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Sample records for austria telekanal hakkab

  1. Standard hakkab tootma Mercedesele

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    AS Standard sõlmis ühe maailma suurema autotootjaga DaimlerChrysler AG koostöölepingu, mille kohaselt hakkab ettevõte tootma ning müüma kontori- ja teenindussaalide mööblit kontserni kuuluva Mercedes-Benzi Euroopa diileritele

  2. Vene telekanal näitas Läti-vaenulikku propagandafilmi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Vene filmistuudio Treti Rim on tootnud lätivastase ajaloolise dokumentaali-propagandafilmi Teisest Maailmasõjast "Natslus Balti moodi" ("Natsizm po pribaltiski"). Filmi näidati 16. märtsil Vene telekanal TVT

  3. Goltsman Ballet hakkab lapsi õpetama

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2014-01-01

    Tantsutrupp Goltsman Ballet asutaja, kunstilise juhi ja tänapäevase balletikunsti pedagoog Maria Goltsmani sõnul hakkab tantsutrupp andma tantsutunde 5-7-aastastele lastele, esialgu Tallinnas. Detsembri lõpus esitles Goltsman Ballet uut tantsuetendust "Blue", lavastajaks Krista Köster

  4. FBI hakkab Wall Streeti puistama / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2008-01-01

    FBI hakkab uurima nelja äsja hiigelkahjumeid kandnud suurfirmat - Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, Lehman Brothers, AIG - võimaliku hüpoteegipettuse pärast. Hüpoteegikriisi pärast on uurimise all ka ligi 1400 individuaalset kinnisvaravahendajat. USA-s levivast kinnisvarapetuskeemist. Lisa: Kongress vaidleb triljonite üle

  5. "Veri hakkab voolama" filmiajakirjanike aasta parim / J. R.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    J. R.

    2008-01-01

    Paul Thomas Andersoni Upton Sinclairi "Õli" järgi lavastatud "Veri hakkab voolama" ("There Will Be Blood") : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2007. Filmi hääletas aasta parimaks Rahvusvaheline Filmiajakirjanike Föderatsioon (FIPRESCI)

  6. Tartu autotootja hakkab Ferrari koopiaid ehitama / Nils Niitra

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niitra, Nils, 1975-

    2007-01-01

    Seni Lotus Seveni koopiaid tootnud Võidutehnika AS, Valter Teppani perefirma, hakkab müüma kallimaid autosid - Ford GT40 kui ka Ferrari 330 P4 koopiaid. Ilmunud ka: Postimees, 27. sept. 2007, lk. 9

  7. Gifted Education in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyringer, Sieglinde

    2013-01-01

    In Austria, gifted education and the education of highly gifted and talented children have been receiving an increasing public awareness and social acceptance over the past decade. The article highlights the existing ideas of giftedness in Austria, and it presents several initiatives having triggered and influenced this positive development. The…

  8. Heldeke, oled nii kaunis, et sadama hakkab : [luuletused] / Richard Brautigan ; tlk. Ingvar Luhaäär

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brautigan, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Sisu: Heldeke, oled nii kaunis, et sadama hakkab ; Veel keegi pole teinud seda nii säraliselt ; Kaunis luuletus ; Küüslauguga liha hõõruv Marcia ; Äri ; Mahedad hellused millesse ta mähib mu haavad ; Tunnen end vastikult ; "Kaasa lennates..."

  9. Einstein and Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1979-01-01

    This text was written by Engelbert Broda in 1979 and is about Albert Einstein and his relation to Austria. This text is split in different sections which are amongst others: Einstein und Mach; Einstein und Boltzmann; Positivism, Atoms and Relativity; Einstein as an Austrian professor; Einstein’s visits to Austria; Einstein and Viennese friends; Einstein and Friedrich Adler; Einstein and the Austrian mentality; (nowak)

  10. Telefilm toob venelasteni Solzhenitsõni Gulagi-romaani / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2006-01-01

    Vene telekanal hakkab näitama Gleb Panfilovi uut teleseriaali Aleksandr Solzhenitsõni "Esimeses ringis" järgi, kus kirjanik on stsenaariumi autor ja loeb ka kaadritagust jutustavat teksti. Peaosas Jevgeni Mironov

  11. The nuclear debate in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weish, P.

    1977-01-01

    This report was published during the debate about the construction of nuclear-power-plants in Austria and before the national referendum, which prevented the implementing of “Zwentendorf”, Austria´s first nuclear-power-plant. The report gives a view over the events in the discussion about Austria´s nuclear-future. (kancsar)

  12. Irish Literature in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faerber, Gerda

    After a brief description of some historical and cultural interchanges between Ireland and Austria, the paper examines Irish fiction that has been translated into German and Irish plays that have been performed in Vienna over the past 25 years. The paper also describes German translations of Irish children's fiction, including classics like…

  13. Austria: Media Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signitzer, Benno

    1978-01-01

    Describes the Austrian broadcast industry which is dominated by foreign influences. Suggests the restoration of autonomy of Austria's media through a system of promotion of and subsidies to Austrian media efforts, as well as a decentralization of foreign influence to increase the quality and competitiveness of domestic production. (JMF)

  14. Education Policy Outlook: Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Diana Toledo; Golden, Gillian; Giovinazzo, Manon; Peterka, Judith; Ullmann, Marie

    2017-01-01

    This policy profile on education in Austria is part of the "Education Policy Outlook" series, which presents comparative analysis of education policies and reforms across OECD countries. Building on the OECD's substantial comparative and sectoral knowledge base, the series offers a comparative outlook on education policy by providing…

  15. Radon in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedmann, H.

    2000-01-01

    Several projects in Austria deal with the problem of enhanced radon exposure to the public. The Austrian Radon Project is the largest project within this task, with the aim of investigating the radon concentrations in Austrian homes. Another project concerns mitigation methods. According to the EU directive EURATOM 96/29 it is also necessary to check working places for possibly enhanced radon concentrations. These projects are and will be funded by the government. The federal government of Upper Austria sponsored a project to test the indoor air quality in kindergartens including radon measurements. Within an EU research project, the radon concentrations in Austrian springs and groundwater were systematically listed and analyzed. Additional investigations will focus on methods to improve the radon potential maps from the Austrian Radon Project by including geological and other information. (author)

  16. Physics in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehlotzky, F.

    1985-07-01

    This catalogue gives the results of an investigation on research institutes in Austria in the field of physics, including nuclear physics, which was performed by the Austrian Physical Society. The main part is on university institutes, but also other research institutes are listed. For each institute the name of the head, number of researchers, a short description of the scientific work and an overview of national and international cooperation is given. Various registers and indexes are attached. (A.N.)

  17. Saksa skandaal ja Austria / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2000-01-01

    Saksamaa korruptsiooniskandaal. J. Haideri Vabaduspartei valitsuse koosseisus. Kumb on suurem ohu allikas? Vt. samas art. Habsburg: Austria ei ole banaanivabariik. Austria mitteametliku troonipärija arvamus

  18. Eesti firma hakkab koostöös soomlastega välja töötama Ebola viiruse ravimit / Joosep Värk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Värk, Joosep

    2014-01-01

    Eesti biotehnoloogiafirma Icosagen hakkab koos Soome ettevõtte FIT Biotech Oy'ga välja töötama Ebola viiruse vastast vaktsiini, arendustöös osaleb professor Andres Meritsa juhtimisel ka Tartu Ülikooli Tehnoloogiainstituudi rakendusviroloogia labor. Vestlusest Tartu Ülikooli biomeditsiinitehnoloogia professori Mart Ustaviga

  19. School accidents in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalamon, Johannes; Eberl, Robert; Ainoedhofer, Herwig; Singer, Georg; Spitzer, Peter; Mayr, Johannes; Schober, Peter H; Hoellwarth, Michael E

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain information about the mechanisms and types of injuries in school in Austria. Children between 0 and 18 years of age presenting with injuries at the trauma outpatient in the Department of Pediatric Surgery in Graz and six participating hospitals in Austria were evaluated over a 2-year prospective survey. A total of 28,983 pediatric trauma cases were registered. Personal data, site of the accident, circumstances and mechanisms of accident and the related diagnosis were evaluated. At the Department of Pediatric Surgery in Graz 21,582 questionnaires were completed, out of which 2,148 children had school accidents (10%). The remaining 7,401 questionnaires from peripheral hospitals included 890 school accidents (12%). The male/female ratio was 3:2. In general, sport injuries were a predominant cause of severe trauma (42% severe injuries), compared with other activities in and outside of the school building (26% severe injuries). Injuries during ball-sports contributed to 44% of severe injuries. The upper extremity was most frequently injured (34%), followed by lower extremity (32%), head and neck area (26%) and injuries to thorax and abdomen (8%). Half of all school related injuries occur in children between 10 and 13 years of age. There are typical gender related mechanisms of accident: Boys get frequently injured during soccer, violence, and collisions in and outside of the school building and during craft work. Girls have the highest risk of injuries at ball sports other than soccer.

  20. Impact Orientation in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt SPEER

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of impact orientation within the public sector constitutes an en-tirely new approach of governance. Until recently – and in many cases still so – public administration was primarily input-oriented, which means focusing on the resources (financial, personnel etc. needed to fulfil existing public tasks instead of focusing on the results and final effects which are intended to be reached ultimately by these often long ago defined assignments. As experience shows, the pressing challenge of increasing steadily the effectiveness and efficiency within public administration cannot be reached by such a one-sided and consequently limited approach. Thus, a wider and more comprehensive concept is necessary to optimize the public sector in all its dimensions. As a result of prevalent budget crises, increasing pressure of stakeholders towards public administration and generally less room for manoeuver due to a growing regulatory burden, new/adapted and more flexible ways of thinking and acting within the public sector are required. Hence, modern concepts of steering and control – not only in Europe but in a larger number of OECD countries – now tend to give more importance to the targets and effects of public administration and its activities within the societal context. This rather new concept – the so called “impact orientation” which has been introduced in Austria as core element of the Federal Budget Law Reform 2009/2013 – requires a fundamental alignment of governmental actions and a new focus on the outputs and even on the outcomes of political and administrative strategies. The results until now have been primarily “outwardly-oriented” reform concepts concentrating on the external societal effects of politico-administrative actions. However, recent research results show for Austria, that this external dimension has to be linked more closely with internal reform efforts and internal impact targets in order to

  1. Historical earthquake research in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerl, Christa

    2017-12-01

    Austria has a moderate seismicity, and on average the population feels 40 earthquakes per year or approximately three earthquakes per month. A severe earthquake with light building damage is expected roughly every 2 to 3 years in Austria. Severe damage to buildings ( I 0 > 8° EMS) occurs significantly less frequently, the average period of recurrence is about 75 years. For this reason the historical earthquake research has been of special importance in Austria. The interest in historical earthquakes in the past in the Austro-Hungarian Empire is outlined, beginning with an initiative of the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the development of historical earthquake research as an independent research field after the 1978 "Zwentendorf plebiscite" on whether the nuclear power plant will start up. The applied methods are introduced briefly along with the most important studies and last but not least as an example of a recently carried out case study, one of the strongest past earthquakes in Austria, the earthquake of 17 July 1670, is presented. The research into historical earthquakes in Austria concentrates on seismic events of the pre-instrumental period. The investigations are not only of historical interest, but also contribute to the completeness and correctness of the Austrian earthquake catalogue, which is the basis for seismic hazard analysis and as such benefits the public, communities, civil engineers, architects, civil protection, and many others.

  2. Biogas in Austria and Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbanek, A.

    Several well-functioning biogas plants in Austria and in Switzerland are briefly described. The profitability of the combination of dairy farming and pig breeding is emphasized. The whey produced by the cheese-dairies is fed to the pigs and the pigs dung is fermented to biogas.

  3. Austria; 2013 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents details of Austria’s 2013 Article IV Consultation. Austria has been growing economically but is facing challenges in the financial sector. Full implementation of medium-term fiscal adjustment plans require specifying several measures and plans that need gradual strengthening to take expected further bank restructuring cost into account. It suggests that strong early bank intervention and resolution tools, a better designed deposit insurance system, and a bank-financed reso...

  4. [Epidemiology of obesity in Austria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorner, Thomas E

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this article was to compile all existing data regarding the prevalence of obesity in Austria in all age groups, and to perform additional analyses. Prevalence of obesity in the adult Austrian population varies between 8.3 and 19.9% in men, and 9.0 and 19.8% in women with increasing trends over time. Prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents in Austria varies between 3.1 and 9.0% in boys and between 2.2 and 7.3% in girls. Factors associated with obesity include higher age, lower educational level, profession, migration background, living in eastern parts of Austria, lack of social support, and psycho-social pressure. In women, socio-economic parameters are stronger associated with obesity compared to men. Obesity is associated with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, osteoarthritis, and low back pain, and deteriorated quality of live, in both sexes, and in men additionally with a history of heart attack, and in women additionally with anxiety/depression.

  5. Ilves urges closer ties while in Austria / Ella Karapetyan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karapetyan, Ella

    2010-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese ametlik visiit Austria Vabariiki 22.11.2010 - 24.11.2010. Eesti riigipea pidas kõne Austria Majanduskojas Eesti-Austria majandusfoorumil, kohtus Alam-Austria Liidumaa parlamendi presidendi Hanz Penz'i ning Austria presidendi Heinz Fischeriga. Presidentide kohtumisel räägiti EL-i laienemispoliitikast, energiajulgeoleku probleemidest, Euroopa naabruspoliitikast ja idapartnerlusest

  6. Austria: The INIS Austria Centre 1970-2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rössner, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    This article spotlights Austrian people and institutions that have influenced the fortunes of INIS and the INIS Centre in Austria. The work of two Austrians had a lasting influence on INIS. The first person, Ms Elisabeth Ruckenbauer, was Head of the INIS Bibliographic Control Unit at the start of INIS. She was responsible for the development and implementation of the INIS bibliographic description rules (INIS Reference Series IAEA-INIS-01 and -02). The second person having a lasting influence on INIS was Mr Alexander Nevyjel. He was Austrian INIS Liaison Officer from 1983 –2002, and Head of the INIS Subject Control Unit until 2011. During his second term of office, he developed, together with the Swiss company Convera, the Computer Assisted Indexing Software (CAI). The aim of the project was to optimize indexing. The implementation of CAI in 2004 resulted in an increase of input to the INIS database; from around 60 000 records per year to over 100 000 records per year. We are proud that Mr Nevyjel is still an active member of the INIS Austria Center and that he continues to offer his experience and expertise. The Austrian INIS Centre has resided at two scientific institutions: Seibersdorf and the Austrian Central Library for Physics and Chemistry Library, each having a specific relationship with the IAEA and INIS

  7. Sewage sludge disposal in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, F.

    1997-01-01

    Sewage systems serve about 70% of the Austrian population, producing 6 million m 3 of sewage sludge per year with a dry matter content of 4-5%. At present about 52% of this sludge is disposed of in land fills, 33% is incinerated, and only about 15 % is used in agriculture. Although agricultural utilization is becoming increasingly important, several problems, especially those related to public opinion, need to be resolved before increased use will be possible. In this paper, wastewater treatment and sewage-sludge production in Austria, and problems associated with sludge disposal are discussed. (author)

  8. Corporate Financial Reporting in Austria : An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Lindner, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this report on corporate financial reporting in Austria is to describe the key features of Austria’s corporate financial reporting environment as well as its practical application in regard to small and medium enterprises (SMEs’) financial reporting practices in Austria. This report builds on the World Bank accounting and auditing reports on standards and codes (ROSC) method...

  9. Renewable sources of energy in Austria 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faninger, G.

    1993-07-01

    Present contribution of renewable sources of energy to the overall energy requirements in Austria. Estimated potential of renewable sources of energy in Austria: firewood and biogeneous fuels, environmental energy, combustible wastes. Ecological aspects of utilising renewable sources of energy. Market barriers and strategies for overcoming them

  10. Mining in Austria in 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, P.

    1994-01-01

    The mineral production of Austria, in 1992 - as far as under the supervision of the Austrian Mine Inspectorate, run up to about 50 million t of solid minerals, 1.2 million t of oil and 1.4 billion m 3 of natural gas. 88% of the solid minerals comprised industrial minerals, 4% metals, 4% salt and 4% coal. The solid minerals were produced by 352 open pits and 15 underground mines. 3 of the operations worked both on surface and underground and one mine is a well field operation. In total around 8000 people were employed in the field of mining and mineral processing. The minerals produced represent a value of about 15 billion Austrian Schillings (about 1.25 billion US $), the major part being the industrial minerals sector with a share of 7 billion Austrian Schillings and oil and gas with around 4 billion Austrian Schillings. The industrial minerals sector does not play only in Austrian an important role, but contributes also remarkably to the world production. This comprises mainly magnesite, talc, kaolin and graphite where Austria produces more than 1% of the world production. Summarizing, it can be said that the future of the Austrian mining sector is quite prosperous, perhaps better than in some other traditional mining countries in Europe, where the change from the coal and base metals sector towards the industrial sector has not come so far. (orig.) [de

  11. La autopista de Viena Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1979-10-01

    Full Text Available The elevated stretch of the motorway crossing the city of Vienna in a North-South direction is the largest bridge in Austria. The bridge consists of a central span, the corresponding access ramps at the ends and a junction with a district highway having six separate roadways. The design and construction of the bridge was based on the principle of using the maximum amount of prefabricated parts in order to, on the one hand, achieve a higher constructive rationalization, and on the other, minimize erection time. Owing to its being inside the city, the bridge has been fitted with adequate lighting and runoff water disposal systems.

    El tramo volado de la autopista, que cruza Viena de norte a sur, constituye el puente más grande de toda Austria. Dicho puente consta de un tramo central, las correspondientes rampas de acceso en los extremos, y un nudo de enlace con la carretera comarcal compuesto por seis calzadas distintas. En su diseño y realización se procuró utilizar el mayor número posible de elementos prefabricados para, por una parte, permitir una construcción más racionalizada y, por otra, minimizar los tiempos de ejecución. Se ha dotado a toda la obra, por estar dentro de la ciudad, de unos adecuados sistemas de iluminación y evacuación de las aguas superficiales.

  12. Austria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leixnering, Stephan; Schikowitz, Andrea; Meyer, Renate E.

    2016-01-01

    orientation and increased networking and mediating activities between diverse actors and interests, we find hybrid forms of governance and executives’ role identities. For instance, shifting value priorities, such as emphasis of the relevance of results in general, go along with reluctant behaviour......, such as a lack of actual performance management, underscored by the perception of low management autonomy. Thus, while managerial values and principles appear as incorporated in Austrian public executives’ role identities, in order to deal with shortcomings and contradictions with the existing system, they fall...... back to familiar practices: Basically, nothing is different, but everything’s changed....

  13. Ozone modelling in Eastern Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stohl, A.; Wotawa, G.; Kromp-Kolb, H. [Univ. of Agriculture, Vienna (Austria). Inst. of Meteorology and Physics; Winiwater, W. [Austrian Research Centre, Seibersdorf (Austria); Baumann, R.; Spangl, W. [Federal Environmental Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1995-12-31

    High ozone concentrations are frequently observed in Eastern Austria, often exceeding local as well as international health standards, both for short-term as well as for long-term exposures. The maximum concentrations are produced in urban plumes, e.g. of the city of Vienna, whereas regional-scale transport and production of ozone is more important for the long-term concentrations. The Pannonian Ozone Project (POP) is an Austrian research initiative to model photochemical processes on a regional as well as on a local scale with a Lagrangian model to better understand the mechanisms leading to the high ozone concentrations and to develop abatement strategies. Up to now, focus has been on the regional scale. Aircraft, tethered balloon, tetroon and intensified ground measurements are carried out to validate the model. Although the major measurement campaign will be held in summer 1995, first results from a measurement campaign in summer 1994 are already available

  14. Mineral exploration in Austria, possibilities and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzer, H.F.

    1981-01-01

    The author reviews the present situation in Austria for mineral exploration. He considers the geological chances of finding new resources, presents a short description of commodities and finally gives proposals for a natural resources inventory. (Auth.)

  15. Housing Markets in Austria, Germany and Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Schneider; Karin Wagner

    2015-01-01

    Running counter to the sharp rise in house prices and housing wealth observed since the mid- 1990s in the vast majority of European countries, real house prices in Germany and Austria were going down in this period and did not start to rise until 2010 or 2007, respectively. This reflects national idiosyncracies in housing markets and motivated the discussion of relevant peculiarities in, and similarities among, Austria and Germany as well as Switzerland. Among the most important structural fe...

  16. Kinobuss hakkab õpetajaid koolitama

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    9. jaan. alustas Kinobuss õpetajatele mõeldud kursusega "Teaching with animation. Õpetamine animatsiooniga", mis on esimene neljast 2006.a. toimuvast koolitusest. Töötuba peavad Mikk Rand ja Hanne Pedersen Taanist

  17. Ragweed (Ambrosia) pollen source inventory for Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrer, G; Skjøth, C A; Šikoparija, B; Smith, M; Berger, U; Essl, F

    2015-08-01

    This study improves the spatial coverage of top-down Ambrosia pollen source inventories for Europe by expanding the methodology to Austria, a country that is challenging in terms of topography and the distribution of ragweed plants. The inventory combines annual ragweed pollen counts from 19 pollen-monitoring stations in Austria (2004-2013), 657 geographical observations of Ambrosia plants, a Digital Elevation Model (DEM), local knowledge of ragweed ecology and CORINE land cover information from the source area. The highest mean annual ragweed pollen concentrations were generally recorded in the East of Austria where the highest densities of possible growth habitats for Ambrosia were situated. Approximately 99% of all observations of Ambrosia populations were below 745m. The European infection level varies from 0.1% at Freistadt in Northern Austria to 12.8% at Rosalia in Eastern Austria. More top-down Ambrosia pollen source inventories are required for other parts of Europe. A method for constructing top-down pollen source inventories for invasive ragweed plants in Austria, a country that is challenging in terms of topography and ragweed distribution. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Report on research in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerzabek, M.H.

    1990-01-01

    In Austria, the Cs-137 activity deposition per km 2 due to the Chernobyl fallout varies between 0,08 Ci and 2,05 Ci, the Sr-90 deposition being app. 20 to 40 times lower. The most severe problems were due to the direct contamination of early vegetables, winter cereals and pastures with iodine and cesium. A significant dose reduction was obtained by a sales ban for vegetables and a prohibition of grazing of cows in the year 1986. The feeding of cows and bulls with less contaminated fodder and the use of ammoniumhexacyanoferrate as feed additive caused a further reduction of the cesium concentration in foodstuff (30 to 70%). The Cesium migration in the Austrian soils was greatest in the first hours and days after the fallout. At special sites cesium from Chernobyl fallout was detected down to 30 cm depth. Now the Cs-migration rate is significantly below 1 cm.a -1 . Investigations of the radionuclide soil to plant transfer in the field resulted in quite low transfer factors into cereal grains (e.g.: Cs: maize: 0,0018, wheat: 0,0055; Sr: maize: 0,010, wheat: 0,10) and leaf vegetables as compared to the literature. The high mobility of cesium in special natural and seminatural environments (alpine pastures, forest) gives rise to recent problems due to contamined wild game and fungi. (Author) 8 figs., 10 tabs., 22 refs

  19. Genetic homogeneity of Fascioloides magna in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husch, Christian; Sattmann, Helmut; Hörweg, Christoph; Ursprung, Josef; Walochnik, Julia

    2017-08-30

    The large American liver fluke, Fascioloides magna, is an economically relevant parasite of both domestic and wild ungulates. F. magna was repeatedly introduced into Europe, for the first time already in the 19th century. In Austria, a stable population of F. magna has established in the Danube floodplain forests southeast of Vienna. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic diversity of F. magna in Austria. A total of 26 individuals from various regions within the known area of distribution were investigated for their cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and nicotinamide dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) gene haplotypes. Interestingly, all 26 individuals revealed one and the same haplotype, namely concatenated haplotype Ha5. This indicates a homogenous population of F. magna in Austria and may argue for a single introduction. Alternatively, genetic homogeneity might also be explained by a bottleneck effect and/or genetic drift. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. 78 FR 43226 - Xanthan Gum From Austria and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... Austria and China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject investigations... not materially injured or threatened with material injury by reason of imports from Austria of xanthan... preliminary determinations by Commerce that [[Page 43227

  1. Chernobyl and its consequences for Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenhofer, F.; Ecker, W.; Hojesky, H.; Junger, W.; Kienzl, K.; Nowak, H.; Riss, A.; Vychytil, P.; Zechner, J.

    1986-11-01

    First there is a short version of 16 pages. Then a detailed account is given mainly on the activities of the Federal Environment Office and the radiation burden to the population. The chapter headings are 1) The Chernobyl reactor accident 2) The meteorological situation 3) Monitoring of the radioactive contamination in Austria 4) Aims of the radiation measurement activities 5) Initial situation in Austria and first measurements 6) Environmental control 7) Food control 8) Fodder 9) Measures taken to minimise the radiation burden - a chronology 10) Comparison with nuclear tests fallout 11) Dose estimation 12) Radioactive contamination in other European countries. (G.Q.)

  2. Research reactors in Austria - Present situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.; Musilek, A.; Villa, M.

    2005-01-01

    In the past decades Austria operated three research reactors, the 10 MW ASTRA reactor at Seibersdorf, the 250 kW TRIGA reactor at the Atominstitut and the 1 kW Argonaut reactor at the Technical University in Graz. Since the shut down of the ASTRA on July 31th, 1999 and its immediate decommissioning reactor and the shut down of the Argonaut reactor in Graz on August 31st, 2004 only one reactor remains operational for keeping nuclear competence in Austria which is the 250 kW TRIGA Mark II reactor. (author)

  3. 77 FR 43857 - Xanthan Gum From Austria and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... Austria and China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject investigations... an industry in the United States is materially injured by reason of imports from Austria and China of... Austria and China. Accordingly, effective June 5, 2012, the Commission instituted antidumping duty...

  4. Photovoltaic conversion in Austria: Inventory 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faninger, G.

    1995-05-01

    On January 1, 1995 photovoltaic systems with a maxiumum capacity of about 1063 kW (peak) were installed in Austria. 48% of the photovoltaic systems are connected with the grid, 24% are stand-alone systems and about 28% are small systems (<200 W) for different applications. (author)

  5. Country policy profile - Austria. October 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-10-01

    Renewable energy policy in Austria exists on three levels: the Federal level, the regional level of the provinces (Bundeslaender) and the local level of municipalities. In Austria, electricity from renewable sources is supported mainly through a feed-in tariff. Since 2002, the Eco Electricity Act (Oekostromgesetz) sets feed-in tariffs for different renewable energy sources. The levels of feed-in tariffs are annually adapted and set in the Eco Electricity Ordinance (Oekostromverordnung). No use is made of any other instruments, such as quotas or certificates. Feed-in tariffs are basically set in annual regulations and may be set for several years. There is a special annual reduction in the feed-in tariff (8 %) for photovoltaic systems. Unless new tariffs are set, the feed-in tariff is reduced by 1 % per annum for all other technologies. Measures in individual provinces (investment funds and support programmes on state level) most notably in the renewable heat sectors are further important support schemes. The most substantial form of supporting small-scale RES heating and cooling is provided by the Environmental Assistance in Austria (UFI) programme. There are special investment incentives for solar thermal installations, heat pumps, geothermal and biomass heating plants. In Austria, the main support scheme for renewable energy sources used in transport is a quota system

  6. Radical prostatectomies in Austria, 1997–2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schatzl Georg

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The introduction of PSA testing in Austria led to a steep increase of the incidence of prostate cancer. We want to present the course of the number of newly diagnosed cases of prostate cancer in Austria since 1997, and set these numbers in relation to the total of radical prostatectomies (with resection of lymph nodes in the same time period. All numbers were retrieved from health statistics of Statistics Austria. The report period of cancer cases and of RPE comprises the years 1997–2004. All calculations were performed for totals as well as for 5-year age groups (40–89 years of age. Findings The number of prostate cancer cases rose from 1997 to 2004 by 35%, while the number of RPE rose by 94% in the same time period. The proportion of RPE in relation to new cases rose from 41% in 1997 to 59% in 2004. Conclusion A slight decrease of prostate cancer mortality can already be observed in Austria, but the question of over-treatment still awaits analysis.

  7. Country policy profile - Austria. August 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-08-01

    Renewable energy policy in Austria exists on three levels: the Federal level, the regional level of the provinces (Bundeslaender) and the local level of municipalities. In Austria, electricity from renewable sources is supported mainly through a feed-in tariff. Since 2002, the Eco Electricity Act (Oekostromgesetz) sets feed-in tariffs for different renewable energy sources. The levels of feed-in tariffs are annually adapted and set in the Eco Electricity Ordinance (Oekostromverordnung). No use is made of any other instruments, such as quotas or certificates. Feed-in tariffs are basically set in annual regulations and may be set for several years. There is a special annual reduction in the feed-in tariff for photovoltaic systems. Unless new tariffs are set, the feed-in tariff is reduced by 1 % per annum for all other technologies. Measures in individual provinces (investment funds and support programmes on state level) most notably in the renewable heat sectors are further important support schemes. The most substantial form of supporting small-scale RES heating and cooling is provided by the Environmental Assistance in Austria (UFI) programme. There are special investment incentives for solar thermal installations, heat pumps, geothermal and biomass heating plants. In Austria, the main support scheme for renewable energy sources used in transport is a quota system

  8. Early Childhood Intervention and Inclusion in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretis, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    This article assesses the situation of preschool children in Austria facing the need to implement the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disability. Eligibility criteria for preventive preschool services and the necessary labeling of children as "disabled" or "at risk" are assessed as inhibiting factors within…

  9. OECD Reviews of School Resources: Austria 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusche, Deborah; Radinger, Thomas; Busemeyer, Marius R.; Theisens, Henno

    2016-01-01

    This report for Austria forms part of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Review of Policies to Improve the Effectiveness of Resource Use in Schools. The purpose of the review is to explore how school resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school…

  10. Novel Pestivirus Species in Pigs, Austria, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamp, Benjamin; Schwarz, Lukas; Högler, Sandra; Riedel, Christiane; Sinn, Leonie; Rebel-Bauder, Barbara; Weissenböck, Herbert; Ladinig, Andrea; Rümenapf, Till

    2017-07-01

    A novel pestivirus species was discovered in a piglet-producing farm in Austria during virologic examinations of congenital tremor cases. The emergence of this novel pestivirus species, provisionally termed Linda virus, in domestic pigs may have implications for classical swine fever virus surveillance and porcine health management.

  11. Market survey Austria. Bio-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Austria has a well developed bioenergy infrastructure as regards solid biomass and a strong growth in the biogas and biofuel sector. The results of a SWOT analysis show the major issues for the development in each of these sectors now and in the short to medium-term future. Based on the SWOT analyses the following conclusions are formulated: (1)The development of the wood biomass sector in Austria is successful. This can be seen from the point of view of the end user, biomass for heating in single houses as well in district heating systems is very widely spread. This created opportunities for Austrian firms producing biomass technology, now having a large market and expending abroad. This development creates, however, major challenges for players from other countries like the Netherlands. It may be difficult to enter this market, unless one offers a cheaper product with the same quality or finding a niche market with a new unique product; (2) The growth of the wood biomass application for heat and electricity has led to the occurrence of another problem, a competition for wood as resource between the energy sector and other applications as pulp and paper industry. Wood imports are nowadays increasing but in the longer term Austria cannot rely on that because of the growing biomass use in neighbouring countries. Austria will therefore have to look for ways how to optimise biomass use for the energy sector and increasing the use of other fuels like straw and other forms of agricultural waste: (3) The production of biogas presents a number of new applications, production of renewable electricity, production of biogas for the transport sector as well as the possibility to inject cleaned biogas into the natural gas grid. In the short term, production of renewable electricity is the most promising for investors as feed-in tariffs are available for these projects. The other applications are still in a pilot phase but may become interesting in the coming years; (4) The

  12. Can Austria survive without nuclear power?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Promper, O.; Boeck, H.

    2007-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges in the future of the Austrian power sector is the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions as Austria agreed in Kyoto to reduce greenhouse gas emissions for 13% compared to 1990. Due to the further increasing electricity demand, there is a need to build new power plants in the future. Today, the use of nuclear power for electricity production in Austria is prohibited by law. The aim of this paper is to analyse the future of the Austrian power sector concerning greenhouse gas emissions and guarantee of supply. Various scenarios taking the above conditions and different technologies taken into account are calculated. The investigated technologies include fossil fuels, renewables and nuclear power. The aim is to analyse the impact of the different scenarios on greenhouse gas emissions and supply security. (author)

  13. Tendencies in Spatial Planning in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hladká

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In Austria there is a federal system, where the power is shared between national (Bund and regional (Land governments, with each having autonomy in some spheres, and able to pass laws. Power resides with the national government, although certain responsibilities may be delegated to regional governments. In Austria the national government has no competence in spatial planning, but planning at the national level is undertaken through a joint forum which has advisory powers, and in which the national government and the Länder Austrian are equal partners. At regional level the Austrian Länder play the primary role in spatial planning. The Austrian national government has only limited responsibilities.

  14. The importance of hydropower in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobau, R.; Pirker, O.; Spolwind, R.; Weiss, B.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of hydropower-based power generation in Austria as a clean and emission-free source of electricity. The contribution made to total electricity generation is examined and figures are quoted. Hydropower is provided from both storage dams and run-of-river power stations such as those on the river Danube. The use of the various types of hydropower in connection with their economic optimisation, for example for the supply of valuable peak power, is discussed. The promotion of hydropower within the scope of European climate-protection efforts is examined. Projects concerning the augmentation of hydropower capacities are discussed and three exemplary projects are briefly described. Finally, the situation in Austria is compared with that to be found in neighbouring Switzerland.

  15. Environmental situation in Austria. Pt. 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruzicka, E

    1981-06-01

    The presentation of the topical situation of the vegetation in Austria with special regard to the authopogeneous influences is divided into a general part and a passage on the single Bundeslaender. The general part illustrates the effects of the most frequent air pollutants, the effects of tourism and automobile traffic on vegetation from the view of environmental protection. Furthermore, a separation into the problems of agriculture on one hand, and on the problems of forestry on the other is made.

  16. Chernobyl and the consequences for Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenhofer, F.; Ecker, W.; Hojesky, H.; Junger, W.; Kienzel, K.; Nowak, H.; Riss, A.; Vychytil, P.; Zechner, J.

    1986-11-01

    In an introducing chapter the meteorological situation over Austria in the days after the Chernobyl accident is outlined. The following chapters are on measurement of contamination of environment, foodstuffs and fodder; on measures taken to minimize the radiation burden; a comparison with the fallout from nuclear weapons tests; a dose estimation to the population and finally, a comparison with contamination in some other european countries. 26 tabs., 117 figs. (qui)

  17. Austria Declares Intent To Join ESO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    At a press conference today at the University of Vienna's Observatory, the Austrian Science Minister Johannes Hahn announced the decision by the Austrian Government to seek membership of ESO from 1 July this year. ESO PR Photo 11/08 ESO PR Photo 11/08 Announcing Austria's Intent to Join ESO Said Minister Hahn: "With membership of ESO, Austria's scientists will receive direct access to the world's leading infrastructure in astronomy. This strengthens Austria as a place for research and provides an opportunity for young researchers to continue their work from here. With this move, Austria takes an important step in the reinforcement of Europe's science and research infrastructure." The decision constitutes a major breakthrough for Austrian scientists who have argued for membership of ESO for many years. Seeking membership in ESO also marks a step towards the further development of the European Research and Innovation Area, an important element of Europe's so-called Lisbon Strategy. "ESO welcomes the Austrian bid to join our organisation. I salute the Austrian Government for taking this important step and look forward to working closely with our Austrian friends and colleagues in the years to come," commented the ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw. For Austrian astronomers, ESO membership means not only unrestricted access to ESO's world-leading observational facilities including the world's most advanced optical telescope, the Very Large Telescope, and full participation in the quasi-global ALMA project, but also the possibility to participate on a par with their European colleagues in the future projects of ESO, including the realisation of ESO's Extremely Large Telescope project (E-ELT), which is currently in the design phase. All these projects require some of the most advanced technologies in key areas such as optics, detectors, lightweight structures, etc. Austrian participation in ESO opens the door for Austrian industry and major research institutes of the

  18. [Primary Health Care in Austria - Tu Felix Austria nube - Concept for networking in the primary care of Upper Austria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegel, Johannes; Rebhandl, Erwin; Hockl, Wolfgang; Stöbich, Anna-Maria

    2017-10-01

    The primary health care in rural areas in Austria is currently determined by challenges such as ageing of the population, the shift towards chronic and age-related illnesses, the specialist medical and hospital-related education and training of physicians' as well growing widespread difficulty of staffing doctor's office. The objective is to realize a general practitioner centered and team-oriented primary health care (PHC) approach by establishing networked primary health care in rural areas of Austria. Using literature research, online survey, expert interviews and expert workshops, we identified different challenges in terms of primary health care in rural areas. Further, current resources and capacities of primary health care in rural areas were identified using the example of the district of Rohrbach. Twelve design dimensions and 51 relevant measurement indicators of a PHC network were delineated and described. Based on this, 12 design approaches of PHC concept for the GP-centered and team-oriented primary health care in rural areas have been developed.

  19. Centro escolar federal en Bludenz/Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehrer, Manfred

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available Este centro escolar, considerado como uno de los más interesantes de Austria, se compone de cuatro cuerpos en los que se distribuyen, respectivamente, las escuelas, el gimnasio, la vivienda del conserje y el local de transformadores. En su construcción hay que destacar su adecuada flexibilidad, que permite dar cabida a las distintas funciones que en él se desarrollan, y la correcta adaptación del gran volumen edificado a las especiales características urbanas y arquitectónicas del ámbito circundante.

  20. Environmental report 2001 - Verbund Austria Power Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    A balance of the environmental activities performed by Verbund Austria Power Grid during 2001 is presented. It comprises which measures were taken to reach their environmental objectives: certification of an environmental management system according to ISO 14001 and EMAS, environmental protection, policies, water and thermoelectric power generation status ( CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x emission monitoring, energy efficiency, replacement of old equipment), reduction of the greenhouse gases emissions and nature conservation. The report is divided in 8 sections: power grid, environmental policy, environmental management, power grid layout, environmental status of the system, introduction of new technologies for environmental monitoring, environmental objectives 2001 - 2002, and data and facts 2001. (nevyjel)

  1. Texts of the Agency's Agreements with the Republic of Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Exchange of Letters, dated 8 January 1999 and 27 January 1999 respectively, between the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Austria and the IAEA, constituting a supplementary agreement t o the Agreement between the Republic of Austria and the IAEA regarding the Headquarters of the IAEA. The aforementioned Agreement entered into force on 8 February 1999

  2. Statistics about torrents in Lower Austria, status from May 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehrenfried Lepuschitz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This data presents analyzed data exports of Austrian torrent and avalanche cadaster (TAC in May 2015. The TAC is developed by Austrian Service for Torrent and Avalanche Control. Data are viewed from different aspects and combinations geographically in the area of Lower Austria, a province of Austria.

