most likely the longest continuous written record of existence of any individual natural gas seep, mentioned explicitly as early as the first quarter of the 5th century (Augustin of Hippo (St. Augustin), approx. 426) This natural seep was described in the past as a "wet seep" associated with a spring, whereas the second investigated seep, Rochasson near Meylan north of Grenoble, is a dry seep. Both seeps contain methane and ethane with thermogenic C and H isotope signatures, comparable with a seep in the Northern Swiss Alps at Giswil (Etiope et al., 2010) but with a higher dryness (C1/(C2+C3)>1000) for the Le Gua seep, possibly due to molecular fractionation upon advective fluid+gas migration (Etiope et al., 2009). Maturity (R0) of the reservoir rocks deduced from δ13C(CH4), δ13C(C2H6) is similar to

  13. Natural gas seeps in the French Alps: Sources and pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloppmann, Wolfram; Blessing, Michaela; Proust, Eric; Gal, Frédéric; Bentivegna, Gaetan; Henry, Benoit; Defossez, Pierrick; Catherine, Lerouge; Humez, Pauline; Mayer, Bernhard; Millot, Romain; Gaucher, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Natural gas emanations are part of the geochemical baseline to take into account when assessing global greenhouse gas emissions and potential impacts of conventional and unconventional gas exploration and exploitation on groundwater. Examples of such natural gas macro-seeps are known in several parts of the world (Etiope et al., 2009). Only a limited number of them have been characterized for their gas and isotopic compositions. Such analyses can provide essential information for baseline studies, providing insight in the sources (biogenic vs. thermogenic or modified thermogenic) and pathways of such seeps and may allow for distinction of natural seeps from stray gas leakage associated with human activities. Here, we report gas concentrations and multi-isotope data (δ13C and δ2H of methane and ethane, δ13C and δ18O of CO2, 3He/4He ratio) of two gas seeps in the French subalpine chains, both in a similar geological and structural position within Middle Jurassic claystones along the eastern border of the large synclinal structures of the Vercors and the Chartreuse massifs (Moss, 1992). The "ardent fountain" (fontaine ardente) of Le Gua, 30 km south of Grenoble has most likely the longest continuous written record of existence of any individual natural gas seep, mentioned explicitly as early as the first quarter of the 5th century (Augustin of Hippo (St. Augustin), approx. 426) This natural seep was described in the past as a "wet seep" associated with a spring, whereas the second investigated seep, Rochasson near Meylan north of Grenoble, is a dry seep. Both seeps contain methane and ethane with thermogenic C and H isotope signatures, comparable with a seep in the Northern Swiss Alps at Giswil (Etiope et al., 2010) but with a higher dryness (C1/(C2+C3)>1000) for the Le Gua seep, possibly due to molecular fractionation upon advective fluid+gas migration (Etiope et al., 2009). Maturity (R0) of the reservoir rocks deduced from δ13C(CH4), δ13C(C2H6) is similar to

  14. Slipping zones from exhumed faults in dolostones (Borcola Pass Fault, Italian Southern Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondriest, M.; Smith, S.; Di Toro, G.; Zampieri, D.

    2011-12-01

    Fault zones in limestones and dolostones represent significant seismogenic sources in many areas worldwide, including central Italy and the Italian Fore-Alps (e.g. Val di Noto 1693, estimated Mw = 6.9; Avezzano 1915, Mw = 6.7; Friuli 1976, Mw = 6.4; Irpinia 1980, Mw = 6.9; L'Aquila 2009, Mw = 6.3). Field and microstructural investigations of exhumed seismogenic fault zones and related fault rocks in carbonates are therefore important to document fault structure and the range of deformation processes active during the seismic cycle. The Borcola Pass Fault is a ca. N-S strike-slip branch of the Schio-Vicenza Line (a main lineament of the Italian Southern Alps) and is well exposed within a series of large dolostone quarries (Borcola Pass, Trento). Estimated depth and temperature conditions during faulting are ca. 1.6-1.7 km and 50°C. The fault zone consists of a > 80 m thick damage zone surrounding a 2-3 m thick fault core containing dolomitic fault rock lenses bounded by principal slip zones up to 10 cm thick. The damage zone is cut by three systems of secondary faults striking N-S, E-W and NW-SE. N-S and E-W striking faults reactivated inherited (Jurassic to Paleogene) regional-scale joints and have an average spacing between 0.2 to 0.5 m, whereas NW-SE striking faults were newly formed during post-Paleogene slip activity along the Borcola Pass Fault and the Schio-Vicenza Line. Both principal and secondary slip zones consist of cement-supported dolomitic cataclasites and dolomite-filled veins. Some slip zones contain a sub-centimetre thick vein-like cataclastic layer (Layer A) located immediately beneath the principal slip surface and above a cement-supported cataclasite (Layer B). Layer A is white in colour and consists of sub-rounded dolostone grains ranging between 300 μm and 2.5 mm in size, suspended in a dolomitic cement. Layer B is grey in colour and consists of sub-angular dolostone grains ranging between 5 μm and 1 cm in size within a dolomitic cement

  15. Crustal structure, seismicity and seismotectonics of the Trentino region (Southern Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viganò, Alfio; Scafidi, Davide; Martin, Silvana; Spallarossa, Daniele; Froner, Luca; Groaz, Oscar

    2013-04-01

    The Trentino region is located at the junction between the central and eastern Southern Alps (Italy), at the intersection between the Giudicarie, Schio-Vicenza and Valsugana fault systems. This area is characterized by relevant lithological and structural lateral heterogeneities, both at the crustal and lithospheric scales. A low-to-moderate seismicity is located in the upper crust, where faults are seismically active under a dominant compressive with variable strike-slip component regime. Here we study the crustal structure of this portion of the Southern Alps (Adria plate) from interpretation of local earthquake tomography images, in relation with distribution of relocated seismicity and regional tectonic patterns. Local earthquake tomography derives from a set of 476 selected earthquakes in the period 1994-2007, with local magnitudes comprised between 0.8 and 5.3. Hypocenter distribution, and number and quality of manually-repicked phases (6322 P and 5483 S) ensure optimal seismic ray coverage. Original recordings are principally from the Provincia Autonoma di Trento (PAT), that manages the Trentino seismic network since 1981, and from other networks (Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale - INOGS; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - INGV; others available via the European Integrated Data Archive). The code HYPOELLIPSE is used to perform initial earthquake relocations. The code VELEST is then used to calculate a new minimum 1-D velocity model, as input for tomography. The 3-D tomographic inversion (V P and V P-V S ratio) is obtained via the code SIMULPS, with the implementation of an accurate shooting ray-tracer. The crustal volume is discretized in order to have a regular grid with a homogenous horizontal spatial resolution of 7.5 km. The resolution in depth varies according to the obtained minimum 1-D velocity model. Reliability and accuracy of results are estimated by analyzing the Resolution Diagonal Elements of the

  16. Soil-plant system development 9 to 136 years after marly gully beds rehabilitation (French Southern Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erktan, Amandine; Cohen, Marianne; Zerouali, Laila; Poulenard, Jérôme; Cécillon, Lauric; Rey, Freddy

