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Sample records for austrian central alps

  1. Photosynthetic temperature adaptation of Pinus cembra within the timberline ecotone of the Central Austrian Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Gerhard; Oberhuber, Walter; Walder, Lisa; Spieler, Daniela; Gruber, Andreas

    2010-04-01

    Temperature is suggested to determine the upper limit of tree life. Therefore, future climate warming may be of importance for tree distribution within the European Alps, where low temperatures limit carbon metabolism.We focused on the effects of air and soil temperature on net photosynthesis (P(n)) of Pinus cembra an evergreen climax species of the timberline ecotone of the Central Austrian Alps. Light response and temperature response curves were estimated along an altitudinal gradient ranging from the forest limit up to the krummholz limit in both summer and fall.In general, P(n) was significantly lower in fall as compared to summer. Nevertheless, independent from season mean P(n) values tended to increase with elevation and were positively correlated with root zone temperatures. The specific leaf area by contrast declined with increasing elevation. Furthermore, the temperature optimum of net photosynthesis declined with increasing elevation and was positively correlated with the mean maximum air temperature of the 10 days prior the date of measurement.Thus, our findings appear to reflect a long-term adaptation of the photosynthetic apparatus of Pinus cembra to the general temperature conditions with respect to elevation combined with a short term acclimation to the prevailing temperature regime.

  2. Analysis of ERT data of geoelectrical permafrost monitoring on Hoher Sonnblick (Austrian Central Alps)

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    Pfeiler, Stefan; Schöner, Wolfgang; Reisenhofer, Stefan; Ottowitz, David; Jochum, Birgit; Kim, Jung-Ho; Hoyer, Stefan; Supper, Robert; Heinrich, Georg

    2016-04-01

    In the Alps infrastructure facilities such as roads, routes or buildings are affected by the changes of permafrost, which often cause enormous reparation costs. Investigation on degradation of Alpine Permafrost in the last decade has increased, however, the understanding of the permafrost changes inducing its atmospheric forcing processes is still insufficient. Within the project ATMOperm the application of the geoelectrical method to estimate thawing layer thickness for mountain permafrost is investigated near the highest meteorological observatory of Austria on the Hoher Sonnblick. Therefore, it is necessary to further optimize the transformation of ERT data to thermal changes in the subsurface. Based on an innovative time lapse inversion routine for ERT data (Kim J.-H. et al 2013) a newly developed data analysis software tool developed by Kim Jung-Ho (KIGAM) in cooperation with the Geophysics group of the Geological Survey of Austria allows the statistical analysis of the entire sample set of each and every data point measured by the geoelectrical monitoring instrument. This gives on the one hand of course an enhanced opportunity to separate between „good" and „bad" data points in order to assess the quality of measurements. On the other hand, the results of the statistical analysis define the impact of every single data point on the inversion routine. The interpretation of the inversion results will be supplemented by temperature logs from selected boreholes along the ERT profile as well as climatic parameters. KIM J.-H., SUPPER R., TSOURLOS P. and YI M.-J.: Four-dimensional inversion of resistivity monitoring data through Lp norm minimizations. - Geophysical Journal International, 195(3), 1640-1656, 2013. Doi: 10.1093/gji/ggt324. (No OA) Acknowledgments: The geoelectrical monitoring on Hoher Sonnblick has been installed and is operated in the frame of the project ATMOperm (Atmosphere - permafrost relationship in the Austrian Alps - atmospheric extreme

  3. Photosynthetic temperature adaptation of Pinus cembra within the timberline ecotone of the Central Austrian Alps

    OpenAIRE

    Wieser, Gerhard; Oberhuber, Walter; Walder, Lisa; Spieler, Daniela; Gruber, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Temperature is suggested to determine the upper limit of tree life. Therefore, future climate warming may be of importance for tree distribution within the European Alps, where low temperatures limit carbon metabolism.

  4. Spatial and seasonal variations in mobile carbohydrates in Pinus cembra in the timberline ecotone of the Central Austrian Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, A; Pirkebner, D; Oberhuber, W; Wieser, G

    2011-03-01

    To test whether the altitudinal limit of tree growth is determined by carbons shortage or by a limitation in growth we investigated non structural carbohydrates and their components starch and total soluble sugars in Pinus cembra trees along an elevational gradient in the timberline ecotone of the Central Austrian Alps. NSC contents in needles, branches, stems, and coarse roots were measured throughout an entire growing season. At the tissue level NSC contents were not significantly more abundant in treeline trees as compared to trees at lower elevations. Along our 425 m elevational transect from the closed forest to the treeline we failed to find a stable elevational trend in the total NSC pool of entire trees and observed within season increases in the tree's NSC pool that can be attributed to an altitudinal increase in leaf mass as needles contained the largest NSC fraction of the whole tree NSC pool. Furthermore, whole tree NSC contents were positively correlated with net photosynthetic capacity. Although our observed NSC characteristics do not support the hypothesis that tree life at their upper elevational limit is determined by an insufficient carbon balance we found no consistent confirmation for the sink limitation hypothesis.

  5. Survey of microfungi in the Kleinwalsertal (Austrian alps).

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    Jensen, M; Ale-Agha, N; Brassmann, M

    2008-01-01

    During an excursion to the Alps near the German/Austrian border (Kleinwalsertal) in August 2007, we were able to collect more than 40 species of microfungi as parasites or saprophytes on different parts of wild plants. Some of them have been observed only rarely until now. Most of the species collected belong to the classes Ascomycotina, Basidiomycotina, and Deuteromycotina. For example: -Leptosphaeria jaceae Holm on Centaurea jacea L.; -Mycosphaerella equiseticola Bond.-Mont. on Equisetum telmateia Ehrh.; -Erysiphe cichoracearum DC. on Adenostyles alliariae (Gouan) Kerner, Centaurea phrygia, Cicerbita alpina (L.) Wallr.; -Podosphaera fusca (Fr.) U. Braun comb. nov. on Petasites paradoxus (Retz.) Baumg. and Senecio alpinus (L.) Scop.; -Pirottaea veneta Sacc. and Speg. on Lamium maculatum L.; -Coleosporium tussilaginis (Pers.) Kleb. on Adenostyles alliariae, Petasites paradoxus; -Puccinia mulgedii (West.) Syd. on Cicerbita alpinl; -Titleospora equiseti (Desm.) Vassil., -Stagonospora equiseti Fautr. on Equisetum telmateia, -Valdensia heterodoxa Peyronel on Cicerbita alpina.

  6. Palaeoclimate records 60-8 ka in the Austrian and Swiss Alps and their forelands

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    Heiri, Oliver; Koinig, Karin A.; Spötl, Christoph; Barrett, Sam; Brauer, Achim; Drescher-Schneider, Ruth; Gaar, Dorian; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Kerschner, Hanns; Luetscher, Marc; Moran, Andrew; Nicolussi, Kurt; Preusser, Frank; Schmidt, Roland; Schoeneich, Philippe; Schwörer, Christoph; Sprafke, Tobias; Terhorst, Birgit; Tinner, Willy

    2014-12-01

    The European Alps and their forelands provide a range of different archives and climate proxies for developing climate records in the time interval 60-8 thousand years (ka) ago. We review quantitative and semi-quantitative approaches for reconstructing climatic variables in the Austrian and Swiss sector of the Alpine region within this time interval. Available quantitative to semi-quantitative climate records in this region are mainly based on fossil assemblages of biota such as chironomids, cladocerans, coleopterans, diatoms and pollen preserved in lake sediments and peat, the analysis of oxygen isotopes in speleothems and lake sediment records, the reconstruction of past variations in treeline altitude, the reconstruction of past equilibrium line altitude and extent of glaciers based on geomorphological evidence, and the interpretation of past soil formation processes, dust deposition and permafrost as apparent in loess-palaeosol sequences. Palaeoclimate reconstructions in the Alpine region are affected by dating uncertainties increasing with age, the fragmentary nature of most of the available records, which typically only incorporate a fraction of the time interval of interest, and the limited replication of records within and between regions. Furthermore, there have been few attempts to cross-validate different approaches across this time interval to confirm reconstructed patterns of climatic change by several independent lines of evidence. Based on our review we identify a number of developments that would provide major advances for palaeoclimate reconstruction for the period 60-8 ka in the Alps and their forelands. These include (1) the compilation of individual, fragmentary records to longer and continuous reconstructions, (2) replication of climate records and the development of regional reconstructions for different parts of the Alps, (3) the cross-validation of different proxy-types and approaches, and (4) the reconstruction of past variations in climate

  7. Modeling glacier beds in the Austrian Alps: How many lakes will form in future?

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    Koehler, Dominik; Geilhausen, Martin; Linsbauer, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Glacial retreat exposes landscapes with relief characteristics greatly differing from the former ice covered surfaces. If glacial retreat exposes natural basins capable of forming proglacial lakes, then the downstream hydrologic and geomorphic systems in such catchments will be significantly altered due to discharge modifications, sediment trapping, decoupling effects and long term sediment storage (e.g. Geilhausen et al. 2013). Further implications are related to hydropower management, tourism and natural hazards. Consequently, sound knowledge of present day glacier beds ("proglacial zones of tomorrow") and in particular the total number, locations and characteristics of overdeepenings are of importance. For Austria, however, this important information about significant future changes of high alpine regions is yet missing. An interdisciplinary research project is currently in preparation to close this gap. This paper presents results of a pilot study. We used a novel GIS-based approach (GlabTop, cf. Linsbauer et al. 2012) to compute approximate glacier beds in the Austrian Alps. GlabTop ('Glacier bed Topography') is based on an empirical relation between average basal shear stress and elevation range of individual glaciers and makes use of digital elevation models (DEM), glacier outlines and branch lines (i.e. a set of lines covering all important glacier branches). DEMs and glacier outlines were derived from the Austrian glacier inventory (1998) and branch lines were manually digitized. The inventory includes 911 glaciers of which 876 (96%) were considered and 35 were excluded due to size restrictions ( 0.01 km²) with the potential of forming proglacial lakes when glacier retreat reveals the bed. The total area and volume of all overdeepenings is approx. 10 km² and 236 Mio m³ respectively and 33 lakes will be larger than 1 km³. A total glacier volume of 16 ± 5 km³ with an average ice thickness of 36 ± 11 m was calculated for 1998. Comparisons with

  8. Water demand for ski resort development in the Austrian Alps: an Overview

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    Breiling, M.; Sokratov, S.

    2012-04-01

    Austria has the highest national added value from winter tourism in Europe, as well as worldwide. 15.7 million arrivals were counted in Austrian accommodation establishments in the 2010/11 winter season. There were more than 62 million overnight stays and 51.2 million skier-days were consumed. 588 million transports were carried out by more than 3000 lifts (cable cars, chair lifts and T-bars). Including indirect and induced effects, this resulted in more than 10 billion euros in added value being generated. The lack of snow in many Austrian skiing areas during the 2006/2007 winter season demonstrated the extent to which meteorological conditions influence operations. Declines in the number of skiers transported and total skier days were the result. The cable-car operators also had to struggle with little snow in the 2010/2011 winter. The Austrian Cable Car Operators' Association stated that the opening of 70-80% of all skiing areas outside of the peak season could only be assured through the use of snowmaking equipment. The central criterion for winter sports enthusiasts to make a trip is the guarantee that they will find snow at their destination and Austria's cable-car operators invest more than 100 million euros in the erection and improvement of snowmaking complexes every year to satisfy this deand. In the 2010/2011 season, this provided for 17,800 jobs. Cable car operators set up snowmaking equipment to become independent from meteorological conditions and improve the capacity utilisation of their expensive investments in transport systems in the early winter. Austria has a skiing area of around 25,400 hectares - around 17,000 hectares at altitudes between 600m and 3200m are currently suitable for snowmaking. As much as 70% of the snow is produced immediately before the start of the season. This recent trend is responsible that the irrigation pattern of Austrian land use changed significantly in the last decade. Previously maize fields and low lands in summer

  9. Mapping the value of ecosystem services: A case study from the Austrian Alps

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    Alessandro Paletto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem services (ES are considered the conditions and processes through which natural ecosystems sustain and fulfil human life. In the decision making process related to the natural resources management, two key-aspects must be taken into account: the economic value of the benefits provided by ES (provisioning, regulating and cultural services and the spatial distribution of these benefits. The purpose of the paper is to develop a method aimed to capture the economic value of the benefits provided by ES, in order to support the decision makers in the natural resources management. ES are not homogeneous across landscapes nor in space. Consequently, gaining knowledge on the spatial distribution of the economic relevance of ES is a fundamental information to target management actions. This method was tested in a case study in the Austrian Alps (Leiblachtal area in Vorarlberg region, characterized by a high importance of forests and grasslands. The results show that the highest economic values could be achieved for the provisioning services with a range between 200 €/ha year and 1,400€/ha year. The regulating services have also important economic values, but strongly localized in specific areas (i.e. protective forests against natural hazards. The economic values of the cultural services are influenced by the preferences of tourists and varies between 5 €/ha year to 60 €/ha year. The method allowed us to reveal the spatial heterogeneity of provisioning, regulating and cultural ES, depending on the ecological characteristics of the site.

  10. Modelling technical snow production for skiing areas in the Austrian Alps with the physically based snow model AMUNDSEN

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    Hanzer, F.; Marke, T.; Steiger, R.; Strasser, U.

    2012-04-01

    Tourism and particularly winter tourism is a key factor for the Austrian economy. Judging from currently available climate simulations, the Austrian Alps show a particularly high vulnerability to climatic changes. To reduce the exposure of ski areas towards changes in natural snow conditions as well as to generally enhance snow conditions at skiing sites, technical snowmaking is widely utilized across Austrian ski areas. While such measures result in better snow conditions at the skiing sites and are important for the local skiing industry, its economic efficiency has also to be taken into account. The current work emerges from the project CC-Snow II, where improved future climate scenario simulations are used to determine future natural and artificial snow conditions and their effects on tourism and economy in the Austrian Alps. In a first step, a simple technical snowmaking approach is incorporated into the process based snow model AMUNDSEN, which operates at a spatial resolution of 10-50 m and a temporal resolution of 1-3 hours. Locations of skiing slopes within a ski area in Styria, Austria, were digitized and imported into the model environment. During a predefined time frame in the beginning of the ski season, the model produces a maximum possible amount of technical snow and distributes the associated snow on the slopes, whereas afterwards, until to the end of the ski season, the model tries to maintain a certain snow depth threshold value on the slopes. Due to only few required input parameters, this approach is easily transferable to other ski areas. In our poster contribution, we present first results of this snowmaking approach and give an overview of the data and methodology applied. In a further step in CC-Snow, this simple bulk approach will be extended to consider actual snow cannon locations and technical specifications, which will allow a more detailed description of technical snow production as well as cannon-based recordings of water and energy

  11. Continuous monitoring of a mountain snowpack in the Austrian Alps by above-ground neutron sensing

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    Schattan, Paul; Baroni, Gabriele; Oswald, Sascha E.; Schöber, Johannes; Fey, Christine; Francke, Till; Huttenlau, Matthias; Achleitner, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    In alpine catchments the knowledge of the spatially and temporally heterogeneous dynamics of snow accumulation and depletion is crucial for modelling and managing water resources. While snow covered area can be retrieved operationally from remote sensing data, continuous measurements of other snow state variables like snow depth (SD) or snow water equivalent (SWE) remain challenging. Existing methods of retrieving both variables in alpine terrain face severe issues like a lack of spatial representativeness, labour-intensity or discontinuity in time. Recently, promising new measurement techniques combining a larger support with low maintenance cost like above-ground gamma-ray scintillators, GPS interferometric reflectometry or above-ground cosmic-ray neutron sensors (CRNS) have been suggested. While CRNS has proven its potential for monitoring soil moisture in a wide range of environments and applications, the empirical knowledge of using CRNS for snowpack monitoring is still very limited and restricted to shallow snowpacks with rather uniform evolution. The characteristics of an above-ground cosmic-ray neutron sensor (CRNS) were therefore evaluated for monitoring a mountain snowpack in the Austrian Alps (Kaunertal, Tyrol) during three winter seasons. The measurement campaign included a number of measurements during the period from 03/2014 to 06/2016: (i) neutron count measurements by CRNS, (ii) continuous point-scale SD and SWE measurements from an automatic weather station and (iii) 17 Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) with simultaneous SD and SWE surveys. The highest accumulation in terms of SWE was found in 04/2014 with 600 mm. Neutron counts were compared to all available snow data. While previous studies suggested a signal saturation at around 100 mm of SWE, no complete signal saturation was found. A strong non-linear relation was found for both SD and SWE with best fits for spatially distributed TLS based snow data. Initially slightly different shapes were

  12. Effects of microsite on growth of Pinus cembra in the subalpine zone of the Austrian Alps

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Mai-He; Yang, Jian

    2004-01-01

    International audience; We examined growth in Pinus cembra L. (28 years old) across the treeline ecotone from 1900 to 2100 m elevation in the Alps. Eighteen plots were chosen at different microsites which are defined as a combination of elevation and steepness (gentle vs. steep slope) on a south-facing slope in the Schmirn Valley, Tyrol/Austria. Over the range of altitudes studied, elevation and steepness had influences on growth depending on tree size: (1) Elevation and steepness had little ...

  13. Origin and age of the Eisenkappel gabbro to granite suite (Carinthia, SE Austrian Alps).

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    Miller, C; Thöni, M; Goessler, W; Tessadri, R

    2011-07-01

    The northern part of the Karawanken plutonic belt is a gabbro-granite complex located just north of the Periadriatic lineament near the Slovenian-Austrian border. Petrographic and geochemical studies of the Eisenkappel intrusive complex indicate that this multiphase plutonic suite developed by a combination of crystal accumulation, fractional crystallization and assimilation processes, magma mixing and mingling. The mafic rocks are alkaline and have within-plate geochemical characteristics, indicating anorogenic magmatism in an extensional setting and derivation from an enriched mantle source. The mafic melts triggered partial melting of the crust and the formation of granite. The granitic rocks are alkalic, metaluminous and have the high Fe/Fe + Mg characteristics of within-plate plutons. Temperature and pressure conditions, derived from amphibole-plagioclase and different amphibole thermobarometers, suggest that the analysed Eisenkappel gabbros crystallized at around 1000 ± 20 °C and 380-470 MPa, whereas the granitic rock crystallized at T ≤ 800 ± 20 °C and ≤ 350 MPa. Mineral-whole rock Sm-Nd analyses of two cumulate gabbros yielded 249 ± 8.4 Ma and 250 ± 26 Ma (εNd: + 3.6), garnet-whole rock Sm-Nd analyses of two silicic samples yielded well-constrained ages of 238.4 ± 1.9 Ma and 242.1 ± 2.1 Ma (εNd: - 2.6).

  14. Adaptation photosynthétique à la température de Pinus cembra dans l'écotone de la limite supérieure de la forêt dans les Alpes centrales autrichiennes

    OpenAIRE

    Wieser, Gerhard; Oberhuber, Walter; Walder, Lisa; Spieler, Daniela; Gruber, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Temperature is suggested to determine the upper limit of tree life. Therefore, future climate warming may be of importance for tree distribution within the European Alps, where low temperatures limit carbon metabolism.* We focused on the effects of air and soil temperature on net photosynthesis (Pn) of Pinus cembra an evergreen climax species of the timberline ecotone of the Central Austrian Alps. Light response and temperature response curves were estimated along an a...

  15. Fluvial sediment transport in a glacier-fed high-mountain river (Riffler Bach, Austrian Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morche, David; Weber, Martin; Faust, Matthias; Schuchardt, Anne; Baewert, Henning

    2017-04-01

    High-alpine environments are strongly affected by glacier retreat since the Little Ice Age (LIA). Due to ongoing climate change the hydrology of proglacial rivers is also influenced. It is expected that the growing proportions of snow melt and rainfall events will change runoff characteristics of proglacial rivers. Additionally, the importance of paraglacial sediment sources in recently deglaciating glacier forefields is increasing, while the role of glacial erosion is declining. Thus complex environmental conditions leading to a complex pattern of fluvial sediment transport in partly glaciated catchments of the European Alps. Under the umbrella of the joint PROSA-project the fluvial sediment transport of the river Riffler Bach (Kaunertal, Tyrol, Austria) was studied in 3 consecutive ablation seasons in order to quantify sediment yields. In June 2012 a probe for water level and an automatic water sampler (AWS) were installed at the outlet of the catchment (20km2). In order to calculate annual stage-discharge-relations by the rating-curve approach, discharge (Q) was repeatedly measured with current meters and by salt dilution. Concurrent to the discharge measurements bed load was collected using a portable Helley-Smith sampler. Bed load samples were weighted and sieved in the laboratory to gain annual bed load rating curves and grain size distributions. In total 564 (2012: 154, 2013: 209, 2014: 201) water samples were collected and subsequently filtered to quantify suspended sediment concentrations (SSC). Q-SSC-relations were calculated for single flood events due to the high variability of suspended sediment transport. The results show a high inter- and intra-annual variability of solid fluvial sediment transport, which can be explained by the characteristics of suspended sediment transport. Only 13 of 22 event-based Q-SSC-relations show causal dependency. In 2012, during a period with multiple pluvial-induced peak discharges most sediment was transported. On the

  16. Soil warming increased whole-tree water use of Pinus cembra at the treeline in the Central Tyrolean Alps

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    Wieser, Gerhard; Grams, Thorsten E.E.; Matysssek, Rainer; Oberhuber, Walter; Gruber, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The study quantified the effect of soil warming on sap flow density (Qs) of Pinus cembra at treeline in the Central Tyrolean Alps. To enhance soil temperature we installed a transparent roof construction above the forest floor around six trees. Six other trees served as controls in the absence of any manipulation. Roofing enhanced growing season mean soil temperature by 1.6, 1.3, and 1.0 °C at 5, 10, and 20 cm soil depth, respectively, while soil water availability was not affected. Sap flow density (using Granier-type thermal dissipation probes) and environmental parameters were monitored throughout three growing seasons. During the first year of treatment, no warming effect was detected on Qs. However, soil warming caused Qs to increase significantly by 11 and 19% above levels in control trees during the second and third year, respectively. This effect appeared to result from warming-induced root production, a reduction in viscosity and perhaps an increase also in root hydraulic conductivity. Hardly affected were leaf-level net CO2 uptake rate and conductance for water vapor, so that water-use efficiency stayed unchanged as confirmed by needle δ13C analysis. We conclude that tree water loss will increase with soil warming, which may alter the water balance within the treeline ecotone of the Central Austrian Alps in a future warming environment. PMID:25737326

  17. Temporal changes of inorganic ion deposition in the seasonal snow cover for the Austrian Alps (1983-2014)

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    Greilinger, Marion; Schöner, Wolfgang; Winiwarter, Wilfried; Kasper-Giebl, Anne

    2016-05-01

    A long-term record of inorganic ion concentrations in wet and dry deposition sampled from snow packs at two high altitude glaciers was used to assess impacts of air pollution on remote sites in central Europe. Sampling points were located at Wurtenkees and Goldbergkees near the Sonnblick Observatory (3106 m above sea level), a background site for measuring the status of the atmosphere in Austria's Eastern Alps. Sampling was carried out every spring at the end of the winter accumulation period in the years 1983-2014. Concentrations of major ions (NH4+, SO42-, NO3-, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+ and Cl-) were determined using ion chromatography (IC) as well as atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) in the earlier years. Concentration of H+ was calculated via the measured pH of the samples. Trends in deposition and concentration were analysed for all major ions within the period from 1983 to 2014 using Kendall's tau rank correlation coefficient. From 1983 to 2014, total ion concentration declined ∼25%, i.e. solutions became ∼25% more dilute, indicating reduced acidic atmospheric deposition, even at high altitude in winter snow. SO42- and NO3- concentrations decreased significantly by 70% and 30%, respectively, accompanied by a 54% decrease of H+ concentrations. Ionic concentrations in snowpack were dominated by H+ and SO42- in the earliest decade measured, whereas they were dominated by Ca2+ by the most recent decade. SO42- and H+ depositions, i.e. concentrations multiplied by volume, also showed a significant decrease of more than 50% at both sites. This reflects the successful emission reductions of the precursor gases SO2 and NOx. Seasonal values with significantly elevated spring concentrations of NH4+, SO42- and H+ compared to fall snow reflects the beginning of vertical mixing during spring. All other ions do not show any seasonality. Source identification of the ions was performed using a principal component analysis (PCA). One anthropogenic cluster (SO42-, NO3- and NH

  18. Acute die-off of chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) in the Eastern Austrian Alps due to bacterial bronchopneumonia with Pasteurellaceae.

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    Posautz, Annika; Loncaric, Igor; Kübber-Heiss, Anna; Knoll, Alexander; Walzer, Christian

    2014-07-01

    Monitoring circulating pathogens in wildlife populations is important in evaluating causes and sources of disease as well as understanding transmission between wild and domestic animals. In spring 2010, a sudden die-off in a chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) population sharing habitat with livestock occurred in northeastern Austria. Nineteen animals were submitted for examination. Necropsy and pathohistologic and bacteriologic results yielded lesions associated with Pasteurellaceae species. Additional testing included enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus and random amplification of polymorphic DNA PCR analysis to evaluate the circulating strains. The isolated strains were most closely related to Mannheimia glucosida and Bibersteinia trehalosi. Reports of mass mortalities in chamois due to pneumonia have been reported previously in the northern Alpine area of Italy. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of acute mortality due to strains of Mannheimia and Bibersteinia in Austrian chamois.

  19. Millennial scale variability of denudation rates for the last 15 kyrs inferred from the detrital 10Be record of lake Stappitz in the Hohe Tauern massif, Austrian Alps

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    Grischott, Reto; Kober, Florian; Lupker, Maarten; Reitner, Jürgen M.; Drescher-Schneider, Ruth; Hajdas, Irka; Christl, Marcus

    2017-04-01

    Reconstructing paleo-denudation rates over Holocene time-scales in an Alpine catchment provides an excellent opportunity to isolate and test the climatic forcing of denudation, disentangling its effects from tectonics or anthropogenic effects. We measured cosmogenic 10Be on two sediment cores from Lake Stappitz (Austrian Alps) to derive a 15-kyr long record of the upstream Seebach Valley. Our study provides quantitative estimates of catchment denudation for the Holocene in an unprecedented temporal resolution. Due to the existence of the lake over the Holocene, the upstream Seebach Valley was isolated from baselevel (tectonic) changes and the high elevation minimizes anthropogenic impacts. The 10Be record indicates significant, but temporally decreasing, mixing with low-dosed paraglacial sediments from 15 to 7 kyr cal BP. In the absence of perturbing glacial sediments after 7 kyr cal BP, the 10Be concentrations can be converted to denudation rates. Denudation rates significantly fluctuated over this time period and are related to the hillslope response of climate forcing. Lower hillslope erosion rates of ca. 0.4 mm/yr found between 5 to 7 kyr cal BP correlate with a stable climate, infrequent flood events and higher temperatures that favoured the widespread growth of stabilizing soils and vegetation. Higher hillslope erosion rates of ca. 0.8 mm/yr for the last 4 kyr correlate with a variable, cooler climate where frequent flood events increase denudation of the less protected hillslopes. Overall our results suggest a tight coupling of climate and hillslope erosion in alpine landscapes as it has been observed in other parts of the Alps.

  20. Dendroclimatic trend and glacial fluctuations in the Central Italian Alps

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    Pelfini, M.; Santilli, M.; D Agata, C.; Diolaiuti, G.; Smiraglia, C.

    2003-04-01

    In the Alpine environment, one of the main limiting factors for tree growth is the thermal conditions of the vegetative season. The conifers at high altitude, if not subject to others disturbs, such as geomorphological processes or biological interferences, undergo a development, from which the width of annual rings depends. Five chronologies few centuries long, obtained for the species Larix decidua Mill. and Pinus cembra L. from different valleys of the Central Italian Alps (Alpisella, Valfurva, Gavia and Solda) in proximity of timberline (2000-2550 m of altitude), were analysed and their climatic signal gained; this last one was then related to the recent glacial fluctuations. The chronologies are the averages of many dendrochronological indicized curves obtained from dominant trees with regular growth and extended from 13th-17th century up to the present. The time intervals of the chronologies are the following ones: Pinus cembra: 1752-1999 for Valfurva; 1607-1999 for Gavia; 1593-1999 for Val Solda. With regard to Larix decidua: 1252-1998 for Val Solda; 1784-2001 for Alpisella. The good correspondence between the various chronologies allows to consider them representative of the climatic regional signal. In order to evidence climatic evolution, linear trends based on running mean with period of 11 years have been constructed. Those curves have been compared between them and then overlapped and mediated in order to obtain a climatic signal of regional value that excludes eventual local anomalies. Finally, the growth variations in the chronologies have been compared to known alpine climatic variations and glacial fluctuations. In particular time-distance curves (curves of cumulated frontal variations) of some glaciers from the Ortles-Cevedale Group were utilized. The periods of tree rings growth rate reduction appear well correlated to glacial advancing phases of the Little Ice Age and of the following phases. In particular, growth rate reductions are observable

  1. Epigondolella abneptis and E. spatulata in the Lower Norian in the central Kamnik Alps, Slovenia

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    Anton Ramovš

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Epigondolella abneptis (Huckriede, 1958 and E. spatulata (Hayashi, 1968from the Lower Norian (Upper Triassic deeper marine micritic limestones with chert nodules and lenses in the locality Sleme, central Kamnik Alps, are presented.

  2. Soil warming increased whole-tree water use of Pinus cembra at the treeline in the Central Tyrolean Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Gerhard; Grams, Thorsten E E; Matyssek, Rainer; Oberhuber, Walter; Gruber, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    This study quantified the effect of soil warming on sap flow density (Qs) of Pinus cembra L. at the treeline in the Central Tyrolean Alps. To enhance soil temperature we installed a transparent roof construction above the forest floor around six trees. Six other trees served as controls in the absence of any manipulation. Roofing enhanced growing season mean soil temperature by 1.6, 1.3 and 1.0 °C at 5, 10 and 20 cm soil depth, respectively, while soil water availability was not affected. Sap flow density (using Granier-type thermal dissipation probes) and environmental parameters were monitored throughout three growing seasons. During the first year of treatment, no warming effect was detected on Qs. However, soil warming caused Qs to increase significantly by 11 and 19% above levels in control trees during the second and third year, respectively. This effect appeared to result from warming-induced root production, a reduction in viscosity and perhaps an increase also in root hydraulic conductivity. Hardly affected were leaf-level net CO2 uptake rate and conductance for water vapour, so that water-use efficiency stayed unchanged as confirmed by needle δ(13)C analysis. We conclude that tree water loss will increase with soil warming, which may alter the water balance within the treeline ecotone of the Central Austrian Alps in a future warming environment. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Protracted fluid-induced melting during Barrovian metamorphism in the Central Alps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubatto, Daniela; Hermann, Jörg; Berger, Alfons

    2009-01-01

    The timing and dynamics of fluid-induced melting in the typical Barrovian sequence of the Central Alps has been investigated using zircon chronology and trace element composition. Multiple zircon domains in leucosomes and country rocks yield U-Pb ages spanning from ~32 to 22 Ma. The zircon formed...

  4. A deep geoelectrical survey in the Southern Central Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Nuttini

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available A deep geoelectrical survey was carried out on the Southern Central AIps, to the north of Bergamo, by means of the “continuous polar dipole-dipole” electrode array. Among the 6 profiles executed, 4 revealed the existence of a substratum with very high resistivity values (15 000-40 000 ohm.m and a flat not very deep upper boundary; its thickness exceeds the maximum expIoration depths of the soundings (1 to 6 km. On the grounds of general considerations and resistivity field data set, it is possible to infer that the high values should be ascribed to endogenous rather than to sedimentary rocks. A problem arises since these geophysical results are not in agreement with some geological models.

  5. Background and triggered microseismicity in the Alpine Fault zone, central Southern Alps, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boese, C. M.; Stern, T. A.; Smith, E. G.; Townend, J.; Henderson, M.

    2010-12-01

    The Alpine Fault is a 460 km-long continental transform fault that bounds the western edge of the Southern Alps and constitutes the primary structure accommodating Pacific-Australia relative plate motion in the central South Island. Paleoseismic evidence suggests that large earthquakes (MW~7.9) occur every 200-400 years and that the central Alpine Fault last ruptured in 1717 AD. In historic times, however, there have been no large earthquakes and the central section of the Alpine Fault exhibits particularly low levels of seismicity above magnitude ML=2. This central portion of the fault is associated with the highest rates of dip-slip faulting (~10 mm/yr) and hanging-wall uplift (6-9 mm/yr). Previous geological and geophysical studies have suggested that large volumes of fluid are present in the rapidly exhumed crustal section immediately to the east of the central Alpine Fault. The Southern Alps Microearthquake Borehole Array (SAMBA) of 11 short-period seismometers installed in 1-100 m-deep boreholes was established in early 2009. SAMBA extends for 50 km along the Alpine Fault between the Whataroa and Karangarua Rivers and recorded ~1300 earthquakes of magnitude -0.5 SAMBA in the central Southern Alps. Most microearthquakes occur at depths shallower than 10 km and exhibit predominantly strike-slip focal mechanisms. The observations reinforce previous results indicating very low levels of seismicity northeast of the Whataroa River, a possible site of future deep drilling. The highest daily number of events recorded so far occurred after the MW=7.8 Dusky Sound earthquake of 15 July 2009, which ruptured the subduction interface beneath Fiordland and offshore, approximately 360 km southwest of the center of the SAMBA array. The triggered microearthquakes occurred in the middle of a pre-existing cluster. After five days, the rate of seismicity returned to the previous level. Map of the central Southern Alps showing the national station network (GeoNet, black triangles

  6. Continuous micro-earthquake catalogue of the central Southern Alps, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michailos, Konstantinos; Townend, John; Savage, Martha; Chamberlain, Calum

    2017-04-01

    The Alpine Fault is one of the most prominent tectonic features in the South Island, New Zealand, and is inferred to be late in its seismic cycle of M 8 earthquakes based on paleoseismological evidence. Despite this, the Alpine Fault displays low levels of contemporary seismic activity, with little documented on-fault seismicity. This low magnitude seismicity, often below the completeness level of the GeoNet national seismic catalogue, may inform us of changes in fault character along-strike and might be used for rupture simulations and hazard planning. Thus, compiling a micro-earthquake catalogue for the Southern Alps prior to an expected major earthquake is of great interest. Areas of low seismic activity, like the central part of the Alpine Fault, require data recorded over a long duration to reveal temporal and spatial seismicity patterns and provide a better understanding for the processes controlling seismogenesis. The continuity and density of the Southern Alps Microearthquake Borehole Array (SAMBA; deployed in late 2008) allows us to study seismicity in the Southern Alps over a more extended time period than has ever been done previously. Furthermore, by using data from other temporary networks (e.g. WIZARD, ALFA08, DFDP-10) we are able to extend the region covered. To generate a spatially and temporally continuous catalogue of seismicity in New Zealand's central Southern Alps, we used automatic detection and phase-picking methods. We used an automatic phase-picking method for both P- and S- wave arrivals (kPick; Rawles and Thurber, 2015). Using almost 8 years of seismic data we calculated about 9,000 preliminary earthquake. The seismicity is clustered and scattered and a previously observed seismic gap between the Wanganui and Whataroa rivers is also identified.

  7. Vegetation changes and timberline fluctuations in the Central Alps as indicators of holocene climatic oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wick, L.; Tinner, W. [Univ. of Bern (Switzerland)

    1997-11-01

    Pollen and plant-macrofossil data are presented for two lakes near the timberline in the Italian (Lago Basso, 2250 m) and Swiss Central Alps (Gouille Rion, 2343 m). The reforestation at both sites started at 9700-9500 BP with Pinus cembra, Larix decidua, and Betula. The timberline reached its highest elevation between 8700 and 5000 BP and retreated after 5000 BP, due to a mid-Holocene climatic change and increasing human impact since about 3500 BP (Bronze Age). The expansion of Picea abies at Lago Basso between ca. 7500 and 6200 BP was probably favored by cold phases accompanied by increased oceanicity, whereas in the area of Gouille Rion, where spruce expanded rather late (between 4500 and 3500 BP), human influence equality might have been important. The mass expansion of Alnus viridis between ca. 5000 and 3500 BP probably can be related to both climatic change and human activity at timberline. During the early and middle Holocene a series of timberline fluctuations is recorded as declines in pollen and macrofossil concentrations of the major tree species, and as increases in nonarboreal pollen in the pollen percentage diagram of Gouille Rion. Most of the periods of low timberline can be correlated by radiocarbon dating the climatic changes in the Alps as indicated by glacier advances in combination with palynological records, solifluction, and dendroclimatical data. Lago Basso and Gouille Rion are the only sites in the Alps showing complete palaeobotanical records of cold phases between 10,000 and 2000 BP with very good time control. The altitudinal range of the Holocene treeline fluctuations caused by climate most likely was not more than 100 to 150 m. A possible correlation of a cold period at ca. 7500-6500 BP (Misox oscillation) in the Alps is made with paleoecological data from North American and Scandinavia and a climate signal in the GRIP ice core from central Greenland 8200 yr ago (ca. 7400 yr uncal. BP).

  8. Austrian highlights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Simon

    2001-01-01

    An overview of recent development in the Austrian hydroelectric industry is presented, and details of the installed capacity, the Austrian government's power market reform package, and the promotion of small-scale hydroelectric power plants are given. The operation of Verbund - Austria's largest power generator and distributor - and the restructuring of the Verbund's main Austrian Hydro Power (AHP) generating group are discussed. The export of power, the joint venture of Verbund with CIR Energia in Italy to market power to commercial and industrial users, and the controversy surrounding the Freudenau run-of-the river plant which successfully tested a matrix turbine are reported

  9. The Origin of The Piz Terri-Lunschania zone (Central Alps, Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galster, Federico; Stockli, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    The Piz Terri-Lunschania zone (PTLZ) represents a band of metasedimentary rocks embedded in a crucial knot at the NE border of the Lepontine dome, at the intersection of the Gotthard, Lucomagno, Simano, Adula and Grava nappes. Its origin and its position in the tectonostratigraphy of the Central Alps are still not completely understood. A better understanding of this sedimentary zone and its tectonic position could shed lights on the Helvetic-Penninic connection and facilitate the disentanglement of the Lepontine dome tectonics. In this study we combine structural and stratigraphic observations with detrital zircon (DZ) and detrital rutile (DR) U-Pb geochronology as well as mineral trace element data from Permian, Triassic and Jurassic sandstones. We compare these data with those from adjacent tectonic units and coeval strata in other portions of the Alpine chain. Maximal depositional ages, abrupt changes in provenances and stratigraphic correlations based on new DZ and DR U-Pb and trace element data allow for a better understanding of the sedimentary evolution of the Terri basin and its palaeogeographic position along the northern margin of the Alpine Tethys. In particular the DZ U-Pb signatures, with its abundant 260-280 Ma zircons and the scarcity of 290-350 Ma zircons, corroborates an Ultra-Adula origin of the PTLZ as proposed by Galster et al (2010; 2012) based on stratigraphic arguments and reinforces the notion of a Briançonnais influence on the stratigraphic record of this complex zone, a fact that has important tectonic and Palaeogeographic implications. Galster F, Cavargna-Sani M, Epard J-L, Masson H (2012) New stratigraphic data from the Lower Penninic between the Adula nappe and the Gotthard massif and consequences for the tectonics and the paleogeography of the Central Alps. Tectonophysics 579:37-55. doi: 10.1016/j.tecto.2012.05.029 Galster F, Epard J-L, Masson H (2010) The Soja and Luzzone-Terri nappes: Discovery of a Briançonnais element below the

  10. Seasonal variation of soil respiration in a Pinus cembra forest at the upper timberline in the Central Austrian Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Gerhard

    2004-04-01

    Soil respiration (R) of a 95-year-old Pinus cembra L. forest at the alpine timberline was measured continuously from October 2001 to January 2003 with an automated multiplexing gas exchange system. There was significant spatial variability in soil respiration, and R at a soil temperature of 10 degrees C (R10) decreased by about 20% m(-1) with increasing distance from the trunk. Needle litter and fine root density also decreased. The spatially averaged annual soil CO2 efflux was 35 g C m(-2) year(-1) in 2002. About 70% of the temporal variation in soil respiration could be explained by variations in soil temperature, whereas the influence of soil water potential and thus soil water content was negligible because soil water availability was supra-optimal.

  11. Physico-chemical control on the REE minerals in chloritoid-grade metasediments from a single outcrop (Central Alps, Switzerland)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janots, Emilie; Berger, Alfons; Engi, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This study assesses the effects of fluid, whole-rock composition and oxygen fugacity, on the texture and composition of monazite, allanite, and xenotime. For this purpose, these were investigated in 13 monometamorphic metasediments from a single locality of the Central Alps (Switzerland), which...

  12. Late Pleistocene - Holocene surface processes and landscape evolution in the central Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxleitner, Max; Musso, Alessandra; Waroszewski, Jarosław; Malkiewicz, Małgorzata; Maisch, Max; Dahms, Dennis; Brandová, Dagmar; Christl, Marcus; de Castro Portes, Raquel; Egli, Markus

    2017-10-01

    The European Alps are a geomorphologically active region and experience a number of gravity-driven hillslope processes. Soil and landscape formation in the Alps has consequently undergone several minor and major traceable changes of developmental trajectories during the Holocene. Soil development is hypothesised to be often non-linear with time and characterised by stages of progressive and regressive evolution caused by upbuilding (formation, profile deepening) and erosion (profile shallowing). Several cold and warm climate phases are identified during the Holocene but it is largely unknown which effects these might have had on slope processes. By using datable moraines (10Be) and mires (14C), we have constructed a temporal framework for these processes. Using the geochemical imprint of mires in the Alpine setting of the Göschener-valley of the Central Swiss Alps, we reconstructed general (mostly erosional) landscape processes for the last ca. 10 ka. As this is the type locality for the Göschener cold phase, we assumed that this phase (Göschener cold phase I and II 1.5 and 2.5 ka BP) should have left easily recognizable traits. After deglaciation (11-12 ka BP), soil evolution was progressive. Beginning around 8 ka BP, we detect a distinct increase in erosion here, together with a vegetation change (towards tundra vegetation) and the highest measured rates of carbon sequestration. Other phases of high geomorphic activity were recognised ca. 5-6 ka BP, 4 ka BP and, to a lesser extent, 1-3 ka ago. The cold phase at 5-6 ka BP corresponds to a less distinct change in vegetation and lessened erosion. Human impact is increasingly obvious since about 2.4 ka BP which overlaps with the Göschener cold phase. Nonetheless, erosion processes were not extraordinarily high during this period and a climate effect cannot be distinguished. We detect evidence of increasing human disturbance (regressive soil evolution) for about the last 1 ka. We also detect an increase in dust

  13. Time constraints for post-LGM landscape response to deglaciation in Val Viola, Central Italian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, Riccardo; Brardinoni, Francesco; Crosta, Giovanni Battista; Cola, Giuseppe; Mair, Volkmar

    2017-12-01

    Across the northern European Alps, a long tradition of Quaternary studies has constrained post-LGM (Last Glacial Maximum) landscape history. The same picture remains largely unknown for the southern portion of the orogen. In this work, starting from existing 10Be exposure dating of three boulders in Val Viola, Central Italian Alps, we present the first detailed, post-LGM reconstruction of landscape (i.e., glacial, periglacial and paraglacial) response south of the Alpine divide. We pursue this task through Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD) at 34 sites including moraines, rock glaciers, protalus ramparts, rock avalanche deposits and talus cones. In addition, based on the mapping of preserved moraines and on the numerical SHD ages, we reconstruct the glacier extent of four different stadials, including Egesen I (13.1 ± 1.1 ka), Egesen II (12.3 ± 0.6 ka), Kartell (11.0 ± 1.4 ka) and Kromer (9.7 ± 1.4 ka), whose chronologies agree with available counterparts from north of the Alpine divide. Results show that Equilibrium Line Altitude depressions (ΔELAs) associated to Younger Dryas and Early Holocene stadials are smaller than documented at most available sites in the northern Alps. These findings not only support the hypothesis of a dominant north westerly atmospheric circulation during the Younger Dryas, but also suggest that this pattern could have lasted until the Early Holocene. SHD ages on rock glaciers and protalus ramparts indicate that favourable conditions to periglacial landform development occurred during the Younger Dryas (12.7 ± 1.1 ka), on the valley slopes above the glacier, as well as in newly de-glaciated areas, during the Early Holocene (10.7 ± 1.3 and 8.8 ± 1.8 ka). The currently active rock glacier started to develop before 3.7 ± 0.8 ka and can be associated to the Löbben oscillation. Four of the five rock avalanches dated in Val Viola cluster within the Early Holocene, in correspondence of an atmospheric warming phase. By contrast

  14. The potential of detrital garnet as a provenance proxy in the Central Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutenbecker, Laura; Berger, Alfons; Schlunegger, Fritz

    2017-04-01

    Detrital garnet is a promising candidate to reliably fingerprint sediment sources in the Alps, which has so far been complicated by the wide range and similarity of some of the lithologies. Garnet is present in most Alpine sediments, is easy to identify, is fairly stable and, most importantly, reflects the type and the metamorphic grade of its source rock in its chemical composition. This study aims to establish fingerprints based on detrital garnet composition for the most important tectonic units of the Central Alps, including European, Penninic and Adriatic basement rocks and their respective metasedimentary covers. Sediments collected from modern rivers, which drain representative portions of the individual tectonic units, contain a natural mixture of the various garnet populations present in each unit. We selected six catchments in southwestern Switzerland draining the External massifs, Helvetic sediments and the Penninic nappe stack at the transition of Alpine greenschist- to amphibolite-facies metamorphism in order to test the variability of Alpine garnets and the role of inherited (pre-Alpine) garnets. Extraordinary grossular- and spessartine-rich garnets of the External massifs, which experienced greenschist facies metamorphism, are clearly distinguishable from generally almandine-rich garnets supplied by the higher-grade metamorphic Penninic nappe stack. The variable pyrope, grossular and spessartine components of these almandine-rich garnets can be used to further distinguish pre-Alpine, Alpine eclogite-facies and low-grade metasedimentary garnets. This provenance proxy has the potential to be used for reconstructing sediment sources, transport and dispersal patterns in a variety of settings throughout the Alpine sedimentary record.

  15. Catchment features controlling nitrogen dynamics in running waters above the tree line (central Italian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Balestrini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of nitrogen cycling in mountain areas has a long tradition, as it was applied to better understand and describe ecosystem functioning, as well as to quantify long-distance effects of human activities on remote environments. Nonetheless, very few studies, especially in Europe, have considered catchment features controlling nitrogen dynamics above the tree line with focus on running waters. In this study, relationships between some water chemistry descriptors – including nitrogen species and dissolved organic carbon (DOC – and catchment characteristics were evaluated for a range of sites located above the tree line (1950–2650 m a.s.l. at Val Masino, in the central Italian Alps. Land cover categories as well as elevation and slope were assessed at each site. Water samples were collected during the 2007 and 2008 snow free periods, with a nearly monthly frequency. In contrast to dissolved organic nitrogen, nitrate concentrations in running waters showed a spatial pattern strictly connected to the fractional extension of tundra and talus in each basin. Exponential models significantly described the relationships between maximum NO3 and the fraction of vegetated soil cover (negative relation and talus (positive relation, explaining almost 90% of nitrate variation in running waters. Similarly to nitrate but with an opposite behavior, DOC was positively correlated with vegetated soil cover and negatively correlated with talus. Therefore, land cover can be considered one of the most important factors affecting water quality in high-elevation catchments with contrasting effects on N and C pools.

  16. Acidification and recovery at mountain lakes in Central Alps assessed by the MAGIC model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela ROGORA

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic model MAGIC was calibrated and applied to 84 lakes in Central Alps to predict the response of water chemistry to different scenarios of atmospheric deposition of S and N compounds. Selected lakes were representative of a wide range of chemical characteristics and of sensitivity to acidification. The most sensitive lakes have already shown in the latest years signs of recovery in terms of pH and ANC. The model well captured the main trends in lake chemical data. According to the model forecast, recovery at sensitive lakes will continue in the next decades under the hypothesis of a further decrease of acidic input from the atmosphere. Results clearly demonstrated the benefits of achieving the emission reductions in both S and N compounds agreed under the Gothenburg Protocol. Nevertheless, besides the achieved reduction of SO4 2- deposition from the peak levels of the 80s, also N deposition should be reduced in the near future to protect alpine lakes from further acidification. The condition of lake catchments with regard to N saturation will probably be the dominant factor driving recovery extent. Beside atmospheric deposition, other factors proved to be important in determining long-term changes in surface water chemistry. Climate warming in particular affects weathering processes in lake catchments and dynamics of the N cycle. Including other factors specific to the alpine area, such as dust deposition and climate change, may improve the fit of experimental data by the model and the reliability of model forecast.

  17. From the Western Alps across Central Europe: Postglacial recolonisation of the tufa stream specialist Rhyacophila pubescens (Insecta, Trichoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haase Peter

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dispersal rates, i.e. the effective number of dispersing individuals per unit time, are the product of dispersal capacity, i.e. a species physiological potential for dispersal, dispersal behaviour, i.e. the decision to leave a habitat patch in favour of another, and connectivity of occupied habitat. Thus, dispersal of species that are highly specialised to a certain habitat is limited by habitat availability. Species inhabiting very stable environments may also adopt a sedentary life-style. Both factors should lead to strong genetic differentiation in highly specialised species inhabiting stable environments. These two factors apply to our model species Rhyacophila pubescens a highly specialised freshwater insect that occurs in tufa springs, a very stable habitat. Results We examined the genetic population structure and phylogeography using range-wide mtCOI sequence and AFLP data from 333 individuals of R. pubescens. We inferred the location of Pleistocene refugia and postglacial colonisation routes of R. pubescens, and examined ongoing local differentiation. Our results indicate intraregional differentiation with a high number of locally endemic haplotypes, that we attributed to habitat specificity and low dispersal rates of R. pubescens. We observed high levels of genetic diversity south of the Alps and genetic impoverishment north of the Alps. Estimates of migrants placed the refugium and the source of the colonisation in the Dauphiné Alps (SW Alps. Conclusions This is the first example of an aquatic insect with a colonisation route along the western margin of the Alps to the Central European highlands. The study also shows that specialisation to a stable environment may have promoted a behavioural shift to decreased dispersal rates, leading to stronger local population differentiation than in less specialised aquatic insects. Alternatively, the occurrence of highly specialised tufa spring habitats may have been more

  18. Holocene flood frequency across the Central Alps - solar forcing and evidence for variations in North Atlantic atmospheric circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Stefanie B.; Glur, Lukas; Gilli, Adrian; Anselmetti, Flavio S.

    2013-11-01

    The frequency of large-scale heavy precipitation events in the European Alps is expected to undergo substantial changes with current climate change. Hence, knowledge about the past natural variability of floods caused by heavy precipitation constitutes important input for climate projections. We present a comprehensive Holocene (10,000 years) reconstruction of the flood frequency in the Central European Alps combining 15 lacustrine sediment records. These records provide an extensive catalog of flood deposits, which were generated by flood-induced underflows delivering terrestrial material to the lake floors. The multi-archive approach allows suppressing local weather patterns, such as thunderstorms, from the obtained climate signal. We reconstructed mainly late spring to fall events since ice cover and precipitation in form of snow in winter at high-altitude study sites do inhibit the generation of flood layers. We found that flood frequency was higher during cool periods, coinciding with lows in solar activity. In addition, flood occurrence shows periodicities that are also observed in reconstructions of solar activity from 14C and 10Be records (2500-3000, 900-1200, as well as of about 710, 500, 350, 208 (Suess cycle), 150, 104 and 87 (Gleissberg cycle) years). As atmospheric mechanism, we propose an expansion/shrinking of the Hadley cell with increasing/decreasing air temperature, causing dry/wet conditions in Central Europe during phases of high/low solar activity. Furthermore, differences between the flood patterns from the Northern Alps and the Southern Alps indicate changes in North Atlantic circulation. Enhanced flood occurrence in the South compared to the North suggests a pronounced southward position of the Westerlies and/or blocking over the northern North Atlantic, hence resembling a negative NAO state (most distinct from 4.2 to 2.4 kyr BP and during the Little Ice Age). South-Alpine flood activity therefore provides a qualitative record of variations

  19. Chrysotile asbestos quantification in serpentinite quarries: a case study in Valmalenco, central Alps, northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    Outcrops of serpentinites are usually strongly fractured and cataclastic, and the rock can only be used as ballast. However, in rare cases, like in Valmalenco (Central Alps, Northern Italy), fractures are regular and well spaced, and the rock mass has good geotechnical quality, ideal conditions for the extraction of dimension stone blocks. The Valmalenco Serpentinite is marketed worldwide as dimension and decorative stone, with remarkable mechanical properties and pleasing colours and textures. However, the same area was once subject to chrysotile asbestos mining, in the form of discrete veins along the main discontinuities of the rock mass. For this reason, airborne asbestos contamination can occur during the extraction and processing cycle of the rocks, therefore it is essential to locate and quantify asbestos in the rock mass, to reduce as much as possible the exposure risk. The first step was a detailed geostructural survey of each quarry, in order to characterize the main discontinuities (orientation, spacing, linear persistence, opening, filling), with special attention to the identification of fibrous minerals. The surveys was followed by extensive sampling of massive rocks, mineralized veins and fillings of fractures, and the cutting sludge derived from diamond wire cutting. Preliminary qualitative XRPD was performed on all samples, while quantitative analysis was carried out on the most representative samples of the main rock mass discontinuities. On the other hand, XRPD is not effective in the identification of asbestos percentages of less than 2% by weight, and the accurate distinction among the various serpentine polymorphs (antigorite, lizardite, chrysotile) is very difficult (if not impossible) when they are simultaneously present, due to their very similar basic structure and the strong structural disorder. The same samples were then analyzed by SEM-EDS (fiber counting after filtration on a polycarbonate filter), for a better distinction between

  20. Rapid Late Miocene Exhumation in the Central Alps, Constrained by (U-Th)/He and Fission Track Thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramowicz, A.; Cosca, M.; Stockli, D.; Farley, K.; Seward, D.

    2007-12-01

    Zircon and apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronological data together with apatite fission track analyses are used to explore uplift and exhumation of the western part of the Aar massif in the central Swiss Alps. A total of 27 samples were collected from the surface and underground, from the world's deepest tunnel (Loetschberg NEAT), with an overall elevation difference of almost 2500 m. Zircon (U-Th)/He ages range from 5.5 to 7.6 Ma, apatite fission track ages range from 5.7 to 6.5 Ma and apatite (U-Th)/He ages range from 3 to 5.5 Ma. All zircon age-elevation profiles from three traverses, show distinct brakes in slope that mark a drastic, 10-fold acceleration of exhumation at 6 ± 0.5 Ma ago (from 0.3 km/Ma to 3 km/Ma). The trend of fast exhumation appears to be maintained in the apatite fission track data while apatite (U-Th)/He ages suggest a return to moderate, apparent exhumation rates of 0.5 km/Ma. We propose that the accelerated exhumation may be linked to the Messinian desiccation of the Mediterranean. During that event, Mediterranean sea level dropped locally by as much as 3 km which accelerated erosion in the Alps. Consequently, the erosion in the Alps must have increased. If wedge mechanics are considered, the increased erosional flux reduced the active width of the orogen and, during latest convergence, deformation focused in the internal parts of the Alps, i.e. Aar massif. This interpretation implies a strong and prompt feedback between external forcing and tectonic response of the orogen. The slower exhumation rate apparent from the apatite (U-Th)/He data may reflect a decline in deformation. Alternatively, due to its low closure temperature, this system is prone to resetting by heat advected through hydrothermal circulation. This scenario needs further investigation but abundant hot-water (ca. 50 °C) discharge in the sampled tunnel is not uncommon.

  1. Application of Phase-Weighted Stacking to Low-Frequency Earthquakes near the Alpine Fault, Central Southern Alps, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratin, L. M.; Townend, J.; Chamberlain, C. J.; Savage, M. K.

    2015-12-01

    Characterising seismicity in the vicinity of the Alpine Fault, a major transform boundary late in its typical earthquake cycle, may provide constraints on the state of stress preceding a large earthquake. Here, we use recently detected tremor and low-frequency earthquakes (LFEs) to examine how slow tectonic deformation is loading the Alpine Fault toward an anticipated major rupture. We work with a continuous seismic dataset collected between 2009 and 2012 from a network of short-period seismometers, the Southern Alps Microearthquake Borehole Array (SAMBA). Fourteen primary LFE templates have been used to scan the dataset using a matched-filter technique based on an iterative cross-correlation routine. This method allows the detection of similar signals and establishes LFE families with common hypocenter locations. The detections are then combined for each LFE family using phase-weighted stacking (Thurber et al., 2014) to produce a signal with the highest possible signal to noise ratio. We find this method to be successful in increasing the number of LFE detections by roughly 10% in comparison with linear stacking. Our next step is to manually pick polarities on first arrivals of the phase-weighted stacked signals and compute preliminary locations. We are working to estimate LFE focal mechanism parameters and refine the focal mechanism solutions using an amplitude ratio technique applied to the linear stacks. LFE focal mechanisms should provide new insight into the geometry and rheology of the Alpine Fault and the stress field prevailing in the central Southern Alps.

  2. The "green stones" of Valtellina and Valchiavenna (central Alps, northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Valtellina and Val Chiavenna (Sondrio, Central Alps, northern Italy) are traditionally areas of production of building and ornamental stones (e.g. Serizzo Ghiandone, Serizzo Valmasino, San Fedelino Granite), and among these the "green stones" have a leading position. These stones had an extensive use in Lombardy, as well as abroad (e.g Switzerland). The "green stones" are related to the two mafic-ultramafic bodies of Valmalenco and Chiavenna, where the two largest quarrying districts of the Province of Sondrio are located. Until the early decades of the XX century, serpentinites (and other lithologies from Valtellina) were also extracted from the erratic boulders of Brianza (north of Milan), but at present time the law protects the few remaining boulders. The extracted and processed materials are various: serpentinites, ophicalcites, soapstones. Even the "Stone of Tresivio", used in the past in important monuments of Valtellina, could be classified among the "green stones" in a broad sense: it is a green chloritic schist with scarce and thin ferriferous calcitic veins, pertaining to the sedimentary "Servino" Formation. In recent times, the ancient quarries of this stone were rediscovered near the homonymous village, a few kilometers from Sondrio. There are also historic reports about other "green stones", used in ancient times, such as the "Stone of Grosio", a chloritic schist, and the "Bormio Prasinite". Currently the extraction and processing of "green stones" occurs mostly in Valmalenco, with 22 active serpentinite quarries and a gross volume of 70000 m3 extracted per year, with a yield of about 50%. The Malenco serpentinite (interpreted as sub-continental mantle rocks) forms a 1-2 km thick tabular body, outcropping over an area of about 170 km2, almost entirely confined within the boundaries of the valley. The antigoritic serpentinites (with variable amounts of olivine, clinopyroxene, chlorite and magnetite) are moderately up to strongly foliated, sometimes

  3. Carex sempervirens tussocks induce spatial heterogeneity in litter decomposition, but not in soil properties, in a subalpine grassland in the Central Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei-Hai Yu; Martin Schutz; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Bertil O. Krusi; Jakob Schneller; Otto Wildi; Anita C. Risch

    2011-01-01

    Tussocks of graminoids can induce spatial heterogeneity in soil properties in dry areas with discontinuous vegetation cover, but little is known about the situation in areas with continuous vegetation and no study has tested whether tussocks can induce spatial heterogeneity in litter decomposition. In a subalpine grassland in the Central Alps where vegetation cover is...

  4. Environmental impact of cow milk production in the central Italian Alps using Life Cycle Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara A. Penati

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze environmental impact of cow milk production in an alpine area through a cradle-to-farm-gate Life Cycle Assessment and to identify farming strategies that can improve environmental sustainability without negatively affecting profitability. Data were collected from farmers in 28 dairy farms in an Italian alpine valley. The production of 1 kg of fat protein corrected milk (FPCM needed 3.18 m2 of land; land use on-farm was high because a large part of farm land consisted of pastures in the highland, used extensively during summer. Also the use of energy from non-renewable sources was high, 5.14 MJ kg FPCM-1 on average. Diesel for production and transportation of feed purchased off-farm was mainly used, especially concentrates which were entirely purchased. The average emission of greenhouse and acidification causing gases was 1.14 kg CO2-eq and 0.021 kg SO2-eq kg FPCM-1. Eutrophication was on average 0.077 kg of nitrate-eq kg FPCM-1. Farms with low producing cows had higher environmental impact per kg of milk and lower gross margin per cow compared to the others. Low stocking rate farms had the best results regarding acidification and eutrophication per kg FPCM. Farms with high feed self-sufficiency had significantly lower acidification potential than the others. Increasing milk yield per cow, by selection and feeding, and enhancing feed self-sufficiency, by higher forage production and quality and more exploitation of highland pastures, seem to be the best strategies to improve ecological performances of dairy farms in the Alps while maintaining their profitability.

  5. Temporal and spatial distribution of isotopes in river water in Central Europe: 50 years experience with the Austrian network of isotopes in rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rank, Dieter; Wyhlidal, Stefan; Schott, Katharina; Weigand, Silvia; Oblin, Armin

    2018-05-01

    The Austrian network of isotopes in rivers comprises about 15 sampling locations and has been operated since 1976. The Danube isotope time series goes back to 1963. The isotopic composition of river water in Central Europe is mainly governed by the isotopic composition of precipitation in the catchment area; evaporation effects play only a minor role. Short-term and long-term isotope signals in precipitation are thus transmitted through the whole catchment. The influence of climatic changes has become observable in the long-term stable isotope time series of precipitation and surface waters. Environmental 3 H values were around 8 TU in 2015, short-term 3 H pulses up to about 80 TU in the rivers Danube and March were a consequence of releases from nuclear power plants. The complete isotope data series of this network will be included in the Global Network of Isotopes in Rivers database of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in 2017. This article comprises a review of 50 years isotope monitoring on rivers and is also intended to provide base information on the (isotope-)hydrological conditions in Central Europe specifically for the end-users of these data, e.g. for modelling hydrological processes. Furthermore, this paper includes the 2006-2015 supplement adding to the Danube isotope set published earlier.

  6. Bedrock topography beneath uppermost part of Aletsch glacier, Central Swiss Alps, revealed from cosmic-ray muon radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Ryuichi; Ariga, Akitaka; Ariga, Tomoko; Käser, Samuel; Lechmann, Alessandro; Mair, David; Scampoli, Paola; Vladymyrov, Mykhailo; Ereditato, Antonio; Schlunegger, Fritz

    2017-04-01

    In mountainous landscapes such as the Central Alps of Europe, the bedrock topography is one of the most interesting subjects of study since it separates the geological substratum (bedrock) from the overlying unconsolidated units (ice). The geometry of the bedrock topography puts a tight constraint on the erosional mechanism of glaciers. In previous studies, it has been inferred mainly from landscapes where glaciers have disappeared after the termination of the last glacial epoch. However, the number of studies with a focus on the structure beneath active glaciers is limited, because existing exploration methods have limitation in resolution and mobility. The Eiger-μ project proposes a new technology, called muon radiography, to investigate the bedrock geometry beneath active glaciers. The muon radiography is a recent technique that relies on the high penetration power of muon components in natural cosmic rays. Specifically, one can resolve the internal density profile of a gigantic object by measuring the attenuation rate of the intensity of muons after passing through it, as in medical X-ray diagnostic. This technique has been applied to many fields such as volcano monitoring (eg. Ambrosino et al., 2015; Jourde et al., 2016; Nishiyama et al., 2016), detection of seismic faults (eg. Tanaka et al., 2011), inspection inside nuclear reactors, etc. The first feasibility test of the Eiger-μ project has been performed at Jungfrau region, Central Swiss Alps, Switzerland. We installed cosmic-ray detectors consisting of emulsion films at three sites along the Jungfrau railway tunnel facing Aletsch glacier (Jungfraufirn). The detectors stayed 47 days in the tunnel and recorded the tracks of muons which passed through the glacier and bedrock (thickness is about 100 m). Successively the films were chemically developed and scanned at University of Bern with microscopes originally developed for the analysis of physics experiments on neutrino oscillation. The analysis of muon

  7. Correlation between vegetation pattern and microtopography in periglacial areas of the Central Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerdol, Renato

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available The distributional patterns of plant species were analyzed within periglacial microforms belonging to the collective groups of patterned grounds and sorted stripes In the Ortles-Cevedale group (Lombardy, Italy. The edges of primitive polygons are practically free of vegetation, whilst the central areas are colonized by pioneer plants of detritic slopes. This is clearly correlated with a low degree of sediment sorting. The morphological evolution of the forms proceeds at a faster rate at the edge of polygons than in the central areas. Vegetation, on the other hand, colonizes the coarse debris at the polygons’ edges slowly but colonizes the fine material in the central areas actively. The centre of the most evolved polygons is covered by a carpet of Salix herbacea. Age determinations of Salix shoots are not useful for dating purposes, but provide Information about the local microclimate.

    [es] Se han analizado los modelos de distribución de especies vegetales en microformas periglaciares pertenecientes al tipo de suelos estructurales en el Ortles-Cevedale (Lombardía, Italia. Los límites de los polígonos de piedras están prácticamente libres de vegetación, mientras las áreas centrales están colonizadas por plantas pioneras de laderas pedregosas. La evolución morfológica actúa a mayor velocidad en el borde de los polígonos que en las áreas centrales. Por otro lado, la vegetación coloniza lentamente los bordes de los polígonos, y más activamente las zonas centrales. El centro de la mayoría de los polígonos está cubierto por un manto de Salix herbacea. La determinación de la edad de los vástagos de Salix no ha sido un método útil a efectos cronológicos, pero proporciona información sobre el microclima local.
    [fr] On étude les modèles de distribution d'espèces végétaux dans microformes périglaciaires appartenants au type de sols structurales dans l'Ortles-Cevedale (Lombardie

  8. Hydrological Modeling of Highly Glacierized Basins (Andes, Alps, and Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Omani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT was used to simulate five glacierized river basins that are global in coverage and vary in climate. The river basins included the Narayani (Nepal, Vakhsh (Central Asia, Rhone (Switzerland, Mendoza (Central Andes, Argentina, and Central Dry Andes (Chile, with a total area of 85,000 km2. A modified SWAT snow algorithm was applied in order to consider spatial variation of associated snowmelt/accumulation by elevation band across each subbasin. In previous studies, melt rates varied as a function of elevation because of an air temperature gradient while the snow parameters were constant throughout the entire basin. A major improvement of the new snow algorithm is the separation of the glaciers from seasonal snow based on their characteristics. Two SWAT snow algorithms were evaluated in simulation of monthly runoff from the glaciered watersheds: (1 the snow parameters are lumped (constant throughout the entire basin and (2 the snow parameters are spatially variable based on elevation bands of a subbasin (modified snow algorithm. Applying the distributed SWAT snow algorithm improved the model performance in simulation of monthly runoff with snow-glacial regime, so that mean RSR decreased to 0.49 from 0.55 and NSE increased to 0.75 from 0.69. Improvement of model performance was negligible in simulations of monthly runoff from the basins with a monsoon runoff regime.

  9. Fission track ages on apatite of Bergell rocks from central Alps and Bergell boulders in Oligocene sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, G.A.; Miller, D.S.

    1979-01-01

    Previous radiometric dating studies indicated that the Bergell region, in contrast to other regions of the Central Alps, experienced an early, rapid uplift, but with decreasing rate. Furthermore, there is also a geological record of the early uplift history of the Bergell granite by the existence of boulders which were derived from this granite and which occur in the Late Oligocene sediments of the Po plain. In this work the uplift history of the Bergell is studied in more detail by fission track dating of additional apatites from the Bergell region. Secondly, by determining apatite fission track ages the granitic boulders of the Po plain can be re-assigned to their original vertical position within the Bergell intrusive before erosion removed them in Late Oligocene time. A rather conservative estimate replaces them 6 km above the present morphology of the Bergell massif. Thus, the thickness of the Bergell granite must have been at least 8 km. Generally, fission track studies on boulders may become an important tool to study the vertical extent of mountain chains during the geological past. (Auth.)

  10. Quantifying the Variation in Shear Zone Character with Depth: a Case Study from the Simplon Shear Zone, Central Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawood, T. K.; Platt, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    A widely-accepted model for the rheology of crustal-scale shear zones states that they comprise distributed strain at depth, in wide, high-temperature shear zones, which narrow to more localized, high-strain zones at lower temperature and shallower crustal levels. We test and quantify this model by investigating how the width, stress, temperature and deformation mechanisms change with depth in the Simplon Shear Zone (SSZ). The SSZ marks a major tectonic boundary in the central Alps, where normal-sense motion and rapid exhumation of the footwall have preserved evidence of older, deeper deformation in rocks progressively further into the currently-exposed footwall. As such, microstructures further from the brittle fault (which represents the most localized, most recently-active part of the SSZ) represent earlier, higher- temperature deformation from deeper crustal levels, while rocks closer to the fault have been overprinted by successively later, cooler deformation at shallower depths. This study uses field mapping and microstructural studies to identify zones representing deformation at various crustal levels, and characterize each in terms of zone width (representing width of the shear zone at that time and depth) and dominant deformation mechanism. In addition, quartz- (by Electron Backscatter Diffraction, EBSD) and feldspar grain size (measured optically) piezometry are used to calculate the flow stress for each zone, while the Ti-in-quartz thermometer (TitaniQ) is used to calculate the corresponding temperature of deformation. We document the presence of a broad zone in which quartz is recrystallized by the Grain Boundary Migration (GBM) mechanism and feldspar by Subgrain Rotation (SGR), which represents the broad, deep zone of deformation occurring at relatively high temperatures and low stresses. In map view, this transitions to successively narrower zones, respectively characterized by quartz SGR and feldspar Bulge Nucleation (BLG); quartz BLG and brittle

  11. Granulites and charnockites of the Gruf Complex: Evidence for Permian ultra-high temperature metamorphism in the Central Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, A.; Le Bayon, B.; Schmidt, M. W.; Burg, J.-P.; Caddick, M. J.; Reusser, E.

    2011-05-01

    We present a detailed field and petrological study of charnockites and ultra-high temperature (UHT) granulites from the Gruf Complex, eastern Central Alps. Charnockites occur as up to 0.5 km wide and 8 km long, internally boudinaged, opx-bearing sheet-like bodies within the regionally dominant migmatitic biotite-orthogneisses. Granulites occur as garnet-orthopyroxene-biotite-alkali feldspar-bearing schlieren (± sapphirine, sillimanite, cordierite, corundum, spinel, plagioclase, and quartz) within charnockites and as residual enclaves both in the charnockites and the migmatitic orthogneisses. Thermobarometric calculations, P-T pseudosections and orthopyroxene Al content, show that both charnockites and granulites equilibrated at metamorphic peak conditions of T = 920-940 °C and P = 8.5-9.5 kbar. Peak assemblages were subsequently overprinted by intergrowth, symplectite and corona textures involving orthopyroxene, sapphirine, cordierite and spinel at T = 720-740 °C and P = 7-7.5 kbar. We suggest that granulites and charnockites are lower crustal relicts preserved in the migmatitic orthogneisses. Garnet diffusion modelling shows that metamorphic garnet-opx ± sapphirine ± sillimanite peak assemblages and post-peak reaction textures always involving cordierite developed during two separate metamorphic cycles. Peak assemblages reflect UHT metamorphism related to post-Varican Permian extension, but post-peak coronae and symplectites formed during the mid-Tertiary, upper amphibolite facies, Alpine regional metamorphism. Fluid-absent partial melting of pelitic and psammitic sediments during the Permian UHT event lead to the formation of charnockitic magmas and granulitic residues. Intense melt loss and thorough dehydration of the granulites (although retaining biotite) favoured the partial preservation of peak mineral assemblages during Alpine metamorphism.