  3. National energy data profile, Austria 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    Detail information about the energy consumption, energy demand and supply, general features of energy economy and the analysis of the development of energy economy in Austria in 1992 as well as preliminary data on energy consumption in the first 6 months of 1993 is given. Statistical data about the development of energy demand by sectors, development of total final energy demand by energy carriers (articulated in coal, refined petroleum products, natural gas, other, electricity and heat), development of energy consumption in industry (articulated in coal, refined petroleum products, natural gas, other, electricity and heat) and development of energy consumption of domestic consumers (articulated in coal, refined petroleum products, natural gas, other, electricity and heat) is shown. Graphical data about (1) primary energy supply by source, (2) primary energy, economic activity and electricity, (3) indigenous energy production, (4) conventional energy resources, (5) electricity supply by source, (6) electricity consumption by sector is presented for the years 1970 - 1992. Data about the development and exploitable hydro-power potentials by rivers and the main sources of man-made emissions of air pollutants in Austria 1990 according to the results of the CORINE-inventory are added. (blahsl)

  4. Occupational Accidents with Agricultural Machinery in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogler, Robert; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef

    2016-01-01

    The number of recognized accidents with fatalities during agricultural and forestry work, despite better technology and coordinated prevention and trainings, is still very high in Austria. The accident scenarios in which people are injured are very different on farms. The common causes of accidents in agriculture and forestry are the loss of control of machine, means of transport or handling equipment, hand-held tool, and object or animal, followed by slipping, stumbling and falling, breakage, bursting, splitting, slipping, fall, and collapse of material agent. In the literature, a number of studies of general (machine- and animal-related accidents) and specific (machine-related accidents) agricultural and forestry accident situations can be found that refer to different databases. From the database Data of the Austrian Workers Compensation Board (AUVA) about occupational accidents with different agricultural machinery over the period 2008-2010 in Austria, main characteristics of the accident, the victim, and the employer as well as variables on causes and circumstances by frequency and contexts of parameters were statistically analyzed by employing the chi-square test and odds ratio. The aim of the study was to determine the information content and quality of the European Statistics on Accidents at Work (ESAW) variables to evaluate safety gaps and risks as well as the accidental man-machine interaction.

  5. Child Health Care Services in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerbl, Reinhold; Ziniel, Georg; Winkler, Petra; Habl, Claudia; Püspök, Rudolf; Waldhauser, Franz

    2016-10-01

    We describe child health care in Austria, a small country in Central Europe with a population of about 9 million inhabitants of whom approximately 1.7 million are children and adolescents under the age of 20 years. For children and adolescents, few health care indicators are available. Pediatric and adolescent health provision, such as overall health provision, follows a complex system with responsibilities shared by the Ministry of Health, 19 social insurance funds, provinces, and other key players. Several institutions are affiliated with or cooperate with the Ministry of Health to assure quality control. The Austrian public health care system is financed through a combination of income-based social insurance payments and taxes. Pediatric primary health care in Austria involves the services of general pediatricians and general practitioners. Secondary care is mostly provided by the 43 children's hospitals; tertiary care is (particularly) provided in 4 state university hospitals and 1 private university hospital. The training program of residents takes 6 years and is completed by a final examination. Every year, this training program is completed by about 60 residents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Epidemiology of Multiple Sclerosis in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salhofer-Polanyi, Sabine; Cetin, Hakan; Leutmezer, Fritz; Baumgartner, Anna; Blechinger, Stephan; Dal-Bianco, Assunta; Altmann, Patrick; Bajer-Kornek, Barbara; Rommer, Paulus; Guger, Michael; Leitner-Bohn, Doris; Reichardt, Berthold; Alasti, Farideh; Temsch, Wilhelm; Stamm, Tanja

    2017-01-01

    To assess the incidence rate and prevalence ratio of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Austria. Hospital discharge diagnosis and MS-specific immunomodulatory treatment prescriptions from public health insurances, covering 98% of Austrian citizens with health insurance were used to extrapolate incidence and prevalence numbers based on the capture-recapture method. A total of 1,392,629 medication prescriptions and 40,956 hospitalizations were extracted from 2 data sources, leading to a total of 13,205 patients. The incidence rate and prevalence ratio of MS in Austria based on the capture-recapture method were 19.5/100,000 person-years (95% CI 14.3-24.7) and 158.9/100,000 (95% CI 141.2-175.9), respectively. Female to male ratio was 1.6 for incidence and 2.2 for prevalence. Incidence rates and prevalence ratios of MS in our study are within the upper range of comparable studies across many European countries as well as the United States. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Elemental composition of game meat from Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, Kathrin; Kitzer, Roland; Goessler, Walter

    2016-06-01

    Concentrations of 26 elements (B, Na, Mg, P, S, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sb, Ba, Hg, Pb, U) in wild game meat from Austria were analysed using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. All investigated animals were culled during the hunting season 2012/2013, including 10 chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra), 9 hare (Lepus europaeus), 10 pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), 10 red deer (Cervus elaphus), 12 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and 10 wild boar (Sus scrofa). In 19 out of 61 meat samples lead concentrations were higher than 0.1 mg/kg, the maximum limit in meat as set by the European Commission (Regulation EC No 1881/2006), which is most likely caused by ammunition residues. Especially, pellet shot animals and chamois show a high risk for lead contamination. Despite ammunition residues all investigated muscle samples show no further health risk with respect to metal contamination.

  8. Cartography (and Geoinformation in Education in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjanka Lechthaler

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The basic task of cartography lies in efficient and impeccable transfer of spatial information via cartographic models of geospace. Wired and wireless communication networks serve this purpose. They offer new media possibilities of saving and transferring cartographic information and cartographic models, and therefore their use. This is related to the emphasis of research work and education, which is equally oriented toward theoretical issues and those concerning applied cartography. The paper features a review of cartographic education and accomplished qualifications at universities and professional schools (Fachhochschule in Austria and a review of newly introduced study programs of Bachelor and Master studies according to guidelines of the Bologna Declaration. The education plan for the instruction of cartography for both studies at the Vienna University of Technology is presented in detail.

  9. European atomic (nuclear) law and Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heitzinger, R.

    2000-05-01

    The dissertation investigates the question, how the Austrian membership in the European Community works out to the Austrian Atomic Nonproliferation Law, which is a simple federal law. By the day of the Austrian accession to the European Community, the whole law of the European Community became part of the Austrian Legal Order. Also part of the primary right, the constitutional law of the European Community, is the contract for founding the European Atomic Energy Community, which also became part of the Austrian Legal Order. In 1978 Austria decided after the plebiscite of November the 5th against the opening of the nuclear power station in Zwentendorf. The result of this plebiscite was the Austrian Atomic Nonproliferation Law, a simple federal law from December the 15th, BGBl 676/1978. To continue their atomic politics, forbidding the use of nuclear powerstations for producing energy, after becoming a member of the European Community, Austria and the members of the European Community signed the Fourth Common Declaration at September the 23rd in 1993 for the use of the contract for founding the European Atomic Energy Community. This Common Declaration is neither a part of the accession of the contract, nor a part of the accessions to the acts of the contract of the European Community, and also not a part of the primary right of the European Community. It is only an agreement between the signatory states, which can be characterized as a part of the context. The sphere of the context, where the Fourth Common Declaration could be important, restrains to the secondary right of the European Community. This means, that the opinion on the rage of application is a decision of the executive bodies of the European Community. Consequently is to say, that the declaration, that the continuance of the Austrian Atomic Nonproliferation Law is save, can't resist an analysis in the law of nations. (author)

  10. Evaluation of groundwater droughts in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Johannes Christoph; Birk, Steffen

    2015-04-01

    Droughts are abnormally dry periods that affect various aspects of human life on earth, ranging from negative impacts on agriculture or industry, to being the cause for conflict and loss of human life. The changing climate reinforces the importance of investigations into this phenomenon. Various methods to analyze and classify droughts have been developed. These include drought indices such as the Standard Precipitation Index SPI, the Palmer Drought Severity Index PDSI or the Crop Moisture Index CMI. These and other indices consider meteorological parameters and/or their effects on soil moisture. A depletion of soil moisture triggered by low precipitation and high evapotranspiration may also cause reduced groundwater recharge and thus decreasing groundwater levels and reduced groundwater flow to springs, streams, and wetlands. However, the existing indices were generally not designed to address such drought effects on groundwater. Thus, a Standardized Groundwater level Index has recently been proposed by Bloomfied and Marchant (2013). Yet, to our knowledge, this approach has only been applied to consolidated aquifers in the UK. This work analyzes time series of groundwater levels from various, mostly unconsolidated aquifers in Austria in order to characterize the effects of droughts on aquifers in different hydrogeologic and climatic settings as well as under different usage scenarios. In particular, comparisons are made between the water rich Alpine parts of Austria, and the dryer parts situated in the East. The time series of groundwater levels are compared to other data, such as meteorological time series and written weather records about generally accepted phenomena, such as the 2003 European drought and heat wave. Thus, valuable insight is gained into the propagation of meteorological droughts through the soil and the aquifer in different types of hydrogeologic and climatic settings, which provides a prerequisite for the assessment of the aquifers' drought

  11. Austria announces new money for research infrastructure and social sciences

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Austria's Minister for Science and Research, Johannes Hahn, has announced funding for research infrastructures and the social sciences, amounting to EUR 6.9 million in total. The largest chunk of the money will go to a new data processing centre for the analysis of data from the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN). The idea is that the new centre will provide Austria with access to the key technology for solving highly complex scientific and technological problems, while strengthening Austria's domestic research infrastructure in the field of 'advanced communication networks'.

  12. Extent and application of patient diaries in Austria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heindl, Patrik; Bachlechner, Adelbert; Nydahl, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Background: Diaries written for patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are offered in many European countries. In Austria, ICU diaries have been relatively unknown, but since 2012, they have started to emerge. Aim: The aim of this study was to explore the extent and application of ICU diaries...... in Austria in 2015. Method: The study had a prospective multiple methods design of survey and interviews. All ICUs in Austria were surveyed in 2015 to identify which ICUs used diaries. ICUs using diaries were selected for semi-structured key-informant telephone interviews on the application of ICU diaries...

  13. Eesriie hakkab kerkima / Eiki Nestor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nestor, Eiki, 1953-

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Nädaline 12. mai, lk. 4, Lääne Elu 12. mai, lk. 2, Põhjarannik 12. mai, lk. 2, Severnoje Poberezhje 12.mai, lk. 2, Lõunaleht 12. mai lk. 2, Hiiu Leht, Vali Uudised 13. mai lk. 2,2, Koit 17. mai lk. 6, Sakala 20. mai lk. 2, Sotsiaaldemokraat mai nr. 103 lk. 3, Pärnu Postimees 17. juuni lk. 15. Sotsiaaldemokraatliku Erakonna aseesimees kritiseerib tervishoiu rahastamist, riigile kuuluvate ettevõtete müüki ja tööpoliitikat

  14. Haapsalus hakkab õudne / Tiit Tuumalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuumalu, Tiit, 1971-

    2006-01-01

    PÖFF-i abiga toimub Haapsalus õudusfilmide festival, idee autoriks reklaamiagentuuri Zavood juht Marek Reinaas. Eesti Kunstiakadeemia tudengid esinevad videoinstallatsioonide ja perfomance'ite eriprojektiga "Hirmurõõm". Lisatud festivali programmijuhi Helmut Jänese vastus ekstreemse õudusfilmi "Kannibali holokaust" näitamise kohta

  15. Gender and the Labour Market: Comparing Austria and Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Biffl, Gudrun

    2006-01-01

    Japan and Austria are among the OECD countries with an average labour force participation rate but an above average gender gap as far as employment opportunities and earnings are concerned. In Japan, women in the main working age have a fairly large margin of labour resources not employed in the market economy. In Austria in contrast, the proportion of unused labour resources of mature workers is high, and the gender gap is less pronounced than in Japan, which suggests that a different combin...

  16. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Austria - 2014 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-03-01

    Austria's energy policy rests on three pillars – security of supply, energy efficiency and renewable energy sources. The country's decarbonisation drive has strengthened as the economy and renewable energy use have continued to grow, while fossil fuel use has decreased. Notably, Austria has more than tripled the public funding for energy research, development and demonstration since 2007. Greenhouse gas emissions from energy use, which peaked in 2005, still need to be reduced further, and the transport sector offers prime opportunities for this. In the context of EU negotiations on an energy and climate policy framework to 2030, Austria should develop a strategy that also integrates security of supply and internal market dimensions. Closer cross-border integration of both electricity and natural gas markets and systems is required to build a single European market. This calls for increased co-ordination and co-operation with neighbouring countries. Austria should also encourage investment in networks, optimise demand response and integrate variable renewable energy supply in a cost-effective and market-based manner. A well-functioning internal market can help reduce the growing concerns over energy prices and costs, both for industry and for citizens. Austria could address these concerns also by implementing more energy efficiency measures and facilitating greater retail market competition. This review analyses the energy policy challenges facing Austria and provides sectoral studies and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future.

  17. Characterization of HIV Transmission in South-East Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenigl, Martin; Chaillon, Antoine; Kessler, Harald H; Haas, Bernhard; Stelzl, Evelyn; Weninger, Karin; Little, Susan J; Mehta, Sanjay R

    2016-01-01

    To gain deeper insight into the epidemiology of HIV-1 transmission in South-East Austria we performed a retrospective analysis of 259 HIV-1 partial pol sequences obtained from unique individuals newly diagnosed with HIV infection in South-East Austria from 2008 through 2014. After quality filtering, putative transmission linkages were inferred when two sequences were ≤1.5% genetically different. Multiple linkages were resolved into putative transmission clusters. Further phylogenetic analyses were performed using BEAST v1.8.1. Finally, we investigated putative links between the 259 sequences from South-East Austria and all publicly available HIV polymerase sequences in the Los Alamos National Laboratory HIV sequence database. We found that 45.6% (118/259) of the sampled sequences were genetically linked with at least one other sequence from South-East Austria forming putative transmission clusters. Clustering individuals were more likely to be men who have sex with men (MSM; pAustria had at least one putative inferred linkage with sequences from a total of 69 other countries. In conclusion, analysis of HIV-1 sequences from newly diagnosed individuals residing in South-East Austria revealed a high degree of national and international clustering mainly within MSM. Interestingly, we found that a high number of heterosexual males clustered within MSM networks, suggesting either linkage between risk groups or misrepresentation of sexual risk behaviors by subjects.

  18. Usutu virus, Austria and Hungary, 2010-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakonyi, Tamás; Erdélyi, Károly; Brunthaler, René; Dán, Ádám; Weissenböck, Herbert; Nowotny, Norbert

    2017-10-11

    Usutu virus (USUV, Flaviviridae) was first reported in Europe in Austria in 2001, where it caused wild bird (mainly blackbird) mortality until 2005. Since 2006 no further USUV cases were diagnosed in the country. However, the virus emerged in other European countries (Hungary, Italy, Switzerland, Spain, Germany and the Czech Republic) between 2005 and 2011. In 2016, widespread USUV-associated wild bird mortality was observed in Germany, France, Belgium and the Netherlands. In this study, we report the results of passive monitoring for USUV in Austria and Hungary between 2010 and 2016. In Hungary, USUV caused sporadic cases of wild bird mortality between 2010 and 2015 (altogether 18 diagnosed cases), whereas in summer and autumn 2016 the number of cases considerably increased to 12 (ten blackbirds, one Eurasian jay and one starling). In Austria, USUV was identified in two blackbirds in 2016. Phylogenetic analyses of coding-complete genomes and partial regions of the NS5 protein gene revealed that USUVs from Hungary between 2010 and 2015 are closely related to the virus that emerged in Austria in 2001 and in Hungary in 2005, while one Hungarian sequence from 2015 and all sequences from Hungary and Austria from 2016 clustered together with USUV sequences reported from Italy between 2009 and 2010. The results of the study indicate continuous USUV circulation in the region and exchange of USUV strains between Italy, Austria and Hungary.Emerging Microbes &Infections (2017) 6, e85; doi:10.1038/emi.2017.72; published online 11 October 2017.

  19. Assessing primary care in Austria: room for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigler, Florian L; Starfield, Barbara; Sprenger, Martin; Salzer, Helmut J F; Campbell, Stephen M

    2013-04-01

    There is emerging evidence that strong primary care achieves better health at lower costs. Although primary care can be measured, in many countries, including Austria, there is little understanding of primary care development. Assessing the primary care development in Austria. A primary care assessment tool developed by Barbara Starfield in 1998 was implemented in Austria. This tool defines 15 primary care characteristics and distinguishes between system and practice characteristics. Each characteristic was evaluated by six Austrian primary care experts and rated as 2 (high), 1 (intermediate) or 0 (low) points, respectively, to their primary care strength (maximum score: n = 30). Austria received 7 out of 30 points; no characteristic was rated as '2' but 8 were rated as '0'. Compared with the 13 previously assessed countries, Austria ranks 10th of 14 countries and is classified as a 'low primary care' country. This study provides the first evidence concerning primary care in Austria, benchmarking it as weak and in need of development. The practicable application of an existing assessment tool can be encouraging for other countries to generate evidence about their primary care system as well.

  20. EU Floods Directive implementation in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuhold Clemens

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Floods have the potential to cause fatalities, displacement of people and damage to the environment, to severely compromise economic development and to undermine the economic activities of the Community. The EU Directive on the assessment and management of flood risks [2007/60/EC] was adopted on 23 October 2007. Its aim is to reduce and manage the risks that floods pose to human health, the environment, cultural heritage and economic activity. The paper reflects on how the requirements of the FD had been achieved in Austria and how the nationwide comparability and transferability of results as well as the international coordination had been obtained. Austria as a federal state has its competences structured in different departments as well as administrational levels. Besides administrational characteristics there is also a high diversity in topographical boundary conditions from Alpine areas to lowland areas emphasising different approaches and foci of flood risk management. To harmonise the related interests a discussion and decision committee had been established. The resolutions of this committee then defined the basis for a national coordination procedure where the Federal Ministry provided a “federal blueprint” to the federal provinces. The federal provinces then incorporated their regional and local information and data. Based on this response the coordinated and nationwide comparable FRMP had been set up and had been forwarded to public information and consultation. Complementary stakeholder involvement has been ensured by information and discussion workshops throughout the entire process. The administrational and topographical characteristics to be considered in the frame of FD implementation strengthened the coordination and harmonisation across all sectors and stakeholders related to flood risk management. The FD implementation, therefore, is a holistic attempt to outline the needs for action for all sectors related to risk

  1. A short history of neurosciences in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellinger, K A

    2006-03-01

    Based on internal medicine and psychiatry and in close connection with pathology, the neurosciences in Austria began to develop in the 18(th) century, e.g. with the description of inflammation of the central nervous system by J. P. Franck (1745-1823) and the "phrenology" by F. J. Gall (1745-1823). Under the influence of the great pathologist C. Rokitansky (1804-1878), the tripode of the Vienna neurology - L. Türck (1810-1868), as initiator, Th. v. Meynert (1833-1892) the activator, and H. Obersteiner (1847-1922) as the founder of the Vienna Neurological Institute, presented basic contributions to the morphology and pathology of the nervous system. At the end of the 19(th) and in the early 20(th) century, they were followed by important publications by S. Fred (aphasia), C. Redlich (tabes dorsalis), F. Sträussler (CNS syphilis), A. Spitzer (fiber anatomy of the brain), P. Schilder (diffuse sclerosis), R. Barany (Nobel price for physiology and medicine 1914), J. Wagner v. Jauregg (Nobel price for medicine, 1927), O. Loewi (Nobel Price for Physiology and Medicine together with Sir H. Dale, 1936), A. Schüller (histiocytosis X), C. v. Economo (encephalitis lethargica and cytoarchitectonics of the human cerebral cortex), E. Pollak (Wilson disease), E. Gamper (mesencephalic subject), J. Gerstmann (Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome and Gerstmann parietal syndrome), H. Hoff with L. Schönbauer (brain tumors and surgery), and others. Major research institutions were the departments of psychiatry I and II at the University of Vienna School of Medicine (foundation 1870), unification 1911, separation into departments of neurology, psychiatry and neuropsychiatry of children and adolescents in 1971), the Obersteiner Institute in Vienna (foundation 1882, separation 1993), the university departments at Graz and Innsbruck, both founded in 1891, and other laboratories, where renouned clinicans and neuroscientists, like O. Marburg, H. Hoff, O. Pötzl, O. Kauders, F

  2. Emergence of sandflies (Phlebotominae) in Austria, a Central European country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeppl, Wolfgang; Obwaller, Adelheid G; Weiler, Martin; Burgmann, Heinz; Mooseder, Gerhard; Lorentz, Susanne; Rauchenwald, Friedrich; Aspöck, Horst; Walochnik, Julia; Naucke, Torsten J

    2013-12-01

    The possible existence of autochthonous sandfly populations in Central Europe north of the Alps has long been excluded. However, in the past years, sandflies have been documented in Germany, Belgium, and recently, also in Austria, close to the Slovenian border. Moreover, autochthonous human Leishmania and Phlebovirus infections have been reported in Central Europe, particularly in Germany. From 2010 to 2012, sandfly trapping (740 trap nights) was performed at 53 different capture sites in Austria using battery-operated CDC miniature light traps. Sites were chosen on the basis of their climate profile in the federal states Styria, Burgenland, and Lower Austria. Sandfly specimens found were transferred to 70% ethanol for conservation. Identification was based on morphological characters of the male genitalia and the female spermathecae, respectively. Altogether, 24 specimens, 22 females and 2 males, all identified as Phlebotomus (Transphlebotomus) mascittii Grassi, 1908, were found at six different sampling sites in all three federal states investigated. The highest number of catches was made on a farm in Lower Austria. Altogether, the period of sandfly activity in Austria was shown to be much longer than presumed, the earliest capture was made on July 3rd and the latest on August 28th. Sandflies have been autochthonous in Austria in small foci probably for long, but in the course of global warming, further spreading may be expected. Although P. mascittii is only an assumed vector of Leishmania spp.-data on its experimental transmission capacity are still lacking-the wide distribution of sandflies in Austria, a country thought to be free of sandflies, further supports a potential emergence of sandflies in Central Europe. This is of medical relevance, not only with respect to the transmission of Leishmania spp. for which a reservoir is given in dogs, but also with respect to the phleboviruses.

  3. Rising prevalence of back pain in Austria: considering regional disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Großschädl, Franziska; Stolz, Erwin; Mayerl, Hannes; Rásky, Éva; Freidl, Wolfgang; Stronegger, Willibald J

    2016-01-01

    Back pain is the most common form of musculoskeletal conditions and leads to high health care costs. Information about geographic variations in highly prevalent diseases/disorders represents important implications for public health planning to face structural challenges. The present study aims to investigate regional trends in the prevalence of back pain and the role of obesity and social inequalities among Austrian adults. A secondary data analysis based on five nationally representative cross-sectional surveys (1973-2007) was carried out (N = 178,818). Back pain was measured as self-reported presence. Obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m²) was adjusted for self-report bias. For the regional analyses, Austria was divided into Western, Central and Eastern Austria. A relative index of inequality (RII) was computed to quantify the extent of social inequality. A continuous rise in back pain prevalence was observed in the three regions and among all investigated subgroups. In 2007 the age-standardised prevalence was similar in Central (36.9 %), Western (35.2 %) and Eastern Austria (34.3 %). The absolute change in back pain prevalence was highest among obese subjects in Central Austria (women: + 29.8 %, men: + 32.5 %). RIIs were unstable during the study period and in 2007 highest in Eastern Austria. Variation and trends in back pain are not attributable to geographic variation in Austria: an assumed East-West gradient in Austria has not been confirmed. Nevertheless our study confirms that back pain dramatically increased in all Austrian regions and investigated subgroups. This worrying trend should be further monitored and public health interventions should be implemented increasingly, especially among obese women and men.

  4. Open-Access-Kooperationen in Österreich: Open Access Network Austria und E-Infrastructures Austria – aktuelle Entwicklungen seit 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer, Bruno

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available [english] The Berlin Declaration on Open Access to scientific knowledge was published in October 2003. All over the world initiatives and projects were started. However, in Austria Open Access got little attention over many years. This was confirmed by a study among Austrian universities on behalf of the Council of Austrian University Libraries. Finally at the turn of the year 2012/2013 the Open Access Network Austria and the university infrastructure project E-Infrastructure Austria were started to push Open Access in Austria on a national level. So 10 years after the Berlin Declaration Austria set up the preconditions to establish sustainable Open Access.

  5. S.H. and others v. Austria and circumvention tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn Cohen, I

    2012-12-01

    This commentary discusses the decision in S.H. and Others v. Austria from a political theoretical and bioethical perspective. I focus on the opinion's discussion of what I call 'circumvention tourism', travelling abroad for the purpose of circumventing domestic prohibitions, especially as to medical services. The majority opinion in the case touts Austria's allowance of circumvention tourism for reproductive technology services that are illegal on Austrian soil as a reason to find as lawful Austria's prohibition on using those services on Austrian soil. To the contrary, I show that, in many ways, permitting circumvention tourism for these services while prohibiting them domestically is deeply problematic. Copyright © 2012 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Arts@CERN | ACCELERATE Austria | 19 May | IdeaSquare

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    ​Arts@CERN welcomes you to a talk by architects Sandra Manninger and Matias Del Campo, at IdeaSquare (Point 1) on May 19 at 6:00 p.m.   Sensible Bodies - architecture, data, and desire. Sandra and Matias are the winning architects for ACCELERATE Austria. Focusing on the notion of geometry, they are at CERN during the month of May, as artists in residence. Their research highlights how to go beyond beautiful data to discover something that could be defined voluptuous data. This coagulation of numbers, algorithms, procedures and programs uses the forces of thriving nature and, passing through the calculation of a multi-core processor, knits them with human desire. Read more. ACCELERATE Austria is supported by The Department of Arts of the Federal Chancellery of Austria. Thursday, May 19 at 6:00 p.m. at IdeaSquare.  See event on Indico. 

  7. Tšetšeenid, Leivo ja Austria / Priit Hõbemägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hõbemägi, Priit, 1957-

    2004-01-01

    Eesti, Läti, Leedu ja Austria siseministrid esitasid ühise idee rajada Ukrainasse tšetšeeni põgenikele pagulaslaager. Autor selgitab, mis huvid võisid olla Eesti ja Austria siseministritel sellise idee esitamisel

  8. Design and quality assurance of control and instrumentation systems, licensing practice in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasko, Peter.

    1978-01-01

    The practicised way how licensing of control and instrumentation systems is performed in Austria, is related. As there is no national regulations in Austria for licensing nuclear power plants, it tries to adopt international regulations for its own purpose. (author)

  9. New Developments on the Renewable Energy Sector in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedmidubsky, A.; Geisslhofer, A.

    1998-01-01

    Signing the Kyoto Protocol, Austria has taken on the commitment to reduce its emission of greenhouse gases by 10%. Besides the improvement of energy efficiency and energy savings, increasing the share of renewable energy is one of the most promising strategies to reduce present CO 2 emissions. One of the possibilities to strengthen market penetration of renewable energy is to introduce biomass pellets into the market. This presentation will show the present situation in Austria and the measures planned to be set to increase their utilisation. (author)

  10. [Commentary on the planned restructuring of mammography screening in Austria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vutuc, Christian; Haidinger, Gerald

    2011-08-01

    With regards to the planned reorganisation of screening mammography in Austria - from an opportunistic to an organised system - the problems related with such a change are depicted from an epidemiological point of view. We were able to demonstrate earlier that opportunistic screening mammography matches the results of controlled screening mammography in Finland and Sweden. Switching to a controlled system in Austria would - besides the need for a change in legislation - lead to enormous expenditures in terms of resources needed and moreover, it could be not evaluated for years.

  11. The potential of renewable sources of energy in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faninger, G.

    1991-11-01

    Besides hydropower and biomass, solar energy and biomass are candidates for renewable sources of energy. The demand for biomass, solar energy and ambient heat has been rising in all spheres: from 6.8% in 1983 to about 10% in 1990. The development of the market for solar and heat pump systems is continuing its positive tendency. It is expected, that solar as well as heat pump technologies could provide substantial contribution to the energy supply in Austria. The technical usable potential of renewable sources of energy in Austria is analysed. (author)

  12. Electric-powered cars in Austria - status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Propper, B.

    1993-01-01

    The number of electric-powered vehicles in Austria is estimated to be 300 at the most. In this article, the reasons for such a low number is being looked at. Austria is ideally located with respect to producing electricity, as two thirds of it are produced by water-power. However, there are only three direct ways of state funding in order to reduce the cost. In the framework of a field test, the use of electric-powered vehicles for community-use is being successfully carried out in Vienna. (orig.) [de

  13. Chernobyl - 30 years thereafter. Experiences and lessons learned in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maringer, Franz Josef; Hajek, Michael; Steger, Ferdinand; Hefner, Alfred

    2016-01-01

    During the severe reactor accident in Chernobyl in 1986 large amounts of radioactive materials have been released to the environment. Unfavorable atmospheric circulation conditions have transported about 2%of the released radioactive matter to Austria. The contribution describes the measures and actions for dose reduction performed in Austria. The measured cs-137 distribution is illustrated (in some areas more the 100 Bq/m2 were deposited). Experiences considering the measurements in consequence of the contamination are discussed and improvements of the emergency planning are summarized.

  14. Identification of long-range transport of aerosols over Austria using EARLINET lidar measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelia, Talianu

    2018-04-01

    The aims of the study is to identify the paths of the long-range transported aerosols over Austria and their potential origin, and to estimate their properties, using lidar measurements from EARLINET stations closest to Austria from Germany and Romania and aerosol transport models. As of now, there is no lidar station in Austria. The study is part of a project to estimate the usefulness of a lidar station located in Vienna, Austria.

  15. Port competition and selection in contestable hinterlands : the case of Austria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langen, de P.W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with port competition and port selection for cargo to/from Austria. Austria is located centrally in Europe and seaports in at least five countries are used for imports and exports. Changes of market shares over time of different ports serving Austria are analysed. Switching of cargo

  16. 77 FR 65361 - Xanthan Gum From Austria and the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... Austria and the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Preliminary Determinations of Antidumping Duty...: October 26, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Karine Gziryan (Austria) or Brandon Farlander (People's... of initiation of antidumping duty investigations of xanthan gum from Austria and the People's...

  17. Special waste disposal in Austria - cost benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuntscher, H.

    1983-01-01

    The present situation of special waste disposal in Austria is summarized for radioactive and nonradioactive wastes. A cost benefit analysis for regulary collection, transport and disposal of industrial wastes, especially chemical wastes is given and the cost burden for the industry is calculated. (A.N.)

  18. Psychopathology in African Unaccompanied Refugee Minors in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huemer, Julia; Karnik, Niranjan; Voelkl-Kernstock, Sabine; Granditsch, Elisabeth; Plattner, Belinda; Friedrich, Max; Steiner, Hans

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the prevalence of a range of psychopathology among African unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs) in Austria. Additionally, the predictive value of war exposure on PTSD symptoms was examined. Forty-one URMs were assessed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview for children and adolescents, the Youth Self-Report, the UCLA…

  19. Tobacco policies in Austria during the Third Reich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachinger, E; McKee, M

    2007-09-01

    The anti-smoking stance taken by Adolf Hitler, coupled with Nazi support for research on smoking and lung cancer and campaigns to discourage smoking, have encouraged pro-smoking groups to equate tobacco control activities with totalitarianism. Previous work has described the situation in Germany. To examine the situation in Austria, also part of the Reich after 1938. Iterative analysis of documents and reports about the situation in Austria in the 1930s and 1940s, supplemented by a review of Reich legal ordinances, party newspapers, health behaviour guidelines issued by Nazi party organisations and interviews with expert informants. In contrast to the situation in Germany where, albeit to a much lesser degree than is commonly believed, some anti-smoking policies were adopted, the Nazi authorities in Austria made almost no attempt to discourage smoking and the Austrian tobacco company worked closely with the Nazi authorities to ensure that supplies were maintained. Especially when looked at in the Austrian context, the much-cited link between anti-smoking policies and Nazism is a gross over-simplification. This purported link should not be used to justify the continued failure to act effectively against smoking in Germany and Austria.

  20. Austria: Persistent low fertility since the mid-1980s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriette Engelhardt

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This chapter offers an in-depth analysis of fertility in Austria, a country which has experienced a low and relatively stable fertility level and a gradual postponement of childbearing since the mid-1980s. We begin by summarising Austrian population trends in the post-World War II period and highlighting recent relatively high migration levels. We outline the long history of sub-replacement fertility and high childlessness in Austria and look in detail at recent parity-specific developments, trends in family size, delayed childbearing and persistent fertility differences by education level, country of origin and religious affiliation. The chapter then summarises main trends in family-related behaviour, including the changing patterns of leaving parental home, the rise in cohabitation, the decline in marriage and the rise of divorce and the diversity in non-marital childbearing, which has a long tradition in many parts of the country. We discuss the development of family policies in Austria and their relationship to fertility during the past decades. Social policies in Austria provide only a limited support for a reconciliation of childrearing and employment among mothers with children below the age of three. A combination of one of the highest family spending rates among the OECD countries and the low fertility rates indicate that structural constraints (such as the availability of childcare constitute part of the explanation of low fertility.

  1. Vulnerability of crops to climate change in Northeastern Austria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Thaler, S.; Eitzinger, J.; Rischbeck, P. M.; Dubrovský, Martin; Trnka, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2010), s. 50-61 ISSN 0861-0762 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300420806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Climate change * crops * Austria * weather generator Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  2. Reflections on the History of Science and Technology in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1972-01-01

    This text was written for a talk given by E. Broda in Vienna on the symposium “The future of Science a Technology” held within the framework of the Austrian National Day in Vienna in 1972 and it addresses amongst other Victor Weisskopf. The text is about reflections on the history of science and technology in Austria. (nowak)

  3. Autochthonous leptospirosis in South-East Austria, 2004-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenigl, Martin; Wallner, Carina; Allerberger, Franz; Schmoll, Friedrich; Seeber, Katharina; Wagner, Jasmin; Valentin, Thomas; Zollner-Schwetz, Ines; Flick, Holger; Krause, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis is one of the world's mostly spread zoonoses causing acute fever. Over years, leptospirosis has been reported to occur rarely in Austria and Germany (annual incidence of 0.06/100,000 in Germany). Only imported cases have been on the increase. Objectives of this case-series study were to retrospectively assess epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of leptospirosis illnesses in South-East Austria, to describe risk exposures for autochthonous infections, and to compare patients with imported versus autochthonous infection. During the 9-year period between 2004 and 2012, 127 adult patients (49 females, 78 males) who tested positive by rapid point-of-care test for Leptospira-specific IgM (Leptocheck®) were identified through electronic hospital databases. Follow-up telephone interviews were conducted with 82 patients. A total of 114 (89.8%) of the 127 patients enrolled had acquired leptospirosis within Austria and 13 (10.2%) had potentially imported infections. Most autochthonous cases were diagnosed during the months of June and July, whereas fewest were diagnosed during the winter months. Exposure to rodents, recreational activities in woods or wet areas, gardening, cleaning of basements or huts were the most common risk exposures found in autochthonous infection. Serogroups Australis (n = 23), Sejroe (n = 22), and Icterohaemorrhagiae (n = 11) were identified most frequently by MAT testing in autochthonous infections. Patients with imported leptospirosis were significantly younger, less likely to be icteric and had significantly lower liver transaminase levels (p = 0.004) than those with autochthonous infections. Leptospirosis is endemic in South-East Austria. In contrast to reports from other countries we found a relatively high proportion of leptospirosis cases to be female (39% vs. ∼ 10%), likely the result of differing risk exposures for South-East Austria.

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in western Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allerberger, F; Kofler, H; Brezinka, C; Guggenbichler, J P; Dierich, M P

    1993-01-01

    From January to October 1992 24 Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from clinical specimens were collected at the Federal Public Health Laboratory in Innsbruck (Austria) and screened for resistance to penicillin G, erythromycin, tetracycline, spectinomycin, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, ciprofloxacine, and silver nitrate. Patients originated from the Austrian provinces Salzburg, Tirol, and Vorarlberg, and presented with manifest gonorrhoea. Two of 24 isolates were penicillinase-producing N. gonorrhoeae. Both strains were isolated from men who had just returned from Thailand or Kenya. The isolate from Africa was also resistant to tetracycline. Five of 24 infections were acquired abroad, sex tourism being involved in four cases. The antimicrobial resistance pattern found in gonococci in western Austria revealed that topical silver nitrate and erythromycin are equally acceptable for use in prophylaxis of neonatal ophthalmia. Penicillin is still the drug of choice in the treatment of endemic infections. If gonorrhoea has been acquired abroad, especially in Asia or Africa, ceftriaxone, spectinomycin or ciprofloxazine are recommended for therapy.

  5. Tax wedge in Croatia, Austria, Hungary, Poland and Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Onorato

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to compare the tax burden on labour income in Croatia, Austria, Greece, Hungary and Poland in 2013. The Taxing Wages methodology has been applied to hypothetical units across a range of gross wages in order to calculate net average tax wedge, net average tax rate, as well as other relevant indicators. When it comes to single workers without children, the smallest tax wedge for workers earning less than the average gross wage was found in Croatia, while Poland had the smallest tax wedge for above-average wages. Due to a progressive PIT system, the tax wedge for a single worker in Croatia reaches 50% at 400% of the average gross wage, equalling that of Austria, Greece and Hungary. Tax wedges for couples with two children show a similar trend.

  6. Austria's Energy Perspectives - It's the Demand Side, Stupid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechner, H.

    2009-01-01

    During the last decade Austria made remarkable progress in developing renewable energy sources. But at the same time energy demand has steadily increased so that the share of renewables in the energy mix has remained more or less stable over the years. Rising energy demand and import dependence is also forecast in a business-as-usual scenario for the future. If Austria is to fulfill the EU obligatory target to increase the share of renewables up to 34% in 2020 (recently 25%) and to move on a sustainable, low-carbon track it will have to decrease energy consumption or at least stabilise it at the level of 2005. This requires considerable efforts to boost energy efficiency, especially in the building and transport sector.(author).