    2013-04-01

    Marly badlands, showing active eroded gullies and low soil fertility, are found in the French Southern Alps for around 250 years. Negative ecological, social and and economical consequences of such intense erosion historically promoted the ecological restoration of these terrains. In a small catchment of 390 ha (Saignon catchment, France), a first wave of restoration was run in 1876-78, mainly through Austrian black pine plantation on eroded gully sides. A second wave occurred in 2002 and focused on gullies partly vegetated on their sides but still showing active gully beds. Bioengineering works, made of barriers of Salix cuttings, were implanted in gully beds to increase sedimentation and in turn to re-initiate soil formation. This strategy proved to be efficient to retain sediment and to favor plant colonization. The aim of this study was to investigate soil fertility of sediment mounds retained in gully beds 9 to 136 years after their rehabilitation. To answer this question, we compared the topsoil (0-10 cm depth) chemical fertility of 6 gully beds restored in 2002 with bioengineering works to the one of 5 gully beds belonging to gullies stabilized by pine plantation 136 years ago. As a control, sediment mounds found in 15 bare gully beds were also studied. In each gully, basic soil characteristics of composite samples were assessed. Vegetative cover, plant richness and litter accumulation were also measured. We found that soil organic carbon and total nitrogen content significantly increased with time since gully bed rehabilitation (4.3±0.4 / 12±1 / 21±2 g.kg-1 and 0.80±0.02 / 1.4±0.02 / 1.7±0.07 g.kg-1) for bare gully beds and gully beds rehabilitated 9 and 140 years ago, respectively. Carbonate content was lower in restored gullies (average value of 242±5 g.kg-1) compared to control ones (547±13 g.kg-1). These results suggest that pedogenesis was engaged in both sets of restored gullies (decarbonatation process). Available phosphorus was lowest in

  17. Escape tectonics and foreland basin evolution: The Austrian-German Molasse basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortner, Hugo

    2016-04-01

    at the Alpine front. Active thrusting in the Subalpine Molasse, and probably also in more internal parts of the Alps, would bring the orogen closer the foreland, and therefore cause more loading in the foreland, but at a much smaller rate, as material was continuously transported out of the zone of shortening by lateral escape. The contemporanous onset of the second megasequence of the foreland basin fill, and of escape tectonics is therefore not a coincidence. East of the Subalpine Molasse thrust belt, onset of lateral escape terminated shortening and thus lower plate flexure. Marine conditions in the lower part of the second megasequence, that exist also in the eastern part of the forland basin, are therefore not dependent on flexure, but rather on reduced sediment input into the basin. Ortner, H., Aichholzer, S., Zerlauth, M., Pilser, R. & Fügenschuh, B. (2015): Geometry, amount and sequence of thrusting in the Subalpine Molasse of Western Austria and Southern Germany, European Alps.- Tectonics, 34: 1-30, doi: 10.1002/2014TC003550

  18. The Central Role of Neuroscientists under National Socialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidman, Lawrence A

    2016-01-01

    Neuroscientists played central roles in the victimization of colleagues and their patients during the era of National Socialism from 1933 to 1945. After helping dismiss Jewish and nonideologically aligned colleagues, German neuroscientists were among the physicians and researchers who joined the Nazi Party and affiliated groups in record numbers. Forced sterilization and then so-called 'euthanasia' of neurological and psychiatric patients were planned and executed by prominent German and Austrian neuroscientists. Other neuroscientists collaborated indirectly by using patients for unethical experimentation to discover the cause of multiple sclerosis or to try to induce epileptic convulsions in a hypoxic state. Some merely used neuropathological material from murdered patients for publications in scientific journals. In the totalitarian state, research funding and academic advancement were awarded to physicians engaged in eugenics research. Opportunism and ideologically tainted science without regard to medical ethics were the motivating factors for collaborating neuroscientists. Some German and Austrian neuroscientists tried to resist Nazi policies, although much more passively than their colleagues in German-occupied countries. French, Dutch, Norwegian, and Danish neuroscientists actively resisted the Nazification of their profession from the beginning and helped to save some patients and colleagues, at great personal risk. Many German, Austrian, Czech, and Polish neurologists were murdered in the Holocaust, and hundreds of thousands of neurological and psychiatric patients were sterilized or murdered in just 12 years. The Nazis used the 'successful' techniques developed in the 'euthanasia' programs to carry out the mass murder of millions in the Holocaust. Today's neuroscientists are obligated to learn of the ethical violations of their predecessors 70-80 years ago. No law will prevent abandonment of the basic principles of ethical patient care and professionalism

  19. Structure and evolution of a rocksalt-mudrock-tectonite: The haselgebirge in the Northern Calcareous Alps

    OpenAIRE

    Leitner, Christoph; Neubauer, Franz; Urai, János L.; Schoenherr, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    The Northern Calcareous Alps are part of the Eastern Alps in Austria and Germany. The Mesozoic units of this fold-and-thrust belt were detached, thrusted and stacked along the evaporitic Haselgebirge Formation. Exposed in salt mines, rocksalt and mudrock form a two component tectonite: The rock type “haselgebirge” consists of 10–70 wt % halite with silt- to gravel- or block-sized components within a halite matrix, and the “kerngebirge” with >70 wt % halite. All rock types studied are fault ro...

  20. The evolution of mountain permafrost in the context of climate change Alps: towards a comprehensive analysis of permafrost monitoring data from the Swiss Alps

    OpenAIRE

    Staub, Benno; Delaloye, Reynald

    2016-01-01

    In the Swiss Alps, permafrost occurs discontinuously and commonly has a temperature close to 0 °C. A reduction of Alpine permafrost area and volume is expected in the course of atmospheric warming, but to date, limited evidence is available for Alpine permafrost degradation. Permafrost warming or thaw is accompanied by structural changes in the subsurface, which endanger infrastructure by increasing kinematic activity or slope instability. Changes in the permafrost impact sediment transport t...

  1. ... AND HERE COMES THE WEATHER - Austrian TV and radio weather news in the eye of the public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keul, A.; Holzer, A. M.; Wostal, T.

    2010-09-01

    Media weather reports as the main avenue of meteorological and climatological information to the general public have always been in the focus of critical investigation. Former research found that although weather reports are high-interest topics, the amount of information recalled by non-experts is rather low, and criticized this. A pilot study (Keul et al., 2009) by the Salzburg University in cooperation with ORF, the Austrian Broadcasting Corporation, used historic radio files on a fair-weather and a storm situation. It identified the importance of intelligible wording of the weather forecast messages for lay people. Without quality control, weather information can stimulate rumours, false comfort or false alarms. More qualitative and experimental research, also on TV weather, seems justified. This need for further research was addressed by a second and larger field experiment in the spring of 2010. The survey took place in Salzburg City, Austria, with a quota sample of about 90 lay persons. This time TV and radio weather reports were used and a more realistic listening and viewing situation was created by presenting the latest weather forecasts of the given day to the test persons in the very next hours after originally broadcasting them. It asked lay people what they find important in the weather reports and what they remember for their actual next-day use. Reports of a fairweather prognosis were compared with a warning condition. The weather media mix of the users was explored. A second part of the study was a questionnaire which tested the understanding of typical figures of speech used in weather forecasts or even meteorological terms, which might also be important for fully understanding the severe weather warnings. This leads to quantitative and qualitative analysis from which the most important and unexpected results are presented. Short presentation times (1.5 to 2 minutes) make Austrian radio and TV weather reports a narrow compromise between general