  12. Landsliding and sediment flux in the Central Swiss Alps: A photogrammetric study of the Schimbrig landslide, Entlebuch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Marco; Rieke-Zapp, Dirk; Schneider, Heinz; Liniger, Markus; Schlunegger, Fritz

    2008-05-01

    This study explores the effects of hillslope mass failure on the sediment flux in the Waldemme drainage basin, Central Swiss Alps, over decadal time scales. This area is characterized by abundant landslides affecting principally flysch units and is therefore an important sediment source. The analysis concentrates on the Schimbrig landslide that potentially contributes up to 15% to the sediment budget of the Waldemme drainage basin. Volumetric changes are quantified using high-resolution elevation models that were extracted using digital photogrammetric techniques. Sediment discharge data were used to constrain the significance of the landslide for sediment flux in the channel network. The temporal extent of the photogrammetric analysis ranges from 1962 to 1998, including an earth slide event in 1994. The analyses reveal that during periods of low slip rates of the landslide, nearly all of the displaced sediments were eroded and supplied to the channel network. In contrast, during active periods, only a fraction of the displaced landslide mass was exported to the trunk stream. Interestingly, the 1994 earth slide event did not disturb the long-term sediment discharge pattern of the channel network, nor did it influence the sediment flux at a weekly scale. However, suspended sediment pulses correlate with higher-than-average precipitation events. This was especially the case in August 2005 when a storm event (> 100 years return period) triggered several debris flows and earth flows in the whole drainage basin and in the Schimbrig area. This storm did not result in a significant increase in the slip rates of the entire landslide's main body. It is therefore proposed that debris flows and earth flows perform the connectivity between hillslope processes (e.g. landsliding) and the trunk stream during and between phases of landslide activity in this particular setting.

  13. The Late Miocene to recent erosion pattern of the Alpine foreland basin reflects Eurasian slab-unloading beneath the western Alps rather than global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Anke; Schlunegger, Fritz; Baran, Ramona

    2014-05-01

    It has been proposed that mountainous erosion increased globally around 5 Ma in response to global climate change, mainly because this increase coincides with a cooling trend indicated by global isotopic data (e.g., Herman et al. 2013). The Alps have played a prominent role in this debate. Published sedimentary budgets for the western and eastern Alps for the past 35 Ma show a substantial increase in the erosion of the Alps at c. 5 Ma (e.g., Kuhlemann, 2000). This temporal coincidence was used to call for a climate driver, mainly because this increase was not accompanied by tectonic convergence across the Alps during this time period. However, several authors emphasized the importance of lithospheric-scale processes beneath the Alps, which could also explain the increase in erosion rates through surface uplift. To provide a new perspective on this debate, we synthesized a spatial gradient map of erosion rates for the Alps and the entire Alpine foreland basin. Our data base consists of published (1) apatite fission-track (AFT) cooling ages for the Alps (e.g., Vernon et al. 2008; Luth and Willingshofer 2008; Wölfler et al. 2012; (2) AFT ages from wells from the Swiss foreland basin (e.g., Cederbom et al. 2011), and (3) stratigraphic data from industry wells in the German and Austrian foreland basin (e.g., Lemcke 1974; Genser et al. 2007). We focus our analysis on the shape and scale of the areas undergoing erosion since 5 Ma. Our synthesis of published denudation rate data for the past 5 Million years reveals that erosion of the Alpine foreland basin is highest in front of the western Alps (between 2 and 0.6 km), and decreases eastward over a distance of 700 km to the Austrian foreland basin (c. 200 m). For the western Alps, the compilation of apatite-fission-track ages yields erosion rates > 0.6 km/Ma, while erosion rates for the eastern foreland basin and the adjacent eastern Alps are slab along the Eurasian-Adriatic plate boundary. This mechanism triggered large

  14. Younger Dryas equilibrium line altitudes and precipitation patterns in the Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerschner, Hanns; Moran, Andrew; Ivy-Ochs, Susan

    2016-04-01

    Moraine systems of the "Egesen Stadial" are widespread and easily identifiable features in the Alps. Absolute dating with terrestrial cosmogenic radionuclides shows that the maximum extent was reached during the early Younger Dryas (YD), probably as a reaction to the intense climatic downturn subsequent to Lateglacial Interstadial. In recent years, several new studies and the availability of high-quality laser-scan hillshades and orthophotos allowed a significant extension of the database of YD glaciers as "palaeoprecipitation gauges" to large hitherto unmapped regions in the Austrian and Swiss Alps. The equilibrium line altitude (ELA) of the glaciers and its lowering relative to the Little Ice Age ELA (dELA) shows a distinct and systematic spatial pattern. Along the northern slope of the Alps, dELAs are usually large (around 400 m and perhaps even more), while dELAs range around 200 m in the well sheltered areas of the central Alps, e.g. in the Engadine and in western Tyrol. Both stochastic glacier-climate models (e.g. Ohmura et al. 1992) and the heat- and mass balance equation (Kuhn 1981) allow the reconstruction of precipitation change under the assumption of a spatially constant summer temperature depression, which in turn can be estimated from biological proxies. This allows to draw the spatial pattern of precipitation change with considerable detail. Precipitation change is clearly controlled by the local relief like high mountain chains, deeply incised and long valleys and mountain passes. Generally the contrast between the northern fringe of the Alps and the interior was more pronounced than today. Climate in the Northern and and Northwestern Alps was rather wet with precipitation totals eventually exceeding modern annual sums. The central Alps received 20 - 30% less precipitation than today, mainly due to reduced winter precipitation. In the southern Alps, still scarce spatial information points to precipitation sums which were approximately similar to

  15. Asbestos exposure during quarrying and processing of serpentinites: a case study in Valmalenco, Central Alps, Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, A.; Rimoldi, B.

    2012-04-01

    Serpentinites are metamorphic rocks derived from ultramafics such as peridotites (lherzolites and/or harzburgites), with a typical mineralogical assemblage of antigorite, olivine, diopside and minor magnetite, chlorite and chrysotile. If the rock mass has good geotechnical properties, these stones are quarried because of their wide variety of green shades and outstanding technical properties. Excellent stones are produced in the Malenco Valley, Central Alps (northern Italy, Sondrio): here the geological set-up is dominated by the ultramafic Malenco massif (lower crust-mantle complex), exposed at the Penninic to Austroalpine boundary zone. Different processing operations give origin to valuable products like stoves, funeral monuments, design home appliances; important building element as roof slabs, tiles for floor and wall coverings constitute the main commercial line of production. In this area, good quality long fibre chrysotile asbestos was mined since the XIX century, till the seventies. The asbestos fissures (mostly slip-fiber) are well known in Valmalenco, associated to an important ENE-WSW striking fracture and hydrothermal vein system. Some actual serpentinite quarries "cross" at times tunnels of the old asbestos mines, because the fracture and vein system "guides" the extraction. At present time, this area represents an excellent example of naturally occurring asbestos (NOA). For these reasons, workers' exposure to asbestos during quarrying and processing cannot be ruled out, and must be assessed according to national laws. From 2004 to nowadays, the INAIL Regional Management of Lombardia, with the collaboration of University of Milan-Bicocca, carried out extensive monitoring campaigns both in quarries and in processing laboratories. More than 300 massive samples (rocks and veins) and 250 airborne dust samples were collected during the surveys. One of the main problems in the study of massive serpentinites is the accurate identification of the different

  16. The Austrian Space Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseiner, K.; Balogh, W.

    2002-01-01

    After several years of preparation and discussion among the involved players, the Austrian Space Plan was approved for implementation in November 2001. Based on careful benchmarking and analysis of the capabilities of the Austrian space sector it aims to create excellent conditions for the sector's further development. The new space strategy embraces Austria's participation in the mandatory and optional programmes of the European Space Agency and establishes a National Space Programme supported by separate funding opportunities. A set of clearly-defined indicators ensures that the progress in implementing the Space Plan can be objectively judged through independent, annual reviews. The National Space Programme promotes international cooperation in space research and space activities with the aim to strengthen the role of space science and to better prepare Austrian space industry for the commercial space market. In the framework of the Space Plan the Austrian Space Agency has been tasked with integrating the industry's growing involvement in aeronautics activities to better utilize synergies with the space sector. This paper reviews the various steps leading to the approval of the new space strategy and discusses the hurdles mastered in this process. It reports on the Space Plan's first results, specifically taking into account projects involving international cooperation. For the first the Austria aerospace-sector can rely on an integrated strategy for aeronautics- and space activities which is firmly rooted in the efforts to enhance the country's R&D activities. It may also act as a useful example for other small space- using countries planning to enhance their involvement in space activities.

  17. Geomorphological response of a landscape to long-term tectonic and glacial processes: the upper Rhône basin, Central Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutenbecker, Laura; Schlunegger, Fritz

    2015-04-01

    The Rhône River in the Central Swiss Alps drains a 5380 km2 large basin that shows a high spatial variability of bedrock lithology, exhumation rate, glacial conditioning and climate. All of these factors were recently discussed to control erosion rates in orogenic settings in general, and particularly in the Alps (e.g. Wittmann et al. 2007, Vernon et al. 2008, Norton et al. 2010a). Thanks to various and densely distributed data, the upper Rhône basin located between the Aar massif and Lake Geneva is a suitable natural laboratory to analyze the landscape's geomorphological state and controlling factors at a basin-scale. In this study, we extract geomorphological parameters along the channels of ca. 50 tributary basins of various sizes that contribute to the sediment budget of the Rhône River either through sediment supply by torrents or debris flows. Their catchments are located in either granitic basement rocks (External Massifs), oceanic meta-sedimentary and ophiolitic rocks (Penninic nappes) or fine-grained continental-margin sediments (Helvetic nappes). The analysis of longitudinal river profiles from DEMs and slope/area relationships show that all tributary rivers within the Rhône basin are in topographic transient state that is expressed by mainly convex or concave-convex channel shapes with several knickpoints of either tectonic-lithological or glacial origin. Furthermore, the frequency distribution of elevations (hypsometry) along the river channel allows identifying glacially inherited morphologies and the recent erosional front. The combination of those different geomorphological data yields to a categorization of the tributary rivers into three endmember groups: (1) streams with highly convex profiles, testifying to a strong glacial inheritance, (2) concave-convex channels with several knickzones and inherited morphologies of past glaciations, (3) predominantly concave, relatively steep rivers with minor knickpoints and inner gorges. Assuming that

  18. Thermochronometry Across the Austroalpine-Pennine Boundary, Central Alps, Switzerland: Orogen-Perpendicular Normal Fault Slip on a Major "Overthrust" and Its Implications for Orogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Jason B.; Wernicke, Brian P.; Cosca, Michael A.; Farley, Kenneth A.

    2018-03-01

    Fifty-one new and 309 published thermochronometric ages (nine systems with closure temperatures ranging from 450 to 70°C) from the Graubünden region of the Central Alps demonstrate that a pronounced thermal mismatch between the Austroalpine allochthon (Alpine "orogenic lid") and the Pennine zone persisted until at least 29 Ma and, allowably, until circa 18 Ma. The observed mismatch supports previous suggestions that the famous "overthrust" between the Austroalpine allochthon and the Pennine zone, historically regarded as primarily an Eocene top-north thrust fault, is in fact primarily an Oligocene-Miocene normal fault that has a minimum of 60 km of displacement with top-south or top-southeast sense of shear. Two hallmarks of Alpine geology, deposition of the foredeep Molasse and emplacement of the Helvetic nappes, appear to be coeval, peripheral manifestations of crustal thickening via the interposition of the Pennine zone as a northward intruding wedge between the Austroalpine "lid" and the European cratonic margin, with the Helvetic system (European margin) acting as the "floor" of the wedge. We presume the Penninic wedge is driven by the buoyant rise of subducted crust no longer able to remain attached to the descending slab. If so, emplacement of the Pennine wedge could have occurred mainly after Adria was juxtaposed against cratonic Europe.

  19. Epidemiological evaluation of concordance between initial diagnosis and central pathology review in a comprehensive and prospective series of sarcoma patients in the Rhone-Alpes region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biron Pierre

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sarcomas are rare malignant tumors. Accurate initial histological diagnosis is essential for adequate management. We prospectively assessed the medical management of all patients diagnosed with sarcoma in a European region over a one-year period to identify the quantity of first diagnosis compared to central expert review (CER. Methods Histological data of all patients diagnosed with sarcoma in Rhone-Alpes between March 2005 and Feb 2006 were collected. Primary diagnoses were systematically compared with second opinion from regional and national experts. Results Of 448 patients included, 366 (82% matched the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Of these, 199 (54% had full concordance between primary diagnosis and second opinion (the first pathologist and the expert reached identical conclusions, 97 (27% had partial concordance (identical diagnosis of conjonctive tumor but different grade or subtype, and 70 (19% had complete discordance (different histological type or invalidation of the diagnosis of sarcoma. The major discrepancies were related to histological grade (n = 68, 19%, histological type (n = 39, 11%, subtype (n = 17, 5%, and grade plus subtype or grade plus histological type (n = 43, 12%. Conclusions Over 45% of first histological diagnoses were modified at second reading, possibly resulting in different treatment decisions. Systematic second expert opinion improves the quality of diagnosis and possibly the management of patients.

  20. Morphology versus U-Pb systematics in zircon: A high-resolution isotopic study of a zircon population from a Variscan dike in the Central Alps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossart, P.J.; Meier, M.; Oberli, F.; Steiger, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    U/Pb isotopic measurements on individual zircon crystals combined with morphological analyses permit the identification of three distinct components within the zircon population of the Saedelhorn diorite, a Variscan dike from the western Gotthard (Central Alps, Switzerland): (i) 94% of the grains in the zircon population are elongate crystals with pronounced skeletal morphology indicative of rapid growth from a supercooled melt. (ii) 5% of the population consist of turbid, mostly subhedral zircons frequently showing D-type morphology and elevated uranium contents compared to the skeletal variety. Single-crystal and multi-grain U-Pb isotopic data of group (i) and (ii) zircons define an intrusion age of 293 + 5/ -4 m.y. for the dike. (iii) Rare, transparent zircon crystals (< 1% of the zircons population) yield apparent U-Pb ages in the range of 370-490 m.y. and display morphological and isotopic characteristics closely resembling those of a Caledonian orthogneiss intruded by the dike. This implies presence of assimilated wall-rock components in the macroscopically homogeneous dike sample. (orig./WB)

  1. High-Resolution Monthly Precipitation Fields (1913–2015 over a Complex Mountain Area Centred on the Forni Valley (Central Italian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golzio Alessio

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mountain environments are extremely influenced by climate change but are also often affected by the lack of long and high-quality meteorological data, especially in glaciated areas, which limits the ability to investigate the acting processes at local scale. For this reason, we checked a method to reconstruct high-resolution spatial distribution and temporal evolution of precipitation. The study area is centred on the Forni Glacier area (Central Italian Alps, where an automatic weather station is present since 2005. We set up a model based on monthly homogenised precipitation series and we spatialised climatologies and anomalies on a 30-arc-second-resolution DEM, using Local Weighted Linear Regression (LWLR and Regression Kriging (RK of precipitation versus elevation, in order to test the most suitable approach for this complex terrain area. The comparison shows that LWLR has a better reconstruction ability for winter while RK slightly prevails during summer. The results of precipitation spatialisation were compared with station observations and with data collected at the weather station on Forni Glacier, which were not used to calibrate the model. A very good agreement between observed and modelled precipitation records was pointed out for most station sites. The agreement is lower, but encouraging, for Forni Glacier station data.

  2. Th-Pb ion probe dating of zoned hydrothermal monazite and its implications for repeated shear zone activity: An example from the Central Alps, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergemann, C.; Gnos, E.; Berger, A.; Whitehouse, M.; Mullis, J.; Wehrens, P.; Pettke, T.; Janots, E.

    2017-04-01

    Th-Pb age dating of zoned hydrothermal monazite from alpine-type fissures/clefts is a powerful tool for constraining polyphase deformation at temperatures below 350°C and presents an alternative to K/Ar and 40Ar/39Ar dating techniques for dating brittle tectonics. This study considers the relationship between cleft orientations in ductile shear zones and cleft mineral crystallization during subsequent brittle overprinting. In the Grimsel area, located in the Aar Massif of the Central Alps, horizontal clefts formed during a primary thrust dominated deformation, while younger and vertically oriented clefts developed during secondary strike-slip movements. The change is due to a switch in orientation between the principal stress axes σ2 and σ3. The transition is associated with monazite crystallization and chloritization of biotite at around 11.5 Ma. Quartz fluid inclusion data allow a link between deformation stages and temperatures to be established and indicate that primary monazite crystallization occurred in both cleft systems at 300-350°C. While cleft monazite crystallization ceases at 11 Ma in inactive shear zones, monazite growth, and/or dissolution-reprecipitation continues under brittle deformation conditions in vertical clefts during later deformation until 7 Ma. This younger shear zone activity occurs in association with dextral strike-slip movement of the Rhone-Simplon fault system. With the exception of varying Th/U values correlated with the degree of oxidation, there is only limited compositional variation in the studied cleft monazites.

  3. Thermochronometry across the Austroalpine-Pennine boundary, Central Alps, Switzerland: Orogen-perpendicular normal fault slip on a major ‘overthrust’ and its implications for orogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Jason B.; Wernicke, Brian P.; Cosca, Michael A.; Farley, Kenneth A.

    2018-01-01

    Fifty‐one new and 309 published thermochronometric ages (nine systems with closure temperatures ranging from ~450 to 70°C) from the Graubünden region of the Central Alps demonstrate that a pronounced thermal mismatch between the Austroalpine allochthon (Alpine “orogenic lid”) and the Pennine zone persisted until at least 29 Ma and, allowably, until circa 18 Ma. The observed mismatch supports previous suggestions that the famous “overthrust” between the Austroalpine allochthon and the Pennine zone, historically regarded as primarily an Eocene top‐north thrust fault, is in fact primarily an Oligocene‐Miocene normal fault that has a minimum of 60 km of displacement with top‐south or top‐southeast sense of shear. Two hallmarks of Alpine geology, deposition of the foredeep Molasse and emplacement of the Helvetic nappes, appear to be coeval, peripheral manifestations of crustal thickening via the interposition of the Pennine zone as a northward intruding wedge between the Austroalpine “lid” and the European cratonic margin, with the Helvetic system (European margin) acting as the “floor” of the wedge. We presume the Penninic wedge is driven by the buoyant rise of subducted crust no longer able to remain attached to the descending slab. If so, emplacement of the Pennine wedge could have occurred mainly after Adria was juxtaposed against cratonic Europe.

  4. The Haselgebirge evaporitic mélange in central Northern Calcareous Alps (Austria): Part of the Permian to Lower Triassic rift of the Meliata ocean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorn, Anja; Neubauer, Franz; Genser, Johann; Bernroider, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    For the reconstruction of Alpine tectonics of the Eastern Alps, the evaporitic Permian to Lower Triassic Haselgebirge Formation plays a key role in (1) the origin of Haselgebirge bearing nappes, (2) the inclusion of magmatic and metamorphic rocks revealing tectonic processes not preserved in other units, and (3) the debated mode of emplacement of the nappes, namely gravity-driven or tectonic. Within the Moosegg quarry of the central Northern Calcareous Alps gypsum/anhydrite bodies are tectonically mixed with lenses of sedimentary rocks and decimeter- to meter-sized tectonic clasts of plutonic and subvolcanic rocks and rare metamorphics. We examined various types of (1) widespread biotite–diorite, meta-syenite, (2) meta-dolerite and rare ultramafic rocks (serpentinite, pyroxenite) as well as (3) rare metamorphic banded meta-psammitic schists and meta-doleritic blueschists. The apparent 40Ar/39Ar biotite ages from three biotite–diorite, meta-dolerite and meta-doleritic blueschist samples with variable composition and fabrics range from 248 to 270 Ma (e.g., 251.2 ± 1.1 Ma) indicating a Permian age of cooling after magma crystallisation or metamorphism. The chemical composition of biotite–diorite and meta-syenite indicates an alkaline trend interpreted to represent a rift-related magmatic suite. These, as well as Permian to Jurassic sedimentary rocks, were incorporated during Cretaceous nappe emplacement forming the sulphatic Haselgebirge mélange. The scattered 40Ar/39Ar white mica ages of a meta-doleritic blueschist (of N-MORB origin) and banded meta-psammitic schist are ca. 349 and 378 Ma, respectively, proving the Variscan age of pressure-dominated metamorphism. These ages are similar to detrital white mica ages reported from the underlying Rossfeld Formations, indicating a close source–sink relationship. According to our new data, the Haselgebirge bearing nappe was transported over the Lower Cretaceous Rossfeld Formations, which include many clasts

  5. P wave anisotropic tomography of the Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Dapeng; Xu, Yixian

    2017-06-01

    The first tomographic images of P wave azimuthal and radial anisotropies in the crust and upper mantle beneath the Alps are determined by joint inversions of arrival time data of local earthquakes and teleseismic events. Our results show the south dipping European plate with a high-velocity (high-V) anomaly beneath the western central Alps and the north dipping Adriatic plate with a high-V anomaly beneath the Eastern Alps, indicating that the subduction polarity changes along the strike of the Alps. The P wave azimuthal anisotropy is characterized by mountain chain-parallel fast-velocity directions (FVDs) in the western central Alps and NE-SW FVDs in the Eastern Alps, which may be caused by mantle flow induced by the slab subductions. Our results reveal a negative radial anisotropy (i.e., Vph Vph > Vpv) in the low-velocity mantle wedge, which may reflect the subvertical plate subduction and its induced mantle flow. The results of anisotropic tomography provide important new information on the complex mantle structure and dynamics of the Alps and adjacent regions.

  6. Austrian natural scientists in exile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1978-01-01

    This text was written by E. Broda for the international symposium for exploration of the Austrian exile from 1934 to 1945 (“Internationales Symposiums zur Erforschung des österreichischen Exils von 1934 bis 1945”) in the year 1978. The article is about the specific problems of the Austrian scientific landscape, caused by the political events in the first half of the 20th century. The focus is primarily on the enormous ‘brain drain’, triggered by political repression in the period of Nazi rule (1938 - 1945), the Austro-fascism period (1934 - 1938) and the economic regression, anti-intellectual and anti-Semitic sentiment in the Country since 1918. The article emphasizes the importance of exile organizations, such as the ‘Free Austrian Movement’ or the ‘Association of Austrian Engineers, Chemists and Scientific Workers in Great Britain’ for the reconstruction of a scientific culture in Austria, after the Second World War. (rössner) [de

  7. Austrian Thinking on International Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.

    1988-01-01

    After mentioning Mises' few contributions to international monetary economics I first review Hayek's views on international economics. I then try to find out if Haberler's and Machlup's contributions to international economics do show any special Austrian traits. After that, I turn to Schumpeter.

  8. Visit of the Austrian Ambassador

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    The Austrian Ambassador Wolfgang Petritsch (light raincoat) learns about superconducting magnets at the LHC magnet test facility in building SM18 during a visit to CERN. The blue pipe-like structure in the left background is String 2: the 120-m long full-scale model of an LHC cell, which is used to test LHC systems.

  9. Permafrost at its limits: The most easterly evidence of existing permafrost in the European Alps as indicated by ground temperature and geoelectrical measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellerer-Pirklbauer, A.; Kühnast, B.

    2009-04-01

    Mountain permafrost is a widespread phenomenon in alpine regions in the European Alps. For instance, some 2000 km² or 4% of the Austrian Alps are underlain by permafrost. Up to recent times most research on permafrost issues in Austria focused on the central and highest section of the Austrian Alps. By contrast, knowledge concerning marginal permafrost zones is fairly limited. To increase knowledge about the easternmost limit of permafrost in the European Alps, a research project focusing on the Seckauer Tauern Mountains (14°30'E to 15°00'E) and particularly on the Hochreichart area was initiated in 2004 by the first author. Since then, different methods have been applied such as e.g. geomorphic mapping, numerical permafrost modelling, multi-annual BTS measurements (since 2004) or continuous ground surface and near ground surface temperature measurements by miniature temperature data loggers/MTDs (since 2004). In order to verify the temperature data and to extend the spatial knowledge about permafrost distribution beyond point information, a geoelectrical survey was carried out at the end of August 2008 by applying the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) method along a 120 m long profile covering the upper part of the rooting zone of a (more-or-less) relict rock glacier and the talus slope above. For this survey the two-dimensional (2D) electrical surveys was performed using the Wenner-Alfa configuration with 2.5 m spacing and an LGM-Lippmann 4-Punkt light hp resistivity-meter. The ERT results indicate an active layer of 2 to 4 m underlain by a permafrost body along 3/4 of the entire profile with resistivity values between 50 to 100 kOhm.m and extending to a depth of 10 to 15 m. The permafrost body is substantially thicker at the lower part of the profile (rock glacier; first 50 m of profile) compared to most of the upper part (talus slope). Focusing on the talus slope, the permafrost body is thickest on the central section of the profile (~5-6 m thickness

  10. Texture segmentation as first step towards archaeological object detection in high-resolution satellite images of the Silvretta Alps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambers, K.; Zingman, I.; Neubauer, W.; Trinks, I.; Salisbury, R.B.; Einwögerer, C.

    2013-01-01

    Since 2007, the Silvretta Archaeological Project in the high Alps on the Swiss-Austrian border has been investigating the prehistoric origins of alpine pasture economy. In an area of about 540 km2 more than 20 well-preserved archaeological sites associated with alpine pastoralism have been recorded,

  11. Mr. Wolfgang Petritsch, Austrian Ambassador

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    Dr.Peter Schmid/CERN/EP, Dr.Wolfgang Petritsch, Austrian Ambassador, Permanent representative at UN, Mrs.Nora Petritsch, Dr.Kurt Hubner/CERN/AC, Mrs. Frederike Klaus-Salesin, Adviser, Mrs.Andrea Strohmeier, Secretary of the Ambassador, Mr.Heinz Klaus, Attaché, Dr.Theodor Tortschanoff/CERN/LHC, Mr.Peter Storer, Advisor. Dr.Peter Schmid/CERN/EP, Dr.Wolfgang Petritsch, Austrian Ambassador, Permanent representative at UN, Mrs.Nora Petritsch, Dr.Kurt Hubner/CERN/AC, Mrs. Frederike Klaus-Salesin, Adviser, Mrs.Andrea Strohmeier, Secretary of the Ambassador, Mr.Heinz Klaus, Attaché, Dr.Theodor Tortschanoff/CERN/LHC, Mr.Peter Storer, Advisor.

  12. ALP - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003470.htm ALP - blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... include the liver, bile ducts, and bone. A blood test can be done to measure the level of ...

  13. Status of the ALPS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehret, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    The ALPS experiment at DESY searches for light particles which are coupling very weakly to photons. Primary physics goal is the search for axion like particles in a photon regeneration experiment. Central part of the experimental setup is a five Tesla strong superconducting HERA dipole magnet. During two operation periods in the years 2007 and 2008 we have collected first data and explored the sensitivity of the setup. A Fabry Perot laser cavity is being set up in order to increase the sensitivity by more than one order of magnitude. (orig.)

  14. Analysis of topography and relief as a function of the tectonic - geomorphologic evolution of the Eastern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bungies, Nadin; Rosenberg, Claudio

    2014-05-01

    Alpine topography and relief vary regionally (Frisch et al., 1997), even on the scale of tens of kilometers. The causes of these differences are the aim of this work that is based on a geomorphological study of the eastern Alps. Earlier investigations on the topography of the Central Alps (Rosenberg & Garcia, 2013) show, by using 50 km, 75 km, and 100 km swath profiles, that the relief northward of the Insubric Line increases westward, whereas the relief southwards of the Insubric Line decreases eastward. This trend reflects collisional shortening trends recently observed in the Central Alps (Rosenberg & Kissling, 2013). In this work, we analyse the topography of the eastern Alps from the Brenner Area in the west to the Steiermark Area in the east, based on satellite images and digital terrain models, that cover an area of 36 000 km2 in the Austrian and Italian Alps. Based on these data, new GIS-aided datasets containing selected relief factors have been derived. These data are set in relationship to the eastward decrease in collisional shortening to test whether the latter trend has a geomorphic expression. In order to assess such a relationship north-south striking profiles, subparallel to the shortening direction and in addition to an E-W profile are investigated. It can be shown that the total relief of 3100 m (500-3600 m asl.) in the west of the working area is more pronounced than the total relief of 2300 m (700-3000 m asl) in the east of the working area. Furthermore slopes have higher amplitudes in the west when compared to the east. In the west approximately 65% of the slope profile show slopes larger than 50° while in the east approximately 40% of slopes are larger than 50° (based on 30 m topographic data). The evaluation of potential influencing factors will be achieved by conducting spatial and statistical data analysis and interpretation and is complemented by local studies investigating the evolution of relief for selected geologic units. Here

  15. Síndrome de Austrian

    OpenAIRE

    Midon,Márcio Estevão; Goldoni,Fernando; Souza,Sylvian Greicy Rocha; Miyasato,Jan Norimitsu Schiemann

    2011-01-01

    Neste relato, é descrito o caso de um paciente masculino, 64 anos, sem história de etilismo, que se apresentou com a Tríade de Osler, que consiste no desenvolvimento de endocardite, pneumonia e meningite, por um mesmo agente. A síndrome é denominada síndrome de Austrian, quando a infecção for por Streptococcus pneumoniae. Serão discutidas as manifestações clínicas, fisiopatológicas e a terapêutica mais adequada para esse quadro. Tendo em vista a raridade do caso e a elevada morbimortalidade, ...

  16. Financial Capability of Austrian Households

    OpenAIRE

    Pirmin Fessler; Martin Schürz; Karin Wagner; Beat Weber

    2007-01-01

    Based on a survey by the Oesterreichische Nationalbank (OeNB) in 2004, this paper aims to assess Austrian households’ financial capability with respect to managing money, planning ahead financially, making financial choices and staying informed. People’s attitudes about money often depend on their education, income and age. A higher level of education, income and age tends to go hand in hand with a more positive financial attitude. The OeNB’s survey, however, revealed that, in the case of Aus...

  17. The Forgotten Austrian Economics Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bianca Vieru

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In light of the current events, namely the crisisthat economy has to face for quite someyears now, plenty of questions are raised, not only among specialists in the field but also amongordinary people as they prove to be most impoverished by these imbalances. Thus, this paper aims, asa first objective, to explain, froma general perspective and using an inductive-subjectivemethodology based on a brief survey as well as on observation, two of the most important causes that,according to the Austrian Business Cycle Theory, are the leading motives for triggering crises. Weare referring particularly to an excessivestate interventionismmanifested throughout itsexpansionary monetary policy.Secondly, we seek to establish the interconnections between theseelements and the case of the Great Depression as well as the current recession. The results we cameacross point out towards the same pattern designed by the Austrian economists, although thecircumstances are, each time, different. Hence, the contribution of this paper consists of handling thedetails that surround the subject by extracting only the essential aspects regarding the triggering ofcrises; we refer to the main ideas that need to be underlined for a better comprehension of the topic.

  18. Analysis of the evolution and current status of the Austrian civil procedural law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Marija M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the rules contained in the Austrian Civil Procedure Act. Although this act was adopted back in 1895, it is still in force. This continuity is a proof of the great value of this legislative document. This Act has had a significant influence on the Central and Eastern European procedural laws. From the period of its enactment, despite preserving its fundamental components, the Austrian Civil Procedure Act has been through a number of modifications, including the amendments that were introduced towards the end of 20th and in early 21st century. More recent modifications are a result of the influence of common European procedural law and concern the issues like jurisdiction, enforcement of decisions, proceedings concerning payment orders, special litigations, non-contentious proceedings. The Austrian civil procedural law, as a normative system, accompanied by a rich literature and creative judicial practice, has influenced the Serbian law, whose system and particular institutes have accepted the solutions contained in the Austrian law. The paper gives an overview of the systems and basic institutes of the Austrian civil procedure: complaint, response to the complaint, preliminary hearing, main hearing, evidence and evidentiary hearing, court's ruling. The aim is to consider the existing contents of the Austrian Civil Procedure Act in the context of reforms of the Serbian Civil Procedure Act.

  19. Austrian emission inventory for dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winiwarter, W.; Trenker, C.; Hoeflinger, W.

    2001-09-01

    For the first time, Austrian emissions of anthropogenic particulate matter emissions to the atmosphere have been estimated. Results have been reported as total suspended particles (TSP) as well as for the fractions of particles smaller than 10 μm or 2.5 μm aerodynamic diameter (PM 10 , PM 2.5 ), respectively. Base years for the inventory were 1990, 1995 and 1999. Excluded from this assessment is wind blown dust, which has been considered a natural source here. National statistics have been applied, specifically those also used previously in the Austrian air pollution inventory (OLI). Emission factors have been taken from literature compilations, only for exceptional cases specific Austrian assessments were performed or original literature on emission measurements was consulted. Resuspension of dust by road traffic emerged as the most important source. For the size fraction of PM 10 this source contributed about half of the emissions, when applying the calculation scheme by the U.S. EPA. While this scheme is widely used and well documented, its validity is currently subject of intense scientific debate. As these results do not seem to coincide with ambient air measurements, resuspension of road dust is considered separately and not now included in the national total. The sum of all other sources increases from 75,000 t of TSP in 1990 and 1995 to 77,000 t in 1999, while both PM 10 and PM 2.5 exhibit decreasing tendency (at 45,000 t and 26,000 t in 1999, respectively). The increase in TSP derives from increasing traffic and friction related emissions (tire wear, break wear), decrease of the finer particulate matter is due to reductions in firewood consumption for domestic heating. Most important source sectors are fugitive emissions from material transfer in industry as well as the building industry and the tilling of agricultural land. Common to these sources is the high uncertainty of available data. Wood combustion is the most important of the non

  20. Low-grade metamorphism in the eastern Southern Alps: Distribution, conditions, timing and implications for the tectonics of the Alps and NW Dinarides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Franz; Heberer, Bianca; Genser, Johann; Friedl, Getrude

    2014-05-01

    main body of the Alpine orogen exposed north of the E-trending Periadriatic fault. In previous interpretations, the eastern Southalpine unit was considered to differ in many respects from Alpine units north of the Periadriatic fault including (1) no Alpine metamorphic overprint and, therefore, (2) also no Alpine ductile deformation in contrast to amphibolite- and even eclogite- grade metamorphism (ca. 100 - 85 Ma) in Austroalpine units north of the fault, and by (3) S- to SW-, Adria-directed vergency of the deformation of mostly Eocene to Neogene age in contrast to all units basically directed to the north and northwest, towards the stable European plate. The Southalpine unit is considered as back-thrust of the Middle-Late Eocene plate collision between Stable Europe and the Alpine thrust wedge (Doglioni & Bosellini, 1987). The new data from the eastern part of the Southalpine unit challenge this view and imply a steadily but slowly growing Adria-directed thrust wedge between Maastrichtian and Early Eocene times. Acknowledement: The work has been supported by the Austrian Science Fund (project no. 22,110). References Borojević Šoštarić, S. Neubauer, F., Handler, R., Palinkaš, L. A., 2012. Variscan vs. Alpine tectonothermal events in NW-Dinarides: constraints from 40Ar/39Ar dating. Geologica Carpathica, 63, 441-452. Doglioni, C., Bosellini, A., 1987. Eoalpine and mesoalpine tectonics in the Southern Alps. Geologische Rundschaus, 76, 735-754. Feijth, J., 2002. Paleozoic and Mesozoic tectonometamorphic development and geochronology of the Orobic chain (Southern Alps, Lombardy, Italy). PhD thesis, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Geosciences, Technical University of Berlin, 136 p. Ilić, A., Neubauer, F., Handler, R. (submitted). Formation of a structural dome due to transpression: The Lim unit in Central Dinarides. Journal of Structural Geology. Läufer, A.L., Frisch, W., Steinitz, G., Loeschke, J., 1997. Exhumed fault-bounded Alpine blocks along the Periadriatic

  1. Deeply subducted continental fragments - Part 1: Fracturing, dissolution-precipitation, and diffusion processes recorded by garnet textures of the central Sesia Zone (western Italian Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuntoli, Francesco; Lanari, Pierre; Engi, Martin

    2018-02-01

    Contiguous continental high-pressure terranes in orogens offer insight into deep recycling and transformation processes that occur in subduction zones. These remain poorly understood, and currently debated ideas need testing. The approach we chose is to investigate, in detail, the record in suitable rock samples that preserve textures and robust mineral assemblages that withstood overprinting during exhumation. We document complex garnet zoning in eclogitic mica schists from the Sesia Zone (western Italian Alps). These retain evidence of two orogenic cycles and provide detailed insight into resorption, growth, and diffusion processes induced by fluid pulses in high-pressure conditions. We analysed local textures and garnet compositional patterns, which turned out remarkably complex. By combining these with thermodynamic modelling, we could unravel and quantify repeated fluid-rock interaction processes. Garnet shows low-Ca porphyroclastic cores that were stable under (Permian) granulite facies conditions. The series of rims that surround these cores provide insight into the subsequent evolution: the first garnet rim that surrounds the pre-Alpine granulite facies core in one sample indicates that pre-Alpine amphibolite facies metamorphism followed the granulite facies event. In all samples documented, cores show lobate edges and preserve inner fractures, which are sealed by high-Ca garnet that reflects high-pressure Alpine conditions. These observations suggest that during early stages of subduction, before hydration of the granulites, brittle failure of garnet occurred, indicating high strain rates that may be due to seismic failure. Several Alpine rims show conspicuous textures indicative of interaction with hydrous fluid: (a) resorption-dominated textures produced lobate edges, at the expense of the outer part of the granulite core; (b) peninsulas and atoll garnet are the result of replacement reactions; and (c) spatially limited resorption and enhanced transport

  2. Deeply subducted continental fragments – Part 1: Fracturing, dissolution–precipitation, and diffusion processes recorded by garnet textures of the central Sesia Zone (western Italian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Giuntoli

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Contiguous continental high-pressure terranes in orogens offer insight into deep recycling and transformation processes that occur in subduction zones. These remain poorly understood, and currently debated ideas need testing. The approach we chose is to investigate, in detail, the record in suitable rock samples that preserve textures and robust mineral assemblages that withstood overprinting during exhumation. We document complex garnet zoning in eclogitic mica schists from the Sesia Zone (western Italian Alps. These retain evidence of two orogenic cycles and provide detailed insight into resorption, growth, and diffusion processes induced by fluid pulses in high-pressure conditions. We analysed local textures and garnet compositional patterns, which turned out remarkably complex. By combining these with thermodynamic modelling, we could unravel and quantify repeated fluid–rock interaction processes. Garnet shows low-Ca porphyroclastic cores that were stable under (Permian granulite facies conditions. The series of rims that surround these cores provide insight into the subsequent evolution: the first garnet rim that surrounds the pre-Alpine granulite facies core in one sample indicates that pre-Alpine amphibolite facies metamorphism followed the granulite facies event. In all samples documented, cores show lobate edges and preserve inner fractures, which are sealed by high-Ca garnet that reflects high-pressure Alpine conditions. These observations suggest that during early stages of subduction, before hydration of the granulites, brittle failure of garnet occurred, indicating high strain rates that may be due to seismic failure. Several Alpine rims show conspicuous textures indicative of interaction with hydrous fluid: (a resorption-dominated textures produced lobate edges, at the expense of the outer part of the granulite core; (b peninsulas and atoll garnet are the result of replacement reactions; and (c spatially limited resorption and

  3. Intensification of freeze-thaw cycles in the soil on post-fire alpine slopes of Mount Shirouma-dake, northern Japanese Alps central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, A.; Suzuki, K.

    2016-12-01

    This is the continuous study to clarify the geo-environmental changes on the post-fire alpine slopes of Mount Shirouma-dake in the Northern Japanese Alps. The fire occurred at May 9, 2009 on the alpine slopes of Mount Shirouma-dake, and the fire spread to the Pinus pumila communities and grasslands. Although the grass had a little damage by the fire, the P. pumila received nearly impact of the fire. In the P. pumila communities where the leaf burnt, forest floor is exposed and become easy to be affected by atmospheric condition such as rain, wind, snow, and etc. First, we observed condition of the micro-landforms on post-fire slopes repeatedly for seventh years after the fire. As the results of the observation, it is clear that remarkable changes of these micro-landforms have not occurred but some litters on the forest-floor in the fired P. pumila communities are flushed out to surroundings. The litter layer on the forest-floor in the fired P. pumila communities were 3-4 cm thick in August of 2011, but it became 0.5 cm thick in September of 2014. The P. pumila communities established on the slopes consists of angular and sub-angular gravel with openwork texture, which are covered by thin soil layer. On July of 2016, the litter layer almost entirely flushed out and surface of soil layer is exposed to atmosphere. In addition, we observe the ground temperature and soil moisture, under the fired P. pumila communities and the no fired P. pumila communities since October 2009, to find influence of the fire. The ground temperature sensors were installed into at 1 cm, 10 cm, and 40 cm depth. The soil moisture sensors were installed into at 1 cm and 10 cm depth. The 1 cm depth of the soil on the post-fire slopes, several times of diurnal freeze-thaw cycles occurred on October and November since 2011, but it had not occurred in 2009 and 2010. In particular, more than 20 times of diurnal freeze-thaw cycles occurred on freezing period of 2014. The diurnal freeze-thaw cycles

  4. The consumer in Austrian economics and the Austrian perspective on consumer policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leen, A.R.

    1999-01-01

    In this thesis I examined the place of the competitive-entrepreneurial consumer in Austrian economic thought. For a neoclassical economist, competition among consumers is hard to find. For an Austrian economist, however, it is a necessity. The introduction puts forward the problem that although an

  5. The new Austrian dosimetry standard laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duftschmid, K.E.

    1977-01-01

    A dosimetry laboratory has recently been established in Austria in cooperation between the Austrian Bureau of Standards and the Research Center Seibersdorf. It fullfills the task of a national radiation standard as well as calibration center for protection and therapy dosimeters. The design concept, irradiation facilities and equipment, are described. The building consists of a large protection-level hall (20x8 m), a therapy level bunker (8x4 m) and a central measuring and control room. In addition four general purpose labs are situated in an adjacent part of the building. The protection level hall houses an X-ray machine (Philips MG 420) especially modified to operate in a wide range of tube voltage and current. A gamma radiation facility containing six radionuclide sources up to 10 Ci 60 Co is also provided. Both irradiation units emit a parallel beam through the length axis of the hall along a common measuring track of 20 m length with a three-dimensional remote positioning system. The therapy level room is shielded to permit a 5 kCi 60 Co source in a teletherapy head (PICKER C8M/80) and a 250 kV therapy X-ray machine (Siemens Stabilipan). It also powers a soft X-ray tube (5 - 60 kV) mounted on an optical bench. For batch calibration of personnel dosimeters in circular geometry a pneumatic exposure assembly with selection of four sources is used. The measuring equipment mainly uses secondary standard ionization chamber instruments and three parallel-plate free-air chambers for the energy range 5-400 kV. The later addition of a calorimeter is planned. A laboratory is now in the set-up and test phase and should be in full operation by late 1977

  6. The Austrian school in Bulgaria: A history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Nenovsky

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study is to highlight the acceptance, dissemination, interpretation, criticism and make some attempts at contributing to Austrian economics made in Bulgaria during the last 120 years. We consider some of the main characteristics of the Austrian school, such as subjectivism and marginalism, as basic components of the economic thought in Bulgaria and as incentives for the development of some original theoretical contributions. Even during the first few years of Communist regime (1944–1989, with its Marxist monopoly over intellectual life, the Austrian school had some impact on the economic thought in the country. Subsequent to the collapse of Communism, there was a sort of a Renaissance and rediscovery of this school. Another contribution of our study is that it illustrates the adaptability and spontaneous evolution of ideas in a different and sometimes hostile environment.

  7. Permafrost detection in the headwalls of receding glaciers at the Dachstein Massif, Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Matthias; Gitschthaler, Christoph; Schnepfleitner, Harald; Kellerer-Pirklbauer, Andreas; Sass, Oliver

    2014-05-01

    The Northern Calcareous Alps cover a large area of the Austrian Alps forming a boundary zone between the Alpine Foreland to the north and the crystalline Central Alps to the south. Generally, climate in this area is more maritime compared to the mountain ranges further south. Few small glaciers are to be found mostly on north-facing slopes. The Northern Calcareous Alps reach maximum elevations of about 3000 m asl. Some of highest summits are to be found are located in the Dachstein Massif reaching 2995 m asl (47° 28' 32″ N, 13° 36' 23″ E). Occurrence, thickness and thermal regime of permafrost at this mountain massif are widely unknown and knowledge is based on simulations only. In contrast, the glaciation changes at this mountain massif (e.g. Schladminger and Hallstätter glaciers) have been well documented for decades. Within the framework of the research project ROCKING ALPS - dealing with frost weathering and rockfall in alpine regions - knowledge of permafrost distribution in the headwalls surrounding the receding glaciers is substantial to understand rock decay. For this reason, several techniques have been applied in order to detect bedrock permafrost. During the winter of 2012 22 i-buttons (temperature sensors) were attached to rock walls with different orientations but at similar elevations (2600-2700 m asl). Most of these sites were later covered by an insulating winter snow cover therefore allowing the calculation of the base temperature of the winter snow cover (BTS). These BTS data have been used as a first indicator of permafrost presence. In selected rock walls of several mountains in the massif - Koppenkarstein (2863 m asl), Dirndln (2829 m asl) and Gjaidstein (2794 m asl) - additional 2D-geoelectric surveys (five ERT profiles with a length of 100 m and 2 m electrode spacing) were measured in summer 2013. The high resistivities (> 50.000 ohm.m) at about 1.5 m depth and deeper strongly suggest permafrost existence inside the bedrock at all

  8. The Continuing Relevance of Austrian Capital Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2012-01-01

    The article presents a speech by Professor Nicolai J. Foss of Copenhagen Business School, delivered at the Austrian Scholars Conference held on March 8, 2012 in Auburn, Alabama, in which he discussed the knowledge essays by economist Friedrich A. von Hayek, the concept of capital theory and the w......The article presents a speech by Professor Nicolai J. Foss of Copenhagen Business School, delivered at the Austrian Scholars Conference held on March 8, 2012 in Auburn, Alabama, in which he discussed the knowledge essays by economist Friedrich A. von Hayek, the concept of capital theory...... and the works of Hayek on political philosophy and cultural evolution....

  9. Natural radionuclides in Austrian mineral waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallner, G.

    2009-01-01

    The activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 210 Pb, 210 Po as well as 238 U and 234 U in Austrian mineral waters were measured and the doses to the public were calculated. Radium isotopes (and 210 Pb), 210 Po and uranium isotopes are isolated from the sample and measured by LSC and α-spectroscopy. (orig.)

  10. The Austrian x red pine hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. B. Critchfield

    1963-01-01

    The genetic improvement of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) presents tree breeders with one of their most difficult problems. Not only is this valuable species remarkably uniform, but until 1955 it resisted all attempts to cross it with other pines. In that year red pine and Austrian pine (P. nigra var. austriaca [...

  11. The Austrian Toxoplasmosis Register, 1992-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prusa, Andrea-Romana; Kasper, David C; Pollak, Arnold; Gleiss, Andreas; Waldhoer, Thomas; Hayde, Michael

    2015-01-15

    We aimed to determine the incidence of primary gestational infections with Toxoplasma gondii and congenital toxoplasmosis in Austria, a country with a nationwide prenatal serological screening program since 1974. We analyzed retrospective data from the Austrian Toxoplasmosis Register of pregnant women with Toxoplasma infection and their offspring with births between 1992 and 2008, identified by the prenatal mandatory screening program. Treatment was administered to women from diagnosis of a Toxoplasma infection until delivery. Infected infants were treated up to 1 year of life routinely. Clinical manifestations in infected infants were monitored at least for 1 year and documented in the register. The Austrian Toxoplasmosis Register included 2147 pregnant women with suspected Toxoplasma infection. Annually, 8.5 per 10 000 women acquired Toxoplasma infection during pregnancy, and 1.0 per 10 000 infants had congenital toxoplasmosis (13% mean transmission rate). Our data showed that women treated according to the Austrian scheme had a 6-fold decrease in the maternofetal transmission rate compared to women without treatment. Results from the Austrian Toxoplasmosis Register show the efficiency of the prenatal screening program. Our results are of clinical relevance for infants, healthcare systems, and policy makers to consider preventive Toxoplasma screening as a potential tool to reduce the incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Occurrence of Six Honeybee Viruses in Diseased Austrian Apiaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berényi, Olga; Bakonyi, Tamás; Derakhshifar, Irmgard; Köglberger, Hemma; Nowotny, Norbert

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence, prevalence, and distribution patterns of acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), black queen cell virus (BQCV), chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV), deformed wing virus (DWV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV), and sacbrood virus (SBV) were investigated in 90 Austrian honeybee colonies suffering from symptoms of depopulation, sudden collapse, paralysis, or dark coloring by employing reverse transcription-PCR. Infestation with parasites was also recorded. The samples originated from all parts of Austria. The most prevalent virus was DWV, present in 91% of samples, followed by ABPV, SBV, and BQCV (68%, 49%, and 30%, respectively). CBPV was detected in 10% of colonies, while KBV was not present in any sample. In most samples, more than one virus was identified. The distribution pattern of ABPV, BQCV, CBPV, and SBV varied considerably in the different geographic regions investigated, while DWV was widespread in all Austrian federal states. In bees that showed dark coloring and disorientation, CBPV was always detected. Simultaneous infections of DWV and ABPV were most frequently observed in colonies suffering from weakness, depopulation, and sudden collapse. Bees obtained from apparently healthy colonies within the same apiaries showed a similar distribution pattern of viruses; however, the relative virus load was 10 to 126 times lower than in bees from diseased colonies. A limited number of bee samples from surrounding central European countries (Germany, Poland, Hungary, and Slovenia) were also tested for the presence of the above viruses. Variances were found in the distribution of BQCV and SBV. PMID:16597939

  13. The voice of Austrians at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    On 7 May the Austrian Minister for Science announced that, after over 50 years of membership, Austria would withdraw from CERN. By 18 May the Austrian Chancellor had reversed the decision. The Bulletin spoke to some of the Austrian community at CERN about the rollercoaster of events in between. var flash_video_player=get_video_player_path(); insert_player_for_external('Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056-0753-kbps-640x360-25-fps-audio-64-kbps-44-kHz-stereo', 'mms://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056-Multirate-200-to-753-kbps-640x360-25-fps.wmv', 'false', 533, 300, 'https://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056-posterframe-640x360-at-10-percent.jpg', '1180837', true, 'Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056-0600-kbps-maxH-360-25-fps-audio-128-kbps-48-kHz-stereo.mp4'); To watch this video in German click here. There was jubil...

  14. Holocene temperature variations at a high-altitude site in the Eastern Alps: a chironomid record from Schwarzsee ob Sölden, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyashuk, Elena A.; Koinig, Karin A.; Heiri, Oliver; Ilyashuk, Boris P.; Psenner, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Few well-dated, quantitative Holocene temperature reconstructions exist from high-altitude sites in the Central Eastern Alps. Here, we present a chironomid-based quantitative reconstruction of mean July air temperatures (TJuly) throughout the Holocene for a remote high-mountain lake, Schwarzsee ob Sölden, situated above the treeline at 2796 m a.s.l. in the Austrian Alps. Applying a chironomid-temperature inference model developed from lakes of the Alpine region to a high-resolution chironomid record from the lake provides evidence for early Holocene (ca 10000–8600 cal yr BP) TJuly of up to 8.5 °C, i.e. >4 °C above the modern (1977–2006) mean July temperature. The reconstruction reveals the so-called ‘8.2-ka cold event’ centered at ca 8250–8000 cal yr BP with temperatures ca 3 °C below the early-Holocene thermal maximum. Rather warm (ca 6 °C) and productive conditions prevailed during ca 7900–4500 cal yr BP. The chironomid record suggests a climate transition between ca 5200 and 4500 cal yr BP to cooler TJuly. A distinct cooling trend is evident from ca 4500 until ca 2500 cal yr BP. Thereafter, the study site experienced its coldest conditions (around 4 °C or less) throughout the rest of the Holocene, with the exception of the warming trend during the late 20th century. Beside other factors, the Northern Hemisphere summer insolation seems to be the major driving force for the long-term trends in TJuly at high altitudes in the Eastern Alps. Due to the extreme location of the lake and the limited temperature range represented by the applied calibration data set, the chironomid-based temperature reconstruction fails to track phases of the late-Holocene climatic history with TJuly cooler than 4 °C. Further chironomid-based palaeoclimate model and down-core studies are required to address this problem, provide more realistic TJuly estimates from undisturbed high-altitude lakes in the Alps, and extract a reliable regional

  15. Age and Prematurity of the Alps Derived from Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergarten, S.; Wagner, T.; Stüwe, K.

    2010-09-01

    The European Alps are one of the best studied mountain ranges on Earth, but yet the age of their topography is almost unknown. Even their relative stage of evolution is unclear: Are the Alps still growing, in a steady state or already decaying, and is there a significant difference between Western and Eastern Alps? Using a new geomorphic parameter we analyze the topography of the Alps and provide one of the first quantitative constraints demonstrating that the range is still in its infancy: In contrast to several other mountain ranges, the Alps have still more than half of their evolution to a geomorphic steady state to go. Combining our results with sediment budget data from the surrounding basins we infer that the formation of the present topography began only 5-6 million years ago. Our results question the apparent consensus that the topographic evolution is distributed over much of the Miocene and might give new impulses to the reconstruction of paleoclimate in Central Europe.

  16. Heavy rains and extreme rainfall-runoff events in Central Europe from 1951 to 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Müller

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Runoff data were used to better select historically significant precipitation events. The suggested criterion Qx expresses the increase of a stream runoff over up to four days in a row. Tests confirmed that Qx maxima correspond to maxima of areal precipitation in the respective catchment. Ten significant precipitation events in summer half-years from 1951 to 2002 were selected in 25 catchments each, and further studied in respect to spatial extent, simultaneous occurrence in various river basins, seasonal distribution, and temporal variability. Four regions were recognised within Central Europe that show related seasonality and simultaneous occurrence of events. The main coincidence of significant precipitation events was confirmed between the Austrian Alps and Bohemia and Saxony on one hand, and Moravia, Silesia, and Western Slovakia on the other hand. Significant events typically emerge here during peak summer, in the south-eastern area of the Alps during autumn months, in the South-Eastern Carpathians from May to July, and in Western Germany in spring or autumn. Episodes with less significant precipitation events (around 1960 and 1990 alternate with inverse episodes (1970's, second half of the 1990's. A reasonable selection of reference events opens the door to a quantitative evaluation of dynamic and thermodynamic conditions typical for heavy rains in various parts of Central Europe.

  17. Glaciation's topographic control on Holocene erosion at the eastern edge of the Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Jean L.; von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm; Stüwe, Kurt; Christl, Marcus

    2016-12-01

    What is the influence of glacial processes in driving erosion and uplift across the European Alps? It has largely been argued that repeated erosion and glaciation sustain isostatic uplift and topography in a decaying orogen. But some parts of the Alps may still be actively uplifting via deep lithospheric processes. We add insight to this debate by isolating the role of post-glacial topographic forcing on erosion rates. To do this, we quantify the topographic signature of past glaciation on millennial-scale erosion rates in previously glaciated and unglaciated catchments at the easternmost edge of the Austrian Alps. Newly measured catchment-wide erosion rates, determined from cosmogenic 10Be in river-borne quartz, correlate with basin relief and mean slope. GIS-derived slope-elevation and slope-area distributions across catchments provide clear topographic indicators of the degree of glacial preconditioning, which further correlates with erosion rates. Erosion rates in the easternmost, non-glaciated basins range from 40 to 150 mm ky-1 and likely reflect underlying tectonic forcings in this region, which have previously been attributed to recent (post 5 Ma) uplift. By contrast, erosion rates in previously glaciated catchments range from 170 to 240 mm ky-1 and reflect the erosional response to local topographic preconditioning by repeated glaciations. Together, these data suggest that Holocene erosion across the Eastern Alps is strongly shaped by the local topography relict from previous glaciations. Broader, landscape-wide forcings, such as the widely debated deep mantle-driven or isostatically driven uplift, result in lesser controls on both topography and erosion rates in this region. Comparing our data to previously published erosion rates across the Alps, we show that post-glacial erosion rates vary across more than 2 orders of magnitude. This high variation in post-glacial erosion may reflect combined effects of direct tectonic and modern climatic forcings but

  18. ALPES: an advanced logic programming environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ruggieri

    1988-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a software programming environment for an extended Prolog language, called ALPES. The purpose of ALPES is to enable a logic programming paradigm to become a software engineering tool to design, develop and prototype traditional software systems, as well as artificial intelligence applications. The key structuring concepts for programs, as well as for the system architecture as a whole are those of contexts, processes and communication. The software design and development methodologies induced by the use of the Alpes-Prolog language have been incrementally used to develop the environment itself. This research was conducted under the Esprit projects P973 (ALPES.

  19. Slab detachment under the Eastern Alps seen by seismic anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qorbani, Ehsan; Bianchi, Irene; Bokelmann, Götz

    2015-01-01

    We analyze seismic anisotropy for the Eastern Alpine region by inspecting shear-wave splitting from SKS and SKKS phases. The Eastern Alpine region is characterized by a breakdown of the clear mountain-chain-parallel fast orientation pattern that has been previously documented for the Western Alps and for the western part of the Eastern Alps. The main interest of this paper is a more detailed analysis of the anisotropic character of the Eastern Alps, and the transition to the Carpathian-Pannonian region. SK(K)S splitting measurements reveal a rather remarkable lateral change in the anisotropy pattern from the west to the east of the Eastern Alps with a transition area at about 12°E. We also model the backazimuthal variation of the measurements by a vertical change of anisotropy. We find that the eastern part of the study area is characterized by the presence of two layers of anisotropy, where the deeper layer has characteristics similar to those of the Central Alps, in particular SW-NE fast orientations of anisotropic axes. We attribute the deeper layer to a detached slab from the European plate. Comparison with tomographic studies of the area indicates that the detached slab might possibly connect with the lithosphere that is still in place to the west of our study area, and may also connect with the slab graveyard to the East, at the depth of the upper mantle transition zone. On the other hand, the upper layer has NW-SE fast orientations coinciding with a low-velocity layer which is found above a more-or-less eastward dipping high-velocity body. The anisotropy of the upper layer shows large-scale NW-SE fast orientation, which is consistent with the presence of asthenospheric flow above the detached slab foundering into the deeper mantle.

  20. France and the Austrian Empire 1815-1918

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horel Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Relations between France and the Habsburg Empire during the long nineteenth century went through several phases bounded by the events crucial not just to the two countries' mutual relations but to all of Europe. The Congress of Vienna defined their mutual relations for the next thirty years. The Habsburgs and their omnipresent minister Metternich were fearful of revolutionary and liberal movements traditionally having their origins in France. And it was the revolutionary events of 1848 that brought about a change in the balance of power and their mutual relations. Metternich's retirement and, more importantly, the arrival of the Russian armies in Central Europe and the subsequent strengthening of Prussia, conferred a new importance to the role of the Habsburg Monarchy as a bulwark against the advancement of Russia and a vital counterweight to Prussia. With the defeat of Napoleon III and the creation of Germany with Alsace and Lorraine Franco-Austrian relations entered a new phase. The destiny of the two provinces alienated the Habsburgs from the French Republic, especially after the reorganization of Europe into two confronting blocs. The logic of alliances led to their being adversaries in the world conflict, although Napoleon III's geo-strategic analyses remained present almost to its very end, when Clemenceau's government gave support to the nationality principle thereby crucially contributing to the collapse of the Habsburg Monarchy.

  1. First results of the Austrian radon mitigation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maringer, F.J.; Akis, N.G.; Kaineder, H.

    1998-01-01

    Objectives of the Austrian radon mitigation research project were to find cost-effective methods for characterizing the radon situation of dwellings and to evaluate the implementation of remedial actions for Austrian house types. Three houses in regions with elevated radon levels were closely examined. The methods used for radon diagnosis and the mitigation concept are described. The conception and implementation of proposed remedial actions are highlighted. Preliminary results of the investigations and remedial actions are presented. (A.K.)

  2. Publications of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf 1976-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranz, F.; Nevyjel, A.

    1989-02-01

    About 3000 publications, written by staff members of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf (OEFZS) within the period 1976-1985 are cited. The bibliography includes citations of journal articles, proceedings, books, technical reports as well as dissertations and diploma works, carried out in Seibersdorf by students of Austrian universities. It covers the subject areas of chemistry, physics, biology, radiation protection, reactor safety, isotope applications, materials technology, environmental research, mathematics and information, electronics and agriculture. 10 refs. (Author)

  3. Language Management Strategies in Austrian and Slovenian SMES

    OpenAIRE

    Igor Rižnar; Robert Rybnicek

    2017-01-01

    According to the ELAN study and a substantial body of previous research, a significant amount of business is being lost in the eu due to a lack of language skills. In our article, we analyse how Austrian and Slovenian small and medium-sized enterprises (SMES) adopt language management strategies (LMSS). We investigate, by means of a questionnaire sent to Slovenian and Austrian SMES, how aware they are of the elan findings, what language strategies they have adopted and wheth...

  4. PEGASUS - An Austrian Nanosatellite for QB50

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharlemann, Carsten; Seifert, Bernhard; Kohl, Dominik; Birschitzky, David; Gury, Lionel; Kerschbaum, Franz; Obertscheider, Christof; Ottensamer, Roland; Reissner, Alexander; Riel, Thomas; Sypniewski, Richard; Taraba, Michael; Trausmuth, Robert; Turetschek, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    PEGASUS - An Austrian Nanosatellite for QB50 C. Scharlemann* David Birschitzky* Lionel Gury*, Franz Kerschbaum~, Dominik Kohl#, Christof Obertscheider*, Roland Ottensamer~, Alexander Reissner+, Thomas Riel#, B. Seifert+, Richard Sypniewski*, Michael Taraba?, Robert Trausmuth*, Thomas Turetschek?, …. (*)University of Applied Sciences Wiener Neustadt, Austria (+)FOTEC GmbH, Wiener Neustadt, Austria (+) Spaceteam, TU Wien, Austria (~) University Wien, Wien, Austria The QB50 project is an international project with the goal to send up to 50 Nanosatellites, a.k.a. CubeSat, into the Thermosphere. The scientific goal of this mission is to monitor over a period of up to nine months the prevailing conditions in this rather unknown part of Earth's atmosphere. Each of the 50 nanosatellites will be equipped with one of three possible scientific instruments: (i) a set of Langmuir probes, (ii) atomic oxygen measurement device, (iii) ion/neutral mass spectrometer. All satellites will be launched together and released in a string-of-pearls type fashion. It is predicted that the satellites will drift apart rather rapidly following the release. Therefore, the QB50 missions offers the possibility of a measurement grid in the thermosphere of unprecedented scope and accuracy. One of the satellites, named PEGASUS, is designed and build by a team of Austrian researches and students. PEGASUS will be equipped with the aforementioned Langmuir probes and will provide information about essential properties of the plasma in the thermosphere such as the electrontemperature and -density. In order to ensure the capability to collect and downlink the data over several months, PEGASUS requires about the same types of subsystems as one would find on large-scale satellites. This includes an attitude control system, an on-board computer, telecommunication devices, an electrical power systems allowing to harvest the solar power and either distribute or store it for later use, a thermal control system

  5. Seismotectonics investigations in the internal Cottian Alps (Italian Western Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Gianluigi; Eva, Elena; Solarino, Stefano; Cadoppi, Paola; Balestro, Gianni; Fioraso, Gianfranco; Tallone, Sergio

    2010-05-01

    The inner Cottian Alps represent an area of a low- to moderate- magnitude seismicity (Eva et al., 1990) even though some historical earthquakes reached VIII degree of the Mercalli's scale. Although the frame of seismicity is quite well known, the relation between faults and earthquake sources is still under debate. The low deformation rates and the occurrence of several glacial-interglacial cycles during the Pleistocene partly masked the geomorphological evidences of the recent tectonic activity. Recent studies based on field mapping and structural analysis (Balestro et al., 2009; Perrone et al., 2009) allowed characterizing the size and extension of the regional-scale faults dissecting this area of the Western Alps. Here, we combine the results of these novel studies and updated seismological data with the aim to investigate the relations between mapped faults and seismic activity. In the analyzed area both continental crust and oceanic tectonic units, belonging to the Penninic Domain of the Western Alps, crop out. The main brittle tectonic feature of this area is represented by the Lis-Trana Deformation Zone (LTZ), an N-S striking, steep structure that extends for about 35 km from the Lower Lanzo valleys to the Lower Sangone Valley. The occurrence of steep faults displacing the metamorphic basement, showed in seismic sections carried out for oil exploration (Bertotti & Mosca, 2009), suggests that the LTZ may be prolonged Southward beneath the Plio-Quaternary deposits of the Po Plain. West of the LTZ some other minor E-W and N-S faults are also present. Zircon and apatite fission-track data indicate that the activity of these faults started since the Oligocene. Two main faulting stages characterize the post-metamorphic structural evolution of this area: the earlier (faulting stage A; Oligocene?-Early Miocene?) is associated to right-lateral movements along the LTZ and sinistral movements along E-W faults; the subsequent faulting stage (faulting stage B; post

  6. HORA - an Austrian platform for natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlatky, T.

    2009-04-01

    HORA - an Austrian platform for natural hazards as a new way in risk communication One initiatives launched in Austria demonstrate that public participation not only bears the risk of a partial transfer of responsibility by the authorities; it may above all prepare the ground for entirely new approaches and create new links. The recent installation of the first internet risk zoning system in Austria underscores the importance of involving private parties in natural disaster protection. This public-private partnership (PPP) between the Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management (BMLFUW) and the Austrian Insurance Association (VVO) was launched in the wake of the 2002 flood disaster. The first project phase, the Austrian flood risk zoning system called HORA (screenshot see fig. 1), has now been accessible on the Web since 1st June 2006. In accordance with a risk partnership concluded between federal government, insurance companies and private parties, the project initiators seek to offer the public a preliminary risk assessment tool for evaluation of their home, industrial enterprise, of infrastructure. Digital risk maps shall provide information on 30-year, 100-year and 200-year flood events as they occur alongside the 26.000-km-long domestic river network. The probability with which a certain block of land is immersed in water during a flood event can be calculated by means of hydraulic engineering methods. These have traditionally relied on statistical figures, which are known to be very inaccurate, especially when major events such as flooding are concerned. The Vienna University of Technology (TU) (Institute of Hydraulic and Water Resources Engineering) has dedicated many years to developing more accurate, process oriented risk assessment techniques. The starting points was to identify different flood-triggering processes and to divide them into specific categories as long-duration rainfalls, short-duration rainfalls, storms

  7. Natural radionuclides in Austrian bottled mineral waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriele Wallner; Tania Jabbar

    2010-01-01

    All commercially available mineral waters of Austrian origin were investigated with regard to the natural radionuclides 228 Ra, 226 Ra, 210 Pb, 210 Po, 238 U and 234 U. From 1 to 1.5 L of sample the nuclides were extracted and measured sequentially: the radium isotopes as well as 210 Pb were measured by liquid scintillation counting after separation on a membrane loaded with element-selective particles (Empore Radium Disks), 210 Po was determined by α-particle spectroscopy after spontaneous deposition onto a copper planchette and uranium was determined also by α-particle spectroscopy after anion separation and microprecipitation with NdF 3 . The calculated committed effective doses for adults, teens and babies were compared to the total indicative dose of 0.1 mSv/year given in the EC Drinking Water Directive. The dominant portion of the committed effective dose was due to 228 Ra. Highly mineralised waters showed also higher 226 Ra and 228 Ra levels. (author)

  8. Austrian Economics and the Transaction Cost Approach to the Firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai J. Foss

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available As the transaction cost theory of the firm was taking shape in the 1970s, another important movement in economics was emerging: a revival of the ‘Austrian’ tradition in economic theory associated with such economists as Ludwig von Mises and F. A. Hayek (1973; Dolan, 1976; Spadaro, 1978. As Oliver Williamson has pointed out, Austrian economics is among the diverse sources for transaction cost economics. In particular, Williamson frequently cites Hayek (e.g., Williamson, 1985, p. 8; 1991, p. 162, particularly Hayek’s emphasis on adaptation as a key problem of economic organisation (Hayek, 1945. Following Williamson’s lead, a reference to Hayek’s ‘The Use of Knowledge in Society’ (Hayek, 1945 has become almost mandatory in discussions of economic organisation (e.g., Ricketts, 1987, p. 59; Milgrom and Roberts, 1992, p. 56; Douma and Schreuder 1991, p. 9. However, there are many other potential links between Austrian and transaction cost economics that have not been explored closely and exploited.This article argues that characteristically Austrian ideas about property, entrepreneurship, economic calculation, tacit knowledge, and the temporal structure of capital have important implications for theories of economic organisation, transaction cost economics in particular. Austrian economists have not, however, devoted substantial attention to the theory of the firm, preferring to focus on business-cycle theory, welfare economics, political economy, comparative economic systems, and other areas. Until recently the theory of the firm was an almost completely neglected area in Austrian economics, but over the last decade, a small Austrian literature on the firm has emerged. While these works cover a wide variety of theoretical and applied topics, their authors share the view that Austrian insights have something to offer students of firm organisation.

  9. No erosional control on the lateral growth of the Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, C. L.; Berger, A.

    2009-04-01

    On the base of literature data, we estimated the paleowidth of the Central Alps and the changing location of the inferred active fronts of the orogen from the Oligocene to the present. These compilations indicate that the absolute change of width, defined as the distance between the most external, but not necessarily active thrusts of the orogen was modest, amounting to less than 15 %, from 32 Ma to the present. This value lies within the error of estimate, and hence it is no sound evidence for lateral growth or retreat of the orogen. On the other hand the width of the active orogen, defined as the distance between the most external active thrusts, did increase in the early Miocene. This increase started already in the Oligocene as also concluded on the base of sedimentological findings, suggesting a continuous growth of thrusts through the Oligocene-Early Miocene interval (e.g. Schumacher et al., 1996). In the Late Miocene the active width of the Southern Alps decreased, as documented by a pre-Messinian out-of-sequence phase of thrusting (Lecco thrust; Schönborn, 1992) younger than the Milan Belt (Schönborn 1992). Increasing erosion rates are expected to reduce the width of the orogen, whereas decreasing rates are expected to increase its width (Beaumont et al., 1992). Therefore, following the example of previous investigations (Schlunegger et al., 2001; Schlunegger and Simpson, 2002; Willett et al., 2006) we compare the reconstructed changes of width of the Alps with the depositional budgets of the Alpine foreland basins (Kuhlemann, 2000) inferred to be a proxy for the erosion rates of the Alpine belt. This comparison shows that the most significant increases in erosion efficiency do not lead to a decrease in the active width of the orogen. This is indicated by the pronounced foreland-directed growth of the Alps after the Messinian, i.e., during the phase of greatest increase in the erosion rates of the orogen. The best regional examples are the northward shift

  10. The epic of Hannibal through the Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbia Hilali

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A true myth is built around the figure of Hannibal and his journey to Rome through the Alps. After leaving the South of the Iberian Peninsula to his brother Hasdrubal, Hannibal leaves Cartagena, crosses the Pyrenees, goes up the valleys of the Rhone and Isere, crosses the Alps and ends in Italy in November 218 BC. Its stratagems are still authoritative, not to mention the exotic image of fighting elephants that have deeply marked the spirits. The crossing of the Alps has nourished art and ancient and modern literature. In contemporary Tunisia, antiquity finds a fundamental place and Hannibal redux is a national hero.

  11. Seismicity of Eastern Alps and North western Dinaric Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertuncay, Deniz; Vicic, Blaž; Costa, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    Our study region is placed on Adriatic Plate and the boundaries are Dinaric Orogenic Belt, Carnic, Tolmezzo and Julian Alps. The area has normal, reverse and strike slip faults which can generate big earthquakes such as 1976 Mw 6.5 Friuli Earthquake, 1998 and 2004 Bovec-Krn Earthquakes. The area is located between Austria, Slovenia and Italy. Our group, SEISRAM, has dense seismic station on the Italian part of the region and has access to get data from other countries on the region. We are monitoring the region with a good coverage by collaborating with other institutes on the Ce3RN project which we are also part of. We can detect lower than 0.5 Magnitude earthquakes. We use our database and other seismological centers to investigate the seismicity of the region between 1960 and 2016. Gutenberg - Richter magnitude frequency relationship is applied in order to get a knowledge about the seismicity of Friuli region. By using the database 'a' and 'b' values of the region are found. Same procedure is done for each fault line, separately. Magnitude of completeness for each fault are calculated. Calculation of earthquake probabilities for fixed periodic times for possible from magnitude 3 to magnitude 6 earthquakes. All calculations are done by using Matlab based ZMAP program.