  7. State of the environment in Austria. Volume 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This report was presented by the Federal Minister of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management to the Austrian Parliament and covers the observation period 1997-2000. It was written by experts and is divided into 20 main chapters: population and growth of built - up area, emission and air quality, global climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion, water, soil, forest, nature protection, agriculture, transport, industries, eco-audit according to the EMAS regulation of the EU, waste, contaminated sites, energy consumption, noise, safe handling of chemicals, pesticides and other biocidal products, gene technology and radioecology. This environmental report gives a comprehensive information about the environment situation of Austria with a huge amount of geographical and numerical data. Due to the progress achieved in the last years in areas such as air pollution control and water protection, Austria has become one of the leading nations in the subject at international level. Those chapters which are in the INIS subject scope were treated individually. (nevyjel)

  8. Development and Current Practice in Using R at Statistics Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Templ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of R is increasing in national statistical offices not only for simulation tasks. Nowadays R is also used in the production process. A lot of new features for various tasks in official statistics have been developed over the last years and these features are freely available in the form of add-on package. In this contribution we first give an outline of the use of R at Statistics Austria. Discussed is the necessary infrastructure according to the R-installation, the teaching of employees and the support provided to the staff who use R in their daily work. In the second part, the R developments from the methods unit at Statistics Austria are summarised. The developed packages include methods for data pre-processing (e.g imputation up to packages for the final dissemination of data including packages for statistical disclosure control, estimation of indicators and the visualisation of results.

  9. Texts of the Agency's agreements with the Republic of Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the exchange of Notes, dated 6 July 1995 and 29 September 1995 respectively, between the IAEA and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Austria regarding Section 4(b) of the Headquarters Agreement which allows the IAEA 'to establish and operate such additional radio and other telecommunications facilities as may be specified by supplemental agreement...'. This further supplemental agreement entered into force on 29 September 1995

  10. [Quality Indicators of Primary Health Care Facilities in Austria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semlitsch, Thomas; Abuzahra, Muna; Stigler, Florian; Jeitler, Klaus; Posch, Nicole; Siebenhofer, Andrea

    2017-07-11

    Background The strengthening of primary health care is one major goal of the current national health reform in Austria. In this context, a new interdisciplinary concept was developed in 2014 that defines structures and requirements for future primary health care facilities. Objective The aim of this project was the development of quality indicators for the evaluation of the scheduled primary health care facilities in Austria, which are in accordance with the new Austrian concept. Methods We used the RAND/NPCRDC method for the development and selection of the quality indicators. We conducted systematic literature searches for existing measures in international databases for quality indicators as well as in bibliographic databases. All retrieved measures were evaluated and rated by an expert panel in a 2-step process regarding relevance and feasibility. Results Overall, the literature searches yielded 281 potentially relevant quality indicators, which were summarized to 65 different quality measures for primary health care. Out of these, the panel rated and accepted 30 measures as relevant and feasible for use in Austria. Five of these indicators were structure measures, 14 were process measures and the remaining 11 were outcome measures. Based on the Austrian primary health care concept, the final set of quality indicators was grouped in the 5 following domains: Access to primary health care (5), quality of care (15), continuity of care (5), coordination of care (4), and safety (1). Conclusion This set of quality measures largely covers the four defined functions of primary health care. It enables standardized evaluation of primary health care facilities in Austria regarding the implementation of the Austrian primary health care concept as well as improvement in healthcare of the population. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. E-branding of rural tourism in Carinthia, Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Kavoura, Androniki; Bitsani, Evgenia

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to create an e-branding model which could also be applied for place branding in small central rural regions of Central Europe based on the innovative methodology of rural tour marketing. It was based and went beyond the European program of transnational cooperation, INTERREG IIIB CADSES. The region of Carinthia, Austria was set as a case study for the application of interrelating scientific theories of marketing, place branding and place identity in relation to and in...

  12. Evaluation of swallowing disorders with videofluoroscopy in Austria: a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhuber, Edith; Schima, Wolfgang; Stadler, Alfred; Schober, Ewald; Schibany, Nadja; Denk, Doris-Maria

    2005-01-01

    Aim: The aim of our study was to assess the availability of videofluoroscopy to examine patients with swallowing disorders in Austria. Materials and methods: A questionnaire was sent to the department heads of the radiology departments of all hospitals (n=143) and to all non-hospital-based radiologic practices (n=226) throughout Austria. The survey focused on the availability of videofluoroscopic swallowing studies and on the studies performed in patients with deglutition disorders. Results: The questionnaire was completed and returned by 134 of 143 radiology departments (94%) and 65 of 226 non-hospital-based radiologists (29%). Videofluoroscopic swallowing studies were performed in 38 of 134 radiology departments (28%) and in 21 of 65 practices (32%). The method is available in all nine Austrian states (100%) and 27 of 99 districts (27%). The number of examinations performed in different states ranged from 0.7 to 19 studies/10,000 population per year. The number of videofluoroscopic examinations per department or practice in the year 2001 ranged between 5 and 690 (median, 100 examinations). To 85% of videofluoroscopy units patients were referred from otorhinolaryngology/phoniatrics-logopedics, to 69% of videofluoroscopy units referrals were also from internal medicine, from neurology in 54%, and from pediatrics in 20%. Conclusion: Despite the widespread availability of videofluoroscopy throughout Austria, its use still varies largely between different states. The data show that in general there is a wide-spread demand for videofluoroscopic swallowing studies

  13. Development and problems of pellet markets in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemestothy, K.P.; Rakos, C.

    2001-01-01

    Wood pellets became into Austrian markets in 1994. Up to then the Austrian industry had manufactured pellet fireplaces for export, but none was sold into Austria, because there were not pellets available in the Austrian markets. In spite of significant problems in the beginning and unfavourable economic conditions (decrease of oil prices) the pellet markets in Austria have increased since 1996 dynamically. Annual pellet deliveries have increased from 15 000 t/a to present 45 000 t/a. Customers and Austrian industry are interested in pellets and they believe in the future. The pellet manufacturing capacity increases continuously. In 1999 the capacity of 12 companies was 120 000 t. In 2003 the annual pellet consumption is estimated to over 100 000 tons and in 2010 about 200 000 tons. Main portion of the pellet manufactures in Austria is also used in the country by detached houses and small real estate houses. The pellet markets for large real estates are developing after the boiler manufacturers have started to produce pellet-fired equipment. The number of pellet-fired devices in 1997, sold to detached houses was 425, and in 2000 the number was 3500

  14. Representations of eyeglasses on Gothic winged altars in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daxecker, F

    1997-01-01

    The oldest representation of eyeglasses in the German-speaking area is found on the altar of Tyrol Castle in the Museum Ferdinandeum in Innsbruck, Tyrol, on an altarpiece depicting the death of the Virgin Mary (1370-1372). Other representations of eyeglasses are found in Klosterneuburg, Lower Austria, Albrechtsaltar, collegiate collection, death of the Virgin (1439); St. Lorenzen ob Murau, daughter church St. Lorenzen, Styria, Katharinenaltar, Disputation (1455-1460); Pettau (Ptuj), Pokrajinjski Muzej, Slovenia (then belonging to the archbishopric of Salzburg), Conrad Laib, St. Bernardine of Siena with a spectacle case (1460-1465); on two altars by Michael Pacher: Pharisee, Gries near Bolzano (1471-1475), apostle mourning over the death of the Virgin Mary, and St. Luke, St. Wolfgang in Salzkammergut (1481); St. Florian, Upper Austria, collegiate collection, altar of the provost Leonhard Riesenschmid of St. Florian, death of the Virgin (1487); museum of Wilten monastery, Innsbruck, Ludwig Konraiter, St. Ottilie with reading stones and death of the Virgin Mary with reading apostle (1485-1490); Austrian Gallery Belvedere, Vienna, Master of Grossgmain, St. Augustine (1498); Austrian Gallery Belvedere, Vienna, Master of Mondsee, St. Augustine (1490-1500); Diocesan museum Graz, Styria, altar of Hirschegg, death of the Virgin (1503); Krenstetten, Lower Austria, Stefan-Altar, Disputation (1500-1520); Museum Ferdinandeum, Innsbruck, Matheis Stöberl, Jesus and the scribes with a spectacle case (early 16th century).

  15. Efficiency, ownership, and financing of hospitals: the case of Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czypionka, Thomas; Kraus, Markus; Mayer, Susanne; Röhrling, Gerald

    2014-12-01

    While standard economic theory posits that privately owned hospitals are more efficient than their public counterparts, no clear conclusion can yet be drawn for Austria in this regard. As previous Austrian efficiency studies rely on data from the 1990s only and are based on small hospital samples, the generalizability of these results is questionable. To examine the impact of ownership type on efficiency, we apply a Data Envelopment Analysis which extends the existing literature in two respects: first, it evaluates the efficiency of the Austrian acute care sector, using data on 128 public and private non-profit hospitals from the year 2010; second, it additionally focusses on the inpatient sector alone, thus increasing the comparability between hospitals. Overall, the results show that in Austria, private non-profit hospitals outperform public hospitals in terms of technical efficiency. A multiple regression analysis confirms the significant association between efficiency and ownership type. This conclusive result contrasts some international evidence and can most likely be attributed to differences in financial incentives for public and private non-profit hospitals in Austria. Therefore, by drawing on the example of the Austrian acute care hospital sector and existing literature on the German acute care hospital sector, we also discuss the impact of hospital financing systems and their incentives on efficiency. This paper thus also aims at providing a proof of principle, pointing out the importance of the respective market conditions when internationally comparing hospital efficiency by ownership type.

  16. Endemic harvestmen and spiders of Austria (Arachnida: Opiliones, Araneae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komposch, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive overview of plant, fungus and animal species of Austria revealed a total of 748 endemic and subendemic species, including, 11 harvestman and 46 spider species. Altogether two endemic harvestmen (Nemastoma bidentatum relictum, Nemastoma schuelleri and 8 endemic spiders (Abacoproeces molestus, Collinsia (caliginosa nemenziana, Mughiphantes severus, Mughiphantes styriacus, Pelecopsis alpica, Scotophaeus nanus, Troglohyphantes novicordis, Troglohyphantes tauriscus, beside 9 subendemic harvestman and 38 subendemic spider species have been recorded from Austria. Hot-spots of endemism in the Eastern Alps are the north-eastern (Ennstaler Alps and southern Calcareous Alps (Karawanken, Karnische Alps and the Central Alps (Hohe Tauern, Gurktaler Alps, Ötztaler and Stubaier Alps. Most of the endemic arachnid species occur from the nival down to the montane zone. Important habitats are rocky areas, caves and woodlands. High absolute numbers and percentages of endemics can be found within the harvestman families Cladonychiidae, Ischyropsalididae and Nemastomatidae and in the spider genera Lepthyphantes s. l. and Troglohyphantes. The conservation status of these highly endangered taxa – 85 % of the spider species and 100 % of the harvestman taxa are endangered in Austria – is poor.

  17. Research on the exploration and use of geothermal energy in Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    The current status of geothermal exploration and utilization in Austria is reviewed. Geological characteristics of geothermal fields are discussed in general, as are exploration techniques including geological surveys, geophysical surveys, remote sensing, geochemical surveys, and test drilling. The geology of Austria is described in detail, and the economic and legal problems peculiar to Austria are discussed. Certain regions may be suitable for geothermal exploitation including the Vienna basin. Research and economic recommendations are made. Three figures one table, and thirty references are provided.

  18. NORM and radon in Austria. Status and strategy; Norm und Radon in Oesterreich. Status und Strategie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maringer, F.J. [Bundesamt fuer Eich- und Vermessungswesen, Wien (Austria)

    2013-07-01

    The author reviews the actual radiation protection practice in Austria for NORM and radon, including possible strategies and developments. Specific topics are radiation protection technologies, metrological resources for NORM in Austria, civil engineering standards (OeNORM) for radon measurement, radon prevention for new buildings and radon cleansing for existing buildings, future assessment and legal regulation of radioactivity in construction materials. The strategic development in Austria considers the current European standard projects (EU standards) and European and international research programs.

  19. West Nile virus lineage 2 infection in a blood donor from Vienna, Austria, August 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbauer, C; Hourfar, M K; Stiasny, K; Aberle, S W; Cadar, D; Schmidt-Chanasit, J; Mayr, W R

    2015-03-01

    Eastern Austria is neighbouring regions with ongoing West Nile virus (WNV) transmissions. Three human WNV infections had been diagnosed during the past decade in Austria. The Austrian Red Cross Blood Service (ARC-BS) started a first voluntary screening for WNV in blood donors from Eastern Austria by Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) in June 2014. This is also the most extensive WNV surveillance programme in humans in Austria so far. In August 2014, one autochthonous WNV infection was detected in a blood donor from Vienna. By now, one in 67,800 whole blood donations was found to be positive for WNV RNA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Validation of MODIS snow cover images over Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Parajka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS snow cover product over the territory of Austria. The aims are (a to analyse the spatial and temporal variability of the MODIS snow product classes, (b to examine the accuracy of the MODIS snow product against in situ snow depth data, and (c to identify the main factors that may influence the MODIS classification accuracy. We use daily MODIS grid maps (version 4 and daily snow depth measurements at 754 climate stations in the period from February 2000 to December 2005. The results indicate that, on average, clouds obscured 63% of Austria, which may significantly restrict the applicability of the MODIS snow cover images to hydrological modelling. On cloud-free days, however, the classification accuracy is very good with an average of 95%. There is no consistent relationship between the classification errors and dominant land cover type and local topographical variability but there are clear seasonal patterns to the errors. In December and January the errors are around 15% while in summer they are less than 1%. This seasonal pattern is related to the overall percentage of snow cover in Austria, although in spring, when there is a well developed snow pack, errors tend to be smaller than they are in early winter for the same overall percent snow cover. Overestimation and underestimation errors balance during most of the year which indicates little bias. In November and December, however, there appears to exist a tendency for overestimation. Part of the errors may be related to the temporal shift between the in situ snow depth measurements (07:00 a.m. and the MODIS acquisition time (early afternoon. The comparison of daily air temperature maps with MODIS snow cover images indicates that almost all MODIS overestimation errors are caused by the misclassification of cirrus clouds as snow.

  1. Energy policies of IEA countries: Austria - 2007 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-15

    Since the last review in 2002, Austrian energy policy has seen many positive developments. Today, Austria counts among the IEA member countries with the highest share of renewable energy supply, thus increasing energy security and reducing CO2 emissions. Great progress has also been made in the utilisation of biomass for heat and electricity production. Nevertheless, many challenges remain. The climate strategy revision in 2007 is commendably realistic, but uncertainty remains whether it will be sufficient, and whether renewables and energy efficiency are well-balanced within it. While Austria is strongly promoting an increase of renewables production by adopting challenging targets, it is less ambitious in the area of energy efficiency. To achieve the renewables target, their supply will have to double, leading to significant increases in costs. In energy efficiency, while Austria is leading in developing efficient building solutions, there are concerns about implementation, especially about the lack of ambition and divergence in building codes. Overall, energy intensity has increased in recent years, and the government will have to put a strong focus on reversing this development. Despite the early opening of the energy markets, effective competition has failed to emerge. This is partially due to systemic weaknesses such as dominant incumbents, lack of transparency in price formulation and a weak regulatory system with the potential for conflicts of interest. This review thoroughly analyses Austrian energy policy and identifies the key challenges that need to be addressed. With recommendations for improvements, it is an important guide for Austrian policy makers toward a safer and cleaner energy future.

  2. Multiple infections of rodents with zoonotic pathogens in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Sabrina; Essbauer, Sandra S; Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Poppert, Sven; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Klempa, Boris; Henning, Klaus; Schares, Gereon; Groschup, Martin H; Spitzenberger, Friederike; Richter, Dania; Heckel, Gerald; Ulrich, Rainer G

    2014-07-01

    Rodents are important reservoirs for a large number of zoonotic pathogens. We examined the occurrence of 11 viral, bacterial, and parasitic agents in rodent populations in Austria, including three different hantaviruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, orthopox virus, Leptospira spp., Borrelia spp., Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp., Coxiella burnetii, and Toxoplasma gondii. In 2008, 110 rodents of four species (40 Clethrionomys glareolus, 29 Apodemus flavicollis, 26 Apodemus sylvaticus, and 15 Microtus arvalis) were trapped at two rural sites in Lower Austria. Chest cavity fluid and samples of lung, spleen, kidney, liver, brain, and ear pinna skin were collected. We screened selected tissue samples for hantaviruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, orthopox viruses, Leptospira, Borrelia, Rickettsia, Bartonella spp., C. burnetii, and T. gondii by RT-PCR/PCR and detected nucleic acids of Tula hantavirus, Leptospira spp., Borrelia afzelii, Rickettsia spp., and different Bartonella species. Serological investigations were performed for hantaviruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, orthopox viruses, and Rickettsia spp. Here, Dobrava-Belgrade hantavirus-, Tula hantavirus-, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-, orthopox virus-, and rickettsia-specific antibodies were demonstrated. Puumala hantavirus, C. burnetii, and T. gondii were neither detected by RT-PCR/PCR nor by serological methods. In addition, multiple infections with up to three pathogens were shown in nine animals of three rodent species from different trapping sites. In conclusion, these results show that rodents in Austria may host multiple zoonotic pathogens. Our observation raises important questions regarding the interactions of different pathogens in the host, the countermeasures of the host's immune system, the impact of the host-pathogen interaction on the fitness of the host, and the spread of infectious agents among wild rodents and from those to other animals or humans.

  3. Liberalization of the electricity market. A success story in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boltz, W.

    2002-01-01

    With effect from October 1,2001, every electricity consumer in Austria - from industrial consumer to private household - is now free to choose his own electricity supplier. Prior to this date only industrial consumers were able to benefit from the liberalization of the market initiated in the year 1999. Freedom of choice means increased competition between the various suppliers. Electricity consumers are the winners in the liberalization process, benefiting not only from lower prices, but in particular from greater customer care, various add-on offers and special additional facilities. All the signs are that the liberalization of the Austrian electricity market will continue to be a positive development in the future. (author)

  4. Uncertainty contributions to low flow projections in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parajka, J.; Blaschke, A. P.; Blöschl, G.; Haslinger, K.; Hepp, G.; Laaha, G.; Schöner, W.; Trautvetter, H.; Viglione, A.; Zessner, M.

    2015-11-01

    The main objective of the paper is to understand the contributions to the uncertainty in low flow projections resulting from hydrological model uncertainty and climate projection uncertainty. Model uncertainty is quantified by different parameterizations of a conceptual semi-distributed hydrologic model (TUWmodel) using 11 objective functions in three different decades (1976-1986, 1987-1997, 1998-2008), which allows disentangling the effect of modeling uncertainty and temporal stability of model parameters. Climate projection uncertainty is quantified by four future climate scenarios (ECHAM5-A1B, A2, B1 and HADCM3-A1B) using a delta change approach. The approach is tested for 262 basins in Austria. The results indicate that the seasonality of the low flow regime is an important factor affecting the performance of model calibration in the reference period and the uncertainty of Q95 low flow projections in the future period. In Austria, the calibration uncertainty in terms of Q95 is larger in basins with summer low flow regime than in basins with winter low flow regime. Using different calibration periods may result in a range of up to 60 % in simulated Q95 low flows. The low flow projections show an increase of low flows in the Alps, typically in the range of 10-30 % and a decrease in the south-eastern part of Austria mostly in the range -5 to -20 % for the period 2021-2050 relative the reference period 1976-2008. The change in seasonality varies between scenarios, but there is a tendency for earlier low flows in the Northern Alps and later low flows in Eastern Austria. In 85 % of the basins, the uncertainty in Q95 from model calibration is larger than the uncertainty from different climate scenarios. The total uncertainty of Q95 projections is the largest in basins with winter low flow regime and, in some basins, exceeds 60 %. In basins with summer low flows and the total uncertainty is mostly less than 20 %. While the calibration uncertainty dominates over climate

  5. A survey of radioactivity in drinking water in Upper Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, V.; Maringer, F.J.; Maringer, F.J.; Kaineder, H.; Sperker, S.; Brettner-Messler, R.

    2006-01-01

    The University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Science Vienna, in co-operation with the environmental department of the government of Upper Austria, realizes a 3 year program (2004-2006) to investigate the radioactivity in drinking water in Upper Austria. The superior purpose of the project is to protect the population from radiation exposure by drinking water. Therefore the measurements should yield basic data for further processing (guidelines, regulations [O.N. S.5251]) and their realisation (precaution, mitigation). To get an overview of the situation water samples are taken from water supplies and consumers houses(population radiation exposure) as well as directly from springs and fountains to obtain hydrogeological-radiological basic data. The first 230 water samples (to get a general idea, distributed among the area of Upper Austria) are analyzed for different radionuclides (Rn-222, Ra-226, H-3, U-238) and alpha-beta total activity concentration by liquid scintillation technologies. On the basis of these results more samples are taken in regions with elevated activity concentrations and besides in regions of particular geological interest (e.g. Bohemian Massif granite rocks; along geological disturbances; in regions with elevated Uranium and Thorium-values in the rocks). These samples are analyzed for Radon on-site by a mobile liquid scintillation instrument (Triathler, by Hidex) and additionally in the laboratory for Ra-228, Po-210, Pb-210. So far, 145 samples have been taken in this way in about 23 communities. First results indicate that the Radon activity concentrations in some springs and fountains range to 1000 Bq/l, but after preparation of the water in the supplies the activity concentrations are usually much lower. To determine this behaviour (e.g. for different preparation facilities), samples are taken at several places within the run of the water from the spring to the consumer. Besides special attention is given to U-238, because little

  6. K-pop Reception and Participatory Fan Culture in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Sang-Yeon Sung

    2013-01-01

    K-pop’s popularity and its participatory fan culture have expanded beyond Asia and become significant in Europe in the past few years. After South Korean pop singer Psy’s “Gangnam Style” music video topped the Austrian chart in October 2012, the number and size of K-pop events in Austria sharply increased, with fans organizing various participatory events, including K-pop auditions, dance festivals, club meetings, quiz competitions, dance workshops, and smaller fan-culture gatherings. In the ...

  7. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    The Federal Republic of Austria is situated in the southeastern part of Central Europe. The country covers a total area of 83.350 square kilometers, the population amounts to 7.5 million inhabitants. The geographical features of Austria are dominated by the E-W-trending chain of the Alps (approximately 60% of the country). The northeastern part of the country is formed by the nonalpine mountains and hills of the Bohemian Massif. There are a large depression, the basin of Vienna, as well as parts of the Pannonian basin in the eastern part. The main hydrographic features are characterized by the river Danube and its tributaries. With the exception of a small part in the west of the country, the drainage system of which is directed to the river Rhine, all other rivers are drained by the Danube. The elevations in the Alps reach heights of up to 3 800 m. Many of the E-W striking mountain chains are higher than 2000 to 2500 m. Several major N-S trending passes over the mountains are favourable for the transportation systems (railroads, motorroads) - The kind of land use in Austria is mainly determined by the character of the landscape which is made up of mountains and valleys as well as of depressions in the eastern part of the country. In the lowlands, good farmland is available. At lower and at medium elevations, forests and grassland predominate in the Alps. At higher elevations, the Alps are covered with grasslands; a great part of the rocks has no soil cover, another part is covered by perennial snow and ice.The presence of many uranium occurrences in the Permo-Triassic sediments justifies a detailed survey of these strata. Special studies on the lithology and the formation of uranium in these rocks have been made during the last few years. They should be evaluated to point out new favourable prospective areas. The potential of Uranium which is assumed to be found in Austria is 10,000 - 50,000 t U

  8. Composition ranges and exsolution pairs for the members of the bismuthinite-aikinite series from Felbertal, Austria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topa, Dan; Makovicky, Emil; Paar, Werner H.

    2002-01-01

    geology, bismuthinite-aikinite derivatives, composition ranges, exsolution, replacement, miscibility gaps, scheelite deposit, Felbertal, Austria......geology, bismuthinite-aikinite derivatives, composition ranges, exsolution, replacement, miscibility gaps, scheelite deposit, Felbertal, Austria...

  9. The potential of geological storage of CO2 in Austria: a techno-economic assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brüstle, Anna Katharina; Welkenhuysen, Kris; Bottig, Magdalena; Piessens, Kris; Ramirez, Andrea; Swenner, Rudy

    An impressive two-third or about 40GWh/y of electricity in Austria is produced from renewable energy sources, in particular hydro energy. For the remaining part the country depends on fossil fuels, which together with iron & steel production form the most CO2 intensive industries in Austria with a

  10. Chances with self made collectors in Slovakia. Self-construction movement in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benesch, B.; Huschner, J.

    2005-01-01

    Author presented self-construction movement in Austria together with practical experiences presented by Josef Huschner from Pyhra Solar organisation. As mentioned movement has long tradition in Austria and brought valuable input for next sector of solar energy utilisation development, Austrian partners started discussion about possibilities of initiate similar movement in Slovakia

  11. The Texts of the Agency's Headquarters Agreement with Austria and Related Agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The texts of six agreements concluded between the Agency and the Republic of Austria as a result of the location of the Agency's headquarters in Austria, which were in force on 31 October 1975, are reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  12. National Testing of Pupils in Europe: Objectives, Organisation and Use of Results. Austria 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eurydice, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In contrast to many other European countries, national testing is a relatively new phenomenon in Austria's education system. Educational standards tests, aimed at providing a basis for monitoring and evaluating schools and the education system, were created in addition to the traditional system of continuous assessment. In Austria, pupils at ISCED…

  13. 77 FR 34997 - Xanthan Gum From Austria and China; Institution of Antidumping Duty Investigations and Scheduling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 731-TA-1202-1203 (Preliminary)] Xanthan Gum From Austria and China; Institution of Antidumping Duty Investigations and Scheduling of Preliminary... industry in the United States is materially retarded, by reason of imports from Austria and/or China of...

  14. Austria against Euratom? Or when to open a Pandora’s box

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tauschinsky, E.

    2015-01-01

    On July 6, Austria has gone to Court over EU funding for a nuclear power plant in Britain. According to the Austrian public media, Austria argues that nuclear power is a bad policy choice, inherently unsafe and not future-worthy. The case argued before the Court will likely be more about competition

  15. Holocaust Education in Austria: A (Hi)story of Complexity and Ambivalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastel, Heribert; Matzka, Christian; Miklas, Helene

    2010-01-01

    In Austria, activities for teaching about and remembering the Holocaust have concentrated mainly on National Socialism and its atrocities. Austria's history of political anti-Semitism goes back to the 19th century, however, and has been widely and publicly acknowledged. It has always been linked to nationalistic tendencies that are still present…

  16. The threat to Austria from Czechoslovakian nuclear power plants not yet headed off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tollmann, A.

    1990-01-01

    The author is dissapointed that the recent political changes in the neighbouring Czechoslovakia did not result in a construction stop of Temelin. The Czechoslovakian nuclear lobby fought back. With one exception all members of the present Czechoslovakian government are nuclear proponents. The way to success will be stonier than in Austria because in Czechoslovakia - in contrast to Austria - the public is unenlightened

  17. Outbreak of leptospirosis among triathlon participants in Langau, Austria, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radl, Christoph; Müller, Maria; Revilla-Fernandez, Sandra; Karner-Zuser, Stefanie; de Martin, Alfred; Schauer, Ulrike; Karner, Franz; Stanek, Gerold; Balcke, Peter; Hallas, Andreas; Frank, Herbert; Fürnschlief, Albert; Erhart, Friedrich; Allerberger, Franz

    2011-12-01

    We report on the first documented outbreak of leptospirosis in Austria. In July 2010, four cases of serologically confirmed leptospirosis occurred in athletes after a triathlon held in Langau. Heavy rains preceded the triathlon (rainfall: 22 mm). The index case (Patient A) was a 41-year-old previously healthy male, who was admitted to hospital A on July 8 with a four-day history of fever up to 40°C that began 14 days after attending the triathlon event. On July 7, patient B, a 42-year-old male, was admitted to the same hospital, with signs and symptoms of kidney failure. Hemodialysis was performed every other day for 3 weeks. While the serum drawn on the day of admission was negative for antibodies against Leptospira, a specimen from July 28 tested positive with Leptospira interrogans. On July 11, patient C, a 40-year-old male, was admitted to hospital B for nephritis. On July 14, patient D, a 44-year-old male, was admitted to hospital C with a ten days history of intermittent fever, mild dry cough and headache. Our report underlines that in Austria recreational users of bodies of freshwater must be aware of an existing risk of contracting leptospirosis, particularly after heavy rains. The suppressive influence of a triathlon on the immune system is well documented and therefore an outbreak in this population group can be seen as a sensitive indicator concerning possible risk for the general population.

  18. Multiresistant Bacteria Isolated from Activated Sludge in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Galler

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater contains different kinds of contaminants, including antibiotics and bacterial isolates with human-generated antibiotic resistances. In industrialized countries most of the wastewater is processed in wastewater treatment plants which do not only include commercial wastewater, but also wastewater from hospitals. Three multiresistant pathogens—extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL-harbouring Enterobacteriaceae (Gram negative bacilli, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and vancomycin resistant Enterococci (VRE—were chosen for screening in a state of the art wastewater treatment plant in Austria. Over an investigation period of six months all three multiresistant pathogens could be isolated from activated sludge. ESBL was the most common resistance mechanism, which was found in different species of Enterobacteriaceae, and in one Aeromonas spp. Sequencing of ESBL genes revealed the dominance of genes encoding members of CTX-M β-lactamases family and a gene encoding for PER-1 ESBL was detected for the first time in Austria. MRSA and VRE could be isolated sporadically, including one EMRSA-15 isolate. Whereas ESBL is well documented as a surface water contaminant, reports of MRSA and VRE are rare. The results of this study show that these three multiresistant phenotypes were present in activated sludge, as well as species and genes which were not reported before in the region. The ESBL-harbouring Gram negative bacilli were most common.

  19. Environmental situation in Austria. Sixth environmental control report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deweis, M.; Kaitna, M.

    2001-01-01

    This sixth environmental control report gives an overall picture of the situation of the environment in Austria for the period from 1997 to 2000. It emphasizes the areas of the Austrian environmental policy where significant improvements were achieved, such as the reduction of air pollutant emissions and the improvement of the quality of running waters. It also deals with problem areas such as transport, climate protection and renewable energy, where new solutions will have to be found within the framework of the Austrian and European environmental policies and already agreed upon strategies will have to be translated into daily practice. This environmental control report was written by experts of the Federal Environment Agency, which is an agency subordinate to the Federal Ministry for Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management, and which acquired independent status in the form of a limited company. The report gives comprehensive information on all aspects of environmental monitoring in Austria, with a huge amount of numerical, geographical and evaluated data. The report is structured by the following chapters: population and land use; air; global climate change; stratospheric ozone degradation; water; soil; forests; environmental protection; agriculture; traffic; industry; economic audit; waste; contaminated sites; energy; noise; secure handling of chemicals; plant-protective agents; gene technology; radioecology. Those chapters which are in the INIS subject scope, dealing with radioecology and ecological aspects of nuclear and non-nuclear energy are treated individually on analytical level for the INIS database. (a.n.)

  20. Subversive Status: Disability Studies in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Pfahl

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available What activities facilitate the development of disability studies (DS? What barriers hinder its (multidisciplinary flourishing? We address these questions focusing on contemporary DS in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland—vibrant but challenging locales for DS. This multidisciplinary field engages intellectuals, activists, and stakeholders to subversively cross disciplinary, institutional, and political divides. Critical DS scholarship relies on collaboration among members of the disability (rights movement, advocates, and academics to develop its subversive status. Within the academy, despite general barriers to transdisciplinary fields of study and persistent disability discrimination, more positions have been devoted to research and teaching in DS. Intersectionality debates thrive and further disciplines discover the richness that the complex subject of dis/ability offers. The field, recognizing its subversive status and engaging insights from DS worldwide—across language and disciplinary boundaries—could better focus and unfold its critical powers. The potential of DS in the German-speaking countries continues to grow, with diverse conferences, teaching, and publications bolstering the exchange of ideas. Keywords: disability studies, disciplines, discourse, social inequality, Germany, Austria, Switzerland

  1. Climate Change Impacts on Flooding in Southeastern Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switanek, Matt; Truhetz, Heimo; Reszler, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Floods in southeastern Austria can cause significant damage to life, property and infrastructure. These flood events are often the result of extreme precipitation from small-scale convective storms. In order to more accurately model the changes to flood magnitude and frequency, Regional Climate Models (RCMs) must be able to simulate small-scale convective storms similar to those that have been observed. Even as computational resources have increased, RCMs are just now achieving the high spatial and temporal scales necessary to physically resolve the processes that govern small-scale convection. With increased resolution, RCMs can rely on their internal physics to model convective precipitation and need not depend on parameterization. This study uses historical and future scenarios of Regional Climate Models (RCMs) run at a spatial scale of 3 km and temporal scale of 1 hr. In order to subsequently force a hydrological flood model, the sub-daily precipitation and temperature data from the RCMs are first bias corrected. A newly proposed bias correction method is presented and compared to the commonly used quantile mapping. The proposed bias correction method performs better in its ability to preserve the model projected climate change signal (measured by changes in mean and variance). Lastly, the changes in the quantity and frequency of projected extreme precipitation, at the watershed level, are analyzed with respect to the historic time period. With these improvements in dynamical modeling and bias correction methods, a clearer picture emerges revealing the more likely impacts climate change will have on floods in southeastern Austria.

  2. Economic growth and the incidence of occupational injuries in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Alfred; Winker, Robert; Ponocny-Seliger, Elisabeth; Sögner, Leopold

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to analyze the impact of economic growth measured by real gross domestic product (GDP) on the incidence of occupational injuries in Austria. The relationship between GDP and the occupational injury rate of the wage-earning population between 1955 and 2004 was analyzed using an error correction model. The sample size increased from 1.568,371 persons in 1955 to 2.656,952 in 2004. Occupational injuries were divided into fatal and non-fatal injuries. Occupational injuries (fatal and non-fatal) decreased from 8.59% to 4.08%: non-fatal injuries decreased from 8.56% to 4.07%; fatal injuries decreased from 0.03% to 0.01%. Austrian GDP increased from EUR 37.7 billion to EUR 202.8 billion (base year 1995). Statistical analysis clearly shows that a growing economy is associated with declining injury rates (fatal and non-fatal). Two mechanisms are discussed. Firstly, rising GDP is accompanied by greater investment in safer technologies and occupational safety measures. Secondly, booming economies are associated with a reduced risk of unemployment, which is already known to be a risk factor for occupational injuries. Economic development appears to have an impact on the incidence of occupational injuries in Austria. Health policy should emphasize the necessity for safety at work particularly in phases of economic slowdown.

  3. In-situ gammaspectrometry intercomparison exercise in Salzburg/Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steger, F.; Lovranich, E.; Lettner, H.; Andrasi, A.

    1996-01-01

    In-situ gamma-spectrometry has become a useful method of assessing the nuclide concentrations of man-made and natural gamma-emitters in the soil. For the quality assurance of the measurements, periodically conducted intercomparison exercises are essential. Therefore exercises were organized in different European countries since 1990, the last one was conducted in Salzburg /Austria in September 1994. The participation of 24 measurement-teams from all over Europe emphasizes the importance of the intercomparison. Salzburg was selected because the Province of Salzburg /Austria was among the most heavily contaminated regions outside the former USSR by the Chernobyl fallout. Two different typical sites were selected for the measurements: Site 1 was inside the urban area of Salzburg on intensively used grassland which had not been tilled since the deposition of the fallout. This site is representative for intensively used agricultural regions in the Province of Salzburg. Site 2 was in the mountainous regions of the Hohe Tauern at an elevated altitude of 1600 m, representing the agricultural soil- and contamination conditions of the Alpine regions in the Tauern. The two sites differ significantly in terms of soil characteristics, a crucial parameter for the evaluation of in-situ gamma-spectra. The participants used different approaches for the evaluation of the gamma-spectra in terms of considering the depth distribution. In the paper the results from the 24 European teams are presented. (author)

  4. Multiresistant Bacteria Isolated from Activated Sludge in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feierl, Gebhard; Petternel, Christian; Reinthaler, Franz F.; Haas, Doris; Habib, Juliana; Kittinger, Clemens; Luxner, Josefa

    2018-01-01

    Wastewater contains different kinds of contaminants, including antibiotics and bacterial isolates with human-generated antibiotic resistances. In industrialized countries most of the wastewater is processed in wastewater treatment plants which do not only include commercial wastewater, but also wastewater from hospitals. Three multiresistant pathogens—extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-harbouring Enterobacteriaceae (Gram negative bacilli), methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin resistant Enterococci (VRE)—were chosen for screening in a state of the art wastewater treatment plant in Austria. Over an investigation period of six months all three multiresistant pathogens could be isolated from activated sludge. ESBL was the most common resistance mechanism, which was found in different species of Enterobacteriaceae, and in one Aeromonas spp. Sequencing of ESBL genes revealed the dominance of genes encoding members of CTX-M β-lactamases family and a gene encoding for PER-1 ESBL was detected for the first time in Austria. MRSA and VRE could be isolated sporadically, including one EMRSA-15 isolate. Whereas ESBL is well documented as a surface water contaminant, reports of MRSA and VRE are rare. The results of this study show that these three multiresistant phenotypes were present in activated sludge, as well as species and genes which were not reported before in the region. The ESBL-harbouring Gram negative bacilli were most common. PMID:29522474

  5. CAS Accelerators for Medical Applications in Vösendorf, Austria

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Accelerator School

    2015-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and MedAustron jointly organised a course on Accelerators for Medical Applications in Vösendorf, Austria between 26 May and 5 June 2015. The course was held at the Eventhotel Pyramide on the outskirts of Vienna, and was attended by 76 participants from 29 countries, coming from as far away as Canada, China, Lithuania, Thailand, Ukraine and Russia.       The intensive programme comprised 37 lectures. The emphasis was on using charged particle beams for cancer therapy and the programme began by covering the way in which particles interact with biological material, how this translates into the dose needed for treatment and how this dose is best delivered. The different accelerator options for providing the particles needed were then presented in some detail. The production of radioisotopes and how these are used for diagnostics and therapy was also covered, together with a look at novel acceleration techniques that may play a role i...

  6. The structure of crisis management and disaster control in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jachs, S.

    1999-01-01

    Disaster control in Austria is in principle a responsibility of the provinces and rests mainly upon volunteer relief and rescue organisations. The provinces have enacted comprehensive disaster relief acts which regulate the scope of action assigned to the individual relief and rescue organisations, identify the action management hierarchy and define performance requirement profiles. Municipalities, district and provincial authorities take part in disaster control and are responsible for the provision of adequate infrastructure and organisation. Since there is no full separation of competencies between the federal an the provincial level in the field of disaster control special responsibilities remain within the competence of the federal government. For the management of supraregional crises a federal crisis management was established in 1986. The most important tasks of this crisis management are to give advice to the federal government in a crisis situation, to co-ordinate all administrative measures for an emergency response an to give information to the public. (orig.) [de

  7. Food chain data customization for decision support systems in Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gert, Sdouz; Manfred, Pachole [ARC Seibersdorf research, Seibersdorf (Austria)

    2006-07-01

    In the case of a nuclear accident in Europe the integral decision support system R.O.D.O.S. ( real-time on-line decision support system for off-site emergency management) supplies comprehensive information on the present and future radiological situation, and the consequences of measures to protect the population. These data comprise mainly map information such as population distribution, rivers, roads, vegetation areas and production data of various food products. This work concentrates on the customization of the data for the food chain and dose module for terrestrial pathways. During the last fifteen years two different codes have been used in Austria for support during accidents with radioactive releases: O.E.C.O.S.Y.S. and R.O.D.O.S.. Adaptations and improvements have been performed to give better tools, they are detailed in this paper. (N.C.)