  2. Modelling site-specific N2O emission factors from Austrian agricultural soils for targeted mitigation measures (NitroAustria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, Barbara; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Kasper, Martina; Foldal, Cecilie; Schiefer, Jasmin; Kitzler, Barbara; Schwarzl, Bettina; Zethner, Gerhard; Anderl, Michael; Sedy, Katrin; Gaugitsch, Helmut; Dersch, Georg; Baumgarten, Andreas; Haas, Edwin; Kiese, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    Results from a previous project "FarmClim" highlight that the IPCC default emission factor is not able to reflect region specific N2O emissions from Austrian arable soils. The methodology is limited in identifying hot spots and hot moments of N2O emissions. When estimations are based on default emission factors no recommendations can be given on optimisation measures that would lead to a reduction of soil N2O emissions. The better the knowledge is about Nitrogen and Carbon budgets in Austrian agricultural managed soils the better the situation can be reflected in the Austrian GHG emission inventory calculations. Therefore national and regionally modelled emission factors should improve the evidence for national deviation from the IPCC default emission factors and reduce the uncertainties. The overall aim of NitroAustria is to identify the drivers for N2O emissions on a regional basis taking different soil types, climate, and agricultural management into account. We use the LandscapeDNDC model to update the N2O emission factors for N fertilizer and animal manure applied to soils. Key regions in Austria were selected and region specific N2O emissions calculated. The model runs at sub-daily time steps and uses data such as maximum and minimum air temperature, precipitation, radiation, and wind speed as meteorological drivers. Further input data are used to reflect agricultural management practices, e.g., planting/harvesting, tillage, fertilizer application, irrigation and information on soil and vegetation properties for site characterization and model initialization. While at site scale, arable management data (crop cultivation, rotations, timings etc.) is obtained by experimental data from field trials or observations, at regional scale such data need to be generated using region specific proxy data such as land use and management statistics, crop cultivations and yields, crop rotations, fertilizer sales, manure resulting from livestock units etc. The farming

  3. IT adoption of clinical information systems in Austrian and German hospitals: results of a comparative survey with a focus on nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaubmayr Christine

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background IT adoption is a process that is influenced by different external and internal factors. This study aimed 1. to identify similarities and differences in the prevalence of medical and nursing IT systems in Austrian and German hospitals, and 2. to match these findings with characteristics of the two countries, in particular their healthcare system, and with features of the hospitals. Methods In 2007, all acute care hospitals in both countries received questionnaires with identical questions. 12.4% in Germany and 34.6% in Austria responded. Results The surveys revealed a consistent higher usage of nearly all clinical IT systems, especially nursing systems, but also PACS and electronic archiving systems, in Austrian than in German hospitals. These findings correspond with a significantly wider use of standardised nursing terminologies and a higher number of PC workstations on the wards (average 2.1 PCs in Germany, 3.2 PCs in Austria. Despite these differences, Austrian and German hospitals both reported a similar IT budget of 2.6% in Austria and 2.0% in Germany (median. Conclusions Despite the many similarities of the Austrian and German healthcare system there are distinct differences which may have led to a wider use of IT systems in Austrian hospitals. In nursing, the specific legal requirement to document nursing diagnoses in Austria may have stimulated the use of standardised terminologies for nursing diagnoses and the implementation of electronic nursing documentation systems. Other factors which correspond with the wider use of clinical IT systems in Austria are: good infrastructure of medical-technical devices, rigorous organisational changes which had led to leaner processes and to a lower length of stay, and finally a more IT friendly climate. As country size is the most pronounced difference between Germany and Austria it could be that smaller countries, such as Austria, are more ready to translate innovation into

  4. Why air quality in the Alps remains a matter of concern. The impact of organic pollutants in the alpine area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, P; Belis, C A; Schnelle-Kreis, J; Herzig, R; Prevot, A S H; Raveton, M; Kirchner, M; Catinon, M

    2014-01-01

    In the middle of Europe, the Alps form a geographical and meteorological trap for atmospheric pollutants including volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds emitted in the surrounding lowlands. This is due to their barrier effects, high precipitation rates, and low ambient temperatures. Also the pollutants emitted in the cities inside the Alps spread in the region depending on orographic and meteorological conditions. Although a number of studies on the distribution and effect of pollutants in the Alps has been published, comprehensive information on potential hazards, and ways to improve this sensible environment are lacking. This opinion paper is the result of a discussion during the Winterseminar of the AlpsBioCluster project in Munich. It summarizes the current literature and presents some case studies on local pollution sources in the Alps, and the possibility of using biomonitoring techniques to assess critical pollution loads and distributions. PMID:24046224

  5. Morphostructural study of the Belledonne faults system (French Alps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billant, Jérémy; Bellier, Olivier; Hippolyte, Jean-Claude; Godard, Vincent; Manchuel, Kevin

    2016-04-01

    The NE trending Belledonne faults system, located in the Alps, is a potentially active faults system that extends from the Aiguilles Rouges and Mont Blanc massifs in the NE to the Vercors massif in the SW (subalpine massifs). It includes the Belledonne border fault (BBF), defined by an alignment of micro earthquakes (ML≤3.5) along the eastern part of the Grésivaudan valley (Thouvenot et al., 2003). Focal mechanisms and their respective depths tend to confirm a dextral strike-slip faulting at crustal scale. In the scope of the Sigma project (http://projet-sigma.com/index.html, EDF), this study aims at better constraining the geometry, kinematic and seismogenic potential of the constitutive faults of the Belledonne fault system, by using a multidisciplinary approach that includes tectonics, geomorphology and geophysics. Fault kinematic analysis along the BBF (Billant et al., 2015) and the Jasneuf fault allows the determination of a strike-slip tectonic regime characterised by an ENE trending σ1 stress axes, which is consistent with stress state deduced from the focal mechanisms. Although no morphological anomalies could be related to recent faulting along the BBF, new clues of potential Quaternary deformations were observed along the other faults of the system: -right lateral offset of morphologic markers (talwegs...) along the NE trending Arcalod fault located at the north-eastern terminations of the BBF; -left lateral offset of the valley formed by the Isère glacier along the NW trending Brion fault which is consistent with its left-lateral slip inferred from the focal mechanisms; -fault scarps and right lateral offsets of cliffs bordering a calcareous plateau and talwegs along the four fault segments of the NE trending Jasneuf fault located at the south-western termination of the BBF in the Vercors massif. Some offsets were measured using a new method that does not require the identification of piercing points and take advantage of the high resolution

  6. High-altitude varve records of abrupt environmental changes and mining activity over the last 4000 years in the Western French Alps (Lake Bramant, Grandes Rousses Massif)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyard, H.; St-Onge, G.; Chapron, E.; Anselmetti, F. S.; Arnaud, F.; Magand, O.; Francus, P.; Mélières, M.

    2007-12-01

    Alps and high \\m lake levels in west-central Europe. This major change in proglacial sedimentation highlights the development of a larger St. Sorlin glacier in the catchment area of Lake Bramant.