  12. Present status and distribution of the Lynx in the Swiss Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Molinari-Jobin

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To evaluate the population trend of lynx in the Swiss Alps, we analysed the spatial and numerical development of signs of presence found from 1995 to 1999 and compared them with previous years. Three sources of information on the presence of lynx are available: (1 reports of lynx killed or found dead; (2 records of livestock killed by lynx; (3 records of wild prey remains, tracks, scats, sightings, and vocalisations. We distinguished three levels of reliability: Quality 1 represent the hard facts, e.g. all reports of lynx killed or found dead, photographs of lynx as well as young orphaned lynx caught in the wild and taken into captivity. Quality 2 include all records of livestock killed, wild prey remains, tracks and scats reported by people who have attended special courses, e.g. mainly game wardens. Quality 3 are all wild prey remains and tracks reported by the general public as well as all sightings, scats and vocalisations, e.g. signs that cannot be verified. More than 1600 signs of presence were recorded in the Swiss Alps in this 5-year-period. A high number of quality 1 and 2 records showed that (1 the lynx population in the north-western Swiss Alps increased from 1994 to 1999, that (2 there is a moderate presence of the species in the central and south-western parts and (3 none or hardly any lynx are found in the eastern Alps of Switzerland. Based on a radio-telemetry study and the number of quality 2 data, we were able to estimate the number of lynx in the Swiss Alps at 70 individuals. To counterpart the uneven distribution of lynx in Switzerland, lynx are being translocated from the north-western Alps to the eastern Swiss Alps, as the expansion of the Swiss lynx population is crucial for the conservation of the lynx in the whole Alps.

  13. La Directísima en los Alpes, Austria

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    Schmidt, Wilhelm

    1979-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the construction procesa of the «straight» expressway through the Tauern AIps, where several engineering works deserve special mention: — The Tauern Tunnel, 6.4 km In length. — The Katschberg Tunnel, 5.4 km In length. — The Eben-Pongan cloverleaf. — The Liesertal stretch, 75 per 100 of its length being tunnels and viaducts. The most important of this Is the Tauern Tunnel where, owing to the serious problems encountered in the brittle character of the soil, the Austrian tunnel excavation process was used, this method consisting in tensing the mountain soil in order to be able to counteract the high pressures occurring. This tunnel has a 600 m long, 11 m diameter ventilation shaft, the largest of its kind in the World.

    Se trata, en este artículo, del proceso de construcción de la Autopista de Tauern, La Directísima, en los Alpes, en la que destacan varias obras: — Túnel de Tauern, de 6,4 km de longitud. — Túnel de Katschberg, de 5,4 km de longitud. — Punto de enlace Eben-Pongau. — Tramo de Liesertal, realizado en un 75 por 100 mediante viaductos y túneles. La obra más importante es el túnel de Tauern donde, debido a los grandes problemas surgidos por la naturaleza quebradiza del terreno, hubo de emplearse un método austríaco de perforación de túneles consistente en poner en tensión la montaña para, de esta manera, contrarrestar las altas presiones que se producen. Este túnel tiene un pozo de ventilación de 600 m de longitud y 11 m de diámetro de perforación. Es el pozo vertical más grande del mundo.

  14. Age and prematurity of the Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergarten, Stefan; Stüwe, Kurt; Wagner, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    Although the Alps are among the best studied mountain ranges on Earth, the age of their topography is almost unknown. Even their relative stage of evolution is unclear: Are the Alps still growing, in a steady state or even decaying? Using the mean slope at given catchment size as a new geomorphic parameter we analyse the topography of the Alps. Our analysis provides one of the first quantitative constraints that shows that the range is still in its infancy: In contrast to several other mountain ranges, the Alps have still more than half of their evolution to a geomorphic steady state to go. Combining our results with sediment data from the surrounding accumulation spaces we infer that the formation of substantial topography began only 5-6 million years ago. Our results challenge a general consensus that the topographic evolution is distributed over much of the Miocene.

  15. Planning the Brown Bear Ursus arctos reintroduction in the Adamello Brenta Natural Park. A tool to establish a metapopulation in the Central-Eastern Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mustoni

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the 17th century, brown bears (Ursus arctos were still abundant and widely distributed over the entire alpine area of northern Italy and even in large, dense forests of the prealps and the Po plain. The start of the decline coincided with increasing deforestation for farming at the end of the 18th century and, in the 19th century, increased access to previously remote wilderness areas of the prealpine and alpine mountains, where direct persecution by farmers and hunters caused the extinction of local bear populations. The last remnant population that occupied the Adamello-Brenta Alps was considered biologically extinct since 1989 (only three, non-reproducing bears. Here we present an analysis of the reintroduction process as the most suitable tool for brown bear recovery in the Italian Alps, taking into account both the benefits of reinstating a viable population and the risks that the coexistence between man and bear could cause. The reintroduction process is discussed aiming at an evaluation of its contribution to the global future efforts for brown bear conservation in the alpine region. A GIS-based habitat suitability analysis was implemented to test for good-quality bear habitat in a vast mountainous area around the Adamello-Brenta Natural Park (6500 km², the release site of bears. The model was based on presence/absence data, gathered over the last 20 years, and habitat parameters in 25 ha cells in the core-area of the remnant bear population (645 km² study area. Other parameters of human disturbance and livestock densities, were considered at the scale of the municipality. Bears positively selected deciduous forest but seemed to avoid areas with intensive pasture activity, mainly of horses and sheep, despite the latter being a potential prey. Habitats containing large amounts of bare rock, farmland and urbanised areas were avoided. There were no significant

  16. A regional reconstruction of debris-flow activity in the Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procter, Emily; Bollschweiler, Michelle; Stoffel, Markus; Neumann, Mathias

    2011-09-01

    Dendrogeomorphic dating of historical debris-flow events is a highly valuable tool for improving historical records in the field of natural hazard management. Previous dendrogeomorphic investigations generally have focused on case studies of single torrents; however, regional investigations may offer a more accurate reconstruction of regional patterns of activity and therefore may have an advantage over individual cases. The aim of the study is to provide a regional reconstruction of debris-flow events for a site in the Northern Calcareous Alps of western Austria (Gamperdonatal, Vorarlberg) and to document spatial and temporal morphological changes in individual and neighboring torrents. Analysis of 442 trees (268 Pinus mugo ssp. uncinata, 164 Picea abies, and 10 Abies alba) allowed identification of 579 growth disturbances corresponding to 63 debris-flow events since A.D. 1839. The majority of growth disturbances were in the form of growth suppression or release (76%) owing to the nature of both the deposited material and the process characteristics. Regional patterns of event frequency indicated a paucity of activity in the early to mid-twentieth century and increased activity since A.D. 1948, whereby large events were followed by subsequent years of continued activity of smaller magnitude. Patterns of frequency could be attributed primarily to spatiotemporal changes in channel morphology, but may also be reflective of changes in transport conditions within the valley. This study provides the first regional investigation in the Austrian Alps and contributes to the documentation of tree responses to geomorphic disturbances in calcareous material.

  17. An Austrian framework for PET quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicoletti, R.; Dobrozemsky, G.; Minear, G.; Bergmann, H.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The European patient protection directive (97/43 EURATOM) requires regular routine quality control (QC) of PET imaging devices. Since no standards were available covering this area and in order to comply with the directive a joint working party of the Austrian societies of nuclear medicine and of medical physics have developed a set of procedures suitable for both dedicated PET scanners and gamma cameras operating in coincidence mode (GCPET). The routine procedures proposed include both manufacturer recommended procedures and tests for specific parameters and calibration procedures. Wherever possible, procedures adapted or derived from NEMA standards publication NU 2-2001 were used to permit direct comparison with specified parameters of image quality. For dedicated PET scanners the most important procedures are the checking of detector sensitivities and the attenuation calibration scan. With full ring scanners the attenuation calibration scan is a blank scan, with partial ring devices a special attenuation calibration phantom has to be used. Test protocols are specific to manufacturer and scanner type. They are usually performed automatically overnight. In addition, some instruments require special calibrations, e.g. gain adjustments or coincidence timing calibration. GCPET procedures include the frequent assessment in coincidence mode of detector uniformity, energy resolution and system sensitivity. Common to both dedicated PET and GCPET are the regular quarterly assessment of tomographic spatial resolution and the calibration of the system for quantitative measurements. As a total performance test for both systems assessment of image quality following NU 2-2001 was included, to be carried out after major system changes or repairs. The suite of QC procedures was tested on several dedicated PET and GCPET systems including all major manufacturers' systems. Due to missing hardware or software not all tests could be performed on all systems. Some of the

  18. Impact of droughts on water provision in managed alpine grasslands in two climatically different regions of the Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitinger, Georg; Ruggenthaler, Romed; Hammerle, Albin; Lavorel, Sandra; Schirpke, Uta; Clement, Jean-Christophe; Lamarque, Pénélope; Obojes, Nikolaus; Tappeiner, Ulrike

    2015-12-01

    This study analyzes the impact of droughts, compared with average climatic conditions, on the supporting ecosystem service water provision in sub-watersheds in managed alpine grasslands in two climatically different regions of the Alps, Lautaret (French Alps) and Stubai (Austrian Alps). Soil moisture was modelled in the range of 0-0.3 m. At both sites, current patterns showed that the mean seasonal soil moisture was (1) near field capacity for grasslands with low management intensity and (2) below field capacity for grasslands with higher land-use intensity. Soil moisture was significantly reduced by drought at both sites, with lower reductions at the drier Lautaret site. At the sub-watershed scale, soil moisture spatial heterogeneity was reduced by drought. Under drought conditions, the evapotranspiration to precipitation ratios at Stubai was slightly higher than those at Lautaret, indicating a dominant 'water spending' strategy of plant communities. Regarding catchment water balance, deep seepage was reduced by drought at Stubai more strongly than at Lautaret. Hence, the observed 'water spending' strategy at Stubai might have negative consequences for downstream water users. Assessing the water provision service for alpine grasslands provided evidence that, under drought conditions, evapotranspiration was influenced not only by abiotic factors but also by the water-use strategy of established vegetation. These results highlight the importance of 'water-use' strategies in existing plant communities as predictors of the impacts of drought on water provision services and related ecosystem services at both the field and catchment scale.

  19. Glaciation's topographic control on Holocene erosion at the eastern edge of the Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Dixon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available What is the influence of glacial processes in driving erosion and uplift across the European Alps? It has largely been argued that repeated erosion and glaciation sustain isostatic uplift and topography in a decaying orogen. But some parts of the Alps may still be actively uplifting via deep lithospheric processes. We add insight to this debate by isolating the role of post-glacial topographic forcing on erosion rates. To do this, we quantify the topographic signature of past glaciation on millennial-scale erosion rates in previously glaciated and unglaciated catchments at the easternmost edge of the Austrian Alps. Newly measured catchment-wide erosion rates, determined from cosmogenic 10Be in river-borne quartz, correlate with basin relief and mean slope. GIS-derived slope–elevation and slope–area distributions across catchments provide clear topographic indicators of the degree of glacial preconditioning, which further correlates with erosion rates. Erosion rates in the easternmost, non-glaciated basins range from 40 to 150 mm ky−1 and likely reflect underlying tectonic forcings in this region, which have previously been attributed to recent (post 5 Ma uplift. By contrast, erosion rates in previously glaciated catchments range from 170 to 240 mm ky−1 and reflect the erosional response to local topographic preconditioning by repeated glaciations. Together, these data suggest that Holocene erosion across the Eastern Alps is strongly shaped by the local topography relict from previous glaciations. Broader, landscape-wide forcings, such as the widely debated deep mantle-driven or isostatically driven uplift, result in lesser controls on both topography and erosion rates in this region. Comparing our data to previously published erosion rates across the Alps, we show that post-glacial erosion rates vary across more than 2 orders of magnitude. This high variation in post-glacial erosion may reflect combined effects of direct

  20. Women as Drivers for a Sustainable and Social Inclusive Development in Mountain Regions – The Case of the Austrian Alps

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    Oedl-Wieser Theresia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Women in mountain regions play an important role regarding the agricultural production and ensuring sustainable livelihoods. Furthermore, they are active in climate change adaption and preservation of biodiversity. Despite these important activities and performances the vital role of women for a sustainable and social inclusive development in mountain regions is often invisible and not appreciated enough in society. There still exists structural discrimination of women which is caused by patriarchal societies, social and cultural norms as well as difficult economic situations. Considering the need to foster the dynamic and sustainable development of mountain regions all over the world, it is of paramount importance to reflect and integrate women’s issues, problems and needs to a larger extent in research, public policy and in worldwide decision-making agendas.

  1. Report 1985 of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf. Abridged version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwach, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    The report gives a short survey of the work carried out by the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf in 1985. The working programme comprises five main areas: Energy and safety; Materials research, isotope and radiation techniques; Measuring techniques and information processing; Environmental protection, health and food; Industrial consulting. (Author)

  2. Forecasting Austrian national elections: The Grand Coalition model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichholzer, Julian; Willmann, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    Forecasting the outcomes of national elections has become established practice in several democracies. In the present paper, we develop an economic voting model for forecasting the future success of the Austrian ‘grand coalition’, i.e., the joint electoral success of the two mainstream parties SPOE and OEVP, at the 2013 Austrian Parliamentary Elections. Our main argument is that the success of both parties is strongly tied to the accomplishments of the Austrian system of corporatism, that is, the Social Partnership (Sozialpartnerschaft), in providing economic prosperity. Using data from Austrian national elections between 1953 and 2008 (n=18), we rely on the following predictors in our forecasting model: (1) unemployment rates, (2) previous incumbency of the two parties, and (3) dealignment over time. We conclude that, in general, the two mainstream parties benefit considerably from low unemployment rates, and are weakened whenever they have previously formed a coalition government. Further, we show that they have gradually been losing a good share of their voter basis over recent decades. PMID:26339109

  3. 48. annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Netzer, F.P.

    1998-01-01

    This volume contains short communications of lectures and posters of the 48 th Symposium of the Austrian Physical Society which had been held at the University of Graz (Austria) in 1998. The following topics are included: atomic physics, molecular physics, plasma physics, solid state physics, nuclear and particle physics, polymer physics, biophysics, environmental physics, quantum electronics and quantum optics. (Suda)

  4. 45. Annual Convention of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This volume contains lectures of the 45 th symposium of the Austrian Physical Society which had been held in Leoben, Austria in 1995. The following topics are included: Atomic physics, molecular physics, plasma physics, solid state physics, nuclear and particle physics, biophysics, environmental physics, quantum electronics and quantum optics. (Suda)

  5. 50. Annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippitsch, M.E.

    2000-01-01

    The conference held from 25. - 29. 9. 2000 at the University of Graz was elaborated by the Austrian society of physics in the fields of solid state physics, polymers physics, quantum electronics, electrodynamics, optics, nuclear and particle physics, atomic, molecules and plasma physics, acoustics, physics - industry - energy and physics teaching. (botek)

  6. English, French, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese? Code Choice and Austrian Export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavric, Eva; Back, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    This article deals with how "export oriented Austrian companies effect code choice in their business relationships with customers from Romance language speaking countries". The focus lies on the most widespread Romance languages, therefore on French, Spanish, Italian and Portuguese speaking customers.The question of code choice in export…

  7. 47. annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutschera, W.

    1997-01-01

    This volume contains lectures (short communications) of the 47. symposium of the Austrian Physical Society which had been held at the University of Vienna (Austria) in 1997. The following topics are included: atomic physics, molecular physics, plasma physics, solid state physics, nuclear and particle physics, biophysics, environmental physics, quantum electronics and quantum optics. (Suda)

  8. 49. annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blatt, R.; Maerk, T.

    1999-01-01

    This volume contains short communications of lectures and poster sessions of the 49th symposium of the Austrian Physical Society which has been held at the University of Innsbruck (Austria) in 1999. The following topics are included: atomic physics, molecular physics, plasma physics, solid state physics, nuclear and particle physics, polymer physics, biophysics, environmental physics, quantum electronics and quantum optics. (Suda)

  9. Holocaust Studies in Austrian Elementary and Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittnik, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    This article presents arguments in support of teaching about the Holocaust and Nazism in Austria at an early age. To accomplish this, Austrian and German elementary school textbooks were analyzed for the amount of content dealing with the Holocaust and Jews; the results showed that since 1980 the amount of content on the Holocaust increased in…

  10. Augmenting Austrian flood management practices through geospatial predictive analytics: a study in Carinthia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, S. M.; Paulus, G.

    2013-06-01

    The Danube River basin has long been the location of significant flooding problems across central Europe. The last decade has seen a sharp increase in the frequency, duration and intensity of these flood events, unveiling a dire need for enhanced flood management policy and tools in the region. Located in the southern portion of Austria, the state of Carinthia has experienced a significant volume of intense flood impacts over the last decade. Although the Austrian government has acknowledged these issues, their remedial actions have been primarily structural to date. Continued focus on controlling the natural environment through infrastructure while disregarding the need to consider alternative forms of assessing flood exposure will only act as a provisional solution to this inescapable risk. In an attempt to remedy this flaw, this paper highlights the application of geospatial predictive analytics and spatial recovery index as a proxy for community resilience, as well as the cultural challenges associated with the application of foreign models within an Austrian environment.

  11. Augmenting Austrian flood management practices through geospatial predictive analytics: a study in Carinthia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Ward

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Danube River basin has long been the location of significant flooding problems across central Europe. The last decade has seen a sharp increase in the frequency, duration and intensity of these flood events, unveiling a dire need for enhanced flood management policy and tools in the region. Located in the southern portion of Austria, the state of Carinthia has experienced a significant volume of intense flood impacts over the last decade. Although the Austrian government has acknowledged these issues, their remedial actions have been primarily structural to date. Continued focus on controlling the natural environment through infrastructure while disregarding the need to consider alternative forms of assessing flood exposure will only act as a provisional solution to this inescapable risk. In an attempt to remedy this flaw, this paper highlights the application of geospatial predictive analytics and spatial recovery index as a proxy for community resilience, as well as the cultural challenges associated with the application of foreign models within an Austrian environment.

  12. Hospital admissions for traumatic brain injury of Austrian residents vs. of visitors to Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauritz, Walter; Brazinova, Alexandra; Majdan, Marek; Leitgeb, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    The goal was to compare epidemiology of hospital admissions for traumatic brain injury (TBI) in Austrian residents vs. visitors to Austria. Data on all hospital admissions due to TBI (ICD-10 codes S06.0-S06.9; years 2009-2011) was provided by the Austrian Statistical Office. Data on Austrian population and on tourism (visitor numbers, nights spent) was retrieved from www.statistik.at . Age, sex, mechanism of injury, season and mortality was analysed for Austrian residents vs. visitors. Visitors contributed 3.9% to the total population and 9.2% of all TBI cases. Incidence of hospital admissions was 292/100,000/year in Austrian residents and was 727/100,000/year in visitors. Male:female ratio was 1.39:1 in Austrian residents and 1.55:1 in visitors. Austrian cases were older than visitors' cases (mean age 41 vs. 28 years). Austrian cases were distributed evenly over the seasons, while 75% of the visitors' cases happened during winter and spring. The most frequently observed causes of TBI in Austrian residents were private accidents, while sports caused almost half of the visitors' cases. Hospital mortality was lower in visitors than in Austrian residents (0.8 vs. 2.1%). Sports-related TBI of visitors causes a significant workload for Austrian hospitals. Better prevention is warranted.

  13. Gazing behavior reactions of Vietnamese and Austrian consumers to Austrian wafers and their relations to wanting, expected and tasted liking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Thi Minh Hang; Tu, Viet Phu; Duerrschmid, Klaus

    2018-05-01

    Predictability of consumers' food choice based on their gazing behavior using eye-tracking has been shown and discussed in recent research. By applying this observational technique and conventional methods on a specific food product, this study aims at investigating consumers' reactions associated with gazing behavior, wanting, building up expectations, and the experience of tasting. The tested food products were wafers from Austria with hazelnut, whole wheat, lemon and vanilla flavors, which are very well known in Austria and not known in Vietnam. 114 Vietnamese and 128 Austrian participants took part in three sections: The results indicate that: i) the gazing behavior parameters are highly correlated in a positive way with the wanting-to-try choice; ii) wanting to try is in compliance with the expected liking for the Austrian consumer panel only, which is very familiar with the products; iii) the expected and tasted liking of the products are highly country and product dependent. The expected liking is strongly correlated with the tasted liking for the Austrian panel only. Differences between the reactions of the Vietnamese and Austrian consumers are discussed in detail. The results, which reflect the complex process from gazing for "wanting to try" to the expected and tasted liking, are discussed in the context of the cognitive theory and food choice habits of the consumers. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. [Pain care in Austrian health care centers: Questionnaire study on the current status of Austrian pain clinics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, I-S; Bornemann-Cimenti, H; Messerer, B; Vittinghoff, M; Sandner-Kiesling, A

    2015-12-01

    Pain clinics provide interdisciplinary therapy to treat chronic pain patients and to increase the return-to-work rate. In recent years and due to increased economic pressure in health care, a change in the management of pain in Austrian health care centers has been observed. For the analysis of the current situation, two surveys addressing all Austrian pain clinics were performed. In total, 133 heads of Austrian Anesthesia Departments were interviewed online and personally. The data from the first interview were confirmed by an additional telephone survey that was performed by one anesthetist per Austrian state (n = 9). Currently, 44 Austrian pain clinics are active. During the last 5 years, 9 pain clinics closed. Adding the current active pain clinics together, they represent a total of 17.5 full-time-operated clinics. The most common reasons for closing the pain clinics were lack of personnel (47%), lack of time resources (26%), lack of space resources (11%), and financial difficulties (11%). A reduction of >50% of operating hours during the last 3 years was reported by 9 hospitals. The reasons for not running a pain clinic were lack of personnel (36%), lack of time (25%) and department too small (16%). Estimates between actual and required clinics indicate that 49.5 full-time-operating pain clinics are lacking in Austria, resulting in 74% of the Austrian chronic pain patients not receiving interdisciplinary pain management. Our survey confirmed the closure of 9 pain clinics during the last 5 years due to lack of personnel and time. Pain clinics appear to provide the simplest economic saving potential. This development is a major concern. Although running a pain clinic seems to be expensive at the first sight, it reduces pain, sick leave, complications, and potential legal issues against health care centers, while simultaneously increasing the hospital's competitiveness. Our results show that 74% of Austrian chronic pain patients do not have access to an

  15. CERN: LEP in the Alps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: In January, when CERN's LEP electron-positron collider is enjoying a well-earned break, it has now become traditional for the hard pressed LEP team to have no respite. Instead they pack their bags and depart for Chamonix in the nearby French Alps to review the past year's experience and plan for the future. In the cold January 1993 light of Chamonix, 1992 (January/February, page 4) was deemed to have been a good year for LEP operations, with the switch to 90° betatron phase operation having paid off. The 65% improvement in integrated luminosity over 1991 was attributed to longer beam lifetimes, faster filling and improved overall efficiency. The commissioning of the eight-bunch 'pretzel' scheme was facilitated with the new optics, and break-even quickly achieved, so that physics could benefit from more bunches in the machine. During 1992, the injection chain was fully tested with eight bunches, and when this comes into routine operation this year, the pretzel scheme will benefit. Pretzel running also opens the possibility of still higher luminosity, up to 2x10 31 per sq cm per s, doubling the present level. However the finishing touches to high luminosity running are still more an art ('haute cuisine') than a science. Continuing studies of the inter correlation of different LEP conditions will help make this more systematic. The main factors affecting performance at 45 GeV are transverse mode coupling instabilities. The present working point gives good results, but there are still potentially interesting regions which need to be checked out. Beam lifetime and background are both limited by beam size and aperture. Background was reduced by improved focusing, while beam size is dominated by beam-beam effects. 90° operation proved its worth in 1992, but the inability to produce polarized beams was a disappointment, and a combined 90°/60° horizontal/vertical combination looked like offering the best of both worlds. Although

  16. Authority Relationship From a Societal Perspective: Social Representations of Obedience and Disobedience in Austrian Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Fattori

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Obedience and disobedience have always been salient issues for both civil society and social psychologists. Since Milgram’s first studies on destructive obedience there has not been a bottom-up definition of what obedience and disobedience mean. The current study aimed at investigating the social representations young adults use to define and to co-construct knowledge about obedience and disobedience in Austria. One hundred fifty four (106 females, 68.8% Austrian young adults (Mean age = 22.9; SD = 3.5 completed a mixed-method questionnaire comprising open-ended questions and free word associations. Overall obedience and disobedience are respectively defined as conformity and non-conformity to regulations, ranging from implicit social norms to explicit formal laws. Authority is multi-faceted and has a central role in orienting obedience and disobedience. Further fundamental determinants of the authority relationship and relevant application of the results are discussed in this paper.

  17. Austrian Transition to Open Access“ 2017–2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer, Bruno

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In December the higher education structural funds project (Hochschulraumstrukturmittelprojekt “Austrian Transition to Open Access (AT2OA“ was authorised by the Austrian Federal Ministry of Science, Research and Economy. The 21 public universities cooperate on this project running from 2017 to 2020 in order to promote open access through concerted measures. Constitutive on OANA’s “suggestions for the implementation of Open Access in Austria” published in 2015 four subprojects have been developed. These subprojects’ main focuses are drafting an expert’s report about the financial impact of a total adjustment to open access on a national and institutional basis, the extension of existing consortium licences with an open access component, establishment of an open access publishing fund as well as the promotion of open access monographs and suitable open access infrastructures.

  18. Asymmetric Mutual Social Perception of Austrians and Germans: A Social Identity Approach Assessing Implicit and Explicit Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Renner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Whereas Austrians tend to perceive Germans as "competent but cold", Germans tend to see Austrians as "incompetent but nice" in the sense of Fiske's Stereotype Content Model. With respect to the unequal distribution of power between Austria and Germany, which outnumbers Austria by approximately the tenfold population, Social Identity Theory (SIT predicts that Austrians will tend to devalue Germans, attempting to preserve their self-esteem and cultural identity, whereas Germans will perceive Austrians more positively. We tested this expectation with N = 31 Austrian and N = 49 German students at an Austrian university. Our hypotheses of asymmetrical mutual attitudes and massive devaluation of Germans by Austrians were confirmed by the Implicit Association Test, whereas on adjective lists as an explicit measure, Austrians described Germans more favourably, obviously out of a desire not to appear prejudiced. The results support SIT and have important implications for the development of Austrian academic education.

  19. Austrian Security Strategy: Need For Reformulation Due To Security Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-14

    mandatory service and volunteer militia officer training, he attended professional officer training at the Theresian Military Academy in Wr. Neustadt...Austrian Security Strategy (ASS) - including an excursus on the European Security Strategy 2015-2020 - the current security situation in Austria and...the European Union (EU), and the parliamentary debate in 2011 and 2013. I have also analyzed the opinions of various security institutes and articles

  20. The Swiss-Austrian Alliance for Mountain Research

    OpenAIRE

    Scheurer, Thomas; Björnsen, Astrid; Borsdorf, Axel; Braun, Valerie; Weingartner, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    Switzerland and Austria are committed to addressing sustainable mountain development in Europe through a joint effort. In June 2013, more than 140 researchers as well as representatives of the 2 countries' funding ministries participated in the “Mountain Days” event in Mittersill, Austria, thereby marking the official launch of the Swiss-Austrian Alliance. The resulting Mittersill Commitment Paper highlights 8 research areas and calls for international cooperation between mountain researchers...

  1. Austrian Households’ Financial Wealth: An Analysis Based on Microeconomic Data

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Beer; Peter Mooslechner; Martin Schürz; Karin Wagner

    2006-01-01

    Microeconomic data on households are providing increasingly important information for many economic policy issues. This study presents the results of a survey conducted by the Oesterreichische Nationalbank on Austrian households’ financial wealth. The descriptive presentation of household financial wealth also covers data on household debt and investment. Household income is shown to have a significant influence on the level of financial assets. The results of logit estimates and a cluster an...

  2. Holocaust Studies in Austrian Elementary and Secondary Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp Mittnik

    2016-01-01

    This article presents arguments in support of teaching about the Holocaust and Nazism in Austria at an early age. To accomplish this, Austrian and German elementary school textbooks were analyzed for the amount of content dealing with the Holocaust and Jews; the results showed that since 1980 the amount of content on the Holocaust increased in Germany, and to a lesser extent in Austria. The article reviews some of the criticism in Europe of the term Holocaust Education and explores some of...

  3. Urbanization and depopulation in the Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batzing, W; Perlik, M; Dekleva, M

    1996-11-01

    Demographic developments in the European Alpine region are analyzed over the period 1870-1990. The region is defined as including parts of Germany, France, Italy, Liechtenstein, Austria, Switzerland, and Slovenia. "Studies of growth, stagnation, decline, commune size, and altitude in almost 6,000 communes are presented on three colored maps.... It is apparent that two highly divergent processes are at work and, accordingly, statistical mean values reveal little of importance. Approximately one-half of Alpine Europe is undergoing general economic and demographic growth and has experienced significant increase in population since the end of the agricultural era. This development has taken place primarily in low-lying valleys and basins and in areas bordering the Alps that have good access to transport routes. Tourism is not as widespread as generally assumed and is usually characterized by a punctate pattern. Only in the western part of the Eastern Alps does tourism account for widespread population growth at higher altitudes; elsewhere the Alps have not been affected by modern development and the economy and population are declining, with some areas in danger of becoming completely abandoned. The results challenge the earlier concept of the Alps as a rural region, once populated by peasants, where tourism now plays a major role." (EXCERPT)

  4. An economics figure of merit in ALPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shatilla, Y.A.

    2000-01-01

    One of the most pressing issues facing the deregulated nuclear electric power industry is its economic competitiveness when compared to other sources of electrical power. Traditionally, finding the optimum loading pattern (LP) that meets all the safety and operational objective functions and at the same time produces the most attractive economical solutions is an iterative process. This is because (a) LP search tools usually lack the capability to generate equilibrium solutions and (b) economics objective functions are hard to include in the search process. In this paper, the Westinghouse Advanced Loading Pattern Search code (ALPS) has been demonstrated to successfully find LPs that meet user-defined operational and safety as well as economics objectives. This has been made possible by the development of TULIP language that allows the integration of external procedures into the search process of the main program, ALPS. In the example given, an economic figure of merit (EFM) has been defined and included via TULIP script into the fuel management optimization problem of a three-loop Westinghouse core operating an 18-month cycle. The LPs found by ALPS exhibit a clear trend of meeting and, in some cases, exceeding the EFM objective function defined for the ALPS search process a priori

  5. The Austrian Research Centers activities in energy risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sdouz, Gert

    1998-01-01

    Among the institutions involved in energy analyses in Austria the risk context is being treated by three different entities: the Energy Consumption Agency, internationally known as EVA, the Federal Environmental Protection Agency, or Urnweltbundesarnt assessing mainly the environmental risks involved and the Austrian Research Centers, working on safety and risk evaluation. The Austrian Research Center Seibersdorf draws form its proficiency in Reactor Safety and Fusion Research, two fields of experience it has been involved in since its foundation, for some 40 years now. Nuclear energy is not well accepted by the Austrian population. Therefore in our country only energy systems with advanced safety level might be accepted in the far future. This means that the development of methods to compare risks is an important task. The characteristics of energy systems featuring advanced safety levels are: A very low hazard potential and a focus on deterministic safety instead of probabilistic safety, meaning to rely on inherently safe physics concepts, confirmed by probabilistic safety evaluation results. This can be achieved by adequate design of fusion reactors, advanced fission reactors and all different renewable sources of energy

  6. Language Management Strategies in Austrian and Slovenian SMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Rižnar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the ELAN study and a substantial body of previous research, a significant amount of business is being lost in the eu due to a lack of language skills. In our article, we analyse how Austrian and Slovenian small and medium-sized enterprises (SMES adopt language management strategies (LMSS. We investigate, by means of a questionnaire sent to Slovenian and Austrian SMES, how aware they are of the elan findings, what language strategies they have adopted and whether the knowledge of English is sufficient for their successful business operations on global markets. The findings show that Slovenian exporting SMES are not completely aware of the benefits a language management strategy could bring to their business operations on foreign markets. In contrast, Austrian exporting SMES are more likely to provide language training for their staff, employ native speakers, and use local agents for their language needs considerably more often, as well as use the services of professional translators and interpreters almost three times more often.

  7. THE FUNCTIONS OF VIENNESE DIALECT IN THE WORKS OF MODERN AUSTRIAN FICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukshis Vadim Andreevich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of definition of linguistic status of the Austrian dialects and their functions in Austrian fiction continues to preserve the academic value. The main peculiarities of Viennese dialect are given, the conclusions of its status among the other Austrian dialects are made in the article, the characteristic features of the functions of the Viennese dialect are given in the works of Austrian fiction. The author of the article proceeds from the position that the Viennese dialect is the important stylistic means and makes the conclusion about its functions in the works of Austrian fiction. Three novels and one story of modern Austrian writers have been selected for the analysis: H. Anderle (The Worthy Funeral. The Mortal Histories, E. Menasse (Vienna, F. Nabl (Edhof, P Campa (The Second Travel. The article studies four functions of Viennese dialect based on the research of the texts of the Austrian fiction works. The analysis based on the utterances of the heroes helped to prove that Austrian writers use the Viennese dialect as 1 means of marking the regional characteristics; 2 means of marking the age; 3 means of marking the social type and 4 means of emotions expression. The research of the speech of the heroes permitted to reveal the most common Viennese words and expressions and demonstrate their role in the texts not only as the means of creating the speech portrait of the heroes but only the markers of the originality of modern Austrian German.

  8. State aid in the Austrian electricity industry law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehulka, J.

    2009-01-01

    The present work deals with the existence of State aid in the Austrian electricity industry and focuses on three selected areas of the Austrian legal system, which are examined for their compatibility with Community law. Subject of the first part of this work is a representation of the article 87 ff Treaty of Rome and its impact on Austrian provisions on the promotion of electricity from renewable energies or on the promotion of cogeneration energy. In this context, the first principles of the European state aid law and in particular the European Court are presented regarding the existence of State aid. Here, the Rsp of the Court in connection with the use of State resources in the Rs PreussenElektra Stardust Marine and Pearle is paid in connection with para-fiscal levies special attention. The evaluation of the Austrian support model is based on PreussenElektra, Stardust Marine and Pearle. Then the system of green electricity production in Austria represented. In addition to the Community law principles (green power directive, frameworks and guidelines for environmental aid) is here in particular the 'Oekostromgesetz' and treated it's novellas. It is an intensive discussion with the Commission's decisions on the compatibility of the green power and CHP funding and the funding of the countries with state aid rules. As part of this analysis is to attempt a classification of the Commission's practice in the Community legal system. The second part of the work deals with the determination of absorbed. System utilization rates and their distribution to the network operator. After a presentation of the Community legislation (EC regulations, the internal electricity market directives) and Rsp of the European Court of Justice (Case ADBHu, Ferring, Altmark Trans) to services of general economic interest is first attempted to determine the presence of these services in the 216 Austrian legislation. Here, the question will be, entrusted with services of general economic

  9. Allanite behaviour during incipient melting in the southern Central Alps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregory, C.J.; Rubatto, D.; Hermann, J.

    2012-01-01

    86 43 84 24 120 91 181 302 260 Dy 134 219 311 363 147 353 80 499 350 712 1570 1190 Ho 16 30 40 48 16 46 9 64 45 89 231 158 Er 28 55 72 87 26 84 14 120 89 165 394 256 Tm 3 5 7 8 2 8 1 12 10 17 31 20 Yb 13 22 32 39 10 40 5 60 55 87 120 89 Lu 1.8 3 4 5 1.3 5 1 7 7 11 10 8 Hf 0.11 0.77 0.70 0.77 0.15 0...... 196 162 198 288 799 Ho 171 196 57 462 420 24 25 21 23 39 114 Er 351 403 120 1180 1030 45 47 40 43 81 232 Tm 36 41 14 152 131 4 4 4 5 9 26 Yb 175 209 87 920 805 24 23 20 33 58 147 Lu 20 25 12 112 99 3 3 3 4 7 17 Hf 0.80 0.75 0.25 0.32 0.24 0.22 0.48 0.43 0.10 0.24 0.18 Ta 0.02 0.34 0.04 0.05 0.05 0...

  10. Glacial isostatic uplift of the European Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mey, Jürgen; Scherler, Dirk; Wickert, Andrew D; Egholm, David L; Tesauro, Magdala; Schildgen, Taylor F; Strecker, Manfred R

    2016-11-10

    Following the last glacial maximum (LGM), the demise of continental ice sheets induced crustal rebound in tectonically stable regions of North America and Scandinavia that is still ongoing. Unlike the ice sheets, the Alpine ice cap developed in an orogen where the measured uplift is potentially attributed to tectonic shortening, lithospheric delamination and unloading due to deglaciation and erosion. Here we show that ∼90% of the geodetically measured rock uplift in the Alps can be explained by the Earth's viscoelastic response to LGM deglaciation. We modelled rock uplift by reconstructing the Alpine ice cap, while accounting for postglacial erosion, sediment deposition and spatial variations in lithospheric rigidity. Clusters of excessive uplift in the Rhône Valley and in the Eastern Alps delineate regions potentially affected by mantle processes, crustal heterogeneity and active tectonics. Our study shows that even small LGM ice caps can dominate present-day rock uplift in tectonically active regions.

  11. Austrian Daily Climate Data Rescue and Quality Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkovic, A.; Lipa, W.; Adler, S.; Albenberger, J.; Lechner, W.; Swietli, R.; Vossberg, I.; Zehetner, S.

    2010-09-01

    Checked climate datasets are a "conditio sine qua non" for all projects that are relevant for environment and climate. In the framework of climate change studies and analysis it is essential to work with quality controlled and trustful data. Furthermore these datasets are used as input for various simulation models. In regard to investigations of extreme events, like strong precipitation periods, drought periods and similar ones we need climate data in high temporal resolution (at least in daily resolution). Because of the historical background - during Second World War the majority of our climate sheets were sent to Berlin, where the historical sheets were destroyed by a bomb attack and so important information got lost - only several climate sheets, mostly duplicates, before 1939 are available and stored in our climate data archive. In 1970 the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics in Vienna started a first attempt to digitize climate data by means of punch cards. With the introduction of a routinely climate data quality control in 1984 we can speak of high-class-checked daily data (finally checked data, quality flag 6). Our group is working on the processing of digitization and quality control of the historical data for the period 1872 to 1983 for 18 years. Since 2007 it was possible to intensify the work (processes) in the framework of an internal project, namely Austrian Climate Data Rescue and Quality Control. The aim of this initiative was - and still is - to supply daily data in an outstanding good and uniform quality. So this project is a kind of pre-project for all scientific projects which are working with daily data. In addition to routine quality checks (that are running since 1984) using the commercial Bull Software we are testing our data with additional open source software, namely ProClim.db. By the use of this spatial and statistical test procedure, the elements air temperature and precipitation - for several sites in Carinthia - could

  12. Crustal structure due to collisional and escape tectonics in the Eastern Alps region based on profiles Alp01 and Alp02 from the ALP 2002 seismic experiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brückl, E.; Bleibinhaus, F.; Gosar, A.; Grad, M.; Guterch, A.; Hrubcová, Pavla; Keller, G. R.; Majdański, M.; Šumanovac, F.; Tiira, T.; Yliniemi, J.; Hegedüs, E.; Thybo, H.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. B6 (2007), B06308/1-B06308/25 ISSN 0148-0227 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SB/630/3/02 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : crustal structure * ALP 2002 seismic experiment * seismic refraction Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.953, year: 2007

  13. Permian high-temperature metamorphism in the Western Alps (NW Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Barbara E.; Manzotti, Paola; von Niederhäusern, Brigitte; Engi, Martin; Darling, James R.; Giuntoli, Francesco; Lanari, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    During the late Palaeozoic, lithospheric thinning in part of the Alpine realm caused high-temperature low-to-medium pressure metamorphism and partial melting in the lower crust. Permian metamorphism and magmatism has extensively been recorded and dated in the Central, Eastern, and Southern Alps. However, Permian metamorphic ages in the Western Alps so far are constrained by very few and sparsely distributed data. The present study fills this gap. We present U/Pb ages of metamorphic zircon from several Adria-derived continental units now situated in the Western Alps, defining a range between 286 and 266 Ma. Trace element thermometry yields temperatures of 580-890 °C from Ti-in-zircon and 630-850 °C from Zr-in-rutile for Permian metamorphic rims. These temperature estimates, together with preserved mineral assemblages (garnet-prismatic sillimanite-biotite-plagioclase-quartz-K-feldspar-rutile), define pervasive upper-amphibolite to granulite facies conditions for Permian metamorphism. U/Pb ages from this study are similar to Permian ages reported for the Ivrea Zone in the Southern Alps and Austroalpine units in the Central and Eastern Alps. Regional comparison across the former Adriatic and European margin reveals a complex pattern of ages reported from late Palaeozoic magmatic and metamorphic rocks (and relics thereof): two late Variscan age groups ( 330 and 300 Ma) are followed seamlessly by a broad range of Permian ages (300-250 Ma). The former are associated with late-orogenic collapse; in samples from this study these are weakly represented. Clearly, dominant is the Permian group, which is related to crustal thinning, hinting to a possible initiation of continental rifting along a passive margin.

  14. Mighty vulture back from near extinction Austrian project breeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-03-02

    Mar 2, 2007 ... Alpine roosts. Today, however, the bone crusher is soaring toward a comeback as the continent's most ambitious – and priciest – wildlife reintroduction project achieves small but biologically significant success. The species was hunted nearly to extinction in the Alps by the start of the 20th century, mainly by ...

  15. The Effects of the Planned High-Speed Rail System on Travel Times and Spatial Development in the European Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Ravazzoli

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the direct effects of introducing high-speed railway lines is a significant reduction in travel times between major cities. This is particularly relevant in mountain areas. It not only makes cities more easily reachable with more sustainable transport systems but can also encourage different travel behavior and reduce environmental pressures on sensitive areas. A comprehensive analysis of the spatiotemporal effects of the introduction of high-speed railways in the Alpine arc has not yet been developed. To help fill this gap, this study uses multidimensional scaling and the geographical information system to illustrate the time–space compression. This term indicates the erosion of spatial and temporal distances in the areas of the Alps directly affected by the new railway lines. Six trans-Alpine high-speed railway lines are analyzed, comparing current and projected travel times by train. A time-based map is created to show the time–space compression in every transversal direction, particularly on the French and the Austrian side of the Alps. Implications in terms of local accessibility are also analyzed, focusing on the Autonomous Province of Bolzano/Bozen-South Tyrol. Finally, the paper discusses the importance of time-based maps for the understanding of sociospatial dynamics and the possible implications for spatial development.

  16. The liberalization of the European energy market from the perspective of the Austrian regional power company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sander, H.

    1999-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the liberalization of the European energy sector from an Austrian perspective, emphasizing its effect on a regional power company (KELAG). The energy market's changing conditions are creating new opportunities for consumers that allow them to optimize their ability to fulfill their power requirements. Decentralized solutions are now just as viable for large industrial customers as the ability to have all energy supplied through the utility network. In addition, partnerships with independent power producers (IPP's) or cooperation between the large customers in energy production can be considered. From a regional perspective, the central management concept of KELAG is the answer to an altered market situation, since this concept created tremendous potential for streamlining the management of energy production and operation of the network. The liberalization of the energy market for large industrial customers in Carinthia's electricity sector was preceded by a series of important decisions. The Verbundgesellschaft combine their generating facilities. In the future the power plants of Draukraft in Carinthia will be supervised and controlled remotely from KELAG's central control unit in Klagenfurt, as a result of which the central control unit becomes the primary energy control for Carinthia. (author)

  17. Religion and suicide risk in lesbian, gay and bisexual Austrians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralovec, Karl; Fartacek, Clemens; Fartacek, Reinhold; Plöderl, Martin

    2014-04-01

    Religion is known to be a protective factor against suicide. However, religiously affiliated sexual minority individuals often report a conflict between religion and sexual identity. Therefore, the protective role of religion against suicide in sexual minority people is unclear. We investigated the effect of religion on suicide risk in a sample of 358 lesbian, gay and bisexual Austrians. Religion was associated with higher scores of internalized homophobia, but with fewer suicide attempts. Our data indicate that religion might be both a risk and a protective factor against suicidality in religiously affiliated sexual minority individuals.

  18. Some remarks on the Austrian radiation protection legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetter, H.

    1979-01-01

    Some of the provisions of the Austrian Radiation Protection Law and Radiation Protection Ordinance differ from those recommended by ICRP and IAEO. This is particularly true for the definition of working conditions, the categorization of radiation areas and the classification of radiation workers. It is suggested that the responsible authorities when considering a revision of the legislation in the light of ICRP 26 and the revised IAEA Basic Safety Standards, also study the desirability of adapting the currently applicable provisions to the universally accepted international norms. (Auth.)

  19. Building positive nature awareness in pupils using the "Rainforest of the Austrians" in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrecht, Margit; Hölzl, Irmgard; Huber, Werner; Weissenhofer, Anton

    2013-04-01

    20 years ago, Michael Schnitzler founded the NGO "Rainforest of the Austrians" to help save one of the most diverse rainforests in Central America, the Esquinas rainforest on the Pacific coast of SW Costa Rica, from being destroyed through logging. In this abstract we present an interdisciplinary upper Austrian school project aiming at building positive awareness in pupils towards rainforest conservation by fund-raising to help purchase endangered forest areas. The acquired rainforest was donated to the Costa Rican government and became part of the National Park "Piedras Blancas". In the following, we present a chronology of events and actions of the school project. We started our rainforest project by face-to-face encounters, letting involved persons speak directly to the pupils. Dr. Huber, coordinator of the tropical rainforest station La Gamba in Costa Rica (www.lagamba.at), together with Dr. Weissenhofer, presented an introductory slide show about the "Rainforest of the Austrians". With rainforest images and sounds in their mind the pupils wrote "trips of a lifetime" stories, thus creating idyllic images of rainforest habitats. Following up on that, we visited the exhibition "Heliconia and Hummingbirds" at the Biology Center in Linz. Reports about the slide show and the exhibition followed. Tropical sites were compared by producing climate graphs of La Gamba, Costa Rica, and Manaus in Brazil. The global distribution and the decrease of rainforests were also analyzed. In biology lessons the symbiosis between plants and animals of the rainforest were worked out by searching the Internet. Flyers with profiles of rainforest animals were produced. We also discussed the ecotourism project "RICANCIE" in Ecuador using fact sheets. "RICANCIE" is a Spanish acronym standing for "Indigenous Community Network of the Upper Napo for Intercultural Exchange and Ecotourism". It was founded in 1993 aiming to improve the quality of life for some 200 indigenous Kichwa families

  20. 4th February 2011 - Austrian Academy of Sciences President H. Denk visiting CMS underground area with Collaboration Spokesperson G. Tonelli, Austrian Academy of Sciences Secretary General A. Suppan, CERN Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Director, High Energy Physics Laboratory, Austrian Academy of Sciences C Fabjan.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    4th February 2011 - Austrian Academy of Sciences President H. Denk visiting CMS underground area with Collaboration Spokesperson G. Tonelli, Austrian Academy of Sciences Secretary General A. Suppan, CERN Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Director, High Energy Physics Laboratory, Austrian Academy of Sciences C Fabjan.

  1. 69 The Multicultural Education in Bucovina during the Austrian Domination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Baltag

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1775, the territory of Bucovina became part of the Habsburg monarchy and it stayed like that for 143 years. All throughout this period when the Romanians lived here next to Ukrainians, Germans, Jews and other nationalities, the Austrian government took into consideration their need for culture, which resulted in the development of a multicultural teaching system. This implied that the languages of teaching in the Bukovinian schools were: Latin, Greek, Romanian, Ukrainian and, more often than not, German. Although the weighty presence of the German language in the academic institutions limited the number of young Romanians in schools, the teaching in German enabled the access of the Bukovinian students to the great European universities from Vienna, Salzburg, Lemberg, Kraków or Prague, before the founding of the Chernivtsi University (1875. Thus, beyond the negative aspects of the separation of this territory from Romania, the Austrian occupation represented an effervescent period from a cultural viewpoint, which lent a specific identity to the teaching system in Bukovina.

  2. The European Alps as an interrupter of the Earth's conductivity structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Halbouni, D.

    2013-07-01

    Joint interpretation of magnetotelluric and geomagnetic depth sounding results in the period range of 10-105 s in the Western European Alps offer new insights into the conductivity structure of the Earth's crust and mantle. This first large scale electromagnetic study in the Alps covers a cross-section from Germany to northern Italy and shows the importance of the alpine mountain chain as an interrupter of continuous conductors. Poor data quality due to the highly crystalline underground is overcome by Remote Reference and Robust Processing techniques and the combination of both electromagnetic methods. 3-D forward modeling reveals on the one hand interrupted dipping crustal conductors with maximum conductances of 4960 S and on the other hand a lithosphere thickening up to 208 km beneath the central Western Alps. Graphite networks arising from Palaeozoic sedimentary deposits are considered to be accountable for the occurrence of high conductivity and the distribution pattern of crustal conductors. The influence of huge sedimentary Molasse basins on the electromagnetic data is suggested to be minor compared with the influence of crustal conductors. Dipping direction (S-SE) and maximum angle (10.1°) of the northern crustal conductor reveal the main thrusting conditions beneath the Helvetic Alps whereas the existence of a crustal conductor in the Briançonnais supports theses about its belonging to the Iberian Peninsula. In conclusion the proposed model arisen from combined 3-D modeling of noise corrected electromagnetic data is able to explain the geophysical influence of various structural features in and around the Western European Alps and serves as a background for further upcoming studies.

  3. The cryogenic photon detection system for the ALPS II experiment. Characterization, optimization and background rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastidon, Noemi Alice Chloe

    2017-01-01

    The search for new fundamental bosons at very low mass is the central objective of the ALPS II experiment which is currently set up at the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY, Hamburg). This experiment follows the light-shining-through-the-wall concept where photons could oscillate into weakly interacting light bosons in front of a wall and back into photons behind the wall, giving the impression that light can shine through a light tight barrier. In this concept, the background-free detection of near-infrared photons is required to fully exploit the sensitivity of the apparatus. The high efficiency single-photon detection in the near-infrared is challenging and requires a cryogenic detector. In this project, a Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) operated below 100mK will be used to detect single photons. This thesis focuses on the characterization and optimization of the ALPS II detector system including an Adiabatic Demagnetisation Refrigerator (ADR) with its two-stage pulse-tube cooler, two TES detectors and their Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) read-out system. Stability of the detection system over time is a priority in the ALPS II experiment. It is in this context that the cooling system has been subjected to many upgrades. In the framework of this thesis, the cooling setup has been studied in detail in order to optimize its cooling performances. Furthermore, the stability of the detector has been studied according to various criteria. Other essential parameters of the ALPS II experiment are its detection efficiency and its background rate. Indeed, the sensitivity of the experiment directly depends on these two characteristics. Both elements have been studied in depth in order to define if the chosen TES detector will meet ALPS IIc specifications.

  4. The cryogenic photon detection system for the ALPS II experiment. Characterization, optimization and background rejection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastidon, Noemi Alice Chloe

    2017-01-12

    The search for new fundamental bosons at very low mass is the central objective of the ALPS II experiment which is currently set up at the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY, Hamburg). This experiment follows the light-shining-through-the-wall concept where photons could oscillate into weakly interacting light bosons in front of a wall and back into photons behind the wall, giving the impression that light can shine through a light tight barrier. In this concept, the background-free detection of near-infrared photons is required to fully exploit the sensitivity of the apparatus. The high efficiency single-photon detection in the near-infrared is challenging and requires a cryogenic detector. In this project, a Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) operated below 100mK will be used to detect single photons. This thesis focuses on the characterization and optimization of the ALPS II detector system including an Adiabatic Demagnetisation Refrigerator (ADR) with its two-stage pulse-tube cooler, two TES detectors and their Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) read-out system. Stability of the detection system over time is a priority in the ALPS II experiment. It is in this context that the cooling system has been subjected to many upgrades. In the framework of this thesis, the cooling setup has been studied in detail in order to optimize its cooling performances. Furthermore, the stability of the detector has been studied according to various criteria. Other essential parameters of the ALPS II experiment are its detection efficiency and its background rate. Indeed, the sensitivity of the experiment directly depends on these two characteristics. Both elements have been studied in depth in order to define if the chosen TES detector will meet ALPS IIc specifications.

  5. Information systems for administration, clinical documentation and quality assurance in an Austrian disease management programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Peter; Truskaller, Thomas; Rakovac, Ivo; Bruner, Fritz; Zanettin, Dominik; Pieber, Thomas R

    2009-01-01

    5.9% of the Austrian population is affected by diabetes mellitus. Disease Management is a structured treatment approach that is suitable for application to the diabetes mellitus area and often is supported by information technology. This article describes the information systems developed and implemented in the Austrian disease management programme for type 2 diabetes. Several workflows for administration as well as for clinical documentation have been implemented utilizing the Austrian e-Health infrastructure. De-identified clinical data is available for creating feedback reports for providers and programme evaluation.

  6. Meeting blindly… Is Austrian economics useful for dynamic capabilities theory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Shastitko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper relates competition studies and views on competition policy within Austrian economics to the dynamic capabilities theory. The idea of interacting research programs in economics is used to provide the frame for reflecting on particular issues of competition, on the one hand, and (1 ignorance, (2 knowledge (including tacit knowledge, (3 rationality, (4 equilibrium, (5 innovation, (6 entrepreneurship, and (7 monopoly, on the other hand. Unlike the majority of previous studies, these issues are discussed here mainly through the lens of new institutional economics. Williamson's three-level scheme is used to explain opportunities and constraints for mutually enriching exchange of concepts between different but close approaches in economic research. This paper shows that there are important interconnections and complementarities despite significant differences in objects of study and weak mutual flows of ideas and concepts.

  7. 64th Annual Meeting of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The 64th Annual Meeting of the Austrian physical society, including a special topical Energy Day. was held at the Echophysics – European Centre for the History of Physics, Schloss Pöllau 1, 8225 Pöllau, Austria. The plenary sessions gave an overview of the present status of research in quantum mechanics, particle physics and solid state physics.The topical sessions were dedicated to: nuclear and particle physics; atoms, molecules, quantum optics and plasmas; solid state physics and research with neutron and synchrotron radiation; history of physics; surfaces, interfaces and thin films; nanostructures; fundamental interactions; gravity, quantum chromodynamics; particle theory and collider physics; detectors and methods. Those contributions which are in the INIS subject scope are indexed individually

  8. 51. Annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberhummer, H.

    2001-01-01

    The 51th Symposium of the Austrian Physical Society was held from 17-21 September 2001 at the Technical University of Vienna (Austria). The topics covered deal with: energy (greenhouse effect, climatic change, environment protection, energy system transformation, innovative energy technologies), neutrons and synchrotron radiation, quantum mechanics, microscopy, accelerator-driven systems, physics aspects of radiotherapy, nano world, micro cosmos, modern physics, life in the universe, x-ray fluorescence, heavy-ion accelerator mass spectrometry, acoustics, atomic-, molecular- and plasma physics, solid-state physics, nuclear and particle physics, medical-, bio-and environmental physics, quantum electronics, electrodynamics and optics. Those contributions which are in the INIS subject scope are indexed separately. (nevyjel)

  9. A Thought Experiment Comparing Austrian and Keynesian Stimulus Packages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir Kraus

    Full Text Available Essentially, there are two competing views of how to overcome an economy-wide recession/depression. The Austrian view understands the free-play of competition as the most potent means to overcome the short-run mismatch between an excessive boom-level of nominal wages/prices and depressed crisis-level volume of aggregate spending. In the Keynesian view, the disastrous mismatch between desired saving and planned investment inherent in capitalist economies requires the government to step in and take up the burden of spending to infuse the lacking demand for products and labor.The thought experiment presented in the paper is designed to provide the reader with a direct comparison of major analytical claims of the two competing approaches to assess the ability of each of the two to affect, positively or negatively, employment, capital accumulation, and the general standard of living/real wages.

  10. A fractal comparison of real and Austrian business cycle models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Robert F.

    2010-06-01

    Rescaled range and power spectral density analysis are applied to examine a diverse set of macromonetary data for fractal character and stochastic dependence. Fractal statistics are used to evaluate two competing models of the business cycle, Austrian business cycle theory and real business cycle theory. Strong evidence is found for antipersistent stochastic dependence in transactions money (M1) and components of the monetary aggregates most directly concerned with transactions, which suggests an activist monetary policy. Savings assets exhibit persistent long memory, as do those monetary aggregates which include savings assets, such as savings money (M2), M2 minus small time deposits, and money of zero maturity (MZM). Virtually all measures of economic activity display antipersistence, and this finding is invariant to whether the measures are adjusted for inflation, including real gross domestic product, real consumption expenditures, real fixed private investment, and labor productivity. This strongly disconfirms real business cycle theory.

  11. Steady-State ALPS for Real-Valued Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornby, Gregory S.

    2009-01-01

    The two objectives of this paper are to describe a steady-state version of the Age-Layered Population Structure (ALPS) Evolutionary Algorithm (EA) and to compare it against other GAs on real-valued problems. Motivation for this work comes from our previous success in demonstrating that a generational version of ALPS greatly improves search performance on a Genetic Programming problem. In making steady-state ALPS some modifications were made to the method for calculating age and the method for moving individuals up layers. To demonstrate that ALPS works well on real-valued problems we compare it against CMA-ES and Differential Evolution (DE) on five challenging, real-valued functions and on one real-world problem. While CMA-ES and DE outperform ALPS on the two unimodal test functions, ALPS is much better on the three multimodal test problems and on the real-world problem. Further examination shows that, unlike the other GAs, ALPS maintains a genotypically diverse population throughout the entire search process. These findings strongly suggest that the ALPS paradigm is better able to avoid premature convergence then the other GAs.

  12. Varved sediments of Lake Oeschinen, NW Alps: filling the gap in the flood frequency-precipitation relationship for the last millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, Benjamin; Szidat, Sönke; Grosjean, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The global climate is warming, which is leading to changes in the hydrological cycle. What are the impacts of these climatic changes on the occurrence and magnitude of extreme flood events? Are these changes simultaneous or independent? These are key questions for future flood-risk predictions. In Europe, regional climate models do not show robust results for the future occurrence of precipitation extremes, which is mainly due to the difficulty in resolving precipitation events and the limited temporal coverage of instrumental data. To overcome this issue, considerable effort has been put forward by the paleoclimate community to produce millennial-long flood proxy records from natural archives. This has led to a more comprehensive understanding of flood events in relation to climate variability. However, while there is an increased consensus in the long-term flood-temperature relationship, still very little is known about the role of precipitation changes on flood frequency and magnitude. This is largely due to the lack of long-term and high-quality precipitation records. Here we present a millennial-long precipitation reconstruction together with a flood-frequency record obtained from the same natural paleoclimate archive. This allows, for the first time, the direct comparison between the two climate variables in the Alps. We used the varved (annually laminated) sediments of proglacial Lake Oeschinen (1580 m a.s.l., NW European Alps) to reconstruct warm season (MJJA) precipitation and summer flood frequency back to AD 884. Our results support recent findings from an increasing number of studies in the Swiss, German, French and Austrian Alps showing that floods were consistently more frequent during cool periods over the last Millennium. While the relationship between flood frequency and inferred moist climate has remained speculative, our precipitation reconstruction allows for a direct comparison and shows that flood frequency also increased during wetter

  13. SARSTEINIA BABAI N. GEN., N. SP., A NEW PROBLEMATIC SPONGE (INOZOA? FROM THE LATE JURASSIC OF THE NORTHERN CALCAREOUS ALPS, AUSTRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FELIX SCHLAGINTWEIT

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The new problematic sponge Sarsteinia babai n. gen., n. sp. is described from the Kimmeridgian to Tithonian Plassen and Lärchberg Formations of the Northern Calcareous Alps of Austria. The type-locality is the Sarsteinalm north of Mount Hoher Sarstein in the Austrian Salzkammergut, other findings come from Mount Sandling, Mount Jainzen, Mount Trisselwand and the Litzlkogel-Gerhardstein-complex west of Lofer. Most findings can be attributed to a fore-reef to upper slope facies or slope-of-toe breccias, small fragments can occasionally also be found in the back-reef facies. The suprageneric systematic position of the new sponge is unknown so far since it shows morphological characteristics known from Inozoa but also from "stromatoporoids".

  14. Cultures et politiques dans les Alpes contemporaines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Debarbieux

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Plus que jamais, l’espace alpin est marqué par le déploiement de flux toujours plus variés, toujours plus puissants, et symétriquement par la multiplication d’initiatives destinées à conforter ou à régénérer l’idée de localité. Quelles spatialités et quelles territorialités travaillent les populations alpines aujourd’hui ? Quelles sont les figures contemporaines de la circulation et des flux, et les figures complémentaires de l’ancrage et de la refondation territoriale ? Voici les questions que cet essai se propose de développer. Ce texte reprend le contenu d’une conférence donnée dans le cadre de la célébration du centenaire de l’Institut de Géographie Alpine. Cette conférence, comme les autres données à cette occasion, avait adopté une forme libre dressant un bilan et des perspectives de la situation alpine. La trace écrite adoptée ici prend alors logiquement la forme d’un essai.More than ever before, the Alps are affected by increasingly varied and powerful flows and equally by the multiplication of initiatives designed to strengthen or regenerate the idea of “locality” (place. What spatialities and what territorialities activate the populations of the Alps today? What are the contemporary figures relating to circulation and flows and the complementary figures concerning spatial “anchoring” or fixity and new territorial foundations? These are the questions that this essay, proposes to develop. This text takes another look at the subject of a lecture given as part of celebrations to mark the centenary of the Institut de Géographie Alpine. This lecture, like the others given on this occasion, adopted a free format, presenting a report on the current situation in the Alps and prospects for the future. The written format adopted here logically takes the form of an essay. Readers looking for detailed illustrations and references are referred to three scientific articles published by the same

  15. Between resentment and aid: German and Austrian psychiatrist and neurologist refugees in Great Britain since 1933.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenau, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    This article is a historiographical exploration of the experiences that German and Austrian émigré psychiatrists and neurologists made in Great Britain since 1933, after the Nazi Governments in Central Europe had ousted them from their positions. When placing these occurrences in a wider historiographical perspective, the in-depth analysis provided here also describes the living and working conditions of the refugee neuroscientists on the British Isles. In particular, it looks at the very elements and issues that influenced the international forced migration of physicians and psychiatrists during the 1930s and 1940s. Only a fraction of refugee neuroscientists had however been admitted to Britain. Those lucky ones were assisted by a number of charitable, local, and academic organizations. This article investigates the rather lethargic attitude of the British government and medical circles towards German-speaking Jewish refugee neuroscientists who wished to escape Nazi Germany. It will also analyze the help that those refugees received from the academic establishment and British Jewish organizations, while likewise examining the level and extent of the relationship between social and scientific resentments in Great Britain. A special consideration will be given to the aid programs that had already began in the first year after the Nazis had seized power in Germany, with the foundation of the British Assistance Council by Sir William Henry Beveridge (1879-1963) in 1933.

  16. Galaxy Clusters as Tele-ALP-scopes

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Axion-like particles have good theoretical motivation and are characterized by conversion to photons in astrophysical magnetic fields. Galaxy clusters are the most efficient convertors of axion-like particles to photons in the universe. I discuss the physics and phenomenology of ALPs, and describe their astrophysical implications, with particular reference to the recently observed 3.5 keV X-ray line that is a candidate for a dark matter decay line. I discuss interpretations of this line in terms of dark matter decaying to an axion-like particle, that then converts to a photon in cluster magnetic fields, and describe the compatibility of this scenario with data and the different phenomenology for cool-core and non-cool-core clusters.

  17. Occupational radiation exposure in upper Austrian water supplies and Spas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringer, W.; Simader, M.; Bernreiter, M.; Aspek, W.; Kaineder, H.

    2006-01-01

    The Council Directive 96/29/EURATOM lays down the basic safety standards for the protection of the workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionising radiation, including natural radiation. Based on the directive and on the corresponding Austrian legislation a comprehensive study was conducted to determine the occupational radiation exposure in Upper Austrian water supplies and spas. The study comprises 45 water supplies and 3 spas, one of them being a radon spa. Most measurements taken were to determine the radon concentration in air at different workplaces (n = 184), but also measurements of the dose rate at dehumidifiers (n = 7) and gamma spectrometric measurements of back washing water (n = 4) were conducted. To determine the maximum occupational radon exposure in a water supply measurements were carried out in all water purification buildings and in at least half o f the drinking water reservoirs of the water supply. The results were combined with the respective working times in these locations (these data having been collected by means of a questionnaire). Where the calculated exposure was greater than 1 MBq h/m then all drinking water reservoirs of the concerned water suppl y were measured for their radon concentration to ensure a reliable assessment of the exposure. The results show that the radon concentrations in the water supplies were lower as expected, being in 55% of all measurement sites below 1000 Bq/m in 91% below 5000 Bq/m and with a maximum value of 38700 Bq/m.This leads to exposures that are below 2 MBq h/m (corresponding to approx. 6 mSv/a) in 42 water supplies. However, for the remaining three water supplies maximal occupational exposures due to radon of 2.8 MBq h/m (∼ 10 mSv/a), 15 MBq h/m (∼ 50 mSv/a), and 17 MBq h/m ( ∼ 56 mSv/a), respectively, were determined. In these water supplies remediation measures were proposed, based mainly on improved ventilation of and/or reduction of working time in the building

  18. Potentials to mitigate climate change using biochar - the Austrian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckman, Viktor J.; Klinglmüller, Michaela; Liu, Jay; Uzun, Basak B.; Varol, Esin A.

    2015-04-01

    Biomass utilization is seen as one of various promising strategies to reduce additional carbon emissions. A recent project on potentials of biochar to mitigate climate change (FOREBIOM) goes even a step further towards bioenergy in combination of CCS or "BECS" and tries to assess the current potentials, from sustainable biomass availability to biochar amendment in soils, including the identification of potential disadvantages and current research needs. The current report represents an outcome of the 1st FOREBIOM Workshop held in Vienna in April, 2013 and tries to characterize the Austrian perspective of biochar for climate change mitigation. The survey shows that for a widespread utilization of biochar in climate change mitigation strategies, still a number of obstacles have to be overcome. There are concerns regarding production and application costs, contamination and health issues for both producers and customers besides a fragmentary knowledge about biochar-soil interactions specifically in terms of long-term behavior, biochar stability and the effects on nutrient cycles. However, there are a number of positive examples showing that biochar indeed has the potential to sequester large amounts of carbon while improving soil properties and subsequently leading to a secondary carbon sink via rising soil productivity. Diversification, cascadic utilization and purpose designed biochar production are key strategies overcoming initial concerns, especially regarding economic aspects. A theoretical scenario calculation showed that relatively small amounts of biomass that is currently utilized for energy can reduce the gap between Austria's current GHG emissions and the Kyoto target by about 30% if biomass residues are pyrolized and biochar subsequently used as soil amendment. However, by using a more conservative approach that is representing the aims of the underlying FOREBIOM project (assuming that 10% of the annual biomass increment from forests is used for biochar

  19. First experiences with NORM regulations in the Austrian legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauke, Michael; Katzlberger, C.; Haider, W.; Ringer, W.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: This paper gives a brief overview of important aspects of the recently implemented NORM ordinance in the Austrian Radiation Protection Legislation. It describes first experiences from pilot studies and dose assessments in this field. The field of application of this ordinance is defined by a list of work activities which might cause a significant increase in the exposure of workers and of members of the public. This list includes work activities, which potentially increase the exposure due to radon or uranium, thorium and their progenies and work activities, where residues with elevated levels of natural radionuclides may lead to a significant increase in the exposure of workers and the public. The first level of a dose assessment is the determination of activity concentrations in materials. It is assumed that the dose of workers does not exceed 1 mSv per year, if the activity concentrations of natural radionuclides are below 1 Bq/g. A notification of the workplace to the radiation protection authority is sufficient in this case. Otherwise a detailed dose assessment considering all relevant exposure pathways has to be performed as well as radiation protection measures and organisational measures, if needed. If the results of the dose assessment show higher levels than 6 mSv per year, radiation protection measures like personal dosimeters and periodical medical examination and reporting to the radiation protection authority are obligatory. A similar dose assessment procedure has to be applied for residues. The residues are allowed to be disposed as conventional waste, as long as the dose assessment shows a dose lower than 1 mSv per year. Otherwise the residues have to be treated as radioactive waste. Only accredited or certified institutions may perform authorised dose assessments. The Austrian Agency for Food and Health Safety performed pilot studies in this field for getting more experience in the field of dose assessment and to get an overview of the

  20. High-resolution multitemporal measurement of rockglacier dynamics and periglacial sediment storage in the eastern Alps, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusik, Jana-Marie; Haas, Florian; Heckmann, Tobias; Hilger, Ludwig; Neugirg, Fabian; Leopold, Matthias; Becht, Michael

    2013-04-01

    High alpine environments are subject to rapid change due to melting glaciers and permafrost. As a consequence, rockwalls and moraines experience destabilization and increased mobilization of sediment. The work presented here is part of the joint project PROSA (High-resolution measurements of morphodynamics in rapidly changing PROglacial Systems of the Alps) which deals with the calculation and quantification of the sediment budget for an alpine catchment situated in the Kaunertal, Austrian Alps. Rockglaciers are frequently appearing landforms in the Kaunertal and represent large sediment storages. Usually the sediment flux of rockglaciers is rather small, depending on their activity status. All activity forms of rockglaciers (active, inactive and relict) are present in the catchment area. Besides the highly active and well-known Ölgrube rockglacier, this work deals especially with the examination of the Riffeltal rockglacier which is situated on the opposite valley side. The activity status of the Riffeltal rockglacier is assessed and compared to the Ölgrube rockglacier with respect to the local parameters aspect, altitude, existence/absence of glaciers, geology and catchment area. Furthermore sediment volumes of both rockglaciers, their rates of movement and therefore their contribution to the sediment budget of the Kaunertal-catchment area is estimated. The internal structure of the Riffeltal rockglacier was inferred from geophysical measurements (refraction seismics, ground penetrating radar and electrical resistivity tomography). Temperature loggers were placed on and around the rockglacier before the first snowfall to measure the bottom temperature of snowcover (BTS) once per hour during winter, and BTS measurements will be performed with a probe in February, March and April to infer permafrost probability. Rockglacier dynamics are identified with the analysis of multitemporal orthophotos and digital elevation models, derived from high-resolution airborne

  1. Cornerstones of the Austrian radon risk communication strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunte, A.; Ringer, W.

    2015-01-01

    On behalf of the Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management (BMLFUW), the National Radon Centre of Austria developed the National Radon Risk Communication Strategy. The superior goal is the reduction of the radon exposure of Austrian citizens as well as the reduction of radon-related lung cancer deaths. Austria, like many other countries, follows the approach to raise awareness and to inform the public to achieve this goal. The presented strategy deals with the question of how radon protection issues can be communicated to the public, existing fears can be reduced and affected people can be motivated to take action (perform a radon test, if necessary, mitigate or install preventive measures in new buildings). The cornerstones of the National Radon Risk Communication Strategy can be summarized as follows: - Definition of communication goals - Identification and categorization of target groups - Development of specific key messages for each of the target groups - Determination of communication channels and assessment of their efficiency - Integration of the radon issue in education and training - Cooperation with relevant organizations and platforms. The communication objectives, target groups and communication paths (and their evaluation) will be discussed during the presentation in detail.