  8. Food chain data customization for decision support systems in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gert, Sdouz; Manfred, Pachole

    2006-01-01

    In the case of a nuclear accident in Europe the integral decision support system R.O.D.O.S. ( real-time on-line decision support system for off-site emergency management) supplies comprehensive information on the present and future radiological situation, and the consequences of measures to protect the population. These data comprise mainly map information such as population distribution, rivers, roads, vegetation areas and production data of various food products. This work concentrates on the customization of the data for the food chain and dose module for terrestrial pathways. During the last fifteen years two different codes have been used in Austria for support during accidents with radioactive releases: O.E.C.O.S.Y.S. and R.O.D.O.S.. Adaptations and improvements have been performed to give better tools, they are detailed in this paper. (N.C.)

  9. Bibliography on radioanalytical chemistry in Austria (1936-1979)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenfeld, T.; Vojir, F.; Hedrich, E.

    1980-09-01

    This bibliography on radioanalytical chemistry contains 1143 references to publications authored by scientists while affiliated to institutes and orgnizations located in Austria. The references are presented in three sections: General Section (890 references), Section: Activation Analysis (227 references), Section: Books and Major Reviews (26 references). Within each section, the references are grouped according to the year of publication and are arranged for each year in alphabetical order of the name of the (first) author. The authors institutional affiliations when preparing the publication are given. For the publications listed in the General Section the main subject (or subjects) are indicated, this classification being based on a list of 36 subjects. An author index is included. (auth.)

  10. Towards sustainable development in Austria. Renewable energy contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faninger, G.

    2003-01-01

    Besides energy conservation, the exploration of renewable energy sources, in particular biomass and solar energy, are central aspects of the Austrian energy policy, regarded as an optimal option for achieving CO2-emission reduction objectives. The market penetration of Renewable Energy Technologies in the last twenty years was supported by the Austrian Energy Research Programme. The result of successful developments of biomass heating, solar thermal, solar electrical and wind energy technologies is the key for the market development of these renewable energy technologies. With the market penetration of renewable energy technologies new business areas were established and employment created. Today, some renewable energy technologies in Austria have reached economic competitiveness. Some technologies not reached commercialisation, and need more development to improve efficiency, reliability and cost to become commercial. This would include material and system development, pilot plants or field experiments to clarify technical problems, and demonstration plants to illustrate performance capabilities and to clarify problems for commercialisation

  11. [The history of the institutionalization of medical psychology in Austria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirnsperger, Hans; Mundschütz, Reinhard; Sonneck, Gernot

    2011-01-01

    Beginning with Freudian psychoanalysis and the Zürich school of psychiatry, which in the early 20th century were the first to call for studies in medical psychology at universities, the article traces the path to the institutionalization of medical psychology in Austria especially in Vienna. Particular attention is devoted to the Academic Society for Medical Psychology (Akademischer Verein für Medizinische Psychologie) which held lectures and courses at the University of Vienna from 1926 to 1938. The Society can thus be viewed as a predecessor of the foundation of the institutes for medical psychology and psychotherapeutic clinics, starting in the late 1960s and continuing into the early 1980s.

  12. Tourism in Austria: biodiversity, environmental sustainability, and growth issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Muhammad Asad Saleem; Shah, Syed Asim; Zaman, Khalid

    2016-12-01

    This study examined the long-run and causal relationships between international tourism, biodiversity loss, environmental sustainability, and specific growth factors under the premises of sustainable tourism in Austria, by using a consistent time series data from 1975 to 2015. The results reveal that inbound tourism, per capita income, and population density affected the potential habitat area while population density largely affected the food production in a country. Inbound tourism and population density both deteriorate the environmental quality in a form of increasing carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions and fossil fuel energy consumption while per capita income reduces the fossil fuel energy consumption. Food exports increase per capita income, while food imports and population density both decrease economic growth. Inbound tourism and economic growth advance population density while forest area and food exports decrease the population density. The study supports growth-led tourism and growth-led food production in a country.

  13. eParticipation for Adolescent Citizens (in Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, Noella; Hoechtl, Johann; Parycek, Peter

    In Austria, two recent eParticipation projects focused on adolescent citizens. The first project, “mitmachen.at - move your future” was to provide initial experiences with an eParticipation tool. The second project, “Jugend2help”, applied the lessons learned from the “mitmachen.at” project to improve the Austrian public administration web portal for adolescent citizens. In both projects, the results indicate that web portals and eParticpation seems to suit the adolescents’ information and communication needs. Involving the users is central to the development of an eParticipation process or platform so that the users’ specific characteristics (age, skills), needs and interests are included appropriately. The target users’ characteristics are also important for developing a marketing strategy which is able to reach them. Other issues which must also be considered in eParticipation are accessibility, inclusion and possibly gender.

  14. Reactor instrumentation renewal of the TRIGA reactor Vienna, Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.; Weiss, H.; Hood, W.E.; Hyde, W.K.

    1992-01-01

    The TRIGA Mark-II reactor at the Atominstitut in Vienna, Austria is replacing its twenty-four year old instrumentation system with a microprocessor based control system supplied by General Atomics. Ageing components, new governmental safety requirements and a need for state of the art instrumentation for training students has spurred the demand for new reactor instrumentation. In Austria a government appointed expert is assigned the responsibility of reviewing the proposed installation and verifying all safety aspects. After a positive review, final assembly and checkout of the instrumentation system may commence. The instrumentation system consists of three basic modules: the control system console, the data acquisition console and the NH-1000 wide range channel. Digital communications greatly reduce interwiring requirements. Hardwired safety channels are independent of computer control, thus, the instrumentation system in no way relies on any computer intervention for safety function. In addition, both the CSC and DAC computers are continuously monitored for proper operation via watchdog circuits which are capable of shutting down the reactor in the event of computer malfunction. Safety channels include two interlocked NMP-1000 multi-range linear channels for steady state mode, an NPP-1000 linear safety channel for pulse mode and a set of three independent fuel temperature monitoring channels. The microprocessor controlled wide range NM- 1000 digital neutron monitor (fission chamber based) functions as a startup/operational channel, and provides all power level related Interlocks. The Atominstitut TRIGA reactor is configured for four modes of operation: manual mode, automatic mode (servo control), pulsing mode and square wave mode. Control of the standard control rods is via stepping motor control rod drives, which offers the operator the choice of which control rods are operated by the servo system in automatic and square wave model. (author)

  15. Alternative solutions for public and private catastrophe funding in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, M.

    2008-07-01

    The impacts of natural hazards as well as their frequency of occurrence during the last decades have increased decisively. Therefore, the public as well as the private sector are expected to react to this development by providing sufficient funds, in particular for the improvement of protection measures and an enhanced funding of damage compensation for affected private individuals, corporate and public entities. From the public stance, the establishment of an appropriate regulatory environment seems to be indispensable. Structural and legal changes should, on the one hand, renew and improve the current distribution system of public catastrophe funds as well as the profitable investment of these financial resources, and on the other hand, facilitate the application of alternative mechanisms provided by the capital and insurance markets. In particular, capital markets have developed alternative risk transfer and financing mechanisms, such as captive insurance companies, risk pooling, contingent capital solutions, multi-trigger products and insurance securitisation for hard insurance market phases. These instruments have already been applied to catastrophic (re-)insurance in other countries (mainly the US and off-shore domiciles), and may contribute positively to the insurability of extreme weather events in Austria by enhancing financial capacities. Not only private individuals and corporate entities may use alternative mechanisms in order to retain, thus, to finance certain risks, but also public institutions. This contribution aims at analysing potential solutions for an improved risk management of natural hazards in the private and the public sector by considering alternative mechanisms of the capital and insurance markets. Also the establishment of public-private-partnerships, which may contribute to a more efficient cat funding system in Austria, is considered.

  16. Alternative solutions for public and private catastrophe funding in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gruber

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of natural hazards as well as their frequency of occurrence during the last decades have increased decisively. Therefore, the public as well as the private sector are expected to react to this development by providing sufficient funds, in particular for the improvement of protection measures and an enhanced funding of damage compensation for affected private individuals, corporate and public entities.

    From the public stance, the establishment of an appropriate regulatory environment seems to be indispensable. Structural and legal changes should, on the one hand, renew and improve the current distribution system of public catastrophe funds as well as the profitable investment of these financial resources, and on the other hand, facilitate the application of alternative mechanisms provided by the capital and insurance markets.

    In particular, capital markets have developed alternative risk transfer and financing mechanisms, such as captive insurance companies, risk pooling, contingent capital solutions, multi-trigger products and insurance securitisation for hard insurance market phases. These instruments have already been applied to catastrophic (re-insurance in other countries (mainly the US and off-shore domiciles, and may contribute positively to the insurability of extreme weather events in Austria by enhancing financial capacities. Not only private individuals and corporate entities may use alternative mechanisms in order to retain, thus, to finance certain risks, but also public institutions.

    This contribution aims at analysing potential solutions for an improved risk management of natural hazards in the private and the public sector by considering alternative mechanisms of the capital and insurance markets. Also the establishment of public-private-partnerships, which may contribute to a more efficient cat funding system in Austria, is considered.

  17. Predicting future glacial lakes in Austria using different modelling approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Jan-Christoph; Helfricht, Kay; Prasicek, Günther; Buckel, Johannes; Keuschnig, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Glacier retreat is one of the most apparent consequences of temperature rise in the 20th and 21th centuries in the European Alps. In Austria, more than 240 new lakes have formed in glacier forefields since the Little Ice Age. A similar signal is reported from many mountain areas worldwide. Glacial lakes can constitute important environmental and socio-economic impacts on high mountain systems including water resource management, sediment delivery, natural hazards, energy production and tourism. Their development significantly modifies the landscape configuration and visual appearance of high mountain areas. Knowledge on the location, number and extent of these future lakes can be used to assess potential impacts on high mountain geo-ecosystems and upland-lowland interactions. Information on new lakes is critical to appraise emerging threads and potentials for society. The recent development of regional ice thickness models and their combination with high resolution glacier surface data allows predicting the topography below current glaciers by subtracting ice thickness from glacier surface. Analyzing these modelled glacier bed surfaces reveals overdeepenings that represent potential locations for future lakes. In order to predict the location of future glacial lakes below recent glaciers in the Austrian Alps we apply different ice thickness models using high resolution terrain data and glacier outlines. The results are compared and validated with ice thickness data from geophysical surveys. Additionally, we run the models on three different glacier extents provided by the Austrian Glacier Inventories from 1969, 1998 and 2006. Results of this historical glacier extent modelling are compared to existing glacier lakes and discussed focusing on geomorphological impacts on lake evolution. We discuss model performance and observed differences in the results in order to assess the approach for a realistic prediction of future lake locations. The presentation delivers

  18. Public perception of cancer care in Poland and Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jȩdrzejewski, Mariusz; Thallinger, Christiane; Mrozik, Magda; Kornek, Gabriela; Zielinski, Christoph; Jassem, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    We compared the public perception of cancer care in Poland and Austria. Both countries are members of the European Union (EU) but reflect two extremes in health-related per capita spending. Recently, the EUROCARE-5 study reported on very discrepant cancer outcomes between the two countries. A one-time survey was conducted to compare the public perception of cancer treatment in Poland and Austria. In total, 3,649 subjects, representing the general population, cancer patients, and cancer patients' family members, were surveyed. In both countries, cancer was considered the most challenging problem of the health care system, and health care was indicated as the most important issue influencing political election decisions. Polish compared with Austrian cancer patients gave a significantly lower positive assessment of overall cancer treatment efficacy and detection methods. Cancer cure rates estimated by Polish and Austrian citizens were 29% and 44%, respectively. The majority of all citizens interviewed thought that cancer patients should have access to all available registered cancer drugs. However, only 18% of Poles versus 62% of Austrians agreed with the notion that the available cancer treatment in their countries is of a standard comparable to that of other EU countries. Consequently, 24% of Poles and 7% of Austrians identified financial status, age, gender, and residence as factors influencing the availability of cancer treatments. In both countries, cancer is considered the most challenging problem of the health care system, and health care issues may strongly influence decisions for political elections. Vast differences in the two populations' perceptions of cancer care reflect actual cancer outcomes and the national per capita spending on health-related issues. ©AlphaMed Press.

  19. Lip and tooth injuries at public swimming pools in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Katharina; Connert, Thomas; Kühl, Sebastian; Filippi, Andreas

    2017-06-01

    There is an increased risk of orofacial injuries in swimming pool facilities. Nevertheless, only a few studies have addressed this issue. The aim of this study was to identify the frequency of lip and tooth injuries at public swimming pools in Austria. A further aim was to examine which gender and age groups were affected, where and why these injuries occurred, and whether pool attendants had sufficient knowledge of dental first-aid measures. A total of 764 pool attendants in Austria were contacted by telephone and 689 participated in the study (90.2%). The attendants were interviewed retrospectively about accident occurrences in 2014 by a standardized questionnaire. Responses to the provision of first aid and choice of storage medium for avulsed teeth were subsequently evaluated. The frequency of lip injuries was 19.0%, and tooth injuries were 11.3%. Male bathers (P < .05) and children under 12 years (P < .001) most frequently suffered injuries. The waterslide was the most common accident site. The most common cause of lip injuries was slipping on wet surfaces (39.0%), and for tooth injuries it was collisions with other persons or objects (each 28.1%). The pool attendants' responses were predominantly good or sufficient on first aid, with the exception of what storage medium to choose. Tooth rescue boxes were available in only 8.6% of all pool facilities. Orofacial injuries are a frequently occurring problem in swimming pool facilities. The pool attendants' knowledge on first-aid care of tooth injuries could still be improved. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Trends in quality of screening colonoscopy in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldmann, Elisabeth; Gessl, Irina; Sallinger, Daniela; Jeschek, Philip; Britto-Arias, Martha; Heinze, Georg; Fasching, Elisabeth; Weiss, Werner; Gschwantler, Michael; Trauner, Michael; Ferlitsch, Monika

    2016-12-01

    Background and study aim: Screening colonoscopy only effectively prevents colorectal cancer if performed with high quality. The aim of this study was to analyze the detection rates of premalignant colorectal lesions in screening colonoscopies performed within a nationwide quality control program for screening colonoscopy in Austria. Methods: Data from electronic records of the screening program from its implementation in 2007 until December 2014 were analyzed in order to calculate detection rates for adenomas, advanced adenomas, polyps, and proximal lesions, and rates of cecal intubation, sedation, complications, and adequate bowel preparation. Results were evaluated to identify trends and changes in quality parameters over the 8-year study period. Results: During the study period, 301 endoscopists provided data from 159 246 screening colonoscopies. Mean age of screened individuals was 61.1 years, and 49.1 % were women. Significant increases over time were found for age- and sex-adjusted adenoma detection rates (ADRs), which increased from a mean of 22.2 % (SD 10.7 %) in 2007/2008 to 24.2 % (SD 11.6 %) in 2013/2014. On average, each endoscopist increased their individual ADR by + 1.5 percentage points per 2-year period (95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.9 - 2.2 percentage points; P  Austria between 2007 and 2014. Although, overall ADR increased significantly during the study period, there was a decrease in the rate of advanced adenoma detection. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Radionuclides in animal tissue samples from various regions of Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatzber, F.

    1981-06-01

    An investigation of the concentration of radioactive substances in animal species from various regions of Austria has been carried out. For bone and liver of deer, radionuclide concentrations typical for central Europe were found. The content of 90 Sr were higher in gasteropod shells than in deer bone. Similar concentrations of 90 Sr were found in isopods as in snail shells related to fresh weight, but related to Ca content the values in isopods were higher than in all other animals. Based on these results, a study of snail shells and of isopods as bioindicators for 90 Sr content in environmental control is indicated. In tissue samples of the same species, but from different regions of Austria, the fallout radionuclide concentrations were found to be related to altitude ( 90 Sr) and to the amount of precipitation ( 137 Cs). These correlation differences could point to a different deposition behaviours of 90 Sr and 137 Cs, the former being deposited mainly with solid precipitation. This seems plausible since aerosols carried over continental distances show a high sulfate content and alkaline earth metal sulfates are less soluble than alkali sulfates. Examination of absolute concentration values related to fresh tissue weight show high fallout radionuclide concentrations, as compared to natural radionuclide concentration, especially in hard tissues. These fallout levels constitute a significant radioactive load on the biosphere. Due to the long physical half-life of 90 Sr and 137 Cs, this situation will remain virtually unchanged during the next decades, even if no further nuclear weapons tests are carried out. (G.G.)

  2. Assessing the economic wind power potential in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gass, Viktoria; Schmidt, Johannes; Strauss, Franziska; Schmid, Erwin

    2013-01-01

    In the European Union, electricity production from wind energy is projected to increase by approximately 16% until 2020. The Austrian energy plan aims at increasing the currently installed wind power capacity from approximately 1 GW to 3 GW until 2020 including an additional capacity of 700 MW until 2015. The aim of this analysis is to assess economically viable wind turbine sites under current feed-in tariffs considering constraints imposed by infrastructure, the natural environment and ecological preservation zones in Austria. We analyze whether the policy target of installing an additional wind power capacity of 700 MW until 2015 is attainable under current legislation and developed a GIS based decision system for wind turbine site selection.Results show that the current feed-in tariff of 9.7 ct kW h −1 may trigger an additional installation of 3544 MW. The current feed-in tariff can therefore be considered too high as wind power deployment would exceed the target by far. Our results indicate that the targets may be attained more cost-effectively by applying a lower feed-in tariff of 9.1 ct kW h −1 . Thus, windfall profits at favorable sites and deadweight losses of policy intervention can be minimized while still guaranteeing the deployment of additional wind power capacities. - Highlight: ► Wind supply curves with high spatial resolution for whole Austria are derived. ► Current feed-in tariff higher than necessary to attain targets. ► Previous feed-in tariffs were too low to achieve targets. ► Current support scheme leads to high social welfare losses. ► Policy makers face high information asymmetry when setting feed-in tariffs.

  3. The conditioning of low-level waste and of hazardous waste in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krejsa, P.

    1988-01-01

    In 1978 in Austria some 50% (total 30%) of the people voted against the use of nuclear power for the production of electricity. Nevertheless radioactive wastes are produced in Austria from hospitals, industrial and research activities. The concept of waste management was therefore not altered. This paper discusses how, due to the low amounts of wastes (some 200 m 3 /y), of high costs of the waste treatment and of the concept of a central final disposal for radwastes the research center Seibersdorf was charged with the task to act as central storage and conditioning plant for the wastes arising from Austria

  4. Renewable energy in the heating sector in Austria with particular reference to the region of Upper Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kranzl, Lukas; Kalt, Gerald; Müller, Andreas; Hummel, Marcus; Egger, Christiane; Öhlinger, Christine; Dell, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    The heating sector has been neglected in energy policies for quite some time, especially on the European level. Only recently, with the implementation of the European directive 2009/28/EC the sector has gained higher attention. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the heat market in Austria and of the current status and future prospects of renewable energy in the heat sector (RES-H) up to 2030. Despite the growing energy demand, the share of renewable energy in the total energy demand for space heating and hot water increased from about 20% in 1970 to about 34% in 2008. This is mainly due to ambitious RES-H support instruments and regional policy targets. For example, the government of the region of Upper Austria has implemented a target of 100% RES-H share in the space heating and hot water sector until the year 2030. However, the National Renewable Energy Action Plan for 2020 foresees only moderate growth rates for RES-H compared to recent market growth and scenarios in literature. Due to the ambitious targets and support schemes of regional governments it seems likely that RES-H deployment could growstronger than stated in the action plan. - Highlights: ► Overview on Austrian heat sector and RES-H development. ► Growing RES-H market mainly due to regional promotion schemes. ► Austrian NREAP foresees only moderate growth of RES-H up to 2020. ► Targets and policies on the regional level might lead to stronger RES-H deployment

  5. Uruguay valitsus hakkab riiki korrastama / Allan Espenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Espenberg, Allan

    2005-01-01

    Esimest korda tuleb nii valitsuse kui parlamendi tasandil Uruguays võimule vasakpoolne koalitsioon, mis suutis eemale tõrjuda kokku 174 aastat võimul olnud kahte parteid. Uueks presidendiks sai Tabare Vazquez, kelle poolt hääletasid pooled valijad

  6. TEO LT hakkab kaotama atraktiivsust / Romet Kreek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kreek, Romet, 1972-

    2011-01-01

    Autori sõnul on Leedu telekomiettevõtte TEO LT puhul raske oodata, et käive ja kasum kasvaksid, parimal juhul on need stabiilsed. Osalt on selle põhjuseks tehnoloogilised muutused, osalt suuromaniku poliitika. TEO LT I kvartali majandusnäitajatest

  7. The Texts of the Agency's Headquarters Agreement with Austria and Related Agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The texts of the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Republic of Austria that were in force on 30 September 1975 are reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency [fr

  8. The Texts of the Agency's Headquarters Agreement with Austria and Related Agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The texts of the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Republic of Austria that were in force on 30 September 1975 are reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency [ru

  9. The Texts of the Agency's Headquarters Agreement with Austria and Related Agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The texts of the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Republic of Austria that were in force on 30 September 1975 are reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency [es

  10. Tühjusest endasse tõmbavast : Austria eestlase vaimusilmas / Jaan Undusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Undusk, Jaan, 1958-

    1997-01-01

    Teksti algvariant 'Über die erfüllte Leere: Österreich aus der Sicht eines Esten' on ette loetud 8.-10. sept. Krakovis toimunud keskeuroopa-alasel sümpoosionil. Austria kirjanduse retseptsioonist Eestis

  11. SALUD: A spatial microsimulation application to support regional health planning in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Tomintz, Melanie N.; Kosar, B.; Garcia-Barrios, Victor M.

    2013-01-01

    The Austrian Federal Ministry of Health aims to improve the health of all people living in Austria and to decrease health and social inequalities. This leads to a careful planning and distribution of the available health care resources to meet government aims. The research project SALUD, funded by the Federal Ministry for Transport, Innovation and Technology and the Austrian Science Fund, focuses on building a Spatial Microsimulation Model for Austria by combining survey and census data to mo...

  12. e-Government Readiness, Strategy and Two Different User Groups - in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, Noella; Hoechtl, Johann; Parycek, Peter

    This paper offers a description of the e-Government Strategy in Austria and its e-Government readiness, and looks at how two different user groups are experiencing e-Government in Austria. Studies conducted show that adolescent citizens are more optimistic and enthusiastic about the possibilities offered whilst the municipalities are more skeptical. The Austrian e-Government strategy, the decisionmakers and IT solution providers must understand the needs of all stakeholders and provide viable solutions accordingly.

  13. Seasonality of runoff and precipitation regimes along transects in Peru and Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Gaudry Maria M. Cárdenas; Gutknecht Dieter; Parajka Juraj; Perdigão Rui A.P.; Blöschl Günter

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to understand the seasonalities of runoff and precipitation and their controls along two transects in Peru and one transect in Austria. The analysis is based on daily precipitation data at 111 and 61 stations in Peru and Austria, respectively, and daily discharge data at 51 and 110 stations. The maximum Pardé coefficient is used to quantify the strength of the seasonalities of monthly precipitation and runoff. Circular statistics are used to quantify the seasonalities...

  14. First record of Orthopodomyia pulcripalpis (Rondani, 1872) (Diptera: Culicidae) in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zittra, Carina; Obwaller, Adelheid G; Wimmer, Victoria; Berer, Dominik; Eigner, Barbara; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter

    2017-06-01

    During a three-year mosquito monitoring from 2014 to 2016, the strictly ornithophilic, originally Mediterranean species Orthopodomyia pulcripalpis (Rondani, 1872) was collected as single specimen for the first time in Austria in the district of Penzing in Vienna. Morphological species determination was confirmed by analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. We thus not only confirm the existence of another mosquito species in Austria, but also add a new genus to the Austrian Culicidae taxa list.

  15. Austria soovib Lääne-Balkani euroliidule lähemale tuua / Erkki Bahovski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bahovski, Erkki, 1970-

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 21. dets., lk. 8 (lühendatud). Austria suursaadik Eestis dr Jakub Forst-Battaglia sõnul pingutab 2006. aasta jaanuaris Suurbritannialt järgmiseks pooleks aastaks Euroopa Liidu juhtimise üle võttev Austria pingutab EL-i laienemise nimel, läbirääkimised on alustatud Türgi ja Horvaatiaga

  16. Austria otsib EL-i põhiseaduslepingu jaoks soodsat kliimat / Ahto Lobjakas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lobjakas, Ahto, 1970-

    2006-01-01

    Viinis toimunud Austria valitsuse ja Euroopa Komisjoni ühisistungi järgsest Austria kantsleri Wolfgang Schüsseli ja Euroopa Komisjoni presidendi Manuel Barroso esinemisest, kus nad käsitlesid Euroopa põhiseaduse temaatikat. M. Barroso sõnul ei vaja Euroopa kodanikud praegu kõige rohkem mitte niivõrd konstitutsiooni, kuivõrd majanduskasvu ja töökohti

  17. A Legal and Economic Analysis of Austria's Double Tax Treaty Network with Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, Julia; Fuentes Hernandez, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    To what degree developing countries gain from signing double tax treaties is being hotly debated. In this paper, we analyze the Austrian tax treaty policy. Combining legal and economic perspectives, we find that developing countries are likely to expect both positive and negative impacts from signing a double tax treaty (DTT) with Austria. On the one hand, the results of our econometric analysis suggest that middle-income countries that sign a DTT with Austria may expect an inc...

  18. Ten Years After - Welfare Effects of the Application of the CAP in Austria, Finland and Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Niemi, Jyrki S.; Fahlbeck, Erik; Hofreither, Markus F.

    2005-01-01

    Ten years ago, Austria, Finland, and Sweden joined the EU. The application of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) caused major repercussions on the agricultural sectors of the entering countries. This article analyses the welfare effects of accession to the EU on the agricultural markets in Austria, Finland and Sweden in a simple supply and demand framework, which is kept strictly identical across all three countries. The quantitative results of the study are derived by using standard partia...

  19. Policies for the environment and rural development in the mountain area of Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Hovorka, Gerhard

    1998-01-01

    38th European Regional Science Association ? Congress 1998 Topic G: Environmental Management, Sustainability and Development Policies for the Environment and Rural Development in the Mountain Area of Austria (Abstract) by Gerhard Hovorka The cultural landscape in Austria is characterised by the high proportion of mountain areas. Mountain agriculture bears the key role in safeguarding the sensitive eco-system in the mountain areas and thereby maintaining the general living and working space as...

  20. Organic farming at the heart of the rural development policy. The example of Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Darnhofer, Ika

    2006-01-01

    With about 10% of all Austrian farms being certified organic, Austria has one of the highest rates of organic farms in the European Union. Organic farms receive payments within the agri-environmental programme (AEP). With about 78% of farms participating in the AEP, Austria is also leading the field in the EU. The high participation rates can be seen as a result of a successful Austrian agricultural policy which aims to reconcile agricultural production, environmental protection, social cohes...

  1. The burden of malignant melanoma--lessons to be learned from Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monshi, Babak; Vujic, Marin; Kivaranovic, Danijel; Sesti, Alma; Oberaigner, Willi; Vujic, Igor; Ortiz-Urda, Susana; Posch, Christian; Feichtinger, Hans; Hackl, Monika; Rappersberger, Klemens

    2016-03-01

    Incidence rates of melanoma, generated by cancer registries (CRs), are susceptible to reporting inconsistencies due to increasing decentralisation of diagnosis. We therefore independently assessed the burden of melanoma in Austria. We collected histopathological reports on melanoma of all patients diagnosed in Austria in 2011. Demographic and clinical characteristics, histopathological tumour stages were assessed. Their regional distributions and incidence rates were analysed and compared with data of national and international CRs. A total of 5246 patients were diagnosed with 1951 in-situ and 3295 invasive melanomas in Austria in 2011 (population 8.4 million). Age, sex and anatomic distribution corresponded to findings in other European countries, however, the incidence of 25/100,000 (world age-standardised rate) for invasive melanomas was two-fold higher than published by the Austrian CR (12/100,000). Varying frequencies in diagnosing thin melanomas (≤1 mm; n = 4415) accounted exclusively for significant regional disparities, while advanced tumours (>1 mm; n = 761) were evenly distributed. Western Austria showed the highest rates (36/100,000). Patients from eastern Austria whose melanomas were diagnosed in laboratories in western Austria (n = 76) showed significantly higher proportions of in-situ lesions (n = 43; 57%) compared to those whose tumours were diagnosed in eastern Austria (n = 4014; in-situ = 1369; 34%) (p Austria, the melanoma burden and its potential socio-economic implications are significantly underestimated. Similarities of incidences indicate this could affect other European countries with well-established CRs and compromise international comparability of data. Austrian regional disparities suggest overdiagnosis of thin melanomas due to the variability of pathologists' thresholds for the diagnosis of early stage tumours. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Topographic conditions and physical activity behaviour of young adults in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Szabo, Barbara; Gollner, Erwin; Schnabel, Florian

    2014-01-01

    In Austria there is an east-west divide concerning the amount of physical activity that has been detected. This is associated with poorer health in the eastern region of Austria compared to the western. Experts think that differences in topographic conditions might be a reason for these differences. However this hypothesis until now has not been scientifically proven. This study incorporates a multi-staged approach. First, outdoor physical activity behaviour (levels of exercise, favourite act...

  3. Are Job Search Programs a Promising Tool? : A Microeconometric Evaluation for Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Andrea Maria; Hofer, Helmut

    2004-01-01

    In Austria job search programs were introduced on a large scale in 1999. These programs aim at activating unemployed at an early stage and bringing them back to work by training job search related skills. We evaluate the impact of active labour market programs in Austria on individual unemployment durations, and allow program effects to vary between job search programs and formal training programs. We use the timing-of-events method which estimates the program effect as a shift in the transit...

  4. The development of bioenergy in Austria and in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, A.

    1999-01-01

    Austria is interested in using of biomass for energy because of its energy, environmental, agricultural and social policy. The country imports more than two thirds of the energy (about 350 P J/a). As the energy production using fossils decreases, the dependence of the country on imported energy increases. Compensation of this could be only an increase of hydropower and of bio-energy utilization but about 70% of the domestic hydropower is already used and the use of the remaining 30% is ecologically objected. So this increase relies on bio-energy. It is non exhaustible and very attractive as is neutral to carbon dioxide emissions. With of 46% of its territory wooded and large quantities of by-products, the country has an enormous potential for bio-energy production. Like other European countries there is surplus food and feed production, expressed as about 350 000 ha arable and greenland . The cultivation of new and special crops could reduce the surplus area to 170 000 ha for energy crops. The regional utilization of biomass for energy production would contribute to the creation of new jobs in the undeveloped rural areas. Each MW installed capacity would result to 2-3 new jobs and prevent the migration of 2-3 families from rural to urban regions saving large subsidies. The share of bio-energy is 10.9% of the primary energy consumption or 13.5% of the end energy consumption and is continually increasing. Bio-energy by wood by-product is mainly used for space heating with a total capacity of 2.5 GW: 90% of the furnaces are of less than 100 k W, the rest are of medium capacity (100-1000 k W) and only 364 of a capacity larger than 1MW. Considerable technical progress in decreasing emissions from wood burning was made in recently. About 25% of the bio-fuels are used in industrial installations and about 75% for space heating. The industrial boilers use fluidized-bed technology and co-generation systems using steam. Starting from 2005 3% of the electricity have to be

  5. [Direct and indirect costs of fractures due to osteoporosis in Austria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimai, H-P; Redlich, K; Schneider, H; Siebert, U; Viernstein, H; Mahlich, J

    2012-10-01

    We examined the financial burden of osteoporosis in Austria. We took both direct and indirect costs into consideration. Direct costs encompass medical costs such as expenses for pharmaceuticals, inpatient and outpatient medical care costs, as well as other medical services (e.g., occupational therapies). Non-medical direct costs include transportation costs and medical devices (e.g., wheel chairs or crutches). Indirect costs refer to costs of productivity losses due to absence of work. Moreover, we included costs for early retirement and opportunity costs of informal care provided by family members. While there exist similar studies for other countries, this is the first comprehensive study for Austria. For our analysis, we combined data of official statistics, expert estimates as well as unique patient surveys that are currently conducted in the course of an international osteoporotic fracture study in Austria. Our estimation of the total annual costs in the year 2008 imposed by osteoporosis in Austria is 707.4 million €. The largest fraction of this amount is incurred by acute hospital treatment. Another significant figure, accounting for 29% of total costs, is the opportunity cost of informal care. The financial burden of osteoporosis in Austria is substantial. Economic evaluations of preventive and therapeutic interventions for the specific context of Austria are needed to inform health policy decision makers. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Assessing reference evapotranspiration in a subhumid climate in NE Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolz, Reinhard; Eitzinger, Josef; Cepuder, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Computing reference evapotranspiration and multiplying it with a specific crop coefficient as recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) is the most widely accepted approach to estimate plant water requirements. The standardized form of the well-known FAO Penman-Monteith equation, published by the Environmental and Water Resources Institute of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE-EWRI), is recommended as a standard procedure for calculating reference evapotranspiration. Applied and validated under different climatic conditions it generally achieved good results compared to other methods. However, several studies documented deviations between measured and calculated reference evapotranspiration depending on local environmental conditions. Consequently, it seems advisable to evaluate the model under local environmental conditions. Evapotranspiration was determined at a subhumid site in Austria (48°12'N, 16°34'E; 157 m asl) using a large weighing lysimeter operated at (limited) reference conditions and compared with calculations according to ASCE-EWRI. The lysimeter had an inner diameter of 1.9 m and a hemispherical bottom with a maximum depth of 2.5 m. Seepage water was measured at a free draining outlet using a tipping bucket. Lysimeter mass changes were sensed by a weighing facility with an accuracy of ±0.1 mm. Both rainfall and evapotranspiration were determined directly from lysimeter data using a simple water balance equation. Meteorological data for the ASCE-EWRI model were obtained from a weather station of the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics, Austria (ZAMG). The study period was from 2005 to 2010, analyses were based upon daily time steps. Daily calculated reference evapotranspiration was generally overestimated at small values, whereas it was rather underestimated when evapotranspiration was large, which is supported also by other studies. In the given case, advection of sensible heat proved

  7. Greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strebl, F.; Gebetsroither, E.; Orthofer, R.

    2002-07-01

    This report documents the calculations of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions in Austria of the IPCC-sector 'Agricultural Soils' for the period 1980 to 2001. According to available information, CH 4 emissions from agricultural soils are very small and thus irrelevant. N 2 O emissions were calculated according to the IPCC method; emission sources considered include direct emissions from nitrogen inputs to soils (mineral and organic fertilizers, crop residues, sewage sludge application, biological fixation) as well as indirect emissions (from atmospheric nitrogen deposition and nitrogen leaching) plus emissions from nitrogen input through grazing animal excreta. NH 3 and NO x emissions were calculated according to the CORINAIR method; sources considered were nitrogen inputs through fertilization as well as emissions from unfertilized cultures. In the year 1990 total emissions were 5.680 t N 2 O-N, 24.628 t NH 3 -N and 1.376 t NO x N. In the period 1980-2001 there were considerable fluctuations of emissions, caused by an inter annual variability of crop production and fertilizer consumption data. However, there are no significant emission trends in the past 20 years. Uncertainties were determined through a Monte-Carlo-based simulation; the standard deviation of a normal uncertainty distribution is 24 % for N 2 O, 13 % for NH 3 , and 18 % for NO x . (author)

  8. Multiresistant Bacteria Isolated from Chicken Meat in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gernot Zarfel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Multidrug resistant bacteria (MDR bacteria, such as extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL Enterobacteriaceae, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE, pose a challenge to the human health care system. In recent years, these MDR bacteria have been detected increasingly outside the hospital environment. Also the contamination of food with MDR bacteria, particularly of meat and meat products, is a concern. The aim of the study was to evaluate the occurrence of MDR bacteria in chicken meat on the Austrian market. For this study, 50 chicken meat samples were analysed. All samples originated from chickens slaughtered in Austrian slaughterhouses and were marked as produced in Austria. Samples were analysed for the presence of ESBL Enterobacteriaceae, methicillin resistant Staphylococci and VRE. Resistance genes of the isolated bacteria were characterised by PCR and sequencing. In the present study 26 ESBL producing E. coli, five mecA gene harbouring Staphylococci (but no MRSA, and four VRE were detected in chicken meat samples of Austrian origin. In 24 (48% of the samples no ESBL Enterobacteriaceae, MRSA, methicillin resistant coagulase negative Staphylococcus (MRCNS or VRE could be detected. None of the samples contained all three types of investigated multiresistant bacteria. In concordance to previous studies, CTX-M-1 and SHV-12 were the dominant ESBL genes.

  9. Temporal and Spatial Melanoma Trends in Austria: An Ecological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Haluza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Annual solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR is mostly determined by latitude and altitude. Over the last decades, increasing UVR ground levels have been observed. Exposure to UVR is associated with a life-time risk to develop melanoma, a malign skin cancer. Thus, we hypothesized that melanoma incidence in Austria is associated with altitude of place of living and time of diagnosis. We investigated this hypothesis in an ecological study by district and year for Austrian melanoma incidence (1990–2010 and mortality (1970–2011 data. As expected, incidence rates increased with altitude (about 2% per 10 m and year (about 2%. Additionally, melanoma incidence rates were about 50% higher in urban than in rural districts. In contrast, mortality rates decreased with altitude (for males: 0.4% per 10 m, for women: 0.7% per 10 m, respectively. The observed discrepancy between incidence and mortality data could partly be explained by melanoma diagnosis at earlier tumor stage in districts with higher altitude. Possible reasons for this finding include higher awareness of patients, better diagnostic performance of medical professionals working at higher altitudes, or slower tumor growth due to protective effects of sun light-associated vitamin D synthesis.