  7. Human Nature, Flourishing, and Happiness: Toward a Synthesis of Aristotelianism, Austrian Economics, Positive Psychology, and Ayn Rand’s Objectivism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward W. Younkins

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a skeleton of a potential paradigm of human flourishing and happiness in a free society. It is an exploratory attempt to construct an understanding from various disciplines and to integrate them into a clear, consistent, coherent, and systematic whole. Holding that there are essential interconnections among objective ideas, the article specifically emphasizes the compatibility of Aristotelianism, Austrian Economics, Positive Psychology, and Ayn Rand’s Objectivism arguing that particular ideas from these areas can be integrated into a paradigm of human flourishing and happiness based on the nature of man and the world. Such a paradigm will help people to understand the world and to survive and flourish in it. It is hoped that the paradigm will grow and evolve as scholars engage, question, critique, interpret, and extend its ideas. Our goal is to have a paradigm that accords with reality and there is always more to learn from reality.

  8. Modality-dependent dose requirements in the Austrian breast cancer early detection program. First results from technical quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Austrian Breast Cancer Early Detection Program (BKFP) has officially started in January 2014. In order to ensure that all participating women can rely on a sufficient cancer detection rate while at the same time the required dose is as low as reasonably achievable, all participating radiology institutes (approx. 200) have to fulfill strict quality assurance requirements. The control and certification is performed by the Reference Center for Technical Quality Assurance (RefZQS), which has been developing the methods and tolerances in a pilot project since 2007. The limits are defined in the EUREF-Oeprotocol which is based on the European EPQC guidelines. From the requirement for optimized image quality while simultaneously following the ALARA principle, we found modality-dependent dose requirements, which we had expected but which have now been compiled for the first time for Austria.

  9. Meeting report: Vienna 2008 Workshop of the German-Austrian Working Group for Studying Prognostic Factors in Myelodysplastic Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valent, Peter; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Büsche, Guntram; Sotlar, Karl; Horny, Hans-Peter; Haase, Detlef; Haferlach, Torsten; Kern, Wolfgang; Bettelheim, Peter; Baumgartner, Christian; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Nösslinger, Thomas; Wimazal, Friedrich; Giagounidis, Aristoteles A; Lübbert, Michael; Krieger, Otto; Kolb, Hans-Jochem; Stauder, Reinhard; Pfeilstöcker, Michael; Gattermann, Norbert; Fonatsch, Christa; Aul, Carlo; Germing, Ulrich

    2009-07-01

    Criteria, scoring systems, and treatment algorithms for myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) have been updated repeatedly in recent years. This apparently results from increased awareness and early recognition of the disease, an increasing number of new diagnostic and prognostic markers and tools, and new therapeutic options that may change the course and thus prognosis in MDS. To address these challenges and to create useful new diagnostic and prognostic parameters and scores, the German-Austrian Working Group for Studying Prognostic Factors in MDS was established in 2003 and later was extended to centers in Switzerland (D-A-CH group). In addition, the group cooperates with the European LeukemiaNet, the MDS Foundation, and other national and international working groups in order to improve diagnosis and prognostication. The current article represents a meeting report from the latest workshop organized by the group in Vienna in October 2008. PMID:19148644

  10. Antimicrobial drug use on Austrian dairy farms with special consideration of the use of "highest priority critically important antimicrobials".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obritzhauser, Walter; Trauffler, Martine; Raith, Johannes; Kopacka, Ian; Fuchs, Klemens; Köfer, Josef

    2016-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in livestock production is coming under growing criticism. Beside overall antimicrobial use, specific substances listed by the WHO as "highest priority critically important antimicrobials" (HPCIAs)--these include fluoroquinolones, macrolides, 3rd and 4th generation cephalosporins, as well as glycopeptides--have been placed under specific restrictions and should only be applied in particular cases according to strict indication criteria. In this study, the consumption of antimicrobial substances on Austrian dairy farms was evaluated quantitatively. The data covered 8,027 prescription records on the use of antibiotics on 465 dairy farms. Eleven veterinary practices provided data from between four to 27 months during the period from 2008 to 2010 and the total consumption of antimicrobials was estimated. The amount of active substance(s) in grams used per livestock unit (g/LU) per year and the number of product-related daily doses used per livestock unit (n PrDD(LU)/LU) per year were determined as units of measurement. These parameters were estimated by applying Monte Carlo simulation techniques, respecting variances in annual working days of the veterinary practices as well as variances in the proportion of non-treated populations. Total antimicrobial consumption in the population-at-risk was determined to be 2.59 g/LU and 1.30 PrDD(LU)/LU per year. HPCIAs were used at a proportion of 24.6% (0.31 PrDD(LU)/LU) of the total consumption of antimicrobials for systemic and intramammary use. Of these, 3rd and 4th generation cephalosporins were most frequently administered, particularly for the treatment of mastitis and foot diseases. The total consumption of antimicrobials in Austrian dairy cattle production is negligible compared to their use in pig and poultry production systems. However, the use of HPCIAs, especially 3rd and 4th generation cephalosporins, should be minimised further. PMID:27344910

  11. Attrition in the Austrian Generations and Gender Survey: Is there a bias by fertility-relevant aspects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Buber-Ennser

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: In longitudinal research the loss of sample members between waves is a possible source of bias. It is therefore crucial to analyse attrition. Objective: This paper analyses attrition in a longitudinal study on family and fertility, by distinguishing between attrition due to non-contact and attrition due to non-cooperation. Methods: Based on the first two waves of the Austrian Generations and Gender Survey, the two components of attrition are studied separately by using bivariate as well as multivariate methods. Moreover, overall dropout - the combination of both components - isanalysed. Apart from various socio-economic characteristics and data collection information, the study focuses on fertility-relevant variables such as fecundity, fertility intentions, sexual orientation, and traditional attitudes. Results: Fecundity, fertility intentions, and homosexual relationships are associated with higher attrition due to non-cooperation in bivariate analyses, but have no explanatory power inthe multivariate model. Pregnancy and traditional attitudes towards marriage are associated with significantly lower attrition due to non-cooperation in the multivariate context. Overall dropout is significantly lower only among persons with traditionalattitudes towards marriage, although small in size and statistical significance. Moreover, various individual and regional characteristics are significantly associated with dropout, with differences between attrition due to non-contact and attrition due to non-cooperation. Conclusions: Detailed insights into attrition are not only important when using longitudinal data and interpreting results, but also for the design of future data collections. The Austrian GGS panel has a relatively low dropout (22Š and is affected by a small bias towards familyoriented persons as well as less-educated respondents and persons with migrationbackgrounds, but the data can be used without concern about selectivity.