  2. Primary productivity and climate change in Austrian lowland rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoboli, Ottavia; Schilling, Katerina; Ludwig, Anna-Lena; Kreuzinger, Norbert; Zessner, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    There is increasing evidence of water temperature being a key controlling factor of stream ecosystem metabolism. Although the focus of research currently lies on carbon emissions from fluvial networks and their potential role as positive climate feedback, it is also important to estimate the risk of eutrophication streams will be exposed to in the future. In this work, a methodological approach is developed to create a scientific basis for such assessment and is applied to two Austrian lowland rivers with significantly different characteristics. Gross primary productivity (GPP) is determined through the open diel oxygen method and its temperature dependence is quantified based on the metabolic theory of ecology. This relationship is combined with the outcomes of a climate change scenario obtained through a novel integrated modelling framework. Results indicate that in both rivers, a 1.5°C warming would provoke an increase of GPP of 7-9% and that such an increase would not be limited by nutrient availability. The results further suggest that the situation for the relatively shallow river might be more critical, given that its GPP values in summer are five times higher than in the deeper murky river.

  3. Holocaust Studies in Austrian Elementary and Secondary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Mittnik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents arguments in support of teaching about the Holocaust and Nazism in Austria at an early age. To accomplish this, Austrian and German elementary school textbooks were analyzed for the amount of content dealing with the Holocaust and Jews; the results showed that since 1980 the amount of content on the Holocaust increased in Germany, and to a lesser extent in Austria. The article reviews some of the criticism in Europe of the term Holocaust Education and explores some of arguments about why that is. The author argues that moral education and teaching of Human Rights are important components of, but ought not be the main goal of teaching about the Holocaust. The role of Austria after World War II, and exploration of the so called victim myth, prevalent until the 1990s are important to understanding history and to how history textbooks were created. After a discussion of how the Holocaust can be taught to elementary and early secondary school aged children, some suggestions are made about approaches to teaching the Holocaust to students in these age groups.

  4. Structures and perspectives of the Austrian energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlgemut, N.

    1992-03-01

    The technical tools for projecting future energy demand can be grouped into two broad categories: Firstly, time series or cross section data based econometric models which contain information about customers' past behavior and thus enable to judge the causal effects of economic factors like incomes and prices on energy demand (passive forecasting). Secondly, structural simulation models which indicate how energy services transform to flows of useful, final and primary energy. These models enable to estimate the technical potential of improving the energy application and energy transformation systems (active scenario approach). Comparison of the two approaches with respect to projections for future energy demand yields that, typically, in the short run of econometric approach will dominate the structural simulation model. In the long run, however, this relation will be reversed. The econometric models suffer lack of technical information necessary to describe the demand for energy. The structural simulation model enables an incorporation of technical factors like efficiencies and fuel shares. An application of the structural model is a simulation run describing a scenario in order to reduce the Austrian CO 2 -emissions according to the recommendations of the conference of Toronto

  5. Cs-137 transfer into plants from contaminated Austrian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerzabek, M.H.; Ullah, S.M.; Mueck, K.

    1989-01-01

    In Austria, the activity deposit per square meter due to the Chernobyl reactor accident ranges between 740 Bq in the northeastern part of Lower Austria and 90761 Bq in Upper Austria. The resulting high Cs-137 concentrations in the Austrian soils make soil to plant transfer studies desireable. Another question, the present work deals with, is to see the influence of K-, Mg- and NH 4 NO 3 - applications on the Cs plant uptake. Pot experiments with two contaminated brown soils and a chernozem were conducted. The following mean Cs- transfer factors (FW/DW) were obtained: barley (grains: 0,00094; straw: 0,009), corn (grains: 0,0028; straw: 0,0057), rye (grains: 0,020; straw: 0,048) and endive (0,0028). The transfer factors were hardly influenced by potassium- and magnesium- applications, due to the high clay contents of the soils and the adequate autochthonous supply with potassium and magnesium. NH 4 NO 3 - treatments increased the Cs-uptake into rye (grains and straw) distinctly. 13 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs. (Author)

  6. 52. Annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippitsch, M.

    2002-01-01

    The 52th Symposium of the Austrian Physical Society was held from 23.-26. September 2002 at the Montan University of Leoben (Austria). The papers presented were organized under the following sessions: main session (intermetallic materials, nanostructures as sensors, volcanic products as dating materials); Fritz-Kohlrausch-price 2002 (electronic structure and charge transfer in doped single-walled carbon nanotubes), Max-Auwaerter-price 2002 ( growth phenomena of thin overlayers on semiconductor surfaces), Viktor-Hess-price 2002 (analysis of rare Ke4 - decays), Roman-Ulrich-Sexl-price 2002 (experienced physics); acoustics; atomic-, molecular- and plasma physics (plasma ion mass spectrometers, proton-transfer-reaction-mass-spectrometry, radiation damage, electron-molecule interactions, decay); solid physics (nanoopticcs, nanocrystalline magnetic materials, nanostructure, nanoelectronics); nuclear and particle physics (CP-violations, neutral kaons, quark-antiquark systems, QCD, kaonic atoms spectroscopy, hadronic decay, long-lived radionuclides); medical-, bio-and environmental physics (biological radiation damage, photons therapy, Med-AUSTRON, doses rate, endovascular brachytherapy); physics-industry-energy (ski-simulation, acoustic surface wave); neutrons and synchrotron radiation physics (neutron quantum interferometry, AUSTRON, synchrotron-induced x-ray analysis); polymer physics(micro-Raman spectroscopy, x-ray analysis); quantum electronics, electrodynamics and optics (solid-state lasers, doped lasers, quantum purification and teleportation, Bose-Einstein condensates, quantum optics, Talbot-Lau interferometry, neutron quantum phases) and two poster sessions with topics dealing with the subjects above mentioned. Those contributions which are in the INIS subject scope are indexed separately. (nevyjel)

  7. Rock glacier inventory, Hautes Alpes Calcaires, Switzerland, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hautes Alpes Calcaires is a limestone range in the northern part of the Rhone Valley (Switzerland). It is characterized by a transitional climate between the wet...

  8. Western Italian Alps Monthly Snowfall and Snow Cover Duration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of snow observations for 18 stations in the western Italian Alps. Two types of data are included: monthly snowfall amounts and monthly snow...

  9. Stars in the Silurian sky: Echinoderm holdfasts from the Carnic Alps, Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferretti, A.; Ausich, W.I.; Corradini, C.; Corriga, M.G.; Schoenlaub, H.P.

    2016-07-01

    A small collection of echinoderm holdfasts from the Ludlow Cardiola Formation of the Carnic Alps (Austria) contains a wide range of morphologies as a response of environmental adaptation. In general, the holdfasts have a globous and massive dome-like profile with several processes arranged in a sub-radial disposition, so to create a sort of ‘star-like’ outline. A small central depression is common but not present on all specimens. The distinctive holdfasts are preserved in an iron-rich phase, documenting a substitution that has also affected other non-echinoderm calcareous material. (Author)

  10. ALP and MLP distribution during myofibrillogenesis in cultured cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, James R; Pomiès, Pascal; Auffray, Charles; Beckerle, Mary C

    2003-03-01

    The Z-line is a multifunctional macromolecular complex that anchors sarcomeric actin filaments, mediates interactions with intermediate filaments and costameres, and recruits signaling molecules. Antiparallel alpha-actinin homodimers, present at Z-lines, cross-link overlapping actin filaments and also bind other cytoskeletal and signaling elements. Two LIM domain containing proteins, alpha-actinin associated LIM protein (ALP) and muscle LIM protein (MLP), interact with alpha-actinin, distribute in vivo to Z-lines or costameres, respectively, and, when absent, are associated with heart disease. Here we describe the behavior of ALP and MLP during myofibrillogenesis in cultured embryonic chick cardiomyocytes. As myofibrils develop, ALP and MLP are observed in distinct distribution patterns in the cell. ALP is coincident with alpha-actinin from the first stage of myofibrillogenesis and co-distributes with alpha-actinin to Z-lines and intercalated discs in mature myofibrils. Interestingly, we also demonstrate using ALP-GFP transfection experiments and an in vitro binding assay that the ALP-alpha-actinin binding interaction is not required to target ALP to the Z-line. In contrast, MLP localization is not co-incident with that of alpha-actinin until late stages of myofibrillogenesis; however, it is present in premyofibrils and nascent myofibrils prior to the incorporation of other costameric components such as vinculin, vimentin, or desmin. Our observations support the view that ALP function is required specifically at actin anchorage sites. The subcellular distribution pattern of MLP during myofibrillogenesis suggests that it functions during differentiation prior to the establishment of costameres. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. What did we learn from the Austrian radon project?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedmann, H.

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 40000 measurements of indoor radon concentrations were performed in randomly selected homes during the Austrian Radon Project. These measurements were carried out by using long-term measuring devices (SSNTD and Electret detectors) and short-term charcoal detectors with liquid scintillation counting as the method of analysis. In addition to the equilibrium factor, soil gas measurements and quasi-continuous indoor measurements, parallel-measurements with different detector systems in randomly selected homes were also performed. Very different results were occasionally obtained for one and the same room at the same time. This was so not only when comparing the long-term and short-term measuring devices; actually, different long-term detector systems also often showed significant discrepancies in results, although all detector systems had been carefully calibrated and tested in laboratories. The essential conclusion was that during a longer exposure in randomly selected homes, the detectors may be moved, opened, or handled in other unfavourable ways which introduce additional uncertainties in the measuring results. The aim of the Austrian Radon Project was to estimate the radon risk for geographic areas (municipalities). This task is different from the evaluation of the mean radon concentration in a single home. Generally, while long-term measurements (a year or even longer) are necessary to get reliable results for a particular house, this is not so where only the mean indoor radon concentrations for an area are of interest. Observed indoor radon concentrations give information about the actual radon exposures of the inhabitants but not about the radon risk from the ground. The house type, the way the house is constructed, the storey where people live, and some living patterns (ventilation rate etc.) modify the geological risk significantly, although it is the geological situation that has to be primarily taken into account when planning and constructing

  12. [Current incidence of accidents on Austrian ski slopes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedl, G; Philippe, M; Sommersacher, R; Dünnwald, T; Kopp, M; Burtscher, M

    2014-12-01

    Alpine skiing and snowboarding are the most popular winter sports. These sports are also associated with a certain injury risk which, however, has steadily decreased during the past decades. During the winter season 2002/2003 the last large survey on ski injuries in Austria was performed. Among others, modern skiing equipment and optimized slope preparation may impact on the injury risk. We hypothesise that these changes may have led to a further decrease in ski injuries during the past decade. In the winter season 2012/2013, skiing injuries were recorded in 26 Austrian ski areas. Data were collected from rescue personnel on ski slopes and by physicians in the hospital or doctors practice with the help of a questionnaire. A total of 7325 injured skiers and snowboarders (age: 34.8 ± 17.8 years) were recorded (49 % males and 51 % females; 80 % skiers, 14 % snowboarders, 6 % others). The most frequent causes of injury were self-inflicted falls (87 %) and collisions with other skiers/snowboarders (8 %). Most affected injury locations among skiers were the knee (41 %; predominantly in female skiers, > 50 %), shoulder/back (18 %) and arms (10 %). Most affected injury locations among snowboarders were arms (38 %) and shoulder/back (23 %). Head injuries were found at the same frequency (8 %) in skiers and snowboarders. The calculated injury rate was about 0.6 injuries per 1000 skier days and has decreased by more than 50 % during the past decade. Modern skiing equipment and optimised slope preparation may be at least partly responsible for the decreased injury risk on ski slopes which is supported by the observation of a reduced falling frequency. Future preventive measures should focus on a reduction of knee injuries in female skiers. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. 5th Austrian Hungarian workshop on celestial mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süli, Áron

    2011-06-01

    The 5th Hungarian-Austrian Workshop on Celestial Mechanics took place from 9th until the 10th of April 2010 in Vienna, Austria. The workshop was held in the Institute for Astronomy of Vienna University. From the Eötvös University and from the host institute experts and PhD students gathered together to discuss the challenges and new results of the actual problems of celestial mechanics. The workshop was held in the meeting room at the Sternwarte of the Vienna University located in a magnificent park in the heart of Vienna. Following the themes of the four previous events the focus for this workshop ranged from the Trojan problem, dynamics in binary star systems and exoplanetray systems. We were pleased to acknowledge the support of the host university. The talks were characterized by a large spectrum, which is typical of the workshops on celestial mechanics. Several talks discussed different aspects of the trojan problem, such as the three Trojan Problem, dynamics of trojan-like planets in binary stars, the frequencies of their motion around the triangular lagrangian points, etc. Several speakers focused on the formation of planetary systems and on the field of exoplanetary systems, like exoplanetary systems in higher order mean motion resonances, formation of planets in binary systems, stability of exomoons etc. Some of the presentation used sophisticated mathematical tools in order to understand mean motion resonances, the Sitnikov problem applying the KAM and the Nekhoroshev theorem. The theme of a number of talks was the motion of Solar System bodies: dynamics of the newly discovered moons of Pluto and of near-Earth asteroids. General problems were also addressed, among others chaos in Hamiltonian systems, adaptive Lie-integration method and iterative solution approximation to the generalised Sitnikov problem.

  14. Occupational accidents with mowing machines in Austrian agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kogler

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The number of recognized accidents during agricultural work is still very high in Austria. In the years 2008 to 2009, there occurred 84 approved work accidents with mowing machines. The main causes of accidents were the loss of control of machines, transportations or conveyances, hand tools, objects or animals. In the literature, numerous studies of general agricultural and forestry accident situations are available. Detailed studies on specific types of agricultural machines, which describe concrete circumstances and causes of accidents, are in limited numbers. The accident database from the General Accident Insurance Institution and the Austrian Social Insurance Institution of Farmers, with personal and accidental data information about mowing machine accidents, were analyzed. The results showed that most accidents occurred on mixed agricultural farms (68%. The majority of the injured persons were male (86%, over 40-years-old (86% with an agricultural or forestry education (91%. The most common accidents occurred in the summer months (69% and on afternoons during the working week (79%. The majority of accidents were caused by contact with the machine (55% and the loss of control (73% during their operation (60% and harvesting work (63%. The most frequently injuries were wounds, fractures and superficial injuries (81% to the upper and lower extremities (66%. The results of the chi-square test showed significant correlations between the specific task with the form of contact, the working process, the day and season. Results of the odds ratio determination showed an increased risk of suffering serious injury for men in the first half of the year and half of the day due to loss of control over the machine during agricultural harvesting work.

  15. Austrian Painter Leopold Kupelwieser and Bishop Josip Juraj Strossmayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljerka Dulibić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available All 20th-century chronologies of the collector’s activity of Bishop Josip Juraj Strossmayer (1815-1905 and overviews of the evolution of today’s Strossmayer’s Gallery of Old Masters at the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts mention the bishop’s cooperation with the Austrian Nazarene painter Leopold Kupelwieser (1796-1862, father of Paul Kupelwieser, the former owner of the Brijuni islands. This episode from the “prehistory” of Strossmayer’s Gallery has hitherto been known only as a brief notice repeated in almost identical formulations: “In 1857, the bishop sent the first larger group of paintings to Vienna in order to be restored under the supervision of painter Leopold Kupelwieser.” Research of archival documents mentioning the cooperation between Bishop Strossmayer and painter Kupelwieser has now been complemented with an overview of Kupelwieser’s activity in Croatia, with an aim of promoting the preservation and evaluation of this segment of his painting oeuvre. Besides paintings ordered by Strossmayer (presently at the Diocesan Museum of Zagreb, Kupelwieser produced two paintings for Croatian churches independently of his cooperation with the bishop (for the church of St Stephen of Hungary, today’s church of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Nova Gradiška, and for the chapel of St Peter and Paul in Dvor na Uni. Two more paintings are preserved on the Brijuni islands that do not directly belong to Kupelwieser’s oeuvre yet are closely linked to him.

  16. Impacts of Austrian Climate Variability on Honey Bee Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switanek, Matt; Brodschneider, Robert; Crailsheim, Karl; Truhetz, Heimo

    2015-04-01

    Global food production, as it is today, is not possible without pollinators such as the honey bee. It is therefore alarming that honey bee populations across the world have seen increased mortality rates in the last few decades. The challenges facing the honey bee calls into question the future of our food supply. Beside various infectious diseases, Varroa destructor is one of the main culprits leading to increased rates of honey bee mortality. Varroa destructor is a parasitic mite which strongly depends on honey bee brood for reproduction and can wipe out entire colonies. However, climate variability may also importantly influence honey bee breeding cycles and bee mortality rates. Persistent weather events affects vegetation and hence foraging possibilities for honey bees. This study first defines critical statistical relationships between key climate indicators (e.g., precipitation and temperature) and bee mortality rates across Austria, using 6 consecutive years of data. Next, these leading indicators, as they vary in space and time, are used to build a statistical model to predict bee mortality rates and the respective number of colonies affected. Using leave-one-out cross validation, the model reduces the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) by 21% with respect to predictions made with the mean mortality rate and the number of colonies. Furthermore, a Monte Carlo test is used to establish that the model's predictions are statistically significant at the 99.9% confidence level. These results highlight the influence of climate variables on honey bee populations, although variability in climate, by itself, cannot fully explain colony losses. This study was funded by the Austrian project 'Zukunft Biene'.

  17. Responses to recent climate warming of Pinus sylvestris and Pinus cembra within their montane transition zone in the Swiss Alps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haettenschwiler, S.; Koerner, C. [Basel Univ. (Switzerland). Botanisches Inst.

    1995-06-01

    Altitudinal and latitudinal distribution limits of trees are mainly controlled by temperature. Therefore climate warming is expected to induce upslope or poleward migrations. In the Swiss Central Alps, summers in the period 1982-1991 were on average 0.8 deg C warmer than those of the period 30 yr before. We investigated whether populations of conifers at the montane Pinus sylvestris-Pinus cembra ecocline exhibit demographic trends in response to that warming. We found no evidence for this. Young seedlings of Pinus sylvestris, the species which is expected to expand its range upward in a warmer climate, were virtually absent from all sites, whereas large fractions of Pinus cembra populations were observed in the seedlings and juvenile categories even below the present lower distribution limit of adult trees. This suggests that there are no major altitudinal shifts in response to the recent sequence of warmer summers. Germination and seedling survival trials with Pinus sylvestris suggest that temperature per se would not exclude this species even from establishing at the current treeline in the Swiss Central Alps. Similar results were found at the polar treeline. Phytotron tests of seedling survival showed much less drought resistance in Pinus sylvestris than in Pinus cembra which is in contrast to their phytogeographic distributions. Thus, the montane pine ecocline in the Swiss Central Alps seems to be stabilized by species interactions and may not be directly responsive to moderate climatic change, which needs to be taken into account in predictive attempts. 56 refs, 5 figs, 8 tabs

  18. Network Centrality and Market Prices: An Empirical Note

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Firgo; Dieter Pennerstorfer; Christoph R. Weiss

    2015-01-01

    We empirically investigate the importance of centrality (holding a central position in a spatial network) for strategic interaction in pricing for the Austrian retail gasoline market. Results from spatial autoregressive models suggest that the gasoline station located most closely to the market center - defined as the 1-median location - exerts the strongest effect on pricing decisions of other stations. We conclude that centrality influences firms' pricing behavior and further find that the ...

  19. No Austrians in South Tyrol? Why the German-speaking community in Italy’s South Tyrol (Alto Adige province is not usually called an Austrian minority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Julian Emanuel Volkmer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available No Austrians in South Tyrol? Why the German-speaking community in Italy’s South Tyrol (Alto Adige province is not usually called an Austrian minority The article discusses the question why the German-speakers in Northern Italy’s South Tyrol province are only very rarely referred to as an Austrian minority, in spite of the fact that they were split off from Austria, and not Germany, in the aftermath of World War I. An analysis of the naming of German-speaking South Tyroleans in German, Austrian, Italian and English-speaking news media, which demonstrates a preference for terms such as “German-speaking minority” or “German minority” over “Austrian minority and equivalents, is followed by a discussion of three hypotheses to account for the situation. The author shows how the question of how to name the German-speaking South Tyroleans is closely intertwined with the issue of Austrian national identity and its re-orientation away from Germany in the aftermath of the Second World War. The author comes to the conclusion that the minority is not usually referred to as Austrian both due to the fact that it is difficult to include them in the young (civic Austrian nation in a logically consistent manner, and due to the German-speaking South Tyroleans’ own inconsistent self-identification as Austrians.   Nie ma Austriaków w Tyrolu Południowym? Dlaczego niemieckojęzyczna wspólnota we włoskiej prowincji Tyrol Południowy (Alto Adige zwykle nie jest nazywana mniejszością austriacką Artykuł podejmuje kwestię, dlaczego niemieckojęzyczna ludność północnowłoskiej prowincji Tyrol Południowy rzadko bywa nazywana mniejszością austriacką, pomimo tego że w efekcie I wojny światowej odłączona została ona od Austrii, a nie od Niemiec. Analiza nazewnictwa odnoszonego do niemieckojęzycznej ludności Tyrolu Południowego, które występuje w informacyjnych środkach przekazu: niemiecko-, austriacko-, włosko- i angloj

  20. A permafrost distribution estimate for the Southern Alps, New Zealand, inferred from topoclimatic conditions at rock glacier sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Katrin; Mackintosh, Andrew; Anderson, Brian; Norton, Kevin; de Róiste, Mairead

    2014-05-01

    The presence of numerous rock glaciers and perennial snow patches indicate the existence of discontinuous alpine permafrost in New Zealand's Southern Alps. However, research on the geographic extent of permafrost in the South Island has been limited. Existing estimates are restricted to single mountain ranges or focus on steep bedrock permafrost. A recent global-scale estimate has not been evaluated by local observations. We present the results of a regional, spatially distributed permafrost estimate for the Southern Alps, focusing on debris-covered slopes. Permafrost distribution modelling was based on the statistical evaluation of 280 active and relict rock glaciers. Logistic regression identified characteristic topoclimatic conditions at the head area of presently active rock glaciers. Statistical relationships between permafrost presence, mean annual air temperature, and potential incoming solar radiation in snow-free months were subsequently used to calculate the spatially distributed probability of permafrost occurrence. The potential permafrost extent was delineated using a probability threshold of ≥ 0.6. Model results suggest that topoclimatic conditions are favourable for permafrost occurrence above ~ 2000 m a.s.l. in the central Southern Alps and above ~ 2150 m a.s.l. in the northern ranges. This gradient in permafrost altitude reflects the warmer climate at lower latitudes. Model results were locally validated by BTS (bottom temperature of snow cover) data derived from two-year continuous ground surface temperature (GST) measurements in the Ben Ohau Range, central Southern Alps. Applicability of BTS measurements for permafrost mapping had not been tested previously in the maritime setting of New Zealand, where common warm spells during winter can result in isothermal snow pack conditions, preventing the inference of late-winter equilibrium temperatures. BTS-indicated permafrost sites were in good agreement with modelled permafrost probabilities at the

  1. Social, psychological and demographic reflections on the Austrian nuclear power question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretschneider, R.

    1980-01-01

    The political history of an Austrian referendum in 1978, which led to abandonment of a nuclear power station, is reviewed, and an attempt is made to analyse the reasons for the 'No' vote. Surveys are presented which attempt to classify the yes, no and undecided voters in terms of political views. The effects of the Harrisburg accident on Austrian public opinion is examined and the possibility of accentuated differences between 'for' and 'against' groups is stated. It is noted that success in energy saving may reduce the significance of the atomic energy question. (G.M.E.)

  2. Analysis of criteria for entry of the austrian warm-blood horse into the stud book

    OpenAIRE

    Dana Karásková; Iva Jiskrová

    2008-01-01

    The focus of the investigation was on an analysis of criteria for the entry of mares of the Austrian warm-blood horse into the stud book and analysis of the pedigree of the mares. The objective of the thesis was to compare the selected properties of the mares based on their pedigree and to evaluate the effect of the Trakehner horse on the frame, type and conformation of the Austrian warm-blood, to ana­ly­se the influence of selected effects on the physique and mechanics of movement on entry i...

  3. Towards a Dynamic Resource-Based View: Insights from Austrian capital and Entrepreneurship Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Ishikawa, Ibuki

    are not inquired into. We argue that the RBV may profitably draw on Austrian (Misesian) and Knightian insights in entrepreneurship and capital theory, particularly in its Lachmannian manifestation, in order to strengthen its dynamic components. We link the RBV and Austrian ideas in the context of the theory...... of complex systems pioneered by Herbert Simon. We draw a number of implications for strategic management from this synthesis, notably into resource value and sustainability of competitive advantage.JEL Code: B53, D21, L23, M1...

  4. Approaches to managing cytopenias in Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Koneti eRao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS is a rare disorder frequently due to mutations in FAS (TNFRSF6 gene. Unlike most of the self limiting autoimmune cytopenias sporadically seen in childhood, multi lineage cytopenias due to ALPS are often refractory as their inherited genetic defect is not going to go away. Historically more ALPS patients have died due to overwhelming sepsis following splenectomy to manage their chronic cytopenias than due to any other cause, including malignancies. Hence current recommendations underscore the importance of avoiding splenectomy in ALPS, by long-term use of corticosteroid sparing immunosuppressive agents like mycophenolate mofetil and sirolimus. Paradigms learnt from managing ALPS patients in recent years is highlighted here and can be extrapolated to manage refractory cytopenias in patients with as yet undetermined genetic bases for their ailments. It is also desirable to develop international registries for children with rare and complex immune problems associated with chronic multilineage cytopenias in order to elucidate their natural history and long-term comorbidities due to their disease and its treatments.

  5. Status and distribution of the lynx in the German Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Kaczensky

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The lynx (Lynx lynx had been eradicated in the German Alps by the middle of the 19th century. Since the early 1970s there have been several attempts to initiate the re-introduction of lynx into the German Alps, but none of the projects could be carried out because of the still very controversial attitudes towards the species, and because of competition between institutions. Natural re-colonization of the German Alps by lynx can be expected sooner or later from Switzerland or Austria. Although lynx are already present in some parts of Germany outside the Alps, neither an organized monitoring system nor compensation regulations for losses of livestock exist. For a successful comeback of lynx into Germany, including the German Alps, more efforts than a year-round protection by the federal hunting law is needed. Initiative management actions and intensive public education are necessary to obtain and secure public acceptance of the lynx.

  6. Searching for axions and ALPs from string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringwald, Andreas

    2012-09-15

    We review searches for closed string axions and axion-like particles (ALPs) in IIB string flux compactifications. For natural values of the background fluxes and TeV scale gravitino mass, the moduli stabilisation mechanism of the LARGE Volume Scenario predicts the existence of a QCD axion candidate with intermediate scale decay constant, f{sub a} {proportional_to}10{sup 9/12} GeV, associated with the small cycles wrapped by the branes hosting the visible sector, plus a nearly massless and nearly decoupled ALP associated with the LARGE cycle. In setups where the visible sector branes are wrapping more than the minimum number of two intersecting cycles, there are more ALPs which have approximately the same decay constant and coupling to the photon as the QCD axion candidate, but which are exponentially lighter. There are exciting phenomenological opportunities to search for these axions and ALPs in the near future. For f{sub a} {proportional_to}10{sup 11/12} GeV, the QCD axion can be the dominant part of dark matter and be detected in haloscopes exploiting microwave cavities. For f{sub a} {proportional_to}10{sup 9/10} GeV, the additional ALPs could explain astrophysical anomalies and be searched for in the upcoming generation of helioscopes and light-shining-through-a-wall experiments.

  7. Receiver function analysis using AlpArray stations in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dániel, Kalmár; Bálint, Süle; István, Bondár

    2017-04-01

    The AlpArray temporary seismic network, together with the permanent stations of the Hungarian National Seismological Network provid an unprecedented density and resolution to study the Eastern Alps - Pannonian basin transition zone. Previous receiver functions studies .(Hetényi et al., 2007, 2015) in the region used a much smaller station density and shorter time period than the present paper. In the analysis we used data from 48 permanent and temporary AlpArray stations in Hungary and neighbouring countries. We present our methodology (P-wave receiver function analysis, H-K grid search and cross-correlation matrix methods), the pitfalls in processing, and finally our result, the detailed Moho map of the region.

  8. Characterization of optical systems for the ALPS II experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spector, Aaron D. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentalphsik; Pold, Jan H.; Lindner, Axel [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Baehre, Robin; Willke, Benno [Max-Planck-Institute for Gravitational Physics, Hannover (Germany); Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Gravitationsphysik

    2016-09-15

    ALPS II is a light shining through a wall style experiment that will use the principle of resonant enhancement to boost the conversion and reconversion probabilities of photons to relativistic WISPs. This will require the use of long baseline low-loss optical cavities. Very high power build up factors in the cavities must be achieved in order to reach the design sensitivity of ALPS II. This necessitates a number of different sophisticated optical and control systems to maintain the resonance and ensure maximal coupling between the laser and the cavity. In this paper we report on the results of the characterization of these optical systems with a 20m cavity and discuss the results in the context of ALPS II.

  9. Characterization of optical systems for the ALPS II experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spector, Aaron D.; Baehre, Robin; Willke, Benno; Hannover Univ.

    2016-09-01

    ALPS II is a light shining through a wall style experiment that will use the principle of resonant enhancement to boost the conversion and reconversion probabilities of photons to relativistic WISPs. This will require the use of long baseline low-loss optical cavities. Very high power build up factors in the cavities must be achieved in order to reach the design sensitivity of ALPS II. This necessitates a number of different sophisticated optical and control systems to maintain the resonance and ensure maximal coupling between the laser and the cavity. In this paper we report on the results of the characterization of these optical systems with a 20m cavity and discuss the results in the context of ALPS II.

  10. Water Management Strategies against Water Shortage in the Alps (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, C.

    2009-12-01

    In the European Alps water has been perceived as ubiquitous and not the subject of management. Climate change and anthropogenic pressures have changed demand and supply relations rapidly and over the last 10 years, water problems have increasingly become apparent over temporal and spatial hotspots. Stakeholders in the Alpine Space have been confronted with water management problems in agriculture, tourism and hydropower to such an extent that they approached scientists to create solution strategies based on adaptation and mitigation. In this context, Alp-Water-Scarce, a European project on Water Management Strategies against Water Scarcity in the Alps was funded by the Alpine Space programme as part of the "European Territorial Cooperation" scheme. It has 17 project partners from Austria Switzerland, France, Italy and Slovenia from local governments, provinces, federal institutes and offices, universities, regional agencies, alpine societies, geological surveys, and chambers of agriculture and forestry. The Lead Partner is the Mountain Institute in Savoy, Rhone-Alpes, France. The main challenges of this project are to create local Early Warning Systems against Water Scarcity in the Alps. This system is based on strengthening existing long-term monitoring and modeling and creating new measuring networks in those countries where they do not yet exist. It is anchored strongly and actively within a Stakeholder Interaction Forum linked across comparative and contrasting regions across the Alps. The Early Warning System is based on the linkage and improvement of field monitoring and assemblage of qualitative and quantitative data derived both from natural water reservoirs as well as from anthropogenic water use in 28 selected pilot regions selected in France, Italy, Austria, Slovenia and Switzerland. The objectives are to improve water management at the short term (annual scale) and long term (using future scenarios) based on modelling and application of climate change

  11. [Evaluation of the test strip Reflotron ALP (alkaline phosphatase) for blood samples of dogs and cats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschberger, J; Dietz, J; Baumeister, C; Kraft, M

    1998-09-01

    The test strip Reflotron ALP (alcaline phosphatase) was evaluated for use in canine and feline heparinized blood samples. The within-run and the day-to-day precision of blood and plasma samples was excellent. A haematocrit up to 60% of canine blood and up to 50% of feline blood had no influence on the measurements. Reflotron ALP was compared with ALP on Hitachi 717 (Boehringer Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany). The correlation of both methods was good for canine and feline blood samples. Reflotron ALP was higher than Hitachi ALP in both species. Despite an enormous deviation between Reflotron ALP and the reference method of canine and feline blood samples within the reference range, Reflotron ALP is a suited test for the detection of elevated ALP activity in canine and feline blood samples. Differences of the ALP activity might be caused by ALP isoenzymes. The activity of ALP isoenzymes depends on the method. The buffer systems of Reflotron ALP and Hitachi ALP are different. Significant exceeding of the reference range was reliably detected. In this investigation the study results for heparinized whole blood, heparinized plasma and serum are approximately the same.

  12. Postcollisional cooling history of the Eastern and Southern Alps and its linkage to Adria indentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberer, Bianca; Reverman, Rebecca Lee; Fellin, Maria Giuditta; Neubauer, Franz; Dunkl, István; Zattin, Massimiliano; Seward, Diane; Genser, Johann; Brack, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Indentation of rigid blocks into rheologically weak orogens is generally associated with spatiotemporally variable vertical and lateral block extrusion. The European Eastern and Southern Alps are a prime example of microplate indentation, where most of the deformation was accommodated north of the crustal indenter within the Tauern Window. However, outside of this window only the broad late-stage exhumation pattern of the indented units as well as of the indenter itself is known. In this study we refine the exhumational pattern with new (U-Th-Sm)/He and fission-track thermochronology data on apatite from the Karawanken Mountains adjacent to the eastern Periadriatic fault and from the central-eastern Southern Alps. Apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He ages from the Karawanken Mountains range between 12 and 5 Ma and indicate an episode of fault-related exhumation leading to the formation of a positive flower structure and an associated peripheral foreland basin. In the Southern Alps, apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He and fission-track data combined with previous data also indicate a pulse of mainly Late Miocene exhumation, which was maximized along thrust systems, with highly differential amounts of displacement along individual structures. Our data contribute to mounting evidence for widespread Late Miocene tectonic activity, which followed a phase of major exhumation during strain localization in the Tauern Window. We attribute this exhumational phase and more distributed deformation during Adriatic indentation to a major change in boundary conditions operating on the orogen, likely due to a shift from a decoupled to a coupled system, possibly enhanced by a shift in convergence direction.

  13. Evaluation of air pollution-related risks for Austrian mountain forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smidt, Stefan; Herman, Friedl

    2004-01-01

    The present paper describes air pollution status and evaluation of risks related to effects of phytotoxic pollutants in the Austrian mountain forests. The results are based on Austrian networks (Forest Inventory, Forest Damage Monitoring System, Austrian Bioindicator Grid), the Austrian sample plots of the European networks of the UN-ECE (ICP Forests, Level I and Level II) and interdisciplinary research approaches. Based on the monitoring data and on modelling and mapping of Critical Thresholds, the evaluation of risk factors was possible. Cause-effect relationships between air pollution and tree responses were shown by tree-physiological measurements. Sulfur impact, proton and lead input, concentrations of nitrogen oxides, nitrogen input and ozone were evaluated. The risk was demonstrated at a regional and large-scale national level. Especially the increasing O 3 level and the accumulation of Pb with altitude present most serious risk for mountain forests. - Despite strong reduction of emissions in Europe, pollutants are still a potential stress factor, especially for sensitive mountain forest ecosystems in Austria

  14. Networking for Education for Sustainable Development in Austria: The Austrian ECOLOG-Schools Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Franz

    2016-01-01

    This case describes networking for education for sustainable development within the Austrian ECOLOG-schools network. The article presents theoretical concepts of networks in education in general, and the organization of the ECOLOG-network in particular. Based upon these foundations, the concept and results of a participatory evaluation study are…

  15. Progress Report 1984 of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf. Abridged version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwach, G.W.

    1986-06-01

    The report gives a short survey of the work carried out by the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf in 1984. The working programme comprises five main areas: Energy and safety; Materials research, isotope and radiation techniques; Measuring techniques and information processing; Environmental protection, health and food; Industrial consulting. (Author)

  16. Heritabilities and genetic correlations for honey yield, gentleness, calmness and swarming behaviour in Austrian honey bees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brascamp, Evert; Willam, Alfons; Boigenzahn, Christian; Bijma, Piter; Veerkamp, Roel F.

    2016-01-01

    Heritabilities and genetic correlations were estimated for honey yield and behavioural traits in Austrian honey bees using data on nearly 15,000 colonies of the bee breeders association Biene Österreich collected between 1995 and 2014. The statistical models used distinguished between the genetic

  17. 46th annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society. Programme and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, H.G.

    1996-01-01

    This volume contains lectures (short communications) of the 46 th symposium of the Austrian Physical Society which had been held at the University of Linz (Austria) in 1996. The following topics are included: atomic physics, molecular physics, plasma physics, solid state physics, nuclear and particle physics, biophysics, environmental physics, quantum electronics and quantum optics. (Suda)

  18. Influence of the American ODAC Statement on Austrian Bevacizumab Prescribing Practice for Metastatic Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Preusser, Matthias; Fülöp, Gerhard; Berghoff, Anna Sophie; Heinzl, Harald; Steger, Guenther G.; Greil, Richard; Zielinski, Christoph C.; Bartsch, Rupert

    2012-01-01

    The influence of the discrepancy between the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee (ODAC) and European Medicines Agency positions on bevacizumab prescribing practice for metastatic breast cancer in Austria during January 2006 to June 2011 was investigated. The Austrian bevacizumab prescribing practice was found to be significantly influenced by the ODAC statement issued in July 2010.

  19. 1983 Annual convention of the Austrian Physical Society, University of Linz, 28 - 30 September 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Proceedings of lectures and poster presentations given at the 1983 convention of the Austrian Physical Society, with (German) abstracts only. The four topical sessions were: 1) electrodynamics and optics 2) solid state physics 3) nuclear and particle physics 4) physics of high polymers Only part of the presentations pertain to the subject scope of INIS. (G.Q.)

  20. Radiation protection safety report for 1984 of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steger, F.; Irlweck, K.; Sorantin, H.

    1985-04-01

    The safety report of the Institute of Radioprotection comprises all measurements which have been performed by the so called 'Kontrollabteilung' to protect employees and environment of the Research Center Seibersdorf against radiation. The 'Kontrollabteilung' is a special section in the Institute and is headed by the acting health physics officer according to the Austrian radiation law. (Author)

  1. Civic Education under Pressure? A Case Study from an Austrian School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schild, Isabella; Breitfuss, Judith

    2018-01-01

    When the politician Roman Haider of the party Freiheitliche Partei Österreichs (FPÖ--Freedom Party of Austria) caused the interruption of a lecture about political extremism in an Austrian school in spring 2017, a heated debate erupted over the place of politics in school education. While Haider accused the lecturer of political propaganda,…

  2. Severe Austrian Syndrome in an Immunocompromised Adult Patient – A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirteș Ioana Raluca

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Known also as Osler’s triad, Austrian syndrome is a complex pathology which consists of pneumonia, meningitis and endocarditis, all caused by the haematogenous dissemination of Streptococcus pneumoniae. The multivalvular lesions are responsible for a severe and potential lethal outcome.

  3. Psychometric Properties of the Revised Facts on Suicide Quiz in Austrian Medical and Psychology Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, Martin; Tran, Ulrich S.; Sonneck, Gernot

    2008-01-01

    Psychometric properties and demographic correlates of a German form of R. W. Hubbard and J. L. McIntosh's (1992) Revised Facts on Suicide Quiz (RFOS), an inventory for assessing overall knowledge about suicide, were investigated in a sample of 1,093 Austrian medical and psychology students. Internal consistency of the RFOS was weak, as were many…

  4. A 3D gravity model of crustal structure in the Central-Eastern Alpine sector

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    S. Scarascia

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Assuming as a starting model the pattern of the Moho boundary as interpreted in a recent study on the basis of the available DSS profiles, a preliminary 3D gravity model of the crustal structures in the Central-Eastern Alpine sector is proposed. The aim of the present work is to confirm the seismic results concerning the Moho and to better shape the main discontinuities in the intermediate and upper crust, where the seismic data are too scattered to allow a reliable interpretation. The gravity field is calculated along twelve cross-sections oriented S-N and crossing the Alpine range from the Padan-Venetian plain to the Bavarian molasse and to the Austrian calcareous Alps. The westernmost section coincides with the European Geotraverse while the easternmost one is positioned at the longitude of about 14ºeast. The assumed density model is very simple (only 6 layers; for each unit the density is maintained constant. The model describes a European mantle dipping southwards underneath an overlapping, uplifted Adriatic mantle. As far as the lower crust is concerned, its top is found at depths between 18 and 28 km, the deepest values being reached in the south-eastern sector; the density appears higher in the Adriatic domain than in the European one and the Adriatic lower crust seems to be deeply indented northwards. The low density surface layers appear very thin in a large area of the northwestern sector, while in the south and southeast their thickness reaches about 10 km. This study must be considered as a complement to the seismic interpretation both as a validation of the model of the deep crust and Moho boundary and as an additional source of information on the upper crust.

  5. Stress field variations in the Swiss Alps and the northern Alpine foreland derived from inversion of fault plane solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastrup, U.; Zoback, M.L.; Deichmann, N.; Evans, Kenneth F.; Giardini, D.; Michael, A.J.

    2004-01-01

    This study is devoted to a systematic analysis of the state of stress of the central European Alps and northern Alpine foreland in Switzerland based on focal mechanisms of 138 earthquakes with magnitudes between 1 and 5. The most robust feature of the results is that the azimuth of the minimum compressive stress, S3, is generally well constrained for all data subsets and always lies in the NE quadrant. However, within this quadrant, the orientation of S3 changes systematically both along the structural strike of the Alpine chain and across it. The variation in stress along the mountain belt from NE to SW involves a progressive, counterclockwise rotation of S3 and is most clear in the foreland, where it amounts to 45??-50??. This pattern of rotation is compatible with the disturbance to the stress field expected from the indentation of the Adriatic Block into the central European Plate, possibly together with buoyancy forces arising from the strongly arcuate structure of the Moho to the immediate west of our study area. Across the Alps, the variation in azimuth of S3 is defined by a progressive, counterclockwise rotation of about 45?? from the foreland in the north across the Helvetic domain to the Penninic nappes in the south and is accompanied by a change from a slight predominance of strike-slip mechanisms in the foreland to a strong predominance of normal faulting in the high parts of the Alps. The observed rotation can be explained by the perturbation of the large-scale regional stress by a local uniaxial deviatoric tension with a magnitude similar to that of the regional differential stress and with an orientation perpendicular to the strike of the Alpine belt. The tensile nature and orientation of this stress is consistent with the "spreading" stress expected from lateral density changes due to a crustal root beneath the Alps. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Nuclear hazard scenarios for Austria. Comparative assessment of nuclear hazard scenarios for planning purposes by the Austrian army

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueck, K.; Sdouz, G.; Weimann, G.

    2000-12-01

    In order to provide for an optimum protection of the population in case of a wide-spread contamination, in particular in case of a reactor accident, the determined deployment and co-operation of various organizations and institutions of the federal and provincial governments is required. In scenarios where civil authorities have reached the limit of their deployment, a special role is attributable to the Austrian Army which may take over important tasks in that case and is the only Austrian institution who is able to perform these tasks for a prolonged period of time. To be able to perform this task in a reliable and optimum way, the potential accident scenarios and the resulting possible consequences on the Austrian territory are assessed and described. This should enable those responsible in the Austrian army to assess the required capacity of resources. Furthermore, comparisons with other wide-spread contamination as well as their causes are presented and possible trends in the future are discussed. In addition, the scenarios elaborated in the study shall serve as a base for further investigations of the possibilities of the Austrian Army with its equipment and personal training to give optimal assistance to the Austrian state and its citizens in catastrophic situations. They shall serve further as base for further investigations of possible improvements in the equipment and the training status as well as a possible extension of the utilization of existing measurement and operational equipment at disposition to the Austrian Army. (author)

  7. From the 'Austrian Foundation for Atomic Energy Research' to the 'Seibersdorf Laboratories'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rößner, M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is the description of the process of institutionalization of nuclear research in Austria in the context of the „Atoms for Peace“ program in the 1950s. This aspect of the history of Austrian nuclear research has been relatively unexplored. The focus of this work is the presentation of measures that have been put in Austria to participate in the 'Atoms for Peace' program. Moreover, the expectations and goals of the Austrian nuclear program are analyzed. For this purpose, foundation, structure and research activities of the “Austrian Atomic Energy Commission”, the “Austrian Society for the Study of Atomic Energy” and the “Nuclear Reactor Centre Seibersdorf“ in the period from 1954 until about 1970 are examined. To establish a relationship with the international historical research of the history of nuclear research, the Austrian situation is compared to the Swiss and the German. It turns out that the Austrian expectations and objectives in nuclear research at the beginning of the period of observation roughly corresponded with the international trends. It also follows that by the establishment of the SGAE and the “Nuclear Reactor Centre Seibersdorf“ the development course of Austrian nuclear research occupied a special position compared to foreign institutions.(author) [de

  8. Sensitivity and Specificity of Plasma ALT, ALP, and Bile Acids for Hepatitis in Labrador Retrievers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirksen, K|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412424428; Burgener, I A; Rothuizen, J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071276033; van den Ingh, T S G A M; Penning, L C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/110369181; Spee, B|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304830925; Fieten, H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314112596

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Biochemical indicators for diagnosing liver disease are plasma alanine aminotransferase activity (ALT), alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP), and bile acid concentration (BA). OBJECTIVES: To determine the sensitivity and specificity of ALT, ALP, and BA for detecting primary hepatitis (PH)

  9. Post-magmatic solid solutions of CaCeAl2(Fe3+ 2/3□1/3)[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH), allanite-(Ce) and REE-bearing epidote in miarolitic pegmatites of Permian Baveno granite (Verbania, central-southern alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guastoni, Alessandro; Nestola, Fabrizio; Schiazza, Mariangela

    2017-06-01

    CaCeAl2(Fe3+ 2/3□1/3)[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH), allanite-(Ce) and rare earth element (REE)-bearing epidote occur as globular aggregates and platy prismatic crystals in miarolitic cavities in a niobium, yttrium, fluorine (NYF) granitic pegmatite at Baveno, Verbania, Southern Alps, Italy. These samples were investigated by means of an electron probe micro-analyser (EPMA) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Our EPMA results show that the globular aggregates have the highest REE content in the core portion and decreases to REE-bearing epidote towards the rim whereas the prismatic crystals are characterized by marked oscillatory zoning that have the highest REE contents at the rim of the crystal. The unit-cell parameters of "allanites" have an intermediate unit-cell between CaCeAl2(Fe3+ 2/3□1/3)[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH), allanite-(Ce) and REE-free epidote, because reflect the strong chemical heterogeneity of the samples which form complete solid solutions. Hydrothermal fluids control the activity and precipitation of incompatible elements like high field strength elements (HFSE), Sc and REE by hydrous F-rich fluids below the critical temperature which allow to deposit accessory minerals in the cavities with decreasing temperature. The source of REE and Y are the sheet and REE-silicates like siderophyllite-annite, and gadolinite-(Y) which underwent partial to complete decomposition by the activity of aggressive F-rich hydrothermal fluids.

  10. Soil mapping and classification in the Alps: Current state and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruck, Jasmin; Gruber, Fabian; Geitner, Clemens

    2014-05-01

    Soil is an essential, non-renewable resource, which fundamentally needs sustainable management. Soils in mountain regions like the Alps have a diverse small-scale distribution and they are characterized by a slow soil development and multilayer profiles. This is mainly caused by high process dynamics and harsh climate conditions. Therefore, soils are particularly vulnerable and require a sustainable management approach. Furthermore, the global change, especially the climate and land use change, leads to new demands on the soil. Thus, high-resolution spatial informations on soil properties are required to protect this resource and to consider its properties in spatial planning and decision making. In the Alpine region soil maps are mostly confined to small (mostly agriculture) areas. Especially, in higher altitudes of the Alps pedologic research and data collection are lacking. However, nowadays and in the future systematic soil mapping works are and will be no longer applied. Another methodical problem arises because each Alpine country has its own national soil mapping and classification system which are not adapted to Alpine areas. Therefore, appropriate methods of working practices for the Alpine region are mostly missing. The central aim of the research project "ReBo - Terrain Classification based on airborne laser scanning data to support soil mapping in the Alps", founded by the Autonomous Province of Bolzano - South Tyrol, is to develop and verify a concept, which allows the collection of soil data through an optimized interaction of soil mapping and geomorphometric analysis. The test sites are located in South Tyrol (Italy). The workflow shall minimise the required pedologic field work and shall provide a reliable strategy for transferring punctual soil informations into spatial soil maps. However, for a detailed analysis a systematic pedologic field work is still indispensable. As in the Alps reliable soil mapping and classification standards are lacking

  11. Australian Alps: Kosciuszko, Alpine and Namadgi National Parks (Second Edition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Porter

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: Australian Alps: Kosciuszko, Alpine and Namadgi National Parks (Second Edition By Deidre Slattery. Clayton South, Australia: CSIRO Publishing, 2015. xvii + 302 pp. AU$ 45.00, US$ 35.95. ISBN 978-1-486-30171-3.

  12. The Geology of the Bergamasc Alps Lombardia Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitter, de L.U.; Sitter-Koomans, de C.M.

    1949-01-01

    In the Bergamasc Alps we have observed one major unconformity between the Basement rock and the overlying Permian. The total absence of any recognisable Palaeozoic sedimentary rocks accentuates this unconformity, and moreover this enormous hiatus makes the dating of any Palaeozoic event impossible.

  13. Traditional phytotherapy of the Albanians of Lepushe, Nothern Albanian Alps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieroni, A.; Dibra, B.; Grishaj, G.; Grishaj, I.; Maçai, S.G.

    2005-01-01

    An ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacognostic survey has been carried out in one of the most isolated mountainous area in Europe: the village of Lepushe and its surrounding territory, in the Northern Albanian Alps. Approximately 70 botanical taxa and 160 preparations, mainly derived from plants, but

  14. Military-geographic evaluation of the Julian Alps area

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    Zvonimir Bratun

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The Julian Alps have been of military significance since Roman times in a military geographic sense because of its valleys, mountain passes and lines of defence on mountain ridges. They became especially important in the 19th and 20th century. The largest mountain front in World War I was located there,and evidence of that front is still visible today. The border between Italy and Yugoslavia in the heart of the Julian Alps was clearly a line of demarcation along the Soča and Sava watersheds and was reinforced with fortification, obstacles and trenches. During the Cold War, there was an ideological line of demarcation along the western edge of the Julian Alps as well. Military strategy in that area included the use of military geographic approaches in both westerly and easterly directions. After the geopolitical changes of 1991, the Julian Alps no longer had same military geographic significance in terms of Slovenian national security. Today other military activities are more important: training under mountains conditions for NATO soldiers, non-commissioned and commissioned officers takes place in the Pokljuka region and on the Triglav mountain chain. Military facilities have been taken on significance in the terms of tourism as well.

  15. New, rare or remarkable microfungi in the Italian Alps (Carnic Alps)--part I--ascomycotina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feige, G B; Ale-Agha, N; Jensen, M; Christiaans, B; Kricke, R

    2004-01-01

    During our observations in the SE part of the Carnic Alps in the year 2003 we were able to collect and identify 35 ascomycetes on trees and dead wood. Among these one can find numerous ascomycetes of different orders e.g. Pyrenomycetes, Loculoascomycetes and Discomycetes. Some species like Botryosphaeria ribis GROSENLUCHER & DUGGAR on Ribes alpinum L., Dothiora pyrenophora (FR.) FR. on Sorbus aucuparia L., Gemmamyces piceae (BORTH.) CASAGO. on Picea excelsa (LAM.) LINK, Glomerella montana (SACC.) v. ARX & E. MULLER on Sesleria caerulea (L.) ARD, Hymenoscyphus immutabilis (Fuck.) Dennis on Alnus incana (L.) Moench, Hysterographium fraxini (PERS. Ex. FR.) de Not. on Fraxinus ornus L., Lachnellula willkommii (Hartig) DENNIS [= Trichascyphella willkommii (Hartig) NANNF.] on Larix decidua MILL.,Leptosphaeria lycopodina (Mont.) SACC. on Lycopodium annotinum L., Mollisia adenostylidis REHM. on Adenostyles glabra (MILL.) DC., Pezicula cinnamomea (DC.)SACC. [ana: Cryptosporiopsis quercina PETRAK] on Quercus robur L., Pyrenopeziza petiolaris (A. & S. Ex FR.) NANNF. on Acer pseudoplatanus L., Tapesia rosae (PERS.) FUCKEL on Rosa canina L., are new for this area. All specimen are deposited in the Herbarium ESS Mycotheca Parva, Collection G.B. Feige/N. Ale-Agha.

  16. Comment diffuser les savoirs à travers les Alpes ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Pfefferkorn

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available CIPRA’s Future in the Alps Project aims at showcasing examples of successful implementation and successful projects in the Alps, and making available to others the extensive pool of experience and practical knowledge that lies in these projects. But how to transfer knowledge in an area of some 14 million inhabitants with several linguistic and cultural regions in which thousands of projects are carried out each year, that all kinds of players who work and life in completely different contexts are able to learn and benefit from one another? How do you go about something like that?Le projet « Avenir dans les Alpes » de la CIPRA (Commission Internationale pour la Protection des Alpes a pour objectif de présenter des exemples de réalisations et de projets réussis dans les Alpes, et de mettre à disposition du public l’ensemble de l’expérience et des connaissances pratiques acquises dans le cadre de ces projets. Cependant, comment transférer les savoirs dans une zone comptant quelque 14 millions d’habitants, composée de plusieurs régions linguistiques et culturelles dans lesquelles des milliers de projets sont menés à bien chaque année, et dont tous les acteurs, qui travaillent et vivent dans des contextes complètement différents, sont capables d’apprendre et de tirer profit les uns des autres ? Comment aborder ce genre de cas ?

  17. Late Cretaceous to Miocene cooling patterns in the Eastern Alps reflecting tectonic interactions of the Alps-Adria-Carpathian system

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gelder, Inge; Willingshofer, Ernst; Schuster, Ralf; Andriessen, Paul; Sokoutis, Dimitrios

    2017-04-01

    New structural and thermochronological (Rb-Sr biotite and zircon and apatite fission track) data constrain the deformation and exhumation history of the eastern most Alps and highlight distinct differences compared to the western Eastern Alps, including the Tauern Window. The new data has been collected along and in the surroundings of the Mur-Mürz fault (MMF), an area that hitherto had a scarce availability of low and medium temperature thermochronological data but is a key area to understand and quantify the influence of processes, such as Pannonian back-arc extension, on the Eastern Alps evolution. The obtained cooling ages document rapid (ca. 15°C/Ma) and diachronous exhumation during the Late Cretaceous to Paleocene with an eastward youngening of cooling ages across a greenschist facies normal shear zone. We interpret this cooling pattern as a post-metamorphic exhumation occurring during Campanian-Maastrichtian synorogenic extension that is characterized by an east directed migration. We suggest that oblique subduction of the Alpine Tethys or slab roll-back driven processes during final closure of the Neotethys could both be mechanisms that drive this eastward migration. Subsequently, the eastern most Alps reflect Eocene to Oligocene slow cooling (ca. 2°C/Ma) suggesting that the region was unaffected by significant crustal thickening or erosion which strongly contrasts with the units exposed in the Tauern Window and surrounding Austroalpine units. The slow cooling continued far into the Miocene and is contemporaneous with early Miocene kinematics that reflect a pre-extrusion NW-SE contraction followed by syn-extrusion NE-SW to NNE-SSW contraction recorded by middle Miocene strike-slip faulting. Field kinematics and cooling ages located on opposite sides of the MMF suggest that lateral extrusion in the eastern most Alps is not associated with significant vertical motions but is rather restricted to lateral motions along dispersed strike-slip faults. This

  18. Analysis of criteria for entry of the austrian warm-blood horse into the stud book

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Karásková

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the investigation was on an analysis of criteria for the entry of mares of the Austrian warm-blood horse into the stud book and analysis of the pedigree of the mares. The objective of the thesis was to compare the selected properties of the mares based on their pedigree and to evaluate the effect of the Trakehner horse on the frame, type and conformation of the Austrian warm-blood, to ana­ly­se the influence of selected effects on the physique and mechanics of movement on entry into the stud book of the Austrian warm-blood, and to compare selected properties of the mares with the pedigree standard of the Austrian warm-blood. The database was compiled from results of evaluations of the conformation and mechanics of movement on entry into stud books in the period of 1990–2006. The evaluated characteristics were the basic body measurements – height of withers, heart girth, bone, and evaluation of the body conformation on a ten-point scale – head, neck, forehand, middle-piece, quarters, forelegs, hind legs, correctness of pace, walk, mechanics of movement and total mark for conformation. The comparative base consisted of 4407 mares. On the basis of results of subsequent tests we can indicate the pedigree group 1 (pure-bred Trakehner mares as a group which obtained the highest marks for body conformation (head – 7.82, neck – 7.38, middle-piece – 7.46, correctness of pace – 7.27 total mark for conformation – 7.37. We compared the group of mares of the Austrian warm-blood pedigree standard and we discovered that out of the 4407 mares entered into the stud book of the Austrian warm-blood horses in the period of 1990–2006 the height at withers of 65 mares (1.5 % of the monitored population was less than 158 cm, which in the Stud Book Rules is the minimal height for entry.

  19. Biblical Allusions in Expressionist Poetry in the Context of Austrian, German, and Ukrainian Literature : A Comparative Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mykhalchuk, T.

    2016-01-01

    With the application of comparative methodology, this article analyzes biblical allusions, reminiscences, paraphrases, direct and indirect quotations, and symbols in the poetry of Austrian, German, and Ukrainian writers (Georg Heym, Mykola Bazhan, Mykola Khvyliovyj Todosii, T. Osmachka, Pavlo

  20. Why Credit Deflation Is More Likely than Mass Inflation: An Austrian Overview of the Inflation Versus Deflation Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Boyapati

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an Austrian overview of the inflation versus deflation debate which has captured the attention of the economics profession in the years following the US housing bust. Much of the Austrian analysis of this debate has focused on the massive expansion of the Federal Reserve’s balance sheet and attendant creation of new reserves. Several Austrian economists have predicted that the creation of new reserves will cause a massive increase in inflation. The money multiplier theory, on which these predictions are based, is criticized and an overview of the Austrian business cycle theory is provided to explain why banks are reluctant to issue new credit. Finally, an analysis of the politics of deflation is provided and a class theory is presented to explain why a policy of controlled credit deflation is more likely than a policy that would result in mass inflation or hyperinflation.

  1. Ontogeny, immunocytochemical localization, and biochemical properties of the pregnancy-associated uterine elastase/cathepsin-G protease inhibitor, antileukoproteinase (ALP): monospecific antibodies to a synthetic peptide recognize native ALP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmen, R C; Michel, F J; Fliss, A E; Smith, L C; Fliss, M F

    1992-04-01

    Expression of the mRNA encoding the elastase/cathepsin-G protease inhibitor, antileukoproteinase (ALP), is highest in pig uterus during mid- and late pregnancy, suggesting a stage of pregnancy-dependent role for ALP in feto-maternal interactions. To elucidate a function for ALP in these events, immunogenic probes were developed to localize sites of ALP expression in the environment of the developing fetus. Monospecific antibodies raised against a 16-mer synthetic peptide corresponding to residues 21-36 (ALP 16P) of the deduced amino acid sequence of pig uterine ALP were generated by active immunization of sheep. ALP 16P conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin elicited high titer antibodies that were specific to ALP. The antipeptide antibodies were used to characterize pig uterine ALP from allantoic fluids. Uterine ALP has an approximate mol wt of 14,000 and a pI of 8.2 and exhibits elastase inhibitor activity. Amino-terminal amino acid sequencing of uterine ALP indicated the sequence AENALKGGACPPRKIVQC, which has 44% identity with the corresponding region in human bronchial ALP. RIA for ALP, developed using ALP 16P as standard and iodinated tracer, demonstrated the presence of immunoreactive ALP in early, mid-, and late pregnant endometrium and myometrium, placenta, allantoic fluids, fetal cord blood, and fetal liver. ALP was undetectable in the maternal circulation. The ALP levels in endometrium, allantoic fluids, and fetal cord blood changed with the stage of pregnancy; however, ALP content in placenta, myometrium, and fetal liver, although different among tissues, remained invariant during gestation. By immunocytochemical analyses, ALP was localized in the glandular epithelium of the uterus, in placenta, and in fetal liver, consistent with the presence of immunoreactive ALP as measured by RIA. The localization of uterine ALP in placenta and its corresponding transport to fetal circulation provide strong evidence to support a physiological function for the

  2. Francesco Saverio Amman: an Austrian cotton entrepreneur in Lombardy,1838-82.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licini, S

    1999-01-01

    This article examines the cotton manufacturing industry in Lombardy during the period when Austrian rule was being restored in the wake of the Congress of Vienna. It adopts Pollard's emphasis on the regional nature of industrialisation, drawing on the surviving accounts of Francesco Saverio Amman - the Austrian-born founder of a major cotton-mill - and attempts to identify differences and similarities between his career and achievements and those of his many counterparts in the rest of Europe. The article begins by looking at Amman's economic and social advancement, and then discusses the development of his business interests. It concludes by examining how he chose to invest his earnings, both within and without the cotton industry.

  3. Is adult education a ‘white’ business? Professionals with migrant backgrounds in Austrian adult education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Kukovetz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on an applied research project, which examines the participation of migrants (first and second generation as professionals in Austrian adult education. We present selected outcomes concerning barriers and encouraging factors in the careers of professionals with migrant background. Our main findings show the importance of the recognition of credentials, of social capital and of strategies to avoid discrimination on behalf of the institutions of adult education. Introducing the analytical perspective of critical whiteness, we conclude that Austrian adult education still has to reflect its own role in terms of white privileges. Finally we point out some approaches and strategies to widening participation and reducing discrimination in the professional field.

  4. Austrian syndrome in the context of a fulminant pneumococcal native valve endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Wilbring

    Full Text Available This is the case of a young male suffering from Austrian syndrome, which is the triad of endocarditis, meningitis, and pneumonia due to invasive S. pneumoniae infection. He reported recurrent fever for six months without any antibiotic treatment, which may have determined the further course of the syndrome. Echocardiography revealed massive native valve endocarditis, and the patient was considered for ultima-ratio cardiac surgery. Intraoperative aspect presented extensive affection of the aortic root with full destruction of aortic valve, mitral valve, and aortomitral continuity. The myocardium showed a phlegmonlike infiltration. Microbiologic testing of intraoperatively collected specimens identified penicillin-sensitive Streptococcus pneumoniae. S. pneumoniae is a very uncommon cause for infective infiltrative endocarditis and is associated with severe clinical courses. Austrian syndrome is even more rare, with only a few reported cases worldwide. In those patients, only early diagnosis, immediate antibiotic treatment, and emergent cardiac surgery can save lives.

  5. Authority Relationship From a Societal Perspective: Social Representations of Obedience and Disobedience in Austrian Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Fattori, Francesco; Curly, Simone; J?rchel, Amrei C.; Pozzi, Maura; Mihalits, Dominik; Alfieri, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Obedience and disobedience have always been salient issues for both civil society and social psychologists. Since Milgram’s first studies on destructive obedience there has not been a bottom-up definition of what obedience and disobedience mean. The current study aimed at investigating the social representations young adults use to define and to co-construct knowledge about obedience and disobedience in Austria. One hundred fifty four (106 females, 68.8%) Austrian young adults (Mean age = 22....

  6. Open Access Policies of Research Funders: The Case Study of the Austrian Science Fund (FWF)

    OpenAIRE

    Tonto, Yaşar; Doğan, Güleda; Al, Umut; Madran, Orçun

    2015-01-01

    The Austrian Science Fund (FWF) is the main funder for basic research in Austria. FWF has been instrumental in promoting Open Access in Austria and elsewhere and possesses a strong Open Access policy for the research it funds. This case study presents FWF as a good practice of an effective funder policy on account of its comprehensive strategy and multi-faceted approach for implementing and supporting it.

  7. [The Austrian Red Cross and Austrian bacteriologists in the Balkan wars 1912/13 - Centenary of the first application of the bacteriology in theatres of war].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamm, Heinz

    2012-04-01

    When Austria joined the Geneva Convention the "Patriotischer Hilfsverein" (Patriotic Aid Society) which was founded for the concerns of wounded soldiers, was named "Austrian Society of the Red Cross". It had to stand its first big test in 1912 in the first Balkan war; military surgeons and bacteriologists were deployed to all warring states. The cholera dominated under the infectious diseases among the various forces and the civilian populations. Upon request of the Bulgarian king renowned bacteriologists of the University of Vienna were dispatched. Their work presented the first action of bacteriology for disease control on theatres of war. The great success of the surgical and hygienic measures initiated in 1912 a reform of the Austrian Red Cross. In 1913 Austria made a detailed application to the International Committee of the Red Cross in order to extend the Geneva Convention to war epidemics. The Committee forwarded and recommended this application to all member states, however, the outbreak of the First World War then prevented its resolution.

  8. The ALP-PALS Project: optimal coupling for laser propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boody, F. P.; Badziak, J.; Eckel, H.-A.; Gammino, S.; Krása, J.; Láska, L.; Mezzasalma, A.; Pakhomov, A. J.; Parys, P.; Pfeifer, M.; Pisarczyk, T.; Rohlena, K.; Schall, W.; Torrisi, L.; Wołowski, J.

    2006-05-01

    Since the early 1970s ablative laser propulsion (ALP) has promised to revolutionize space travel by reducing the 30:1 propellant/payload ratio needed for near-earth orbit by up to a factor of 50, by leaving the power source on the ground. But the necessary sub-ns high average power lasers were not available. Dramatic recent progress in laser diodes for pumping solid-state lasers is changing that. Recent results from military laser weapons R&D programs, combined with progress on ceramic disk lasers, suddenly promise lasers powerful enough for automobile-size, if not space shuttle-size payloads, not only the 4 - 10 kg "microsatellites" foreseen just a few years ago. For ALP, the 1.6-μm Er:YAG laser resonantly pumped by InP diode lasers is especially promising. Prior coupling experiments have demonstrated adequate coupling coefficients and specific impulses, but were done with too long pulses and too low pulse energies. The properties of ions produced and the ablated surface were generally not measured but are necessary for understanding and modeling propulsion properties. ALP-PALS will realistically measure ALP parameters using the Prague Asterix Laser System (PALS) high power photodissociation iodine laser (λ = 1.315 μm, E L <=1 kJ, τ ~ 400 ps, beam diameter ~29 cm, flat beam profile) whose parameters match those required for application. PALS' 1.3-μm λ is a little short (vs. 1.53-1.72 μm) but is the closest available and PALS' 2ω / 3ω capability allows wavelength dependence to be studied.

  9. Lichenized and lichenicolous fungi from the Albanian Alps (Kosovo, Montenegro)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Eva A.; Hafellner, Josef; Stešević, Danijela; Geci, Fehmi; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    396 taxa (381 species) of lichenized and 45 species of lichenicolous fungi from the upper montane, subalpine and alpine belts of the Albanian Alps (= Prokletije Mountain Range, Bjeshkët e Nemuna) are presented. 92 lichenized and 26 lichenicolous fungi are new to Montenegro, 165 lichenized and 24 lichenicolous fungi are new to Kosovo, and 25 lichenized fungi (23 species) are new for the Balkan Peninsula. PMID:26869727

  10. BSM photon interaction for ALPS-II and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebrich, Babette

    2012-12-15

    High-intensity photon beams can provide for a viable probe for many particles of Standard Model extensions. This workshop contribution briefly reviews the status of the second stage of the Any Light Particle Search (ALPS-II) at DESY, an experiment of the light-shining-through-a-wall type, as well as an idea to test asymptotically safe quantum gravity in a photon-scattering experiment.

  11. What's new in ALPS-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebrich, Babette; Collaboration: ALPS-II collaboration

    2013-09-15

    This proceedings contribution gives a brief experimental update of the 'Any light particle search (ALPS) -II' at DESY which will be sensitive to sub-eV, very weakly coupled particles beyond the Standard Model. First data on hidden sector photon parameter space through photon-hidden photon oscillations in vacuum is expected in 2014. Axion-like particle search (implying the installation of superconducting HERA magnets) could be realized in 2017.

  12. Alcohol Consumption and Physical Activity in Austrian College Students-A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermeier, Martin; Frühauf, Anika; Kopp-Wilfling, Prisca; Rumpold, Gerhard; Kopp, Martin

    2018-01-30

    The age of college students is considered as crucial for developing health-related behaviors, e.g., alcohol consumption or a physically active lifestyle. Previous research reported a positive relationship between alcohol consumption and physical activity (PA) in college students. However, the main body of research was done in students from the United States who might differ from European students. Thus the aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between alcohol consumption and PA in a sample of Austrian college students. In a cross-sectional design, 861 Austrian students from various study fields responded to a web-based questionnaire. Self-reported alcohol consumption, PA, and relevant sociodemographic variables were assessed. Multiple regression analyses were used to study the relationship between alcohol consumption and PA. In none of the regression models, a significant relationship between alcohol consumption and PA was found. There was a significant influence of sex, age, relationship status, education level, and study field on alcohol consumption. Male, older, and undergraduate students studying social sciences without a relationship reported higher alcohol consumption. Conclusions/Importance: The results do not support a general relationship between alcohol consumption and PA among urban Austrian college students of various study fields. Compared to other variables (e.g., sex, relationship status), PA seems to be less important in relation to the consumption of alcohol. This study challenges a global perspective on a positive relationship between alcohol consumption and PA and highlights the need for more cross-cultural investigations.

  13. Meteorological wind energy potential in the Alps using ERA40 and wind measurement sites in the Tyrolean Alps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draxl, Caroline; Mayr, Georg J.

    2011-01-01

    The peculiarities of meteorological wind potential in alpine settings compared to flatland and offshore sites are studied. Four data sources are used: Global reanalysis ERA40 from ECMWF, long-term stations in the Tyrolean Alps, spatially dense measurements near the best site and Doppler sodar wind...... profiles. Due to the decrease of density with height, alpine sites suffer from a nearly linear decrease of harvestable power with altitude, which is more than offset by the increase of wind speed at altitudes above 1.5 km MSL. ERA40 data show higher potential on the northern than on the southern side...... of the Alps. The best locations are not isolated peaks but ridges within wide orographic channels. The best potential sites in the Tyrolean part of the Alps have median wind speeds of up to 7.1 m s−1 and extractable potentials between 2900 and 1600 kWh per year and per square meter of rotor area. The profile...

  14. New, rare or remarkable microfungi in the Italian Alps (Carnic Alps)--part II--other microfungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale-Agha, N; Feige, G B; Jensen, M; Christiaans, B; Brassmann, M; Kricke, R

    2004-01-01

    In addition to the collection of Ascomycotina in the Carnic Alps (see New, rare or remarkable microfungi in the Italian Alps (Carnic Alps) part I ) we were able to treasure about 300 species of parasitic and saprophytic microfungi. Among them Basidiomycetes, Ascomycetes and Deuteromycets like Bostrichonema polygoni (UNGER) SCHROT. on Polygonum viviparum L., Chrysomyxa rhododendri DE BY on Picea abies (L.) KARSTEN, Coleosporium tussilaginis (PERS.) BERK. I=C. cacaliae OTTH.] on Adenostyles glabra (MILL.) DC., Dasyscyphus barbatus (KUNZE) MASSEE on Lonicera nigra L., Leptosphaeria coniothyrium (FUCKEL) SACC. on Rosa canina L., Leptotrochila brunellae (LIND) DENNIS on Prunella grandiflora (L.) SCHOLLER., Marssonina kriegeriana (BES.) MAGNUS on Salix reticulata L., Puccinia alpina FUCKEL on Viola biflora L., Puccinia maculosa (STRAUSS.) ROHLING and Erysiphe cichoracearum DC. On Prenanthes purpurea L., Septoria microsora SPENG. on Gentianella germanica (WILLD.) BORNER, Urocystis orobranches (FR.) FISCH. V. WALDH. on Orobranche gracilis SM., Urocystis violae (J. SOWERBY) A. FISCHER VON WALDHEIN on Viola biflora L. and Uromyces phyteumatum (DC.) UNG. on Phyteuma spicatum L. were dominant. All samples are located in the Herbarium ESS Mycotheca Parva, Collection G.B. Feige/N. Ale-Agha.

  15. Assessing water resources under climate change in high-altitude catchments: a methodology and an application in the Italian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aili, T.; Soncini, A.; Bianchi, A.; Diolaiuti, G.; D'Agata, C.; Bocchiola, D.