  10. K-pop Reception and Participatory Fan Culture in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Yeon Sung

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available K-pop’s popularity and its participatory fan culture have expanded beyond Asia and become significant in Europe in the past few years. After South Korean pop singer Psy’s “Gangnam Style” music video topped the Austrian chart in October 2012, the number and size of K-pop events in Austria sharply increased, with fans organizing various participatory events, including K-pop auditions, dance festivals, club meetings, quiz competitions, dance workshops, and smaller fan-culture gatherings. In the private sector, longtime fans have transitioned from participants to providers, and in the public sector, from observers to sponsors. Through in-depth interviews with event organizers, sponsors, and fans, this article offers an ethnographic study of the reception of K-pop in Europe that takes into consideration local interactions between fans and Korean sponsors, perspectives on the genre, patterns of social integration, and histories. As a case study, this research stresses the local situatedness of K-pop fan culture by arguing that local private and public sponsors and fans make the reception of K-pop different in each locality. By exploring local scenes of K-pop reception and fan culture, the article demonstrates the rapidly growing consumption of K-pop among Europeans and stresses multidirectional understandings of globalization.

  11. [Current treatment concepts for olecranon and prepatellar bursitis in Austria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumbach, S F; Michel, M; Wyen, H; Buschmann, C T; Kdolsky, R; Kanz, K-G

    2013-04-01

    The limited evidence available on the diagnosis and treatment of olecranon and prepatellar bursitis indicates nationally varying treatment approaches. Therefore the aim of this study was to survey the current treatment concepts of olecranon and prepatellar bursitis in Austria. An online questionnaire comprising of demographic data, questions regarding diagnostics and differentiation between septic bursitis (SB) and non-septic bursitis (NSB) as well as two case reports for therapy appraisal were sent to members of the Austrian Society of Orthopaedics and Orthopaedic Surgery (ÖGO) and the Austrian Society of Traumatology (ÖGU). The overall response rates were 46 % (ÖGU)/12 % (ÖGO). Differentiation between SB and NSB was predominantly based on medical history/clinical presentation (ÖGU: 100 %/ÖGO: 84 %) and blood sampling (ÖGU: 82 %/ÖGO: 77 %). 64/36 % of surveyed members of ÖGO/OGU performed a bursal aspiration. 95/55 % of Austrian ÖGU opinion leaders favoured a surgical treatment approach in cases of SB/NSB. Conversely, ÖGO members rather favoured a conservative treatment approach (28/27 %). Significant differences were found between ÖGO and ÖGU, with the latter favouring a surgical treatment approach in cases of SB and NSB. However, the international literature argues for a conservative treatment approach. Further high quality research is needed to establish an evidence-based treatment approach. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Transboundary Groundwater Body Karavanke/Karawanken Between Austria and Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brencic, M.; Poltnig, W.

    2009-04-01

    Large part of the border region between Republic of Slovenia and Republic of Austria is represented by high east west extended mountainous ridge of Karavanke/Karawanken. It is a range extending along the Slovenian-Austrian border for almost 150 km. Its terrain consists of long and prominent ridges, whose slopes steeply fall to the northern and southern side. Ridges are interrupted by long, deep and narrow valleys. The highest peaks reach over 2000 m above sea level. In the entire range prominent ridges with mountain meadows and forests prevail. The area is scarcely populated, the main economic activities are grazing and forestry, in some places tourism is also developing, especially winter sports centres. Karavanke/Karawanken lies on the contact between two continental plates, the large European plate in the north and the smaller Adriatic plate in the south. When the Adriatic plate was thrusted over the European one towards the north, the collision resulted in the folding of sediments previously deposited in the space between the plates. The contact of both plates caused large lateral displacements, causing the rocks of both plates to fold and fault and then extend along the contact. This is the area of Periadriatic lineament, dividing Karavanke/Karawanken range into their north and south part. Periadriatic lineament is large stripe slip tectonic structure along which on the northern side rocks were extruded to the east and on the southern side to the west. Along the lineament metamorphic (e.g. biotitic and feldsparic para-gneis, amfibolites) and magmatic (e.g. diabaz, granite and tonalite) rocks of various ages are present. Palaeozoic sedimentary rocks cover large part of the mountain ridge. The oldest are Silurian and Ordovician limestone on the northern border followed by Devonian ridge limestones. They are covered by molasse sedimentation in Carbon and shallow marine and river predominantly clastic sedimentation in Perm. The most abundant and with numerous

  13. Nursing Homes and their Spatial Contexts - Findings from Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Tatjana

    2017-10-01

    Against the background of aging and the increasing number of persons in need of care on one hand and the decreasing potential of family support on the other hand, in-patient facilities both in rural areas as well as urban areas of Austria receive importance as final residence. The decision on a facility is challenging. That is why the Austrian Federal Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection edits a brochure in three volumes that provides interested persons with information on each residential and nursing home for elderly people. Basing on data from the year 2014, this contribution aims at analysing relevant spatial related information on 885 residential and nursing homes in urban and rural contexts in order to demonstrate how spatial related aspects are considered in the facilities’ presentations and how they illustrate the level of community integration of these in-patient offers, to understand facility-specific future plans as well as to reveal important questions and define urgent research demand and to stimulate the interdisciplinary and cross-cutting dialogue.

  14. Temporal and Spatial Melanoma Trends in Austria: An Ecological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluza, Daniela; Simic, Stana; Moshammer, Hanns

    2014-01-01

    Annual solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is mostly determined by latitude and altitude. Over the last decades, increasing UVR ground levels have been observed. Exposure to UVR is associated with a life-time risk to develop melanoma, a malign skin cancer. Thus, we hypothesized that melanoma incidence in Austria is associated with altitude of place of living and time of diagnosis. We investigated this hypothesis in an ecological study by district and year for Austrian melanoma incidence (1990–2010) and mortality (1970–2011) data. As expected, incidence rates increased with altitude (about 2% per 10 m) and year (about 2%). Additionally, melanoma incidence rates were about 50% higher in urban than in rural districts. In contrast, mortality rates decreased with altitude (for males: 0.4% per 10 m, for women: 0.7% per 10 m, respectively). The observed discrepancy between incidence and mortality data could partly be explained by melanoma diagnosis at earlier tumor stage in districts with higher altitude. Possible reasons for this finding include higher awareness of patients, better diagnostic performance of medical professionals working at higher altitudes, or slower tumor growth due to protective effects of sun light-associated vitamin D synthesis. PMID:24398911

  15. Influence of Climate Change on River Discharge in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Goler

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of climate change on the river discharge characteristics in four catchment basins within Austria is investigated using a hydrological model. Input for the model are daily climate data generated from three regional climate models (RCMs over the time period 1951–2100 using the A1B emission scenario. Due to the complex terrain of the basins, the climate data has been downscaled to a resolution of 1km×1km$1\\,\\text{km}\\times1\\,\\text{km}$. The hydrological model includes processes such as meltwater from snow and glaciers; surface, subsurface, and groundwater flows; and evapotranspiration. The modelling results show that, although only one RCM exhibits a significant reduction in the mean annual discharge towards the end of the 21st century, all RCMs exhibit significant changes in the seasonal distribution of the discharge. In particular, for basins whose discharge is dependent on water stored as snow, there will be a shift in the time of maximum river discharge to earlier in the year as the snow and ice melt earlier. During the winter months the discharge is forecasted to be higher than at present, which would lead to the number of days of low discharge being reduced. However, the earlier snow melt means that the available water for the summer months will be reduced, leading to lower discharges than present, and thus an increase in the number of low discharge days.

  16. Health promotion among older adults in Austria: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggatz, Thomas; Meinhart, Christoph Matthias

    2017-04-01

    To determine the types of attitudes to health promotion among older Austrians. Health promotion in old age becomes increasingly important in the current period of demographic transition. Interventions are likely to be successful if they take the attitude of older persons into consideration. There may be several types of attitudes to health promotion among older adults. Cross-sectional qualitative study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in a purposive sample consisting of 36 home-dwelling older persons from local communities in the federal province of Salzburg, Austria. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis according to Mayring and subsequent construction of types. There are three main types of attitudes to health promotion. 'Health promoters through everyday activities' considered domestic work and walks to be sufficient in keeping up their health. Fitness-oriented persons practised sports of some type. Users of complementary methods practised such methods to some degree. These types of attitudes could be further differentiated according to their outcome expectations. In addition to benefits for health, socialising was also an important outcome. Physical decline may reduce a fitness-oriented attitude, whereas encouragement by others may trigger it. Older adults have various attitudes to health promotion, but these are not immutable. Health promotion programmes that are not restricted to a narrow focus on health but provide the opportunity to socialise may support older adults in maintaining a healthy lifestyle. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Genetic diversity of pestivirus isolates in cattle from Western Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberg, Andrea; Fernández, Sandra Revilla; Vogl, Claus; Vilcek, Stefan; Matt, Monika; Fink, Maria; Köfer, Josef; Schöpf, Karl

    2009-03-30

    The genetic diversity of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) isolates in infected cattle from Tyrol and Vorarlberg (Austria) was investigated. Blood samples were collected within the compulsory Austrian BVDV control programme during 2005 and 2006. The 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) and partially the N-terminal autoprotease (N(pro)) were amplified by one-step reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and the PCR products were subsequently sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis based on 5'-UTR and N(pro) sequences demonstrated that almost all isolates (307/310) were of the BVDV-1 genotype. They were clustered into eight different subtypes, here listed by their frequency of occurrence: BVDV-1h (143), BVDV-1f (79), BVDV-1b (41), BVDV-1d (28), BVDV-1e (6), BVDV-1a (4), BVDV-1g (3) and BVDV1-k (3). Two pestivirus isolates were typed as BVDV-2 and one isolate as BDV closely related to Gifhorn strain (BDV-3). Correlation among isolates could only be observed at the farm level, i.e., within a herd. However, no correlation between the genetic and geographical distances could be observed above the farm level. Because of the wide distribution of certain BVDV-1 subtypes and the low prevalence of herd-specific strains, a determination of tracing routes of infection was not possible. Furthermore, recombination events were not detected.

  18. [Publication performances of university clinics for anesthesiology: Germany, Austria and Switzerland from 2001 to 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzer, G; Ausserer, J; Wenzel, V; Pehböck, D; Widmann, T; Lindner, K; Hamm, P; Paal, P

    2014-04-01

    This study assessed the publication performance of university departments of anesthesiology in Austria, Germany and Switzerland. The number of publications, original articles, impact factors and citations were evaluated. A search was performed in PubMed to identify publications related to anesthesiology from 2001 to 2010. All articles from anesthesiology journals listed in the fields of anesthesia/pain therapy, critical care and emergency medicine by the "journal citation report 2013" in Thomson Reuters ISI web of knowledge were included. Articles from non-anaesthesiology journals, where the stem of the word anesthesia (anes*, anaes*, anäst*, anast*) appears in the affiliation field of PubMed, were included as well. The time periods 2001-2005 and 2006-2010 were compared. Articles were allocated to university departments in Austria, Germany and Switzerland via the affiliation field. A total of 45 university departments in Austria, Germany and Switzerland and 125,979 publications from 2,863 journals (65 anesthesiology journals, 2,798 non-anesthesiology journals) were analyzed. Of the publications 23 % could not be allocated to a given university department of anesthesiology. In the observation period the university department of anesthesiology in Berlin achieved most publications (n = 479) and impact points (1,384), whereas Vienna accumulated most original articles (n = 156). Austria had the most publications per million inhabitants in 2006-2010 (n=50) followed by Switzerland (n=49) and Germany (n=35). The number of publications during the observation period decreased in Germany (0.5 %), Austria (7 %) and Switzerland (8 %). Tables 2 and 4-8 of this article are available at Springer Link under Supplemental. The research performance varied among the university departments of anesthesiology in Germany, Austria and Switzerland whereby larger university departments, such as Berlin or Vienna published most. Publication output in Germany, Austria and

  19. Austria's environmental law in comparison with the environmental law of the EC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantscher, S.H.

    1991-11-01

    The thesis describes and compares the environmental legislation in Austria and the EC. A short introduction into structure and organization of EC-institutions and EC-legislation in followed by an examination of the constitutional foundations of environmental policy in Austria and the EC respectively. After the adoption for the Single European Act, the EEC-Treaty provides for objectives, orientation criteria and instruments regarding environmental protection. These provisions constitute a valid basis for environmental action. The adoption of a constitutional law does equally declare environmental protection as an objective of the state in Austria, however, its significance is regarded as rather controversial. Some provinces ('Laender') have shown a higher degree of sensitivity in their constitutions . The distribution of powers between the EC and its member stated in the field of environmental protection is of particular interests. It is shown, that the principle of subsidiarity and the safeguard-clauses leave discretion to the member states. Much will be determined by the European Court of Justice (ECJ) . Main emphasis has been placed on the description and comparison of Austria's and the EEC-environmental legislation. Environmental legislation of Austria as well as the EC is outlined sector by sector (i.e. water, air, chemicals, waste, soil, fauna and flora) and subsequently the object of a detailed comparison. Criteria, such as - preventiveness -stringency - focus, depth and comprehensiveness - clearness and legal force of the regulations have been applied. For most of the mentioned sectors it is correct to state, that Austria's legislation is more preventive, advanced, comprehensive and stringent (especially regulations related to water, waste, chemicals, also air) . However, there are particular areas (e.g. air quality objectives, noise limits for construction plants) where Austria' s legislation may well get a fresh impetus

  20. Puente sobre el río Enns, Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polensky & Zöllner, Constructora

    1965-09-01

    Full Text Available A road bridge has been recently opened over the Enns river at Steyr (Austria. The purpose is to improve traffic and avoid the bottlenecks that often took place. The bridge is supplemented by three other works of lesser importance, namely two bridges and a tunnel for pedestrians. The bridge structure supporting the decks is cellular, box type. It has three compartments, and four vertical partitions, whose thickness varies from 6 m over the intermediate piles to 2.30 m at the crown. There are three spans, of 47, 101 and 70 m length. The bridge intrados forms a smooth curve. Two overhangs extend from the central structure, and provide sidewalks for pedestrians: the deck itself having a width of 17 m. The structure was made in successive overhangs, in 3.50 m sections. Longitudinal prestressing, by means of PZ-A-100 type cables, was done by applying an initial loading of 120 t. The cables run in tubes. After the concrete had reached a suitable strength, the cables were stretched. The tubes were then filled with cement mortar, and in this operation air suction equipment was utilised to make sure that no air cavities were left.Se ha construido y puesto en servicio un puente para carretera sobre el río Enns en Steyr (Austria, con objeto de mejorar la circulación de vehículos y evitar las congestiones que se producían frecuentemente. Complementan al puente otras tres obras de menor importancia, constituidas por dos puentes y un túnel para el paso de peatones. La estructura que soporta el tablero es celular, tipo cajón, de tres células y cuatro almas y tabiques verticales, con canto variable desde 6 m sobre las pilas intermedias a 2,30 m en la clave. El puente se subdivide en tres tramos de 47, 101 y 70 m de luz, respectivamente. El intradós sigue el perfil de una curva suave. Del cuerpo de la estructura salen dos ménsulas que soportan los dos andenes para peatones, quedando el tablero con una anchura total de 17 metros. La estructura se construy

  1. Radiation surveillance in Austria in 2000. Dates and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobek, E.; Streeruwitz, E.

    2001-11-01

    This report presents results of the radiation surveillance in Austria in 2000, performed by the competent authorities, based on the Austrian Radiation Protection Act. In particular data of large scale monitoring concerning radioactive contamination and of nuclear research reactor emission and immission control are given. In Austria an extensive program is realized for the purpose of large scale surveillance on radioactivity. On the one hand an early radiation warning system with 336 gamma dose rate monitors and several partly nuclide specific air contamination monitors is operated. The data are automatically communicated to various authorities in real-time. On the other hand the radionuclide content of various media such as air, precipitation, surface water, foodstuffs etc is monitored by periodic sampling and subsequent analysis in laboratories. In addition to this routine program special projects are carried out for investigation of specific media and to improve the knowledge of the time dependence respectively of regional aspects of the contamination situation. The inspection of the nuclear installations by the authorities concerning emissions and immissions is set up of two parts: inspection of the quality of the internal control by the operator and independent surveillance by examination of samples taken by the authority. In 2000 the average annual radiation exposure of the Austrian population amounted to about 4.2 mSv effective dose per person. The contributions dominating by far originate from natural and medical sources of radiation. In comparison with these, contributions from all other sources of radiation are extremely small. The average annual effective dose caused by natural radiation amounts to approximately 2.9 mSv per person. The inhalation of the radioactive noble gas radon and its short lived progeny in the mean contributes more than half to this exposure. Mainly because of different radon concentrations considerable variations in natural

  2. Radiation measurements in Austria in 1999 - date and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobek, E.; Streeruwitz, E.

    2000-12-01

    This report presents results of the radiation surveillance in Austria in 1999, performed by the General Directorate VI of the Federal Chancellery, based on the Austrian Radiation Protection Act. In particular data of large scale monitoring concerning radioactive contamination and of nuclear research reactor emission and immission control are given. In Austria an extensive program is realized for the purpose of large scale surveillance on radioactivity. On the one hand an Early Radiation Warning System with 336 gamma dose rate monitors and several partly nuclide specific air contamination monitors is operated. The data are automatically communicated to various authorities in real-time. On the other hand the radionuclide content of various media such as air, precipitation, surface water, foodstuffs etc. is monitored by periodic sampling and subsequent analysis in laboratories. In addition to this routine program special projects are carried out for investigation of specific media and to improve the knowledge of the time dependence respectively of regional aspects of the contamination situation. The inspection of the nuclear installations by the authorities concerning emissions and immissions is set up of two parts: inspection of the quality of the internal control by the operator independent surveillance by examination of samples taken by the authority. In 1999 the average annual radiation exposure of the Austrian population amounted to about 4.6 mSv effective dose per person. The contributions dominating by far originate from natural and medical sources of radiation. In comparison with these, contributions from all other sources of radiation are extremely small. The average annual effective dose caused by natural radiation amounts to approximately 3.2 mSv per person. The inhalation of the radioactive noble gas radon and its short lived progeny in the mean contributes more than half to this exposure. Mainly because of different radon values considerable variations in

  3. Determination of regional Euler pole parameters for Eastern Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umnig, Elke; Weber, Robert; Schartner, Matthias; Brueckl, Ewald

    2017-04-01

    The horizontal motion of lithospheric plates can be described as rotations around a rotation axes through the Earth's center. The two possible points where this axes intersects the surface of the Earth are called Euler poles. The rotation is expressed by the Euler parameters in terms of angular velocities together with the latitude and longitude of the Euler pole. Euler parameters were calculated from GPS data for a study area in Eastern Austria. The observation network is located along the Mur-Mürz Valley and the Vienna Basin. This zone is part of the Vienna Transfer Fault, which is the major fault system between the Eastern Alps and the Carpathians. The project ALPAACT (seismological and geodetic monitoring of ALpine-PAnnonian ACtive Tectonics) investigated intra plate tectonic movements within the Austrian part in order to estimate the seismic hazard. Precise site coordinate time series established from processing 5 years of GPS observations are available for the regional network spanning the years from 2010.0 to 2015.0. Station velocities with respect to the global reference frame ITRF2008 have been computed for 23 sites. The common Euler vector was estimated on base of a subset of reliable site velocities, for stations directly located within the area of interest. In a further step a geokinematic interpretation shall be carried out. Therefore site motions with respect to the Eurasian Plate are requested. To obtain this motion field different variants are conceivable. In a simple approach the mean ITRF2008 velocity of IGS site GRAZ can be adopted as Eurasian rotational velocity. An improved alternative is to calculate site-specific velocity differences between the Euler rotation and the individual site velocities. In this poster presentation the Euler parameters, the residual motion field as well as first geokinematic interpretation results are presented.

  4. Assessing management effects on Oak forests in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Sishir; Pietsch, Stephan A.; Hasenauer, Hubert

    2010-05-01

    Historic land use as well as silvicultural management practices have changed the structures and species composition of central European forests. Such changes have effects on the growth of forests and contribute to global warming. As insufficient information on historic forest management is available it is hard to explain the effect of management on forests growth and its possible consequences to the environment. In this situation, the BIOME-BGC model, which integrates the main physical, biological and physiological processes based on current understanding of ecophysiology is an option for assessing the management effects through tracking the cycling of energy, water, carbon and nutrients within a given ecosystems. Such models are increasingly employed to simulate current and future forest dynamics. This study first compares observed standing tree volume, carbon and nitrogen content in soil in the high forests and coppice with standards stands of Oak forests in Austria. Biome BGC is then used to assess the effects of management on forest growth and to explain the differences with measured parameters. Close positive correlations and unbiased results and statistically insignificant differences between predicted and observed volumes indicates the application of the model as a diagnostic tool to assess management effects in oak forests. The observed data in 2006 and 2009 was further compared with the results of respective model runs. Further analysis on simulated data shows that thinning leads to an increase in growth efficiency (GE), nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and water use efficiency (WUE), and to a decrease in the radiation use efficiency (RUE) in both forests. Among all studied growth parameters, only the difference in the NUE was statistically significant. This indicates that the difference in the yield of forests is mainly governed by the NUE difference in stands due to thinning. The coppice with standards system produces an equal amount of net primary

  5. Radiation protection education of executive authorities in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timal, Guenter

    2000-01-01

    Legal basis and the self-protection of the own action forces are the reasons, why the executive authorities (Federal Police and Federal Gendarmerie) in Austria are engaged with radiation protection. The main task of education and training is delegated to the Civil Protection School, which belongs to the Department for Civil Protection in the Federal Ministry of the Interior. The possible missions range from control of transports with dangerous goods, accidents with radioactive materials, measurements after accidents in nuclear power plants, preventing illicit trafficking up to satellite crashes. The education is split in three sections, one week each, with two examinations. For preserving the standard of education and readiness for duty a regular further education and obligatory advanced training is a basic premise. The aim of the education is to educate autonomous and self dependent action-forces, which are under compliance of self-protection in a position, to detect radioactive sources or contamination, to measure them and to secure the dangerous zone. The programs of the education and training include theoretical instructions and practical exercises. The programs are currently evaluated and updated according to the latest standards to pedagogics, didactics and technology. This radiation protection education is offered in a modified form also to other action forces and authorities who were entrusted with tasks in radiation protection (e.g. fire brigade, red cross, telecommunications, customs, citizens of municipalities, provinces and ministries) to guarantee a most preferable basic training. The programs are supplemented by special courses, as for example radiation detection with helicopters supported with a GPS-airborne monitoring system or special instruction courses in connection with border protection monitors to prevent the illicit trafficking of radioactive sources or nuclear material. (author)

  6. First investigations of an ice core from Eisriesenwelt cave (Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. May

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Investigations into the genesis and dynamical properties of cave ice are essential for assessing the climate significance of these underground glaciers. We drilled an ice core through a 7.1 m-thick ice body filling a large cavern of the dynamic ice cave Eisenriesenwelt (Austria. In addition to visual core inspections, quasi-continuous measurements at 2 cm resolution comprised particulate matter, stable water isotope (δ18O, δD and electrolytic conductivity profiles supplemented by specifically selected samples analyzed for tritium and radiocarbon. We found that recent ablation led to an almost complete loss of bomb-derived tritium removing any ice accumulated since, at least, the early fifties leaving the actual ice surface even below the natural tritium level. The small particulate organic masses rendered radiocarbon dating inconclusive, though a crude estimate gave a basal ice age in the order of several thousand years. The visual stratigraphy and all investigated parameters showed a clear dichotomy between the upper 2 m and the bottom 3 m of the core, which points to a substantial change in the ice formation process. Main features of the core comprise the changing appearance and composition of distinct cryocalcite layers, extremely low total ion content and a surprisingly high variability of the isotope signature. Co-isotope evaluation (δD versus δ18O of the core in comparison with data from precipitation and karst spring water clearly indicate that ice formation is governed by (slow freezing of dripping water.

  7. CH4 emissions from enteric fermentation in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebetsroither, E.; Orthofer, R.; Strebl, F.

    2002-07-01

    This report contains the results of an inventory for methane (CH 4 ) emissions from agricultural enteric fermentation in Austria for the period 1980-2001. Emissions were calculated according to IPCC guidelines. The detailed IPCC 'Tier 2' methodology was applied for cattle (which contribute the vast majority of emissions). The 'Tier 2' methodology relies on specific emission factors that are calculated from the energy intake for different cattle farming practices. The less detailed 'Tier 1' methodology was applied for all other animal categories. Emissions from organic and conventional farming practices were calculated separately. Results indicate that CH 4 emissions from manure management have increased from 1980 to a peak in 1984-1985, and since then have steadily declined. CH 4 emissions were about 169.300 t/yr in 'Kyoto' base year 1990 and have since declined by about 11 % to about 150.000 t/yr in 2001. Almost all emissions (95 % in 1990 and 94 % in 2001) are caused by cattle farming. The contribution of 'dairy cattle' to all emissions from cattle was 49 % in 1990, and has declined to 43 % in 2001. The overall reduction was caused mainly by a decrease in the total numbers of animals. However, in the case of dairy cows the reduction of animals is partly counterbalanced by an increase in emissions per animal (because of the increasing gross energy intake and milk production of milk cattle since 1990). Uncertainties of emissions were estimated with a 'Monte Carlo' simulation. Assuming a normal probability distribution, the calculated standard deviation is 4 %. This indicates there is a 95 % probability that CH 4 emissions are between ± 2 standard deviations, i.e. between 153.000 t and 178.000 t in the year 1990 and between 138.000 t and 162.000 t in the year 2001. (author)

  8. Radiation protection education of executive authorities in Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timal, Guenter [Federal Ministry of the Interior, Department for Civil Protection, Civil Protection School, Vienna (Austria)

    2000-05-01

    Legal basis and the self-protection of the own action forces are the reasons, why the executive authorities (Federal Police and Federal Gendarmerie) in Austria are engaged with radiation protection. The main task of education and training is delegated to the Civil Protection School, which belongs to the Department for Civil Protection in the Federal Ministry of the Interior. The possible missions range from control of transports with dangerous goods, accidents with radioactive materials, measurements after accidents in nuclear power plants, preventing illicit trafficking up to satellite crashes. The education is split in three sections, one week each, with two examinations. For preserving the standard of education and readiness for duty a regular further education and obligatory advanced training is a basic premise. The aim of the education is to educate autonomous and self dependent action-forces, which are under compliance of self-protection in a position, to detect radioactive sources or contamination, to measure them and to secure the dangerous zone. The programs of the education and training include theoretical instructions and practical exercises. The programs are currently evaluated and updated according to the latest standards to pedagogics, didactics and technology. This radiation protection education is offered in a modified form also to other action forces and authorities who were entrusted with tasks in radiation protection (e.g. fire brigade, red cross, telecommunications, customs, citizens of municipalities, provinces and ministries) to guarantee a most preferable basic training. The programs are supplemented by special courses, as for example radiation detection with helicopters supported with a GPS-airborne monitoring system or special instruction courses in connection with border protection monitors to prevent the illicit trafficking of radioactive sources or nuclear material. (author)

  9. Radioactivity measurement in Austria 1994 and 1995. Data and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobek, E.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents results of the radiation surveillance in Austria in the years 1994 and 1995, performed by the former Federal Ministry of Health and Consumer Protection, based on the Austrian Radiation Protection Act. In particular data of large scale monitoring concerning radioactive contaminations and of nuclear research reactor emission and immission control are given. By revision of the Federal Ministry Act the competence for these tasks has been turned over to the General Directorate VI of the Federal Chancellery. For the purpose of large scale surveillance on one hand an Early Radiation Warning System comprised of 336 gamma dose rate monitors is operated by the Federal Chancellery. The data are automatically communicated to various authorities in real-time. On the other hand the radionuclide content of various media such as air, precipitation, surface water, foodstuffs etc. is monitored via periodic sampling and analysis in the laboratory. In addition to this routine program special projects are carried out for investigation of specific media and to improve the knowledge of the time dependence respectively of regional aspects of the contamination situation. In the years 1994 and 1995 the average annual radiation exposure of the Austrian population amounted to about 4.6 mSv effective dose. The contributions dominating by far originate from natural and medical sources of radiation. Contributions of all other sources of radiation are extremely small in comparison with these. The average annual effective dose caused by natural radiation amounts to approximately 3.2 mSv. The inhalation of the radioactive noble gas radon and its short lived progeny in the mean contributes more than half to this exposure, but considerable variations occur. There are regions with particular geological conditions where the exposure due to radon by far exceeds all other exposures. (author)

  10. Sustainable energy development in Austria until 2020: Insights from applying the integrated model 'e3.at'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocker, Andrea; Grossmann, Anett; Madlener, Reinhard; Wolter, Marc Ingo

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the Austrian research project 'Renewable energy in Austria: Modeling possible development trends until 2020'. The project investigated possible economic and ecological effects of a substantially increased use of renewable energy sources in Austria. Together with stakeholders and experts, three different scenarios were defined, specifying possible development trends for renewable energy in Austria. The scenarios were simulated for the period 2006-2020, using the integrated environment-energy-economy model 'e3.at'. The modeling results indicate that increasing the share of renewable energy sources in total energy use is an important but insufficient step towards achieving a sustainable energy system in Austria. A substantial increase in energy efficiency and a reduction of residential energy consumption also form important cornerstones of a sustainable energy policy. - Highlights: → Together with stakeholders three renewable energy scenarios for Austria were defined. → The scenarios were simulated using an integrated environment-energy-economy model. → Increasing the share of renewables in total energy use is important but insufficient. → Efficiency and a cut of energy use are also essential for a sustainable energy system.

  11. Xenomonitoring of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae for the Presence of Filarioid Helminths in Eastern Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Susanne Übleis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Information on mosquito-borne filarioid helminths in Austria is scarce, but recent discoveries of Dirofilaria repens indicate autochthonous distribution of this parasite in Eastern Austria. In the current xenomonitoring study, more than 48,000 mosquitoes were collected in Eastern Austria between 2013 and 2015, using different sampling techniques and storage conditions, and were analysed in pools with molecular tools for the presence of filarioid helminth DNA. Overall, DNA of D. repens, Setaria tundra, and two unknown filarioid helminths were documented in twenty mosquito pools within the mitochondrial cox1 gene (barcode region. These results indicate that S. tundra, with roe deer as definite hosts, is common in Eastern Austria, with most occurrences in floodplain mosquitoes (e.g., Aedes vexans. Moreover, DNA of D. repens was found in an Anopheles plumbeus mosquito close to the Slovakian border, indicating that D. repens is endemic in low prevalence in Eastern Austria. This study shows that xenomonitoring is an adequate tool to analyse the presence of filarioid helminths, but results are influenced by mosquito sampling techniques, storage conditions, and molecular protocols.

  12. Cost distribution of bluetongue surveillance and vaccination programmes in Austria and Switzerland (2007–2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinior, Beate; Loitsch, Angelika; Stockreiter, Simon; Hutter, Sabine; Richter, Veronika; Lebl, Karin; Schwermer, Heinzpeter; Käsbohrer, Annemarie

    2018-01-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an emerging transboundary disease in Europe, which can cause significant production losses among ruminants. The analysis presented here assessed the costs of BTV surveillance and vaccination programmes in Austria and Switzerland between 2007 and 2016. Costs were compared with respect to time, type of programme, geographical area and who was responsible for payment. The total costs of the BTV vaccination and surveillance programmes in Austria amounted to €23.6 million, whereas total costs in Switzerland were €18.3 million. Our analysis demonstrates that the costs differed between years and geographical areas, both within and between the two countries. Average surveillance costs per animal amounted to approximately €3.20 in Austria compared with €1.30 in Switzerland, whereas the average vaccination costs per animal were €6.20 in Austria and €7.40 in Switzerland. The comparability of the surveillance costs is somewhat limited, however, due to differences in each nation’s surveillance (and sampling) strategy. Given the importance of the export market for cattle production, investments in such programmes are more justified for Austria than for Switzerland. The aim of the retrospective assessment presented here is to assist veterinary authorities in planning and implementing cost-effective and efficient control strategies for emerging livestock diseases. PMID:29363572

  13. Cost distribution of bluetongue surveillance and vaccination programmes in Austria and Switzerland (2007-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinior, Beate; Firth, Clair L; Loitsch, Angelika; Stockreiter, Simon; Hutter, Sabine; Richter, Veronika; Lebl, Karin; Schwermer, Heinzpeter; Käsbohrer, Annemarie

    2018-03-03

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an emerging transboundary disease in Europe, which can cause significant production losses among ruminants. The analysis presented here assessed the costs of BTV surveillance and vaccination programmes in Austria and Switzerland between 2007 and 2016. Costs were compared with respect to time, type of programme, geographical area and who was responsible for payment. The total costs of the BTV vaccination and surveillance programmes in Austria amounted to €23.6 million, whereas total costs in Switzerland were €18.3 million. Our analysis demonstrates that the costs differed between years and geographical areas, both within and between the two countries. Average surveillance costs per animal amounted to approximately €3.20 in Austria compared with €1.30 in Switzerland, whereas the average vaccination costs per animal were €6.20 in Austria and €7.40 in Switzerland. The comparability of the surveillance costs is somewhat limited, however, due to differences in each nation's surveillance (and sampling) strategy. Given the importance of the export market for cattle production, investments in such programmes are more justified for Austria than for Switzerland. The aim of the retrospective assessment presented here is to assist veterinary authorities in planning and implementing cost-effective and efficient control strategies for emerging livestock diseases. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Nationallizenzen - ein Desiderat in Österreich / National licences: a desideratum in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer, Bruno

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In Germany national licences are funded by the "Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG" as part of their system for nationwide literature supply. In contrast there is no comparable scheme and no central office to finance and foster research information infrastructure in Austria. Universities in Austria obviously suffer more and more from the lack of backfile archives particularly in the field of e-journals and literature databases. Out of this in 2007 the task force "ARGE Bibliotheksdirektor/-innen" started to pull the attention of university steering boards and political decision-makers towards this important topic which is critical for science and research in Austria. The initiative is supported by the "Kooperation e-Media Österreich".

  15. Current State of Laparoscopic Colonic Surgery in Austria: A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klugsberger, Bettina; Haas, Dietmar; Oppelt, Peter; Neuner, Ludwig; Shamiyeh, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that laparoscopic colonic resection has significant benefits in comparison with open approaches in patients with benign and malignant disease. The proportion of colonic and rectal resections conducted laparoscopically in Austria is not currently known; the aim of this study was to evaluate the current status of laparoscopic colonic surgery in Austria. A questionnaire was distributed to all general surgical departments in Austria. In collaboration with IMAS, an Austrian market research institute, an online survey was used to identify laparoscopic and open colorectal resections performed in 2013. The results were compared with data from the National Hospital Morbidity Database (NHMD), in which administrative in-patient data were also collected from all general surgical departments in Austria in 2013. Fifty-three of 99 surgical departments in Austria responded (53.5%); 4335 colonic and rectal resections were carried out in the participating departments, representing 50.5% of all NHMD-recorded colorectal resections (n = 8576) in Austria in 2013. Of these 4335 colonic and rectal resections, 2597 (59.9%) were carried out using an open approach, 1674 (38.6%) were laparoscopic, and an exact classification was not available for 64 (1.5%). Among the NHMD-recorded colonic and rectal resections, 6342 (73.9%) were carried out with an open approach, and 2234 (26.1%) were laparoscopic. The proportion of colorectal resections that are carried out laparoscopically is low (26.1%). Technical challenges and a learning curve with a significant number of cases may be reasons for the slow adoption of laparoscopic colonic surgery.

  16. Information service 'Energy and Environment'. Reports from research and practical experiences in Austria. Annual report 1991/92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faninger, G.

    1992-04-01

    In the present edition the results of research in Austria from the year 1991 to the following topics will be described: energy research and energy policy, solar and heat pump technologies, photovoltaic systems in Austria, biomass heating systems, efficient energy technologies and system analysis. There are 35 contributions, only one of them is of INIS interest. (author, extended by Quittner)

  17. Genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from Portugal, Austria, and Israel reveals higher genetic variability within the type II lineage

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study compared genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from Portugal, Austria and Israel. For this, we genotyped 90 T. gondii isolates (16 from Portugal, 67 from Austria and 7 from Israel) using 10 nested PCR-restriction length polymorphism (RFLP) genetic markers and 15 microsatellite (...

  18. Susceptibility to mountain hazards in Austria - paradigms of vulnerability revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Sven

    2010-05-01

    The concept of vulnerability is pillared by multiple disciplinary theories underpinning either a technical or a social origin of the concept and resulting in a range of paradigms for either a qualitative or quantitative assessment of vulnerability. However, efforts to reduce susceptibility to hazards and to create disaster-resilient communities require intersections among these theories, since human activity cannot be seen independently from the environmental setting. Acknowledging different roots of disciplinary paradigms, issues determining structural, economic, institutional and social vulnerability are discussed with respect to mountain hazards in Austria. The underlying idea of taking such an integrative viewpoint was the cognition that human action in mountain environments affects the state of vulnerability, and the state of vulnerability in turn shapes the possibilities of human action. It is argued that structural vulnerability as originator results in considerable economic vulnerability, generated by the institutional settings of dealing with natural hazards and shaped by the overall societal framework. Hence, the vulnerability of a specific location and within a considered point of time is triggered by the hazardous event and the related physical susceptibility of structures, such as buildings located on a torrent fan. Depending on the specific institutional settings, economic vulnerability of individuals or of the society results, above all with respect to imperfect loss compensation mechanisms in the areas under investigation. While this potential for harm can be addressed as social vulnerability, the concept of institutional vulnerability has been developed with respect to the overall political settings of governmental risk management. As a result, the concept of vulnerability, as being used in natural sciences, can be extended by integration of possible reasons why such physical susceptibility of structures exists, and by integration of compensation

  19. Epidemiology and socioeconomic impact of seasonal affective disorder in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pjrek, E; Baldinger-Melich, P; Spies, M; Papageorgiou, K; Kasper, S; Winkler, D

    2016-02-01

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a subtype of recurrent depressive or bipolar disorder that is characterized by regular onset and remission of affective episodes at the same time of the year. The aim of the present study was to provide epidemiological data and data on the socioeconomic impact of SAD in the general population of Austria. We conducted a computer-assisted telephone interview in 910 randomly selected subjects (577 females and 333 males) using the Seasonal Health Questionnaire (SHQ), the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ), and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). Telephone numbers were randomly drawn from all Austrian telephone books and transformed using the random last digits method. The last birthday method was employed to choose the target person for the interviews. Out of our subjects, 2.5% fulfilled criteria for the seasonal pattern specifier according to DSM-5 and 2.4% (95% CI=1.4-3.5%) were diagnosed with SAD. When applying the ICD-10 criteria 1.9% (95% CI=0.9-2.8%) fulfilled SAD diagnostic criteria. The prevalence of fall-winter depression according to the Kasper-Rosenthal criteria was determined to be 3.5%. The criteria was fulfilled by 15.1% for subsyndromal SAD (s-SAD). We did not find any statistically significant gender differences in prevalence rates. When using the DSM-5 as a gold standard for the diagnosis of SAD, diagnosis derived from the SPAQ yielded a sensitivity of 31.8% and a specificity of 97.2%. Subjects with SAD had significantly higher scores on the SDS and higher rates of sick leave and days with reduced productivity than healthy subjects. Prevalence estimates for SAD with the SHQ are lower than with the SPAQ. Our data are indicative of the substantial burden of disease and the socioeconomic impact of SAD. This epidemiological data shows a lack of gender differences in SAD prevalence. The higher rates of females in clinical SAD samples might, at least in part, be explained by lower help seeking behaviour in

  20. Report about the agricultural situation in Austria 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poschacher, G.; Panholzer, L.; Hofer, O.; Moravec, K.; Fehrer, R.; Brier, K.