  12. Long-Term Socio-Ecological Research in Practice: Lessons from Inter- and Transdisciplinary Research in the Austrian Eisenwurzen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Gingrich

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Long-Term Socio-Ecological Research (LTSER is an inter- and transdisciplinary research field addressing socio-ecological change over time at various spatial and temporal scales. In the Austrian Eisenwurzen region, an LTSER platform was founded in 2004. It has fostered and documented research projects aiming at advancing LTSER scientifically and at providing regional stakeholders with relevant information for sustainable regional development. Since its establishment, a broad range of research activities has been pursued in the region, integrating information from long-term ecological monitoring sites with approaches from social sciences and the humanities, and in cooperation with regional stakeholders. Based on the experiences gained in the Eisenwurzen LTSER platform, this article presents current activities in the heterogeneous field of LTSER, identifying specific (inter-disciplinary contributions of three research strands of LTSER: long-term ecological research, socio-ecological basic research, and transdisciplinary research. Given the broad array of diverse contributions to LTSER, we argue that the platform has become a relevant “boundary organization,” linking research to its regional non-academic context, and ensuring interdisciplinary exchange among the variety of disciplines. We consider the diversity of LTSER approaches an important resource for future research. Major success criteria of LTSER face specific challenges: (1 existing loose, yet stable networks need to be maintained and extended; (2 continuous generation of and access to relevant data needs to be secured and more data need to be included; and (3 consecutive research projects that have allowed for capacity building in the past may be threatened in the future if national Austrian research funders cease to provide resources.

  13. Determination of eye lens doses and identification of risk groups among radiation exposed workers. An Austrian pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On European level, in 2014 the dose limit for the lens of the eye of radiation exposed workers has been reduced from 150 to 20 mSv per year (2013/59/Euratom). Data about eye lens exposition measured under realistic operational conditions of Austrian radiation exposed workers is sparse and there is no information to verify, if all professional groups identified to be at risk for elevated eye doses will remain below the new annual dose limit. Therefore, financed by the Austrian Workers Compensation Board, AUVA, a pilot study has been initiated to answer this question. Based on published information professional groups of radiation exposed workers and operational tasks with an enhanced risk of elevated eye lens doses have been identified. By dosimetric measurements with volunteers (forehead dose meters and parallel measurements with whole-body TL-dose meters above and under the lead apron) realistic lens doses will be estimated during selected radiation exposed tasks. Comparison of yielded doses will show whether a TLD outside the apron could serve as an alternative to forehead dose meters dedicated to measure eye lens doses. Measurements with leaded protective eyewear based on IEC61331 yield results for lead equivalent in good agreement with manufacturers' information. Results for eye lens doses determined by use of a RANDO head phantom and a standardized phantom simulating a body in a typical exposition situation for interventional radiologists show that wearing of leaded goggles allows for a 90% dose reduction. Under such conditions the eye lens dose is dominated by backscatter and stray radiation from the operator's head and patient body. This has to be considered for the evaluation of protective effectiveness for leaded eye wear.

  14. Petrofabrics, microtextures and dislocation substructures of olivine in a peridotite mylonite (Alpe Arami, Switzerland)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buiskool Toxopeus, J.M.A.

    1978-01-01

    The development of preferred crystallographic orientation and dimensional fabric of olivine in relation to deformation were investigated in a thin, continuous chlorite peridotite mylonite rim around the garnet peridotite body of Alpe Arami, Ticino, Switzerland. The mylonite is a foliated rock contai

  15. Past processes in peats : untangling the origin of dried peat in the Australian alps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peat soils form where decomposition is hindered, often by a combination of cold and wet conditions, such that production of organic matter outweighs decomposition. Such conditions are rare in the hot, dry continent of Australia. Consequently peat barely features on a map of Australian soils, though small areas are noted to occur in the alps and along the humid east coast. It is pertinent to ask several questions about the origin of peat in the alps. Is dried peat a remnant of bog peat? And if so, when did bogs drain to form dried peat? The study site, on Wellington Plains in the south-east Gippsland Alps, contains a substantial area of bog peat and extensive areas of dried peat. AMS radiocarbon dating of surface, base and, for the bog peat only, mid-profile peat samples, was carried out at ANSTO. 14C dating enabled us to look at the initiation of peat accumulation, but the change from bog peat to dried peat is thought to have occurred more recently, since the introduction of stock to the alps. The short half-life of 210Pb (22.6 years) and the constant supply from the upper atmosphere makes 210Pb an appropriate technique to investigate this time frame. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  16. Demodicosis in Chamois ( Rupicapra rupicapra subsp. rupicapra) in the Italian Alps, 2013-14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvadori, Claudia; Formenti, Nicoletta; Trogu, Tiziana; Lanfranchi, Paolo; Papini, Roberto A; Poli, Alessandro

    2016-04-28

    We report demodicosis in five alpine chamois ( Rupicapra rupicapra subsp. rupicapra) from the Italian Alps that showed moderate crusts on the head and dorsal aspect of the trunk. We detected intramural folliculitis, moderate dermatitis, and T-lymphocytes and macrophages associated with Demodex spp. in follicles and sebaceous glands. PMID:26981687

  17. Biodiversity governance and social-ecological system dynamics: transformation in the Australian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lockwood

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity conservation continues to be a challenging task for societies worldwide. We undertook a resilience assessment to address the following question: What are the ramifications of social-ecological system dynamics for biodiversity governance of a nationally significant landscape? Resilience assessment offers promise for guiding response strategies, potentially enabling consideration of ecological, social, economic, and governance influences on biodiversity-related activities. Most resilience assessments have, however, struggled to effectively incorporate governance influences. We applied a modified version of the Resilience Alliance workbook approach to explicitly address governance influences at each stage of an assessment of internationally significant biodiversity features in protected areas of the Australian Alps. The vulnerability of the Alps system to climate change suggests that it is moving into a release stage, with subsequent transformation hypothesized. Network governance is argued as enabling flexible, adaptive management and comprehensive engagement of stakeholders, both of which are critical to shaping how this transformation of the Alps as a valued focal system will occur. The Australian Alps Liaison Committee provides a promising governance structure for collaboration and comanagement across multiple jurisdictions. Our contribution was to demonstrate how a resilience assessment that explicitly embeds governance influences in social-ecological system dynamics can point to pathways for governance reform in the context of system transformation.

  18. Money Supply as the Target of the Central Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jędruchniewicz Andrzej

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the article is a critical analysis of the monetary policy strategy that is based on the adoption of money supply as an intermediate target. The analysis is conducted from the perspective of the theory of the Austrian school. The first part of the article presents an influence of the supply of money on changes of categories in economy according to mainstream theories of economics. The second part discusses the essence of the strategy of monetary policy using money supply as an intermediate target from the point of view of the main trend in economics. It is demonstrated that in order to use it, two elementary conditions must be met: the function of demand for money must be at least relatively stable and the central bank must practically shape changes in the money supply at the planned level. The third part is of key importance for the purpose of this article. It involves the criticism of Friedman’s principle, i.e. a constant increase in money supply as a monetary strategy. According to the Austrian theory, an increase in the quantity of money which is not financed by voluntary savings separates the time structure of production and consumption. Thus, after the period of prosperity there a collapse in production must take place. It is also pointed out that the crisis can be postponed only when the quantity of money increases at an ever faster rate.