    2018-01-01

    Assessment of the future water resources in the Italian Alps under climate change is required, but the hydrological cycle of the high-altitude catchments therein is poorly studied and little understood. Hydrological monitoring and modeling in the Alps is difficult, given the lack of first hand, site specific data. Here, we present a method to model the hydrological cycle of poorly monitored high-altitude catchments in the Alps, and to project forward water resources availability under climate change. Our method builds on extensive experience recently and includes (i) gathering data of climate, of cryospheric variables, and of hydrological fluxes sparsely available; (ii) robust physically based glacio-hydrological modeling; and (iii) using glacio-hydrological projections from GCM models. We apply the method in the Mallero River, in the central (Retiche) Alps of Italy. The Mallero river covers 321 km2, with altitude between 310 and 4015 m a.s.l., and it has 27 km2 of ice cover. The glaciers included in the catchment underwent large mass loss recently, thus Mallero is largely paradigmatic of the present situation of Alpine rivers. We set up a spatially explicit glacio-hydrological model, describing the cryospheric evolution and the hydrology of the area during a control run CR, from 1981 to 2007. We then gather climate projections until 2100 from three Global Climate Models of the IPCC AR5 under RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5. We project forward flow statistics, flow components (rainfall, snow melt, ice melt), ice cover, and volume for two reference decades, namely 2045-2054 and 2090-2099. We foresee reduction of the ice bodies from - 62 to - 98% in volume (year 2100 vs year 1981), and subsequent large reduction of ice melt contribution to stream flows (from - 61 to - 88%, 2100 vs CR). Snow melt, now covering 47% of the stream flows yearly, would also be largely reduced (from - 19 to - 56%, 2100 vs CR). The stream flows will decrease on average at 2100 (from + 1 to - 25

  16. Constraints on the Miocene landscape evolution of the Eastern Alps from the Kalkspitze region, Niedere Tauern (Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dertnig, Florian; Stüwe, Kurt; Woodhead, Jon; Stuart, Finlay M.; Spötl, Christoph

    2017-12-01

    In order to unravel aspects of the Miocene landscape evolution of the eastern European Alps, we present geomorphic and isotopic data from the western Niedere Tauern region (Austria). The region is critical for such interpretations, because it is one of the few regions along the topographic axis of the Eastern Alps where the highest peaks (up to 2500 m a.s.l.) are dominated by limestone. As such, the region contains a record of Miocene landscape-forming events that survived the Pleistocene glaciations, not preserved elsewhere in the central Eastern Alps. This record includes karst caves, karstified planation surfaces and crystalline fluvial pebbles (Augenstein Formation) preserved on planation surfaces and in karst caves. Caves in the region occur in three distinct levels that correlate with well-known cave levels in the Northern Calcareous Alps, although they are somewhat higher in the Niedere Tauern. In part, these cave elevations also correlate with three planation surfaces and knickpoints of major streams draining the region, testifying their pre-glacial origin. We report details of a karst cave (Durchgangshöhle) from the highest cave level located at 2340 m a.s.l. In this cave, allochthonous fluvial gravels are present, overgrown by speleothems. One speleothem yielded an early middle Pleistocene U-Pb age (682 ± 17 ka). We regard this as a minimum age for the erosion of the fluvial cave deposits during Marine Isotope Stages 17 or 16. Carbon and oxygen isotope data of these speleothems imply a climate that is consistent with this interpretation. Cosmogenic 21Ne data of fluvial quartz clasts collected from the surface on plateaus of the Northern Calcareous Alps suggest minimum exposure durations of 115 and 262 ka. They probably reflect successive exposure since removal of the sediment cover of the Oligocene Augenstein Formation during the Pleistocene. While our geochronological data fail to record aspects of the earlier Miocene uplift history, they are

  17. Historical glacier outlines from digitized topographic maps of the Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudiger, Daphné; Mennekes, David; Seibert, Jan; Weiler, Markus

    2018-04-01

    Since the end of the Little Ice Age around 1850, the total glacier area of the central European Alps has considerably decreased. In order to understand the changes in glacier coverage at various scales and to model past and future streamflow accurately, long-term and large-scale datasets of glacier outlines are needed. To fill the gap between the morphologically reconstructed glacier outlines from the moraine extent corresponding to the time period around 1850 and the first complete dataset of glacier areas in the Swiss Alps from aerial photographs in 1973, glacier areas from 80 sheets of a historical topographic map (the Siegfried map) were manually digitized for the publication years 1878-1918 (further called first period, with most sheets being published around 1900) and 1917-1944 (further called second period, with most sheets being published around 1935). The accuracy of the digitized glacier areas was then assessed through a two-step validation process: the data were (1) visually and (2) quantitatively compared to glacier area datasets of the years 1850, 1973, 2003, and 2010, which were derived from different sources, at the large scale, basin scale, and locally. The validation showed that at least 70 % of the digitized glaciers were comparable to the outlines from the other datasets and were therefore plausible. Furthermore, the inaccuracy of the manual digitization was found to be less than 5 %. The presented datasets of glacier outlines for the first and second periods are a valuable source of information for long-term glacier mass balance or hydrological modelling in glacierized basins. The uncertainty of the historical topographic maps should be considered during the interpretation of the results. The datasets can be downloaded from the FreiDok plus data repository (https://freidok.uni-freiburg.de/data/15008, https://doi.org/10.6094/UNIFR/15008).

  18. The evolution of illite to muscovite: mineralogical and isotopic data from the Glarus Alps, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunziker, J. C.; Frey, M.; Clauer, N.; Dallmeyer, R. D.; Friedrichsen, H.; Flehmig, W.; Hochstrasser, K.; Roggwiler, P.; Schwander, H.

    1986-02-01

    Thirty-five illite and muscovite concentrates were extracted from Triassic and Permian claystones, shales, slates and phyllites along a cross-section from the diagenetic Alpine foreland (Tabular Jura and borehole samples beneath the Molasse Basin) to the anchi- and epimetamorphic Helvetic Zone of the Central Alps. Concentrates and thin sections were investigated by microscopic, X-ray, infrared, Mössbauer, thermal (DTA and TG), wet chemical, electron microprobe, K-Ar, Rb-Sr, 40Ar/39Ar and stable isotope methods. With increasing metamorphic grade based on illite “crystallinity” data (XRD and IR) the following continuous changes are observed: (i) the 1Md→2M1 polymorph transformation is completed in the higher grade anchizone; (ii) K2O increases from 6 8 wt. % (diagenetic zone) to 8.5 10% (anchizone) to 10 11.5% (epizone), reflecting an increase in the total negative layer charge from 1.2 to 2.0; (iii) a decrease of the chemical variation of the mica population with detrital muscovite surviving up to the anchizone/ epizone boundary; iv) a shift of an endothermic peak in differential thermal curves from 500 to 750° C; (v) K-Ar and Rb-Sr apparent ages of the fraction Calanda phase) in the Glarus Alps. A second age group between 25 and 20 Ma. can probably be attributed to movements along the Glarus thrust (Ruchi phase), while values down to 9 Ma., in regions with higher metamorphic conditions, suggest thermal conditions persisting at least until the middle Tortonian.

  19. Modelling last glacial cycle ice dynamics in the Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguinot, Julien; Jouvet, Guillaume; Huss, Matthias; Funk, Martin; Preusser, Frank

    2017-04-01

    The European Alps, cradle of pioneer glacial studies, are one of the regions where geological markers of past glaciations are most abundant and well-studied. Such conditions make the region ideal for testing numerical glacier models based on approximated ice flow physics against field-based reconstructions, and vice-versa. Here, we use the Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM) to model the entire last glacial cycle (120-0 ka) in the Alps, with a horizontal resolution of 1 km. Climate forcing is derived using present-day climate data from WorldClim and the ERA-Interim reanalysis, and time-dependent temperature offsets from multiple paleo-climate proxies, among which only the EPICA ice core record yields glacial extent during marine oxygen isotope stages 4 (69-62 ka) and 2 (34-18 ka) in agreement to geological reconstructions. Despite the low variability of this Antarctic-based climate forcing, our simulation depicts a highly dynamic ice cap, showing that alpine glaciers may have advanced many times over the foreland during the last glacial cycle. Cumulative basal sliding, a proxy for glacial erosion, is modelled to be highest in the deep valleys of the western Alps. Finally, the Last Glacial Maximum advance, often considered synchronous, is here modelled as a time-transgressive event, with some glacier lobes reaching their maximum as early as 27 ka, and some as late as 21 ka. Modelled ice thickness is about 900 m higher than observed trimline elevations, yet our simulation predicts little erosion at high elevation due to cold ice conditions.

  20. Indications for liver transplantation in adults : Recommendations of the Austrian Society for Gastroenterology and Hepatology (ÖGGH) in cooperation with the Austrian Society for Transplantation, Transfusion and Genetics (ATX).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziadei, Ivo; Zoller, Heinz; Fickert, Peter; Schneeberger, Stefan; Finkenstedt, Armin; Peck-Radosavljevic, Markus; Müller, Helmut; Kohl, Claudia; Sperner-Unterweger, Barbara; Eschertzhuber, Stephan; Hofer, Harald; Öfner, Dietmar; Tilg, Herbert; Vogel, Wolfgang; Trauner, Michael; Berlakovich, Gabriela

    2016-10-01

    Liver transplantation has emerged as an established and well-accepted therapeutic option for patients with acute and chronic liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma. The disproportion between recipients and donors is still an ongoing problem that has only been solved partially over the last centuries. For several patients no life-saving organs can be distributed. Therefore, objective and internationally established recommendations regarding indication and organ allocation are imperative. The aim of this article is to establish evidence-based recommendations regarding the evaluation and assessment of adult candidates for liver transplantation. This publication is the first Austrian consensus paper issued and approved by the Austrian Society of Gastroenterology and Hepatology in cooperation with the Austrian Society of Transplantation, Infusion and Genetics.

  1. Snow chemistry of high altitude glaciers in the French Alps

    OpenAIRE

    MAUPETIT, FRANÇOIS; DELMAS, ROBERT J.

    2011-01-01

    Snow samples were collected as snowcores in the accumulation zone of four high altitude glaciers (2980–3540 m.a.s.l.) from each of the 4 highest mountain areas of the French Alps, during 3 consecutive years: 1989, 1990 and 1991. Sampling was performed in spring (∼ May), before the onset of late spring–summer percolation. The accumulated snow therefore reflects winter and spring conditions. A complementary sampling of fresh-snow was performed on an event basis, on one of the studied glaciers, ...

  2. New ALPS results on hidden-sector lightweights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehret, Klaus; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Frede, Maik

    2010-01-01

    The ALPS collaboration runs a ''Light Shining through a Wall'' (LSW) experiment to search for photon oscillations into ''Weakly Interacting Sub-eV Particles'' (WISPs) often predicted by extensions of the Standard Model. The experiment is set up around a superconducting HERA dipole magnet at the site of DESY. Due to several upgrades of the experiment we are able to place limits on the probability of photon-WISP-photon conversions of a few x 10 -25 . These limits result in today's most stringent laboratory constraints on the existence of low mass axion-like particles, hidden photons and minicharged particles. (orig.)

  3. Crustal structure and active tectonics in the Eastern Alps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brückl, E.; Behm, M.; Decker, K.

    2010-01-01

    fragment (PA), was interpreted and a triple junction was inferred. The goal of this study has been to relate these deep crustal structures to active tectonics. We used elastic plate modeling to reconsider the Moho fragmentation. We interpret subduction of EU below AD and PA from north to south......During the last decade, a series of controlled source seismic experiments brought new insight into the crustal and lithospheric structure of the Eastern Alps and their adjacent tectonic provinces. A fragmentation of the lithosphere into three blocks, Europe (EU), Adria (AD), and the new Pannonian...

  4. Ophiolitic detritus in Kimmeridgian resedimented limestones and its provenance from an eroded obducted ophiolitic nappe stack south of the Northern Calcareous Alps (Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawlick Hans-Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The causes for the Middle to Late Jurassic tectonic processes in the Northern Calcareous Alps are still controversially discussed. There are several contrasting models for these processes, formerly designated “Jurassic gravitational tectonics”. Whereas in the Dinarides or the Western Carpathians Jurassic ophiolite obduction and a Jurassic mountain building process with nappe thrusting is widely accepted, equivalent processes are still questioned for the Eastern Alps. For the Northern Calcareous Alps, an Early Cretaceous nappe thrusting process is widely favoured instead of a Jurassic one, obviously all other Jurassic features are nearly identical in the Northern Calcareous Alps, the Western Carpathians and the Dinarides. In contrast, the Jurassic basin evolutionary processes, as best documented in the Northern Calcareous Alps, were in recent times adopted to explain the Jurassic tectonic processes in the Carpathians and Dinarides. Whereas in the Western Carpathians Neotethys oceanic material is incorporated in the mélanges and in the Dinarides huge ophiolite nappes are preserved above the Jurassic basin fills and mélanges, Jurassic ophiolites or ophiolitic remains are not clearly documented in the Northern Calcareous Alps. Here we present chrome spinel analyses of ophiolitic detritic material from Kimmeridgian allodapic limestones in the central Northern Calcareous Alps. The Kimmeridgian age is proven by the occurrence of the benthic foraminifera Protopeneroplis striata and Labyrinthina mirabilis, the dasycladalean algae Salpingoporella pygmea, and the alga incertae sedis Pseudolithocodium carpathicum. From the geochemical composition the analysed spinels are pleonastes and show a dominance of Al-chromites (Fe3+–Cr3+–Al3+ diagram. In the Mg/(Mg+ Fe2+ vs. Cr/(Cr+ Al diagram they can be classified as type II ophiolites and in the TiO2 vs. Al2O3 diagram they plot into the SSZ peridotite field. All together this points to a harzburgite

  5. Attitudes among the general Austrian population towards neonatal euthanasia: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldnagl, Lena; Freidl, Wolfgang; Stronegger, Willibald J

    2014-10-07

    The Groningen Protocol aims at providing guidance in end-of-life decision-making for severely impaired newborns. Since its publication in 2005 many bioethicists and health care professionals have written articles in response. However, only very little is known about the opinion among the general population on this subject. The aim of this study was to present the general attitude towards neonatal euthanasia (NE) among the Austrian population and the factors associated with the respondents' opinion. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the general Austrian population. Computer-assisted telephone interviews were performed with 1,000 interviewees aged 16 years and older. Binary logistic regression was performed in order to determine factors that are independently associated with the respondents' opinion about neonatal euthanasia. While 63.6% of the participants rejected the idea of neonatal euthanasia for severely impaired newborns, 36.4% opted either in favor or were undecided. Regression analysis has shown the respondents' educational level (p = 0.005) and experience in the care of terminally ill persons (p = 0.001) to be factors that are positively associated with the rejection of neonatal euthanasia, whereas a higher age was associated with a lower degree of rejection (p = 0.021). We found that the majority of the Austrian population rejects the idea of neonatal euthanasia for severely impaired newborns. However, given the increasing levels of rejection of NE among the younger generations and among people with a higher educational level, it cannot be precluded that the rejection rate might in future increase even further, rather than decrease.

  6. The Perception of Montenegro and the Montenegrins in Austrian Military Reports during the 1830s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Milković

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available An attempt is made in the article to draw attention to the specific perception of the Other when the perspective of the immediate neighbourhood is in question, more particularly, of the Kingdom of Dalmatia, Croatia and Slavonia in relation to the Kingdom of Montenegro in the first half of the 19th century. The focus of research lies in the reports that have as their theme Montenegro and the Montenegrins, these having been written by Captain Friedrich Orešković and Major Josip Jelačić – later the Croatian Ban – at that time adjutant to the military and civil governor of Dalmatia, Lilienberg. The reports were written on Lilienberg’s orders in connection with a then-current conflict that had broken out on the border between Austrian units and the Montenegrins (1838, and the final definition of the Austrian-Montenegrin border. Applying the concepts of Marija Todorova and Božidar Jezernik, the way in which the conceptions that Orešković and Jelačić harboured about Montenegro and the Montenegrins were a reflection of their specific social habitude as Austrian officers is analysed in the paper. Through their comparison with the perception of Montenegro and the Montenegrins among other social strata, light is cast on the diverse ideological and identificational patterns that co-existed on the territory of the Triune Kingdom, also providing an indication of the multi-layered nature of its modern society. The similarity with notions about Montenegro and the Montenegrins and the Balkans in general that existed in Western Europe are also established, as well as the significant differences that suggest that the immediate neighbourhood results in a specificity of perception independently of the broad ideological framework.

  7. Progress report 1980/81 of the Austrian Academy of Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    From the numerous institutes and divisions of the Austrian Academy of Sciences presented in this report the Commission for Arteriosclerosis and Thrombosis Research (application of radioimmunoassay) and the Institute for X-ray Microstructure Research (investigation of biological substances by X-ray and neutron small angle scattering) are partly within the scope of INIS. Fully in scope are short project discriptions of the Institute for Radium Research and Nulear Physics: the Commission for the SIN-project and the Institute for High Energy Physics, completed by publication lists. (G.Q.)

  8. Land Administration and Land Consolidation as Part of Austrian Land Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansberger Reinfried

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Land administration and land consolidation are two pillars of the Austrian land management sharing a long tradition and duties defined by the constitution. Land administration supports measures of land consolidation with cadastre data, land registry data and other geo–technical data. New methods and instruments of geodata assessment provides a more detailed information about land and its changes. The geo–products are contributing to an improved process efficiency of land consolidation authorities. In addition, the role of land consolidation changed from an instrument to improve farming structures to a multifunctional tool of land management.

  9. The most important parasitic and saprophytic fungi in Austrian pine and Scots pine plantations in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karadžić Dragan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In Austrian pine plantations in Serbia, the greatest damage is caused by the fungi Mycosphaerella pini, Sphaeropsis sapinea, Cenangium ferruginosum, Germmeniella abietina (in the mountain regions and occasionally Armillaria spp., Lophodermium spp. (seditiosum, conigenum, pinastri and Cyclaneusma niveum. In Scots pine plantations, the greatest damage is caused by the fungi Heterobasidion annosum (especially in plantations on sandy soils, Armillaria spp, Lophodermium seditiosum, L. pinastri, Cyclaneusma minus and Sphaeropsis sapinea. Damage caused by rust fungi (Coleosporium sennecionis, Melampsora pinitorqua and Cronartium flaccidum occurs less frequently. In mountainous regions in Scots pine plantations, great damage is caused by Phacidium infestans, Lophodermella sulcigena and Gremmeniella abietina.

  10. ALP: universal DMD controller for metrology and testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefling, Roland; Ahl, Enrico

    2004-05-01

    The paper presents a current development in the field of high-speed spatial light modulators. The Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) developed and produced by Texas Instruments Inc. (TI) stimulated new approaches in photonics. Recently, TI introduced the Discovery general purpose chipset to support new business areas in addition to the mainstream application of DMD technology in digital projection. ViALUX developed the ALP parallel interface controller board as a Discovery 1100 accessory for high speed micromirror operation. ALP (Accessory Light Modulator Package) has been designed for use in optical metrology but is widely open for numerous applications. It allows for rapid launch into new DMD applications and can be integrated instantly into existing systems or may initiate new developments. The paper describes both, the general hardware architecture and the software concept of the new high-speed controller solution. Binary and gray-value patterns of variable bit-depth can be pre-loaded to on-board SDRAM via USB and transferred to DMD at high speed (up to 6900 XGA frames per second). Three examples are to illustrate how the approach enables advanced applications of DMD technology in metrology, testing and beyond.

  11. Distributed landsurface skin temperature sensing in Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Giesen, N.; Baerenbold, F.; Nadeau, D. F.; Pardyjak, E.; Parlange, M. B.

    2010-12-01

    The ZyTemp TN9 is a mass-produced thermal infrared (TIR) sensor that is normally used to build handheld non-contact thermometers. The measurement principle of the TN9 is similar to that of very costly meteorological pyrgeometers. The costs of the TN9 are less than 10. The output of the TN9 consists of observed thermal radiation, the temperature of the measurement instrument, and the emissivity used. The output is provided through a Serial Peripheral Interface protocol. The TN9 was combined with an Arduino board that registered data onto a USB memory stick. A solar cell, lead acid battery, housing and stand completed the meausrement set up. Total costs per set was in the order of 200 Land surface atmosphere interactions in mountainous areas, such as the Swiss Alps, are spatially heterogeneous. Shading, multi-layer cloud formation, and up- and downdrafts make for a very dynamic exchange of mass and energy along and across slopes. In order to better understand these exchanges, the Swiss Slope Experiment at La Fouly (SELF) has built a distributed sensing network consisting of eight micro-met stations and two flux towers in the "La Fouly" watershed in the upper Alps. To obtain a better handle on surface temperature, fifteen TIR sensing stations were installed that made observations during the 2010 Summer. Methods and results will be presented. Overview La Fouly watershed (source: http://eflum.epfl.ch/research/images/fouly_2.jpg)

  12. Contribution to knowledge of the bryophyte flora of the western Alps (Italy, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabovljević M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The study is a contribution to knowledge of the bryophyte flora of the Alps. The huge bryophyte collection made during 1997 in the Western Alps is presented. A total of 152 bryophyte species were recorded, including 113 mosses and 39 hepatics.

  13. Germline FAS gene mutation in a case of ALPS and NLP Hodgkin lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Anke; Maggio, Ewerton; Diepstra, A; de Jong, Doetje; van Krieken, J; Poppema, S

    2002-01-01

    FAS germline mutations have been associated with the development of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS). Occurrence of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) has been reported in 2 families with ALPS. In both families an uncle of the index patient developed HL. A 15-year-old boy with autoommune

  14. Preliminary survey on the information campaign on nuclear energy of the Austrian Government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, H.

    1977-01-01

    To provide adequate, unbiased information to the public as well as basic material for future decisions concerning nuclear energy to parliament, the Austrian Government began the Information Campaign on Nuclear Energy in October 1976 and it will continue to June 1977. In the first phase of this campaign, teams of experts consisting of promoters and critics of nuclear energy discussed the various aspects of this topic in public as well as in internal debates, finally producing exhaustive reports. In the second phase, scheduled to take place in May and June 1977, these reports will be discussed in a series of symposia by representatives of the different viewpoints of the Austrian public on nuclear energy. They will then be submitted to parliament together with a summary provided by the Government. The motivation of the campaign, the preparation and execution of the first phase, as well as the first steps in the preparation of the second pahse, are described. Preliminary analyses concern: a) the interaction between the authorities, the experts and the public; b) the interaction among the experts; c) the character of the protest movement and its activities and the public activities of the promoters of nuclear energy; d) the role of the mass media and the information flow in society; and, very cursorily; e) the international echo. Preliminary conclusions are drawn on the organisation of the process of optimal transfer of information to the public, consensus-finding in society and decision-making; a comparison with experiences in other countries is attempted

  15. Why Context Matters: Social Inclusion and Multilingualism in an Austrian School Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Jessner

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article draws attention to language choice and language use of Austrian bi- and multilingual school children. We explore some implications of their linguistic practices with regard to social inclusion in an Austrian educational school setting. Pursuing a Dynamic Systems and Complexity Theory approach, we hypothesise that before language users actually use a language within a certain context, they have to evaluate the respective communicative situation by taking multiple contextual factors into consideration, meaning language users choose to use, or not to use, a language based on the socio-contextual information at hand. We consider these contextual factors to be most relevant as they provide the basis on which speakers can actually make use of a certain language within a given context. By drawing on examples of empirical data obtained through a language background survey, we examine some of the complex and dynamic interactions of contextual parameters influencing language choice and language use in the formal educational setting of classroom instruction. Based on the results of this study, we display a selection of the dynamic and complex interactions of pupils’ language use in one specific context as well as their language preferences and how these relate to social inclusion.

  16. Crowdsourcing Austrian data on decomposition with the help of citizen scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandén, Taru; Berthold, Helene; Schwarz, Michael; Baumgarten, Andreas; Spiegel, Heide

    2017-04-01

    Decay of organic material, decomposition, is a critical process for life on earth. Through decomposition, food becomes available for plants and soil organisms that they use in their growth and maintenance. When plant material decomposes, it loses weight and releases the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere. Terrestrial soils contain about three times more carbon than the atmosphere and, therefore, changes in the balance of soil carbon storage and release can significantly amplify or attenuate global warming. Many factors affecting the global carbon cycle are already known and mapped; however, an index for decomposition rate is still missing, even though it is needed for climate modelling. The Tea Bag Index (TBI) measures decomposition in a standardised, achievable, climate-relevant, and time-relevant way by burying commercial nylon tea bags in soils for three months (Keuskamp et al., 2013). In the summer of 2016, TBI (expressed as decomposition rate (k) and stabilisation index (S)) was measured with the help of Austrian citizen scientists at 7-8 cm soil depth in three different land uses (maize croplands, grasslands and forests). In total ca. 2700 tea bags were sent to the citizen scientists of which ca. 50% were returned. The data generated by the citizen scientists will be incorporated into an Austrian as well as a global soil map of decomposition. This map can be used as input to improve climate modelling in the future.

  17. Characterization of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from Austrian companion animals and horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginders, Maximilian; Leschnik, Michael; Künzel, Frank; Kampner, Doris; Mikula, Claudia; Steindl, Georg; Eichhorn, Inga; Feßler, Andrea T; Schwarz, Stefan; Spergser, Joachim; Loncaric, Igor

    2017-11-14

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the genetic relatedness and the antimicrobial resistance profiles of a collection of Austrian Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from companion animals and horses. A total of 12 non-repetitive isolates presumptively identified as S. pneumoniae were obtained during routinely diagnostic activities between March 2009 and January 2017. Isolates were confirmed as S. pneumoniae by bile solubility and optochin susceptibility testing, matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and sequence analysis of a part recA and the 16S rRNA genes. Isolates were further characterized by pneumolysin polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and genotyped by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed and resistance genes were detected by specific PCR assays. All isolates were serotyped. Four sequence types (ST) (ST36, ST3546, ST6934 and ST6937) and four serotypes (3, 19A, 19F and 23F) were detected. Two isolates from twelve displayed a multidrug-resistance pheno- and genotype. This study represents the first comprehensive investigation on characteristics of S. pneumoniae isolates recovered from Austrian companion animals and horses. The obtained results indicate that common human sero- (23F) and sequence type (ST36) implicated in causing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) may circulate in dogs. Isolates obtained from other examined animals seem to be host-adapted.

  18. [Counselling customers with psychotropic vs. cardiovascular prescriptions: a survey among Austrian community pharmacists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmair, Gisela; Amering, Michaela; Kaiser, Gerda; Katschnig, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Prescriptions for psychotropic drugs in general and their share of all prescriptions have substantially risen over the last decades. Thus, also counselling by pharmacists becomes more important in this area. This study focuses on how community pharmacists see their own role when counselling persons with prescriptions for psychotropic medication and how this differs from counselling persons with other types of prescriptions. Based on the Toronto Community Pharmacists' Questionnaire an online questionnaire was developed with the assistance of the Austrian Pharmacists Association. This instrument elicits pharmacists' attitudes toward and professional interactions with users of psychotropic drugs on the one hand and of cardiovascular medication on the other. After a pilot study the questionnaire - which was to be filled in anonymously - was put on a web portal for six months and Austrian community pharmacists were invited to answer it. 125 pharmacists completed the questionnaire. Overall it was reported, that new customers with psychotropic prescriptions were less often counselled than those with prescriptions for cardiovascular medication. The main reasons for this difference seem to be the lack of privacy in public pharmacies, the fear of stigmatising customers with psychotropic medication and a perceived lack of training concerning the treatment of mental disorders. In addition to improving such training, it was suggested that seminars and workshops for communication skills should be organised. The reduced frequency in counselling new customers with psychotropic medication is related to a lack of privacy in public pharmacies, fear of stigmatising customers and a perceived need for improving the training on the treatment of mental disorders.

  19. Assessing the impact of health technology assessment on the Austrian healthcare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Ines; Zechmeister, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    In Austria, research in health technology assessment (HTA) has been conducted since the 1990s. The aim of this study is to analyze whether the HTA research program of the Institute of Technology Assessment (ITA) and the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for HTA (LBI-HTA) have had an impact on the Austrian healthcare system. We applied qualitative and quantitative empirical research methods, such as interviewing, download analysis, questionnaire, retrospective routine data analysis, and media analysis. Data were analyzed according to a conceptual framework, considering seven impact categories (awareness, acceptance, process, decision, practice, final outcomes, enlightenment) and different target groups. A rising number of downloads and single HTA reports with high media interest were identified. Interviews showed that HTA reports have increasingly been used for investment and reimbursement decisions, as well as for the preparation of negotiations. Economic impact was indicated by decreased expenditures due to HTA recommendations. Overall, knowledge about evidence-based medicine increased and, in places, an "HTA culture" can be recognized. Yet, several decision-making processes occur at all levels without the use of HTA. The analysis demonstrated an impact within all predefined categories; however, it depends on the system level and its target groups. HTA reports are primarily used by hospital management, (social) insurances, and the Austrian Ministry of Health. Nevertheless, there is still potential to increase the impact of HTA. Therefore, the inclusion of HTA in decision-making processes in Austria needs to move from a voluntary basis to a mandatory one.

  20. High concentrations of anthocyanins in genuine cherry-juice of old local Austrian Prunus avium varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüller, Elisabeth; Halbwirth, Heidi; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Slatnar, Ana; Veberic, Robert; Forneck, Astrid; Stich, Karl; Spornberger, Andreas

    2015-04-15

    Antioxidant activity and polyphenols were quantified in vapour-extracted juice of nine Austrian, partially endemic varieties of sweet cherry (Prunus avium): cv. 'Spätbraune von Purbach', cv. 'Early Rivers', cv. 'Joiser Einsiedekirsche', cv. 'Große Schwarze Knorpelkirsche' and four unidentified local varieties. Additionally the effect of storage was evaluated for six of the varieties. A variety showing the highest antioxidant capacity (9.64 μmol Trolox equivalents per mL), total polyphenols (2747 mg/L) and total cyanidins (1085 mg/L) was suitable for mechanical harvest and its juice did not show any losses of antioxidant capacity and total anthocyanin concentration during storage. The juice of cv. 'Große Schwarze Knorpelkirsche' had also high concentrations of total anthocyanins (873 mg/L), but showed substantial losses through storage. The local Austrian sweet cherry varieties from the Pannonian climate zone are particularly suitable for the production of processed products like cherry juice with high content of anthocyanins and polyphenols. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Risk assessment of mountain infrastructure destabilization in the French Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvillard, Pierre-Allain; Ravanel, Ludovic; Deline, Philip

    2015-04-01

    In the current context of imbalance of geosystems in connection with the rising air temperature for several decades, high mountain environments are especially affected by the shrinkage of glaciers and the permafrost degradation which can trigger slope movements in the rock slopes (rockfall, rock avalanches) or in superficial deposits (slides, rock glacier rupture, thermokarst). These processes generate a risk of direct destabilization for high mountain infrastructure (huts, cable-cars...) in addition to indirect risks for people and infrastructure located on the path of moving rock masses. We here focus on the direct risk of infrastructure destabilization due to permafrost degradation and/or glacier shrinkage in the French Alps. To help preventing these risks, an inventory of all the infrastructure was carried out with a GIS using different data layers among which the Alpine Permafrost Index Map and inventories of the French Alps glaciers in 2006-2009, 1967-1971 and at the end of the Little Ice Age. 1769 infrastructures have been identified in areas likely characterized by permafrost and/or possibly affected by glacier shrinkage. An index of risk of destabilization has been built to identify and to rank infrastructure at risk. This theoretical risk index includes a characterization of hazards and a diagnosis of the vulnerability. The value of hazard is dependent on passive factors (topography, lithology, geomorphological context...) and on so-considered active factors (thermal state of the permafrost, and changing constraints on slopes related to glacier shrinkage). The diagnosis of vulnerability has meanwhile been established by combining the level of potential damage to the exposed elements with their operational and financial values. The combination of hazard and vulnerability determines a degree of risk of infrastructure destabilization (from low to very high). Field work and several inventories of infrastructure damages were used to validate it. The

  2. Cultures and politics in the present-day Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Debarbieux

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Plus que jamais, l’espace alpin est marqué par le déploiement de flux toujours plus variés, toujours plus puissants, et symétriquement par la multiplication d’initiatives destinées à conforter ou à régénérer l’idée de localité. Quelles spatialités et quelles territorialités travaillent les populations alpines aujourd’hui ? Quelles sont les figures contemporaines de la circulation et des flux, et les figures complémentaires de l’ancrage et de la refondation territoriale ? Voici les questions que cet essai se propose de développer. Ce texte reprend le contenu d’une conférence donnée dans le cadre de la célébration du centenaire de l’Institut de Géographie Alpine. Cette conférence, comme les autres données à cette occasion, avait adopté une forme libre dressant un bilan et des perspectives de la situation alpine. La trace écrite adoptée ici prend alors logiquement la forme d’un essai.More than ever before, the Alps are affected by increasingly varied and powerful flows and equally by the multiplication of initiatives designed to strengthen or regenerate the idea of “locality” (place. What spatialities and what territorialities activate the populations of the Alps today? What are the contemporary figures relating to circulation and flows and the complementary figures concerning spatial “anchoring” or fixity and new territorial foundations? These are the questions that this essay, proposes to develop. This text takes another look at the subject of a lecture given as part of celebrations to mark the centenary of the Institut de Géographie Alpine. This lecture, like the others given on this occasion, adopted a free format, presenting a report on the current situation in the Alps and prospects for the future. The written format adopted here logically takes the form of an essay. Readers looking for detailed illustrations and references are referred to three scientific articles published by the same

  3. Medical ethnobotany of the Albanian Alps in Kosovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Ethnobotanical studies are crucial in South-Eastern Europe for fostering local development and also for investigating the dynamics of Traditional Environmental Knowledge (TEK) related to plants in one of the most crucial European hotspots for biocultural diversity. The current medico-ethnobotanical survey was conducted in rural alpine communities in Kosovo. The aims of the study were twofold: 1) to document the state of TEK of medicinal plants in these communities; 2) to compare these findings with that of similar field studies previously conducted among local populations inhabiting the Montenegrin and Albanian side of the same Alpine range. Methods Field research was conducted in 36 villages on the Kosovar side of the Albanian Alps. Snowball sampling techniques were used to recruit 91 elderly informants (≥ 50 years-old) for participation in semi-structured interviews and structured surveys regarding the use of the local flora for medicinal and food purposes. Standard ethnobotanical methods were employed and prior informed consent was obtained for all study participants. Results and Conclusion The uses of 98 plants species belonging to 39 families were recorded; the most quoted botanical families were Rosaceae, Asteraceae, and Lamiaceae. Mainly decoctions and infusions were quoted as folk medicinal preparations and the most common uses referred to gastrointestinal and respiratory disorders, as well as illnesses of the uro-genital system. Among the most uncommon medicinal taxa quoted by the informants, Carduus nutans L., Echinops bannaticus Rochel ex Schrad., and Orlaya grandiflora Hoffm. may merit phytochemical and phytopharmacological investigations. Comparison of the data with other ethnobotanical field studies recently conducted on the Albanian and Montenegrin sides of the same Alps has shown a remarkable link between the medical ethnobotany of Montenegrin and Kosovar side of the Albanian Alps. Moreover, folk uses of the most quoted wild medicinal

  4. Medical ethnobotany of the Albanian Alps in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Behxhet; Hajdari, Avni; Krasniqi, Feriz; Hoxha, Esat; Ademi, Hatixhe; Quave, Cassandra L; Pieroni, Andrea

    2012-01-28

    Ethnobotanical studies are crucial in South-Eastern Europe for fostering local development and also for investigating the dynamics of Traditional Environmental Knowledge (TEK) related to plants in one of the most crucial European hotspots for biocultural diversity. The current medico-ethnobotanical survey was conducted in rural alpine communities in Kosovo. The aims of the study were twofold: 1) to document the state of TEK of medicinal plants in these communities; 2) to compare these findings with that of similar field studies previously conducted among local populations inhabiting the Montenegrin and Albanian side of the same Alpine range. Field research was conducted in 36 villages on the Kosovar side of the Albanian Alps. Snowball sampling techniques were used to recruit 91 elderly informants (≥ 50 years-old) for participation in semi-structured interviews and structured surveys regarding the use of the local flora for medicinal and food purposes. Standard ethnobotanical methods were employed and prior informed consent was obtained for all study participants. The uses of 98 plants species belonging to 39 families were recorded; the most quoted botanical families were Rosaceae, Asteraceae, and Lamiaceae. Mainly decoctions and infusions were quoted as folk medicinal preparations and the most common uses referred to gastrointestinal and respiratory disorders, as well as illnesses of the uro-genital system. Among the most uncommon medicinal taxa quoted by the informants, Carduus nutans L., Echinops bannaticus Rochel ex Schrad., and Orlaya grandiflora Hoffm. may merit phytochemical and phytopharmacological investigations.Comparison of the data with other ethnobotanical field studies recently conducted on the Albanian and Montenegrin sides of the same Alps has shown a remarkable link between the medical ethnobotany of Montenegrin and Kosovar side of the Albanian Alps. Moreover, folk uses of the most quoted wild medicinal taxa recorded in Kosovo often include those

  5. Localized ductile deformation in the Rieserferner Pluton (Eastern Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccato, Alberto; Pennacchioni, Giorgio

    2017-04-01

    In the Rieserferner Pluton (Eastern Alps, 32±0.2 Ma, Romer et al., 2003) the post-magmatic cooling and exhumation stages were accompanied by a series of solid-state deformations including jointing, quartz veining, dyke emplacement, localized (cm-dm) ductile shearing and brittle-ductile faulting. The earliest stage of post-magmatic deformation includes the formation of pervasive steeply-dipping joints mainly arranged in two "conjugate" sets striking respectively E-W and NW-SE. These joints were extensively intruded by synkinematic aplite-pegmatite dykes and by quartz veins. Joints, veins and (locally) dikes were exploited as strike-slip ductile shear zones consistently with a WNW-ESE shortening. The mylonitized quartz veins are relatively coarse grained (mm-grain size) and show dominant dynamic recrystallization by grain boundary migration. A later set of joints is shallowly dipping E and is also commonly filled with quartz (and local epidote) veins. Ductile shearing of these vein-filled joints resulted in localized tonalite mylonites and quartz mylonites with a top-to-east kinematics. The quartz mylonites are fine grained (10-20 μm grain size) and resulted from dominant subgrain rotation recrystallization. The foliation of associated tonalite mylonites is marked by biotite+plagioclase+white mica+epidote±sphene±garnet. The "high-temperature" mylonites are crosscut by swarms of steeply-dipping fractures and faults striking N-S and showing a characteristic anastomosing-irregular pattern. These fractures are clustered in zones as large as 10 m and are associated with veins filled with calcite+white mica and with basic dykes (dated at 26 Ma: Steenken et al., 2000). Fluid-rock interactions along these fractures induced weakening and development of local low-temperature mylonites, where deformation mechanisms included pressure-solution and low-temperature plasticity of quartz. The orientation and kinematics of E-dipping mylonites and later low-temperature mylonites

  6. Crustal structure of the Eastern Alps and their foreland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grad, M.; Brückl, E.; Majdanski, M.

    2009-01-01

    ) and are also characterized by variations in apparent velocity and amplitude. The Moho reflections are usually strong and well correlated, while Pn arrivals are only fragmentarily recorded. Detailed 2-D forward modelling of all refracted, post-critical and reflected phases, identified in the correlation process...... of the area. Main features derived by 2-D modelling (low velocities beneath the accretionary wedge, high velocities in the lower crust of the Bohemian Massif, Moho topography) well correlate with the 3-D model. Furthermore, the 3-D model allows assessing the lateral extent of significant features alongside...... the CEL10/Alp04 profile. This area is affected by both collision and escape tectonics. The high-reflectivity zone in the middle crust is explained by intermediate to mafic intrusions, rather than by ductile extensional deformation as generally observed in the lower crust....

  7. Morphological expression of active tectonics in the Southern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robl, Jörg; Heberer, Bianca; Neubauer, Franz; Hergarten, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Evolving drainage pattern and corresponding metrics of the channels (e.g. normalized steepness index) are sensitive indicators for tectonic or climatic events punctuating the evolution of mountain belts and their associated foreland basins. The analysis of drainage systems and their characteristic properties represents a well-established approach to constrain the impact of tectonic and climatic drivers on mountainous landscapes in the recent past. The Southern Alps (SA) are one of the seismically most active zones in the periphery of northern Adria. Recent deformation is caused by the ongoing convergence of the Adriatic and European plate and is recorded by numerous earthquakes in the domain of the SA. Deformation in the SA is characterized by back-thrusting causing crustal thickening and should therefore result in uplift and topography formation. The vertical velocity field determined by GPS-data clearly indicates a belt of significant uplift in the south South alpine indenter between Lake Garda in the west and the Triglav in the east and strong subsidence of the foreland basin surrounding the Mediterranean Sea near Venice, although subsidence is often related to ongoing subduction of the Adriatic microplate underneath Appennines. Despite of these short term time series, timing, rates and drivers of alpine landscape evolution are not well constrained and the linkage between crustal deformation and topographic evolution of this highly active alpine segment remains unclear for the following reasons: (1) The eastern Southern Alps were heavily overprinted by the Pleistocene glaciations and tectonic signals in the alpine landscape are blurred. Only the transition zone to the southern foreland basin remained unaffected and allows an analysis of a glacially undisturbed topography. (2) The major part of this domain is covered by lithology (carbonatic rocks) which is unsuitable for low temperature geochronology and cosmogenic isotope dating so that exhumation and erosion

  8. 25 October 2017- Austrian, German and Swiss Science Foundations signing the guest book in the Globe of Science and Innovation

    CERN Multimedia

    Ordan, Julien Marius

    2017-01-01

    Austrian, German and Swiss Science Foundations in Globe: Professor Klement Tockner, Präsident, Fonds zur Förderung der wissenschaftlichen Forschung, Austria; Professor Peter, Strohschneider, Präsident, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft Germany; Professor Matthias Egger, Präsident, Schweizerischer Nationalfonds zur Förderung der Wissenschaftlichen Forschung, Switzerland

  9. ["Maintaining a Common Culture"--the German Research Foundation and the Austrian-German scientific aid in the interbellum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fengler, Silke; Luxbacher, Günther

    2011-12-01

    After the end of the Great War, private as well as public research funding in Austria was anaemic and slow to develop. Whereas the German state-funded Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) was established as early as 1920, first steps in that direction were only taken in Austria in the late 1920s. In 1929, the Osterreichisch-deutsche Wissenschaftshilfe (ODW) was founded under the auspices of the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the DFG. Although prima facie on an equal footing, the new research funding organisation was in fact highly dependent on its German cooperation partner. The article explores for the first time ODW's position within the German and Austrian science and foreign policies, which aimed to promote the idea of unification of both states within the German Reich. A quantitative analysis of the subsidies policy in the first five years of existence shows that the ODW gave financial aid primarily to conservative research fields, affecting the intellectual balance of power in the First Austrian Republic. Policy continuities and discontinuities of the organisation in the course of the national-socialist rise to power in Germany after 1933 are examined in the second part of the article. The article thus both increases our knowledge about the most important German research funding organisation DFG, and identifies some of the fundamental structural features of Austrian science policy in the interwar years.

  10. Combining IPPC and emission trading: An assessment of energy efficiency and CO2 reduction potentials in the Austrian paper industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starzer, Otto; Dworak, Oliver

    2005-01-01

    In the frame of an innovative project partnership E.V.A. - the Austrian Energy Agency accompanied the Austrian paper industry for the last 2.5 years in developing a branch specific climate change strategy. Within the scope of this project an assessment of the energy efficiency status of the branch was carried out as well as an evaluation of still realisable energy savings and CO 2 reduction potentials. The paper presents the methodology applied, which combines a top down approach (benchmarking and best practice) with a bottom up approach (on-site interviews and energy audits), supported by a huge data collection process. Within the benchmarking process all Austrian paper industry installations affected by the EU emission trading directive were benchmarked against their respective IPPC/BAT values. Furthermore an extensive list of best practice examples derived from existing or ongoing studies was compared with the energy efficiency measures already carried out by the companies ('early actions'). These theory-oriented findings were complemented by several on-site interviews with the respective energy managers as well as by detailed energy audits carried out by a consulting company, covering in total more than 80% of the Austrian paper industry's CO 2 emissions. The paper concludes with the main results of the project, presenting the pros and cons of working with IPPC documents and BAT values in terms of energy efficiency assessments. Recommendations are presented on how to improve the allocation exercise for the next emission trading period from 2008 to 2012

  11. What Does It Take to Be an Adult in Austria? Views of Adulthood in Austrian Adolescents, Emerging Adults, and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirsch, Ulrike; Dreher, Eva; Mayr, Eva; Willinger, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the defining features of emerging adulthood, subjects' conceptions of the transition to adulthood, and the perceived adult status in Austria. The sample consisted of 775 subjects (226 adolescents, 317 emerging adults, 232 adults). Results showed that most Austrian emerging adults feel themselves to be between adolescence…

  12. Soil-plant system development 9 to 136 years after marly gully beds rehabilitation (French Southern Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erktan, Amandine; Cohen, Marianne; Zerouali, Laila; Poulenard, Jérôme; Cécillon, Lauric; Rey, Freddy

    2013-04-01

    Marly badlands, showing active eroded gullies and low soil fertility, are found in the French Southern Alps for around 250 years. Negative ecological, social and and economical consequences of such intense erosion historically promoted the ecological restoration of these terrains. In a small catchment of 390 ha (Saignon catchment, France), a first wave of restoration was run in 1876-78, mainly through Austrian black pine plantation on eroded gully sides. A second wave occurred in 2002 and focused on gullies partly vegetated on their sides but still showing active gully beds. Bioengineering works, made of barriers of Salix cuttings, were implanted in gully beds to increase sedimentation and in turn to re-initiate soil formation. This strategy proved to be efficient to retain sediment and to favor plant colonization. The aim of this study was to investigate soil fertility of sediment mounds retained in gully beds 9 to 136 years after their rehabilitation. To answer this question, we compared the topsoil (0-10 cm depth) chemical fertility of 6 gully beds restored in 2002 with bioengineering works to the one of 5 gully beds belonging to gullies stabilized by pine plantation 136 years ago. As a control, sediment mounds found in 15 bare gully beds were also studied. In each gully, basic soil characteristics of composite samples were assessed. Vegetative cover, plant richness and litter accumulation were also measured. We found that soil organic carbon and total nitrogen content significantly increased with time since gully bed rehabilitation (4.3±0.4 / 12±1 / 21±2 g.kg-1 and 0.80±0.02 / 1.4±0.02 / 1.7±0.07 g.kg-1) for bare gully beds and gully beds rehabilitated 9 and 140 years ago, respectively. Carbonate content was lower in restored gullies (average value of 242±5 g.kg-1) compared to control ones (547±13 g.kg-1). These results suggest that pedogenesis was engaged in both sets of restored gullies (decarbonatation process). Available phosphorus was lowest in

  13. Austrian visit

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Hans Hoffmann, Director for Technology Transfer and Scientific Computing, and Maria Rauch-Kallat, Minister of Health and Women's Issues, Austria, signing the visitors' book.Maria Rauch-Kallat, Minister of Health and Women's Issues, Austria, was welcomed by Hans Hoffmann, Director for Technology Transfer and Scientific Computing, on her visit to CERN on 19 May 2003. The theme of the visit was Technology Transfer and spin-offs from CERN for medical applications. Maria Rauch-Kallat toured also the installations of ATLAS.

  14. Radiocarbon ages of soil charcoals from the southern Alps, Ticino, Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajdas, Irka; Schlumpf, Nadia; Minikus-Stary, Nicole; Hagedorn, Frank; Eckmeier, Eileen; Schoch, Werner; Burga, Conradin; Bonani, Georges; Schmidt, Michael W.I.; Cherubini, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    Radiocarbon dating of macroscopic charcoal is a useful tool for paleoclimatic and paleoecologic reconstructions. Here we present results of 14 C dating of charcoals found in charcoal-rich soils of Ticino and the Misox Valley (southern Switzerland) which indicate that the Late Glacial and early Holocene fires coincided with warm phases in the North Atlantic region and low lake levels in the Central Europe. Late Holocene charcoals found in these soils document an earlier than believed presence of sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) in southern Switzerland. Sweet chestnut trees play a key role in Mediterranean woodlands, and for longer than two millennia have been used as a food source. Based on palynological evidence it is commonly believed that in southern Switzerland C. sativa was first introduced 2000 years ago by the Romans, who cultivated it for wood and fruit production. Our results indicate that this tree species was present on the southern slopes of the Alps ∼1500 years earlier than previously assumed, and therefore was likely introduced independently from cultivation by the Romans

  15. Relating safety, productivity and company type for motor-manual logging operations in the Italian Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montorselli, Niccolò Brachetti; Lombardini, Carolina; Magagnotti, Natascia; Marchi, Enrico; Neri, Francesco; Picchi, Gianni; Spinelli, Raffaele

    2010-11-01

    The study compared the performance of four different logging crews with respect to productivity, organization and safety. To this purpose, the authors developed a data collection method capable of providing a quantitative analysis of risk-taking behavior. Four crews were tested under the same working conditions, representative of close-to-nature alpine forestry. Motor-manual working methods were applied, since these methods are still prevalent in the specific study area, despite the growing popularity of mechanical processors. Crews from public companies showed a significantly lower frequency of risk-taking behavior. The best safety performance was offered by the only (public) crew that had been administered formal safety training. The study seems to deny the common prejudice that safety practice is inversely proportional to productivity. Instead, productivity is increased by introducing more efficient working methods and equipment. The quantitative analysis of risk-taking behavior developed in this study can be applied to a number of industrial fields besides forestry. Characterizing risk-taking behavior for a given case may eventually lead to the development of custom-made training programmes, which may address problem areas while avoiding that the message is weakened by the inclusion of redundant information. In the specific case of logging crews in the central Alps, the study suggests that current training courses may be weak on ergonomics, and advocates a staged training programme, focusing first on accident reduction and then expanding to the prevention of chronic illness. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Alps to Apennines zircon roller coaster along the Adria microplate margin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, J; Paoli, G; Rocchi, S; Ksienzyk, A K; Sirevaag, H; Elburg, M A

    2018-02-09

    We have traced the particle path of high-pressure metasedimentary rocks on Elba Island, Northern Apennines, with the help of a U-Pb-Hf detrital zircon study. One quarter of the analysed zircons are surprisingly young, 41-30 Ma, with a main age peak at ca. 32 Ma, indicating an unexpected early Oligocene maximum deposition age. These Oligocene ages with negative εHf indicate a volcanic source region in the central-southern Alps. Though young by geological means, these zircons record an extraordinary geodynamic history. They originated in a volcanic arc, during the convergence/collision of the the Adria microplate with Europe from ca. 65 to 30 Ma. Thereafter, the Oligocene zircons travelled ca. 400 km southward along the Adria margin and the accretionary prism to present-day Tuscany, where they were subducted to depths of at least 40 km. Shortly thereafter, they were brought to the surface again in the wake of hinge roll back of the Apennine subduction zone and the resulting rapid extensional exhumation. Such a zircon roller coaster requires a microplate that has back-to-back subduction zones with opposing polarities on two sides.

  17. Reorientation of lineation in the Central Crystalline Zone, Munsiari ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Stretching lineation; ductile shear deformation; Greater Himalaya; Main Central Thrust. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 124, No. 2, March 2015, pp. 449–458 c Indian Academy of ... of French Alps and have shown that the stret- ching lineation exhibits a ..... record of schuppen structures and measurement of flat- tening in folds ...

  18. The quest for an intermediate-scale accidental axion and further ALPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, A.G.; Nishi, C.C. [Univ. Federal do ABC - UFABC, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Machado, A.C.B. [Teorica-Univ. Estadual Paulista, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Ringwald, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Vaudrevange, P. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Excellence Cluster Universe

    2014-03-15

    The recent detection of the cosmic microwave background polarimeter experiment BICEP2 of tensor fluctuations in the B-mode power spectrum basically excludes all plausible axion models where its decay constant is above 10{sup 13} GeV. Moreover, there are strong theoretical, astrophysical, and cosmological motivations for models involving, in addition to the axion, also axion-like particles (ALPs), with decay constants in the intermediate scale range, between 10{sup 9} GeV and 10{sup 13} GeV. Here, we present a general analysis of models with an axion and further ALPs and derive bounds on the relative size of the axion and ALP photon (and electron) coupling. We discuss what we can learn from measurements of the axion and ALP photon couplings about the fundamental parameters of the underlying ultraviolet completion of the theory. For the latter we consider extensions of the Standard Model in which the axion and the ALP(s) appear as pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons from the breaking of global chiral U(1) (Peccei-Quinn (PQ)) symmetries, occuring accidentally as low energy remnants from exact discrete symmetries. In such models, the axion and the further ALP are protected from disastrous explicit symmetry breaking effects due to Planck-scale suppressed operators. The scenarios considered exploit heavy right handed neutrinos getting their mass via PQ symmetry breaking and thus explain the small mass of the active neutrinos via a seesaw relation between the electroweak and an intermediate PQ symmetry breaking scale. We show some models that can accommodate simultaneously an axion dark matter candidate, an ALP explaining the anomalous transparency of the universe for γ-rays, and an ALP explaining the recently reported 3.55 keV gamma line from galaxies and clusters of galaxies, if the respective decay constants are of intermediate scale.

  19. The quest for an intermediate-scale accidental axion and further ALPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, A.G.; Nishi, C.C.; Machado, A.C.B.; Vaudrevange, P.

    2014-03-01

    The recent detection of the cosmic microwave background polarimeter experiment BICEP2 of tensor fluctuations in the B-mode power spectrum basically excludes all plausible axion models where its decay constant is above 10 13 GeV. Moreover, there are strong theoretical, astrophysical, and cosmological motivations for models involving, in addition to the axion, also axion-like particles (ALPs), with decay constants in the intermediate scale range, between 10 9 GeV and 10 13 GeV. Here, we present a general analysis of models with an axion and further ALPs and derive bounds on the relative size of the axion and ALP photon (and electron) coupling. We discuss what we can learn from measurements of the axion and ALP photon couplings about the fundamental parameters of the underlying ultraviolet completion of the theory. For the latter we consider extensions of the Standard Model in which the axion and the ALP(s) appear as pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons from the breaking of global chiral U(1) (Peccei-Quinn (PQ)) symmetries, occuring accidentally as low energy remnants from exact discrete symmetries. In such models, the axion and the further ALP are protected from disastrous explicit symmetry breaking effects due to Planck-scale suppressed operators. The scenarios considered exploit heavy right handed neutrinos getting their mass via PQ symmetry breaking and thus explain the small mass of the active neutrinos via a seesaw relation between the electroweak and an intermediate PQ symmetry breaking scale. We show some models that can accommodate simultaneously an axion dark matter candidate, an ALP explaining the anomalous transparency of the universe for γ-rays, and an ALP explaining the recently reported 3.55 keV gamma line from galaxies and clusters of galaxies, if the respective decay constants are of intermediate scale.

  20. Leptospira spp. infection in wild ruminants: a survey in Central Italian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Andreoli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease diffused worldwide, and wildlife species are commonly considered to be important epidemiological carriers. Four-hundred and forty‑one serological and 198 renal samples from red deer, roe deer and chamois collected in the Province of Sondrio were analysed using the microscopic agglutination test and histopathologic examination. Positive serological findings were found only in 15 red deer and 19 positive serologic reactions were recorded. The most frequent serovars were Bratislava and Grippotyphosa, followed by Pomona, Hardjo and Copenhagheni. Twenty-two per cent of renal samples from seropositive red deer were affected by mild to moderate multifocal chronic lymphoplasmacytic and fibrosing tubulo-interstitial nephritis, mainly involving the cortical parenchyma. In this study, antibodies to Leptospira spp. were infrequent in wild ruminants, and only red deer seemed to be sensitive to the infection. Given the low presence and the fact that there was no record of Leptospira spp. infections in cattle, sheep, goats and also hunters in area during the study period, wild ruminants in Alpine environments cannot be considered as reservoirs or important sources of Leptospira spp. infection for humans or domestic animals.

  1. Isolated, but transnational: the glocal nature of Waldensian ethnobotany, Western Alps, NW Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellia, Giada; Pieroni, Andrea

    2015-05-07

    An ethnobotanical field study on the traditional uses of wild plants for food as well as medicinal and veterinary plants was conducted in four Waldensian valleys (Chisone, Germanasca, Angrogna, and Pellice) in the Western Alps, Piedmont, NW Italy. Waldensians represent a religious Protestant Christian minority that originated in France and spread around 1,170 AD to the Italian side of Western Alps, where, although persecuted for centuries, approximately 20,000 believers still survive today, increasingly mixing with their Catholic neighbours. Interviews with a total of 47 elderly informants, belonging to both Waldensian and Catholic religious groups, were undertaken in ten Western Alpine villages, using standard ethnobotanical methods. The uses of 85 wild and semi-domesticated food folk taxa, 96 medicinal folk taxa, and 45 veterinary folk taxa were recorded. Comparison of the collected data within the two religious communities shows that Waldensians had, or have retained, a more extensive ethnobotanical knowledge, and that approximately only half of the wild food and medicinal plants are known and used by both communities. Moreover, this convergence is greater for the wild food plant domain. Comparison of the collected data with ethnobotanical surveys conducted at the end of the 19th Century and the 1980s in one of studied valleys (Germanasca) shows that the majority of the plants recorded in the present study are used in the same or similar ways as they were decades ago. Idiosyncratic plant uses among Waldensians included both archaic uses, such as the fern Botrychium lunaria for skin problems, as well as uses that may be the result of local adaptions of Central and Northern European customs, including Veronica allionii and V. officinalis as recreational teas and Cetraria islandica in infusions to treat coughs. The great resilience of plant knowledge among Waldensians may be the result of the long isolation and history of marginalisation that this group has faced

  2. The Dual Listing of Austrian Companies in Vienna and Frankfurt: Dependence Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz Gurgul

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available International capital flows can be hampered by a variety of barriers such as transaction costs, information costs, and legal restrictions. The solution in this situation can be dual listing. The framework of the research presented here assumes that domestic securities are dually listed on a foreign capital market, while none of the foreign securities is dually listed on the domestic capital market. This paper is concerned with a dependence analysis of the log-levels and returns of Austrian stocks listed in Frankfurt and Vienna. The important issue is dynamic linear and non-linear causality between log-levels (returns of prices and the indices ATX and DAX. In this context the important directions of causality are found along with the level of relations of the selected types of causality.

  3. The Austrian early radiation warning system. Current status and new developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1995 the Austrian early radiation warning system consisted of external gamma dose rate measuring devices in 336 locations that are rather evenly distributed across Austria and of nine aerosol warning devices. The measurement devices are connected to regional warning centres via dedicated telephone lines. Now a basic change in the system is foreseen. A renewal of the air contamination warning devices is scheduled, plans are being developed to use more 'intelligent' gamma measuring devices and packet switched data transfer. A data base system will be set up, containing on-line dose rate and air contamination data as well as laboratory measurement data for various media. Communication of these data to federal and regional authorities and other institutions will be managed within a geographical information system. (R.P.)

  4. Modelling the impact of changes in the interest rates on the economy: An Austrian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Le Roux

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Even though econometric models and yield curve analysis are useful in assessing the impact of interest rate changes on the economic structure, their power to predict the magnitude and direction of swings in the business cycle is often restricted to the use of short-term interest rates. From an Austrian school perspective on interest rates, empirical evidence suggests that the profitability of heavy industries further downstream outperforms that of light industries in the initial stages of monetary easing, due to a rising demand for investment goods and a rise in capacity utilisation levels. This paper assesses the impact of interest rates changes on the productive structure of the economy by taking into account the effect thereof on sector earnings and ultimately share prices.

  5. Uncertainty and the welfare economics of medical care: an Austrian rebuttal Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Berdine

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Part 2 of this 3 part series continues a rebuttal to Kenneth Arrow’s famous argument that health care is special and free market economic principles do not apply. The rebuttal is based on concepts of Austrian Economics. Part 1 of the series framed the debate and discussed general concepts. Part 2 discusses specific examples of how health care is special and does not behave according to market principles. Uncertainty of demand and uncertainty of outcome are discussed in detail. Information asymmetry is a special form of uncertainty that Kenneth Arrow claimed was somewhat unique to health care. Free market solutions to these problems are discussed in general with specific examples provided. The conclusions are that free market insurance (as opposed to subsidy handles uncertainty of demand, branding handles uncertainty of outcome, and the free market for specialized information handles information asymmetry.

  6. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of Austrian wine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, X. [Atominstitut der Osterreichischen Universitaeten, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Kregsamer, P. [Atominstitut der Osterreichischen Universitaeten, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Wobrauschek, P. [Atominstitut der Osterreichischen Universitaeten, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Streli, C. [Atominstitut der Osterreichischen Universitaeten, 1020 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: streli@ati.ac.at

    2006-11-15

    The concentration of major, minor and trace elements in Austrian wine was determined by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence using gallium as internal standard. A multi-elemental analysis was possible by pipetting 6 {mu}l of wine directly on the reflector and drying. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis was performed with Atomika EXTRA II A (Cameca) X-rays from a Mo tube with a high-energy cut-off at 20 keV in total-reflection geometry. The results showed that it was possible to identify only by the elemental analysis as fingerprint the vineyards and year of vintage among 11 different wines.

  7. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of Austrian wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, X.; Kregsamer, P.; Wobrauschek, P.; Streli, C.

    2006-01-01

    The concentration of major, minor and trace elements in Austrian wine was determined by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence using gallium as internal standard. A multi-elemental analysis was possible by pipetting 6 μl of wine directly on the reflector and drying. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis was performed with Atomika EXTRA II A (Cameca) X-rays from a Mo tube with a high-energy cut-off at 20 keV in total-reflection geometry. The results showed that it was possible to identify only by the elemental analysis as fingerprint the vineyards and year of vintage among 11 different wines

  8. Scientific support, soil information and education provided by the Austrian Soil Science Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Sigbert; Baumgarten, Andreas; Birli, Barbara; Englisch, Michael; Tulipan, Monika; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie

    2015-04-01

    The Austrian Soil Science Society (ASSS), founded in 1954, is a non-profit organisation aiming at furthering all branches of soil science in Austria. The ASSS provides information on the current state of soil research in Austria and abroad. It organizes annual conferences for scientists from soil and related sciences to exchange their recent studies and offers a journal for scientific publications. Annually, ASSS awards the Kubiena Research Prize for excellent scientific studies provided by young scientists. In order to conserve and improve soil science in the field, excursions are organized, also in cooperation with other scientific organisations. Due to well-established contacts with soil scientists and soil science societies in many countries, the ASSS is able to provide its members with information about the most recent developments in the field of soil science. This contributes to a broadening of the current scientific knowledge on soils. The ASSS also co-operates in the organisation of excursions and meetings with neighbouring countries. Several members of the ASSS teach soil science at various Austrian universities. More detail on said conferences, excursions, publications and awards will be given in the presentation. Beside its own scientific journal, published once or twice a year, and special editions such as guidebooks for soil classification, the ASSS runs a website providing information on the Society, its activities, meetings, publications, awards and projects. Together with the Environment Agency Austria the ASSS runs a soil platform on the internet. It is accessible for the public and thus informs society about soil issues. This platform offers a calendar with national and international soil events, contacts of soil related organisations and networks, information on national projects and publications. The society has access to products, information material and information on educational courses. Last but not least information on specific soil

  9. Austrian Business Cycle Theory: Are 100 Percent Reserves Sufficient to Prevent a Business Cycle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Bagus

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Authors in the Austrian tradition have made the credit expansion of a fractional reserve banking system as the prime cause of business cycles. Authors such as Selgin (1988 and White (1999 have argued that a solution to this problem would be a free banking system. They maintain that the competition between banks would limit the credit expansion effectively. Other authors such as Rothbard (1991 and Huerta de Soto (2006 have gone further and advocated a 100 percent reserve banking system ruling out credit expansion altogether. In this article it is argued that a 100 percent reserve system can still bring about business cycles through excessive maturity mismatching between deposits and loans.

  10. The Austrian social festival Keep the Ball Rolling in a peripheral region of Upper Styria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gstach Isabell

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The “Steirische Eisenstraße” is a region located in the province of Styria in Austria, which has been struggling with a massive shift in population and age structure for some time. In 2012/13 the Austrian social festival Keep the Ball Rolling is taking place in this region. Over a period of 18 months, the social festival is providing opportunities to think of their own environment. Consequently, they can develop and implement ideas for good cohabitation and put these into practice. The main focus of this article is the demographic presentation of the “Steirische Eisenstraße” region, according to population, employment and age structure. The introduction of the social festival is fundamental in initiating successful change processes.

  11. [Palaeostructures of vegetation at the upper limit of forests in the inner French Alps].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Serge D; Nakagawa, Takeshi; de Beaulieu, Jacques-Louis; Court-Picon, Mona; Fauquette, Séverine; Genries, Aurélie

    2006-07-01

    The comparison of six pollen diagrams from French Alps allows us to reconstruct the past changes of vegetation structure at the upper limit of Subalpine range. Dense populations of Pinus cembra developed between 6500 and 2400 cal. BP, both in the southern Alps and the northern ones. Southern Alps seem however to be characterised by higher altitudinal limits, as shown by the past development of fir forests at 2080 m a.s.l. in the Ubaye valley. This study highlights the importance of taking in account local parameters in regional or continental reviews.

  12. Tracer and hydrometric techniques to determine the contribution of glacier melt to a proglacial stream in the Ötztal Alps (Tyrol, Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmieder, Jan; Marke, Thomas; Strasser, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    Glaciers are important seasonal water contributors in many mountainous landscapes. For water resources management it is important to know about the timing and amount of released glacier melt water, especially in downstream regions where the water is needed (hydropower, drinking water) or where it represents a potential risk (drought, flood). Seasonal availability of melt water is strongly dependent on boundary layer atmospheric processes and becomes even more relevant in a changing climate. Environmental tracers are a useful tool in the assessment of snow and ice water resources, because they provide information about the sources, flow paths and traveling times of water contributing to streamflow at the catchment scale. Previously, high-elevation tracer studies throughout the Alps have been scarce as they require intense field work in remote areas. However, hydrometric and meteorological measurements combined with tracer analyses help to unravel streamflow composition and improve the understanding of hydroclimatological processes. On top of that, empirical studies are necessary to parameterize and validate hydrological models in more process-oriented ways, rather than comparing total measured and simulated runoff only. In the present study three approaches are applied to derive glacier melt contributions to a proglacial stream at the seasonal scale and to identify their individual advances and limitations. Tracers used for each approach are (1) electrical conductivity, (2) stable isotopes of water and (3) heavy metals. The field work was conducted during the summer of 2015 in the glaciated (35%) high-elevation catchment of the Hochjochbach, a small sub-basin (17 km²) of the Ötztaler Ache river in the Austrian Alps, ranging from 2400 to 3500 m.a.s.l. in elevation. Hydroclimatological data was provided by an automatic weather station and a gauging station equipped with a pressure transducer. Water samples from shallow groundwater, streamflow, glacier and snow melt

  13. Survey to identify depth of penetration of critical incident reporting systems in Austrian healthcare facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendlhofer, Gerald; Eder, Harald; Leitgeb, Karina; Gorges, Roland; Jakse, Heidelinde; Raiger, Marianne; Türk, Silvia; Petschnig, Walter; Pregartner, Gudrun; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Brunner, Gernot

    2018-01-01

    Incident reporting systems or so-called critical incident reporting systems (CIRS) were first recommended for use in health care more than 15 years ago. The uses of these CIRS are highly variable among countries, ranging from being used to report critical incidents, falls, or sentinel events resulting in death. In Austria, CIRS have only been introduced to the health care sector relatively recently. The goal of this work, therefore, was to determine whether and specifically how CIRS are used in Austria. A working group from the Austrian Society for Quality and Safety in Healthcare (ASQS) developed a survey on the topic of CIRS to collect information on penetration of CIRS in general and on how CIRS reports are used to increase patient safety. Three hundred seventy-one health care professionals from 274 health care facilities were contacted via e-mail. Seventy-eight respondents (21.0%) completed the online survey, thereof 66 from hospitals and 12 from other facilities (outpatient clinics, nursing homes). In all, 64.1% of the respondents indicated that CIRS were used in the entire health care facility; 20.6% had not yet introduced CIRS and 15.4% used CIRS only in particular areas. Most often, critical incidents without any harm to patients were reported (76.9%); however, some health care facilities also use their CIRS to report patient falls (16.7%), needle stick injuries (17.9%), technical problems (51.3%), or critical incidents involving health care professionals. CIRS are not yet extensively or homogeneously used in Austria. Inconsistencies exist with respect to which events are reported as well as how they are followed up and reported to health care professionals. Further recommendations for general use are needed to support the dissemination in Austrian health care environments.

  14. Lymphedema and employability - Review and results of a survey of Austrian experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Markus; Schoberwalter, Dieter; Cenik, Fadime; Keilani, Mohammad; Crevenna, Richard

    2017-03-01

    Literature about lymphedema and its influence on the ability to work and employability is limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate the opinion of Austrian experts on factors influencing the ability to work and employability in patients suffering from lymphedema. A self-administered questionnaire consisting of 6 questions was sent to 12 Austrian lymphedema experts with 6 different specializations from May to August 2016. These experts were asked about suitable and unsuitable professions, the possible influence of lymphedema on the ability to work and employability as well as about existing and additional measures to improve the return to work. The reply rate was 100% (12 out of 12). All experts agreed that lymphedema can restrict the ability to work and employability. The leading reason for limited ability to work and employability was restricted mobility or function of the affected limb along with time-consuming therapeutic modalities, pain and psychological stress. The most suitable job named was teacher and the most unsuitable job named was cook. As easements for return to work, early rehabilitation, self-management, coping strategies, patient education, employer's goodwill and employer's cooperation were reported. Furthermore, experts stressed the need for an adjustment of the legal framework as well as low-barrier and more therapy offers. Adjusted work demands seem to be of greater importance to support the ability to work and employability than recommendations for specific job profiles alone. Experts suggest an adjustment of the legal framework for affected patients, claiming a right for early rehabilitation as well as for life-long therapy. Even though some clinically useful conclusions may be drawn from this article, further research in the field is warranted.

  15. Post-irradiation examination of HTR-fuel at the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitsamer, G.; Proksch, E.; Stolba, G.; Strigl, A.; Falta, G.; Zeger, J.

    1985-01-01

    Austrian R and D activities in the HTR-field reach back almost to the beginning of this advanced reactor line. For more than 20 years post-irradiation examination (PIE) of HTR-fuel has been performed at the laboratories of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf Ltd. (OEFZS) (formerly OESGAE) and a high degree of qualification has been achieved in the course of that time. Most of the PIE-work has been carried out by international cooperation on contract basis with the OECD-DRAGON-project and with KFA-Juelich (FRG). There has also been some collaboration with GA (USA), Belgonucleaire and others in the past. HTR-fuel elements contain the fissile and fertile materials in form of coated particles (CPs) which are embedded in a graphite matrix. Because of this special design it has been necessary from the very beginning of the PIE work up to now to develop new methods (i.e. fuel element disintegration methods, chlorine gas leach, single particle examination techniques...) as well as to adapt and improve already existing methods (i.e. gamma spectrometry, mass-spectrometry, optical methods...). The main interests on PIE-work at Seibersdorf are concentrated on particle performance, fission product distribution and the 'free' Uranium content (contamination and broken particles) of the fuel elements (fuel spheres or cylindrical compacts). A short compilation of the applied methods and of available instrumental facilities is given as follows: deconsolidation of fuel elements; equipment for electrochemical deconsolidation; examinations and measurements of graphite and electrolyte samples; examination of coated particles; single particle examinations

  16. Leishmania infections in Austrian soldiers returning from military missions abroad: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obwaller, Adelheid G; Köhsler, Martina; Poeppl, Wolfgang; Herkner, Harald; Mooseder, Gerhard; Aspöck, Horst; Walochnik, Julia

    2018-01-12

    The incidence of leishmaniasis is known to increase in conflict areas. The aim of this study was to determine the exposure to Leishmania species in Austrian soldiers returning from missions abroad also assessing possible risk factors. A retrospective explorative cross-sectional serological study was conducted in 225 healthy Austrian soldiers returning from UN or EU peace-keeping missions in Syria, the Lebanon and Bosnia and Herzegovina (BIH), respectively. Sera were tested for anti-Leishmania antibodies using a commercial ELISA. All positive individuals were screened for Leishmania DNA by PCR targeting the ITS1 region using EDTA blood samples. In total, 13.3% (30/225) of the individuals tested were either positive (8%=18/225) or borderline (5.3%=12/225) in the ELISA, with highest seroprevalence in soldiers returning from Syria (17.8%=18/101; 12 positive, 6 borderline), second from the Lebanon (11.1%=7/63; 4 positive, 3 borderline), and lowest from BIH (8.2%=5/61; 2 positive, 3 borderline). Ten soldiers returning from Syria and one from BIH were also positive for Leishmania DNA. Six of these were identified as Leishmania donovani/infantum complex, two as L. tropica, and another three as mixed infections by DNA sequencing. Epidemiological data were collected with a questionnaire, seropositivity correlated with a history of lengthy-healing insect bites (OR 5.33, 95% CI 1.23-23.04, p = 0.025). Although, pre-travel serological data was not available in this study, the exposure of soldiers to Leishmania spp. during their missions can be assumed to be considerable. As even asymptomatic infections may resurge in case of emerging immunodeficiencies, adequate prevention measures seem important. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Avalanche risk assessment for mountain roads - a comparison of case studies from Iceland and the Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastl, M.; Stötter, J.