    2001-01-01

    In 2000 economic growth in Austria amounted to 3.2 %. The inflation rate rose from 0.6 % in 1999 to 2.3 % in 2000. Apart from the increase in crude oil price the rise in indirect taxes contributed as well to the upward trend of prices. According to Eurostat the unemployed rate went down to 3.7 %. According to the agricultural accounts agricultural incomes were rising again in 2000 for the first time since 1995 (+1.6 %). The final production of agriculture and forestry amounted to ATS 62.9 billion (+0.4 %, of which agriculture ATS 50.3 billion, and forestry ATS 12.6 billion). Whereas the yields in plant production decreased in particular due to the drought (-6.1 %), the gross yield from animal husbandry increased by 8.1 %. this rise is in particular due to the recovery of the pig market. According to the Austrian Institute of Economic Research (Wirtschafts-forschungsinstitut WIFO) direct payments rose compared to the year before by ATS 0.5 billion to ATS 17.8 billion. The share of agriculture and forestry in the GDP decreased to 1.3 %. According to WIFO the number of persons working full-time in the agricultural sector totalled 140,000 in 2000. The agricultural quota amounted to 4.0 %. In agricultural trade a rise was recorded again in exports (15.6 %) as well as in imports (14.7 %) in 2000 compared to the year 1999. Exports of agricultural goods totalled almost ATS 47 billion, of which two thirds were exports to EU member countries. Agricultural imports amounted to almost ATS 61 billion, of which three quarters came from EU member countries. The agricultural trade balance decreased to - ATS 14 billion. In 2000 the food industry was severely hi in particular by the current meat crises. European consumers organizations and associations call for the rethinking in the subsidisation policy and a promotion of organic farming. The core elements of the European foodstuffs model should be in particular security and safety, quality, origin, and diversity. In 2000 Austrian

  1. Contemporary studies on the tree-border area of Slovenia, Italy and Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Gosar

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The area wher three-borders of Austria, ltaly and Slovenia meet was centuries long a transitional rgion between the core areas of the Mediterranean and Alps. The under Austria unified area was divided among three states in 1918. Since than diverse systems in economy and politics have changed the once supportive economies. Tendencies to develop in each of the bordering states such economies which would support each other are becoming a reality. Studies, performed by universities of Ljubljana, Trieste, Udine and Klagenfurt should provide knowledge on the existing socio-geographic structure of the above named border regions.

  2. From micromorphology to palaeoenvironment: The MIS 10 to MIS 5 record in Paudorf (Lower Austria)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sprafke, Tobias; Thiel, Christine; Terhorst, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    The loess-palaeosol sequence (LPS) in Paudorf, Lower Austria is characterised by varying dust sedimentation rates, re-deposition with admixture of local rock fragments, erosion and pedogenic overprinting. Detailed semi-quantitative micromorphological analyses reveal the complex genesis of the pal......The loess-palaeosol sequence (LPS) in Paudorf, Lower Austria is characterised by varying dust sedimentation rates, re-deposition with admixture of local rock fragments, erosion and pedogenic overprinting. Detailed semi-quantitative micromorphological analyses reveal the complex genesis...

  3. Statement at World Cancer Day, 4 February 2013, Vienna, Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text: Good afternoon, Ladies and Gentlemen, I welcome you all to this IAEA event marking World Cancer Day 2013. I am very pleased that we have with us today Professor Kutluk, President-Elect of the Union of International Cancer Control, which initiated World Cancer Day. I also welcome the distinguished Ambassador of Sudan, H.E. Mr. Mahmoud Hassan El Amin, and Dr. Munki Lee, Minister, Permanent Mission of the Republic of Korea, as well as our own Medical Director Dr. Matthias Lademann. Many events are being held around the world today to draw attention to cancer. This year, there is a special focus on dispelling common misconceptions about the disease. One of the most persistent myths about cancer is that it is mainly a disease of wealthy countries. In fact, around 70 percent of cancer deaths occur in developing countries. Another myth is that cancer is invariably a death sentence. In reality, many cancers respond well to treatment and can even be cured. Thanks to early detection and modern treatment methods, millions of men and women now live normal lives for many decades after diagnosis. Often, they die in old age of something other than cancer. Here in Austria, as in all developed countries, we take access to radiotherapy for granted. But the picture is very different in developing countries. It is estimated that there is a shortage of around 5 000 radiotherapy machines in developing countries. That means that millions of people, in Africa and elsewhere, have no access to diagnostic services or treatment. Too many die of conditions that are actually treatable. That is an immense human tragedy. The IAEA Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy - PACT - has been working hard to try to make radiotherapy services available in all countries. Through our Technical Cooperation programme, we are supporting over 130 projects in cancer diagnosis, management and treatment. We help countries to establish oncology and radiotherapy centres. We provide extensive training for

  4. BETWEEN EUROPEANIZATION, UNITARISM AND AUTONOMY. REMARKS ON THE CURRENT SITUATION OF FEDERALISM IN AUSTRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bußjäger

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The following article describes current challenges of Austrian federalism. On ground of the Federal Constitution from 1920 Austria is a federation with nine autonomous Länder. Federalism is one of the basic principles of the constitution. Nevertheless the Länder are faced with centralizing drive due to Europeanization and unitarism. On the other hand the Länder have a strong regional identity. The Länder are emotionally deeply rooted in theAustrian population. The Länder also participate well in the decision making process on European level.Nevertheless the division of competencies both in legislation and administration between Federation and Länder is complicated and needs to be modernised. In the past various reform projects on federal level had failed while various reforms in the Land constitutions have led to more innovation on Land level. Despite these facts paradigms of reform debates on Austria´s federal system have changed: Until the early nineties of 20th century constitutionalreforms aimed to strengthen the role of the Länder. Since Austria´saccession to the EU reform projects the efficiency of the federal structures of Austria are doubted. Economical and financial crisis probably will increase the pressure for structural reforms.

  5. Topography and geology site effects from the intensity prediction model (ShakeMap) for Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Puy Papí Isaba, María; Jia, Yan; Weginger, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    The seismicity in Austria can be categorized as moderated. Despite the fact that the hazard seems to be rather low, earthquakes can cause great damage and losses, specially in densely populated and industrialized areas. It is well known, that equations which predict intensity as a function of magnitude and distance, among other parameters, are useful tool for hazard and risk assessment. Therefore, this study aims to determine an empirical model of the ground shaking intensities (ShakeMap) of a series of earthquakes occurred in Austria between 1000 and 2014. Furthermore, the obtained empirical model will lead to further interpretation of both, contemporary and historical earthquakes. A total of 285 events, which epicenters were located in Austria, and a sum of 22.739 reported macreoseismic data points from Austria and adjoining countries, were used. These events are enclosed in the period 1000-2014 and characterized by having a local magnitude greater than 3. In the first state of the model development, the data was careful selected, e.g. solely intensities equal or greater than III were used. In a second state the data was adjusted to the selected empirical model. Finally, geology and topography corrections were obtained by means of the model residuals in order to derive intensity-based site amplification effects.

  6. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation: Austria's Long and Expensive Journey to Buenos Aires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, A.; Kuehner, R.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the following topics are worked out, with special emphasis on Austria: past trends in Greenhouse Gas Emissions, current legal situation, the cost of emission reduction, effective set of measures, the role of flexible instruments, Joint Implementation, Clean Development Mechanism, Emission Trading and the journey ahead. (author)

  7. Ida-Euroopa ja soorollid Austrias näitusel / Kati Ilves

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilves, Kati, 1984-

    2009-01-01

    Näitus "Soorollid - naiselikkus ja mehelikkus Ida-Euroopa kunstis" ("Gender Check. Feminity and Masculinity in Eastern European Art") Austria moodsa kunsti muuseumis 14. veebruarini 2010. Ekspositsioon algab 1960. aastatega. Kuraator Bojana Pejic. Eestit esindab 11 kunstnikku-rühmitust. Eesti valikust

  8. How to teach an old dog new tricks: liberalisation of the electricity market in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechner, H.

    2000-01-01

    This paper will present the core elements of the existing legal framework for the Austrian electricity sector embodied in the Electricity Act of August 1998, and will also focus on the amendments approved in July 2000 which will result in a 100% market opening by October 2001. It will also highlight some major experiences during the first 2 years of liberalisation in Austria. (author)

  9. The Relationships between Paranormal Belief, Creationism, Intelligent Design and Evolution at Secondary Schools in Vienna (Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, Erich; Turic, Katharina; Milasowszky, Norbert; Van Adzin, Katherine; Hergovich, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    The present study is the first to investigate the relationships between a multiple set of paranormal beliefs and the acceptance of evolution, creationism, and intelligent design, respectively, in Europe. Using a questionnaire, 2,129 students at secondary schools in Vienna (Austria) answered the 26 statements of the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale…

  10. Informal Assessment of Competences in the Context of Science Standards in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffl, Iris

    2016-01-01

    Science standards have been a topic in educational research in Austria for about ten years now. Starting in 2005, competency structure models have been developed for junior and senior classes of different school types. After evaluating these models, prototypic tasks were created to point out the meaning of the models to teachers. At the moment,…

  11. When culture does not matter: Experimental evidence from coalition formation ultimatum games in Austria and Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okada, A.; Riedl, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a cross-country comparison between Austria andJapan for an experimental 3-personcoalition formation ultimatum game. The experimental design allows thecomparison with respect to three decisions. (i)The coalition decision, (ii) proposers' demand behavior in 2- and

  12. Taastuvenergeetika võimalusi regionaalarengus (Austria näitel) / Maria Habicht, Andres Annuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Habicht, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Güssingi piirkond Austrias sattus eelmise sajandi kaheksakümnendate aastate lõpus majandusraskustesse majanduse orienteerituse tõttu ainult põllumajandusele. Olukorrast väljapääs leiti taastuvenergeetikas. Oma metsaressursse ja põllumaid kasutades on jõutud praeguseks varustada oma piirkond nii soojus- kui ka elektrienergiaga

  13. Austria kohtute korralduse, halduse ja kontrolli õiguslikud alused / Wolfgang Fellner ; tlk. Pille Vinkel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fellner, Wolfgang

    1996-01-01

    Austria kohtute süsteem: Ülemkohtupalat, kohtukolleegiumid, ülemliidumaakohtud, liidumaakohtud ja erikohtud; monokraatliku justiitshalduse organid, kohtute koosseisuliste kohtade määramine, teenistujate töölevõtt ja väljaõpe, kantseleitöö, justiitstöötajate palk ja teenistusjärelevalve

  14. HTR research and development in Austria. 1982-1984 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proksch, E.; Neumann, W.; Fritz, K.

    1984-01-01

    Due to Austria's participation in the OECD Dragon project, a considerable amount of R and D work has been performed and is still going on in several selected areas related to high-temperature gas cooled reactors. These areas are: High temperature reactor fuels; High temperature structural materials; High temperature helium test rig prestressed concrete pressure vessels

  15. Radon exposure at specific workplaces in Austria experiences and future challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, V.; Ringer, W.

    2017-01-01

    Radon exposure at specific workplaces like water works, radon spas, tourist mines and show caves were evaluated in Austria within pilot studies (2004-10) and have been regulated in an ordinance since 2008. In this article, the major results and experiences in radon measurements and dose assessments at those workplaces by the accredited AGES laboratory are presented. (authors)

  16. Burial duration, depth and air pocket explain avalanche survival patterns in Austria and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procter, Emily; Strapazzon, Giacomo; Dal Cappello, Tomas; Zweifel, Benjamin; Würtele, Andreas; Renner, Andreas; Falk, Markus; Brugger, Hermann

    2016-08-01

    To calculate the first Austrian avalanche survival curve and update a Swiss survival curve to explore survival patterns in the Alps. Avalanche accidents occurring between 2005/06 and 2012/13 in Austria and Switzerland were collected. Completely buried victims (i.e. burial of the head and chest) in open terrain with known outcome (survived or not survived) were included in the analysis. Extrication and survival curves were calculated using the Turnbull algorithm, as in previous studies. 633 of the 796 completely buried victims were included (Austria n=333, Switzerland n=300). Overall survival was 56% (Austria 59%; Switzerland 52%; p=0.065). Time to extrication was shorter in Austria for victims buried ≤60min (p15min. The survival curves resembled those previously published and support the idea that underlying survival patterns are reproducible. The results are in accordance with current recommendations for management of avalanche victims and serve as a reminder that expedient companion rescue within a few minutes is critical for survival. An air pocket was shown to be a positive prognostic factor for survival. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. First report of Rickettsia raoultii in field collected Dermacentor reticulatus ticks from Austria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duscher, G. G.; Hodžić, A.; Weiler, M.; Vaux, A. G. C.; Rudolf, Ivo; Sixl, W.; Medlock, J. M.; Versteirt, V.; Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 5 (2016), s. 720-722 ISSN 1877-959X Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Rickettsia raoultii * Dermacentor reticulatus * TIBOLA * DEBONEL * Austria Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 3.230, year: 2016

  18. Participation in Decision-Making in Class: Opportunities and Student Attitudes in Austria and Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithans, Monika; Grmek, Milena Ivanuš; Cagran, Branka

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on the issue of student involvement in the education process. The study comprised pupils aged 10-11, 13-14 and 16-17; 322 students were attending school in Austria, and 458 students were in Slovenia. The data were collected through a questionnaire and processed on the level of descriptive and inferential statistics. The right…

  19. West Nile Virus positive blood donation and subsequent entomological investigation, Austria, 2014

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolodziejek, J.; Seidel, B.; Jungbauer, C.; Dimmel, K.; Kolodziejek, M.; Rudolf, Ivo; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Allerberger, F.; Nowotny, N.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 5 (2015), e0126381 E-ISSN 1932-6203 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 261504 - EDENEXT Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : West Nile virus * Austria Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 3.057, year: 2015

  20. Local responses to global technological change – Contrasting restructuring practices in two rural communities in Austria.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fink, M.; Lang, R..; Harms, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we investigate into local economic restructuring in rural areas that are affected by disruptive technologies. Drawing on an institutionalist framework we apply systematic theory-informed case study analysis of two rural communities in Austria and identify practices that are crucial

  1. Experiential Education Employment Opportunities in Germany, Switzerland, and Austria: Options and Informational Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, William

    1995-01-01

    Discusses educational employment (EE) opportunities for students in German-speaking countries, and the implementation of EE programs by American colleges and universities. Also lists internship and EE opportunities administered by colleges, universities, and other organizations in the United States, Austria, Germany, and Switzerland. (six…

  2. Austria: Implementation of EU law requires only minor changes in existing legal regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pany, F.

    1997-01-01

    The existing Austrian radiation protection law is based on the radiation protection act of 1969 and the statutory ordinance in effect since 1972. Transformation of EURATOM Basic Standards into Austrian law will not cause essential modifications in practical radiation protection in Austria. (orig./CB) [de

  3. Results of a ring comparison analysis for gamma spectrometers in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steger, F.; Lovranich, E.; Leitner, A.

    1989-11-01

    For gammaspectrometric measuring devices in Austria, which are named by the Austrian Radiation Protection Commission to determine radioactivity after radiation accidents and reactor disasters, an intercomparison run with airfilters was organized. Results are presented and data such as comparision, reproducibility, absolute accuracy and others were calculated. 6 refs., 3 tabs. (Authors)

  4. The market penetration of solar and heat pump systems in Austria 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faninger, G.

    1992-02-01

    The market penetration of solar and heat pump systems in Austria in 1991 shows a high interest for solar systems as well as for swimming-pool heating as for domestic hot-water preparation and also an increase in the field of heat pumps especially for space heating. (author)

  5. Czech Post-industrial Landscapes in the Border Zone with Austria: Identification, Typology nad Value

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolejka, Jaromír; Klimánek, M.; Hrádek, Mojmír; Kirchner, Karel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 159, č. 159 (2017), s. 221-242 ISSN 0029-9138 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300860903 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : post-industrial landscape * mapping * GIS * border zone with Austria * classification Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography OBOR OECD: Physical geography Impact factor: 0.167, year: 2016

  6. A 35-year trend analysis for back pain in Austria: the role of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Großschädl, Franziska; Freidl, Wolfgang; Rásky, Eva; Burkert, Nathalie; Muckenhuber, Johanna; Stronegger, Willibald J

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of back pain is constantly increasing and a public health problem of high priority. In Austria there is a lack of empirical evidence for the development of back pain and its related factors. The present study aims to investigate trends in the prevalence of back pain across different subpopulations (sex, age, obesity). A secondary data analysis based on five nationally representative cross-sectional health surveys (1973-2007) was carried out. Face-to-face interviews were conducted in private homes in Austria. Subjects aged 20 years and older were included in the study sample (n = 178,818). Obesity was defined as BMI≥30 kg/m2 and adjusted for self-report bias. Back pain was measured as the self-reported presence of the disorder. The age-standardized prevalence of back pain was 32.9% in 2007; it was higher among women than men (pAustria and can be used to plan controlled promotion programs. Further monitoring is recommended in order to control risk groups and plan target group-specific prevention strategies. In Austria particular emphasis should be on obese individuals. We recommend conducting prospective studies to confirm our results and investigate causal relationships.

  7. Lichenized and lichenicolous fungi from the valley ‘Ochsental’ (Eastern Alps, Vorarlberg, Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilovitz, Peter Othmar; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    A list of 100 lichen species and 4 lichenicolous fungi from the valley ‘Ochsental’ is presented. Lecidea laboriosa is new to Austria. Lecanora swartzii, Orphniospora moriopsis, Protothelenella corrosa and the lichenicolous fungus Cercidospora stereocaulorum are new to the province of Vorarlberg. PMID:26869748

  8. Emergence of tick-borne encephalitis in new endemic areas in Austria: 42 years of surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, F X; Stiasny, K; Holzmann, H; Kundi, M; Sixl, W; Wenk, M; Kainz, W; Essl, A; Kunz, C

    2015-04-02

    Human infections with tick-borne encephalitis (TBE)virus are a public health concern in certain regions of Europe, central and eastern Asia. Expansions of endemic areas and increased incidences have been associated with different factors including ecological changes supporting tick reproduction, socioeconomic changes increasing human outdoor activities and climatic changes favouring virus circulation in natural foci. Austria is among the most strongly affected countries in Central Europe, but the annual number of cases has strongly declined due to vaccination. Here,we have analysed changes of the incidence of TBE in the unvaccinated population of all federal states of Austria over a period of 42 years. The overall incidence in Austria has remained constant, but new strongly affected endemic regions have emerged in alpine valleys in the west of Austria. In parallel, the incidence in low-land regions in the north-east of the country is decreasing. There is no evidence for a shift to higher altitudes of infection sites in the traditional TBE zones,but the average altitudes of some newly established endemic areas in the west are significantly higher. Our analyses underscore the focal nature of TBE endemic areas and the potential of TBE virus to emerge in previously unaffected regions.

  9. On the Brink of Education: Experiences of Refugees beyond the Age of Compulsory Education in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasoska, Tatjana; Proyer, Michelle

    2018-01-01

    This paper offers first-hand accounts of refugees beyond the age of compulsory education having arrived in Austria during the last five years. Their accounts were collected using qualitative interviews and a visual method to allow for different approaches towards their educational biographies. Nine individual and two group interviews (altogether…

  10. Research on Language Teaching and Learning in Austria (2004-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton-Puffer, Christiane; Faistauer, Renate; Vetter, Eva

    2011-01-01

    This overview of six years of research on language learning and teaching in Austria covers a period of dynamic development in the field. While all the studies reviewed here illustrate research driven by a combination of local and global concerns and theoretical frameworks, some specific clusters of research interest emerge. The first of these…

  11. Influenza vaccination in Austria from 1982 to 2011: a country resistant to influenza prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, Ursula; Böhm, Gabriela; Groman, Ernest

    2013-10-17

    Austria's position on influenza vaccination is unique. Generally it is recommended for everyone, and specifically for those over the age of 50 years and all children between 6 months and 5 years. However, the vaccination rate among the general public is one of the lowest in the world (Austria during a period of almost 30 years, from 1982 to 2011. Data presented in this study were obtained from three sources. Between 1982 and 1992, Austria showed little change in its low proportion of vaccinations (from 20 to 23 doses/1000); from 1992 to 1995, the proportion increased to 52 doses/1000, retaining its status as one of the low-use countries. By 2003, the proportion had increased to 127 doses/1000, but Austria remained one of the three lowest-use Western European countries. Between 2007 and 2011/2012, a steady decrease to 81 doses/1000 was observed. The Austrian population, and parts of the medical system, have shown distinct ignorance regarding the prevention and control of influenza over past decades. Possible reasons for this development are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pestivirus Exposure in Free-living and Captive Deer in Austria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krametter, Reinhild; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Loitsch, Angelika

    2004-01-01

    During the hunting season of 2001–02, blood and spleen samples from 59 red deer (Cervus elaphus), 77 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), four fallow deer (Dama dama), and five chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) were collected from nine hunting districts (n=133) and one deer farm (n=12) in southern Austria...

  13. MBL1 genotypes in wild boar populations from Sweden, Austria, the Czech Republic, and Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, I.-M.; Sandholm, K.; Ekdahl, K. N.

    2013-01-01

    from Sweden, Austria, the Czech Republic, and Japan were determined in regard to five previously described SNPs in MBL1. The T allele of G949T was present among the BC 2 animals. MBL-A serum concentration in the BC 2 animals showed a bimodal distribution, with one-third of the animals at levels between...

  14. Teaching Practices and Beliefs about Inclusion of General and Special Needs Teachers in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Susanne; Holzinger, Andrea; Krammer, Mathias; Gebhardt, Markus; Hessels, Marco G. P.

    2015-01-01

    Self-reports of primary and secondary school teachers who teach in general and special education classrooms in Austria were examined in terms of their engagement in teamwork (between special and general education teachers), instructional methods that they use, factors that positively influence inclusive education, and their needs for training. The…

  15. Early Childhood Education and Care in Austria: Challenges and Education Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smidt, Wilfried

    2018-01-01

    After a first peak in the late 1960s and early 1970s, early childhood education and care (ECEC) again plays an important role in the educational system in Austria. Over 90% of 3-5-year-old children attend non-familial institutions such as preschools. A consequence of this development is that new challenges arise, which have become the subject of…

  16. Forming Social Partnership Policy in Vocational Training of Service Sector Specialists in Germany and Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kredenets, Nadiya

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with the problem of forming social partnership policy in vocational training of service sector specialists in Germany and Austria. The foreign and domestic pedagogical experience in establishing an effective system of social partnership in vocational education has been analyzed. The author has considered main factors of social…

  17. Second-Generation Turkish Youth in Europe: Explaining the Academic Disadvantage in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This investigation examines the role of students' home and school variables in producing the achievement gap between second-generation Turkish students and their native peers in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland. Using the data from PISA 2006, this study supports past findings that both home and school resources affect the educational outcomes of…

  18. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 from Human Patients, Upper Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz-Gercek, Sigrid; Mittermayer, Helmut

    2009-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal type ST398 is usually associated with animals. We examined 1,098 confirmed MRSA samples from human patients and found that 21 were MRSA ST398. Most (16) patients were farmers. Increasing prevalence from 1.3% (2006) to 2.5% (2008) shows emergence of MRSA ST398 in humans in Austria. PMID:19402964

  19. The Rise of Work-Based Academic Education in Austria, Germany and Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Austria, Germany and Switzerland are renowned for their extensive systems of collective vocational skill formation, which, however, have developed largely in separation from higher education. This divide has become increasingly contested as a result of a variety of socioeconomic factors that have led to an increasing demand for higher level…

  20. More than a Culture Capsule: Teaching Switzerland and Austria in the German Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabisch, Peter Karl

    2012-01-01

    This essay offers some direction for greater integration of Austria and Switzerland into every level of the German language and culture curriculum. By excavating a number of now nearly forgotten intercultural connections between these alpine countries and the U.S., it is possible to present a more complete and complex picture of German-speaking…

  1. Development and evaluation of the operational Air-Quality forecast model for Austria ALARO-CAMx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flandorfer, Claudia; Hirtl, Marcus; Krüger, Bernd C.

    2014-05-01

    The Air-Quality model for Austria (AQA) is operated at ZAMG in cooperation with the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU) in Vienna by order of the regional governments since 2005. The modeling system is currently a combination of the meteorological model ALARO and the photochemical dispersion model CAMx. Two modeling domains are used with the highest resolution (5 km) in the alpine region. Various extensions with external data sources have been conducted in the past to improve the daily forecasts of the model. Since 2013 O3- and PM10-observations from the Austrian measurement network have been assimilated daily using optimum interpolation. Dynamic chemical boundary conditions are obtained from Air-Quality forecasts provided by ECMWF in the frame of MACC-II. Additionally the latest available high resolved emission inventories for Austria are combined with TNO and EMEP data. The biogenic emissions are provided by the SMOKE model. ZAMG provides daily forecasts of O3, PM10 and NO2 to the regional governments of Austria. The evaluation of these forecasts is done for the summer 2013 with the main focus on the forecasts of ozone. The measurements of the Air-Quality stations are compared with the punctual forecasts at the sites of the station and with the area forecasts for every province of Austria. In the summer of 2013, two heat waves occurred. The first very short heat wave was in June 2013. During this period one exceedance of the alert threshold value for ozone occurred. The second heat wave took place from the end of July to the mid of August. Due to very high temperatures (new temperature record for Austria measured in Bad Deutsch-Altenburg with 40.5°C) and long dryness episodes the information threshold value has been exceeded several times in the eastern regions of Austria. The alert threshold value has been exceeded one time in this period. For the evaluation, the results for the second heat wave episode in Eastern Austria will be discussed

  2. [Methods in neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS): results of a nationwide survey in Austria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauchinger, S; Sapetschnig, I; Danda, M; Sommer, C; Resch, B; Urlesberger, B; Raith, W

    2015-08-01

    Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) occurs in neonates whose mothers have taken addictive drugs or were under substitution therapy during pregnancy. Incidence numbers of NAS are on the rise globally, even in Austria NAS is not rare anymore. The aim of our survey was to reveal the status quo of dealing with NAS in Austria. A questionnaire was sent to 20 neonatology departments all over Austria, items included questions on scoring, therapy, breast-feeding and follow-up procedures. The response rate was 95%, of which 94.7% had written guidelines concerning NAS. The median number of children being treated per year for NAS was 4. Finnegan scoring system is used in 100% of the responding departments. Morphine is being used most often, in opiate abuse (100%) as well as in multiple substance abuse (44.4%). The most frequent forms of morphine preparation are morphine and diluted tincture of opium. Frequency as well as dosage of medication vary broadly. 61.1% of the departments supported breast-feeding, regulations concerned participation in a substitution programme and general contraindications (HIV, HCV, HBV). Our results revealed that there is a big west-east gradient in patients being treated per year. NAS is not a rare entity anymore in Austria (up to 50 cases per year in Vienna). Our survey showed that most neonatology departments in Austria treat their patients following written guidelines. Although all of them base these guidelines on international recommendations there is no national consensus. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. The Texts of the Agency's Headquarters Agreement with Austria and Related Agreements; Texto del Acuerdo Concertado Con Austria Relativo a la Sede del Organismo y de los Acuerdos Conexos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-12-16

    The texts of the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Republic of Austria that were in force on 30 September 1975 are reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency [Spanish] Para informacion de todos los Estados Miembros, en el presente documento se transcribe el texto de seis acuerdos concertados entre el Organismo y la Republica de Austria como consecuencia de quedar situada en Austria la Sede del Organismo, que se hallaban en vigor el 31 de octubre de 1975.

  4. Dirofilaria in Humans, Dogs, and Vectors in Austria (1978-2014)-From Imported Pathogens to the Endemicity of Dirofilaria repens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Auer, Herbert; Leschnik, Michael; Silbermayr, Katja; Duscher, Georg; Joachim, Anja

    2016-05-01

    Dirofilaria repens and D. immitis are filarioid helminths with domestic and wild canids as main hosts and mosquitoes as vectors. Both species are known to cause zoonotic diseases, primarily pulmonary (D. immitis), ocular (D. repens), and subcutaneous (D. repens) dirofilariosis. Both D. immitis and D. repens are known as invasive species, and their distribution seems associated with climate change. Until very recently, both species were known to be nonendemic in Austria. Metadata on introduced and possibly autochthonous cases of infection with Dirofilaria sp. in dogs and humans in Austria are analysed, together with analyses of mosquito populations from Austria in ongoing studies. In Austria, most cases of Dirofilaria sp. in humans (30 cases of D. repens-six ocular and 24 subcutaneous) and dogs (approximately 50 cases-both D. immitis and D. repens) were most likely imported. However, occasionally infections with D. repens were discussed to be autochthonous (one human case and seven in dogs). The introduction of D. repens to Austria was confirmed very recently, as the parasite was detected in Burgenland (eastern Austria) for the first time in mosquito vectors during a surveillance program. For D. immitis, this could not be confirmed yet, but data from Germany suggest that the successful establishment of this nematode species in Austria is a credible scenario for the near future. The first findings of D. repens in mosquito vectors indicate that D. repens presumably invaded in eastern Austria. Climate analyses from central Europe indicate that D. immitis also has the capacity to establish itself in the lowland regions of Austria, given that both canid and culicid hosts are present.

  5. Sustainable energy development in Austria until 2020: Insights from applying the integrated model “e3.at”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Andrea; Großmann, Anett; Madlener, Reinhard; Wolter, Marc Ingo

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the Austrian research project “Renewable energy in Austria: Modeling possible development trends until 2020”. The project investigated possible economic and ecological effects of a substantially increased use of renewable energy sources in Austria. Together with stakeholders and experts, three different scenarios were defined, specifying possible development trends for renewable energy in Austria. The scenarios were simulated for the period 2006–2020, using the integrated environment–energy–economy model “e3.at”. The modeling results indicate that increasing the share of renewable energy sources in total energy use is an important but insufficient step towards achieving a sustainable energy system in Austria. A substantial increase in energy efficiency and a reduction of residential energy consumption also form important cornerstones of a sustainable energy policy. PMID:21976785

  6. simSALUD - a Web-based Spatial Microsimulation Application to Support Regional Health Planning in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Melanie Tomintz; Bernhard Kosar; Victor Garcia-Barrios

    2013-01-01

    The Austrian Federal Ministry of Health aims to improve the health of all people living in Austria and to decrease health and social inequalities. This leads to a careful planning and distribution of the available health care resources to meet government aims. The research project SALUD, funded by the Federal Ministry for Transport, Innovation and Technology and the Austrian Science Fund, focuses on building a Spatial Microsimulation Model for Austria by combining survey and census data to mo...

  7. Debates on women's representation in Austria. Or : The development of the pitfalls of a conservative gender regime

    OpenAIRE

    GRESCH, Nora; SAUER, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    Nearly 30 years after the first gender quota regulation was introduced in Austria and the establishment of gender equality legislation and institutions, the proportion of women in public offices rose within this time, but has stagnated roughly at 30% for the recent years. To understand this cleavage of the gender equality claim and the stagnation regarding women’s participation in decision-making processes, we will critically explore the gender quota policies in Austria from the perspective o...

  8. The Process of Managing a Destination in Lower and Upper Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobková Markéta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the submitted article is to introduce the findings of author’s research in the area of destination management process conducted in the developed (Alpine tourist destinations in the year of 2014. The theoretical part based on a literature review summarizes current knowledge dealing with the destination management process in terms of approaches and research findings. Problems influencing either positively or negatively this process, e.g. financing, legislation or cooperation among stakeholders are also defined. The practical application part includes an analysis of model destinations in Lower Austria and Upper Austria and presents the results of qualitative research conducted in these destinations. The collected information can be used to design methods leading to the improvement of the destination management process in tourist less developed destinations.

  9. Analysis of Tourism and Agrotourism Management in the Czech Republic and Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva ŠŠimková

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the importance of rural tourism and sustainable rural areas development. It highlights the role of tourism in dealing with problems of rural areas and agriculture sector in the Czech Republic. After theoretical description of a system approach to rural tourism development, the author continues by a practical part where she compares tourism and agrotourism management in the Czech Republic and Austria. Austria has been chosen as a representative of a state with developed tourism system and tourism management. Selected aspects of management systems are then compared and proposed for improvement in tourism/agrotourism. Critical key factor for successful development of activities in rural areas (therefore including agrotourism services are then presented.

  10. The history and evolution of radiotherapy and radiation oncology in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogelnik, H. Dieter

    1996-01-01

    Austria has a longstanding and eventful history in the field of radiotherapy and radiation oncology. The founder of radiotherapy, Leopold Freund, began his well-documented first therapeutic irradiation on November 24, 1896, in Vienna. He also wrote the first textbook of radiotherapy in 1903. Further outstanding Viennese pioneers in the fields of radiotherapy, radiobiology, radiation physics, and diagnostic radiology include Gottwald Schwarz, Robert Kienboeck, and Guido Holzknecht. Because many of the leading Austrian radiologists had to emigrate in 1938, irreparable damage occurred at that time for the medical speciality of radiology. After World War II, the recovery in the field of radiotherapy and radiation oncology started in Austria in the early sixties. Eleven radiotherapy centers have been established since that time, and an independent society for radio-oncology, radiobiology, and medical radiophysics was founded in 1984. Finally, in March 1994, radiotherapy-radio-oncology became a separate clinical speciality

  11. The “New Doctorate” in Austria: Progress toward a Professional Model or Status Quo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Pechar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, both policy direction and public awareness of the Bologna Process has been focused almost unilaterally on the introduction of the Bachelor’s degree to European universities. This is understandable, as for most European countries, the Bachelor is a new academic degree. However, commencing with the Berlin Ministerial Conference (Realising the European Higher Education Area, 2003, reform of doctoral studies has been highlighted as a second equal pillar in the Bologna reform process. In this paper, we begin by providing an overview of the general policy background and the rationales that underlie the attempts to restructure doctoral studies in Europe. Next, we focus on the specific situation in Austria, where peculiarities of the status quo collide with uniquely Austrian approaches to reforming doctoral education. Finally, through two case studies, we examine initial attempts – and related challenges – to implement the “New Doctorate” in Austria.

  12. Development activities, challenges and prospects for the hydropower sector in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Beatrice; Hauer, Christoph; Habersack, Helmut

    2017-04-01

    This contribution intends to give an overview of hydropower development activities in Austria and deepen the knowledge on actual strategies and planning documents. Thereby, the focus is on a climate and energy policy based perspective, also analyzing economic trends at the hydropower sector due to energy market changes in the last years. This includes a comparison with other political strategies and programs dealing with hydropower exploitation based on selected countries. With respect to technology developments, a concise review on technological innovations, such as hydrokinetic energy conversion systems, and new constructive designs of conventional hydropower plants in Austria will be given. Moreover, potential impacts on environment and aquatic ecosystems are described. Finally, key challenges and prospects will be identified and discussed.

  13. 137CS-determination in game meat from some hunting areas in lower Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayromlou, S.; Tataruch, F.

    2001-01-01

    In 1986, the contamination of some regions in Austria by 137 Cs, due to the Chernobyl accident was relatively high. Among other 137 Cs is taken up by people by the consumption of game. In an area of Lower Austria which is relatively heavily contaminated by Chernobyl fallout since 1986 the 137 Cs-contamination of meat of game-animals was measured every year. Clear differences arose in the load of the single game species whose causes just like the temporal changes are discussed. The highest 137 Cs activity concentration was with 5243 Bq/kg measured on a wild boar. With this activity concentration an annual effective dose of only 0,06 mSv can be estimated for an annual average consumption of one kilogram meat of wild boar. (orig.) [de

  14. Centro médico de rehabilitación, en Viena – Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piechl, G.

    1971-03-01

    Full Text Available This medical building, which is new in its type in Austria, is at Meidling, close to the largest hospital devoted to accidents in Austria. It is star shaped, in horizontal platform, with three branches, and has three floor levels. It can houses 50 patients. Construction is concrete cast in situ and precast units. External windows are aluminium framed, and all the fittings are of very high quality.Este edificio sanitario —nuevo en su género en Austria— está situado en Meidling, próximo al mayor centro médico para accidentes de trabajo del país. Tiene planta en estrella con tres brazos y tres plantas de altura, y capacidad para 50 pacientes. La construcción es mixta: hormigón vertido in situ y elementos prefabricados; carpintería exterior de aluminio y dotación de gran lujo de instalaciones.

  15. Are Housing Markets Decoupled? A Case Study of Residential Real Estate Affordability in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian PHILIPP

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Real estate arguably forms the most important asset to most households and the basis for their wealth. Around this context a model has been set up testing the relative affordability of real estate for the median household in Austria and the consequences of lower borrowing costs between 2004 and 2013 by vintage year. In this paper the hypothesis that the significant decline in base interest rates is not sufficient to offset the relative affordability loss caused by declining net household incomes and the simultaneous increase of real estate prices. To test this hypothesis a model has been set up comparing two different Housing Affordability Indices – one including and one excluding financing effects, having been compared via a multi factor model. Based on this calculation the author finds decreased base interest rates to offset relative affordability losses by only approximately 50%, verifying the hypothesis. The paper therefore argues for a potential decoupling of the residential housing market in Austria.

  16. Cancer rehabilitation in Austria--aspects of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maehr, Bruno; Keilani, Mohammad; Wiltschke, Christoph; Hassler, Marco; Licht, Thomas; Marosi, Christine; Huetterer, Elisabeth; Cenik, Fadime; Crevenna, Richard

    2016-02-01

    In Austria, cancer rehabilitation is an important issue in the management of cancer patients. Survival rates and survival time of cancer patients are increasing, and cancer rehabilitation is an important part in the treatment and care of cancer patients with the goal to improve functional status, quality of life, and (social) participation. Today, in Austria there are approximately 600 beds for inpatient rehabilitation. The field of outpatient rehabilitation will maybe be expanded after evaluating the existing pilot projects. Beside other specialities, the field of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (PM&R) plays an important role in cancer rehabilitation. In cancer rehabilitation, especially activating modalities from PM&R such as exercise are very important and well-accepted parts to improve functional status, quality of life, and participation of patients.

  17. Fertility in Austria, Germany and Switzerland:
    Is there a Common Pattern?

    OpenAIRE

    Tomáš Sobotka

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews major similarities and differences in period and cohort fertility in Austria, Germany and Switzerland. These three countries share a long history of low fertility and currently belong to countries with the lowest cohort fertility rates globally. The study highlights persistent differences in fertility and family patterns between Eastern and Western Germany, which are often rooted in pre-unification contrasts and can be partly linked to continuing differences in institutio...