  19. Active deformation in the inner western Alps inferred from comparison between 1972-classical and 1996-GPS geodetic surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue, Christian; Martinod, Joseph; Tricart, Pierre; Thouvenot, François; Gamond, Jean-François; Fréchet, Julien; Marinier, Delphine; Glot, Jean-Paul; Grasso, Jean-Robert

    2000-04-01

    Eighteen geodetic points surveyed in 1972 by the French National Geographic Institute (IGN) were remeasured by GPS in 1996 in the Briançonnais and Piémont Zones, east of the Pelvoux massif (French Western Alps). A displacement vector set was determined for the two surveys' common points. Calculations of the strain-rate tensors associated with 15 triangular cells of the network have been performed. Only four of them show a strain rate significant at a 95% level of confidence. These data suggest an E-W extension of about 2-4 mm/yr between the western and eastern part of the network (Pelvoux external crystalline massif and Queyras blueschists, respectively) associated with N-S shortening. This active deformation agrees with neotectonic and seismotectonic data. The measured tectonic motion seems to be distributed throughout the central part of the Briançonnais zone, where the seismic activity is concentrated. The local seismicity has been precisely surveyed since 1989. It is moderate ( Ml<4.7) and no larger earthquake occured in the 1972-1989 period. The seismic deformation of the 1972-1996 period, extrapolated from the 1989-1996 local seismicity, accounts for less than 10% of the geodetic deformation. Thus, aseismic processes accommodated more than 90% of the observed deformation during this period. This could correspond to accumulation of elastic strain on locked faults, creep on faults or plastic deformation in a large crustal volume.

  20. 11 June 2012 - Austrian Federal Minister of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection R. Hundstorfer signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Ambassador to the UN C. Strohal (CERN-HI-120611334)

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    11 June 2012 - Austrian Federal Minister of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection R. Hundstorfer signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Ambassador to the UN C. Strohal (CERN-HI-120611334)

  1. 4 August 2011 - Austrian Head of Protocol, Directorate General III, Federal Ministry of Science and Research I. Friedrich (3rd from left) in the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with M. Benedkit, C. Wulz and C. Fabjan.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    4 August 2011 - Austrian Head of Protocol, Directorate General III, Federal Ministry of Science and Research I. Friedrich (3rd from left) in the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with M. Benedkit, C. Wulz and C. Fabjan.

  2. Soils evolution and treeline fluctuations under late Holocene climatic changes: a case study from Upper Valtellina (European Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masseroli, Anna; Leonelli, Giovanni; Pelfini, Manuela; Trombino, Luca

    2016-04-01

    High-altitude areas in the European Alps have been widely investigated through time for reconstructing the Holocene climate fluctuations, by analyzing both biological and abiological indicators. In high-altitude areas the ongoing temperature increase caused some effects in the natural environments such as the upward shift of the vegetation belts and, in particular, of the treeline. In fact, the treeline is considered a sensitive climate indicator; in high-altitude areas, the vegetation growth and dynamics are strongly influenced not only by climate but also by abiotic factors, like geomorphological processes and soil development. The aim of this study is the reconstruction of late Holocene soil evolution and environmental changes at the treeline on the SW slope of the Monte Confinale in the Upper Valtellina, Central Italian Alps. We performed a detailed reconstruction of the treeline altitudinal dynamics together with the field and laboratory characterization of a transect of nine soil profiles developing at an altitude ranging from 1800 m a.s.l. (closed forest) to 2600 m a.s.l. (species line), in order to understand the relationship between colonization by arboreal vegetation and soil development. The upward shift of the treeline was assessed analyzing tree age distribution on the slope by means of a tree-ring based approach. The treeline elevation over time (based on the years in which the trees reached 2 m in height) increased from 2505 m a.s.l. (period 1990-1999) to 2531 m (period 2000-2009) to 2545 m (in 2013) with a rate of upward shift of up to 2.6 m/y in the period 2000-2009. The investigated soils showed a decreasing development with increasing altitude, in fact at higher altitude we found less developed soils (i.e. Ranker), on the contrary in the forest area (about 2000 m a.s.l.) we found a more developed soil (i.e. Podzol). Moreover, the soil development may also be affected by the conditions of the slope, characterized by broad alpine grasslands that

  3. Revealing heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si by AlP in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Jiehua Li; Hage, Fredrik S.; Xiangfa Liu; Quentin Ramasse; Peter Schumacher

    2016-01-01

    The heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si can be attributed to the presence of AlP. Although P, in the form of AlP particles, is usually observed in the centre of primary Si, there is still a lack of detailed investigations on the distribution of P within primary Si and eutectic Si in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys at the atomic scale. Here, we report an atomic-scale experimental investigation on the distribution of P in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys. P, in the form of AlP particles...

  4. Interactions between recent tectonic activity and the evolution of mountain relief of the Inner Cottians Alps (Western Alps): preliminary morphotectonic map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacenetti, Marco; Morelli, Michele; Cadoppi, Paola; Giardino, Marco; Perotti, Luigi; Perrone, Gianluigi

    2014-05-01

    Possible interactions between recent tectonic activity and the evolution of mountain relief have been investigated at the regional (1:50,000) and local (1:5,000) scale in the Germanasca Valley (Cottian Alps, NW-Italy) through an integrated, multidisciplinary approach combining Structural analysis, Quaternary Geology, Geomorphology and Geomatics. The inner edge of the Cottians Alps and the adjacent Po Plain are among the most densely populated portions of the Piemonte Region (NW-Italy). This area corresponds to the junction between the Alpine and Apennine chains and it is affected by a diffuse low- to moderate- seismicity (MlAGEA Orthophoto 2009), aerial stereo couples and DEMs (LiDAR5x5 meters, Regione Piemonte 2009). The morphotectonic lineament analysis was conducted using TerraExplorer® Software Systems, Inc. For the field mapping activities, it was used an application called "SRG2" (Support to Geological / Geomorphological Surveys), an extension for ArcPad (ESRI mobile GIS). Into ArcPad, the SRG2 application adds a toolbar made up of several functions for a useful mapping and classification of geological/geomorphological features. Currently, all data collected were included in a GIS project in order to obtain a preliminary morphotectonic map whose interpretation showed a significant tectonic uplift of the area. Data verified the existence of strong geomorphological anomalies which affected the stream network, the slope morphology and the distribution of Quaternary deposits.Results are particularly important for this sector of the Alps, where "active structures", capable of generating earthquakes of this magnitude, have not been identified so far.

  5. Evidence for enhanced debris flow activity in the Northern Calcareous Alps since the 1980s (Plansee, Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Andreas; Krautblatter, Michael

    2016-04-01

    -vegetated catchment area and the annual debris flow volume. This might indicate a decadal positive feedback between enhanced rainstorm frequency and the occurrence of debris flows. The study contributes to a better understanding of the sensitivity of alpine catchments to heavy rainfall events in the context of climate change. Beniston, M., Douglas, G.F., 1996. Impacts of climate change on mountain regions. In: Watson, R.T., Zinyowera, M.C., Moss, R.H., Dokken, D.J. (Eds.), Climate Change 1995. Impacts, Adaptations and Mitigation of Climate Change: Scientific-Technical Analysis. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, pp. 191-213. Dowling, C.A., Santi, P.M., 2014. Debris flows and their toll on human life: a global analysis of debris-flow fatalities from 1950 to 2011. Nat. Hazards 71, 203-227. doi: 10.1007/s11069-013-0907-4 Pelfini, M., Santilli, M., 2008. Frequency of debris flows and their relation with precipitation: A case study in the Central Alps, Italy. Geomorphology 101, 721-730. doi:10.1016/j.geomorph.2008.04.002

  6. End of the "Little Ice Age" in the Alps not forced by industrial black carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigl, Michael; Osmont, Dimtri; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Barbante, Carlo; Schwikowski, Margit