    2009-04-01

    ðarvegur between Siglufjörður and Straumnes in northern Iceland (Wastl et al. 2008). The total length of the public road network in Iceland is ca. 13000 km, mostly low-volume roads outside built-up areas. Almost 10500 km of these roads are open all year. Substantial parts of the public road network e.g. in central northern Iceland, northwestern and eastern Iceland lie in alpine mountain areas and are affected by characteristic natural hazard processes. Though the resulting road maintenance costs are considerable there is no general overview of the natural hazard situation up to now. The case study for Siglufjarðarvegur shows that a regional scale risk based approach is practical to determine, analyse and assess the natural hazard situation on mountain roads in Iceland and helps to assign priorities in following detailed investigations and the planning of measures. Thus road sections of a high risk level which should be given priority for possible protective measures can be identified and distinguished from areas of avalanche hazard where the collective avalanche death risk is low and acceptable according to international practice. The calculated risks can further be reduced by measures like temporary closing of parts of the road, which can bring the risk to an acceptable level almost everywhere in the investigated road section. This requires, however, a systematic monitoring of the development of the natural hazard situation along the road. The cumulative risk for the investigated section of Siglufjarðarvegur, for the case that no measures of avalanche prevention or control or temporary closing of the road are taken, agrees well with values determined for mountain roads in the Alps. References Borter P. (1999a) Risikoanalyse bei gravitativen Naturgefahren - Methode. Bundesamt für Umwelt, Wald und Landschaft (ed) Umwelt-Materialien 107/I Naturgefahren, Bern. Borter P. (1999b) Risikoanalyse bei gravitativen Naturgefahren - Fallbeispiele und Daten. Bundesamt für Umwelt, Wald

  18. Snow chemistry of high altitude glaciers in the French Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupetit, François; Delmas, Robert J.

    1994-09-01

    Snow samples were collected as snowcores in the accumulation zone of four high altitude glaciers (2980 3540m.a.s.l.) from each of the 4 highest mountain areas of the French Alps, during 3 consecutive years: 1989, 1990 and 1991. Sampling was performed in spring (˜ May), before the onset of late spring summer percolation. The accumulated snow therefore reflects winter and spring conditions. A complementary sampling of fresh-snow was performed on an event basis, on one of the studied glaciers, in 1990 and 1991. All samples were analysed for major ions (but also for total formate and acetate in fresh-snow samples) using ion chromatography. The acidity-alkalinity was accurately determined with a titration technique. The ion balance of alpine snow has been achieved from those analyses. High alpine snow is slightly acid (H+ 3 20 μeq 11), but is episodically affected by alkaline saharan dust events. The different sources (pollution, seasalt and soil dust) affecting the impurity content of snow were identified using principal component analysis. The measured free acidity, mainly from anthropogenic origin, originates from nitric acid scavenging while sulfuric acidity is partially neutralized by atmospheric ammonia and by alkaline soil dust derived species, the contribution of hydrochloric acid being negligible. All ions exhibit higher concentrations in spring than in winter snow, indicating most likely the influence of increased vertical transport from the lower troposphere at this time. The transport of saharan dust is described through three major events reaching the Alps during March 1990 and 1991. Very high concentrations of Ca2+ and HCO3 were measured in corresponding samples, indicating that the solubilisation of CaCO3 represents the major influence of saharan dust on the impurity content of alpine snow, shifting the pH from acid towards alkaline values. Chemical analysis suggests that during their transport, mineral alkaline particles can react through acid

  19. Modeling Sustainable Bioenergy Feedstock Production in the Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraxner, Florian; Leduc, Sylvain; Kindermann, Georg; Fuss, Sabine; Pietsch, Stephan; Lakyda, Ivan; Serrano Leon, Hernan; Shchepashchenko, Dmitry; Shvidenko, Anatoly

    2016-04-01

    Sustainability of bioenergy is often indicated by the neutrality of emissions at the conversion site while the feedstock production site is assumed to be carbon neutral. Recent research shows that sustainability of bioenergy systems starts with feedstock management. Even if sustainable forest management is applied, different management types can impact ecosystem services substantially. This study examines different sustainable forest management systems together with an optimal planning of green-field bioenergy plants in the Alps. Two models - the biophysical global forest model (G4M) and a techno-economic engineering model for optimizing renewable energy systems (BeWhere) are implemented. G4M is applied in a forward looking manner in order to provide information on the forest under different management scenarios: (1) managing the forest for maximizing the carbon sequestration; or (2) managing the forest for maximizing the harvestable wood amount for bioenergy production. The results from the forest modelling are then picked up by the engineering model BeWhere, which optimizes the bioenergy production in terms of energy demand (power and heat demand by population) and supply (wood harvesting potentials), feedstock harvesting and transport costs, the location and capacity of the bioenergy plant as well as the energy distribution logistics with respect to heat and electricity (e.g. considering existing grids for electricity or district heating etc.). First results highlight the importance of considering ecosystem services under different scenarios and in a geographically explicit manner. While aiming at producing the same amount of bioenergy under both forest management scenarios, it turns out that in scenario (1) a substantially larger area (distributed across the Alps) will need to be used for producing (and harvesting) the necessary amount of feedstock than under scenario (2). This result clearly shows that scenario (2) has to be seen as an "intensification

  20. The tectonometamorphic evolution of the Apuseni Mountains (Romania): Geodynamic constraints for the evolution of the Alps-Carpathians-Dinaride system of orogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, Martin; Schuster, Ralf; Fügenschuh, Bernhard

    2015-04-01

    New structural, thermobarometric and geochronological data allow integrating kinematics, timing and intensity of tectonic phases into a geodynamic model of the Apuseni Mountain, which provides new constraints for the evolution of the Alps-Carpathians-Dinaride system of orogens. Strong differences in terms of deformation directions between Early and Late Cretaceous events provide new constraints on the regional geodynamic evolution during the Cretaceous. Geochronological and structural data evidence a Late Jurassic emplacement of the South Apuseni Ophiolites on top of the Biharia Nappe System (Dacia Mega-Unit), situated in an external position at the European margin. Following the emplacement of the ophiolites, three compressive deformation phases affected the Apuseni Mountains during Alpine orogeny: a) NE-directed in-sequence nappe stacking and regional metamorphic overprinting under amphibolite-facies conditions during the Early Cretaceous ("Austrian Phase"), b) NW-directed thrusting and folding, associated with greenschist-facies overprinting, during the early Late Cretaceous ("Turonian Phase") and c) E-W internal folding together with brittle thrusting during the latest Cretaceous ("Laramian Phase"). Major tectonic unroofing and exhumation at the transition from Early to Late Cretaceous times is documented through new Sm-Nd Grt, Ar-Ar Ms and Rb-Sr Bt ages from the study area and resulted in a complex thermal structure with strong lateral and vertical thermal gradients. Nappe stacking and medium-grade metamorphic overprinting during the Early Cretaceous exhibits striking parallels between the evolution of the Tisza-Dacia Mega-Units and the Austroalpine Nappes (ALCAPA Mega-Unit) and evidences a close connection. However, Late Cretaceous tectonic events in the study area exhibit strong similarities with the Dinarides. Thus, the Apuseni Mountains represent the "missing link" between the Early Cretaceous Meliata subduction (associated with obduction of ophiolites

  1. Identification and assessment of groundwater flow and storage components of the relict Schöneben Rock Glacier, Niedere Tauern Range, Eastern Alps (Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Gerfried; Wagner, Thomas; Pauritsch, Marcus; Birk, Steffen; Kellerer-Pirklbauer, Andreas; Benischke, Ralf; Leis, Albrecht; Morawetz, Rainer; Schreilechner, Marcellus G.; Hergarten, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    More than 2,600 relict rock glaciers are known in the Austrian Alps but the knowledge of their hydraulic properties is severely limited. The relict Schöneben Rock Glacier (Niedere Tauern Range, Austria), with an extension of 0.17 km2, was investigated based on spring data (2006-2014) and seismic refraction survey. Spring-discharge hydrographs and natural and artificial tracer data suggest a heterogeneous aquifer with a layered internal structure for the relict rock glacier. The discharge behavior exhibits a fast and a delayed flow component. The spring discharge responds to recharge events within a few hours but a mean residence time of several months can also be observed. The internal structure of the rock glacier (up to several tens of meters thick) consists of: an upper blocky layer with a few meters of thickness, which lacks fine-grained sediments; a main middle layer with coarse and finer-grained sediments, allowing for fast flow; and an approximately 10-m-thick basal till layer as the main aquifer body responsible for the base flow. The base-flow component is controlled by (fine) sandy to silty sediments with low hydraulic conductivity and high storage capacity, exhibiting a difference in hydraulic conductivity to the upper layer of about three orders of magnitude. The high storage capacity of relict rock glaciers has an impact on water resources management in alpine catchments and potentially regulates the risk of natural hazards such as floods and related debris flows. Thus, the results highlight the importance of such aquifer systems in alpine catchments.

  2. Air Force ALP AEF Initiative Wing-Level Cluster Development and Demonstration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stute, Nicholas

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the results for the Air Force ALP AEF Initiative Wing-Level Cluster Development and Demonstration task jointly sponsored by the Logistics Readiness Branch...

  3. La recherche sur les montagnes entre Alpes et monde : regards rétrospectifs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Scheurer

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available L’expression « recherche alpine », on le constatera au fil de ce volume, reste bien incertaine. La première lecture suscite une interrogation : s’agit-il d’une recherche menée sur les Alpes ou dans les Alpes ? Ou pour les Alpes ? C’est-à-dire répondant à une demande émanant d’« acteurs alpins » ? On observera aisément que la recherche sur des terrains alpins et selon des thématiques et des questionnements soulevés par les sociétés alpines est menée préférentiellement au sein des Alpes. Il n’y...

  4. Detecting an infrared photon within an hour. Transition-edge detector at ALPS-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreyling-Eschweiler, Jan [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik; Horns, Dieter [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik; Collaboration: ALPS-II collaboration

    2013-09-15

    An essential design requirement of the ALPS-II experiment is the efficient detection of single photons with a very low instrumental background of 10 {mu}Hz. In 2011 the ALPS collaboration started to set up a TES detector (Transition-Edge Sensor) for ALPS-II, the second phase of the experiment. Since mid of 2013 the setup is ready for characterization in the ALPS laboratory: an ADR cryostat (Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator) as millikelvin environment, a low noise SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) with electronics for read-out and a fiber-coupled high-efficient TES for near-infrared photons as sensor. First measurements have shown a good discrimination between noise and 1064 nm signals.

  5. Detecting an infrared photon within an hour. Transition-edge detector at ALPS-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreyling-Eschweiler, Jan; Hamburg Univ.; Horns, Dieter

    2013-09-01

    An essential design requirement of the ALPS-II experiment is the efficient detection of single photons with a very low instrumental background of 10 μHz. In 2011 the ALPS collaboration started to set up a TES detector (Transition-Edge Sensor) for ALPS-II, the second phase of the experiment. Since mid of 2013 the setup is ready for characterization in the ALPS laboratory: an ADR cryostat (Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator) as millikelvin environment, a low noise SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) with electronics for read-out and a fiber-coupled high-efficient TES for near-infrared photons as sensor. First measurements have shown a good discrimination between noise and 1064 nm signals.

  6. The Advanced Locking Plate System (ALPS): a retrospective evaluation in 71 small animal patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Tomás G; Kalchofner, Karin; Scherrer, Nicole; Kircher, Patrick

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate use of the Advanced Locking Plate System (ALPS) in dogs and cats and report outcome. Retrospective case series. Dogs (n = 29) and cats (n = 42). The medical records (April 2007-April 2010) of dogs and cats treated with ALPS were reviewed evaluated. Data retrieved included signalment, indication for surgery, complications, and outcome. ALPS was used for 54 fractures, 12 tarsal or carpal ligament injuries and in 6 cases, to prevent or treat fractures during total hip replacement. Complications needing revision surgery occurred in 4 cases (5.5%): fixation failure was identified in 3 (2 fracture-fixations, 1 pancarpal arthrodesis), and a fracture occurred through a screw hole. The most common complication after tarsal arthrodesis was suture dehiscence. All cases had healed by study end. ALPS offers a reliable alternative for fracture treatment and some other orthopedic conditions in small animals. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  7. Comparison Of Net Ecosystem CO{sub 2} Exchange Of An Extensively Used Grassland And A Protected Wetland In The Swiss Alps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogiers, N.; Eugster, W. [ETH Zuerich (Switzerland); Furger, M.

    2005-03-01

    CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O vapour fluxes were measured with the eddy covariance method at a grassland in the Swiss central Alps. The impact of agricultural management on the CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O exchange is shown by comparing the fluxes measured at an extensively used area and a protected site. Whereas the CO{sub 2} fluxes where completely disturbed by the grass cut, the water vapour fluxes remained more or less unchanged. (author)

  8. Advanced Large Area Plastic Scintillator Project (ALPS): Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, David V.; Reeder, Paul L.; Todd, Lindsay C.; Warren, Glen A.; McCormick, Kathleen R.; Stephens, Daniel L.; Geelhood, Bruce D.; Alzheimer, James M.; Crowell, Shannon L.; Sliger, William A.

    2008-02-05

    The advanced Large-Area Plastic Scintillator (ALPS) Project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory investigated possible technological avenues for substantially advancing the state-of-the-art in gamma-ray detection via large-area plastic scintillators. The three predominant themes of these investigations comprised the following: * Maximizing light collection efficiency from a single large-area sheet of plastic scintillator, and optimizing hardware event trigger definition to retain detection efficiency while exploiting the power of coincidence to suppress single-PMT "dark current" background; * Utilizing anti-Compton vetoing and supplementary spectral information from a co-located secondary, or "Back" detector, to both (1) minimize Compton background in the low-energy portion of the "Front" scintillator's pulse-height spectrum, and (2) sharpen the statistical accuracy of the front detector's low-energy response prediction as impelmented in suitable energy-windowing algorithms; and * Investigating alternative materials to enhance the intrinsic gamma-ray detection efficiency of plastic-based sensors.

  9. CLIM-RUN: Tourism cas study over the French Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, C.

    2012-04-01

    Climate information for societal use has becoming a major challenge for tourism management and adaptation in a context of strong climate variability and change. Within the CLIMRUN EU FP7, a case study on summer tourism in the French Alps has been identify. I will introduce the bottom-up approach use in the project where stakeholders and local users meet with climate experts. From those meetings, they thus identify the climate dependence and information which impact their summer activities over this region. All the activities are located in a mountainous region where outdoor leisure is the main economic driver of the region. It has emerged that the climate requirements are as well on past as on future climate information. On one side, the past climate parameters are found to be an invaluable information to evaluate the climate dependence of the different activities. A better knowledge as well as a growing interest in climate variability has been express to quantify the climate dependence on their activities. On the other side, the future climate information requested mainly on seasonal to decadal timescale. A particular interest has been express on the snow cover at the end of the winter season, evolution of heavy precipitations, heatwave, air temperatures and well as the water temperature of the mountainous lakes. Those climate variables are used to create comfort index under climate change. All those targeted climate information are based on on-going projects as well as future model development.

  10. Status of ELI-ALPS implementation (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osvay, Karoly; Charalambidis, Dimitris; Antici, Patrizio; Dombi, Péter; Fulop, Lajos J.; Lepine, Franck; Mészáros, Gergo; Sansone, Giuseppe; Varju, Katalin G.

    2017-05-01

    The major research equipment of the Attosecond Light Pulse Source of the Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI-ALPS) are driven by laser pulses of few cycle duration operating in the 100 W average power regime. The peak power and the repetition rate span from 1 TW at 100 kHz up to PW at 10 Hz. The systems are designed for stable and reliable operation, yet to deliver pulses with unique parameters, especially with unmatched fluxes and extreme bandwidths. This exceptional performance will enable the generation of secondary sources with exceptional characteristics, including light sources ranging from the THz to the X-ray spectral ranges, and particle sources. The experimental activities in the building complex to be inaugurated early 2017 will start with the installation of the two 100 kHz repetition rate, CEP stabilized lasers in May 2017. The MIR laser produces 0.15mJ, shorter than 4-optical-cylce pulses tunable between 2.5-3.9 µm. The first stage of the HR laser will provide pulses around 1 µm with 1 mJ energy and pulse duration less than 6.2 fs. The systems will be optically synchronized to each other with a temporal jitter below 1 fs. Along with the installation of the lasers, we will also start the assembly of the high harmonic beamlines and the THz laboratory, as well as nanoplasmonic experiments. The XUV bursts of light with attosecond duration are expected to be generated by the end of 2017.

  11. Statistically extrapolated nowcasting of summertime precipitation over the Eastern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Bica, Benedikt; Tüchler, Lukas; Kann, Alexander; Wang, Yong

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a new multiple linear regression (MLR) approach to updating the hourly, extrapolated precipitation forecasts generated by the INCA (Integrated Nowcasting through Comprehensive Analysis) system for the Eastern Alps. The generalized form of the model approximates the updated precipitation forecast as a linear response to combinations of predictors selected through a backward elimination algorithm from a pool of predictors. The predictors comprise the raw output of the extrapolated precipitation forecast, the latest radar observations, the convective analysis, and the precipitation analysis. For every MLR model, bias and distribution correction procedures are designed to further correct the systematic regression errors. Applications of the MLR models to a verification dataset containing two months of qualified samples, and to one-month gridded data, are performed and evaluated. Generally, MLR yields slight, but definite, improvements in the intensity accuracy of forecasts during the late evening to morning period, and significantly improves the forecasts for large thresholds. The structure-amplitude-location scores, used to evaluate the performance of the MLR approach, based on its simulation of morphological features, indicate that MLR typically reduces the overestimation of amplitudes and generates similar horizontal structures in precipitation patterns and slightly degraded location forecasts, when compared with the extrapolated nowcasting.

  12. Fog Chemistry at Different Altitudes in the Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michna, P.; Eugster, W.; Wanner, H.

    2010-07-01

    During two extended summer seasons in 2006 and 2007, we installed two battery driven versions of the Caltech active strand cloud water collector (MiniCASCC) at the Niesen mountain in the northern Swiss Alps. Along, we measured air temperature, relative humidity, wind, and visibility. During these two field operation phases we gained weekly samples of fogwater, where we analysed the major anions and cations, and the stable water isotopes δD and δ18O. The fog collectors were installed at an altitude of 2300 and 1600 m asl to resolve altitudinal differences in fog chemistry. We found a large variability between the events, but no clear altitudinal gradient. At both sites, the most important ions were nitrate, ammonium, and sulphate. Higher concentrations occured preferably in late spring (start of sampling period) and in autumn (end of sampling). Compared to previous studies at lower elevations in the Swiss Plateau during wintertime, our measurements showed considerable lower ion loads in the fogwater. The combination of these results suggest that lowest ion loads are found in convective clouds with a short lifetime and that the highest ion loads occur during radiation fog events at lower elevations.

  13. Clinoenstatite in alpe arami peridotite: additional evidence of very high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhilov; Green; Dobrzhinetskaya

    1999-04-02

    Observations by transmission electron microscopy show that lamellae of clinoenstatite are present in diopside grains of the Alpe Arami garnet lherzolite of the Swiss Alps. The simplest interpretation of the orientation, crystallography, and microstructures of the lamellae and the phase relationships in this system is that the lamellae originally exsolved as the high-pressure C-centered form of clinoenstatite. These results imply that the rocks were exhumed from a minimum depth of 250 kilometers before or during continental collision.

  14. La géologie du Valle del Bitto et la tectonique des Alpes Lombardes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tromp, S.W.

    1931-01-01

    Parmi toutes les zones non encore étudiées des Alpes Bergamasques, ce sont surtout les Valle del Bitto di Albaredo e di Gerola qui m'ont attiré, attendu qu'ils présentent une région des Alpes Bergamasques encore complètement négligée jusqu'à présent, à savoir: la zone cristallophyllienne de la

  15. Glaciation's topographic control on Holocene erosion at the eastern edge of the Alps

    OpenAIRE

    J. L. Dixon; J. L. Dixon; F. von Blanckenburg; F. von Blanckenburg; K. Stüwe; M. Christl

    2016-01-01

    What is the influence of glacial processes in driving erosion and uplift across the European Alps? It has largely been argued that repeated erosion and glaciation sustain isostatic uplift and topography in a decaying orogen. But some parts of the Alps may still be actively uplifting via deep lithospheric processes. We add insight to this debate by isolating the role of post-glacial topographic forcing on erosion rates. To do this, we quantify the topographic signature of pas...

  16. Possible room temperature ferromagnetism in Ca-doped AlP: First-principles study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Based on first-principle calculations, we have studied the electronic and magnetic properties of AlP with aluminium vacancy and calcium doping. It was found that while Al vacancy and Ca impurity themselves are nonmagnetic, they generate holes residing in P 2p orbitals that lead to magnetic moments in AlP. The coupling between two Al vacancies in AlP are always antiferromagnetic because of half-filled t 2 level. However, the coupling becomes ferromagnetic with large magnetic energy when vacancies are replaced by nonmagnetic Ca atoms. Moreover, the presence of Ca dopants reduces the formation energy of Al vacancy. These results suggest that Ca-doped AlP is a promising room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductor free of magnetic precipitates, and it may find applications in the field of spintronics. - Highlights: • “d 0 ferromagnetism” has been found in Ca-doped AlP. • Unpaired t 2 state of P atoms has an important impact on magnetic properties. • Room temperature T C may be expected in Ca-doped AlP

  17. Teaching in Bukovina at the time of the Austrian domination. The Foundation of the University of Tchernivtsi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Baltag

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Teaching is a mirror that reveals how a nation defines and limits its identity in history, taking its landmarks at cultural level. The situation of education in Bukovina during the Austrian occupation was precarious, especially in the presence of the Romanian language in schools. In that sense, the Romanians of Bukovina fought against the preponderance of German language, imposed by the Austrian occupation and against the pressure exerted by the Ukrainians to impose their mother tongue in educational institutions. If the quality of the teaching of the first schools remained at a fairly low level, the time has come when, following the Western model, Bukovina raised the level of its institutions. The Theological Institute which turns into the Faculty of Theology so that the University of Tchernivtsi allowed students to complete their studies in Bukovina, without having to study in the academic centers of Liov or Vienna.

  18. Connectedness to nature and public (skin) health perspectives: results of a representative, population-based survey among Austrian residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluza, Daniela; Simic, Stana; Höltge, Jan; Cervinka, Renate; Moshammer, Hanns

    2014-01-20

    Connectedness to nature (CN) influences motivation to have contact with outdoor natural environments. Spending leisure time in natural environments is beneficial for human health and well-being. Besides these positive effects, health risks of open-air activities are mainly related to unprotected sun light exposure-associated acute and chronic skin hazards. Thus, we conducted a cross-sectional, representative telephone survey among Austrian residents to study the association of perceived CN level with sun-exposure knowledge, tanning habits, and sun protective behaviour. In total, 1,500 study subjects (50.5% females) participated in this questionnaire survey. Although knowledge about tanning and motives to tan were similar among genders, females performed more photoprotective measures and were more connected to nature (all p nature connectedness and skin health-relevant recreational habits of Austrian residents. The findings suggest to integrate hitherto neglected gender-specific Public (Skin) Health promotion when counselling on the manifold health advantages of outdoor activities.

  19. Victimhood through a creaturely lens: creatureliness, trauma and victimhood in Austrian and Italian literature and film after 1945

    OpenAIRE

    Hills, A. J.

    2017-01-01

    The thesis compares the representation of the Second World War, fascism and the Holocaust in Italian and Austrian literature and film. In Austria, the national myth of ‘Hitler’s first victim’ echoes with the prevalent Italian cultural narrative of the ‘good Italian’, which forecloses uncomfortable reckonings with toxic historical legacies and their traumatic aftermaths. By drawing on a range of theoretical writers such as Benjamin, Weil, Santner and Agamben, I argue that the ‘creature’ is a p...

  20. Sunbed Use Prevalence and Associated Skin Health Habits: Results of a Representative, Population-Based Survey among Austrian Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluza, Daniela; Simic, Stana; Moshammer, Hanns

    2016-01-01

    Recreational sunbed use accounts for the main non-solar source of exposure to ultraviolet radiation in fair-skinned Western populations. Indoor tanning is associated with increased risks for acute and chronic dermatological diseases. The current community-based study assessed the one-year prevalence of sunbed use and associated skin health habits among a representative, gender-balanced sample of 1500 Austrian citizens. Overall one-year prevalence of sunbed use was 8.9% (95% confidence interval (CI) 7.5%–10.4%), with slightly higher prevalence in females (9.2%, 95% CI 7.3%–11.2%) compared to males (8.6%, 95% CI 6.7%–10.6%). Factors predicting sunbed use were younger age (by trend decreasing with older age), place of living, smoking, skin type (by trend increasing with darker skin), sun exposure, motives to tan, and use of UV-free tanning products. Despite media campaigns on the harmful effects of excessive sunlight and sunbed exposure, we found a high prevalence of self-reported sunbed use among Austrian citizens. From a Public (Skin) Health perspective, the current research extends the understanding of prevailing leisure time skin health habits in adding data on prevalence of sunbed use in the general Austrian population. PMID:26907308

  1. Rise, use and treatment of works in Austria. Compiled for the Austrian Federal Waste Management Plan 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perz, K.

    2001-06-01

    The Austrian Waste Management Act (AWG) entered into force on 1 July 1990. Paragraph 1 of the act defines the following objectives: to keep detrimental, unbeneficial or otherwise unhealthy influences on man, as well as on animals, plants, their living conditions and their natural environment as low as possible; to preserve raw material and energy resources; to keep the demand for landfill capacities as low as possible; to ensure that only such materials should remain as waste, the dumping of which does not present any potential hazard for future generations (precautionary principle). The waste management act thus places the highest priority on the protection of human beings and the environment and upon the preservation of natural resources. Accordingly, it must be the aim of waste management to handle waste in such a way that environmental pollution is kept as low as possible by prevention, recovery and disposal. Paragraph 5 of the Austrian waste management act stipulates that the Federal Minister of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management has to issue the Federal Waste Management Plan in order to reach the objectives and observing the rules of modern waste management. Following the first waste management plan in 1992 an amendment is required every three years. This is why the Austrian Federal Environment Agency elaborated the following studies: waste generation, recovery and disposal in Austria; hazardous waste and waste oils in Austria; non-hazardous waste in Austria. Further information on waste management facilities in Austria is presented on our homepage (http://www.ubavie.gv.at). (author)

  2. Eclogitic metatrondhjemites from metaophiolites of the Western Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Silvana; Tartarotti, Paola; Meyzen, Chrstine; Benciolini, Luca; Toffolo, Luca

    2016-04-01

    Eclogitic metatrondhjemites from metaophiolites of the Western Alps Martin S.**, Tartarotti P.*, Meyzen C. **, Benciolini L.***, Toffolo L. ** *Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Milano ** Dipartimento di Geoscienze, Università di Padova *** Dipartimento di Chimica, Fisica e Ambiente, Università di Udine In the Urtier valley (southern Aosta Valley, Italy), the Piemonte metaophiolites mainly consist of serpentinized peridotites including pods and boudinaged layers of Fe-metagabbro and trondhjemite transposed in the main eclogitic foliation. The contact between serpentinized peridotites and Fe-metagabbro/trondhjemite is locally lined by chloriteschist and rodingite. The high pressure parageneses in the Fe-metagabbro are omphacite-garnet-rutile-glaucophane-phengite, and in the metatrondhjemite plagioclase-quartz-phengite-clinozoisite-epidote-garnet, respectively. Bulk-rock major and trace elements in addition to O isotope analyses were performed in both rock types. Fe-metagabbros are characterized by MgO wt% ranging between 6.11 and 9.63%, ∑REE= 20-101 ppm, (La/Yb)N = 0.22-0.91; trondhjemites have SiO2 43%, Al2O3 ranging between 21 and 24%, CaO ranging between 17 and 20%, ∑REE = 172 - 272 ppm, (La/Yb)N ranging between 7.78 and 13.70. The δ18O is 5.9 ‰ in a Fe-metagabbro sample and 7.4 ‰ in a trondhjemite sample, suggesting that these rocks have been affected by a weak oceanic low temperature alteration. The high CaO content may indicate a metasomatic process which could have occurred during the oceanic stage or at high pressure conditions.

  3. Effects of crop management, soil type, and climate on N2O emissions from Austrian Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Sigmund, Elisabeth; Kasper, Martina; Kitzler, Barbara; Haas, Edwin; Wandl, Michael; Strauss, Peter; Poetzelsberger, Elisabeth; Dersch, Georg; Winiwarter, Wilfried; Amon, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    Within the project FarmClim ("Farming for a better climate") we assessed recent N2O emissions from two selected regions in Austria. Our aim was to deepen the understanding of Austrian N2O fluxes regarding region specific properties. Currently, N2O emissions are estimated with the IPCC default emission factor which only considers the amount of N-input as an influencing factor for N2O emissions. We evaluated the IPCC default emission factor for its validity under spatially distinct environmental conditions. For this two regions for modeling with LandscapeDNDC have been identified in this project. The benefit of using LandscapeDNDC is the detailed illustration of microbial processes in the soil. Required input data to run the model included daily climate data, vegetation properties, soil characteristics and land management. The analysis of present agricultural practices was basis for assessing the hot spots and hot moments of nitrogen emissions on a regional scale. During our work with LandscapeDNDC we were able to adapt specific model algorithms to Austrian agricultural conditions. The model revealed a strong dependency of N2O emissions on soil type. We could estimate how strongly soil texture affects N2O emissions. Based on detailed soil maps with high spatial resolution we calculated region specific contribution to N2O emissions. Accordingly we differentiated regions with deviating gas fluxes compared to the predictions by the IPCC inventory methodology. Taking region specific management practices into account (tillage, irrigation, residuals) calculation of crop rotation (fallow, catch crop, winter wheat, barley, winter barley, sugar beet, corn, potato, onion and rapeseed) resulted in N2O emissions differing by a factor of 30 depending on preceding crop and climate. A maximum of 2% of N fertilizer input was emitted as N2O. Residual N in the soil was a major factor stimulating N2O emissions. Interannual variability was affected by varying N-deposition even in case

  4. Past and future of the Austrian snow cover - results from the CC-Snow project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Ulrich; Marke, Thomas; Hanzer, Florian; Ragg, Hansjörg; Kleindienst, Hannes; Wilcke, Renate; Gobiet, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    This study has the goal to simulate the evolution of the Austrian snow cover from 1971 to 2050 by means of a coupled modelling scheme, and to estimate the effect of climate change on the evolution of the natural snow cover. The model outcomes are interepreted with focus on both the future natural snow conditions, and the effects on winter skiing tourism. Therefore the regional temperature-index snow model SNOWREG is applied, providing snow maps with a spatial resolution of 250 m. The model is trained by means of assimilating local measurements and observed natural snow cover patterns. Meteorological forcing consists of the output of four realizations of the ENSEMBLES project for the A1B emission scenario. The meteorological variables are downscaled and error corrected with a quantile based empirical-statistical method on a daily time basis. The control simulation is 1971-2000, and the scenario simulation 2021-2050. Spatial interpolation is performed on the basis of parameter-elevation relations. We compare the four different global/regional climate model combinations and their effect on the snow modelling, and we explain the patterns of the resulting snow cover by means of regional climatological characteristics. The provinces Tirol and Styria serve as test regions, being typical examples for the two climatic subregions of Austria. To support the interpretation of the simulation results we apply indicators which enable to define meaningful measures for the comparison of the different periods and regions. Results show that the mean duration of the snow cover will decrease by 15 to 30 days per winter season, mostly in elevations between 2000 and 2500 m. Above 3000 m the higher winter precipitation can compensate this effect, and mean snow cover duration may even slightly increase. We also investigate the local scale by application of the physically based mountain snow model AMUNDSEN. This model is capable of producing 50 m resolution output maps for indicators

  5. Inverting the pyramid! Extent and quality of food advertised on Austrian television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missbach, Benjamin; Weber, Adelheid; Huber, Elke M; König, Jürgen S

    2015-09-18

    Research showed that food marketing for children frequently contradicts national dietary guidelines. Children, unlike adults, are not able to understand the persuasiveness of the advertisements with its short- and long-term effects on health, thus the common international tenor is to restrict food marketing. In the European Union, marketing restriction based on self-regulation have been initiated (EU Pledge Nutrition Criteria). The study aims contribute to depict the status quo of television advertisement targeted at children before the pledged initiative came into full effect. In this study we analyze the quality and displaying frequency of a set of advertisements targeted at children broadcasted on Austrian television. Promoted food products targeted at children or adults were identified. Category-based analysis of the displayed food was performed based on the Austrian Nutrition guidelines (number of displayed food per food category). The children's food content was analyzed according to the newly established nutritional quality criteria for advertised food in the EU to assess the nutritional quality of the depicted food. In total, 360 h of video material was recorded in February and March 2014. A set of 1919 food advertisements, with 15.1 % targeted at children were broadcasted. Of all food advertisements targeted at children, 92.4 % was for fatty, sweet and salty snacks, while no advertisements for vegetables, legumes or fruits were shown. From all food advertisements for children, 65.9 % originated from participating companies of the EU Pledge Nutrition Criteria. Further analysis revealed that 95.9 % of the advertised food for children showed at least one aspect of nonconformity with the EU Pledge Nutrition Criteria; on the contrary 64.7 % of the displayed food advertisement also featured at least one desirable food component (e.g. high fibre content, high protein content). The present research suggests that the majority of advertised food for children do not

  6. The Austrian breast implant register: recent trends in implant-based breast surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurzer, Paul; Rappl, Thomas; Friedl, Herwig; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Spendel, Stephan; Hoflehner, Helmut; Parvizi, Daryousch

    2014-12-01

    Due to the fact that the number of breast implant surgeries for cosmetic and medical purposes is rising yearly, a discussion about the quality of service for both patients and physicians is more important than ever. To this end, we reviewed the Austrian Breast Implant Register with one specific question in mind: What are the trends? In the statistical analysis of the Austrian Breast Implant Register, we were able to identify 13,112 registered breast implants between 2004 and 2012. The whole dataset was then divided into medical and cosmetic groups. We focused on device size, surface characteristics, filling material, device placement and incision site. All factors were considered for all examined years. In summary, the most used device had a textured surface (97 %) and silicone gel as the filling material (93 %). The mean size of implants for the cosmetic group was 240 cc, placement was submuscular (58 %) and the incision site was inframammary (67 %). In the medical group, the mean size was 250 cc. Yearly registrations had their peak in 2008 (1,898 registered devices); from this year on, registrations decreased annually. A slight trend away from subglandular placement in the cosmetic group was noted. Also, the usage of implants with polyurethane surface characteristics has increased since 2008. The smooth surface implants had a peak usage in 2006 and their usage decreased steadily from then on whereas the textured surface was steady over the years. Keeping the problems related to the quality of breast implants in mind, we could recommend an obligatory national register. Organisations of surgeons and governments should develop and establish these registers. Furthermore, an all-encompassing international register should be established by the European Union and the American FDA (Food and Drug Administration); this might be useful in comparing the individual country registers and also would help in delivering "evidence based" medicine in cosmetic and medical procedures

  7. Alpine glacial relict species losing out to climate change: The case of the fragmented mountain hare population (Lepus timidus) in the Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehnus, Maik; Bollmann, Kurt; Schmatz, Dirk R; Hackländer, Klaus; Braunisch, Veronika

    2018-03-13

    Alpine and Arctic species are considered to be particularly vulnerable to climate change, which is expected to cause habitat loss, fragmentation and-ultimately-extinction of cold-adapted species. However, the impact of climate change on glacial relict populations is not well understood, and specific recommendations for adaptive conservation management are lacking. We focused on the mountain hare (Lepus timidus) as a model species and modelled species distribution in combination with patch and landscape-based connectivity metrics. They were derived from graph-theory models to quantify changes in species distribution and to estimate the current and future importance of habitat patches for overall population connectivity. Models were calibrated based on 1,046 locations of species presence distributed across three biogeographic regions in the Swiss Alps and extrapolated according to two IPCC scenarios of climate change (RCP 4.5 & 8.5), each represented by three downscaled global climate models. The models predicted an average habitat loss of 35% (22%-55%) by 2100, mainly due to an increase in temperature during the reproductive season. An increase in habitat fragmentation was reflected in a 43% decrease in patch size, a 17% increase in the number of habitat patches and a 34% increase in inter-patch distance. However, the predicted changes in habitat availability and connectivity varied considerably between biogeographic regions: Whereas the greatest habitat losses with an increase in inter-patch distance were predicted at the southern and northern edges of the species' Alpine distribution, the greatest increase in patch number and decrease in patch size is expected in the central Swiss Alps. Finally, both the number of isolated habitat patches and the number of patches crucial for maintaining the habitat network increased under the different variants of climate change. Focusing conservation action on the central Swiss Alps may help mitigate the predicted effects of

  8. Influences of Climate Warming and Facility Management on Continuous Permafrost at Matterhorn Glacier Paradise, Zermatt, Swiss Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Lorenz; Duishonakunov, Murataly; Imbery, Stephan

    2014-05-01

    In many parts of the Alps, hazardous bedrock instabilities occur more often during the past 30 years. In many cases, permafrost degradation played a central role for instability (e.g. in 1987 the Val Pola rockslide, Italy). At other events, the role of permafrost degradation is more complex or unpredictable (e.g. in 1991 the Randa rockfall, Wallis, Swiss Alps). However, instabilities in perennially frozen bedrock may also be provoked by human influence. This is exemplarily shown at touristic facilities in the Alps. Human impact on permafrost is often underestimated, or even carelessly taken into account. The tourist resort Zermatt with more than 1.8 million overnight stays per year is located at 1600 m a.s.l. and is surrounded by high mountain ranges that often reach above 4000 m. The dry and sunny climate results in a high glacier equilibrium line thus leaving space for vast non-glaciated permafrost terrain. Numerous tourist facilities provide excellent logistics and easy access to permafrost sites, and the region is thus especially suitable for permafrost research. The infrastructure erected on permafrost consists of hotels, restaurants and mountain huts, station buildings of railways, funiculars, ski lifts and installations for artificial snowing the ski-runs. Some problems at these constructions due to permafrost degradation are shown. At the Matterhorn Glacier Paradise station at an altitude of 3820 meters, todays MAAT ranges between -6 °C and -8°C. During the construction of a tunnel in 1981 bedrock temperatures were at -12°C. Over the past 30 years, these bedrock temperatures have risen to -3 to -2°C, due to the heat brought into the tunnel by facilities and more than 490,000 visitors per year. In an elevator shaft, the temperature temporarily even rose above freezing point. Several new construction sites in continuous permafrost are described and new research data is presented. Another interesting site for permafrost and ice studies at Matterhorn

  9. Rock glaciers, Austria, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Austrian Alps are part of the Eastern Alps which consist of three main mountain ranges. The Northern Alps as well as the Southern Alps are predominantly built of...

  10. Sensitivity and Specificity of Plasma ALT, ALP, and Bile Acids for Hepatitis in Labrador Retrievers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirksen, K; Burgener, I A; Rothuizen, J; van den Ingh, T S G A M; Penning, L C; Spee, B; Fieten, H

    2017-07-01

    Biochemical indicators for diagnosing liver disease are plasma alanine aminotransferase activity (ALT), alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP), and bile acid concentration (BA). To determine the sensitivity and specificity of ALT, ALP, and BA for detecting primary hepatitis (PH) in clinically healthy Labrador retrievers and investigate whether ALT and ALP can discriminate between dogs with PH and nonspecific reactive hepatitis (RH). 191 clinically healthy and 51 clinically ill Labrador retrievers with hepatic histopathology. Retrospective study. Medical records were reviewed for ALT, ALP, preprandial BA, liver histopathology, and hepatic copper concentrations. In 64% (122/191) of the clinically healthy Labrador retrievers, hepatic histology revealed inflammatory infiltrates. This frequency might be biased because part of them was included as first-line relatives of dogs with copper-associated hepatitis. Sensitivity of ALT, ALP, and BA in this population for detecting acute hepatitis was 45, 15, and 15%, respectively. For chronic hepatitis, sensitivity was 71, 35, and 13%, respectively. Specificity of ALT, ALP, and BA was >90% for AH, CH, and RH. When increased liver enzymes were present, median ALT was significantly higher in PH cases (312 U/L, range 38-1,369) compared to RH cases (91 U/L, range 39-139) (P ALT, ALP, and BA for detecting acute and chronic hepatitis in this population was low. More sensitive biomarkers are needed for early detection of liver disease in apparent clinically healthy dogs. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  11. Daily precipitation variability in the Italian Alps over the last century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugnara, Y.; Brunetti, M.; Maugeri, M.; Nanni, T.; Simolo, C.

    2010-09-01

    Precipitation climatology in mountainous areas is characterized by high spatial variability, for instance total yearly mean values can change by hundreds of millimeters in the space of few kilometers . A dense network of rain gauges is then necessary to completely assess past changes in the hydrological cycle. Such networks are indeed operative on Italian territory since the 1920s, but the quality of this large amount of data needs to be carefully checked, especially for the presence of inhomogeneities. In this work we present an homogenized high-resolution dataset composed by more than 150 daily precipitation series spanning the last 90 years, located over an area centered on the Trentino-Alto Adige region (central-eastern part of Italian Alps). Missing data have been filled by using an advanced technique based on multi-linear regression and preserving the probability density function. On monthly and seasonal basis we analyzed trends of total precipitation, wet days and average intensity; for an easier understanding of geographical patterns we created a gridded dataset in terms of anomalies, with a spatial resolution of 0.1 degrees. For a more detailed analysis, daily precipitation amounts of each station have been classified into different intensity categories, based on the percentiles of the distribution, and the evolution of the number of events and of the total precipitation amount falling into each category have been studied. All the statistics have been analyzed for trend over the entire period spanned by the data and on sub-periods of variable length. Comparison with previous low-resolution studies on the same area underlines the importance of an high-resolution dataset in characterizing all aspects of climatic changes.

  12. Evaluation of convection-resolving models using satellite data: The diurnal cycle of summer convection over the Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Keller

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Diurnal moist convection is an important element of summer precipitation over Central Europe and the Alps. It is poorly represented in models using parameterized convection. In this study, we investigate the diurnal cycle of convection during 11 days in June 2007 using the COSMO model. The numerical simulations are compared with satellite measurements of GERB and SEVIRI, AVHRR satellite-based cloud properties and ground-based precipitation and temperature measurements. The simulations use horizontal resolutions of 12 km (convection-parameterizing model, CPM and 2 km (convection-resolving model, CRM and either a one-moment microphysics scheme (1M or a two-moment microphysics scheme (2M.They are conducted for a computational domain that covers an extended Alpine area from Northern Italy to Northern Germany. The CPM with 1M exhibits a significant overestimation of high cloud cover. This results in a compensation effect in the top of the atmosphere energy budget due to an underestimation of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR and an overestimation of reflected solar radiation (RSR. The CRM reduces high cloud cover and improves the OLR bias from a domain mean of −20.1 to −2.6 W/m2. When using 2M with ice sedimentation in the CRM, high cloud cover is further reduced. The stronger diurnal cycle of high cloud cover and associated convection over the Alps, compared to less mountainous regions, is well represented by the CRM but underestimated by the CPM. Despite substantial differences in high cloud cover, the use of a 2M has no significant impact on the diurnal cycle of precipitation. Furthermore, a negative mid-level cloud bias is found for all simulations.

  13. Declining ambient air pollution and lung function improvement in Austrian children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, Manfred; Moshammer, Hanns; Kundi, Michael

    Three thousand four hundred fifty-one Austrian elementary school children were examined (between 2 and 8 times) by spirometry by standardized methods, over a 5 yr period. The districts where they lived were grouped into those where NO 2 declined during this period (by at least 30 μg/m 3 measured as half year means) and those with less or no decline in ambient NO 2. In both groups of districts, SO 2 and TSP fell by similar amounts over this period. A continuous improvement of MEF25 (maximum exspiratory flow rate at 25% vital capacity) was found in districts with declining ambient NO 2. Populations did not differ in respect of anthropometric factors, passive smoking or socioeconomic status. A birth cohort from this study population which was followed up to age 18 confirmed the improved growth of MEF25 with decline in NO 2, while the improved growth of forced vital capacity was more related to decline in SO 2. This study provides the first evidence that improvements in the outdoor air quality during the 1980s are correlated with health benefits, and suggest that adverse effects on lung function related to ambient air pollution are reversible before adulthood. Improvement of small airway functions appeared to be more dependent on reductions of NO 2 than reduction in SO 2 and TSP.

  14. Austrian height and body proportion references for children aged 4 to under 19 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleiss, Andreas; Lassi, Michael; Blümel, Peter; Borkenstein, Martin; Kapelari, Klaus; Mayer, Michael; Schemper, Michael; Häusler, Gabriele

    2013-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated differences between national and the WHO reference curves in children older than 5 years. Moreover, reference curves for body proportions (sitting height, subischial leg length and their ratio) based on state-of-the-art statistics are not available. To develop reference curves for height and body proportions for use in Austria and compare the curves with WHO reference curves. To estimate and statistically investigate extreme percentiles. A sample of ∼14 500 children between 4-19 years of age was drawn via schooling institutions, stratified by provinces according to age- and sex-specific population proportions. GAMLSS models were used for a flexible estimation of percentile curves. After the age of 5 years national reference curves are more suitable than the WHO reference curves for clinical use in Austria. These height curves are very similar to the German reference curves published recently. Therefore, these reference curves for criteria of body proportions are recommended for use in other populations. Further validation studies are needed to establish whether the recently recommended -2.5 and -3.0 SD for height are a sensitive and specific cut-off in the diagnostic work-up for children with a suspected growth disorder using this new Austrian height chart.

  15. An approach towards public health and foodborne human listeriosis--the Austrian Listeria monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asperger, H; Wagner, M; Brandl, E

    2001-01-01

    The Institute for Milk Hygiene, Milk Technology and Food Science has launched a Listeria monitoring for Austrian cheese factories in 1988 which is nowadays a valuable tool to control the safety of cheese production. It is a means to qualify the proper hygienic conditions in the participating cheese plants. Proper hygiene protects cheese plants from getting contaminated by L. monocytogenes. The preventive elimination of foodborne pathogens facilitates a thriving economical development of the domestic cheese industry as contamination by L. monocytogenes may lead to a stop of delivery, product recall and other costly measures. This report comprehensively describes the principle of the monitoring including a description of the microbiological and molecular tools. It summarizes data on the detection frequency of Listeria contamination with respect to the different matrices under investigation. Furthermore an overview is given on the course of 17 contamination periods in 10 cheese plants and the outcome of the decontamination endeavours is described. Apart from epidemiological investigations, this report summarizes data regarding molecular species confirmation in the genus Listeria as the species assignment was comparatively examined by both conventional microbiology and molecular tools. Genotyping by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis was applied in three plants which were confronted with a long term contamination period. The data presented in this paper rely on results which were collected through a decade of investigation (1990-2000).

  16. Comprehensive investigation of radon exposure in Austrian tourist mines and caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, V; Ringer, W; Gräser, J; Aspek, W; Gschnaller, J

    2014-11-01

    According to Austrian Law, dose assessments in workplaces with potentially enhanced radon exposures are mandatory since 2008, including tourist mines and caves. A pilot study was carried out to evaluate the situation to test the measurement methods and to specify the main parameters controlling the radon concentration in tourist mines and caves. Radon was measured in six mines and three caves for 1 y, along with determining thoron and equilibrium factors and taking into account climatic, geological and site-related effects. The radon concentrations have a seasonal dependence with maximum in summer and minimum in winter, related to natural ventilation. Radon concentrations in the karst caves were quite low, as it was in the salt mine, whereas radon concentrations in copper and silver mines were high. The dose assessment of the employees yielded doses above 6 mSv a(-1) only in the copper mine. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Austrian Guideline for Geomechanical Design of Tunnels - Necessity for Cooperation between Geologists, Geotechnical and Civil Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Ludwig; Eder, Stefan; Mattle, Bruno; Hammer, Helmut

    Rising competitive pressure in the construction business, ever tighter schedules being set up by the clients and ongoing disputes between engineering geologists and civil engineers about the role of geotechnical engineers have - in the last few years - led to increasing discussions between engineers and geologists about the allocation of competences during the design process of underground structures. In the course of this debate, which is often polemic and anything but objective, important information is quite frequently lost - a development which may not only be to the disadvantage of the client but which may also do damage to the reputation of the professions involved. The design procedure of the new Austrian guideline for the geomechanical design of underground structures requires a close collaboration of geologists, geotechnical and civil engineers, yet without allocating competences. While preparing the tender documents for the first construction lot of the Northern feeder line of the Brenner base tunnel, the necessity of a close cooperation of the involved professions became apparent due to the complex geological situation encountered in the project area and the enormous amount of data available. Despite these difficult boundary conditions, the successful application of the guideline was last but not least the result of the joint efforts of the multidisciplinary design team.

  18. Cornerstones of the Austrian radon risk communication strategy; Eckpfeiler der oesterreichischen Radonrisikokommunikationsstrategie (OeRRKS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunte, A.; Ringer, W. [AGES, Linz (Austria). Oesterreichische Fachstelle fuer Radon

    2015-07-01

    On behalf of the Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management (BMLFUW), the National Radon Centre of Austria developed the National Radon Risk Communication Strategy. The superior goal is the reduction of the radon exposure of Austrian citizens as well as the reduction of radon-related lung cancer deaths. Austria, like many other countries, follows the approach to raise awareness and to inform the public to achieve this goal. The presented strategy deals with the question of how radon protection issues can be communicated to the public, existing fears can be reduced and affected people can be motivated to take action (perform a radon test, if necessary, mitigate or install preventive measures in new buildings). The cornerstones of the National Radon Risk Communication Strategy can be summarized as follows: - Definition of communication goals - Identification and categorization of target groups - Development of specific key messages for each of the target groups - Determination of communication channels and assessment of their efficiency - Integration of the radon issue in education and training - Cooperation with relevant organizations and platforms. The communication objectives, target groups and communication paths (and their evaluation) will be discussed during the presentation in detail.

  19. Joint Annual Meeting of the Swiss Physical Society and the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The meeting was organised - as every two years - as a joint meeting with the Austrian Physical Society ((ÖPG) and the Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy (SSAA). The Swiss Institute of Particle Physics (CHIPP) participated additionally to their usual 2-year rhythm. We also welcomed for the first time the NCCR MARVEL (Computational Design and Discovery of Novel Materials). They all together guarantee an exciting conference covering physics at its best. This meeting was hosted by CERN, Genève. The plenary sessions gave an overview of the present status of research in molecular spintronics, biophotonic micro manipulation of cells, gravitational waves, spectroscopy of trapped antihydrogen atoms, reflective optical systems for astronomical applications, trapped-ion interfaces for quantum networks and quantum photonics. The topical sessions were dedicated to: Applied Physics and Plasma Physics; Astronomy and Astrophysics; Atomic Physics and Quantum Optics; Biophysics, Medical Physics and Soft Matter; Condensed Matter Physics; Correlated-Electron Physics in Transition-Metal Oxides; Earth, Atmosphere and Environmental Physics; Emergent phenomena in novel low-dimensional materials; History of Physics; Magnetism and Spintronics at the Nanoscale; Nuclear, Particle- and Astrophysics; Physics in Startups; Scientific Opportunities with SwissFEL; Surfaces, Interfaces and Thin Films; Theoretical Physics. Those contributions which are in the INIS subject scope are indexed individually.

  20. Austrian consensus on the definition and treatment of portal hypertension and its complications (Billroth II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck-Radosavljevic, Markus; Angermayr, Bernhard; Datz, Christian; Ferlitsch, Arnulf; Ferlitsch, Monika; Fuhrmann, Valentin; Häfner, Michael; Kramer, Ludwig; Maieron, Andreas; Payer, Berit; Reiberger, Thomas; Stauber, Rudolf; Steininger, Rudolf; Trauner, Michael; Thurnher, Siegfried; Ulbrich, Gregor; Vogel, Wolfgang; Zoller, Heinz; Graziadei, Ivo

    2013-04-01

    In November 2004, the Austrian Society of Gastroenterology and Hepatology (ÖGGH) held for the first time a consensus meeting on the definitions and treatment of portal hypertension and its complications in the Billroth-Haus in Vienna, Austria (Billroth I-Meeting). This meeting was preceded by a meeting of international experts on portal hypertension with some of the proponents of the Baveno consensus conferences (http://www.oeggh.at/videos.asp). The consensus itself is based on the Baveno III consensus with regard to portal hypertensive bleeding and the suggestions of the International Ascites Club regarding the treatment of ascites. Those statements were modified by new knowledge derived from the recent literature and also by the current practice of medicine as agreed upon by the participants of the consensus meeting. In October 2011, the ÖGGH organized the second consensus meeting on portal hypertension and its complications in Vienna (Billroth II-Meeting). The Billroth II-Guidelines on the definitions and treatment of portal hypertension and its complications take into account the developments of the last 7 years, including the Baveno-V update and several key publications.

  1. Suicides on the Austrian railway network: hotspot analysis and effect of proximity to psychiatric institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Peter; Sonneck, Gernot

    2017-01-01

    Railway suicide is a significant public health problem. In addition to the loss of lives, these suicides occur in public space, causing traumatization among train drivers and passengers, and significant public transport delays. Prevention efforts depend upon accurate knowledge of clustering phenomena across the railway network, and spatial risk factors. Factors such as proximity to psychiatric institutions have been discussed to impact on railway suicides, but analytic evaluations are scarce and limited. We identify 15 hotspots on the Austrian railway system while taking case location uncertainties into account. These hotspots represent 0.9% of the total track length (5916 km/3676 miles) that account for up to 17% of all railway suicides (N=1130). We model suicide locations on the network using a smoothed inhomogeneous Poisson process and validate it using randomization tests. We find that the density of psychiatric beds is a significant predictor of railway suicide. Further predictors are population density, multitrack structure and—less consistently—spatial socio-economic factors including total suicide rates. We evaluate the model for the identified hotspots and show that the actual influence of these variables differs across individual hotspots. This analysis provides important information for suicide prevention research and practice. We recommend structural separation of railway tracks from nearby psychiatric institutions to prevent railway suicide. PMID:28405359

  2. Diabetic ketoacidosis at diagnosis in Austrian children: a population-based analysis, 1989-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Maria; Schober, Edith; Rami-Merhar, Birgit; Hofer, Sabine; Fröhlich-Reiterer, Elke; Waldhoer, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    To analyze the effect of a community-based, poster-focused prevention program on the frequency of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at diabetes onset in Austria. All newly diagnosed patients with diabetes ≤ 15 years of age were registered prospectively by the Austrian Diabetes Incidence Study Group. Registered data included initial blood glucose, pH, and ketonuria. DKA was defined as pH diabetes in the years 2005-2009 and 2010-2011 was compared. During the study period, 4038 children were registered. A total of 37.2% presented with DKA; 26% had a mild and 11.2% a severe form. The frequency of DKA was negatively associated with age at onset. In the years before the intervention program, 26% had mild DKA compared with 27% after the intervention (not significant). The prevalence of severe DKA in the years before the campaign was 12% compared with 9.5% thereafter (not significant). No significant change in the DKA rate at onset by the prevention program could be found when we compared age groups diabetes in Austria is high and did not change despite the efforts of a community-based information program. Copyright © 2013. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  3. Multi-methodical realisation of the new Austrian climate maps for 1971-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, I.; Böhm, R.; Hiebl, J.; Reisenhofer, S.; Schöner, W.

    2010-09-01

    Constantly changing climate, the further development of geostatistical interpolation methods and the availability of a higher resolved digital elevation model gave reason for updating the most frequently demanded climate maps out of the Austrian digital climate atlas (ÖKLIM) from 1961-1990 to 1971-2000. The resulting 19 grids concern 30-year-means of air temperature (annual, January, July means) and derived indices (ice days, frost days, freeze-thaw days, summer days, hot days, heating degree days), precipitation (annual, winter half-year, summer half-year sums) and derived indices (days with precipitation, percentage of solid precipitation), snow (sum of fresh-fallen snow, snow cover duration, maximum snow depth) and sunshine (January, July absolute sunshine duration) parameters. For application in all branches of geosciences (e.g. climate variability and modelling, hydrology, biogeography, natural hazards) as well as for planning in all kinds of contexts (e.g. agriculture, tourism, generation of renewable energy, climate change adaption) such digital grids of standard climate information are greatly demanded and likely to gain even more importance in the near future. Data preparation was carried out with large effort. In order to avoid adverse border effects and to guarantee an equal state of quality across all parts of the country, the study region was extended beyond the national borders and stations from all neighbouring countries were requested. The final data collection includes between 319 (percentage of solid precipitation) and 1,399 (annual precipitation sum) records from eleven national and foreign institutes. To achieve a station density as high as possible, data gaps of up to five or ten years were filled considering the same parameter at reference stations or a related parameter station-wise. According to the climate parameter, different geostatistical interpolation methods were applied. Multiple regressions against elevation, longitude, latitude and

  4. Do Women With Atrial Fibrillation Experience More Severe Strokes? Results From the Austrian Stroke Unit Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Clemens; Seyfang, Leonhard; Ferrari, Julia; Gattringer, Thomas; Greisenegger, Stefan; Willeit, Karin; Toell, Thomas; Krebs, Stefan; Brainin, Michael; Kiechl, Stefan; Willeit, Johann; Lang, Wilfried; Knoflach, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Ischemic strokes associated with atrial fibrillation (AF) are more severe than those of other cause. We aim to study potential sex effects in this context. In this cross-sectional study, 74 425 adults with acute ischemic stroke from the Austrian Stroke Unit Registry were included between March 2003 and January 2016. In 63 563 patients, data on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale on admission to the stroke unit, presence of AF, vascular risk factors, and comorbidities were complete. Analysis was done by a multivariate regression model. Stroke severity in general increased with age. AF-related strokes were more severe than strokes of other causes. Sex-related differences in stroke severity were only seen in stroke patients with AF. Median (Q 25 , 75 ) National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score points were 9 (4,17) in women and 6 (3,13) in men ( P stroke severity was independent of age, previous functional status, vascular risk factors, and vascular comorbidities and remained significant in various subgroups. Women with AF do not only have an increased risk of stroke when compared with men but also experience more severe strokes. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. The life-skills program Lions Quest in Austrian schools: implementation and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matischek-Jauk, Marlies; Krammer, Georg; Reicher, Hannelore

    2017-08-30

    This article investigates the importance of implementation level for the effectiveness of the school-based life skills program Lions Quest in a sample of Austrian students (n = 363 from three schools; aged 9-15 at T1). A quasi-experimental pre- and post-test design with intervention and control group over 2 years was used. The effects of low, average, and high implementation levels on the outcome variables classroom climate, bullying and psychosocial health were analyzed. Multilevel analyses of the longitudinal data indicated greatest effects in the intervention group with highest implementation level, smaller effects with average implementation level, and no or rather detrimental effects in one case with the low implementation level (always compared with the control group who received no intervention). A moderate implementation level was necessary to foster the programs aims for three out of four aspects of class climate and bullying, while no effects were found for psychosocial health. These results are discussed with respect to key factors that are important for successful implementation of school programs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The second Austrian benchmark study for blood use in elective surgery: results and practice change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombotz, Hans; Rehak, Peter H; Shander, Aryeh; Hofmann, Axel

    2014-10-01

    Five years after the first Austrian benchmark study demonstrated relatively high transfusion rate and an abundance of nonindicated transfusions in elective surgeries, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of the first benchmark study. Data from 3164 patients undergoing primary unilateral total hip replacement (THR), primary unilateral noncemented total knee replacement (TKR), or coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery at 15 orthopedic and six cardiac centers were collected and compared with the first study. Transfusion rates decreased in THR (41% to 30%) and TKR (41% to 25%), but remained unchanged in CABG surgery (57% vs. 55%) compared with the first study. More than 80% of all transfusions involved at least 2 units of red blood cells (RBCs). Marked variations were observed in transfusion rates among the centers. The prevalence of anemia was three times higher in patients who received transfusions versus those who did not. However, preoperative anemia was left untreated in the majority of patients. A considerable intercenter variability of RBC loss ranging from 26% to 43% in THR, from 24% to 40% in TKR, and from 30% to 49% in CABG procedures was observed. The second benchmark study demonstrates substantial intercenter variability and small but significant reductions in RBC transfusions and RBC loss. Even though the main independent predictors of transfusion were the relative lost RBC volume followed by the relative preoperative and the lowest relative postoperative hemoglobin, preoperative anemia was not adequately treated in many patients, underscoring the importance of patient blood management in these patients. © 2014 AABB.

  7. Austrian medical students' attitudes towards male and female homosexuality: a comparative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Oliver; Voracek, Martin; Musalek, Michael; Springer-Kremser, Marianne

    2004-11-30

    The attitudes of health-care professionals and medical students towards male and female homosexuality are of practical relevance and have increasingly become a topic of scientific research. Comparative investigations between medical students and other student groups have not yet been conducted. To assess the attitudes of Austrian medical students towards homosexuality and to compare these with the attitudes of students of politics and veterinary medicine. Students of medicine (122), politics (145), and veterinary medicine (153) completed a questionnaire consisting of validated instruments assessing anti-homosexual attitudes, items assessing knowledge on homosexual issues, and basic demographic information. Participants' attitudes were predominantly positive. For all instruments, two-way analyses of covariance revealed significant influences of participants' sex and study major: students of medicine and veterinary medicine held more negative attitudes than students of politics, and males were more prejudiced than females. Overall, attitudes towards male and female homosexuality were balanced, but male students of politics and veterinary medicine were more prejudiced towards male than female homosexuality. A significant influence of participants' sex (favoring females) was observed in knowledge of homosexual issues. Although neutrality and empathy are considered vital in the doctor-patient relationship, medical students revealed more negative attitudes than students of politics did, the latter's attitudes being similar to those of students of veterinary medicine. These findings suggest that educational and correcting interventions are required in medical training.

  8. Joint annual meeting of the Swiss Physical and the Society Austrian Physical Society

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The next annual meeting, hosted by CERN, will take place from 21 - 25 August 2017 in Genève at two different locations. Starting at CERN on 21st with internal meetings of some of the participating societies, the 22nd will be dedicated to plenary and invited talks and more (see below). We will then move to the Centre International de Conférences de Genève (CICG) on 23 - 25 August where further plenary talks and all topical sessions will take place. The meeting is organised - as every two years - as a joint meeting with the Austrian Physical Society (ÖPG) and the Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy (SSAA). The Swiss Institute of Particle Physics (CHIPP) will participate additionally to their usual 2-year rhythm. We also welcome for the first time the NCCR MARVEL (Computational Design and Discovery of Novel Materials). They all together guarantee an exciting conference covering physics at its best. Many thanks go to CERN for their generous help and support with the organisation.

  9. Suicide by shooting is correlated to rate of gun licenses in Austrian counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzersdorfer, Elmar; Kapusta, Nestor D; Sonneck, Gernot

    2006-08-01

    Shooting as method of suicide has increased considerably in Austria over recent decades and represented 23.5% of all suicides among men during the period 1990-2000. It is thought that the availability of guns could lead to their use in acts of suicide, and therefore we investigated the numbers of gun licenses (which constitutes ownership of guns and permission to carry a gun) in the nine Austrian counties and their correlation with suicides by shooting and other methods. We studied registered suicides, including the method used, between 1990 and 2000 in Austria and the numbers of gun licenses held in the nine counties of Austria in the same period. We found a strong correlation between the average gun license rate for the period 1990-2000 and suicides by shooting (r = 0.967), and only very weak correlation, and for some of the years under investigation a negative correlation, with other methods of committing suicide (r = 0.117) and the suicide rate in general (r = 0.383). As shooting as a method of suicide has increased in Austria in recent decades, and is a highly lethal method, the finding that the shooting suicide rate is related to the extent of gun ownership deserves attention, especially as there is evidence that restriction of gun ownership is an important factor in suicide prevention.

  10. Foodborne gastroenteritis outbreak in an Austrian healthcare facility caused by asymptomatic, norovirus-excreting kitchen staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, D; Kuo, H-W; Hell, M; Kasper, S; Lederer, I; Mikula, C; Springer, B; Allerberger, F

    2011-03-01

    An outbreak of norovirus GGII.4 2006b affected an Austrian 600-bed healthcare facility from 15 to 27 March 2009. A total of 204 patients, residents and staff fitted the outbreak case definition; 17 (8.3%) were laboratory-confirmed. Foodborne origin was suspected in the 114 patient and resident cases with onset 15-18 March. A case-cohort study was performed to test the hypothesis that consumption of dishes offered on 14, 15 and 16 March (risk days) was associated with increased risk of infection. Data on food exposure of 62% (317/510) of the patient and resident cohort were available for a simultaneous retrospective cohort study. The case-cohort analysis revealed that consumption of sliced cold sausage offered on 15 March [odds ratio (OR): 3.98; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18-14.1], a meat dish with salad (adjusted OR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.19-4.08) and a rolled spinach pancake (adjusted OR: 2.17; 95% CI: 1.27-3.71) on 16 March were independent risk factors. It is likely that one of the five asymptomatic excretors among the kitchen staff on duty on the risk days was the source of food contamination. The case-cohort study design was found to be a valid alternative to the retrospective cohort study design for the investigation of a suspected foodborne outbreak in a large cohort. Copyright © 2010 The Hospital Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Diversity of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from Austrian ruminants and New World camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, B; Krametter-Frötscher, R; Knauer, F; Ehricht, R; Monecke, S; Feßler, A T; Schwarz, S; Grunert, T; Spergser, J; Loncaric, I

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, the antimicrobial resistance patterns and the genetic diversity of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from Austrian ruminants and New World camelids that were treated at the University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna. Between April 2014 and January 2017, 723 nasal swabs originating from ruminants and New World camelids were examined. MRSA isolates were characterized by mecA/mecA1/mecC PCRs and by DNA microarray analysis. They were genotyped by spa typing, dru typing, MLST and MLVA. Glycopolymer fingerprinting by FTIR spectroscopy was also performed. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted by agar disk diffusion. Twelve MRSA isolates were mecA-positive, whereas three were mecC-positive. The MRSA isolates carried five different SCCmec elements, and belonged to three sequence types (ST45, ST130, ST398). The MRSA isolates displayed seven different resistance phenotypes. The present study describes for the first time mecC-carrying MRSA isolates originating from domesticated animals in Austria. More systematic studies are needed to unravel the role of ruminants and New World camelids as reservoirs for MRSA as a potential risk for zooanthropogenic transmission. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Indoor air in schools and lung function of Austrian school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Peter; Kundi, Michael; Moshammer, Hanns; Piegler, Kathrin; Hohenblum, Philipp; Scharf, Sigrid; Fröhlich, Marina; Damberger, Bernhard; Tappler, Peter; Hutter, Hans-Peter

    2012-07-01

    The Children's Environment and Health Action Plan for Europe (CEHAPE) of WHO focuses (inter alia) on improving indoor environments where children spend most of their time. At present, only little is known about air pollution in schools and its effect on the lung function of school children. Our project was set up as an Austrian contribution to CEHAPE. In a cross-sectional approach, differences in indoor pollution in nine elementary all-day schools were assessed and 34 of these pollutants were analyzed for a relationship with respiratory health determined by spirometry using a linear regression model. Overall 596 children (aged 6-10 years) were eligible for the study. Spirometry was performed in 433 children. Socio-economic status, area of living (urban/rural), and smoking at home were included in the model as potential confounders with school-related average concentration of air pollutants as the variable of primary interest. A negative association with flow volumes (MEF(75)) was found for formaldehyde in air samples, benzylbutylphthalate and the sum of polybrominated diphenylethers in school dust. FVC and FEV(1) were negatively associated with ethylbenzene and xylenes in air samples and tris(1,3-dichlor-2-propyl)-phosphate on particulates. Although, in general, the quality of school indoor air was not worse than that reported for homes, effects on the respiratory health of children cannot be excluded. A multi-faceted strategy to improve the school environment is needed.

  13. Nuclear translocation of the cytoskeleton-associated protein, smALP, upon induction of skeletal muscle differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambier, Linda; Pomies, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The cytoskeleton-associated protein, smALP, is expressed in differentiated skeletal muscle. → smALP is translocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus of C2C12 myoblasts upon induction of myogenesis. → The differentiation-dependent nuclear translocation of smALP occurs in parallel with the nuclear accumulation of myogenin. → The LIM domain of smALP is essential for the nuclear accumulation of the protein. → smALP might act in the nucleus to control some critical aspect of the muscle differentiation process. -- Abstract: The skALP isoform has been shown to play a critical role in actin organization and anchorage within the Z-discs of skeletal muscles, but no data is available on the function of the smALP isoform in skeletal muscle cells. Here, we show that upon induction of differentiation a nuclear translocation of smALP from the cytoplasm to the nucleus of C2C12 myoblasts, concomitant to an up-regulation of the protein expression, occurs in parallel with the nuclear accumulation of myogenin. Moreover, we demonstrate that the LIM domain of smALP is essential for the nuclear translocation of the protein.

  14. Adjacent Lone Pair (ALP) Effect: A Computational Approach for Its Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huaiyu; Wu, Wei; Ahmed, Basil M; Mezei, Gellert; Mo, Yirong

    2016-05-23

    The adjacent lone pair (ALP) effect is an experimental phenomenon in certain nitrogenous heterocyclic systems exhibiting the preference of the products with lone pairs separated over other isomers with lone pairs adjacent. A theoretical elucidation of the ALP effect requires the decomposition of intramolecular energy terms and the isolation of lone pair-lone pair interactions. Here we used the block-localized wavefunction (BLW) method within the ab initio valence bond (VB) theory to derive the strictly localized orbitals which are used to accommodate one-atom centered lone pairs and two-atom centered σ or π bonds. As such, interactions among electron pairs can be directly derived. Two-electron integrals between adjacent lone pairs do not support the view that the lone pair-lone pair repulsion is responsible for the ALP effect. Instead, the disabling of π conjugation greatly diminishes the ALP effect, indicating that the reduction of π conjugation in deprotonated forms with two σ lone pairs adjacent is one of the major causes for the ALP effect. Further electrostatic potential analysis and intramolecular energy decomposition confirm that the other key factor is the favorable electrostatic attraction within the isomers with lone pairs separated. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Si3 AlP: A New Promising Material for Solar Cell Absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jihui; Zhai, Yingteng; Liu, Hengrui; Xiang, Hongjun; Gong, Xingao; Wei, Suhuai

    2014-03-01

    First-principles calculations are performed to study the structural and optoelectronic properties of the newly synthesized nonisovalent and lattice-matched (Si2)0.6(AlP)0.4 alloy [T. Watkins et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2011, 133, 16212.] The most stable structure of Si3AlP is a superlattice along the direction with separated AlP and Si layers, which has a similar optical absorption spectrum to silicon. The ordered C1c1-Si3AlP is found to be the most stable one among all the structures with -AlPSi3- motifs, in agreement with the experimental suggestions. We predict that C1c1-Si3AlP has good optical properties, i.e., it has a larger fundamental band gap and a smaller direct band gap than Si, thus it has much higher absorption in the visible light region, making it a promising candidate for improving the performance of the existing Si-based solar cells.