  18. Epidemiology of suicide among children and adolescents in Austria, 2001-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laido, Zrinka; Voracek, Martin; Till, Benedikt; Pietschnig, Jakob; Eisenwort, Brigitte; Dervic, Kanita; Sonneck, Gernot; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Previous epidemiological analyses indicated a decreasing trend of suicide rates for 10-19-year-olds in Austria for the period 1970-2001. However, data from the new millennium are missing. This epidemiological update reports on youth suicide in Austria, covering the period 2001-2014 in order to inform suicide preventive interventions targeting adolescents. The data on registered suicides among Austrian minors (10-19 years) and the population size were obtained from Statistics Austria. Chi-squared tests were used to analyze the associations between the suicide methods used and sex, as well as between suicide methods and Austrian federal states. Spearman correlations were calculated to assess time trends in the suicide rates. One-way ANOVA was used to investigate annual suicide rates of age groups 10-14, 15-19, and 10-19 years across the nine Austrian federal states. The total average suicide rate for Austrian minors was 4.57 per 100,000. The male-female ratio was 3.5:1. The total youth suicide rate and male suicide rate significantly declined from 2001 to 2014, whereas there were no significant changes in female rates. More than one third of suicides among Austrian youth occurred through hanging, whereas jumping in front of a moving object was the second-most common suicide method. A spring peak was found, with most suicides occurring in April and May. Suicide rates among minors in Austria continue to decrease. The present findings help to inform the ongoing implementation of the National Austrian Suicide Prevention Plan (SUPRA).

  19. The Texts of The Agency's Agreements with the Republic of Austria. I. Headquarters Agreement. Amendments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Republic of Austria Amending the Agreement of 11 December 1957 Regarding the Headquarters of the International Atomic Energy Agency, which was signed on 4 June 1970, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. Members will be informed of the entry into force of the Amendments to the Headquarters Agreement

  20. Cultures and Strategies in the Regulation of Nanotechnology in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Kurath Monika; Nentwich Michael; Fleischer Torsten; Eisenberger Iris

    2014-01-01

    In: NanoEthics 8 (2): 121-140; SpringerThis interdisciplinary, social scientific analysis of the regulatory discourse on nanotechnology in the three German-speaking countries of Germany, Austria and Switzerland and in the EU between 2000 and 2013 has shown three distinct phases, characterised by shifts in the configuration of actors and in the thematic scope from nanotechnology to nano-materials. Compared to modes of governance based on traditional statutory law, modes of governance based on ...

  1. The Formation of „Eco-regions“ in Austria and the Role of the Structural Fund

    OpenAIRE

    Schermer, Dr Markus

    2002-01-01

    The concept of “Eco-regions” (or “Bioregionen” in German) entered the discussion on rural development in Austria several years ago. Broadly, this expression means the combination of sustainable farming in particular organic farming practices, and the marketing of their produce with the aim of assisting regional development. As we shall see, this concept can take various forms of expression. It can be restricted to the agricultural sector or extended to a general regional strategy. The common...

  2. The Texts of The Agency's Agreements with the Republic of Austria. I. Headquarters Agreement. Amendments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1970-09-04

    The text of the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Republic of Austria Amending the Agreement of 11 December 1957 Regarding the Headquarters of the International Atomic Energy Agency, which was signed on 4 June 1970, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. Members will be informed of the entry into force of the Amendments to the Headquarters Agreement.

  3. Environmental risk assessment for Neodryinus typhlocybae, biological control agent against Metcalfa pruinosa, for Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Strauss

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The potential environmental risks of Neodryinus typhlocybae, a parasitic wasp from North America, were evaluated with regard to its safe use as an exotic biocontrol agent for the planthopper Metcalfa pruinosa in Austria. Following an earlier host range study of N. typhlocybae conducted in the laboratory, the present study assessed the potential for establishment and spread as well as negative indirect effects on non-target organisms. The potential release sites in Austria were analysed for matching of the climatic requirements for establishment of N. typhlocybae. The two proposed release locations, Vienna and Graz, have a predominantly similar climate to the parasitoid’s region of origin, though the comparably cooler mean summer temperatures might result in a low emergence rate of the partial second generation. The natural spread potential of N. typhlocybae was reviewed and is considered to be sufficiently good for released individuals to reach nearby sites infested with M. pruinosa. However, a perceptible spreading of N. typhlocybae females only occurs a few years after release and seems to be strongly dependent on the host density. Gelis areator, a hyperparasitoid of N. typhlocybae known to occur in Austria, might have negative effects on the population of the beneficial organism. Advantages and disadvantages of chemical and biological control methods against M. pruinosa were evaluated. It is concluded that N. typhlocybae is very well suited as a biological control agent for M. pruinosa in Austria, as no adverse effects on non-target species are expected but its release offers advantages with regard to sustainable and environmentally friendly pest management.

  4. Intervention on budget at IAEA Board of Governors, 16 June 2009, Vienna, Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2009-01-01

    In his statement to the Board of Governors meeting in Vienna, Austria, IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei focused on issues of the IAEA budget in the framework of the policy of zero growth for international organizations. He stressed the importance of the Agency's work in technical cooperation to prioritise on safety, security and non-proliferation. The priorities of the Agency are the priorities of everybody. The Agency needs the money to maintain a credible programme

  5. Determinants of Consumer Perceptions toward Mobile Advertising - A Comparison between Japan and Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Sinkovics, Noemi; Liu, Chia Ling Eunice; Sinkovics, Rudolf R.; Pezderka, Noemi; Haghirian, Parissa

    2012-01-01

    Mobile marketing provides an innovative channel for transmitting advertising messages to customers via mobile devices. The growth of mobile advertising in recent years requires that researchers and practitioners understand consumer perceptions of this form of advertising. The purpose of this paper is to investigate factors influencing the perception of mobile advertising in different cultures. Based on samples from Austria and Japan, we empirically examine relevant m-advertising effects. The ...

  6. [Quality assurance of pain care in Austria : Classification of management facilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaksch, Wolfgang; Likar, Rudolf; Folkes, Erika; Machold, Klaus; Herbst, Friedrich; Pils, Katharina; Stippl, Peter; Lettner, Sandra; Alfons, Mildred; Crevenna, Richard; Wiederer, Christian; Dieber, Janina; Glehr, Reinhold

    2017-11-01

    In Austria there is no nationwide coverage of pain management, which meets even approximately international criteria. At present there are about 30 interdisciplinary pain management offices and clinics providing care according to a concept of the Austrian Pain Society (ÖSG), about 10 other outpatient pain clinics are located in district and country hospitals. A few years ago, there still were about 50 pain clinics. Yet closure of outpatient clinics and cost-cutting measures in the health sector jeopardize adequate pain relief for patients with chronic pain conditions.Hence, the supply of care for approx. 1.8 mio. Austrians with chronic pain is not guaranteed due to lack of a comprehensive demand planning of pain care facilities. Furthermore, existing structures such as specialized clinics or emergency services in hospitals are primarily based on the personal commitment of individuals. At present, the various centres for pain management in Austria are run with very different operating times, so that for 74% of the chronic pain patients the desired requirements for outpatient pain management are not met and about 50 full-time pain clinics are missing.Under the patronage of the Austrian Pain Society, various national specialist societies have defined the structure and quality criteria for pain management centres in Austria, include, among others, proof of training, cooperation in interdisciplinary teams or minimum number of new patients per year, depending on the classification of the institution.This stepwise concept of care provision for pain patients is intended as first step to help improve the care of pain patients in Austria!

  7. High and dry skating in Inzell, Austria; Hoog en nu ook droog schaatsen in Inzell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berends, E. [GEA Grenco Refrigeration, Den Bosch (Netherlands)

    2011-03-15

    In March 2010 work started on a roof to cover the ice rink in Inzell, Austria. This article provides a brief overview of the design (roof Construction), the air conditioning and the freezer installation. [Dutch] In maart 2010 is begonnen met de overkapping van de ijsbaan in Inzell, Oostenrijk. In dit artikel wordt kort een overzicht gegeven van het ontwerp (dakconstructie), de luchtbehandeling en de vriesinstallatie.

  8. A 35-year trend analysis for back pain in Austria: the role of obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Großschädl

    Full Text Available The prevalence of back pain is constantly increasing and a public health problem of high priority. In Austria there is a lack of empirical evidence for the development of back pain and its related factors. The present study aims to investigate trends in the prevalence of back pain across different subpopulations (sex, age, obesity.A secondary data analysis based on five nationally representative cross-sectional health surveys (1973-2007 was carried out. Face-to-face interviews were conducted in private homes in Austria. Subjects aged 20 years and older were included in the study sample (n = 178,818. Obesity was defined as BMI≥30 kg/m2 and adjusted for self-report bias. Back pain was measured as the self-reported presence of the disorder.The age-standardized prevalence of back pain was 32.9% in 2007; it was higher among women than men (p<0.001, higher in older than younger subjects (p<0.001 and higher in obese than non-obese individuals (p<0.001. During the investigation period the absolute change in the prevalence of back pain was +19.4%. Among all subpopulations the prevalence steadily increased. Obese men showed the highest increase of and the greatest risk for back pain.These results help to understand the development of back pain in Austria and can be used to plan controlled promotion programs. Further monitoring is recommended in order to control risk groups and plan target group-specific prevention strategies. In Austria particular emphasis should be on obese individuals. We recommend conducting prospective studies to confirm our results and investigate causal relationships.

  9. Exposure to Refugees and Voting for the Far-Right: (Unexpected) Results from Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Steinmayr, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The massive increase in the number of arriving refugees in Europe in 2015 creates enormous economic and political challenges in the receiving countries. An important concern is that the inflow of refugees increases the support for far-right, nationalist, anti-immigration parties. This paper studies a natural experiment in an Austrian state to identify the causal effect of exposure to refugees in the neighborhood on the support for the far-right Freedom Party of Austria (FPÖ). Before the local...

  10. Terricolous Lichens in the Glacier Forefield of the Pasterze (Eastern Alps, Carinthia, Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilovitz, Peter O.; Wallner, Anja; Tutzer, Veronika; Nascimbene, Juri; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Summary The investigation of lichens on soil, plant debris and terricolous mosses in the glacier forefield of the Pasterze yielded 35 lichen species. Placidiopsis oreades Breuss (Verrucariales) is new to Austria. Three sampling sites were established at increasing distance from the glacier, in order to compare species diversity, abundance and composition within the forefield and with four other glacier forefields of the Eastern Alps. PMID:26877565

  11. Usutu virus infections among blood donors, Austria, July and August 2017 - Raising awareness for diagnostic challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakonyi, Tamás; Jungbauer, Christof; Aberle, Stephan W; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Dimmel, Katharina; Stiasny, Karin; Allerberger, Franz; Nowotny, Norbert

    2017-10-01

    Between July and August 2017, seven of 12,047 blood donations from eastern Austria, reacted positive to West Nile virus (WNV) in the cobas test (Roche). Follow-up investigations revealed Usutu virus (USUV) nucleic acid in six of these. Retrospective analyses of four blood donors diagnosed as WNV-infected in 2016 showed one USUV positive. Blood transfusion services and public health authorities in USUV-endemic areas should be aware of a possible increase of human USUV infections.

  12. Human Capital, Values, and Attitudes of Persons Seeking Refuge in Austria in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlenberger, Judith; Rengs, Bernhard; Al Zalak, Zakarya; Goujon, Anne; Striessnig, Erich; Potančoková, Michaela; Gisser, Richard; Testa, Maria Rita; Lutz, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Since its inception in 2010, the Arab Spring has evolved into a situation of violent conflict in many countries, leading to high levels of migration from the affected region. Given the social impact of the large number of individuals applying for asylum across Europe in 2015, it is important to study who these persons are in terms of their skills, motivations, and intentions. DiPAS (Displaced Persons in Austria Survey) aims to uncover the socio-demographic characteristics of the persons seeking refuge who arrived in Austria in 2015, mainly originating from Syria, Iraq and Afghanistan. Particular focus is on human capital, attitudes and values. This survey, the first of its kind in Austria and possibly in Europe, was carried out among adult displaced persons, mostly residing in Vienna, yielding 514 completed interviews. Information gathered on spouses and children allows for the analysis of 972 persons living in Austria, and of further 419 partners and children abroad. Results indicate that the surveyed population comprised mainly young families with children, particularly those coming from Syria and Iraq. Their educational level is high compared with the average level in their country of origin. A vast majority of respondents are Muslims, rating their religiosity at medium levels. Judging from stated attitudes towards gender equity, interviewed men seem to have more liberal attitudes than their compatriots. The majority of respondents do not intend to return to their home countries, mostly because of the perception of permanent threat. DiPAS provides data for political decision-making and the on-going societal dialogue. Its findings can help to inform assessments about the integration potential of the displaced population into the host society. In addition, the applied methodological technique and experiences during the fieldwork provide valuable insights on sampling asylum seekers and refugees in the current European context. PMID:27662373

  13. Ühiskool luuakse Austria firma kavandi järgi / Urmas Tooming

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tooming, Urmas, 1954-

    2011-01-01

    Tallinna Muusikakeskkooli, Georg Otsa nim. Tallinna Muusikakooli ja Tallinna Balletikooli ühise maja arhitektuurikonkursi võitis Austria firma Atelier Thomas Pucher ZT GmbH töö "Vaikuse aed". Teise koha pälvis arhitektuuribüroo Emil Urbel töö "Octopus" ja kolmanda koha Ninja Stuudio töö "Pausid & poosid". Pikemalt võidutööst

  14. Etisus evamuellerae, a new xanthid crab (Decapoda, Brachyura) from the Middle Miocene of Austria and Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyžný, M.; van Bakel, B.W.M.; Guinot, D.

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of several carapaces, a new species of xanthid crab, Etisus evamuellerae, is described from the Middle Miocene of the Vienna (Austria) and Great Hungarian basins. It differs from the coeval xanthids, Xantho moldavicus and Pilodius vulgaris, in having a distinctly protruding front and comparatively longer carapace. Contrary to those two species, the new one makes up for just a small percentage in the decapod crustacean assemblages studied. PMID:25983383

  15. Economic comparison of the monitoring programmes for bluetongue vectors in Austria and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinior, B; Brugger, K; Köfer, J; Schwermer, H; Stockreiter, S; Loitsch, A; Rubel, F

    2015-05-02

    With the bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) outbreak in 2006, vector monitoring programmes (according to EU regulation 1266/2007) were implemented by European countries to obtain information on the spatial distribution of vectors and the vector-free period. This study investigates the vector monitoring programmes in Austria and Switzerland by performing a retrospective cost analysis for the period 2006-2010. Two types of costs were distinguished: costs financed directly via the national bluetongue programmes and costs contributed in-kind by the responsible institutions and agricultural holdings. The total net costs of the monitoring programme in Austria amounted to €1,415,000, whereby in Switzerland the costs were valued at €94,000. Both countries followed the legislation complying with requirements, but differed in regard to sampling frequency, number of trap sites and sampling strategy. Furthermore, the surface area of Austria is twice the area of Switzerland although the number of ruminants is almost the same in both countries. Thus, for comparison, the costs were normalised with regard to the sampling frequency and the number of trap sites. Resulting costs per trap sample comprised €164 for Austria and €48 for Switzerland. In both countries, around 50 per cent of the total costs can be attributed to payments in-kind. The benefit of this study is twofold: first, veterinary authorities may use the results to improve the economic efficiency of future vector monitoring programmes. Second, the analysis of the payment in-kind contribution is of great importance to public authorities as it makes the available resources visible and demonstrates how they have been used. British Veterinary Association.

  16. Human Capital, Values, and Attitudes of Persons Seeking Refuge in Austria in 2015.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Buber-Ennser

    Full Text Available Since its inception in 2010, the Arab Spring has evolved into a situation of violent conflict in many countries, leading to high levels of migration from the affected region. Given the social impact of the large number of individuals applying for asylum across Europe in 2015, it is important to study who these persons are in terms of their skills, motivations, and intentions. DiPAS (Displaced Persons in Austria Survey aims to uncover the socio-demographic characteristics of the persons seeking refuge who arrived in Austria in 2015, mainly originating from Syria, Iraq and Afghanistan. Particular focus is on human capital, attitudes and values. This survey, the first of its kind in Austria and possibly in Europe, was carried out among adult displaced persons, mostly residing in Vienna, yielding 514 completed interviews. Information gathered on spouses and children allows for the analysis of 972 persons living in Austria, and of further 419 partners and children abroad. Results indicate that the surveyed population comprised mainly young families with children, particularly those coming from Syria and Iraq. Their educational level is high compared with the average level in their country of origin. A vast majority of respondents are Muslims, rating their religiosity at medium levels. Judging from stated attitudes towards gender equity, interviewed men seem to have more liberal attitudes than their compatriots. The majority of respondents do not intend to return to their home countries, mostly because of the perception of permanent threat. DiPAS provides data for political decision-making and the on-going societal dialogue. Its findings can help to inform assessments about the integration potential of the displaced population into the host society. In addition, the applied methodological technique and experiences during the fieldwork provide valuable insights on sampling asylum seekers and refugees in the current European context.

  17. Emergence of a virulent porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV 1 strain in Lower Austria

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    Leonie J Sinn

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In spring 2015, an outbreak of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS struck Lower Austria caused by a PRRS virus (PRRSV strain spreading rapidly among both previously PRRSV negative and vaccinated pig herds. This case report describes the first well-documented emergence of the PRRSV strain responsible for this outbreak. Case presentation A PRRSV seronegative piglet-producing farm in Lower Austria encountered losses in foetuses and suckling piglets of up to 90 %; clinical signs in sows and nursery piglets included fever and reduced feed intake. Additionally, high percentages of repeat breeders and losses of up to 40 % in nursery piglets occurred. An infection with PRRSV was suggested by the detection of antibodies by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and confirmed by quantitative real time PCR. The underlying PRRSV strain, termed AUT15-33, was isolated by passage on porcine alveolar macrophages, partially sequenced (ORF2-7 and grouped as PRRSV-1, subtype 1. In phylogenetic analysis of the genome region coding for the structural proteins, ORF2-7, AUT15-33 clustered with Belgian strains but identities were as low as 88 %. In contrast, analysis of ORF7 sequences revealed a close relationship to Croatian strains from 2012 with an identity of 94 – 95 %. Conclusions In the year following the outbreak, the same PRRSV strain was identified repeatedly in different regions of Austria. It can be speculated that the new strain has novel advantageous properties.

  18. Quality perception of organically grown tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. in Vienna, Austria

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    PK Ng’ang’a

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Austria is one of the major organic tomato producing countries for local and export marketing. These tomatoes are produced in parts of Austria especially around Vienna where their production system has to meet stringent organic quality standards in both local and international markets. These quality standards may put considerable strain on farmers and are normally formulated without famers’ participation so may not be wholly representative of the farmers’ quality interpretation. The aim of this paper is therefore to determine the Austrian organic tomatoes growers’ perception and practice of quality and challenges. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were carried out among 28 organic tomatoes farmers in Vienna, Austria. Findings suggest that quality of organic tomatoes is mainly perceived in terms of both informal values (big fruit size, long shelf life, food security and amount of income received from tomato sales as well as formal norms (non- application of chemicals, human health, damage free, sweet taste, red colour, and juiciness. There were no gendered differences in quality perception among the growers. High costs of production inputs were identified as the main challenge to attaining quality in organic tomatoes. Following these findings, there is need for effective participation of growers in formulation of standards as well as subsidizing of production inputs by the government. The Austrian tomato growers as well as local and international retailers should work closely to increase the price received by the Austrian organic tomato growers so that it more adequately covers their production costs.

  19. Simulation of an application of the Hartz-IV reform in Austria

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    Michael Fuchs

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the application of the German Hartz-IV model in Austria. If the Hartz-IV reform were to be transferred to Austria, this would imply that instead of unemployment assistance (Notstandshilfe, the social-assistance-type minimum income benefit (Bedarfsorientierte Mindestsicherung would be follow-up assistance after unemployment benefit expires. The analysis is carried out using the tax-benefit microsimulation models EUROMOD and SORESI based on the latest EU-SILC 2015 data for Austria. We simulate a baseline scenario according to the minimum income benefit regulations of the nine Federal States for the year 2017 and a scenario including a proxy for an asset check of capital income. In addition, following current political discussions and developments, we simulate a ceiling scenario, in which the sum of minimum standards per household is capped at EUR 1,500 per month. The direct (monetary effects of the potential reform are analysed on three levels: fiscal implications; number of receiving households including socio-demographic characteristics; income distribution and risk of poverty.

  20. Costs of endometriosis in Austria: a survey of direct and indirect costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prast, Johanna; Oppelt, Peter; Shamiyeh, Andreas; Shebl, Omar; Brandes, Iris; Haas, Dietmar

    2013-09-01

    The literature includes a wealth of medical data on endometriosis, but the economic significance of the condition has so far been neglected. An analysis of hospital costs for endometriosis in Austria was, therefore, carried out for economic purposes. Seventy-three patients with endometriosis were included in the study. A bottom-up approach was used to collect data on the average hospital costs of an endometriosis patient over a time period of 1 year. In addition, a prevalence approach was used that allows subsequent estimation of the total costs of endometriosis for the health-care system in Austria for that period. Retrospective questionnaire survey was conducted. The average annual costs of one case of endometriosis are 7,712, with 5,605.55 attributable to direct costs and 2,106.34 to indirect costs. This indicates an overall economic burden of 328 million. In-patient care (45 %) and loss of productivity (27 %) were identified as the major cost factors. The patients themselves pay for 13 % of the costs (through out-of-pocket payments). This study impressively demonstrates the financial burden on the economy and on each individually affected patient caused by the disease of endometriosis. The massive consumption of resources represents a high level of usage of the medical services provided. The question arises as to whether more timely diagnosis, followed by better-targeted treatment, might have the potential to reduce these costs. The overall economic burden of endometriosis in Austria is currently comparable with that of Parkinson's disease.

  1. Therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest in Lower Austria--a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliegel, Andreas; Gamper, Gunnar; Mayr, Harald

    2011-04-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the use of therapeutic hypothermia (TH) after cardiac arrest in Lower Austria. A questionnaire was sent to intensive care units (ICUs) in Lower Austria. Methods of inducing and maintaining hypothermia, the practise of rewarming, concomitant therapies and reasons not to cool were documented. Of the 23 ICUs 10 (43%) used TH. Nine (39%) cooled their patients to 32-34°C and one to 34-35°C. Duration of cooling was 24 h (n=8, 35%), 24-48 h (n=1) or 48 h (n=1). For induction of hypothermia, ICUs used cold infusions (n=5, 22%), surface (n=7, 30%) or endovascular cooling (n=6, 26%). The same methods were used during the maintenance period. Reasons not to cool were insufficient staff resources (n=4, 17%), technical complexity of cooling (n=4, 17%) and too little information (n=3, 13%). In conclusion, TH has been poorly implemented in Lower Austria. The reasons for not using hypothermia could possibly be dispelled by education.

  2. Radon risk in Alpine regions in Austria: Risk assessment as a settlement planning strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, V.; Baumgartner, A.; Seidel, C.; Maringer, F. J.

    2008-01-01

    Soil gas radon measurements complement indispensable and well-established radon indoor measurements in Austria. Radon in soil gas is a result of geochemical conditions as well as of geology, mineralogy, geophysics and meteorology. Therefore, geological factors can help to predict potential indoor radon concentrations via soil gas. Soil gas radon measurements in well-defined geological units give an estimate of local and regional radon hazards and build the basis for radon risk maps, which could be used for land-use planning and urban development. The creation of maps makes an important contribution to health care. For this purpose, several research projects were carried out in Austria. On the one hand, a study was already conducted in Lower Austria to determine the influence of meteorological and soil physical parameters on radon concentrations in soil gas and to evaluate soil gas radon concentrations with a radon emanation and migration model. On the other hand, radon measurements on different geomorphologic formations in the Austrian Alps, which are potential settlement areas, are of special interest. (authors)

  3. Some aspects of the reform of the health care systems in Austria, Germany and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theurl, E

    1999-01-01

    The health care systems in Austria, Germany and Switzerland owe their institutional structure to different historical developments. While Austria and Germany voted for the Bismarck-Model of social health insurance, Switzerland adopted a voluntary system of health insurance. In all three countries, until very recently, the different challenges which the health care sector faced were met by piecemeal approaches and by stop and go policies, which, in the long run were not very successful either in containing costs or in improving efficacy and efficiency. During the 1990 more fundamental reforms in the health care systems of all three countries took place. Germany and Switzerland chose the path of deregulation of the health insurance system, which consequently strengthened the competition between the insurance companies, and, to some extent between the suppliers of medical services. While this can be seen as an essential part of the reform process for these two countries. Austria favors a state-oriented and interventionist approach in order to meet the challenges.

  4. Intracranial hemorrhage and other symptoms in infants associated with human parechovirus in Vienna, Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Herbert; Prammer, Ruth; Bock, Wolfgang; Ollerieth, Robert; Bernert, Günther; Zwiauer, Karl; Aberle, Judith H; Aberle, Stephan W; Fazekas, Tamas; Holter, Wolfgang

    2015-12-01

    The human parechovirus (HPeV), mainly genotype 3, may cause severe illness in young infants and neonates, including sepsis-like illness and central nervous system (CNS) infection. We lack data concerning the impact and symptoms of HPeV infection in infants in Austria. The aim of the study is to evaluate the spectrum of symptoms and findings in infants with the parechovirus in Vienna and its environs. Patients younger than 3 months of age, with clinically suspected sepsis-like illness or CNS infection and a positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for HPeV, were included in the study. Medical records were analyzed retrospectively. Twenty patients were included in the study from 2009 to 2013. The most frequent manifestations were fever and neurological symptoms (89 and 80 %, respectively). Fifty percent of the infants had white blood cell counts out of range. The most notable aspect was cerebral hemorrhage in three neonates, which has not been reported earlier in association with HPeV infection. In Austria, HPeV is a relevant pathogen in sepsis-like disease in infants. The clinical presentation is similar to that described in other studies; cerebral hemorrhage is a new aspect. • Parechovirus infection can cause severe illness in infants. • Symptoms have been described to involve all organs; sepsis-like signs, fever, and irritability are most frequent. • Also in Austria, HPeV plays an important role in severe illnesses in infants. • Severe intracranial hemorrhage is described as a new finding.

  5. Low prevalence of Borrelia bavariensis in Ixodes ricinus ticks in southeastern Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatz, Martin; Muellegger, Robert R; Hizo-Teufel, Cecilia; Fingerle, Volker

    2014-10-01

    Borrelia bavariensis was recently described as a distinct genospecies among the B. burgdorferi sensu lato complex. The prevalence of B. bavariensis in Austria, a highly endemic area for tick-transmitted pathogens, is scarcely characterized. To investigate the prevalence of B. bavariensis in Ixodes ricinus ticks we reevaluated the results of a study conducted in 518 ticks from southeastern Austria collected in 2002 and 2003. The presence of B. burgdorferi s.l.-specific DNA in ticks was analyzed by a PCR for the outer surface protein A (ospA) gene. Borrelia species were differentiated by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, and samples positive for B. bavariensis were further analyzed by multilocus sequence analysis. Two of 133 (1.5%) B. burgdorferi s.l.-positive I. ricinus ticks were infected with B. bavariensis. Both specimens were coinfected with the OspA serotype 5 of B. garinii. Borrelia bavariensis is present; however, seem to be rare in I. ricinus ticks in southeastern Austria. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. INTERACTION BETWEEN NATIVE AND ALIEN SPECIES OF CRAYFISH IN AUSTRIA: CASE STUDIES

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    PÖCKL M.

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available In Austria, three indigenous crayfish species occur: the noble crayfish (Astacus astacus, the stone crayfish (Austropotamobius torrentium, and the white-clawed crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes. It is not known if Astacus leptodactylus is autochthonous in the very eastern part of Austria, near the border with Hungary and Slovakia. In other parts of Austria the Turkish crayfish has been transplanted into several gravel pits and ponds. Up to now, the red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii is not known to occur in the wild, but can be bought alive in fish markets, restaurants, and the aquarium trade. The Nearctic spiny-cheek crayfish (Orconectes limosus and the signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus have been introduced since the 1970s by crayfish farmers because these species are resistant to the crayfish plague fungus (Aphanomyces astaci. There are just a few populations of O. limosus, and the species is not spreading actively. However, P. leniusculus is widespread all over Austria, and was illegally introduced from one water body to another. It can be characterized as an aggressive, invasive North American species, spreading actively and acting as a vector of the crayfish plague. Unfortunately the habitat requirements of the native noble crayfish and the alien signal crayfish are nearly the same. Case studies are given in the following chapters: the first group of examples refers to water bodies where the alien signal crayfish is most probably the cause of displacement of the indigenous noble crayfish: 1 Hintersee, 2 Irrsee (« Zeller See », 3 north-western Lower Austria (« Waldviertel », 4 Merzenstein (aquacultural enterprise, 5 Neufelder See. The second group of examples refers to water bodies where alien and indigenous species are able to coexist: a the confluence of the main course of the Danube River, the Ölhafen and the Neue Donau in the southeast part of Vienna, b the Schönauer Wasser, a backwater of the Danube River downstream

  7. [Attitudes towards age-related rationing of medical supply: results of a cross-national analysis in Germany and Austria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esslinger, Adelheid Susanne; Meier, Florian; Roller-Wirnsberger, Regina E; Heppner, Hans Jürgen

    2011-07-01

    Expenditure on health-care is increasing over the last years and the demographic shift leads to more elderly patients in the health-care system. Debates about the financial situation and solution about this topic are common. Direct, as well as hidden, rationing is verified by experts. This article discusses the concept of age-dependent prioritization and rationing of health-care expenditures in a cross-national setting. With a standardised questionnaire geriatric physicians in Germany and Austria were asked about their attitude and experience with health-care expenditures in elderly patients. Dimension of medical staff, organising institution and financial resources were also evaluated. The sample was tested with t-test, Mann-Whitney-U-test and explorative factor analysis. All the data were calculated with PASW 17 Statistics(®). From 419 standardised questionnaires 288 forms (60%, Germany: 123, Austria: 165) were evaluated. Differences were shown in patient-age (Germany: 80.4 y, Austria: 71.8 y), carrying capacity (Germany: 74.8, Austria: 110.8) and in medical staff as physicians (Germany: 6.8, Austria: 12.7) and nursing (Germany: 32.2, Austria: 84.3). In infrastructural basic services and normative focusing there was only marginal discrepancy, the public/ecclesiastical organising institution was 71% in both countries. Related to the different financial systems, there was less cost pressure in taking care of elderly patients in Austria. Age-dependent rationing was approved, but there was also a clear endorsement for making resources available for elderly patients in future. The discussion about rationing of health-care expenditures will still go on and therefore the impact of ageism has to be evaluated in further studies.

  8. Educación en medios en Austria: competencia, comunicación, autonomía Media education in Austria: competence, communication, autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Krucsay

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available La legislación para la educación en medios en Austria es el comienzo de este trabajo que encuadra la ley en un contexto pedagógico con características dominantes de conceptos como emancipación y enseñanza liberadora. La educación en medios se utiliza en un sentido holístico, abarcando tanto los medios tradicionales de comunicación como los nuevos medios, incluyendo Internet. Las claves principales que se plantean son la reflexión crítica y la responsabilidad creativa individual y social, así como el papel del usuario de los medios como ciudadano autónomo. Defiende la educación en medios como una práctica interdisciplinar y presenta un portal educativo, www.mediamanual.at, que ha sido experimentado como una opción de oferta amplia de materiales en línea para apoyar a los profesores en el desarrollo de su educación en medios. This paper focuses on the presentation of the Laws for Media Education, which is the legal basis for the implementation of media education in Austria. The law is embedded into a pedagogical context, whose key characteristics are those of an emancipated, liberating concept of education indebted to ideas of the Enlightenment. Media education is used in a holistic sense, encompassing both the so-called traditional media as well as the new media including the Internet. The major areas are critical reflection and creative potential, individual and social responsibility. The ultimate goal is the autonomous media user as an autonomous citizen. As media education is an interdisciplinary practise, a wide choice of materials both in print and online has been developed to support the teachers: part of the paper is particularly devoted to the beginning and growth of the media education website www.mediamanual.at

  9. Explaining differences in stakeholder take up of disease management programmes: A comparative analysis of policy implementation in Austria and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schang, Laura; Thomson, Sarah; Czypionka, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Understanding why policies to improve care for people with chronic conditions fail to be implemented is a pressing issue in health system reform. We explore reasons for the relatively high uptake of disease management programmes (DMPs) in Germany, in contrast to low uptake in Austria. We focus on the motivation, information and power of key stakeholder groups (payers, physician associations, individual physicians and patients). We conducted a comparative stakeholder analysis using qualitative data from interviews (n=15 in Austria and n=26 in Germany), legal documents and media reports. Stakeholders in Germany appeared to have systematically stronger motivation, exposure to more positive information about DMPs and better ability to implement DMPs than their counterparts in Austria. Policy in Austria focused on financial incentives to physicians only. In Germany, limited evidence about the quality improvement and cost savings potential of DMPs was mitigated by strong financial incentives to sickness funds but proved a fundamental obstacle in Austria. Efforts to promote DMPs should seek to ensure the cooperation of payers and patients, not just physicians, using a mix of financial and non-financial instruments suited to the context. A singular focus on financially incentivising providers is unlikely to stimulate uptake of DMPs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The potential of geological storage of CO2 in Austria: a techno-economic assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüstle, Anna Katharina; Welkenhuysen, Kris; Bottig, Magdalena; Piessens, Kris; Ramirez, Andrea; Swenner, Rudy

    2014-05-01

    An impressive two-third or about 40GWh/y of electricity in Austria is produced from renewable energy sources, in particular hydro energy. For the remaining part the country depends on fossil fuels, which together with iron & steel production form the most CO2 intensive industries in Austria with a combined emission of just over 20Mt/y. According to the IEA, CO2 capture and geological storage (CCS) can reduce the global CO2 emission until 2050 by 17%. A correct assessment of CCS needs to start with the storage potential. Prior to this study, only general estimates of the theoretical capacity of Austrian reservoirs were available, thus, up until now, the realistic potential for CCS technology has not been assessed. Both for policy and industry, an assessment of the matched capacity is required, which is the capacity that actually will be used in CCS projects. This hurdle can be taken by applying a recently developed methodology (Welkenhuysen et al., 2013). This policy support system (PSS) consists of two parts, PSS Explorer and PSS III simulator. In brief, the methodology is based on expert judgements of potential reservoirs. These assessments can provide the best available data, including the expert's experience and possibly confidential data, without disclosing specific data. The geo-techno-economic calculation scheme PSS Explorer uses the expert input to calculate for each individual reservoir an assessment of the practical capacity (as probability density functions), in function of an acceptable price for storage. This practical capacity can then be used by the techno-economic PSS III simulator to perform advanced source-sink matching until 2050 and thus provide the matched reservoir capacity. The analysed reservoirs are 7 active or abandoned oil and gas reservoirs in Austria. The simulation of the electricity and iron & steel sector of Austria resulted in the estimation of the geological storage potential, taking into account geological, technological and

  11. Modelling informally collected quantities of bulky waste and reusable items in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramusch, R.; Pertl, A.; Scherhaufer, S.; Schmied, E.; Obersteiner, G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Informal collectors from Hungary collect bulky waste and reusable items in Austria. • Two methodologies were applied to estimate the informally collected quantities. • Both approaches lead to an estimation of roughly 100,000 t p.a. informally collected. • The formal Austrian system collects 72 kg/cap/yr of bulky waste, WEE & scrap metal. • Informal collection amounts to approx. 12 kg/cap/yr. - Abstract: Disparities in earnings between Western and Eastern European countries are the reason for a well-established informal sector actively involved in collection and transboundary shipment activities from Austria to Hungary. The preferred objects are reusable items and wastes within the categories bulky waste, WEEE and metals, intended to be sold on flea markets. Despite leading to a loss of recyclable resources for Austrian waste management, these informal activities may contribute to the extension of the lifetime of certain goods when they are reused in Hungary; nevertheless they are discussed rather controversially. The aim of this paper is to provide objective data on the quantities informally collected and transhipped. The unique activities of informal collectors required the development and implementation of a new set of methodologies. The concept of triangulation was used to verify results obtained by field visits, interviews and a traffic counting campaign. Both approaches lead to an estimation of approx. 100,000 t per year of reusable items informally collected in Austria. This means that in addition to the approx. 72 kg/cap/yr formally collected bulky waste, bulky waste wood, household scrap (excluding packaging) and WEEE, up to a further 12 kg/cap/yr might, in the case that informal collection is abandoned, end up as waste or in the second-hand sector

  12. Energy Performance Contracting - success in Austria and Germany - dead end for Europe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seefeldt, Friedrich

    2003-01-01

    At the beginning of the 21st century, the European market for Energy Performance Contracting (EPC) is extremely diverse. Without a doubt, Germany and Austria are the pioneers, standing out due to their already high market standards and consistent market growth. The market in Germany is characterised by more than 200 EPC-agreements made since the mid-90s - with high-tech individual buildings like hospitals, as well as building 'pools' of up to 100 separate buildings. In Austria, EPC projects have been implemented in approximately 500 buildings during the last four years - with the public building administrations as the driving forces. While EPC has become a standard instrument in facility management in Germany and Austria, in most other European countries the market is still at its very beginning. First, the basic idea and conception of the instrument will be presented in a short introduction, illustrated by concrete project examples with an emphasis on discussing the perspectives from the demand side, especially the public and tertiary sectors. Next, the question centres on how a deliberate energy (efficiency) policy can accelerate the successful market introduction of EPC (role of public building administration as pioneers, support of building owners during project preparation; energy agencies with specific know-how etc.). A last reflection discusses the consequences for a possible directive on Energy Services. In all this, the authors draw continuous attention to the common traits, but also take a look at barriers and success factors. The analysis is based on both authors' broad practical experience in EPC project development and dissemination of best practices

  13. Energy Systems With Renewable Hydrogen Compared to Direct Use of Renewable Energy in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerfried Jungmeier; Kurt Konighofer; Josef Spitzer; R Haas; A Ajanovic

    2006-01-01

    The current Austrian energy system has a renewable energy share of 20% - 11% hydropower and 9 % biomass - of total primary energy consumption. Whereas a possible future introduction of renewable hydrogen must be seen in the context of current energy policies in Austria e.g. increase of energy efficiency and use of renewable energy, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The aim of the research project is a life cycle based comparison of energy systems with renewable hydrogen from hydropower, wind, photovoltaic and biomass compared to the direct use of renewable energy for combined heat and power applications and transportation services. In particular this paper focuses on the main question, if renewable energy should be used directly or indirectly via renewable hydrogen. The assessment is based on a life cycle approach to analyse the energy efficiency, the material demand, the greenhouse gas emissions and economic aspects e.g. energy costs and some qualitative aspects e.g. energy service. The overall comparison of the considered energy systems for transportation service and combined heat and electricity application shows, that renewable hydrogen might be beneficial mainly for transportation services, if the electric vehicle will not be further developed to a feasibly wide-spread application for transportation service in future. For combined heat and electricity production there is no advantage of renewable hydrogen versus the direct use of renewable energy. Conclusions for Austria are therefore: 1) renewable hydrogen is an interesting energy carrier and might play an important role in a future sustainable Austrian energy system; 2) renewable hydrogen applications look most promising in the transportation sector; 3) renewable hydrogen applications will be of low importance for combined heat and electricity applications, as existing technologies for direct use of renewable energy for heat and electricity are well developed and very efficient; 4) In a future '100

  14. Comparative assessment of predictions in ungauged basins – Part 3: Runoff signatures in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Viglione

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This is the third of a three-part paper series through which we assess the performance of runoff predictions in ungauged basins in a comparative way. Whereas the two previous papers by Parajka et al. (2013 and Salinas et al. (2013 assess the regionalisation performance of hydrographs and hydrological extremes on the basis of a comprehensive literature review of thousands of case studies around the world, in this paper we jointly assess prediction performance of a range of runoff signatures for a consistent and rich dataset. Daily runoff time series are predicted for 213 catchments in Austria by a regionalised rainfall–runoff model and by Top-kriging, a geostatistical estimation method that accounts for the river network hierarchy. From the runoff time-series, six runoff signatures are extracted: annual runoff, seasonal runoff, flow duration curves, low flows, high flows and runoff hydrographs. The predictive performance is assessed in terms of the bias, error spread and proportion of unexplained spatial variance of statistical measures of these signatures in cross-validation (blind testing mode. Results of the comparative assessment show that, in Austria, the predictive performance increases with catchment area for both methods and for most signatures, it tends to increase with elevation for the regionalised rainfall–runoff model, while the dependence on climate characteristics is weaker. Annual and seasonal runoff can be predicted more accurately than all other signatures. The spatial variability of high flows in ungauged basins is the most difficult to estimate followed by the low flows. It also turns out that in this data-rich study in Austria, the geostatistical approach (Top-kriging generally outperforms the regionalised rainfall–runoff model.