    2016-04-01

    Light absorbing aerosols present in the atmosphere and cryosphere play an important role in the climate system. Their presence in ambient air and snow changes radiative properties of these media, thus contributing to increased atmospheric warming and snowmelt. High spatio-temporal variability of aerosol concentrations in these media and a shortage of long-term observations contribute to large uncertainties in properly assigning the climate effects of these aerosols through time. Glaciers in the European Alps began to retreat abruptly from their mid-19th century maximum, marking what appeared to be the end of the Little Ice Age. Radiative forcing by increasing deposition of industrial black carbon to snow has been suggested as the main driver of the abrupt glacier retreats in the Alps (Painter et al. 2012). Basis for this hypothesis were model simulations using ice-core measurements of elemental carbon at low temporal resolution from two ice cores in the Alps. Here we present sub-annually resolved, well replicated ice-core measurements of refractory black carbon (rBC; using a SP2 soot photometer), mineral dust (Fe, Ca), biomass burning (NH4, K) and distinctive industrial pollution tracers (Bi, Pb, SO4) from an ice core in the Alps covering the past 250 years. These reconstructions allow to precisely compare the timing of observed acceleration of glacier melt in the mid-19th century with that of the increase of soot deposition on ice-sheets caused by the industrialization of Western Europe. Our study suggests that at the time when European rBC emission rates started to significantly increase Alpine glaciers have already experienced more than 70% of their total 19th century length reduction. Industrial BC emissions can therefore not been considered as the primary forcing of the rapid deglaciation at the end of the Little Ice Age in the Alps. References: Painter, T. H., M. G. Flanner, G. Kaser, B. Marzeion, R. A. VanCuren, and W. Abdalati (2013), End of the Little Ice

  7. Modeling of Nitrogen Dynamics in an Austrian Alpine Forest Ecosystem on Calcareous Soils: A Scenario-Based Risk Assessment under Changing Environmental Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Friedl Herman; Stefan Smidt; Klaus Butterbach-Bahl; Michael Englisch; Ernst Gebetsroither; Robert Jandl; Klaus Katzensteiner; Manfred Lexer; Friederike Strebl; Sophie Zechmeister-Boltenstern

    2007-01-01

    We modeled the behavior of an Austrian alpine forest ecosystem on calcareous soils under changing climate and atmospheric nitrogen deposition scenarios. The change of nitrate leaching, emission rates of nitrogen compounds, and forest productivity were calculated using four process-oriented models for the periods 1998–2002 and 2048–2052. Each model reflects with high detail a segment of the ecosystem: PnET-N-DNDC (photosynthesis-evapotranspiration-nitrification-denitrification-decomposition; s...

  8. The impact of risk and protective factors on mental health and well-being-Austrian adolescents and migrant adolescents from war-affected countries

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Buchegger-Traxler; Ulrike Sirsch

    2012-01-01

    Background: young persons are most strongly affected by displacement through political/military actions. This is also a European problem as well as an issue for the European Union. Applying the social-ecological model by Bronfenbrenner we concentrated on micro- and mesosystems of Austrian adolescents and migrant adolescents of war-affected countries.

    Methods: a questionnaire was administered to adolescents in...

  9. Abstracts of the 28. annual meeting of the Austrian Radiation Oncology, Radiation Biology and Medical Radiation Physics Society (OeGRO 2011)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The second part of the volume includes the abstracts of the 28th annual meeting of the Austrian Radiation Oncology, Radiation Biology and Medical Radiation Physics Society (OeGRO 2011), covering the following topics: extracranial stereotactic radiotherapy; brachytherapy, hyperthermia; radiotherapy side effects; psycho-oncology in radiotherapy; head-neck carcinomas; radiation source implants for carcinoma irradiation; MRI-supported adaptive radiotherapy; CT-guided radiotherapy; mammary carcinomas; prostate carcinomas; magnetic nanoparticles for future medical applications.

  10. Why Combining Interrelated Subjects does not Make a Global Subject - Lessons Learnt from the Latest Curriculum Reform of Austrian Commercial Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Greimel-Fuhrmann, Bettina; Schopf, Christiane; Buchmaier, Doris

    2014-01-01

    In order to enhance students' understanding of the interrelationships between business administration, business mathematics and accounting, the recently developed curriculum of Austrian commercial schools comprises one global subject in which the contents of these three subjects have been combined. A second subject called "business practice" has been introduced to provide sufficient time to apply the acquired business knowledge to practice-oriented tasks. The results of a formative evaluation...

  11. The effectiveness of the Austrian disease management programme for type 2 diabetes: a cluster-randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klima Gert

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disease management programmes (DMPs are costly and impose additional work load on general practitioners (GPs. Data on their effectiveness are inconclusive. We therefore conducted a cluster-randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of the Austrian DMP for diabetes mellitus type 2 on HbA1c and quality of care for adult patients in primary care. Methods All GPs of Salzburg-province were invited to participate. After cluster-randomisation by district, all patients with diabetes type 2 were recruited consecutively from 7-11/2007. The DMP, consisting mainly of physician and patient education, standardised documentation and agreement on therapeutic goals, was implemented in the intervention group while the control group received usual care. We aimed to show superiority of the intervention regarding metabolic control and process quality. The primary outcome measure was a change in HbA1c after one year. Secondary outcomes were days in the hospital, blood pressure, lipids, body mass index (BMI, enrolment in patient education and regular guideline-adherent examination. Blinding was not possible. Results 92 physicians recruited 1489 patients (649 intervention, 840 control. After 401 ± 47 days, 590 intervention-patients and 754 controls had complete data. In the intention to treat analysis (ITT of all 1489 patients, HbA1c decreased 0.41% in the intervention group and 0.28% in controls. The difference of -0.13% (95% CI -0.24; -0.02 was significant at p = 0.026. Significance was lost in mixed models adjusted for baseline value and cluster-effects (adjusted mean difference -0.03 (95% CI -0.15; 0.09, p = 0.607. Of the secondary outcome measures, BMI and cholesterol were significantly reduced in the intervention group compared to controls in ITT after adjustments (-0.53 kg/m²; 95% CI -1.03;-0.02; p = 0.014 and -0.10 mmol/l; 95% CI -0.21; -0.003; p = 0.043. Additionally, more patients received patient education (49.5% vs. 20

  12. Changes in equipment and image quality. Impact of one year Austrian breast cancer early detection programme; Aenderungen in der Geraetelandschaft und Bildqualitaet. Auswirkungen nach einem Jahr Oesterreichischem Brustkrebsfrueherkennungsprogramm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menhart, S.; Osanna-Elliott, A.; Semturs, F.; Schloegl, C.; Wildner, S.; Zwettler, G. [AGES, Wien (Austria). Referenzzentrum fuer technische Qualitaetssicherung im Brustkrebsfrueherkennungsprogramm

    2015-07-01

    The nationwide Austrian Breast Cancer Early Detection Programme (''BKFP'') started in January 2014. The Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety Ltd. was entrusted with running the reference center for technical quality control (''RefZQS'') on April 1, 2014. The quality of the radiologists' equipment is evaluated against the standards described in the EUREF-Oeprotocol, which is based on the European guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening and diagnosis (EPQC V4, 2006) and has been optimized for Austrian requirements. In its first year of operation the RefZQS has controlled the entire equipment (mammography, periphery and ultrasound system) of all participating radiologists. A significant number of systems had to be adjusted to meet the EUREF-Oecriteria. Some of the systems could not be adjusted accordingly, and had to be replaced. In the wake of the start of the screening programme, several sites switched from CR to more modern DR systems, yielding a significant benefit by reduction of radiation burden. The most important data after one year of RefZQS, especially according to adjustments and replacements, are presented.