  16. Hydrological and meteorological aspects of floods in the Alps: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldassare Bacchi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This introductory paper presents and summarises recent research on meteorological and hydrological aspects of floods in the Alps. The research activities were part of the international research project RAPHAEL (Runoff and Atmospheric Processes for flood HAzard forEcasting and controL together with experiments within the Special Observing Period-SOP conducted in autumn 1999 for the Mesoscale Alpine Programme —MAP. The investigations were based on both field experiments and numerical simulations, using meteorological and hydrological models, of ten major floods that occurred in the past decade in the European Alps. The two basins investigated were the Ticino (6599 km2 at the Lago Maggiore outlet on the southern side of the Alps and the Ammer catchment (709 km2 in the Bavarian Alps. These catchments and their sub-catchments cover an appropriate range of spatial scales with which to investigate and test in an operational context the potential of both mesoscale meteorological and distributed hydrological models for flood forecasting. From the data analyses and model simulations described in this Special Issue, the major sources of uncertainties for flood forecasts in mid-size mountain basins are outlined and the accuracy flood forecasts is assessed. Keywords: floods, mountain hydrology, meteorological models, Alps

  17. Holocene Erosion Patterns in European Alps Viewed from Lake Sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, F.; Poulenard, J.; Giguet-Covex, C.; Wilhelm, B.; Revillon, S.; Jenny, J. P.; Revel, M.; Enters, D.; Bajard, M.; Fouinat, L.; Doyen, E.; Simonneau, A.; Chapron, E.; Vannière, B.; Sabatier, P.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we review the scientific efforts that were led over the last decades to reconstruct erosion from continuous alpine lake sediment records. Whereas most available geological records of Holocene terrigenous input focused in climate we propose a regional approach without any a priori regarding erosion forcing factors. In that aim, we integrated a set of sediment sequences from various environment along an altitudinal gradient from 200 up to 2400m asl in Northern French Alps. Altogether our data point climate change as one of the main factor of erosion variability. In particular, the last two cold spells that occurred during the early middle age (Dark Age) and between the 14th and the 20th century AD (Little Ice Age) appear to be outstanding compared to any other periods of enhanced erosion along the Holocene. The climatic forcing of those erosion phases is supported by an increase in the contribution of glacier-eroded material at a regional scale. However, at local scales, our data point the growing importance, since at least the mid Bronze Age (ca. 3500 cal. BP) of human activities as a major erosion factor. This influence peaked during the late Iron Age and Antiquity periods (200 BC - 400 AD) when we record a regional generalised period of enhanced erosion in response to the development of pasturing activities. Thanks to provenance and weathering markers, we evidenced a strong relationship between the changes in ecosystems, soil development and erosion patterns. We hence showed the vegetal colonisation of bared soil led to a period of intense weathering while new soils were under formation between 11,000 and 8,000 cal. BP. Soils then knew an optimum until the onset of the Neoglacial at ca. 4,500 cal. BP prior to decline under both climate and human pressures. Altogether our data point the complexity of processes that affected the Earth critical zone along the Holocene and especially since humans became a major geologic agent. However, we highlight the

  18. Structural diversity of a family of aluminophosphates with Al/P ratio of non-unity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jihong; Xu, Ruren; Li, Jiyang

    2000-05-01

    A family of organically templated aluminophosphates (denoted AlPOs) with an Al/P ratio of non-unity has been prepared with 1-D chain, 2-D layer and 3-D open-framework architectures. Their inorganic parts are constructed from alternating Al-centered polyhedra (AlO 4, AlO 5, AlO 4(OH 2) 2) and P-centered tetrahedra P(OAl) nO 4- n ( n=0, 1, 2, 3). The existence of terminal POH and/or PO groups in the structures results in the deviation of Al/P ratio from unity, and the commonly encountered Al/P ratios are 1/2, 3/5, 2/3, 3/4, 4/5 and 5/6. This review will discuss the structural features of these AlPOs with various dimensionalities and stoichiometries.

  19. Changes of forest cover and disturbance regimes in the mountain forests of the Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebi, P; Seidl, R; Motta, R; Fuhr, M; Firm, D; Krumm, F; Conedera, M; Ginzler, C; Wohlgemuth, T; Kulakowski, D

    2017-03-15

    Natural disturbances, such as avalanches, snow breakage, insect outbreaks, windthrow or fires shape mountain forests globally. However, in many regions over the past centuries human activities have strongly influenced forest dynamics, especially following natural disturbances, thus limiting our understanding of natural ecological processes, particularly in densely-settled regions. In this contribution we briefly review the current understanding of changes in forest cover, forest structure, and disturbance regimes in the mountain forests across the European Alps over the past millennia. We also quantify changes in forest cover across the entire Alps based on inventory data over the past century. Finally, using the Swiss Alps as an example, we analyze in-depth changes in forest cover and forest structure and their effect on patterns of fire and wind disturbances, based on digital historic maps from 1880, modern forest cover maps, inventory data on current forest structure, topographical data, and spatially explicit data on disturbances. This multifaceted approach presents a long-term and detailed picture of the dynamics of mountain forest ecosystems in the Alps. During pre-industrial times, natural disturbances were reduced by fire suppression and land-use, which included extraction of large amounts of biomass that decreased total forest cover. More recently, forest cover has increased again across the entire Alps (on average +4% per decade over the past 25-115 years). Live tree volume (+10% per decade) and dead tree volume (mean +59% per decade) have increased over the last 15-40 years in all regions for which data were available. In the Swiss Alps secondary forests that established after 1880 constitute approximately 43% of the forest cover. Compared to forests established previously, post-1880 forests are situated primarily on steep slopes (>30°), have lower biomass, a more aggregated forest structure (primarily stem-exclusion stage), and have been more strongly

  20. End of the Little Ice Age in the Alps forced by industrial black carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Painter, Thomas H.; Flanner, Mark G.; Kaser, Georg; Marzeion, Ben; VanCuren, Richard A.; Abdalati, Waleed

    2013-01-01

    The end of the Little Ice Age in the European Alps has long been a paradox to glaciology and climatology. Glaciers in the Alps began to retreat abruptly in the mid-19th century, but reconstructions of temperature and precipitation indicate that glaciers should have instead advanced into the 20th century. We observe that industrial black carbon in snow began to increase markedly in the mid-19th century and show with simulations that the associated increases in absorbed sunlight by black carbon...

  1. Climatological investigations with a view to solar power stations in the Alps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durisch, W.; Hofer, B.; Wuillemin, D.

    1996-01-01

    This project aimed to acquire, evaluate and supply climatological data for solar-thermal and photovoltaic power stations in the Alps. It was carried out by the Paul Scherrer Institute in cooperation with partners from industry and the authorities. Such data are indispensable not only for the construction and operation of solar power plants but also for assessing their potential in the Swiss Alps and their economic competitiveness. Aspects meeting with particular interest are the quantity of the different types of insolation and their quality, i.e., that proportion of them that can be technically harnessed (orig./UA) [de

  2. A physiotherapy-directed occupational health programme for Austrian school teachers: a cluster randomised pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figl-Hertlein, A; Horsak, B; Dean, E; Schöny, W; Stamm, T

    2014-03-01

    Although physiotherapists have long advocated workplace health, school teachers have not traditionally been a focus of study by these professionals. However, classroom teaching contributes to a range of occupational health issues related to general health as well as ergonomics that can be prevented or addressed by physiotherapists. To undertake a pilot study to explore the potential effects of a physiotherapy-directed occupational health programme individualised for school teachers, develop study methodology and gather preliminary data to establish a 'proof of concept' to inform future studies. Cluster randomised pilot study using a convenience sample. Eight Austrian regional secondary schools. Schools and their teachers were recruited and allocated to an intervention group (IG, n=26 teachers) or a control group (CG, n=43 teachers). Teachers were eligible to participate if they reported no health issues that compromised their classroom responsibilities. The IG participated in an individualised physiotherapy-directed occupational health programme (six 30-minute sessions) related to ergonomics and stress management conducted over a 5-month semester. The CG had a pseudo-intervention of one oral education session. Primary outcomes included scores from the physical and mental components and health transition item of the Short-Form-36 Health Survey questionnaire (SF-36), and emotional well-being and resistance to stress items from the work-related behaviour and experience patterns questionnaire. Data were collected before and after one semester. The primary outcome measure, the SF-36 physical component score, showed a reduction in the CG and no change in the IG, meaning that the CG deteriorated over the study semester while the IG did not show any change. A physiotherapy-directed occupational health programme may prevent deterioration of physical health of school teachers in one semester (proof of concept). This pilot study provided valuable information to inform the

  3. Determining the amount of waste plastics in the feed of Austrian waste-to-energy facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzböck, Therese; Van Eygen, Emile; Rechberger, Helmut; Fellner, Johann

    2016-01-01

    Although thermal recovery of waste plastics is widely practiced in many European countries, reliable information on the amount of waste plastics in the feed of waste-to-energy plants is rare. In most cases the amount of plastics present in commingled waste, such as municipal solid waste, commercial, or industrial waste, is estimated based on a few waste sorting campaigns, which are of limited significance with regard to the characterisation of plastic flows. In the present study, an alternative approach, the so-called Balance Method, is used to determine the total amount of plastics thermally recovered in Austria’s waste incineration facilities in 2014. The results indicate that the plastics content in the waste feed may vary considerably among different plants but also over time. Monthly averages determined range between 8 and 26 wt% of waste plastics. The study reveals an average waste plastics content in the feed of Austria’s waste-to-energy plants of 16.5 wt%, which is considerably above findings from sorting campaigns conducted in Austria. In total, about 385 kt of waste plastics were thermally recovered in all Austrian waste-to-energy plants in 2014, which equals to 45 kg plastics cap-1. In addition, the amount of plastics co-combusted in industrial plants yields a total thermal utilisation rate of 70 kg cap-1 a-1 for Austria. This is significantly above published rates, for example, in Germany reported rates for 2013 are in the range of only 40 kg of waste plastics combusted per capita. PMID:27474393

  4. Determining the amount of waste plastics in the feed of Austrian waste-to-energy facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzböck, Therese; Van Eygen, Emile; Rechberger, Helmut; Fellner, Johann

    2017-02-01

    Although thermal recovery of waste plastics is widely practiced in many European countries, reliable information on the amount of waste plastics in the feed of waste-to-energy plants is rare. In most cases the amount of plastics present in commingled waste, such as municipal solid waste, commercial, or industrial waste, is estimated based on a few waste sorting campaigns, which are of limited significance with regard to the characterisation of plastic flows. In the present study, an alternative approach, the so-called Balance Method, is used to determine the total amount of plastics thermally recovered in Austria's waste incineration facilities in 2014. The results indicate that the plastics content in the waste feed may vary considerably among different plants but also over time. Monthly averages determined range between 8 and 26 wt% of waste plastics. The study reveals an average waste plastics content in the feed of Austria's waste-to-energy plants of 16.5 wt%, which is considerably above findings from sorting campaigns conducted in Austria. In total, about 385 kt of waste plastics were thermally recovered in all Austrian waste-to-energy plants in 2014, which equals to 45 kg plastics cap -1 . In addition, the amount of plastics co-combusted in industrial plants yields a total thermal utilisation rate of 70 kg cap -1  a -1 for Austria. This is significantly above published rates, for example, in Germany reported rates for 2013 are in the range of only 40 kg of waste plastics combusted per capita.

  5. Quasi-dynamic Material Flow Analysis applied to the Austrian Phosphorus cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoboli, Ottavia; Rechberger, Helmut

    2013-04-01

    Phosphorus (P) is one of the key elements that sustain life on earth and that allow achieving the current high levels of food production worldwide. It is a non-renewable resource, without any existing substitute. Because of its current dissipative use by mankind and to its very slow geochemical cycle, this resource is rapidly depleting and it is strongly connected to the problem of ensuring food security. Moreover P is also associated to important environmental problems. Its extraction often generates hazardous wastes, while its accumulation in water bodies can lead to eutrophication, with consequent severe ecological damages. It is therefore necessary to analyze and understand in detail the system of P, in regard to its use and management, to identify the processes that should be targeted in order to reduce the overall consumption of this resource. This work aims at establishing a generic quasi-dynamic model, which describes the Austrian P-budget and which allows investigating the trends of P use in the past, but also selected future scenarios. Given the importance of P throughout the whole anthropogenic metabolism, the model is based on a comprehensive system that encompasses several economic sectors, from agriculture and animal husbandry to industry, consumption and waste and wastewater treatment. Furthermore it includes the hydrosphere, to assess the losses of P into water bodies, due to the importance of eutrophication problems. The methodology applied is Material Flow Analysis (MFA), which is a systemic approach to assess and balance the stocks and flows of a material within a system defined in space and time. Moreover the model is integrated in the software STAN, a freeware tailor-made for MFA. Particular attention is paid to the characteristics and the quality of the data, in order to include data uncertainty and error propagation in the dynamic balance.

  6. From the new Austrian tunneling method to the geoengineering condition evaluation and dynamic controlling method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Shang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The new Austrian tunneling method (NATM is widely applied in design and construction of underground engineering projects. When the type and distribution of unfavorable geological bodies (UGBs associated with their influences on geoengineering are complicated or unfortunately are overlooked, we should pay more attentions to internal features of rocks grades IV and V (even in local but mostly controlling zones. With increasing attentions to the characteristics, mechanism and influences of engineering construction-triggered geohazards, it is crucial to fully understand the disturbance of these geohazards on project construction. A reasonable determination method in construction procedure, i.e. the shape of working face, the type of engineering support and the choice of feasible procedure, should be considered in order to mitigate the construction-triggered geohazards. Due to their high sensitivity to groundwater and in-situ stress, various UGBs exhibit hysteretic nature and failure modes. To give a complete understanding on the internal causes, the emphasis on advanced comprehensive geological forecasting and overall reinforcement treatment is therefore of more practical significance. Comprehensive evaluation of influential factors, identification of UGB, and measures of discontinuity dynamic controlling comprises the geoengineering condition evaluation and dynamic controlling method. In a case of a cut slope, the variations of UGBs and the impacts of key environmental factors are presented, where more severe construction-triggered geohazards emerged in construction stage than those predicted in design and field investigation stages. As a result, the weight ratios of different influential factors with respect to field investigation, design and construction are obtained.

  7. The Grand St Bernard-Briançonnais Nappe System and the Paleozoic Inheritance of the Western Alps Unraveled by Zircon U-Pb Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergomi, M. A.; Dal Piaz, G. V.; Malusà, M. G.; Monopoli, B.; Tunesi, A.

    2017-12-01

    The continental crust involved in the Alpine orogeny was largely shaped by Paleozoic tectono-metamorphic and igneous events during oblique collision between Gondwana and Laurussia. In order to shed light on the pre-Alpine basement puzzle disrupted and reamalgamated during the Tethyan rifting and the Alpine orogeny, we provide sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe U-Pb zircon and geochemical whole rock data from selected basement units of the Grand St Bernard-Briançonnais nappe system in the Western Alps and from the Penninic and Lower Austroalpine units in the Central Alps. Zircon U-Pb ages, ranging from 459.0 ± 2.3 Ma to 279.1 ± 1.1 Ma, provide evidence of a complex evolution along the northern margin of Gondwana including Ordovician transtension, Devonian subduction, and Carboniferous-to-Permian tectonic reorganization. Original zircon U-Pb ages of 371 ± 0.9 Ma and 369.3 ± 1.5 Ma, from calc-alkaline granitoids of the Grand Nomenon and Gneiss del Monte Canale units, provide the first compelling evidence of Late Devonian orogenic magmatism in the Alps. We propose that rocks belonging to these units were originally part of the Moldanubian domain and were displaced toward the SW by Late Carboniferous strike-slip faulting. The resulting assemblage of basement units was disrupted by Permian tectonics and by Mesozoic opening of the Alpine Tethys. Remnants of the Moldanubian domain became either part of the European paleomargin (Grand Nomenon unit) or part of the Adriatic paleomargin (Gneiss del Monte Canale unit), to be finally accreted into the Alpine orogenic wedge during the Cenozoic.

  8. Pressure variations in the Monte Rosa nappe, Western Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luisier, Cindy; Vaughan-Hammon, Joshua; Baumgartner, Lukas; Schmalholz, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    The Monte Rosa nappe is part of the Penninic nappe stack of the Western Alps. It represents the southern-most European continental basement involved in the alpine orogeny. It consists of a pre-Variscan basement complex, made of mostly metapelites and paragneisses, which were intruded by a Permian-age granitic body (Pawlig, 2001). The nappe is heterogeneously deformed, with localized high strain domains separating low strain domains. The metamorphic record is tightly linked to deformation. Different thermodynamic data bases and approaches were used in the past to estimate the peak alpine metamorphic conditions. They range from 1.2 to 2.7 GPa and 490 to 650˚C, based on metagranite, metapelite, metamafic and whiteschist assemblages. The peak alpine metamorphic assemblage of zoisite, phengite and albite symplectites pseudomorphing magmatic plagioclase is preserved only in the less deformed portions of the nappe. Phengite, garnet and titanite coronas surrounding biotite, quartz and igneous K-feldspar make up the rest of the rock. The metagranite locally grades into 10 to 50 meters whiteschist bodies, consisting of talc-chloritoid-kyanite-phengite-quartz, which can contain carbonate and garnet. Their chemistry is interpreted as a metasomatic product of the late magmatic hydrothermal alteration of the granite, whereas their mineralogy results from the alpine high pressure metamorphism (Pawlig and Baumgartner, 2001; Luisier et al., 2015). We performed a phase petrology and textural study to consistently estimate peak alpine metamorphic conditions in the granite and the related whiteschists. Textural observations were used to select the best-preserved high-pressure metagranite samples. Inherited magmatic feldspar textures indicate that jadeite was never formed in these granites, confirmed independently by Si in phengite barometer (1.2 to 1.5 GPa). Note that the granite contains the phengite buffer assemblage of Massonne and Schreyer (1987). Thermodynamic calculations using

  9. Natural gas seeps in the French Alps: Sources and pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloppmann, Wolfram; Blessing, Michaela; Proust, Eric; Gal, Frédéric; Bentivegna, Gaetan; Henry, Benoit; Defossez, Pierrick; Catherine, Lerouge; Humez, Pauline; Mayer, Bernhard; Millot, Romain; Gaucher, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Natural gas emanations are part of the geochemical baseline to take into account when assessing global greenhouse gas emissions and potential impacts of conventional and unconventional gas exploration and exploitation on groundwater. Examples of such natural gas macro-seeps are known in several parts of the world (Etiope et al., 2009). Only a limited number of them have been characterized for their gas and isotopic compositions. Such analyses can provide essential information for baseline studies, providing insight in the sources (biogenic vs. thermogenic or modified thermogenic) and pathways of such seeps and may allow for distinction of natural seeps from stray gas leakage associated with human activities. Here, we report gas concentrations and multi-isotope data (δ13C and δ2H of methane and ethane, δ13C and δ18O of CO2, 3He/4He ratio) of two gas seeps in the French subalpine chains, both in a similar geological and structural position within Middle Jurassic claystones along the eastern border of the large synclinal structures of the Vercors and the Chartreuse massifs (Moss, 1992). The "ardent fountain" (fontaine ardente) of Le Gua, 30 km south of Grenoble has most likely the longest continuous written record of existence of any individual natural gas seep, mentioned explicitly as early as the first quarter of the 5th century (Augustin of Hippo (St. Augustin), approx. 426) This natural seep was described in the past as a "wet seep" associated with a spring, whereas the second investigated seep, Rochasson near Meylan north of Grenoble, is a dry seep. Both seeps contain methane and ethane with thermogenic C and H isotope signatures, comparable with a seep in the Northern Swiss Alps at Giswil (Etiope et al., 2010) but with a higher dryness (C1/(C2+C3)>1000) for the Le Gua seep, possibly due to molecular fractionation upon advective fluid+gas migration (Etiope et al., 2009). Maturity (R0) of the reservoir rocks deduced from δ13C(CH4), δ13C(C2H6) is similar to

  10. ERT of seasonal changes in steep permafrost rocks with laboratory-calibrated temperature-resistivity behavior, an incorporated resistance error model, and temperature validation (Zugspitze, German/Austrian Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krautblatter, M.; Verleysdonk, S.; Flores-Orozco, A.; Kemna, A.

    2008-12-01

    Rockwall instability at the Zugspitze North Face is evident due to the 3.5(±0.5)*108 m3 rockslide that occurred in 3700 B.P from the permafrost-affected Zugspitze (2962 m a.s.l.) North Face and was interpreted as a delayed permafrost response to the Holocene Climatic Optimum (Gude and Barsch, 2005; Jerz and Poschinger, 1995). Thawing of rock permafrost is a key promoting and triggering factor for rock instability, rock creep, and rockfalls. Rock instability in permafrost-affected bedrock is governed by shear stress, hydrostatic pressures, and friction along one or several planes of weaknesses in the rock mass. Friction along planes of weaknesses (without fine-grained cleft fillings) is susceptible to subzero temperature changes due to alterations in intact rock mass strength and ice-mechanical properties along planes of weaknesses. We argue that rock permafrost geophysical surveys have the potential to provide spatially resolved information on subzero temperatures that could serve as highly-important input for stability models. Here we present the first monthly ERT (electrical resistance tomography) results in steep permafrost rocks over the whole summer thaw period. Temperature-resistivity behavior of limestone from the study site was measured in the laboratory during repeated cycles of freezing at 0.2-0.4°C increments and exhibited a two-fold linear relationship divided by a freezing point at about -0.5°C. Field measurements were taken from February to October 2007 in a gallery close to the Zugspitze North Face at 2800 m a.s.l. and display thawing and refreezing behavior up to 30 m depth from the north face. We applied high-resolution, time-lapse 2D ERT with 140 electrodes and ca. 2000 resistance measurements per time frame. Local topographic settings and electrode positions were accommodated in an 8600 finite-element mesh with three different resolutions and varying boundary conditions according to the field setup. Resistivity images were computed using a smoothness-constrained inversion routine. In the inversion, we applied an empirically-derived resistance error model based on normal and reciprocal measurements to obtain adequately and consistently fitted resistivity images at the different time steps. Five temperature loggers were installed at 2.5m, 5m, 10m, 15m, and 20m from the north face to validate whether imaged resistivity values match laboratory-calibrated temperature-resistivity paths. Here we discuss whether high-resolution ERT in homogeneous rock walls with (i) laboratory-calibrated temperature-resistivity behavior, (ii) an incorporated resistance error model to ensure optimum and consistent fitting of the data, and (iii) field validation with temperature logger data provides reliable, spatially- resolved subzero temperature-information in permafrost rocks.

  11. Infección invasiva por Streptococcus pneumoniae: reporte de caso de un paciente con síndrome de Austrian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Echeverri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Descrito inicialmente en 1957 por Robert Austrian, el síndrome que lleva su nombre se define como la tríada de neumonía, endocarditis y meningitis secundarias a una infección invasiva por Streptococcus pneumoniae. Desde entonces, y debido a su infrecuencia, se han reportado muy pocos casos en la literatura científica. A continuación se presenta el caso de un paciente de 61 años de edad con un cuadro inicial de meningitis bacteriana por S. pneumoniae, acompañado de neumonía bacteriana e insuficiencia mitral grave asociada a cuatro vegetaciones sobre la cara auricular de la valva posterior, con ruptura y prolapso de su festón central posterior. Se aisló S. pneumoniae, serotipo 18C, en líquido cefalorraquídeo y en dos hemocultivos. El paciente recibió antibióticos de amplio espectro y fue sometido a reemplazo valvular temprano con un resultado clínico satisfactorio. El principal factor pronóstico de esta condición lo determina el daño valvular subsecuente, sobre todo en pacientes con compromiso de la válvula aórtica, por lo que es necesario identificar tempranamente la extensión del compromiso valvular y definir oportunamente el tratamiento quirúrgico y antibiótico del paciente. En casos menos frecuentes, en los que solo hay compromiso de la válvula mitral, la evolución clínica es menos aguda y, por lo general, el tratamiento antibiótico dirigido y las medidas de soporte avanzado suelen ser suficientes para su control.

  12. Evaluation of recommendations on limits of exposure to ultraviolet radiation on the basis of data from the Austrian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keck, G.; Schauberger, G.; Cabaj, A.

    1996-01-01

    For the application of solaria at present the following international recommendations on limits of exposure exist, which differ strongly: 1. IRPA/INIRC (1991): 30 MED/a (i.e. 7.5 kJ/a). 2. IEC 335-2-27 (1978, 1989): 25 kJ/m 2 /a for each region of the body, that is 100 MED/a. On the basis of our data from the Austrian population we give an evaluation of these recommendations for the entire population. This evaluation shows that 100 MED/a is much too high, it seduces rather to use solaria than to restrict their application

  13. Interaction with customers: The Application of Social Media within the Austrian Supply Chain for Food and Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Meixner

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Social media marketing has become a powerful tool of interaction with stakeholders. An increasing number of companies are using social media platforms to initiate active interaction and communication with current and prospective customers. Within this study, certain content and contact features, as well as social media activities of companies of the Austrian food and beverage industry were evaluated. Empirical findings concerning the threats, risks, and opportunities connected with the application of social media are presented. The results imply that social media applications are innovative alternatives for customer relationship management. However, more knowledge on how to properly use social media marketing seems to be necessary.

  14. Development of Investment Activities of Commercial Insurance Companies in Slovak, Czech and Austrian Insurance Markets in 2004-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Meheš

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with investments of commercial insurance companies operating in Slovak, Czech and Austrian insurance market in the period of 2004–2009. First of all, development of technical reserves volume as an important prerequisite of investing of commercial insurance companies will be characterized. After that, we evaluate financial placements and investment activities – ratio of total investments and technical reserves. We also present statistical tests by means of which we examine the existence of the relation between the volume of technical reserves and the volume of investments of commercial insurance companies.

  15. Joint annual meeting of the Austrian physical society, Swiss physical society, Austrian society of astronomy and astrophysics in Innsbruck. Bulletin SPG / SSP Vol 26, 2009; OEPG Tagungsband Nr. 59

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briegel, H.; Gornik, E.; Rossel, C.; Schindler, S.

    2009-01-01

    This was the first joint annual meeting of the Austrian physical society, the Swiss physical society and the Austrian society of astronomy and astrophysics with the participation of the Swiss society for astrophysics and astronomy. Its objective was to improve the scientific communication and cooperation of researchers of both countries in all fields of physics and astronomy. The plenary sessions gave an overview of the present status from topics such as atomic clusters interactions to nuclear physics and physics of nanostructures. The topical sessions were dedicated to: atomic- and molecular physics and quantum optics; applied physics (medical physics, thin films, molecular physics and materials); nuclear and particle physics (nuclear physics, colliders (LHCb, Belle, CMS I, CMS II and HERA, ATLAS I and II, PANDA), low and medium energy (UCN, OPERA), astrophysics and particle physics; plasma physics; solid state physics (x-rays and neutrons, spins, magnetism, nano and photonics); surfaces, boundary layers and thin films; history of physics and physics in the school. Those contributions which are in the INIS subject scope are indexed individually. (nevyjel)

  16. Ambient levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) may reduce pollen viability in Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) trees--correlative evidence from a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottardini, Elena; Cristofori, Antonella; Cristofolini, Fabiana; Maccherini, Simona; Ferretti, Marco

    2008-09-01

    A fully randomized sampling design was adopted to test whether pollen viability of Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) was impacted by NO(2) pollution. Spatial strata (500500 m each) with high (41.9-44.6 microg m(-3)) and low (15.4-21.0 microg m(-3)) NO(2) were selected from a defined population in a small area (236.5 km(2), germination (P<0.01) and tube length (P<0.01). This suggested a possible impact of NO(2) on the regeneration of Austrian pine in polluted environments.

  17. Demodicosis in Chamois ( Rupicapra rupicapra subsp. rupicapra) in the Italian Alps, 2013-14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvadori, Claudia; Formenti, Nicoletta; Trogu, Tiziana; Lanfranchi, Paolo; Papini, Roberto A; Poli, Alessandro

    2016-04-28

    We report demodicosis in five alpine chamois ( Rupicapra rupicapra subsp. rupicapra) from the Italian Alps that showed moderate crusts on the head and dorsal aspect of the trunk. We detected intramural folliculitis, moderate dermatitis, and T-lymphocytes and macrophages associated with Demodex spp. in follicles and sebaceous glands.

  18. Structural petrology of the garnet-peridotite of Alpe Arami (Ticino, Switzerland)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Möckel, J.R.

    1969-01-01

    The decomposition of pyrope-rich garnet into spinel-amphibole symplektite and the alteration of the latter into chlorite indicate the presence of three successive mineral parageneses in the peridotite of Alpe Arami: a garnet-peridotite, a spinelamphibole-peridotite, and a chlorite-peridotite

  19. Implementation of Sustainable Tourism in the German Alps: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Paunović

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available What are the processes behind efforts for more sustainable mountain destinations in the German Alps and what are the views of different tourism stakeholders on these processes? The research deals both with threats pushing the agenda of sustainable development (such as climate change and depletion of resources, indicators of sustainable tourism (to measure the scope of change, as well as cross-border cooperation and stakeholder engagement in the German Alps. The data was collected through 30 interviews with individuals dealing with tourism development and sustainable tourism development in the German Alps. The findings suggest that a holistic approach and collection and dissemination of data and knowledge on sustainability are the basis for developing sustainable mountain tourism. Implementation and monitoring should focus on specific flagship sustainable tourism products, as well as on a destination in a broader sense and the sustainable tourism market. Three themes emerged as important for implementation of sustainable tourism in the German Alps: indicators of sustainable tourism, cross-border cooperation and stakeholder engagement.

  20. Do diatoms in the Swiss Alps reflect the length of ice-cover?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lotter, A.F.; Bigler, C.

    2000-01-01

    ment core from Hagelseewli (2339 m asl, Swiss Alps) give information about the present-day seasonal cycle of diatom blooms, taphonomic processes in the lake basin and the lake’s history. Analyses of surficial sediments show that water depth and thus light and nutrient availability is the most

  1. Thermal evolution of high-pressure metamorphic rocks in the Alps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, F.M.

    2000-01-01

    There are two major and currently unresolved issues in Alpine geology concerning the metamorphic evolution of the rocks in the internal zones of the Alps. First, rocks showing evidence for geologically young, high-pressure to very high-pressure metamorphism are now exposed at the Earth's surface,

  2. Relationship between Arm Span Measurements and Body Height in Dinaric Alpes Population: a Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Masanovic

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Several researches have reported the benefit of using various body parameters in predicting standing height, and arm span happened to be one of the most reliable ones in adults. On the other hand, it is well-known the tallness and body proportions are specific in the area that are covered by Dinaric Alpes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the potential relationship between arm span measurements and body height in Dinaric Alpes population. The most visible electronic database (Google Scholar was searched for original research articles available until September 2017. Then research findings were summarized and relationship between arm span measurements and body height in Dinaric Alpes population were identified, as well as areas of future research were recommended. The assessment of body height using various anthropometric measures is very typical from the past centuries and it has been attempted to be studied by many researchers. However, it is important to underline that the arm span has been obtained as the most reliable body indicator for predicting the true height of an individual. However, the studies sampled with the populations lived at Dinaric Alpes mountains have specific estimates. Therefore, all above-mentioned have confirmed the necessity for developing separate body height models for each population on account of ethnic as well as regional differences.

  3. Carbonate platforms in the Dolomites area of the southern Alps - historic perspectives on progress in Sedimentology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlager, W.; Keim, L.

    2009-01-01

    The area of the Dolomites in the Southern Alps exhibits some of the best outcrops of carbonate platforms and platform-to-basin transitions in the world. The region has attracted geologists since the early 19th Century and has been a centre of stratigraphic and sedimentological research ever since.

  4. Linking Up the Alps: How Networks of Local Political Actors Build the Pan-Alpine Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive H. Church

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: Linking Up the Alps: How Networks of Local Political Actors Build the Pan-Alpine Region By Cristina Del Biaggio. Bern, Switzerland: Peter Lang, 2016. 370 pp. €52.50. ISBN 978-3-0343-1630-9.

  5. Past processes in peats : untangling the origin of dried peat in the Australian alps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grover, S.P.P.; Tisdall, J.M.; Jacobsen, G.

    2005-01-01

    Peat soils form where decomposition is hindered, often by a combination of cold and wet conditions, such that production of organic matter outweighs decomposition. Such conditions are rare in the hot, dry continent of Australia. Consequently peat barely features on a map of Australian soils, though small areas are noted to occur in the alps and along the humid east coast. It is pertinent to ask several questions about the origin of peat in the alps. Is dried peat a remnant of bog peat? And if so, when did bogs drain to form dried peat? The study site, on Wellington Plains in the south-east Gippsland Alps, contains a substantial area of bog peat and extensive areas of dried peat. AMS radiocarbon dating of surface, base and, for the bog peat only, mid-profile peat samples, was carried out at ANSTO. 14 C dating enabled us to look at the initiation of peat accumulation, but the change from bog peat to dried peat is thought to have occurred more recently, since the introduction of stock to the alps. The short half-life of 210 Pb (22.6 years) and the constant supply from the upper atmosphere makes 210 Pb an appropriate technique to investigate this time frame. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  6. Petrofabrics, microtextures and dislocation substructures of olivine in a peridotite mylonite (Alpe Arami, Switzerland)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buiskool Toxopeus, J.M.A.

    1978-01-01

    The development of preferred crystallographic orientation and dimensional fabric of olivine in relation to deformation were investigated in a thin, continuous chlorite peridotite mylonite rim around the garnet peridotite body of Alpe Arami, Ticino, Switzerland. The mylonite is a foliated rock

  7. Total energy, equation of state and bulk modulus of AlP, AlAs and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Recently proposed model potential which combines both linear and quadratic types of interactions is employed for the investigation of some properties like the total energy, equation of state and bulk modulus of AlP, AlAs and AlSb semiconductor compounds using higher-order perturbation theory. The model potential ...

  8. Detrital zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic constraints on the terrigenous sediments of the Western Alps and their paleogeographic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yang; Lin, Wei; Faure, Michel; Wang, Qingchen

    2016-11-01

    Detrital zircons from Cretaceous micaschist, late Eocene-earliest Oligocene sandstone and early Oligocene siltstone of the Western Alps fall into three main separable age clusters at 610-540 Ma, 490-430 Ma, and 340-280 Ma that correspond to the Cadomian (Neoproterozoic), Ordovician, and Variscan (Carboniferous) events widespread in western and central Europe. Hf isotopic results indicate that these three magmatic and tectonic episodes did not give rise to significant production of juvenile crust. A distinguishable group of Triassic zircons, around 250-200 Ma which is considered to derive from the Southern Alps, has been detected in the early Oligocene "Schistes à Blocs" formation and the Briançonnais "Flysch Noir". In contrast, this age group is absent in late Eocene to earliest Oligocene sandstones. In agreement with sedimentological studies, our results show that the main source areas of the Eocene sandstone were probably located in the European continent. The arrival of detritus from the Internal Zone occurred in early Oligocene, coeval with the tectonic rotation from northwestward to westward in the propagation of allochthonous units. Based on previous studies and our new data, we argue that the Briançonnais Zone was likely a paleorelief since the middle Eocene that accounts for the lack of detritus from the Adriatic units. Contemporary sediments were accumulated in the foredeep of the Adriatic plate. From Oligocene time onward, the blockage was cut through after a regional uplifting, and thus, the Internal Zone started to provide detritus into the western flexural basins.

  9. AlpArray - technical strategies for large-scale European co-operation in broadband seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisbourne, A.; Clinton, J.; Hetenyi, G.; Pequegnat, C.; Wilde-Piorko, M.; Villasenor, A.; Comelli, P.; AlpArray Working Group

    2012-04-01

    AlpArray is a new initiative to study the greater Alpine area with a large-scale broadband seismological network. The interested parties (currently 32 institutes in 12 countries) plan to combine their existing infrastructures into an all-out transnational effort that includes data acquisition, processing, imaging and interpretation. The experiment will encompass the greater Alpine area, from the Black Forest in the north to the Northern Apennines in the south and from the Pannonian Basin in the east to the French Massif Central in the west. We aim to cover this region with high-quality broadband seismometers by combining the ~400 existing permanent stations with an additional 400+ instruments from mobile pools. In this way, we plan to achieve homogeneous and high resolution coverage while also deploying densely spaced stations along swaths across key parts of the Alpine chain. These efforts on land will be combined with deployments of ocean bottom seismometers in the Mediterranean Sea. Significant progress has already been made in outlining the scientific goals and funding strategy. A brief overview of these aspects of the initiative will be presented here. However, we will concentrate on the technical aspects: How efficient large-scale integration of existing infrastructures can be achieved. Existing permanent station coverage within the greater Alpine area has been collated and assessed for data availability, allowing strategies to be developed for network densification to ensure a robust backbone network: An anticipated deployment strategy has been drawn up to optimise array coverage and data quality. The augmented backbone network will be supplemented by more densely spaced temporary arrays targeting more specific scientific questions. For these temporary arrays, a strategy document has been produced to outline standards for station installation, data acquisition, processing, archival and dissemination. All these operations are of course vital. However, data

  10. Evidence of historical mining inferred from metal concentration of alluvial sediments in the Bernese Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Filipe; Schulte, Lothar

    2017-04-01

    Metal pollution is normally associated with modern day industrialization. However, evidences of anthropogenic metal pollution date back to the Palaeolithic, were the domestication of fire contributed to an increase of trace metals released from the burning wood. Large-scale metal pollution started during the Roman period with the increase of mining and smelting activities. The production of metals during this period was quite rudimentary and highly polluting, contributing to a raise of metal concentrations in the atmosphere and subsequently in sediments and soils. Towards the modern period, production methods were improved, especially since the industrial revolution, but continued to release pollutants to the environment. The aim of this study is to identify periods of increased mining activity though the analysis of sedimentary records. For this purpose, we study the geochemical response of trace metals in sedimentary cores from the Aare and Lütschine delta plains, located at the Bernese Alps. The focus of this analysis is the detection of metal concentration anomalies from the last 3000 years. The analysis is based on the X-Ray Fluorescence (AVATECH XRF core scanner) response of the chemical elements copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) contained in eight cores with depths down to 10 meter. All data was filtered in order to remove the noise from natural processes such as the increase of trace metal concentrations in organic rich horizons and to select the highest peaks of these metals. Results show similar trends in all the analysed cores and indicate three major pulses of trace metal concentration during the Roman Period, Early Medieval Age and a general increase of metal concentration during the Modern era, which can evidence mining and smelting activities. Periods of lower trace metal concentrations and shifts in concentration trends relate accurately with central Europe social and economic transitions, migratory events and significant demographic variations

  11. Paleomagnetic and geochronologic constraints on the geodynamic evolution of the Central Dinarides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, Arjan; Mandic, Oleg; Krijgsman, Wout; Kuiper, Klaudia; Hrvatović, Hazim

    2012-01-01

    The geodynamic evolution of the Dinaride Mountains of southeastern Europe is relatively poorly understood, especially in comparison with the neighboring Alps and Carpathians. Here, we construct a new chronostratigraphy for the post-orogenic intra-montane basins of the Central Dinarides based on

  12. A transgressive Santonian-Campanian boundary sequence revisited - High resolution planktonic and benthic foraminifera stratigraphy of the Schattau section, Northern Calcareous Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfgring, Erik; Wagreich, Michael; Summesberger, Herbert; Kroh, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The Schattau section is part of the Austrian Gosau Group, Northern Calcareous Alps. We record a Santonian to early Campanian transgressive sequence. Previous investigations already provide a biostratigraphic framework; a multidisciplinary study to reveal the local stratigraphy and palaeoenvironmental properties: Planktonic foraminifera, calcareous nannoplankton, ammonite, echinoid and crinoid biostratigraphy data suggest a Santonian to earliest Campanian age for this section (see Wagreich et al., 2009). This work aims at a high resolution assessment of foraminiferal assemblages recorded from a time interval that has undergone significant palaeoenvironmental changes. The Santonian Hochmoos Formation, with the Sandkalkbank Member representing it's topmost subunit, is overlain by the Santonian to Campanian Bibereck Formation. While The Hochmoos Formation records a shallowing succession that finds the Sandkalkbank Member (representing very shallow conditions, sometimes sub aerial exposure) at its top. The overlying Bibereck Formation records a distinct deepening trend displaying increasingly marine, neritic to outer neritic conditions. The stratigraphically older subunits of the Schattau sections are characterised by abundant larger benthic foraminifera (Nummofallotia cretacea), miliolid foraminifera (Quinqueloculina spp, Spiroloculina fassistomata) as well as rotaliid foraminifera (Hoeglundia spp., Gavellina spp.). The Sandkalkbank member marks the end of the shallow water sequence recorded from foraminifera assemblages at the Schattau section. Up section communities are characterised by increasing share of planktonic foraminifera. Biostratigraphic marker fossils like Dicarinella asymetrica and Sigalia sp. (decoratissima?) were identified and indicate a Santonian age for the Bibereck Formation. The appearance of Globotruncanita elevata and disappearance of D. asymetrica and Sigalia sp. Suggests an early Campanian age for the topmost part of the Schattau section

  13. Results of a first look into the Austrian animal phenological records

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheifinger, H.; Koch, E. [Central Inst. for Meteorology and Geodynamics, Vienna (Austria); Winkler, H. [Konrad Lorenz Inst. for Ethology, Vienna (Austria)

    2005-04-01

    The year to year variability and trends of animal phenological phases (honey bee, cockchafer, 3 butterfly species, swallow and cuckoo) of the Austrian phenological observational network were related to each other and to mean monthly temperatures over the time period 1951-1998. Insect phases were well correlated with each other (r{sup 2} = 0.4 to 0.6) and with temperature (r{sup 2} = 0.25 to 0.55), whereas both bird phases were only well correlated with each other (r{sup 2} = 0.57), but showed low common variance values with temperature and with other animal phases. The slope of the temperature-pheno regression, also termed as temperature sensitivity of the phenological phase, was high in the case of the insect phases (-3 to -5 days/ C), but low in the cases of both bird phases (about -1 days/ C). All animal phenological time series showed a trend towards later occurrence dates. The trends of the bird phases were even significant (p<0.1). There was a marked discrepancy between the trends of all animal phenological and temperature time series, especially between the insects and temperature: the mean temperature time series of February, March and April with the highest common variance with the insect phases showed a strongly increasing trend (0.027 C/year), whereas the first appearance dates of the insects tended to occur later (0.06 to 0.15 days/year). Both bird phases correlated weakly with the mean April temperature (r{sup 2} about 0.1). The temperature trend of April was 0.0003 C/year, whereas the trend of the bird phases was 0.2 days/year for the cuckoo and 0.25 days/year for the swallow. From these observations we conclude that a strong temperature sensitivity of the phenological phase based on the year to year variability (in days/ C) does not necessarily result in corresponding trends of temperature and phenological phase. A strong trend of non-atmospheric factors such as population density influencing the animal phases is suspected. Factors other than local

  14. Formalizing the Austrian Procedure Catalogue: A 4-step methodological analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neururer, Sabrina Barbara; Lasierra, Nelia; Peiffer, Karl Peter; Fensel, Dieter

    2016-04-01

    Due to the lack of an internationally accepted and adopted standard for coding health interventions, Austria has established its own country-specific procedure classification system - the Austrian Procedure Catalogue (APC). Even though the APC is an elaborate coding standard for medical procedures, it has shortcomings that limit its usability. In order to enhance usability and usefulness, especially for research purposes and e-health applications, we developed an ontologized version of the APC. In this paper we present a novel four-step approach for the ontology engineering process, which enables accurate extraction of relevant concepts for medical ontologies from written text. The proposed approach for formalizing the APC consists of the following four steps: (1) comparative pre-analysis, (2) definition analysis, (3) typological analysis, and (4) ontology implementation. The first step contained a comparison of the APC to other well-established or elaborate health intervention coding systems in order to identify strengths and weaknesses of the APC. In the second step, a list of definitions of medical terminology used in the APC was obtained. This list of definitions was used as input for Step 3, in which we identified the most important concepts to describe medical procedures using the qualitative typological analysis approach. The definition analysis as well as the typological analysis are well-known and effective methods used in social sciences, but not commonly employed in the computer science or ontology engineering domain. Finally, this list of concepts was used in Step 4 to formalize the APC. The pre-analysis highlighted the major shortcomings of the APC, such as the lack of formal definition, leading to implicitly available, but not directly accessible information (hidden data), or the poor procedural type classification. After performing the definition and subsequent typological analyses, we were able to identify the following main characteristics of

  15. Use of the TRIGA Reactor by the Radiochemistry Group of the Atominstitute of the Austrian Universities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bichler, M.; Buchtela, K.; Grass, F.; Ismail, S.

    1994-01-01

    The Radiochemistry Group of the Atominstitute of the Austrian Universities uses the TRIGA Mark II Reactor mainly for neutron activation analysis. Transport of samples to and from the irradiation positions in the reactor is performed by fast pneumatic transfer systems (transfer time 20 msec and 300 msec) and slow conventional transport facilities. Gamma-spectrometric instrumentation equipped with loss free counting systems is used to handle the high count rates up to 500 000 counts/sec. During the last years neutron activation analysis was applied to investigate environmental samples (soil, dust, incineration ash), geological samples (rocks, sediments, fossils, volcanic gases), biological materials (lichens, mushrooms and other plant materials, human diet, biological reference materials), raw materials (phosphate, coal) and archaeological materials (ancient glass). Lichen analysis was used for environmental monitoring. The content of some of the trace elements can be correlated with industrial activities, like manganese content with steel industry, the occurrence of vanadium and nickel with oil firing plants and stainless steel industry, selenium is found in lichen near coal firing plants. The amount of chlorine and sodium indicates the application of salt for road treatment during winter time, aluminum, scandium and hafnium content depends on the amount of dust in the environment. A further environmental application of neutron activation analysis is the determination of trace elements in volcanic gases. The halogens, arsenic, antimony, selenium, tellurium and mercury were determined and their daily output was calculated. The distribution of trace elements in fossils of known age gives us a geochemical key to condition and development of the paleo-environment. For this purpose we determined rare earth elements in 250 million years old microfossils (conodonts). Neutron activation analysis served also for some non scientific but nevertheless useful purposes: Organic

  16. Radon measurements in Austrian buildings and estimation of collective doses for the population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steger, F.

    1988-07-01

    Nuclear track etch detectors were used for the determination of radon and radon daughter levels in Austrian dwelling houses. A diffusion chamber, developed at Karlsruhe, FRG, was used to construct a passive radon detector. It consists of a plastic beaker covered with a glass fibre filter. It is shielded by a cover which has openings on the side so that air can diffuse through and on the top there is a mounted thermoluminescent detector card. The TLD dosimeter was used to determine beta and gamma radiation levels. A polycarbonate foil was placed at the bottom of the diffusion chamber which served as a detector for the alphas emitted by radon daughters. The dosimeters were exposed for a period of three months. The mean concentration of radon in all rooms in dwelling houses in Austria were clearly higher in winter than in summer time. This was interpreted as the effect of reduced ventilation rates in winter time. This effect of ventilation on radon concentration is more significant in living and sleeping rooms than in the cellar. Compared to all rooms in a dwelling house the level of radon concentration was distinctly higher in the cellar. Higher values of radon concentration were found in famous radon spa of Gastein and in the Waldviertel and in a landscape near the Czechoslovakian border. In Vienna a mean value for radon concentration in the living and sleeping rooms was found to be 47 bq/m 3 which corresponds to an estimated effective dose equivalent to the lung of 10.7 mSv per annum. The whole body effective dose equivalent was estimated to be 1.27 mSv per annum. These estimations were based on the radon equilibrium factor of 0.5. The exposure to radon at such concentration is estimated to cause 3-4% incidence of excess lung cancer in Vienna within the next 20 years. The value of 47 bq/m 3 of radon in Vienna and its surrounding areas corresponds well with the mean values in Switzerland and Germany, but it is lower than those found in Great Britain, Canada, Sweden

  17. Connectedness to Nature and Public (Skin) Health Perspectives: Results of a Representative, Population-Based Survey among Austrian Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluza, Daniela; Simic, Stana; Höltge, Jan; Cervinka, Renate; Moshammer, Hanns

    2014-01-01

    Connectedness to nature (CN) influences motivation to have contact with outdoor natural environments. Spending leisure time in natural environments is beneficial for human health and well-being. Besides these positive effects, health risks of open-air activities are mainly related to unprotected sun light exposure-associated acute and chronic skin hazards. Thus, we conducted a cross-sectional, representative telephone survey among Austrian residents to study the association of perceived CN level with sun-exposure knowledge, tanning habits, and sun protective behaviour. In total, 1,500 study subjects (50.5% females) participated in this questionnaire survey. Although knowledge about tanning and motives to tan were similar among genders, females performed more photoprotective measures and were more connected to nature (all p < 0.001) compared to males. Older age and outdoor sport were significant gender-independent predictor variables influencing perceived CN level. Additionally, level of education was relevant in male CN, whereas non-smoking and higher knowledge were predictive of female CN. This survey provides so far unreported empirical data on the relationship between nature connectedness and skin health-relevant recreational habits of Austrian residents. The findings suggest to integrate hitherto neglected gender-specific Public (Skin) Health promotion when counselling on the manifold health advantages of outdoor activities. PMID:24448634

  18. Digital age and the public eHealth perspective: Prevailing health app use among Austrian Internet users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naszay, Marlene; Stockinger, Andreas; Jungwirth, David; Haluza, Daniela

    2017-12-19

    New technological developments affect almost every sector of our daily lives including the healthcare sector. Successful adoption and sustainable integration of eHealth and telemedicine in Public Health strategies (also known as Public eHealth) depend on knowledge and constant evaluation of consumers' needs, proficiencies, and preferences. We therefore assessed how the general Austrian population perceived innovative Public eHealth solutions. The online survey on 562 Austrian adults (58.9% females) collected self-reported data on current and expected use of smartphone-based health applications (apps) of digital natives (35 years and younger) and digital immigrants (aged 35+). In total, 26.7% (95% CI 23.0-30.4) of participants already used health apps, especially lifestyle-associated apps for monitoring exercise habits and nutritional habits. We found substantial digital age group differences; compared to digital immigrants digital natives were more likely to use mobile devices and health apps. Health apps have the potential to improve community health and prevent lifestyle diseases cost-effectively and efficiently, and thus build an important pillar of Public eHealth. With regard to aging societies, healthcare providers could take advantage of consumer-oriented health apps by assessing individual needs of specific target groups such as elderly people.

  19. Helicobacter pylori type I strains among Austrian and Portuguese patients with gastritis, peptic ulcer or gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, S; Makristathis, A; Pinto, A; Quina, M; Rotter, M; Hirschl, A M

    1999-11-01

    The frequency of occurrence of Helicobacter pylori type I strains in isolates from Austria and Portugal and different polymerase chain reaction-based approaches to detect the cag pathogenicity island were assessed. Of the 41 Austrian strains, eight of 14 (57.2%) isolated from patients with gastritis, 14 of 19 (73.7%) from patients with peptic ulcer and eight of eight (100%) from patients with gastric cancer were type I strains. Among the Portuguese strains, eight of 14 (57.2%) isolated from patients with gastritis, ten of 12 (83.3%) from patients with peptic ulcer and five of 13 (38.5%) from patients with gastric cancer were classified as type I. Thus, Helicobacter pylori type I strains occur frequently in both populations but show no significant correlation with peptic ulcer disease. The prevalence of the type Igenotype in Austrian cancer patients, however, was significantly higher (P=0.007). The cagE-specific polymerase chain reaction was found to be a reliable and efficient method for detection of the cag pathogenicity island.

  20. Characterization of Modern and Fossil Mineral Dust Transported to High Altitude in the Western Alps: Saharan Sources and Transport Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Thevenon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mineral dust aerosols recently collected at the high-altitude Jungfraujoch research station (N, E; 3580 m a.s.l. were compared to mineral dust deposited at the Colle Gnifetti glacier (N, E; 4455 m a.s.l. over the last millennium. Radiogenic isotope signatures and backward trajectories analyses indicate that major dust sources are situated in the north-central to north-western part of the Saharan desert. Less radiogenic Sr isotopic compositions of PM10 aerosols and of mineral particles deposited during periods of low dust transfer likely result from the enhancement of the background chemically-weathered Saharan source. Saharan dust mobilization and transport were relatively reduced during the second part of the Little Ice Age (ca. 1690–1870 except within the greatest Saharan dust event deposited around 1770. After ca. 1870, sustained dust deposition suggests that increased mineral dust transport over the Alps during the last century could be due to stronger spring/summer North Atlantic southwesterlies and drier winters in North Africa. On the other hand, increasing carbonaceous particle emissions from fossil fuel combustion combined to a higher lead enrichment factor point to concomitant anthropogenic sources of particulate pollutants reaching high-altitude European glaciers during the last century.

  1. Escape tectonics and foreland basin evolution: The Austrian-German Molasse basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortner, Hugo

    2016-04-01

    at the Alpine front. Active thrusting in the Subalpine Molasse, and probably also in more internal parts of the Alps, would bring the orogen closer the foreland, and therefore cause more loading in the foreland, but at a much smaller rate, as material was continuously transported out of the zone of shortening by lateral escape. The contemporanous onset of the second megasequence of the foreland basin fill, and of escape tectonics is therefore not a coincidence. East of the Subalpine Molasse thrust belt, onset of lateral escape terminated shortening and thus lower plate flexure. Marine conditions in the lower part of the second megasequence, that exist also in the eastern part of the forland basin, are therefore not dependent on flexure, but rather on reduced sediment input into the basin. Ortner, H., Aichholzer, S., Zerlauth, M., Pilser, R. & Fügenschuh, B. (2015): Geometry, amount and sequence of thrusting in the Subalpine Molasse of Western Austria and Southern Germany, European Alps.- Tectonics, 34: 1-30, doi: 10.1002/2014TC003550

  2. Bacteria at glacier surfaces: microbial community structures in debris covered glaciers and cryoconites in the Italian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzoni, Roberto; Franzetti, Andrea; Ambrosini, Roberto; D'Agata, Carlo; Senese, Antonella; Minora, Umberto; Tagliaferri, Ilario; Diolaiuti, Guglielmina

    2014-05-01

    bacteria and the copy of Rubisco genes found on cryoconite holes collected on a wide Italian DFG (Forni Glacier - Central Alps). The structure of the microbial communities in cryoconite holes seem to be determined mainly by a turnover process. This work was carried out under the umbrella of the SHARE Stelvio Project which has been funded by the Lombardy Region government and managed by FLA (Lombardy Foundation for the Enviroment) and EvK2-CNR Committee.

  3. Effect of Al and AlP on the microstructure of Mn-30 wt.%Si alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Yuying [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jing Shi Road 73, Jinan 250061 (China); Liu Xiangfa [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jing Shi Road 73, Jinan 250061 (China)], E-mail: xfliu@sdu.edu.cn

    2008-04-15

    Effect of Al and AlP particles on the microstructure of near eutectic Mn-Si alloy (Mn-30 wt.%Si) was studied by Electron Probe Micro-analyzer (EPMA) and Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). Crystal lattice correspondence analyses show that both Al and AlP have good lattice matching coherence relationships with MnSi phase, and the addition of Al and AlP particles results in an abnormal eutectic structure, i.e. the eutectic constitution MnSi and Mn{sub 5}Si{sub 3} precipitate separately: MnSi precipitates firstly, and then the Mn{sub 5}Si{sub 3} phase.

  4. The Central Role of Neuroscientists under National Socialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidman, Lawrence A

    2016-01-01

    Neuroscientists played central roles in the victimization of colleagues and their patients during the era of National Socialism from 1933 to 1945. After helping dismiss Jewish and nonideologically aligned colleagues, German neuroscientists were among the physicians and researchers who joined the Nazi Party and affiliated groups in record numbers. Forced sterilization and then so-called 'euthanasia' of neurological and psychiatric patients were planned and executed by prominent German and Austrian neuroscientists. Other neuroscientists collaborated indirectly by using patients for unethical experimentation to discover the cause of multiple sclerosis or to try to induce epileptic convulsions in a hypoxic state. Some merely used neuropathological material from murdered patients for publications in scientific journals. In the totalitarian state, research funding and academic advancement were awarded to physicians engaged in eugenics research. Opportunism and ideologically tainted science without regard to medical ethics were the motivating factors for collaborating neuroscientists. Some German and Austrian neuroscientists tried to resist Nazi policies, although much more passively than their colleagues in German-occupied countries. French, Dutch, Norwegian, and Danish neuroscientists actively resisted the Nazification of their profession from the beginning and helped to save some patients and colleagues, at great personal risk. Many German, Austrian, Czech, and Polish neurologists were murdered in the Holocaust, and hundreds of thousands of neurological and psychiatric patients were sterilized or murdered in just 12 years. The Nazis used the 'successful' techniques developed in the 'euthanasia' programs to carry out the mass murder of millions in the Holocaust. Today's neuroscientists are obligated to learn of the ethical violations of their predecessors 70-80 years ago. No law will prevent abandonment of the basic principles of ethical patient care and professionalism

  5. End of the "Little Ice Age" in the Alps not forced by industrial black carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigl, Michael; Osmont, Dimtri; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Barbante, Carlo; Schwikowski, Margit

    2016-04-01

    Light absorbing aerosols present in the atmosphere and cryosphere play an important role in the climate system. Their presence in ambient air and snow changes radiative properties of these media, thus contributing to increased atmospheric warming and snowmelt. High spatio-temporal variability of aerosol concentrations in these media and a shortage of long-term observations contribute to large uncertainties in properly assigning the climate effects of these aerosols through time. Glaciers in the European Alps began to retreat abruptly from their mid-19th century maximum, marking what appeared to be the end of the Little Ice Age. Radiative forcing by increasing deposition of industrial black carbon to snow has been suggested as the main driver of the abrupt glacier retreats in the Alps (Painter et al. 2012). Basis for this hypothesis were model simulations using ice-core measurements of elemental carbon at low temporal resolution from two ice cores in the Alps. Here we present sub-annually resolved, well replicated ice-core measurements of refractory black carbon (rBC; using a SP2 soot photometer), mineral dust (Fe, Ca), biomass burning (NH4, K) and distinctive industrial pollution tracers (Bi, Pb, SO4) from an ice core in the Alps covering the past 250 years. These reconstructions allow to precisely compare the timing of observed acceleration of glacier melt in the mid-19th century with that of the increase of soot deposition on ice-sheets caused by the industrialization of Western Europe. Our study suggests that at the time when European rBC emission rates started to significantly increase Alpine glaciers have already experienced more than 70% of their total 19th century length reduction. Industrial BC emissions can therefore not been considered as the primary forcing of the rapid deglaciation at the end of the Little Ice Age in the Alps. References: Painter, T. H., M. G. Flanner, G. Kaser, B. Marzeion, R. A. VanCuren, and W. Abdalati (2013), End of the Little Ice

  6. Growth dynamics and climatic sensitivity of Silver fir (Abies alba Mill. in the European important site (SIC at the Alpe della Luna - Bocca Trabaria (PU - Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A dendroecological and dendroclimatic analysis was carried out in silver fir stand of Fonte Abeti, in the Apennines of central Italy. This small forest is the only one present in the northern side of the Marche region and it is currently included as a priority habitat in the Site of Community Interest “ Luna-Bocca Trabaria”. The study aimed to assess the sensitivity of silver fir to the current climate variability and was carried out on 40 dominant trees, for which we reconstructed radial growth dynamics, pointer years and climate-growth relationships. These were computed for the period 1892-2003, using monthly mean temperatures and precipitation drawn from the ALP-IMP climate dataset using simple and moving correlations in order to verify response stationarity through time.

  7. Clastic Sediment Dispersal in Rifted Margins, an Example From the Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galster, Federico; Stockli, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    temperatures above 700°C are drastically reduced and the input of rutile from mafic sources as well as a Permo-Triassic population is observed. This trend marks the compartmentalization of the European margin in sub-basins, the emergence and rapid unroofing of local sources and the progressive reduction and eventual disconnection from far-field sources. However, eventually this period leads to the creation of new sediment dispersal pathways tapping into very far-field sources, as deduced from the Cretaceous DR record. In particular, Aptian to Cenomanian ("Gault") sedimentary strata in the Helvetic, North Penninic, and Briançonnais domains show remarkable similarities, incl. the reappearance of abundant Mid-Proterozoic zircons and the appearance, for the first time in the system, of Paleoproterozoic (1.8-2 Ga) rutiles. This trend marks the general subsidence of the rifted margin and the instauration of strong longitudinal currents. The appearance of abundant Paleoproterozoic rutile in central Europe, whose basement has been formed and repeatedly metamorphosed during the late Proterozoic and the Paleozoic, suggests a source located to the east of the Tornquist-Teisseyre zone, in the basement of the East European platform and a direct connection through E-W currents between the Outer Carpathians and the Central Alps.

  8. A 9.1 ka long continuous tree-ring width chronology as a base for analyses on the environmental and climatic evolution in the Alps during the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolussi, K.; Joerin, U. E.; Patzelt, G.; Thurner, A.; Melvin, T. M.; Schluechter, C.

    2009-04-01

    An ultra-long tree-ring width chronology (9111 years long, 7109 B.C. to A.D. 2002) has been established based on the analysis and dating of 1432 sub-fossil/dry-dead wood samples and cores from 335 living trees. The material was collected from tree-line or near-tree-line sites (c. 2000 to 2400 m a.s.l.) mainly in the central eastern Alps. This tree-ring chronology is the longest continuous high-mountain chronology in the world. The subfossil/dry-dead samples belong to different conifer species: samples of the species stone pine (Pinus cembra L.) dominate the mixture by more than 80%, larch (Larix decidua Mill.) and spruce (Picea abies L.) samples have only minor fractions (16% and 2%, respectively). Additionally two floating tree-ring chronologies were established for the first section of the Holocene. The dating of these two series each some 600 year long is based on wiggle-matching of radiocarbon dates. Knowledge of the Holocene environmental and climatic evolution in the Alps has been improved using the absolutely dated Eastern Alpine Conifer Chronology (EACC). It was possible to dendrochronologically date wooden samples found on several Alpine glacier forefields. The samples analysed contain up to some 700 tree rings and usually date back into the early and middle Holocene. These wooden remains generally document multi-centennial to millennial long glacier retreat periods with glaciers extents smaller than at present. Tree remains found at several locations of the central Alps above the present tree line are indicating higher tree-line positions in the past. The sub-fossil stems with life-spans up to 300 years allowed the establishment of a dendrochronological record of the Holocene tree-line variability. Both records (glacier and tree-line) prove a long lasting Holocene climate optimum in the Alps around 7 ka BP. The abundance of sub-fossil samples through time at high elevated sites is influenced by Alpine forest history and is partly climatically controlled

  9. ... AND HERE COMES THE WEATHER - Austrian TV and radio weather news in the eye of the public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keul, A.; Holzer, A. M.; Wostal, T.

    2010-09-01

    Media weather reports as the main avenue of meteorological and climatological information to the general public have always been in the focus of critical investigation. Former research found that although weather reports are high-interest topics, the amount of information recalled by non-experts is rather low, and criticized this. A pilot study (Keul et al., 2009) by the Salzburg University in cooperation with ORF, the Austrian Broadcasting Corporation, used historic radio files on a fair-weather and a storm situation. It identified the importance of intelligible wording of the weather forecast messages for lay people. Without quality control, weather information can stimulate rumours, false comfort or false alarms. More qualitative and experimental research, also on TV weather, seems justified. This need for further research was addressed by a second and larger field experiment in the spring of 2010. The survey took place in Salzburg City, Austria, with a quota sample of about 90 lay persons. This time TV and radio weather reports were used and a more realistic listening and viewing situation was created by presenting the latest weather forecasts of the given day to the test persons in the very next hours after originally broadcasting them. It asked lay people what they find important in the weather reports and what they remember for their actual next-day use. Reports of a fairweather prognosis were compared with a warning condition. The weather media mix of the users was explored. A second part of the study was a questionnaire which tested the understanding of typical figures of speech used in weather forecasts or even meteorological terms, which might also be important for fully understanding the severe weather warnings. This leads to quantitative and qualitative analysis from which the most important and unexpected results are presented. Short presentation times (1.5 to 2 minutes) make Austrian radio and TV weather reports a narrow compromise between general

  10. Modelling site-specific N2O emission factors from Austrian agricultural soils for targeted mitigation measures (NitroAustria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, Barbara; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Kasper, Martina; Foldal, Cecilie; Schiefer, Jasmin; Kitzler, Barbara; Schwarzl, Bettina; Zethner, Gerhard; Anderl, Michael; Sedy, Katrin; Gaugitsch, Helmut; Dersch, Georg; Baumgarten, Andreas; Haas, Edwin; Kiese, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    Results from a previous project "FarmClim" highlight that the IPCC default emission factor is not able to reflect region specific N2O emissions from Austrian arable soils. The methodology is limited in identifying hot spots and hot moments of N2O emissions. When estimations are based on default emission factors no recommendations can be given on optimisation measures that would lead to a reduction of soil N2O emissions. The better the knowledge is about Nitrogen and Carbon budgets in Austrian agricultural managed soils the better the situation can be reflected in the Austrian GHG emission inventory calculations. Therefore national and regionally modelled emission factors should improve the evidence for national deviation from the IPCC default emission factors and reduce the uncertainties. The overall aim of NitroAustria is to identify the drivers for N2O emissions on a regional basis taking different soil types, climate, and agricultural management into account. We use the LandscapeDNDC model to update the N2O emission factors for N fertilizer and animal manure applied to soils. Key regions in Austria were selected and region specific N2O emissions calculated. The model runs at sub-daily time steps and uses data such as maximum and minimum air temperature, precipitation, radiation, and wind speed as meteorological drivers. Further input data are used to reflect agricultural management practices, e.g., planting/harvesting, tillage, fertilizer application, irrigation and information on soil and vegetation properties for site characterization and model initialization. While at site scale, arable management data (crop cultivation, rotations, timings etc.) is obtained by experimental data from field trials or observations, at regional scale such data need to be generated using region specific proxy data such as land use and management statistics, crop cultivations and yields, crop rotations, fertilizer sales, manure resulting from livestock units etc. The farming

  11. Palaeoenvironmental changes in the Late Triassic (Rhaetian) of the Northern Calcareous Alps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mette, Wolfgang; Elsler, Armin; Korte, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    The Triassic Kössen Formation (Rhaetian) in the Northern Calcareous Alps has been studied with respect to oxygen and carbon isotope ratios of brachiopod shells and whole rocks, together with the stratigraphic range and ecology of ostracod assemblages, in order to detect palaeotemperature changes...... in the Kössen Formation and determine their significance for environmental and climatic conditions in the Rhaetian sea of the Eiberg Basin (Northern Calcareous Alps). For this purpose 60 δ 18O measurements on 43 articulate brachiopods samples from 8 different horizons were carried out. The results indicate...... further suggest that the palaeobathymetric temperature gradient in the Eiberg Basin was rather low, indicating that almost no deep water exchange with Tethys existed at that time. Carbon isotopes from brachiopod shells and from bulk carbonates show a trend to heavier values from the Hochalm Member up...

  12. 24th International Conference on Robotics in Alpe-Adria-Danube Region

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This volume includes the Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Robotics in Alpe-Adria-Danube Region, RAAD 2015, which was held in Bucharest, Romania, on May 27-29, 2015. The Conference brought together academic and industry researchers in robotics from the 11 countries affiliated to the Alpe-Adria-Danube space: Austria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia and Slovenia, and their worldwide partners. According to its tradition, RAAD 2015 covered all important areas of research, development and innovation in robotics, including new trends such as: bio-inspired and cognitive robots, visual servoing of robot motion, human-robot interaction, and personal robots for ambient assisted living. The accepted papers have been grouped in nine sessions: Robot integration in industrial applications; Grasping analysis, dexterous grippers and component design; Advanced robot motion control; Robot vision and sensory control; Human-robot interaction and collaboration;...

  13. Sensitivity of the French Alps snow cover to the variation of climatic variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Martin

    Full Text Available In order to study the sensitivity of snow cover to changes in meteorological variables at a regional scale, a numerical snow model and an analysis system of the meteorological conditions adapted to relief were used. This approach has been successfully tested by comparing simulated and measured snow depth at 37 sites in the French Alps during a ten year data period. Then, the sensitivity of the snow cover to a variation in climatic conditions was tested by two different methods, which led to very similar results. To assess the impact of a particular "doubled CO2" scenario, coherent perturbations were introduced in the input data of the snow model. It was found that although the impact would be very pronounced, it would also be extremely differentiated, dependent on the internal state of the snow cover. The most sensitive areas are the elevations below 2400 m, especially in the southern part of the French Alps.

  14. Recent variation of snow as a water resource in the Japanese Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Keisuke

    2013-04-01

    The region of Japan that lies along the Sea of Japan is known to experience some of the heaviest snowfall in the world. In this region, precipitation brought by snowfall is more important as a water resource than rainfall. Recent studies have reported that the amount of snowfall in Japan will decrease as a result of global warming. However, these studies used data observed at low altitudes. The question arises whether the same theory can be applied to high-altitude mountain areas. Therefore, in this study, we discuss the relationship between temperature and the amount of snow using observation data for the Japanese Alps region and present the results of some meteorological observations we carried out at high-altitude sites in the Japanese Alps region. A relatively large part of the Japanese Alps region is within the altitude range of 1,000-3,000 m and the snowfall there serves as a vital water resource. Therefore, the effect of global warming on snow accumulation in mountain areas is a crucial issue. At places with high altitude in the Japanese Alps, it is rare for the air temperature to rise to around 0 °C at the current levels of temperature increase. An increase in winter precipitation should lead directly to an increase in snow accumulation in the high altitude area. Under the present circumstances, the role of the mountain regions as a system for purification of water and air that is essential for human beings' existence is not duly recognized and is undervalued. However, there is no doubt that we need to understand the response of mountain regions to global-scale environmental change in the near future. To achieve that, we need to discuss the matter based on proper observation data. We therefore plan to continue our meteorological observations at high altitude mountain regions.

  15. Integrative taxonomy reveals a new species of Callisto ( Lepidoptera , Gracillariidae ) in the Alps

    OpenAIRE

    Kirichenko, Natalia; Huemer, Peter; Deutsch, Helmut; Triberti, Paolo; Rougerie, Rodolphe; Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Europe has one of the best-known Lepidopteran faunas in the world, yet many species are still being discovered, especially in groups of small moths. Here we describe a new gracillariid species from the south-eastern Alps, Callisto basistrigella Huemer, Deutsch & Triberti, sp. n. It shows differences from its sister species Callisto coffeella in morphology, the barcode region of the cytochrome c oxidase I gene and the nuclear gene histone H3. Both Callisto basistrigella and Callisto c...

  16. Alkaline Phosphatase Activity in Seawater: Influence of Reaction Conditions on the Kinetic Parameters of ALP

    OpenAIRE

    Orhanović, Stjepan; Pavela-Vrančič, Maja

    2000-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is an extracellular enzyme enabling utilisation of phosphomonoesters as the source of inorganic phosphate (Pi) required for the maintenance of cellular metabolism. Its catalytic properties have been extensively studied in aquatic environments in an attempt to describe its influence on phosphorous cycling in natural waters. Despite its significance and frequent determination, no standard method has been developed so far. In order to examine the effect of various reac...

  17. Terricolous Lichens in the Glacier Forefield of the Pasterze (Eastern Alps, Carinthia, Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilovitz, Peter O.; Wallner, Anja; Tutzer, Veronika; Nascimbene, Juri; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Summary The investigation of lichens on soil, plant debris and terricolous mosses in the glacier forefield of the Pasterze yielded 35 lichen species. Placidiopsis oreades Breuss (Verrucariales) is new to Austria. Three sampling sites were established at increasing distance from the glacier, in order to compare species diversity, abundance and composition within the forefield and with four other glacier forefields of the Eastern Alps. PMID:26877565

  18. Vienna international summer school on experimental and clinical oncology for medical students: an Austrian cancer education project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromm-Haidenberger, Sabine; Pohl, Gudrun; Widder, Joachim; Kren, Gerhard; Fitzal, Florian; Bartsch, Rupert; de Vries, Jakob; Zielinski, Christoph; Pötter, Richard

    2010-03-01

    The "International Summer School on Experimental and Clinical Oncology for Medical Students" is organised at the Medical University of Vienna to teach a multidisciplinary approach to oncology to medical students in the final phase of their studies. The program includes biology, diagnosis, clinical and psycho-oncology. Lectures are given by medical, radiation and surgical oncologists. Teaching includes case reports, poster presentations and role-play. As part of the organising committee, Austrian students organise a social program. Since 1999, six courses have been held (147 students from 19 countries). Students recorded high satisfaction with organisation, scientific content and topic range. Case presentations, poster presentations and role-play were very useful. Early criticism that the program was too intense (long lectures and little interaction) has been answered. The summer school has a high degree of acceptance and is a very useful tool to teach medical students about oncology and approaching a cancer patient.

  19. Diagnosis, management and response criteria of iron overload in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS): updated recommendations of the Austrian MDS platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valent, Peter; Stauder, Reinhard; Theurl, Igor; Geissler, Klaus; Sliwa, Thamer; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Bettelheim, Peter; Sill, Heinz; Pfeilstöcker, Michael

    2018-02-01

    Despite the availability of effective iron chelators, transfusion-related morbidity is still a challenge in chronically transfused patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). In these patients, transfusion-induced iron overload may lead to organ dysfunction or even organ failure. In addition, iron overload is associated with reduced overall survival in MDS. Areas covered: During the past 10 years, various guidelines for the management of MDS patients with iron overload have been proposed. In the present article, we provide our updated recommendations for the diagnosis, prevention and therapy of iron overload in MDS. In addition, we propose refined treatment response criteria. As in 2006 and 2007, recommendations were discussed and formulated by participants of our Austrian MDS platform in a series of meetings in 2016 and 2017. Expert commentary: Our updated recommendations should support early recognition of iron overload, optimal patient management and the measurement of clinical responses to chelation treatment in daily practice.

  20. IMPACT OF ROMANIA’S ACCESSION TO THE EUROPEAN UNION ON THE AUSTRIAN TRADE, FDI AND LABOUR MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Hunya

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the potential impact of Romania’s accession to the European Union on Austria in three major fields: foreign trade, FDI and labour market. While conditions of doing business in Romania have improved in recent years, they are still more complicated than in old and new EU member states. Romania remains a rapidly growing market for investment goods, consumer goods and services alike providing good opportunities for Austrian companies. While the effect of Eastern European labour immigration to Austria can be expected to be marginal on total employment and wages, it may affect specific segments of the labour market. Overall, labour immigration from Romania will remain relatively unproblematic.

  1. Climate - Change - Alps. Tourism and regional planning in weather load. Proceedings; Klima - Wandel - Alpen. Tourismus und Raumplanung im Wetterstress. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Within the international annual conference ''Climate-Change-Alps Tourism and regional planning under weather load'' between 18th and 20th May, 2006, in Bad Hindelang (federal Republic of Germany) lectures were held to the following topics: (a) CIPRA resolution; (b) Future in the Alps - Distribution of knowledge, networking of people; (c) Climatic change and climate protection; (d) Planning of nature dangers; (e) Tourism.

  2. Bound and resonant surface states at the (110) surfaces of AlSb, AlAs, and AlP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beres, R.P.; Allen, R.E.; Buisson, J.P.; Bowen, M.A.; Blackwell, G.F.; Hjalmarson, H.P.; Dow, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    The dispersion curves E(k-bar) have been calculated for bound and resonant (110) surface states of AlSb, AlAs, and AlP. AlSb is predicted to have no surface states within the bulk fundamental band gap, but AlAs and AlP are predicted to have surface state band minima which are very near the conduction band edge, and could lie either within the gap or immediately above the edge

  3. Climate change in the Alps: impacts and natural risks. ONERC's Technical Report N.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Mountain ranges are very sensitive to climatic variations. The impacts of climate change on theses territories can be various, from the modification of the biodiversity to the permafrost melting and the evolution of natural hazards. The assessment of temperature rise and its impacts on mountains constitutes an important issue considering the strong uncertainties and the specific sensitivity linked to these areas. The territorial manager - policy makers and technicians - have to deal with this questioning for the implementation of short term actions as well as for strategic choices in terms of land planning and spatial development. This is why 22 public institutions from seven Alpine countries were involved in the European ClimChAlp project. The ONERC participated actively to this project in collaboration with the Rhone-Alpes Region and the Pole Grenoblois Risques Naturels. This report is based on the synthesis realised by the French partners to propose a common base of knowledge about climate change and its impacts in the Alps. (authors)

  4. Encounters between Alpine ibex, Alpine chamois and domestic sheep in the Swiss Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Pierre Ryser-Degiorgis

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Information regarding spatio-temporal relationships and encounters of sympatric domestic sheep, Alpine ibex (Capra ibex ibex and Alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra rupicapra in the Swiss Alps were systematically registered to evaluate the possibility of an interspecific transmission of infectious agents on pastures. Observations were performed in alpine regions of four Swiss cantons during the 1997 and 1998 mountain summer grazing season. In the main study area, Val Chamuera (canton of Grisons, a consistent reduction in the number of ibexes was observed after the arrival of sheep on the pasture. Some ibexes remained for a longer time in the area, but in general, ibexes and sheep did not use the same compartments of the area simultaneously. However, a salt lick for sheep attracted the ibexes, and several encounters were recorded in the compartments close to this salt lick. Several encounters registered in other areas of the Swiss Alps also occurred in the neighbourhood of a salt lick; however, in other cases different species were attracted by rich pastures. The study indicates that encounters (0-50 m between free-ranging individuals of different Caprinae species, domestic and wild, are not uncommon events in the Alps. Therefore, encounters can be considered to be a predisposing factor for interspecific transmission of infectious agents such as Mycoplasma conjunctivae, causing keratoconjunctivitis in chamois, ibex, domestic sheep and goats.

  5. Variation trend of snowfall in the Kamikochi region of the Japanese Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, K.

    2017-12-01

    The Japanese Alps experience exceptionally heavy snowfall, extreme even by global standards, and in spring and summer the melting snow becomes a valuable water resource. The snow effectively acts as a natural dam when it accumulates in watersheds during winter. However, there have been no observations of the amount of snow in high-altitude regions of Japan. Therefore, we cannot discuss the effect of global warming on the change in the amount of snow in these regions based on direct observation data. We were, however, able to obtain climatic and hydrologic data for high-altitude sites in the Japanese Alps, and discuss the variations in these conditions in the Kamikochi region (altitude 1490 m-3190 m) of the Japanese Alps over a 68-year period using these observed data. No long-term trends are observed in the annual mean, maximum, or minimum temperatures at Taisho-ike from 1945 to 2012; the total annual precipitation shows a statistically significant decreasing trend. The annual total snowfall at Taisho-ike from 1969 to 2012 shows a statistically significant increasing trend. The annual total runoff of the Azusa River from 1945 to 2012 shows a statistically significant increasing trend, as does the snowmelt runoff to the river (which occurs from May to July). We can thus conclude that the annual snowfall in the Azusa River catchment has increased in recent years.

  6. The ALPS project release 2.0: open source software for strongly correlated systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, B; Gamper, L; Gukelberger, J; Hehn, A; Isakov, S V; Ma, P N; Mates, P; Carr, L D; Evertz, H G; Feiguin, A; Freire, J; Koop, D; Fuchs, S; Gull, E; Guertler, S; Igarashi, R; Matsuo, H; Parcollet, O; Pawłowski, G; Picon, J D

    2011-01-01

    We present release 2.0 of the ALPS (Algorithms and Libraries for Physics Simulations) project, an open source software project to develop libraries and application programs for the simulation of strongly correlated quantum lattice models such as quantum magnets, lattice bosons, and strongly correlated fermion systems. The code development is centered on common XML and HDF5 data formats, libraries to simplify and speed up code development, common evaluation and plotting tools, and simulation programs. The programs enable non-experts to start carrying out serial or parallel numerical simulations by providing basic implementations of the important algorithms for quantum lattice models: classical and quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) using non-local updates, extended ensemble simulations, exact and full diagonalization (ED), the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) both in a static version and a dynamic time-evolving block decimation (TEBD) code, and quantum Monte Carlo solvers for dynamical mean field theory (DMFT). The ALPS libraries provide a powerful framework for programmers to develop their own applications, which, for instance, greatly simplify the steps of porting a serial code onto a parallel, distributed memory machine. Major changes in release 2.0 include the use of HDF5 for binary data, evaluation tools in Python, support for the Windows operating system, the use of CMake as build system and binary installation packages for Mac OS X and Windows, and integration with the VisTrails workflow provenance tool. The software is available from our web server at http://alps.comp-phys.org/

  7. Bacterial composition and survival on Sahara dust particles transported to the European Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eMeola

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Deposition of Sahara dust (SD particles is a frequent phenomenon in Europe, but little is known about the viability and composition of the bacterial community transported with SD. The goal of this study was to characterize SD-associated bacteria transported to the European Alps, deposited and entrapped in snow. During two distinct events in February and May 2014, SD particles were deposited and promptly covered by falling snow, thus preserving them in distinct ochre layers within the snowpack. In June 2014, we collected samples at different depths from a snow profile at the Jungfraujoch (Swiss Alps; 3621 m a.s.l.. After filtration, we performed various microbiological and physicochemical analyses of the snow and dust particles therein that originated in Algeria.Our results show that bacteria survive and are metabolically active after the transport to the European Alps. Using high throughput sequencing, we observed distinct differences in bacterial community composition and structure in SD-layers as compared to clean snow layers. Sporulating bacteria were not enriched in the SD-layers; however, phyla with low abundance such as Gemmatimonadetes and Deinococcus-Thermus appeared to be specific bio-indicators for SD. Since many members of these phyla are known to be adapted to arid oligotrophic environments and UV radiation, they are well suited to survive the harsh conditions of long-range airborne transport.

  8. Origin of polluted air masses in the Alps. An overview and first results for MONARPOP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, August

    2009-01-01

    The contribution of ZAMG to MONAROP consists of special weather forecasts to control the SOCs sampling procedure and of the analysis of the specific transport processes for SOCs, which is still in progress. In this paper, air pollutant transport into the Alps is demonstrated by examples of inorganic pollutants: Measurements of NO x and ozone provide evidence for air pollutant transport by local wind systems (valley and slope winds), especially at low elevated sites of the Alps. In addition, trajectory analyses for the high elevation sites demonstrate the importance of large scale synoptic air pollutant transport. The effects of these transport processes with different spatial and temporal scales are governed by the physical and chemical properties of the particular pollutant. First results for the high alpine MONARPOP stations show that air masses from east Europe influence mostly Sonnblick (Austria), whereas the influence of the Po basin is strongest at Weissfluhjoch (Switzerland). - Effects of meteorological transport processes on air pollution in the Alps are demonstrated by examples of inorganic pollutants and first conclusions for SOCs are drawn.

  9. Long-Term Socio-Ecological Research in Practice: Lessons from Inter- and Transdisciplinary Research in the Austrian Eisenwurzen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Gingrich

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Long-Term Socio-Ecological Research (LTSER is an inter- and transdisciplinary research field addressing socio-ecological change over time at various spatial and temporal scales. In the Austrian Eisenwurzen region, an LTSER platform was founded in 2004. It has fostered and documented research projects aiming at advancing LTSER scientifically and at providing regional stakeholders with relevant information for sustainable regional development. Since its establishment, a broad range of research activities has been pursued in the region, integrating information from long-term ecological monitoring sites with approaches from social sciences and the humanities, and in cooperation with regional stakeholders. Based on the experiences gained in the Eisenwurzen LTSER platform, this article presents current activities in the heterogeneous field of LTSER, identifying specific (inter-disciplinary contributions of three research strands of LTSER: long-term ecological research, socio-ecological basic research, and transdisciplinary research. Given the broad array of diverse contributions to LTSER, we argue that the platform has become a relevant “boundary organization,” linking research to its regional non-academic context, and ensuring interdisciplinary exchange among the variety of disciplines. We consider the diversity of LTSER approaches an important resource for future research. Major success criteria of LTSER face specific challenges: (1 existing loose, yet stable networks need to be maintained and extended; (2 continuous generation of and access to relevant data needs to be secured and more data need to be included; and (3 consecutive research projects that have allowed for capacity building in the past may be threatened in the future if national Austrian research funders cease to provide resources.

  10. Mental health problems in Austrian adolescents: a nationwide, two-stage epidemiological study applying DSM-5 criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Gudrun; Zeiler, Michael; Waldherr, Karin; Philipp, Julia; Truttmann, Stefanie; Dür, Wolfgang; Treasure, Janet L; Karwautz, Andreas F K

    2017-12-01

    This is a nationwide epidemiological study using DSM-5 criteria to assess the prevalence of mental disorders in a large sample of Austrian adolescents between 10 and 18 years including hard-to-reach samples. A sample of 3615 adolescents from four cohorts (school grades 5, 7, 9, 11; age range 10-18 years) was recruited from 261 schools, samples of unemployed adolescents (n = 39) and adolescents from mental health institutions (n = 137) were added. The Youth Self-Report and SCOFF were used to screen for mental health problems. In a second phase, the Childrens' Diagnostic Interview for Mental Disorders was used to make point and lifetime psychiatric diagnoses. Mental health service use was also assessed. Point prevalence and lifetime prevalence rates for at least one psychiatric disorder were 23.9% and 35.8%. The highest lifetime prevalence rates were found for anxiety disorders (15.6%), neurodevelopmental disorders (9.3%; ADHD 5.2%) and depressive disorders (6.2%). Forty-seven percent of adolescents with a lifetime psychiatric disorder had a second diagnosis. Internalising disorders were more prevalent in girls, while neurodevelopmental disorders and disruptive, impulse control and conduct disorders were more prevalent in boys. Of those with a lifetime psychiatric disorder, 47.5% had contacted mental health services. Of the residual 52.5% who had not contacted mental health services, 18.1% expressed an interest in treatment. DSM-5 mental health disorders are highly prevalent among Austrian adolescents. Over 50% had or were interested in accessing treatment. Early access to effective interventions for these problems is needed to reduce burden due to mental health disorders.

  11. Influence of toltrazuril treatment on parasitological parameters and health performance of piglets in the field--an Austrian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiner, Tanja; Worliczek, Hanna Lucia; Tichy, Alexander; Joachim, Anja

    2011-12-29

    Porcine coccidiosis caused by Isospora suis is one of the leading causes of neonatal diarrhea in suckling piglets. Currently the only registered drug for metaphylaxis is toltrazuril. To evaluate the effect of treatment on piglets from 7 Austrian farms without and 8 Austrian farms with toltrazuril application we examined oocyst excretion (including determination of oocysts per gram of feces; OPG), diarrhea (fecal score FS 1-4 with 3 and 4 being diarrhea), and general health (health score HS 1-4 with 3 and 4 describing poor health). Both groups included farms with different levels of hygiene. Samples from 265 litters without treatment, comprising 1588 individual samples, and 1548 samples from 258 treated litters were taken twice (around the 14th and the 21st day of life, respectively), examined by autofluorescence and, if positive, by McMaster counting. In both groups animals had less diarrhea and lower health scores during the second sampling but the treated piglets were always significantly healthier and had less diarrhea. The percentage of weaned piglets was higher in treated animals although this was not significant (p=0.052). In the first round of sampling 17.8% of the individual samples from untreated piglets were positive for oocysts (with a maximum prevalence on the 12-15th day of life) while in the treated piglets only 0.4% shed oocysts ptoltrazuril, so both metaphylaxis of coccidiosis and good hygiene are necessary to effectively control neonatal diarrhea. The costs of treatment are considerably lower than the estimated financial production losses. Therefore, treatment is recommended for farms where clinical coccidiosis is diagnosed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Visit of Mme Anne-Marie Comparini, President of the Rhône-Alpes regional authority.

    CERN Document Server

    Patrice Loïez

    2001-01-01

    Photo 11: Signature of the Guests Book by Mr Jean Pépin, Président du Conseil général de l'Ain, on the occasion of the visit of Mrs Anne-Marie Comparini, Présidente du Conseil régional de Rhones-Alpes and Mr Ernest Nycollin, Président du Conseil général de la Haute-Savoie, at SM18. Here with Prof. Luciano Maiani, CERN Director General. Photo 18: Technicians and engineers of the Rhone-Alpes/CERN programme(PRAC) at SM18 on the occasion of the visit of Mrs Anne-Marie Comparini, Présidente du Conseil régional de Rhones-Alpes. From l. to r.:Prof. Luciano Maiani, Directeur General, CERN; Mr Ernest Nycollin, Président du Conseil général de la Haute-Savoie; Mrs Anne-Marie Comparini, Présidente du Conseil régional de Rhones-Alpes; Mr Jean Pépin, Président du Conseil général de l'Ain. Photo 20 : Mrs Anne-Marie Comparini, Présidente du Conseil régional de Rhones-Alpes during her visit at SM18 with technicians and engineers of the Rhone-Alpes/CERN programme (PRAC).

  13. Characterization of the interaction between Actinin-Associated LIM Protein (ALP) and the rod domain of α-actinin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaavuniemi, Tuula; Alho, Nanna; Hotulainen, Pirta; Kelloniemi, Annina; Havukainen, Heli; Permi, Perttu; Mattila, Sampo; Ylänne, Jari

    2009-01-01

    Background The PDZ-LIM proteins are a family of signalling adaptors that interact with the actin cross-linking protein, α-actinin, via their PDZ domains or via internal regions between the PDZ and LIM domains. Three of the PDZ-LIM proteins have a conserved 26-residue ZM motif in the internal region, but the structure of the internal region is unknown. Results In this study, using circular dichroism and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), we showed that the ALP internal region (residues 107–273) was largely unfolded in solution, but was able to interact with the α-actinin rod domain in vitro, and to co-localize with α-actinin on stress fibres in vivo. NMR analysis revealed that the titration of ALP with the α-actinin rod domain induces stabilization of ALP. A synthetic peptide (residues 175–196) that contained the N-terminal half of the ZM motif was found to interact directly with the α-actinin rod domain in surface plasmon resonance (SPR) measurements. Short deletions at or before the ZM motif abrogated the localization of ALP to actin stress fibres. Conclusion The internal region of ALP appeared to be largely unstructured but functional. The ZM motif defined part of the interaction surface between ALP and the α-actinin rod domain. PMID:19327143

  14. Digital structural interpretation of mountain-scale photogrammetric 3D models (Kamnik Alps, Slovenia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolžan, Erazem; Vrabec, Marko

    2015-04-01

    From the earliest days of geological science, mountainous terrains with their extreme topographic relief and sparse to non-existent vegetation were utilized to a great advantage for gaining 3D insight into geological structure. But whereas Alpine vistas may offer perfect panoramic views of geology, the steep mountain slopes and vertical cliffs make it very time-consuming and difficult (if not impossible) to acquire quantitative mapping data such as precisely georeferenced traces of geological boundaries and attitudes of structural planes. We faced this problem in mapping the central Kamnik Alps of northern Slovenia, which are built up from Mid to Late Triassic succession of carbonate rocks. Polyphase brittle tectonic evolution, monotonous lithology and the presence of temporally and spatially irregular facies boundary between bedded platform carbonates and massive reef limestones considerably complicate the structural interpretation of otherwise perfectly exposed, but hardly accessible massif. We used Agisoft Photoscan Structure-from-Motion photogrammetric software to process a series of overlapping high-resolution (~0.25 m ground resolution) vertical aerial photographs originally acquired by the Geodetic Authority of the Republic of Slovenia for surveying purposes, to derive very detailed 3D triangular mesh models of terrain and associated photographic textures. Phototextures are crucial for geological interpretation of the models as they provide additional levels of detail and lithological information which is not resolvable from geometrical mesh models alone. We then exported the models to Paradigm Gocad software to refine and optimize the meshing. Structural interpretation of the models, including mapping of traces and surfaces of faults and stratigraphic boundaries and determining dips of structural planes, was performed in MVE Move suite which offers a range of useful tools for digital mapping and interpretation. Photogrammetric model was complemented by

  15. 11 June 2012 - Austrian Federal Minister of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection R. Hundstorfer signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Ambassador to the UN C. Strohal (CERN-HI-120611334)

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    11 June 2012 - Austrian Federal Minister of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection R. Hundstorfer signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Ambassador to the UN C. Strohal (CERN-HI-120611334)

  16. 4 August 2011 - Austrian Head of Protocol, Directorate General III, Federal Ministry of Science and Research I. Friedrich (3rd from left) in the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with M. Benedkit, C. Wulz and C. Fabjan.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    4 August 2011 - Austrian Head of Protocol, Directorate General III, Federal Ministry of Science and Research I. Friedrich (3rd from left) in the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with M. Benedkit, C. Wulz and C. Fabjan.

  17. Large outbreaks of Ips acuminatus in Scots pine stands of the Italian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Ambros E

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, many Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris stands have been severely attacked by the bark beetle Ips acuminatus (Coleoptera Curculionidae Scolytinae. In the outbreak area of San Vito di Cadore (Eastern Dolomites, the number of attacked trees since 2005 and both the emergence of bark beetles and natural enemies have been assessed. The investigated forests showed dozens of easily recognizable infestation spots with size ranging from about 20-30 trees (small spots up to 300 trees (large spots. These infested spots evolved quickly, while new ones appeared within a radius of few hundreds of meters. During the last 5 years (2006-2010 we sampled branches from small and large spots and lodged them into emergence cages: adults of I. acuminatus as well as natural enemies were collected weekly, identified and counted. At the same time, a monitoring program of the surveyed pine stands was carried out to check the enlargement of old spots and the appearance of new ones. Voltinism and phenology of I. acuminatus were investigated by pheromone traps baited with different lures (Austrian vs. Spanish lures. The effects of a sanitation felling of about 4500 infested trees, carried out by the Regional Forest Service in autumn 2007 on I. acuminatus population were also assessed. Throughout the whole sampling area I. acuminatus resulted bivoltine, with the highest density attained during the first generation. However, a part of the population still evidenced a monovoltine behaviour. The realized sanitation felling strongly reduced both breeding sites and the number of infested trees observed during the following year. Moreover the pheromone-baited traps gave useful information about changes in bark beetle population density; the trapping efficiency of Spanish lure resulted clearly higher than the Austrian one. Finally, the recorded parasitism may have a role in outbreak dynamics as it was significantly higher during the second host generation, in both small

  18. Quantitative summer temperature reconstruction derived from a combined biogenic Si and chironomid record from varved sediments of Lake Silvaplana (south-eastern Swiss Alps) back to AD 1177

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachsel, M.; Grosjean, M.; Larocque-Tobler, I.; Schwikowski, M.; Blass, A.; Sturm, M.

    2010-09-01

    High-resolution quantitative temperature records are needed for placing the recent warming into the context of long-term natural climate variability. In this study we present a quantitative high-resolution (9-year) summer (June-August) temperature reconstruction back to AD 1177 for the south-eastern Swiss Alps. This region is a good predictor for summer temperatures in large parts of western and central Europe. Our reconstruction is based on a combination of the high-frequency component of annually resolved biogenic silica (bSi flux) data and the low-frequency component of decadal chironomid-inferred temperatures from annually laminated well dated sediments (varves) from proglacial Lake Silvaplana, eastern Swiss Alps. For the calibration (period AD 1760-1949) we assess systematically the effects of six different regression methods (Type I regressions: Inverse Regression IR, Inverse Prediction IP, Generalised Least Squares GLS; Type II regressions: Major Axis MA, Ranged Major Axis RMA and Standard Major Axis SMA) with regard to the predicted amplitude and the calibration statistics such as root-mean-square error of prediction (RMSEP), reduction of error (RE) and coefficient of efficiency (CE). We found a trade-off in the regression model choice between a good representation of the amplitude and good calibration statistics. The band-pass filtered bSi flux record is in close agreement both in the structure and the amplitude with two fully independent reconstructions spanning back to AD 1500 and AD 1177, respectively. All known pulses of negative volcanic forcing are represented as cold anomalies in the bSi flux record. Volcanic pulses combined with low solar activity (Spörer and Maunder Minimum) are seen as particularly cold episodes around AD 1460 and AD 1690. The combined chironomid and bSi flux temperature record (RMSEP = 0.57 °C) is in good agreement with the glacier history of the Alps. The warmest (AD 1190) and coldest decades (17th century; 1680-1700) of our

  19. 3D modelling of the Austroalpine-Penninic collisional wedge of the NW Alps: dataset management and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monopoli, Bruno; Bistacchi, Andrea; Bertolo, Davide; Dal Piaz, Giovanni; Gouffon, Yves; Massironi, Matteo; Sartori, Mario; Vittorio Dal Piaz, Giorgio

    2016-04-01

    considered as a sort of pseudo-stratigraphy, since they are the oldest feature that can be traced continuously at the map scale. For this reason we have developed a set of attributes identifying the tectonic and lithological units (a "legend"), implemented both in the GIS database and in the 3D models, which at the same time is compatible with the data structure of 3D modelling packages like Move and Skua/Gocad, and allows tracing the complex hierarchic classification of the units mapped in the GIS. This allows for the almost automatic and consistent two-way transfer of data between the GIS and geomodelling environments. E.g. results of 3D modelling, which is based on input data originally stored in the GIS, will eventually be transferred back to the GIS. The results of this study, which are preliminarily presented here, will open new opportunities to study the collision- and subduction-related nappe architecture and kinematics with younger deformations removed, and will eventually lead (with additional studies) to a step-by-step retrodeformation supported by modern technologies, following the path traced by Argand at the beginning of the 20th century. Argand E. 1909. L'exploration géologique des Alpes pennines centrales. Bull. Soc. Vaudoise Sci. Nat., 45, 217-276. Argand A. 1911. Les nappes de recouvrement des Alpes pennines et leurs prolongements structuraux. Mat. Carte Géol. Suisse, 31, 25. Argand A. 1916. Sur l'arc des Alpes occidentales. Eclogae Geol. Helv., 14, 145-191. Franchi S., Mattirolo E., Novarese V., Stella A. & Zaccagna D. 1908. Carta geologica delle Alpi Occidentali alla scala 1:400.000. Regio Ufficio Geologico, Roma. Gerlach H. 1869. Die Penninischen Alpen. N. Denkschr. Schweiz. Natf. Ges., 23, 132. Gerlach H. 1871. Das Suedwestliche Wallis. Beitraege Geol. Karte Schweiz, 9, 175. Giordano F. 1869. Sulla orografia e sulla geologica costituzione del Gran Cervino. Atti R. Acc. Sci. Torino, 4, 304-321.

  20. Verification of structural control on landforms in the transition zone between Pannonian Basin and Eastern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Gábor; Fodor, László; Kövér, Szilvia; Molnár, Gábor; Székely, Balázs; Timár, Gábor; Telbisz, Tamás

    2013-04-01

    partly follow this line of combined methodology, but use different subsurface and surface data sets. The success of the study of Ruszkiczay-Rüdiger et al. (2009) mainly depended on the availability of industrial seismic profiles. However, this is not the case in the presented study area. Instead of seismic data, we used other types of geophysical methods, namely 2D geoelectric tomography, 1D vertical electric sounding. Relatively dense network of shallow boreholes permitted the construction of cross sections and could be compared to geophysical data. Finally, surface fault-slip data was important for characterisation of fault geometry and fault kinematics. All these data permitted to build a 3D model for a particular drainage anomaly located in the western Pannonian Basin, its transition to the Eastern Alps. The combined data set suggest that en echelon normal or oblique-normal faults controlled linear ENE trending segments of the Arany creek, which is almost perpendicular to the general flow direction. The en echelon faults could be part of a sinistral shear zone, which occur between the Rechnitz and Eisenberg windows of the Penninicum. If this fault was kinematically connected to others at the window's margin, their tectonic exhumation might have continued after the main early to mid-Miocene phase. The fault zone could be initiated in the late Miocene (Pannonian) around 9 Ma, and was active afterword. Exact timing of this deformation was not determined neither neotectonic activity proved. However, our study shows that the Late Miocene basin fill of the Pannonian Basin was deformed considerably. The other issue of our work is that the combination of diverse methods is useful, sometimes inevitable for checking the potential structural control and landform and landscape evolution. Ruszkiczay-Rüdiger, Z.; Fodor, L. & Horváth, E. 2007: Neotectonic and landscape evolution of the Gödöllő Hills, Central Pannonian Basin. - Global and Planetary Change, 58, 181

  1. Wildfire history and fire ecology of the Swiss National Park (Central Alps): new evidence from charcoal, pollen and plant macrofossils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stähli, M.; Finsinger, W.; Tinner, W.; Allgöwer, B.

    2006-01-01

    Microscopic (> 10 mm) and macroscopic (> 200 mm) charcoal particles were analysed in sediments from two mires in subalpine coniferous forests at c. 1800 m a.s.l. in southeastern Switzerland. Pollen and plant macrofossils suggest that since 6000 BC, Pinus mugo ssp. uncinata (DC) Domin (‘upright

  2. Deeply subducted continental fragments - Part 2: Insight from petrochronology in the central Sesia Zone (western Italian Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuntoli, Francesco; Lanari, Pierre; Burn, Marco; Kunz, Barbara Eva; Engi, Martin

    2018-02-01

    Subducted continental terranes commonly comprise an assembly of subunits that reflect the different tectono-metamorphic histories they experienced in the subduction zone. Our challenge is to unravel how, when, and in which part of the subduction zone these subunits were juxtaposed. Petrochronology offers powerful tools to decipher pressure-temperature-time (P-T-t) histories of metamorphic rocks that preserve a record of several stages of transformation. A major issue is that the driving forces for re-equilibration at high pressure are not well understood. For example, continental granulite terrains subducted to mantle depths frequently show only partial and localized eclogitization. The Sesia Zone (NW Italy) is exceptional because it comprises several continental subunits in which eclogitic rocks predominate and high-pressure (HP) assemblages almost completely replaced the Permian granulite protoliths. This field-based study comprises both main complexes of the Sesia terrane, covering some of the recently recognized tectonic subunits involved in its assembly; hence our data constrain the HP tectonics that formed the Sesia Zone. We used a petrochronological approach consisting of petrographic and microstructural analysis linked with thermodynamic modelling and U-Th-Pb age dating to reconstruct the P-T-t trajectories of these tectonic subunits. Our study documents when and under what conditions re-equilibration took place. Results constrain the main stages of mineral growth and deformation, associated with fluid influx that occurred in the subduction channel. In the Internal Complex (IC), pulses of fluid percolated at eclogite facies conditions between 77 and 55 Ma with the HP conditions reaching ˜ 2 GPa and 600-670 °C. By contrast, the External Complex (EC) records a lower pressure peak of ˜ 0.8 GPa for 500 °C at ˜ 63 Ma. The juxtaposition of the two complexes occurred during exhumation, probably at ˜ 0.8 GPa and 350 °C; the timing is constrained between 46 and 38 Ma. Mean vertical exhumation velocities are constrained between 0.9 and 5.1 mm year-1 for the IC, up to its juxtaposition with the EC. Exhumation to the surface occurred before 32 Ma, as constrained by the overlying Biella Volcanic Suite, at a mean vertical velocity between 1.6 and 4 mm year-1. These findings constrain the processes responsible for the assembly and exhumation of HP continental subunits, thus adding to our understanding of how continental terranes behave during subduction.

  3. Biomass and species structure of the phytoplankton of an high mountain lake (Lake Paione Superiore, Central Alps, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta BETTINETTI

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the EU MOLAR Project on “Measuring and modelling the dynamic response of remote mountain lake ecosystems to environmental change” a three whole-year study (1996-1998 on the composition and dynamics of phytoplankton community of the high mountain lake, acid sensitive Lago Paione Superiore (LPS was carried out. The data were analyzed and compared with those gathered during the years 1991-1993. The phytoplankton was made up by nanoplanktonic unicellular algae, the only exception being the colonial Dinobryon sertularia. Just four species, belonging to Chrysophyceae (Chromulina sp., Dinobryon sertularia and Mallomonas alveolata and to Dinophyceae (Gymnodinium sp. were important as biomass and density, and they were always present throughout the year. The prevalence of potentially mixotrophic species suggests an adaptive strategy to the low environmental concentrations of inorganic carbon and phosphorus. The seasonal variations of the total biomass were similar to those observed in the previous years. The total number of species has increased; this could be related with the recent increase of the pH and of the alkalinity.

  4. Modelling the effects of atmospheric sulphur and nitrogen deposition on selected lakes and streams of the Central Alps (Italy

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    M. Rogora

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic model MAGIC was calibrated and applied to selected sites in north-western Italy (3 rivers, 10 alpine lakes to predict the future response of surface water to different scenarios of atmospheric deposition of S and N compounds. Results at the study sites suggest that several factors other than atmospheric deposition may influence the long-term changes in surface water chemistry. At present the lumped approach of dynamic models such as MAGIC cannot represent all the processes occurring at the catchment scale. Climate warming in particular and its effects on surface water chemistry proved to be important in the study area. Furthermore the river catchments considered here showed clear signs of N saturation. This condition and the increasing concentrations of NO3 in river water were simulated using N dynamics recently included in MAGIC. The modelling performed in this study represents the first application of MAGIC to Italian sites. The results show that inclusion of other factors specific to the Mediterranean area, such as dust deposition and climate change, may improve the fit to observed data and the reliability of the model forecast. Despite these limitations, the model captured well the main trends in chemical data in both rivers and lakes. The outputs clearly demonstrate the benefits of achieving the emission reductions in both S and N compounds as agreed under the Gothenburg Protocol rather than making no further emission reductions. It was also clear that, besides the substantial reduction of SO4 deposition from the peak levels of the 1980s, N deposition must also be reduced in the near future to protect freshwaters from further acidification. Keywords: MAGIC, northern Italy, acidification, recovery, nitrogen saturation

  5. Austrian Lipid Consensus on the management of metabolic lipid disorders to prevent vascular complications: A joint position statement issued by eight medical societies. 2016 update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toplak, Hermann; Ludvik, Bernhard; Lechleitner, Monika; Dieplinger, Hans; Föger, Bernhard; Paulweber, Bernhard; Weber, Thomas; Watschinger, Bruno; Horn, Sabine; Wascher, Thomas C; Drexel, Heinz; Brodmann, Marianne; Pilger, Ernst; Rosenkranz, Alexander; Pohanka, Erich; Oberbauer, Rainer; Traindl, Otto; Roithinger, Franz Xaver; Metzler, Bernhard; Haring, Hans-Peter; Kiechl, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    In 2010, eight Austrian medical societies proposed a joint position statement on the management of metabolic lipid disorders for the prevention of vascular complications. An updated and extended version of these recommendations according to the current literature is presented, referring to the primary and secondary prevention of vascular complications in adults, taking into consideration the guidelines of other societies. The "Austrian Lipid Consensus - 2016 update" provides guidance for individualized risk stratification and respective therapeutic targets, and discusses the evidence for reducing vascular endpoints with available lipid-lowering therapies. Furthermore, specific management in key patient groups is outlined, including subjects presenting with coronary, cerebrovascular, and/or peripheral atherosclerosis; diabetes mellitus and/or metabolic syndrome; nephropathy; and familial hypercholesterolemia.

  6. Use of the Oral Contraceptive Pill by Austrian Adolescents with Emphasis on the Age of Onset, Side Effects, Compliance and Lifestyle

    OpenAIRE

    Brunnhuber, S.; Kirchengast, S.

    2002-01-01

    The present study investigated the use of the oral contraceptive pill in 880 Austrian high school girls. All participants filled in a questionnaire on lifestyle and menarche. Furthermore, subjects on the pill were asked about their preparation, age at first use, reasons why they take it, side effects and oral contraceptive compliance. All 139 subjects on the pill used low dose monophasic preparations. The girls started the pill at a mean age of 16.0 0.9 years for contraceptive ...

  7. Relationship between rainfall and shallow landslides in the southern Apuan Alps (Italy

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    R. Giannecchini

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Apuan Alps region is one of the rainiest areas in Italy (more than 3000 mm/year, in which frequently heavy and concentrated rainfall occurs. This is particularly due to its geographical position and conformation: the Apuan chain is located along the northern Tuscan coast, close to the Ligurian Sea, and the main peaks reach almost 2000 m. In several cases, the storms that hit the area have triggered many shallow landslides (soil slip-debris flows, which exposed the population to serious risks (during the 19 June 1996 rainstorm about 1000 landslides were triggered and 14 people died. The assessment of the rainfall thresholds is very important in order to prepare efficient alarm systems in a region particularly dedicated to tourism and marble activities. With the aim of contributing to the landslide hazard evaluation of the southern Apuan Alps territory (upper Versilia area, a detailed analysis of the main pluviometric events was carried out. The data recorded at the main rain gauge of the area from 1975 to 2002 were analysed and compared with the occurrence of soil slips, in order to examine the relationship between soil slip initiation and rainfall. The most important rainstorms which triggered shallow landslides occurred in 1984, 1992, 1994, 1996, 1998 and 2000. Many attempts were made to obtain a possible correlation between rainfall parameters and the occurrence of soil slip phenomena and to identify the local rainfall threshold for triggering shallow landslides. A threshold for soil slip activity in terms of mean intensity, duration and mean annual precipitation (MAP was defined for the study area. The thresholds obtained for the southern Apuan Alps were also compared with those proposed by other authors for several regions in the world. This emphasized the high value of the rain threshold for shallow landslide activity in the Apuan area. The high threshold is probably also linked to the high mean annual precipitation and to the high

  8. End of the Little Ice Age in the Alps forced by industrial black carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Thomas H; Flanner, Mark G; Kaser, Georg; Marzeion, Ben; VanCuren, Richard A; Abdalati, Waleed

    2013-09-17

    Glaciers in the European Alps began to retreat abruptly from their mid-19th century maximum, marking what appeared to be the end of the Little Ice Age. Alpine temperature and precipitation records suggest that glaciers should instead have continued to grow until circa 1910. Radiative forcing by increasing deposition of industrial black carbon to snow may represent the driver of the abrupt glacier retreats in the Alps that began in the mid-19th century. Ice cores indicate that black carbon concentrations increased abruptly in the mid-19th century and largely continued to increase into the 20th century, consistent with known increases in black carbon emissions from the industrialization of Western Europe. Inferred annual surface radiative forcings increased stepwise to 13-17 W⋅m(-2) between 1850 and 1880, and to 9-22 W⋅m(-2) in the early 1900s, with snowmelt season (April/May/June) forcings reaching greater than 35 W⋅m(-2) by the early 1900s. These snowmelt season radiative forcings would have resulted in additional annual snow melting of as much as 0.9 m water equivalent across the melt season. Simulations of glacier mass balances with radiative forcing-equivalent changes in atmospheric temperatures result in conservative estimates of accumulating negative mass balances of magnitude -15 m water equivalent by 1900 and -30 m water equivalent by 1930, magnitudes and timing consistent with the observed retreat. These results suggest a possible physical explanation for the abrupt retreat of glaciers in the Alps in the mid-19th century that is consistent with existing temperature and precipitation records and reconstructions.

  9. Possible environmental effects on the evolution of the Alps-Molasse basin system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlunegger, F.; Rieke-Zapp, D.; Ramseyer, K.

    2007-01-01

    We propose three partly unrelated stages in the geodynamic evolution of the Alps and the sedimentary response of the Molasse Basin. The first stage comprises the time interval between ca. 35 and 20 Ma and is characterized by a high ratio between rates of crustal accretion and surface erosion. The response of the Molasse Basin was a change from the stage of basin underfill (UMM) to overfill (USM). Because the response time of erosional processes to crustal accretion and surface uplift lasts several millions of years, the orogen first experienced a net growth until the end of the Oligocene. As a result, the Molasse basin subsided at high rates causing the topographic axis to shift to the proximal basin border and alluvial fans to establish at the thrust front. During the Aquitanian, however, ongoing erosion and downcutting in the hinterland caused sediment discharge to the basin to increase and the ratio between the rates of crustal accretion and surface erosion to decrease. The result was a progradation of the dispersal systems, and a shift of the topographic axis towards the distal basin border. The second stage started at ca. 20 Ma at a time when palaeoclimate became more continental, and when the crystalline core became exposed in the orogen. The effect was a decrease in the erosional efficiency of the Swiss Alps and hence a reduction of sediment discharge to the Molasse Basin. We propose that this decrease in sediment flux caused the Burdigalian transgression of the OMM. We also speculate that this reduction of surface erosion initiated the modification of Alpine deformation from vertically- to mainly horizontally directed extrusion (deformation of the Southern Alps, and the Jura Mountains some Ma later). The third stage in the geodynamic development was initiated at the Miocene/Pliocene boundary. At that time, palaeoclimate possibly became wetter, which, in turn, caused surface erosion to increase relative to crustal accretion. This change caused the Alps to

  10. Hemin binding by Porphyromonas gingivalis strains is dependent on the presence of A-LPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangarajan, M; Aduse-Opoku, J; Paramonov, N A; Hashim, A; Curtis, M A

    2017-10-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a Gram-negative black pigmenting anaerobe that is unable to synthesize heme [Fe(II)-protoporphyrin IX] or hemin [Fe(III)-protoporphyrin IX-Cl], which are important growth/virulence factors, and must therefore derive them from the host. Porphyromonas gingivalis expresses several proteinaceous hemin-binding sites, which are important in the binding/transport of heme/hemin from the host. It also synthesizes several virulence factors, namely cysteine-proteases Arg- and Lys-gingipains and two lipopolysaccharides (LPS), O-LPS and A-LPS. The gingipains are required for the production of the black pigment, μ-oxo-bisheme {[Fe(III)PPIX] 2 O}, which is derived from hemoglobin and deposited on the bacterial cell-surface leading to the characteristic black colonies when grown on blood agar. In this study we investigated the role of LPS in the deposition of μ-oxo-bisheme on the cell-surface. A P. gingivalis mutant defective in the biosynthesis of Arg-gingipains, namely rgpA/rgpB, produces brown colonies on blood agar and mutants defective in Lys-gingipain (kgp) and LPS biosynthesis namely porR, waaL, wzy, and pg0129 (α-1, 3-mannosyltransferase) produce non-pigmented colonies. However, only those mutants lacking A-LPS showed reduced hemin-binding when cells in suspension were incubated with hemin. Using native, de-O-phosphorylated and de-lipidated LPS from P. gingivalis W50 and porR strains, we demonstrated that hemin-binding to O-polysaccharide (PS) and to the lipid A moiety of LPS was reduced compared with hemin-binding to A-PS. We conclude that A-LPS in the outer-membrane of P. gingivalis serves as a scaffold/anchor for the retention of μ-oxo-bisheme on the cell surface and pigmentation is dependent on the presence of A-LPS. © 2017 The Authors. Molecular Oral Microbiology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Ecology of some mire and bog plant communities in the Western Italian Alps

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    Giorgio BUFFA

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available During a mire vegetation study, conducted mainly in the subalpine-alpine sector of the Western Italian Alps, the ecology of several plant communities and numerous moss species of this kind of vegetation was evaluated. The study area covered the Piedmontese sector of the Graian Alps, the eastern sector of the Aosta Valley as well as certain localities of the Pennine Alps, the Canavese district and the Maritime Alps. They have a rocky substratum representative of the various regional lithologies and include the main sectors characterised by the highest precipitation. Three hundred and twenty two relevées were made using the phytosociological method and the pH and the conductivity of the water table and its depth were measured directly. Cluster Analysis allowed a classification of the samples and the identification of various groups of plant communities. Ordination performed by DCA and CCA allowed us to identify the ecological features of the various plant communities by using the values of the main environmental parameters, measured directly in the field, and certain climatic parameters (altitude and mean annual precipitation available. The use of climatic parameters is an important result for identifying communities which show greater oceanicity, something that is underlined also by the presence of indicator species such as Sphagnum papillosum and S. subnitens. Furthermore the communities are arranged in a "poor-rich" gradient, and are also profoundly influenced by depth to water table which is inversely correlated to the pH. Therefore we find certain kinds of communities all with a very low water table and which are little affected by its chemistry. Other groups share the fact that the water table is outcropping or near the surface and are distinguishable for their pH values and conductivity. We discuss the different response of the bryophytes and vascular plants of these communities to the environmental parameters considered, in light of their

  12. Cyclostratigraphic calibration of cretaceous magnetic polarity events (Cismon, Southern Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, H.

    1994-01-01

    In an introductory section the problems of constructing a geologic time scale and the role of magnetic reversals and Milankovitch cycles in geochronology are outlined. Results of a detailed cyclostratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic study of the Valanginian/Hauterivian part of the pelagic limestone section at Cismon in the Southern Alps are presented and used in conjunction to estimate the duration of magnetic subchrons between CM10N and CM8. The new estimates are shorter than in most published time scales by a factor of two to three. More research along these lines may make a revision of the Early Cretaceous time scale necessary. ?? 1994 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  13. Lithospheric architecture of the South-Western Alps revealed by multiparameter teleseismic full-waveform inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller, S.; Monteiller, V.; Operto, S.; Nolet, G.; Paul, A.; Zhao, L.

    2018-02-01

    The Western Alps, although being intensively investigated, remains elusive when it comes to determining its lithospheric structure. New inferences on the latter are important for the understanding of processes and mechanisms of orogeny needed to unravel the dynamic evolution of the Alps. This situation led to the deployment of the CIFALPS temporary experiment, conducted to address the lack of seismological data amenable to high-resolution seismic imaging of the crust and the upper mantle. We perform a 3-D isotropic full-waveform inversion (FWI) of nine teleseismic events recorded by the CIFALPS experiment to infer 3-D models of both density and P- and S-wave velocities of the Alpine lithosphere. Here, by FWI is meant the inversion of the full seismograms including phase and amplitude effects within a time window following the first arrival up to a frequency of 0.2 Hz. We show that the application of the FWI at the lithospheric scale is able to generate images of the lithosphere with unprecedented resolution and can furnish a reliable density model of the upper lithosphere. In the shallowest part of the crust, we retrieve the shape of the fast/dense Ivrea body anomaly and detect the low velocities of the Po and SE France sedimentary basins. The geometry of the Ivrea body as revealed by our density model is consistent with the Bouguer anomaly. A sharp Moho transition is followed from the external part (30 km depth) to the internal part of the Alps (70-80 km depth), giving clear evidence of a continental subduction event during the formation of the Alpine Belt. A low-velocity zone in the lower lithosphere of the S-wave velocity model supports the hypothesis of a slab detachment in the western part of the Alps that is followed by asthenospheric upwelling. The application of FWI to teleseismic data helps to fill the gap of resolution between traditional imaging techniques, and enables integrated interpretations of both upper and lower lithospheric structures.

  14. methanization development and air quality. Bibliographical synthesis and working perspectives in Rhone-Alpes 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-06-01

    After a recall of a context which promotes the development of the methanization sector, and in order to address social acceptance issues related to methanization installations, this report aims at proposing a synthesis of existing documents related to methanization and its possible interactions with air quality. A first part briefly describes a methanization unit. The second part proposes an overview of the situation of projects in the Rhone-Alpes region. The third part proposes an overview of knowledge regarding potential impacts on air quality and greenhouse gas emissions

  15. Seasonal evaluation of serumal Ca, P and ALP of slaughtered cattle in Tabriz abattoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P Rezaei-Saber

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Increasing knowledge of metabolic disorders and prevention of any prduction decrease is beneficial in animal breeding. Problems related to calcium and phosphorus deficiency in high producing animals are among the most important metabolic disorders with disease such as osteomalacia, rickets, milk fever, pos parturition hemoglobinuria and reproductive disorders named as the metabolic complications. This study was conducted on non pregnant crossbreed dairy cattle. In the middle of each season with daily referral to the abattoir, blood samples were collected in veneject tubes and after transfer to the laboratory, the serumic levels of Ca, P and ALP were measured by spectrophotometry. One hundred samples for each season and a total of 400 samples were studied. The mean serumic levels of Ca, P and ALP were 8.83±0.02 mg/dl, 3.88±0.07 mg/dl, 163.4±0.8 Iu/lit; 9.05±0.03mg/dl, 4.19±0.01mg/dl, 240.7±1.2 Iu/lit; 9.03±0.07 mg/dl, 5.33±0.02mg/dl, 185.06±2.3 Iu/lit and 9.33±0.09 mg/dl, 5.74±0.08 mg/dl, 230.03±7.4 Iu/lit, in the spring, summer, autumn and winter respectively. Considering the normal Ca, P and ALP values in cattle, 6.3% and 83% of cases had Ca and P deficiency respectively in the spring, 80% of cases had subclinical phosphorus deficiency in the summer, 7.3% of cases had subclinical phosphorus deficiency in the autumn and 9.45% and 7.36% of cases had Ca deficiency and ALP elevation respectively in the winter. The significant decrease in Ca and P levels in the spring and P levels in the summer (p

  16. The Most Frequent Lophodermium spp. on Scots Pine and Austrian Pine and Their Role in the Appearance of Other Fungi on the Needles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAZAREV, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Different critical periods for infection, the difference in morphological-anatomical and eco-physiological characteristics and other distinguish support the taxonomic concept on the existence of several Lophodemium spp. on pines. In addition to the study of Lophodemium spp. on secondary needles, the study was extended also to primary needles. The results of our long-term research, compared to the results obtained by other researchers in Europe, show that in Serbia there are at least two widely distributed Lophodemium species infecting Scots pine and Austrian pine needles. This study is supporting with identification of L. seditiosum and L. pinastri using species-specific PCR primers from the ribosomal ITS region. In pine plantations were established connection between Lophodemium species and other fungi on needles Scots and Austrian pine. On needles of Scots pine, except L. pinastri and L. seditiosum mostly were established following more important fungi: Sphaeropsis sapinea, Cyclaneusma minus and Sclerophoma pythiophylla. On needles of Austrian pine, except L. pinastri, were established following more important fungi: Dothistroma pini, Sphaeropsis sapinea, Cyclaneusma niveum and Cytospora friesii.

  17. Ecological effects and chemical composition of fine sediments in Upper Austrian streams and resulting implications for river management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfler, Sarah; Pichler-Scheder, Christian; Gumpinger, Clemens

    2017-04-01

    In the current scientific discussion high loads of fine sediments are considered one of the most important causes of river ecosystem degradation worldwide. Especially in intensively used catchment areas changes in the sediment household must be regarded as a reason, which prevents the achievement of the objectives of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). Therefore, the Upper Austrian Water Authorities have launched two comprehensive studies on the topic. The first one was a survey on the current siltation status of river courses in Upper Austria. The second study deals with two selected catchments in detail, in order to get a clear picture of the impacts of the fines on the aquatic fauna (trout eggs, benthic invertebrates), the chemical composition of these fractions, the crucial hydrogeological processes and to develop possible role models for measures both in the catchments and in the streams. At eight sites within the two catchments sediment and water samples were collected at two dates for detailed chemical analysis. On one date additionally the benthic invertebrate fauna was investigated on the microhabitat level. Thereby it was possible to enhance the understanding of the range of ecological impacts caused by silting-up in different hydro-morphological circumstances and with different fine sediment loads. The water samples as well as the sediment fraction samples water decomposition products of pesticides, remains of medical drugs, sweeteners, hormonally active substances and water-soluble elements were analysed. Furthermore, a GIS-based analysis was carried out for the two examined catchments. The model included data gained from a digital elevation model, land use data and digital soil classification maps. This led to findings concerning the main sources and processes, which are responsible for anthropogenically induced high fine sediment loads in the streams. According to these results a GIS-based risk assessment tool for all Upper Austrian

  18. Attitudes of Austrian veterinarians towards euthanasia in small animal practice: impacts of age and gender on views on euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnack, Sonja; Springer, Svenja; Pittavino, Marta; Grimm, Herwig

    2016-02-04

    Euthanasia of pets has been described by veterinarians as "the best and the worst" of the profession. The most commonly mentioned ethical dilemmas veterinarians face in small animal practice are: limited treatment options due to financial constraints, euthanizing of healthy animals and owners wishing to continue treatment of terminally ill animals. The aim of the study was to gain insight into the attitudes of Austrian veterinarians towards euthanasia of small animals. This included assessing their agreement with euthanasia in exemplified case scenarios, potentially predicted by demographic variables (e.g. gender, age, working in small animal practice, employment, working in a team, numbers of performed euthanasia). Further describing the veterinarians' agreement with a number of different normative and descriptive statements, including coping strategies. A questionnaire with nine euthanasia scenarios, 26 normative and descriptive statements, and demographic data were sent to all members of the Austrian Chamber of Veterinary Surgeons (n = 2478). In total, 486 veterinarians answered sufficiently completely to enable analyses. Responses were first explored descriptively before being formally analysed using linear regression and additive Bayesian networks - a multivariate regression methodology - in order to identify joint relationships between the demographic variables, the statements and each of the nine euthanasia scenarios. Mutual dependencies between the demographic variables were found, i.e. female compared to male veterinarians worked mostly in small animal practice, and working mostly in small animal practice was linked to performing more euthanasia per month. Gender and age were found to be associated with views on euthanasia: female veterinarians and veterinarians having worked for less years were more likely to disagree with euthanasia in at least some of the convenience euthanasia scenarios. The number of veterinarians working together was found to be

  19. The effectiveness of the Austrian disease management programme for type 2 diabetes: a cluster-randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klima Gert

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disease management programmes (DMPs are costly and impose additional work load on general practitioners (GPs. Data on their effectiveness are inconclusive. We therefore conducted a cluster-randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of the Austrian DMP for diabetes mellitus type 2 on HbA1c and quality of care for adult patients in primary care. Methods All GPs of Salzburg-province were invited to participate. After cluster-randomisation by district, all patients with diabetes type 2 were recruited consecutively from 7-11/2007. The DMP, consisting mainly of physician and patient education, standardised documentation and agreement on therapeutic goals, was implemented in the intervention group while the control group received usual care. We aimed to show superiority of the intervention regarding metabolic control and process quality. The primary outcome measure was a change in HbA1c after one year. Secondary outcomes were days in the hospital, blood pressure, lipids, body mass index (BMI, enrolment in patient education and regular guideline-adherent examination. Blinding was not possible. Results 92 physicians recruited 1489 patients (649 intervention, 840 control. After 401 ± 47 days, 590 intervention-patients and 754 controls had complete data. In the intention to treat analysis (ITT of all 1489 patients, HbA1c decreased 0.41% in the intervention group and 0.28% in controls. The difference of -0.13% (95% CI -0.24; -0.02 was significant at p = 0.026. Significance was lost in mixed models adjusted for baseline value and cluster-effects (adjusted mean difference -0.03 (95% CI -0.15; 0.09, p = 0.607. Of the secondary outcome measures, BMI and cholesterol were significantly reduced in the intervention group compared to controls in ITT after adjustments (-0.53 kg/m²; 95% CI -1.03;-0.02; p = 0.014 and -0.10 mmol/l; 95% CI -0.21; -0.003; p = 0.043. Additionally, more patients received patient education (49.5% vs. 20

  20. Regional Railway Transport in Czech, Austrian and German Decentralised and Regionalised Transport Markets1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidenglanz Daniel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses railway transport markets in three neighbouring Central European countries: the Czech Republic, Austria and Germany (specifically Bavaria and Saxony, with a focus on regional transportation. It examines the organisational form of public transport resulting from regionalisation and provides comparative case studies of regional train services in these countries. The article points out the organisational differences in public transportation between the studied regions and tries to connect these results with the supply of regional train services on various types of lines and in different geographical areas.

  1. ALP gene expression in cDNA samples from bone tissue engineering using a HA/TCP/Chitosan scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanie, N.; Katarina, H.; Amir, L. R.; Gunawan, H. A.

    2017-08-01

    This study examined the potential use of hydroxyapatite (HA)/tricalcium phosphate (TCP)/Chitosan as a bone tissue engineering scaffold. The potential for using HA/TCP/chitosan as a scaffold was analyzed by measuring expression of the ALP osteogenic gene in cDNA from bone biopsies from four Macaque nemestrina. Experimental conditions included control (untreated), treatment with HA/TCP 70:30, HA/TCP 50:50, and HA/TCP/chitosan. cDNA samples were measured quantitively with Real-Time PCR (qPCR) and semi-quantitively by gel electrophoresis. There were no significant differences in ALP gene expression between treatment subjects after two weeks, but the HA/TCP/chitosan treatment gave the highest level of expression after four weeks. The scaffold using the HA/TCP/chitosan combination induced a higher level of expression of the osteogenic gene ALP than did scaffold without chitosan.

  2. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN SUBKRONIK EKSTRAK KELOPAK BUNGA ROSELLA (Hibiscus Sabdariffa L. TERHADAP KADAR SGPT SGOT DAN ALP

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    Nurkhasanah Nurkhasanah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. has been known as traditional medicinal plants. It needed to evaluate the safety of roselle extract on long-term oral administration. The research aimed to determine the savety of ethanolic extract of roselle calyx. Subchronic toxicity study of ethanolic extract of roselle calyx had been carried out on 60 Sprague Dawleys (SD rats for 28 days. The roselle extract was administered orally every day, with doses of 50,100 and 200 mg/kgBW. There are 2 satellite groups, kept for another 14 days after the treatment in order to detect a delayed occurrence of toxic effect. Satellite group was given extract 200 mg/kgBW for 28 days and followed aquadest treatment for 14 days. At the end of experiment the blood was collected for meansuring SGPT, SGOT and ALP activity. The result showed that treatment of roselle calyx extract had no significant changes in SGPT SGOT, ALP activity. The delayed effect was not also observed. The ethanolic extract of roselle calyx didn’t show toxic effects on the liver on subchronic administration.

  3. Link between concentrations of sediment flux and deep crustal processes beneath the European Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garefalakis, Philippos; Schlunegger, Fritz

    2018-01-09

    Large sediment fluxes from mountain belts have the potential to cause megafans to prograde into the neighbouring sedimentary basins. These mechanisms have been documented based from numerical modelling and stratigraphic records. However, little attention has been focused on inferring temporal changes in the concentrations of supplied sediment from coarse-grained deposits. Here, we extract changes of this variable in the field from a Late Oligocene, c. 4 km-thick suite of fluvial conglomerates situated in the North Alpine foreland basin, which evolved in response to the tectonic and erosional history of the Alps. We measure a decrease in channel depths from >2 m to 20 cm from the base to the top of the suite. These constraints are used to calculate an increase in fan surface slopes from 1.0° based on the Shields criteria for sediment entrainment. We combine slope and bulk grain size data with the Bagnold equation for sediment transport to infer higher concentrations of the supplied sediment. We use these shifts to propose a change towards faster erosion and a steeper landscape in the Alpine hinterland, driven by mantle-scale processes beneath the Alps.

  4. Impacts of climatic change on water and associated economic activities in the Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniston, Martin

    2012-01-01

    SummaryThe European Alps are one region of the world where climate-driven changes are already perceptible, as exemplified by the general retreat of mountain glaciers over past decades. Temperatures have risen by up to 2 °C since 1900 particularly at high elevations, a rate that is roughly three times the global-average 20th century warming. Regional climate models suggest that by 2100, winters in Switzerland may warm by 3-5 °C and summers by 6-7 °C according to greenhouse-gas emissions scenarios, while precipitation is projected to increase in winter and sharply decrease in summer. The impacts of these levels of climatic change will affect both the natural environment and a number of economic activities. Alpine glaciers may lose between 50% and 90% of their current volume and the average snowline will rise by 150 m for each degree of warming. Hydrological systems will respond in quantity and seasonality to changing precipitation patterns and to the timing of snow-melt in the Alps, with a greater risk of flooding during the spring and droughts in summer and fall. The direct and indirect impacts of a warming climate will affect key economic sectors such as tourism, hydropower, agriculture and the insurance industry that will be confronted to more frequent natural disasters. This paper will thus provide an overview of the current state of knowledge on climatic change and its impacts on the Alpine world.

  5. An estimate of the glacier ice volume in the Swiss Alps

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    Farinotti, Daniel; Huss, Matthias; Bauder, Andreas; Funk, Martin

    2009-08-01

    Changes in glacier volume are important for questions linked to sea-level rise, water resource management, and tourism industry. With the ongoing climate warming, the retreat of mountain glaciers is a major concern. Predictions of glacier changes, necessarily need the present ice volume as initial condition, and for transient modelling, the ice thickness distribution has to be known. In this paper, a method based on mass conservation and principles of ice flow dynamics is applied to 62 glaciers located in the Swiss Alps for estimating their ice thickness distribution. All available direct ice thickness measurements are integrated. The ice volumes are referenced to the year 1999 by means of a mass balance time series. The results are used to calibrate a volume-area scaling relation, and the coefficients obtained show good agreement with values reported in the literature. We estimate the total ice volume present in the Swiss Alps in the year 1999 to be 74 ± 9 km 3. About 12% of this volume was lost between 1999 and 2008, whereas the extraordinarily warm summer 2003 caused a volume loss of about 3.5%.

  6. The crossing of the Alps of Gerbert of Aurillac during the 984 AD: climatic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Luigi

    2016-05-01

    In a letter to Miró Bonfill (Bishop of Girona) sent in march-april 984, Gerbert d'Aurillac wrote that "if you want to write something to us, please address your correspondence to Reims until the first of November or to Rome from December 25". This envisages a journey from Reims to Rome in the period 1th November - 25 December (Sigismondi, 2009). In those times the road normally used to reach Rome from Reims was the Via Francigena which crosses the Alps at the Great St Bernard pass. This pass is a privileged transit point through the Alps since ancient times as stated by the old name "Col de Mons Joux" that remembers the Jupiter's Pennino temple built along the old Roman road. The crossing point is at 2437 m asl, which from autumn to spring gives a significant risk of crossing failures due to snowfalls. The trip of Gerbert of Aurillac leads us to the general topic of the documentary sources of the crossings of the Alpine passes. The trust of Gerbert of Aurillac in the respect of the predefined travel time testifies a low perception of the risk of the transit of the Great St Bernard. This reinforces the evidence of an unusual mildness of Medieval period in Europe coming from many other documentary sources.

  7. Two new pioneer communities of Sorbus aucuparia and Sorbus aria in the southern Julian Alps

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    Dakskobler Igor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the southern Julian Alps we described two communities whose tree layer is dominated by species from the genus Sorbus and noted two successional stages in the overgrowing of abandoned agricultural land (pastures, hay meadows. In the secondary succession on former subalpine pastures above the alp Planina Razor und under the Breginjski Stol ridge, where potential natural vegetation consists of subalpine beech forest, dwarf pine has been overgrown with mountain ash (Sorbus aucuparia whose stands are classified into the new association Rhododendro hirsuti-Sorbetum aucupariae. Whitebeam (Sorbus aria has established itself on steep former hay meadows in the belt of altimontane beech forests under Mts. Jalovnik and Krikov Vrh, on gullied slopes on mixed geological bedrock dominated by chert, and these stands are classified into the association Calamagrostio arundinaceae-Sorbetum ariae. While occupying only small areas these two pioneer stages, as the sites of some rare or protected species, are nevertheless important biotopes and play a vital role in protection against avalanches.

  8. A key to larvae of species belonging to the genus Diamesa from Alps and Apennines (Italy

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    Bruno Rossaro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A key to species belonging to the genus Diamesa Meigen, 1835 (Diptera, Chironomidae from the Alps and Apennines (Italy is presented using characters observable in the fourth-instar larva. The larvae are separated on the basis of qualitative and quantitative characters. At present fifteen species from the Italian Alps are described in all three life stages, but only twelve species groups can be separated as larvae. The separation is based on the length and thickness of anal setae, antennal ratio, head capsule color and few other characters of the labrum and mentum. The shape of mental and mandibular teeth is still a valid taxonomic character, but unfortunately these characters can be rarely used because teeth are often excessively worn in samples collected in the field. Quantitative characters show variability within each species, differing according to the duration of larval development and must be used with caution. The species groups which can be separated in the larval stage are: the dampfi group, which includes D. dampfi and D. permacra, the latitarsis group including D. modesta and D. latitarsis, the zernyi group including D. zernyi and D. vaillanti. The species within each of these groups at present cannot be separated. D. starmachi, D. steinboecki, D. goetghebueri, D. bertrami, D. aberrata, D. incallida, D. cinerella, D. tonsa and D. insignipes can be separated from all the other known species in larval stage.

  9. Atmospheric Flow Patterns Around the Southern Alps of New Zealand and Implications for Paleoaltimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, L. B.; Galewsky, J.

    2017-11-01

    The development of relief may generate leeside rain shadows where precipitation δ18O values are lower due to rainout on the windward side. The magnitude of lowering in paleo-δ18O sampled from the leeside of a mountain range should, at least, in principle, be related to the elevation of the mountain range. In order for leeside proxies to record the highest elevations, the majority of air masses need to travel up and over the ridge crest before raining out on the leeside. If atmospheric flow patterns around the mountain range are dominated by flow deflection, air masses that reach the leeside are less likely to record the highest elevations. Using the Weather Research and Forecasting model and Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory model, we demonstrate that modern atmospheric flow patterns in the Southern Alps of New Zealand are not dominated by flow deflection. The lack of flow deflection around the Southern Alps and the relatively low relief throughout the uplift history supports the use of leeside isotope records to constrain the timing of uplift, and that uplift likely occurred 5 Ma based on leeside isotope records. In contrast, orogens that are characterized by high elevations and strong flow deflection, like the Sierra Nevada of California, may not be good candidates for leeside isotope-based paleoaltimetry studies. Ideal candidates for such studies should be characterized by relatively low elevations, low atmospheric flow deflection, and relatively low relief throughout the period of uplift.

  10. Weight and body mass index (BMI): current data for Austrian boys and girls aged 4 to under 19 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Michael; Gleiss, Andreas; Häusler, Gabriele; Borkenstein, Martin; Kapelari, Klaus; Köstl, Gerhard; Lassi, Michael; Schemper, Michael; Schmitt, Klaus; Blümel, Peter

    2015-01-01

    BMI reference charts are widely used to diagnose overweight, obesity and underweight in children and adolescents. To provide up-to-date national reference values for Austria. A cross-sectional sample of over 14 500 children and adolescents (4-19 years) stratified by provinces according to age- and sex-specific population proportions was drawn via schooling institutions (kindergartens, schools and vocational colleges). The generalized additive models for location, scale and shape were used for a flexible estimation of percentile curves. Austrian boys and girls have higher average weight compared with previous prevalence data. BMI centiles matching BMI values at age 18 years, which are used for defining thinness, overweight and obesity in adults, were calculated. In Austria, using reference values as thresholds, ∼18% of boys and 12% of girls are overweight (with thresholds passing through BMI 25.00-29.99 kg/m(2) in adults) and 5% of boys and 3% of girls are obese (with thresholds passing through BMI ≥30.00 kg/m(2) in adults). Overweight and obesity are common in Austria and their prevalence is increasing (using the same IOTF reference for international comparison). Up-to-date national BMI reference values are provided to classify children and adolescents according to the proposed overweight and obesity thresholds.

  11. RDA Europe Workshop – From Planning to Action. Towards the Establishment of an Austrian Research Infrastructure (Wien, 23. November 2017

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    Paolo Budroni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Im November 2017 fand an der Universität Wien der RDA Europe Workshop „From Planning to Action. Towards the Establishment of an Austrian Research Infrastructure“ mit Unterstützung von RDA Europe, der Technischen Universität Wien und der Universität Wien statt. Es war der erste in Österreich abgehaltene Workshop in einer Reihe von europaweiten RDA Veranstaltungen. Ziel war es, über praktische Umsetzungen von RDA Empfehlungen, Implementierungsmaßnahmen der European Open Science Cloud und andere bedeutende Dateninitiativen zu diskutieren, um europäische Forschende und die Entwicklung von Infrastrukturen bestmöglich zu unterstützen. Die unterschiedlichen Themenbereiche bezogen sich auf transversale und disziplinspezifische Projekte, Datenzentren und Repositorien in Österreich. Die Vorträge reflektierten auch die europäische Perspektive von Forschungsdatenmanagement sowie politische und wissenschaftliche Initiativen von internationalen Organisationen. Ebenso wurden Empfehlungen von einzelnen Working Groups dargestellt und anhand von Projekten gezeigt, wie diese bereits lokal Anwendung finden. In der Veranstaltung wurde schließlich eine neu gegründete RDA Gruppe für Österreich angekündigt. Dieser RDA Austria Node wird, nach der formalen Konstituierungsphase, die österreichische Community innerhalb der neuen administrativen RDA-Strukturen repräsentieren.

  12. Time trends (1986-2003) of radiocesium transfer to roe deer and wild boar in two Austrian forest regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strebl, F. [Austrian Research Centers GmbH - ARC, Radiation Safety and Applications, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)], E-mail: friederike.strebl@arcs.ac.at; Tataruch, F. [Research Institute of Wildlife Ecology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Savoyenstr.1, A 1160 Vienna (Austria)

    2007-11-15

    Starting shortly after the Chernobyl accident, samples of roe deer and wild boar from two comparatively highly contaminated Austrian forest stands have been regularly analysed for {sup 137}Cs. Until 1995 average {sup 137}Cs concentrations exceeded 1000 Bq kg{sup -1} in both roe deer and wild boar. Long-term and seasonal trends are similar in both investigation sites. While {sup 137}Cs aggregated transfer factor (T{sub ag}) values show a significant decreasing trend in roe deer (ecological half-time 8.6 and 7.2 years, respectively), T{sub ag}-values in wild boar are highly variable, but rather increasing values are observed over the last years. T{sub ag}-values for roe deer are between 0.04 and 0.008 m{sup 2} kg{sup -1} fresh weight (1987-2003); values for wild boar are between 0.008 m{sup 2} kg{sup -1} (1988) and 0.046 m{sup 2} kg{sup -1} (1996) fresh weight. Seasonal trends for both species are in good agreement with observations from German forests: increased mushroom ingestion leads to higher {sup 137}Cs T{sub ag}-values for roe deer in the second half of the year (August-December) compared to the first half (January-July). T{sub ag}-values for wild boar are highest in the first half of the year.

  13. Association between Health Behaviours and Religion in Austrian High School Pupils—A Cross-Sectional Survey

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    Gabriele Gäbler

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of risk factors for chronic diseases such as smoking, alcohol abuse, low fruit and vegetable consumption, and lack of physical activity is high among young adults. Health behaviours are influenced by many factors and also by religious orientation, as American studies show. The aim of the present study was to explore whether a similar association with religion exists in Austria (Europe. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in seven randomly selected high schools, whereby a total of 225 11th-grade pupils (64% girls, 36% boys; average age 16.4 years were surveyed by means of an online questionnaire. The study reveals a positive association between religion and healthy food choices as well as meal patterns. Smoking (number of cigarettes smoked daily and alcohol consumption (getting drunk was negatively associated with religion. These negative associations remained after adjusting for confounding factors using logistic regression analysis. Thus, the study showed that religion is associated with a reduction in these risky health behaviours in Austrian high school pupils. However, due to the limitations of the study design, causality cannot be inferred.

  14. Fish remains as a source to reconstruct long-term changes of fish communities in the Austrian and Hungarian Danube.

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    Galik, Alfred; Haidvogl, Gertrud; Bartosiewicz, Laszlo; Guti, Gabor; Jungwirth, Mathias

    The main objective of this paper is to investigate how archaeological fish remains and written historical records can contribute to the reconstruction of long-term developments of fish communities along the Austrian and Hungarian Danube. Although such approaches are sensitive to various factors, the chronological subdivision and relative quantification of proxy data demonstrate environmental and faunal changes from Prehistory onwards. Intensification of fisheries, decline of large specimens and massive exploitation of small and young fish point to increasing pressure along the chronological sequence towards Early Modern times. One result of this impact was the establishment of regulations and laws to protect such fish. At the same time, the rise of aquaculture and common carp cultivation can be viewed as another upshot of human impact on the Danube's environment. Finally, the massive import of salted marine fish reflects a compensation for the undersupply caused by overexploitation of the Danube fish fauna and points to the growing demand for fish as food in late medieval and Early Modern times.