  13. Two new montane grassland communities from the SE Alps (N Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakskobler Igor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available On very steep dolomite slopes in the western foothills of the Kamnik Alps (Ravni hrib, Javorov vrh, Zaplata, Kriška gora and southwestern Karavanke Mountains (Dobrča we conducted a phytosociological study into montane grasslands (former hay meadows, partly pastures where Gladiolus palustris, a species of European conservation concern, also occasionally occurs. They were compared with similar montane grasslands (former hay meadows on sunny slopes of the Stol ridge above Breginj in the southwestern foothills of the Julian Alps. Based on this comparison we described three new syntaxa: Centaureo julici-Laserpitietum sileris gladioletosum palustris, Festuco amethystinae-Seslerietum calcariae and Pediculari julici-Bromopsietum transsilvanicae. Both new associations are classified into the alliance Caricion austroalpinae and treated as a long-term successional stage in the belt of altimontane beech forests from the association Ranunculo platanifolii-Fagetum.

  14. THERMAL HISTORY OF THE CARNIC ALPS (NE ITALY-S. AUSTRIA USING CAI ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MONICA PONDRELLI

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Thermal patterns of an area which underwent a polyphase deformation history such as the Carnic Alps were analyzed using the Colour Alteration Index (CAI of conodonts in order to constrain some aspects of the metamorphic history of this part of the Southern Alps. Hercynian and alpine tectonothermal events were distinguished using CAI analysis.  The Hercynian event developed temperatures up to low metamorphic conditions. Alpine tectonogenesis did not produce thermal levels in excess of the diagenetic zone. Moreover, CAI patterns allow recognition and evaluation of a hydrothermal metamorphic overprint of Permo-Triassic or Oligocene age that was superimposed on the pre-existing regional metamorphic zonation.   

  15. 24th International Conference on Robotics in Alpe-Adria-Danube Region

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This volume includes the Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Robotics in Alpe-Adria-Danube Region, RAAD 2015, which was held in Bucharest, Romania, on May 27-29, 2015. The Conference brought together academic and industry researchers in robotics from the 11 countries affiliated to the Alpe-Adria-Danube space: Austria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia and Slovenia, and their worldwide partners. According to its tradition, RAAD 2015 covered all important areas of research, development and innovation in robotics, including new trends such as: bio-inspired and cognitive robots, visual servoing of robot motion, human-robot interaction, and personal robots for ambient assisted living. The accepted papers have been grouped in nine sessions: Robot integration in industrial applications; Grasping analysis, dexterous grippers and component design; Advanced robot motion control; Robot vision and sensory control; Human-robot interaction and collaboration;...

  16. Adapting to Socioeconomic Developments by Changing Rules in the Governance of Common Property Pastures in the Swiss Alps

    OpenAIRE

    Ivo Baur; Binder, Claudia R.

    2013-01-01

    The common property meadows in the Swiss Alps have been managed by local self-organized governance systems since the Middle Ages, thus preventing their overuse. During the past century, socioeconomic developments, such as industrialization and rapid nonagricultural economic growth, have shifted employment opportunities from the agricultural sector towards the service sector. In the agricultural sector, this has led to less intensive use and maintenance of the meadows in the Alps and consequen...

  17. Behaviour of radiocaesium in a forest in the eastern Italian Alps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiocaesium behaviour has been studied in soil in a mixed forest located in the Carnic Alps (eastern part of Italy). Soil sampling along the vertical profile was carried out from October 1988 to October 1991. The results obtained show a very slow radiocaesium migration through the organic layers and indicate that after the fallout events, the radiocaesium isotopes deposited on the forest floor remain confined in the holorganic horizons for a long time

  18. Natural gamma logging of borehole I on Vernagtferner (Oetztal Alps, Austria)

    OpenAIRE

    Drost, W.; Hofreiter, G.

    1982-01-01

    Natural gamma logging was executed in borehole I on the Vernagtferner (Oetztal Alps, Austria) down to a depth of 60 m below surface. The radioactivity profile reflects the atmospheric injection history. Above a borehole depth of 28 m the log is enriched in bomb produced 137CS along with 4°K and elements of the uranium series. The highest gamma level, which originates from 1963 precipitation with high fallout load, is found in a depth of 18.5 m.

  19. Livestock systems and farming styles in Eastern Italian Alps: an on-farm survey

    OpenAIRE

    Maurizio Ramanzin; Meriam Mrad; Luigi Gallo; Giampaolo Cocca; Enrico Sturaro

    2010-01-01

    This research aimed to study the relationships between livestock systems, landscape maintenance and farming styles in the Belluno Province, a mountainous area of the Eastern Italian Alps. A total of 65 farms were sampled on the basis of livestock category farmed and herd size. Farms were visited to collect information on technical and productive aspects, on landscape features of land managed, which was identified by aerial photographs and digitised in a GIS environment, and on the farmers&rsq...

  20. Nanosynthesis routes to new tetrahedral crystalline solids: silicon-like Si3AlP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Tylan; Chizmeshya, Andrew V G; Jiang, Liying; Smith, David J; Beeler, Richard T; Grzybowski, Gordon; Poweleit, Christian D; Menéndez, José; Kouvetakis, John

    2011-10-12

    We introduce a synthetic strategy to access functional semiconductors with general formula A(3)XY (A = IV, X-Y = III-V) representing a new class within the long-sought family of group IV/III-V hybrid compounds. The method is based on molecular precursors that combine purposely designed polar/nonpolar bonding at the nanoscale, potentially allowing precise engineering of structural and optical properties, including lattice dimensions and band structure. In this Article, we demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed strategy by growing a new monocrystalline AlPSi(3) phase on Si substrates via tailored interactions of P(SiH(3))(3) and Al atoms using gas source (GS) MBE. In this case, the high affinity of Al for the P ligands leads to Si(3)AlP bonding arrangements, which then confer their structure and composition to form the corresponding Si(3)AlP target solid via complete elimination of H(2) at ∼500 °C. First principle simulations at the molecular and solid-state level confirm that the Si(3)AlP building blocks can readily interlink with minimal distortion to produce diamond-like structures in which the P atoms are arranged on a common sublattice as third-nearest neighbors in a manner that excludes the formation of unfavorable Al-Al bonds. High-resolution XRD, XTEM, and RBS indicate that all films grown on Si(100) are tetragonally strained and fully coherent with the substrate and possess near-cubic symmetry. The Raman spectra are consistent with a growth mechanism that proceeds via full incorporation of preformed Si(3)AlP tetrahedra with residual orientational disorder. Collectively, the characterization data show that the structuro-chemical compatibility between the epilayer and substrate leads to flawless integration, as expected for pseudohomoepitaxy of an Si-like material grown on a bulk Si platform. PMID:21877711