  15. Finland, Sweden and Austria doubled the share of hydroelectric power in EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kangas, H.

    1996-01-01

    New EU countries Finland, Sweden and Austria increased the amount of hydroelectric power produced in EU in 1995 by more than 50 % compared to the year 1994. Especially Sweden and Austria are very dependent on hydroelectric power; the share of hydroelectric power is in Austria more than 70 % and even in Sweden it was nearly 50 %. The share of hydroelectric power in 1995 the EU region was 14 % of the total power demand. Due to the new EU countries the share of hydroelectric power of the total electric power demand, which would have decreased, increased by over 3 %. The increase of the electric power demand in Finland was lowest in the EU region, about 1.0 %, while it was in Greece 5.0 % and in Spain about 4.6 %. The share of nuclear power in the EU region was about 35 % in 1995. The most nuclear power dependent country in the EU was France there the share of nuclear power of the total electric power demand was 89 %. Both Finland and Sweden increased the production of back-pressure power generation in 1995. The share of back-pressure power generation in EU in 1995 was about 50 TWh which corresponds to some 1.5 % of the total electric power demand. About 50 % of the total electric power generation in EU was produced by condensing power generation. This production increased by 10 % compared to 1994. The netimport of electric power of EU increased by 80 % in Finland and Sweden, which are large importers of electric power outside the EU region

  16. Long-Term Respiratory Support for Children and Adolescents in Austria: A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, S; Van Egmond-Fröhlich, A; Hofer, N; Pfleger, A; Rath, R; Schwarz, R; Kurz, H; Waibel, V; Kenzian, H; Kommer, E; Wadlegger, F; Stelzl, W; Keck, B; Grigorow, I; Kerbl, R; Sauseng, W; Frischer, T; Eber, E; Bernert, G

    2016-01-01

    Population-based data on pediatric patients on long-term respiratory support (LTRS) in Austria are lacking. This study aimed to record the pediatric departments active in this field, as well as number and characteristics of patients on LTRS. A national cross-sectional study was carried out by means of questionnaires sent to all pediatric departments in Austria. All departments answered to the questionnaires. On June 1st, 2013, the reference day for this study, 12 of the 41 pediatric departments in Austria were active in the field. At this time, these centers were caring for 143 patients, 111 (77.6%) of them under 18 years, which corresponds to a prevalence of 7.4 per 100 000. The patients suffered from neuromuscular disorders (44%), other neurological disorders (18.9%), disorders of respiratory drive (9.1%), obstructive sleep apnea (8.4%), thoracal and spinal diseases (8.4%), pulmonary disorders (4.9%) and other diseases (6.3%). Continuous positive airway pressure was used in 6.3%, non-invasive ventilation in 60.1% and invasive ventilation in 33.6% of the patients, respectively. LTRS was performed at home in 92.3%. LTRS represents a common management strategy in children and adolescents with a variety of disorders. Census reports such as this one provide the basis for appropriate planning of resource allocation. The age distribution of our patients shows the need for structured transition into adult care. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Modelling informally collected quantities of bulky waste and reusable items in Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramusch, R., E-mail: roland.ramusch@boku.ac.at; Pertl, A.; Scherhaufer, S.; Schmied, E.; Obersteiner, G.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Informal collectors from Hungary collect bulky waste and reusable items in Austria. • Two methodologies were applied to estimate the informally collected quantities. • Both approaches lead to an estimation of roughly 100,000 t p.a. informally collected. • The formal Austrian system collects 72 kg/cap/yr of bulky waste, WEE & scrap metal. • Informal collection amounts to approx. 12 kg/cap/yr. - Abstract: Disparities in earnings between Western and Eastern European countries are the reason for a well-established informal sector actively involved in collection and transboundary shipment activities from Austria to Hungary. The preferred objects are reusable items and wastes within the categories bulky waste, WEEE and metals, intended to be sold on flea markets. Despite leading to a loss of recyclable resources for Austrian waste management, these informal activities may contribute to the extension of the lifetime of certain goods when they are reused in Hungary; nevertheless they are discussed rather controversially. The aim of this paper is to provide objective data on the quantities informally collected and transhipped. The unique activities of informal collectors required the development and implementation of a new set of methodologies. The concept of triangulation was used to verify results obtained by field visits, interviews and a traffic counting campaign. Both approaches lead to an estimation of approx. 100,000 t per year of reusable items informally collected in Austria. This means that in addition to the approx. 72 kg/cap/yr formally collected bulky waste, bulky waste wood, household scrap (excluding packaging) and WEEE, up to a further 12 kg/cap/yr might, in the case that informal collection is abandoned, end up as waste or in the second-hand sector.

  18. Antibiotic resistance in primary care in Austria - a systematic review of scientific and grey literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Kathryn; Wagner, Gernot; Apfalter, Petra; Maier, Manfred

    2011-11-28

    Antibiotic resistance is an increasing challenge for health care services worldwide. While up to 90% of antibiotics are being prescribed in the outpatient sector recommendations for the treatment of community-acquired infections are usually based on resistance findings from hospitalized patients. In context of the EU-project called "APRES - the appropriateness of prescribing antibiotic in primary health care in Europe with respect to antibiotic resistance" it was our aim to gain detailed information about the resistance data from Austria in both the scientific and the grey literature. A systematic review was performed including scientific and grey literature published between 2000 and 2010. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined and the review process followed published recommendations. Seventeen scientific articles and 23 grey literature documents could be found. In contrast to the grey literature, the scientific publications describe only a small part of the resistance situation in the primary health care sector in Austria. Merely half of these publications contain data from the ambulatory sector exclusively but these data are older than ten years, are very heterogeneous concerning the observed time period, the number and origin of the isolates and the kind of bacteria analysed. The grey literature yields more comprehensive and up-to-date information of the content of interest. These sources are available in German only and are not easily accessible. The resistance situation described in the grey literature can be summarized as rather stable over the last two years. For Escherichia coli e.g. the highest antibiotic resistance rates can be seen with fluorochiniolones (19%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (27%). Comprehensive and up-to-date antibiotic resistance data of different pathogens isolated from the community level in Austria are presented. They could be found mainly in the grey literature, only few are published in peer-reviewed journals. The grey

  19. Human impact on the geomorphic evolution of the HOAL catchment, Lower Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöppl, Ronald; Kraushaar, Sabine; Strauss, Peter; Fuchs, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Since the beginning of human settlement extensive land cover and land use changes have induced significant geomorphic landscape changes as water and sediment dynamics have been transformed. The presented project focuses on the reconstruction of Holocene geomorphic landscape evolution and the assessment of recent geomorphic processes in the Northern foothills of the Eastern Alps in Austria - an area intensively agriculturally used since the middle ages and often overlooked in its geomorphic evolution. The study area is a small catchment (ca. 66 ha) which is located in the western part of Lower Austria comprising a land use history as well as environmental settings typical for wide regions across the Northern foothills of the Eastern Alps in Austria. The catchment elevation ranges from 268 to 323 m a.s.l. and has a mean slope angle of 8%. The climate in this region can be characterized as humid. The lithology mainly consists of Tertiary marly to sandy deposits which are superimposed by Quaternary sediments (e.g. loesses). Dominant soil types are Cambisols, Luvisols, and Planosols. Furthermore, the catchment is used as a Hydrological Open Air Laboratory (HOAL) implemented for the long-term research of water-related flow and transport processes in the landscape (http://hoal.hydrology.at). The main objective of this research project is to reconstruct Holocene landscape evolution by analyzing physical parameters of sediment cores taken from colluvial and alluvial sediment archives with additional 14C and OSL dating as well as by the measurement of truncated and covered standardized Luvisol profiles. First results will be presented at the EGU General Assembly 2016.

  20. Determination of mercury and methylmercury in fishes of the Danube caught 1977 in Upper Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teherani, D.K.; Stehlik, G.; Tehrani, N.; Hinteregger, J.

    1977-09-01

    In 22 fishes from the Upper Austria part of the Danube mercury was determined by means of atomic absorption spectroscopy after a chemical pretreatment. 6 fishes from these also were proved in regard to their methylmercury content. About 40% of these fish smples showed Hg-concentrations of<=0,2 ppm, 50% of 0,21 - 0,5 ppm and 10% 0f 0,51 -1,03 ppm. The fraction of methylmercury in 6 fishes amounted between 6 and 72% of the total mercury content. (author)

  1. Perfil de mercado de Alemania, Austria, Bélgica, Bulgaria y Chipre

    OpenAIRE

    López Rodríguez, Maria Alexandra; Martínez Giraldo, Maria Paula; Rosero Cely, Erika Natalia

    2015-01-01

    Es por esto que el objetivo de este proyecto es dar a conocer mediante la investigación del comercio internacional entre Colombia y la Unión Europea, específicamente para los países de Alemania, Austria, Bélgica, Bulgaria y Chipre estrategias de internacionalización y expansión de las PYMES a nuevos mercados. Entonces, con este proyecto se quiere conseguir que por medio de la investigación y la información se determinen aquellos productos y servicios que Colombia está ofreciendo a los país...

  2. BAM Austria: Arbeitskreis Bibliotheken, Archive, Museen Österreichs – Aktivitäten 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Bauer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BAM Austria: Arbeitskreis Bibliotheken, Archive, Museen Österreichs trat 2017 mit zwei Aktivitäten an die Öffentlichkeit. Am 11. Mai 2017 fand in Wien ein Seminar zum Thema „Open Access und Linked Open Data“ (LOD statt, zu dem 25 Vertreterinnen und Vertreter von Bibliotheken, Archiven und Museen eingeladen wurden. Am 13. September 2017 wurde im Rahmen des 33. Österreichischen Bibliothekartages in Linz ein Panel zum Thema „Digitalisierung an Bibliotheken, Archiven und Museen“ organisiert, an dem ca. 90 Personen teilgenommen haben.

  3. How labour market experiences of migrants differ: Australia and Austria compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altzinger, W

    1995-01-01

    The author compares migration policies and their economic impact in Australia and Austria. "The second section of the article presents the framework of Austrian and Australian migration policy....A comparison of the Austrian and Australian Gross Domestic Product (GDP)/unemployment/foreign employment-relationships displays different forms of flexibility. The third section of the article examines some distinctive features of migrants in both countries, including labour force participation, distribution by industry, wage policy and unemployment. The final section is a brief summary and some political reflections." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) excerpt

  4. Evaluating primary forest fuel rail terminals with discrete event simulation: A case study from Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrich J. Wolfsmayr; Rossana Merenda; Peter Rauch; Francesco Longo; Manfred Gronalt

    2016-01-01

    Biomass rail transport is a useful alternative to unimodal truck transport for medium or long transport distances, if only a short road pre-haulage is required. Up to now primary forest fuels (PFF) are rarely transported on the rail network in Austria and rail terminals able to tranship notable volumes are not established yet. The objective of this study is to investigate the potentials of existing transhipment infrastructure for introducing and operating PFF terminals. Such PFF terminals ena...

  5. Ecological characterization and molecular differentiation of Culex pipiens complex taxa and Culex torrentium in eastern Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zittra, Carina; Flechl, Eva; Kothmayer, Michael; Vitecek, Simon; Rossiter, Heidemarie; Zechmeister, Thomas; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter

    2016-04-11

    Culex pipiens complex taxa differ in behaviour, ecophysiology and epidemiologic importance. Despite their epidemiologic significance, information on genetic diversity, occurrence and seasonal and spatial distribution patterns of the Cx. pipiens complex is still insufficient. Assessment of seasonal and spatial distribution patterns of Culex pipiens forms and their congener Cx. torrentium is crucial for the understanding of their vector-pathogen dynamics. Female mosquitoes were trapped from April-October 2014 twice a month for a 24-h time period with BG-sentinel traps at 24 sampling sites in eastern Austria, using carbon dioxide as attractant. Ecological forms of Cx. pipiens s.l. and their hybrids were differentiated using the CQ11 locus, and Cx. pipiens forms and their congener Cx. torrentium using the ACE-2 gene. Differential exploitation of ecological niches by Cx. pipiens forms and Cx. torrentium was analysed using likelihood ratio tests. Possible effects of environmental parameters on these taxa were tested using PERMANOVA based on distance matrices and, if significant, were modelled in nMDS ordination space to estimate non-linear relationships. For this study, 1476 Culex spp. were sampled. Culex pipiens f. pipiens representing 87.33 % of the total catch was most abundant, followed by hybrids of both forms (5.62 %), Cx. torrentium (3.79 %) and Cx. pipiens f. molestus (3.25 %). Differences in proportional abundances were found between land cover classes. Ecological parameters affecting seasonal and spatial distribution of these taxa in eastern Austria are precipitation duration, air temperature, sunlight and the interaction term of precipitation amount and the Danube water level, which can be interpreted as a proxy for breeding habitat availability. The Cx. pipiens complex of eastern Austria comprises both ecologically different forms, the mainly ornithophilic form pipiens and the mainly mammalophilic and anthropophilic form molestus. Heterogeneous agricultural

  6. Impact of nuclear power and public acceptance. Licensing of nuclear reactors and public acceptance in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plochl, Gerhardt.

    1977-01-01

    This paper first reviews the main stages in the development of nuclear activities in Austria and recalls the principal legal and regulatory texts adopted in this field. In this context, the author describes the circumstances which, following announcement of the project for a second nuclear power plant in 1974, gave rise to hostile reactions and led to the organisation by the federal authorities of a wide public information campaign in 1976 and 1977. This resulted in increasing the number of opponents to nuclear energy and raised the question of the long term storage of radioactive waste, for which at present Austrian regulations provide no satisfactory solution. (NEA) [fr

  7. Aging population in change – a crucial challenge for structurally weak rural areas in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Tatjana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Besides population decline, structurally weak rural areas in Austria face a new challenge related to demographic change: the increasing heterogeneity of their aging population. From the example of the so-called ‘best agers’ - comprising people aged 55 to 65 years - this contribution makes visible patterns and consequences of growing individualized spatial behaviour and spatial perception. Furthermore, contradictions between claims, wishes and expectations and actual engagement and commitment to their residential rural municipalities are being pointed out. These empirically-based facts are rounded off by considerations on the best agers’ future migration-behaviour and the challenges for spatial planning at the municipal level.

  8. A sunken ship of the desert at the river Danube in Tulln, Austria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Galik

    Full Text Available Rescue excavations recovered a skeleton that resurrect the contemporary dramatic history of Austria in the 17th century as troops besieged Vienna in the second Osmanic-Habsburg war. Unique for Central Europe is the evidence of a completely preserved camel skeleton uncovered in a large refuse pit. The male individual of slender stature indicates a few but characteristic pathological changes revealing not a beast of burden but probably a valuable riding animal. Anatomical and morphometrical analyses suggest a hybrid confirmed by the ancient DNA analyses resulting in the presence of a dromedary in the maternal and a Bactrian camel in the paternal line.

  9. Stars in the Silurian sky: Echinoderm holdfasts from the Carnic Alps, Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferretti, A.; Ausich, W.I.; Corradini, C.; Corriga, M.G.; Schoenlaub, H.P.

    2016-01-01

    A small collection of echinoderm holdfasts from the Ludlow Cardiola Formation of the Carnic Alps (Austria) contains a wide range of morphologies as a response of environmental adaptation. In general, the holdfasts have a globous and massive dome-like profile with several processes arranged in a sub-radial disposition, so to create a sort of ‘star-like’ outline. A small central depression is common but not present on all specimens. The distinctive holdfasts are preserved in an iron-rich phase, documenting a substitution that has also affected other non-echinoderm calcareous material. (Author)

  10. Radiation danger. [What we know, can and should. Austria after Chernobyl]. Strahlengefahr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gergely, S M

    1986-01-01

    The author is a journalist and has written the book 4 weeks after the Chernobyl accident because 'the experts have failed in informing on the consequences of Chernobyl in a way to keep the insecurity in the population within tolerable limits'. It is aimed at the interested layman. First the events as seen through the Austria media and the measures taken by the authorities during the 4 weeks are reviewed. In the rest of the books there is elementary information on some aspects of radioactivity, reactors and radiation limits although 'the connection between radioactivity and health is very complex'. (G.Q.).

  11. The whip spider collection (Arachnida, Amblypygi held in the Natural History Museum Vienna, Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiter, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We present data and remarks on the history and contents of the whip spider collection housed in the Natural History Museum of Vienna, Austria. The collection comprises a total of 167 specimens from 4 families, 10 genera and 27 species. It includes types of four species: Charinus ioanniticus (Kritscher, 1959, Damon brachialis Weygoldt, 1999, Phrynus parvulus (Pocock, 1902 and Paraphrynus mexicanus (Bilimek, 1867. Short notes on interesting objects and former curators are provided as well as an appendix with a list of species kept alive by Michael Seiter.

  12. Radiocaesium levels in roe deer and wild boar in two large forest areas in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tataruch, F.; Klansek, E.; Schoenhofer, F.

    1996-01-01

    A report is given on the course of radiocaesium contamination in roe deer and wild boar in two large forest areas in Austria. In autumn 1987 and winter 1987/88 radiocaesium levels rose to values higher than those recorded in 1986 in these regions. The reason for this increase was the very specific feeding selection of roe deer in these forest areas resulting in the ingestion of an unusual high amount of blueberries, ferns and mushrooms. An explanation for the changes of wild boar's contamination has not been found yet, but possible reasons are discussed. (author)

  13. Wage Differences Between Men and Women in Austria: Evidence from 1983 and 1997

    OpenAIRE

    Böheim, René; Hofer, Helmut; Zulehner, Christine

    2005-01-01

    In most OECD countries the wage gap between men and women has declined during the past two decades. Developments of the last 20 years, e.g. increased labour market attachment of women, changes in the bargaining structure, and the introduction of equal pay laws, may have reduced the gender wage gap. We investigate the extent, persistence, and socio-economic determinants of the gender wage gap in Austria, for the years 1983 and 1997. Using wage decomposition techniques, we find that the average...

  14. A sunken ship of the desert at the river Danube in Tulln, Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galik, Alfred; Mohandesan, Elmira; Forstenpointner, Gerhard; Scholz, Ute Maria; Ruiz, Emily; Krenn, Martin; Burger, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Rescue excavations recovered a skeleton that resurrect the contemporary dramatic history of Austria in the 17th century as troops besieged Vienna in the second Osmanic-Habsburg war. Unique for Central Europe is the evidence of a completely preserved camel skeleton uncovered in a large refuse pit. The male individual of slender stature indicates a few but characteristic pathological changes revealing not a beast of burden but probably a valuable riding animal. Anatomical and morphometrical analyses suggest a hybrid confirmed by the ancient DNA analyses resulting in the presence of a dromedary in the maternal and a Bactrian camel in the paternal line.

  15. INIS Training Seminar 2013, 7-11 October 2013, Vienna, Austria. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency organised an INIS Training Seminar from 7 to 11 October 2013 at its Headquarters in Vienna, Austria. The programme of the seminar concentrated on all aspects of INIS input preparation, indexing and classification, submission of non-conventional literature (NCL), searching the INIS Collection, and promotion of INIS. The training course consisted of lectures in the form of presentations, followed by discussions to allow an exchange of information and by practical sessions specifically on the topic. The course also consisted of hands-on training using computer training facilities

  16. Geophysical measurements and monitoring on the Pechgraben Landslide in Upper Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochum, Birgit; Ottowitz, David; Pfeiler, Stefan; Gruber, Stefanie; Hoyer, Stefan; Supper, Robert; Schattauer, Ingrid

    2016-04-01

    In January 2013, after an intense rainfall of about 400 mm, the historic slope movement northwest of the village of Pechgraben (municipality Großraming, Upper Austria) started to move. Already in early March the landslide with an area of about 7 hectares came to a halt. After the long-lasting rainfall (200mm) from June 1st to 3rd 2013 the Pechgraben landslide was reactivated with an extent of about 80 ha on June 6th. This landslide is therefore the largest in Austria since the last 5 years. Several million cubic meters of loose material was moving towards the settlement area. Already one day later, on June 7th, 2013, emergency measures began immediately. The Geological Survey of Austria (GBA), the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Institute of Mountain Risk Engineering (IAN), and the consultant engineering office Moser/Jaritz as well as the local fire brigade and the federal armed forces supported the Torrent and Avalanche Control with their remediation measures. In addition to the emergency measures, which consisted mainly of water diversion and material removal, a comprehensive monitoring system (GPS, inclinometer, geoelectric monitoring, airborne laserscan and aerial photogrammetry, etc.) has been created in order to document the development of the slope movement and to be able to take further measures if necessary. The geophysical part undertaken by the Geological Survey of Austria consisted of an airborne geophysical survey (EM, magnetics, gamma radiation) as well as several geoelectric profiles to understand the geology and mechanism of the landslide. To monitor the movement, we set up 5 different geoelectrical monitoring profiles, permanent inclinometers, photo monitoring, piezometers, as well as soil humidity and precipitation sensors. Hübl, J., Schraml, K., Lindner, G., Tartarotti, T., Gruber, H., Gasperl, W., Supper, R., Jochum, B., Ottowitz, D., Gruber, S., Marschallinger, R., Moser, G. (2015): Synthesebericht der H

  17. Quality of life outcomes' in early motherhood in Austria : The impact of internal and external resources

    OpenAIRE

    Mautner, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide results of two studies, which were conducted in Austria to examine the impact of internal and external factors on quality of life and depressive symptoms in early motherhood. In general early motherhood may be a critical life event for a woman and their partner and can lead to decreased well-being. Emotional aspects such as depression affects not only the quality of life of the mothers but also her new-born child, her other children, partner and relati...

  18. Stars in the Silurian sky: Echinoderm holdfasts from the Carnic Alps, Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferretti, A.; Ausich, W.I.; Corradini, C.; Corriga, M.G.; Schoenlaub, H.P.

    2016-07-01

    A small collection of echinoderm holdfasts from the Ludlow Cardiola Formation of the Carnic Alps (Austria) contains a wide range of morphologies as a response of environmental adaptation. In general, the holdfasts have a globous and massive dome-like profile with several processes arranged in a sub-radial disposition, so to create a sort of ‘star-like’ outline. A small central depression is common but not present on all specimens. The distinctive holdfasts are preserved in an iron-rich phase, documenting a substitution that has also affected other non-echinoderm calcareous material. (Author)

  19. Analysis of Infectious Disease Notification in Germany and Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.D. Sorokhan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of notifications of infectious disease in Germany and Austria as a European Union member state. All the elements of a notification were analyzed, starting from doctors and bacteriological laboratories, local health departments to regional and national levels. Attention is focused on the importance of the analysis of notification of infectious disease in European Union member states in terms of cooperation between Ukraine and the European Union after the signing of the economic component of the association agreement.

  20. The agreement between Austria and the German Democratic Republic concerning environment protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, B.

    1989-01-01

    The agreement between Austria and the German Democratic Republic concerning the cooperation in the field of environment protection is in force since 1988 07 01. The mutual pollutant-immission should be reduced by exchange of knowledge and experience, cooperation of experts and development of working plans. The problems of brown-coal combustion should be reduced by extended use of nuclear energy. The article examines the content of the agreement and its coordination with the international agreement about long range transfrontier air-pollution

  1. Radionuclide soil-to-plant transfer - experiences from the Chernobyl accident in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerzabek, M.H.

    1994-03-01

    In field studies after the Chernobyl fallout in Austria distinct differences in soil-to-plant transfer of 137 Cs and 90 Sr between crops were observed. However, within single plant species transfer values varied over one to three orders of magnitude. The main influencing factors are the soil properties, the soil adhesion phenomenon and probably the unhomogeneous vertical distribution of the radionuclides after plowing. On the basis of the presented results we should be aware of the uncertainties of the simple soil-to-plant transfer model, which partly mask the influence of soil parameters on root uptake and translocation. (author)

  2. Epidemiology of traumatic spinal cord injuries in Austria 2002-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdan, Marek; Brazinova, Alexandra; Mauritz, Walter

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the epidemiological patterns (mortality, incidence of non-fatal cases and overall incidence), of traumatic spinal cord injuries (TSCI) in 2002-2012 in Austria. TSCI-related deaths and hospital admissions in Austria 2002-2012 were obtained from Statistics Austria and analysed. Mortality rates, as well as non-fatal and overall incidence rates were calculated and compared across the age spectrum and by sex. Additionally, the main causes and demographic characteristics of victims were analysed. The crude overall incidence rate of TSCI was 16.96, CI 95 % 16.95-16.97 and the standardized incidence rate was 13.98, CI 95 % 13.97-13.99 per million (annual average rate). An annual increase in fatality rates was observed occurring mostly in the age group >65 years (Kendall's Tau = 0.1). Falls (mortality rate 19.58, CI 95 % 19.57-19.59) and injuries at home (incidence rate 56.57, CI 95 % 56.56-56.58) were the principal causes of fatal and non-fatal TSCI, respectively. Injuries to the neck region were the most common. All indicators were the highest for the age group >65 years: non-fatal incidence rate 23.55, CI 95 % 23.54-23.56; mortality rate 21.4, CI 95 % 21.39-21.41; and overall incidence rate 47.9, CI 95 % 47.89-47.91. A clear male dominance was observed (incidence rate ratio 1.9, CI 95 % 1.4-2.7). The population >65 years has been at the highest risk of TSCI in Austria for the analysed period and therefore preventive activities should be focused on this group. The increasing overall incidence of TSCI was driven by the increasing mortality rates that were highest in the age group >65 years. We advocate harmonization of epidemiological reporting especially regarding aetiology of TSCI in order to better inform policy makers and prevention.

  3. “Saving lives”: Adapting and adopting Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccination in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Katharina T.

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination against the sexually transmitted Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), a necessary agent for the development of cervical cancer, has triggered much debate. In Austria, HPV policy turned from “lagging behind” in 2008 into “Europe's frontrunner” by 2013. Drawing on qualitative research, the article shows how the vaccine was transformed and made “good enough” over the course of five years. By means of tinkering and shifting storylines, policy officials and experts disassociated the vaccine from gender, vaccine manufacturers, and youth sexuality. Ultimately, the HPV vaccine functioned to strengthen the national immunization program. To this end, preventing an effective problematization of the extant screening program was essential. PMID:26921834

  4. Sedimentation and erosion processes in Middle to Late Pleistocene sequences exposed in the brickyard of Langenlois/Lower Austria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiel, Christine; Terhorst, Birgit; Jaburová, Iva

    2011-01-01

    The correlation of sedimentary and pedogenetic processes in Lower Austria is difficult due to significant discontinuities and local variability in soil formation. This hampers landscape reconstruction at a regional scale. However, at a local scale distinct landscape formation processes represented...... by a shift from fluvial to aeolian deposition can be observed in the brickyard of Langenlois, Lower Austria. Sedimentological and mineralogical analyses in combination with palaeontological finds suggest that the fluvial deposition took place during the Middle Pleistocene. This attribution is confirmed...... in Austria; it indicates a Middle Pleistocene interglacial period. The low degree of weathering as well as Cryosols found in the loess sequence point to loess accumulation during the Last Glacial; the dating results (35–55 ka) indicate prolonged loess deposition. No signs of pedogenesis could be found...

  5. The Texts of the Agreements Between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the United Nations and the Federal Government of the Republic of Austria Regarding the Headquarters Seat and Related Agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The texts of seven agreements concluded between the Agency and the Republic of Austria, as well as between the Agency, the United Nations and the Republic of Austria, are reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  6. Migrants and obstetrics in Austria--applying a new questionnaire shows differences in obstetric care and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberaigner, Willi; Leitner, Hermann; Oberaigner, Karin; Marth, Christian; Pinzger, Gerald; Concin, Hans; Steiner, Horst; Hofmann, Hannes; Wagner, Teresa; Mörtl, Manfred; Ramoni, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Immigration plays a major role in obstetrics in Austria, and about 18 % of the Austrian population are immigrants. Therefore, we aimed to (1) test the feasibility of a proposed questionnaire for assessment of migrant status in epidemiological research and (2) assess some important associations between procedures and outcomes in obstetrics and migration in selected departments in Austria. We adapted a standardized questionnaire to the main immigration groups in Austria. Information on country of origin, length of residence in Austria and German-language ability was collected from eight selected obstetrics departments. Of the 1,971 questionnaires, 1,873 questionnaires of singleton births were selected and included in the analysis. We analyzed a total of 1,873 parturients with singleton births, of which 35 % had migrant status, 12 % were from ex-Yugoslavia, 12 % were from Turkey, and 12 % were from other countries. The proportion of parturients having their first care visit after the 12th week of pregnancy was higher in migrant groups (19 %). Smoking was highest in the migrants from ex-Yugoslavia (21 %). Vaginal delivery was more frequent in migrants from ex-Yugoslavia (78 %) and Turkey (83 %) than in nonmigrants (71 %) and episiotomy was more frequently performed in migrants from other countries. All differences are statistically significant. Administration of a standardized questionnaire for assessment of migrant status in obstetric departments in Austria was shown to be feasible. We assessed differences in obstetric care and outcome and consequently recommend that action should be initiated in Austria toward harmonizing obstetric procedures among the migrant and the nonmigrant groups and toward minimizing risk factors.

  7. Human smuggling in Austria: a comparative analysis of data on smuggled migrants from former Yugoslavia and the Russian Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterka-Benton, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a summary of the author’s research on human smuggling in Austria comparing migrants from Former Yugoslavia and the Russian Federation. The project’s primary intent was to collect more detailed information on migrants seeking asylum in Austria and their use of smuggling services to leave their home countries, including detailed information on demographics, force or threat of force by smugglers, routes and methods of transportation, costs of smuggling, payment methods, and deeper perceptual questions regarding the flight. Another central premise of the article discusses how current distinctions between human smuggling and human trafficking are arbitrary in many regards.

  8. Notas sobre un grupo de ballestas españolas para el emperador Maximiliano I de Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soler del Campo, Álvaro

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The author describes a set of crossbows belonging to Maximilian 1 of Austria. Trademarks hitherto unobserved confirm that they were manufactured in Spain, specially in Aragon

    Se discute un grupo de ballestas pertenecientes a Maximiliano 1 de Austria. La aparición de marcas no documentadas hasta el momento confirman que todos sus elementos fueron construídos en España, resaltando, igualmente, el papel del reino de Aragón como centro productor.

  9. Detection of Plasmodium sp.-infested Anopheles hyrcanus (Pallas 1771) (Diptera: Culicidae) in Austria, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Bernhard; Silbermayr, Katja; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Indra, Alexander; Nowotny, Norbert; Allerberger, Franz

    2013-03-01

    On July 15, 2012, adult Anopheles hyrcanus (Pallas 1771) mosquitoes were caught next to a farm barn near Rust, Burgenland, close to Lake Neusiedl National Park in eastern Austria. Six weeks later, adults of this invasive species were also found in a sheep shelter outside the village of Oggau and another 2 weeks later, in a horse barn in Mörbisch. The morphological typing was confirmed genetically by amplification and sequencing of a 1,404-bp-long fragment within the 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene, the internal transcribed spacer 2, and the 28S ribosomal RNA gene. Out of two A. hyrcanus pools analyzed, one was found positive for Plasmodium sp. A 460-bp-long sequence within the mitochondrial cytochrome b region revealed 100 % identity to a sequence of a Plasmodium parasite identified in a New Zealand bellbird (Anthornis melanura). The Austrian finding sites are close to the Hungarian border. In Hungary, the occurrence of A. hyrcanus was already reported in 1963. A. hyrcanus is considered the most important potential vector of malaria in southern France today. In Austria, sporadic autochthonous malaria cases could emerge, caused by immigration from malaria-endemic countries and heavy tourism. However, the broad population coverage of the Austrian health care system makes the reestablishment of endemic areas for malaria unlikely.

  10. Exploiting the Medium Term Biomass Energy Potentials in Austria. A Comparison of Costs and Macroeconomic Impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steininger, K.W.; Voraberger, H.

    2003-01-01

    The transition to an implicitly solar-based energy system can make use of various specific biomass energy systems. This paper provides economic and environmental indicators for evaluating alternative options. The paper proceeds in three empirical steps. First, an expert survey supplies the primary biomass potentials available for non-food use in Austria and their respective costs. Second, an inquiry into investment, operating and financing costs of 30 different biomass energy use systems allows a standardized comparison among them and their relationship to fossil reference technologies. Third, a computable general equilibrium model of the Austrian economy is employed to quantify the impacts of fostering the use of distinct biomass energy technologies. The results allow us to distinguish between those technologies that tend to lead to an increase in both GDP and employment (e.g., combined heat and power production from sewage sludge biogas), to an increase only in employment, while GDP tends to diminish (e.g., district heating based on agricultural pellets) or to a decline in both (e.g., co-firing based on wood-chips, bark or industrial pellets). Individual technologies could account for up to one third of Austria's Kyoto obligation, while combinations of technologies, triggered by a combined CO2 tax and biomass energy subsidy for example, could almost fully lead to Austrian Kyoto-compliance

  11. A new approach for surveying the Alpine Salamander (Salamandra atra in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Reinthaler-Lottermoser

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Alpine Salamander is a small pitch black amphibian which is endemic to the European Alps and the Dinarides. It is strictly protected according to the European FFH guidelines. Despite its central role in the alpine ecosystem our actual published record in Austria is small. In order to resolve this shortcoming our project explores its distribution in Austria. It uses a participatory and community based approach to gather data. Everybody can enter and look at Alpine Salamander observations on our website www.alpensalamander.eu. This approach also allows us to establish an “oral history” of Salamander observations in the past 50 years by conducting interviews in the local community. Since July 2009 the website and salamander report database are online. From the actual data (more than 5600 records we already obtained an overview about the present distribution and data quality. The data are an excellent basis for detailed scientific studies on these remarkable amphibians. With this new and highly interactive approach science and education are combined to initiate protection measures with the public.

  12. The Slovak Politics and Society in Austria-Hungary before the First World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Syrný

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is an analysis of the conditions in Austria-Hungary, respectively the Kingdom of Hungary, focused at political and social status of Slovakia (Upper Hungary. The political representation of the Slovak citizens (at about 12 % of the citizens of the Kingdom of Hungary since the begining of the 20th century went through dynamic transformation. This transformation went into the direction of some kind of deviation from the idea of Slovak autonomy within the Kingdom of Hungary. The general frame of the description of conditions of the era Austria-Hungary is based on autoritative researches by Slovak, Hungarian and Anglo-Saxon origin. There were used such scientific methods as analysis and synthesis, concretization, generalization while solving the research tasks. In addition, the paper used the historical-situational method, involving the study of historical facts in the context of the period under review in conjunction with the "neighboring" events and facts. The creation of the own statehood in cooperation with more powerful Czech politics became the new goal of the Slovak politics. This study will emphasize preconditions and development not only within political elites but also within the dimension of public climate of the Slovak part of the Kingdom of Hungary.

  13. Assessment of tourism and recreation destinations under climate change conditions in Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzarakis, Andreas; Haemmerle, Martin [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Meteorological Inst.; Endler, Christina [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Meteorological Inst.; Research Center Human Biometeorology, Freiburg (Germany). German Weather Service; Muthers, Stefan [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Meteorological Inst.; Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Climate and Environmental Physics; Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research; Koch, Elisabeth [Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamcis, Vienna (Austria)

    2012-04-15

    Tourism and recreation are important economic factors which are directly connected to weather and climate of a specific destination. Based on the observation network of the Central Institute of Meteorology and Geodynamics of Austria (ZAMG), data of 37 stations has been collected and analysed for tourism and recreation purposes. The analysis was based on long term data sets which were processed in relevant ways for tourism and recreation, resulting in frequency diagrams of Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) and precipitation. Additionally, we prepared the results according to the demands of tourism and recreation authorities and industry using the Climate-Tourism/Transfer-Information-Scheme (CTIS). Applying data from the regional climate models REMO and CLM we can provide information on future climate conditions in Austria's recreation areas. We chose two different time slices (2021-2050, 2071-2100) and IPCC emission scenarios (A1B, B1). The data was processed based on the threshold factors which are included in the CTIS (e.g. thermal comfort, heat stress, cold stress, sunshine, etc.). For the time slice 2021-2050 only moderate changes can be expected. But for 2071-2100 one can observe a distinct decrease of cold stress and the skiing potential. On the other hand, moderate increases of thermal comfort, heat stress, sultriness and sunshine are expected. No tendencies can be seen in precipitation and wind conditions. (orig.)

  14. Information on governmental and industrial energy RD and expenditures for the year 1997 in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faninger, G.

    1998-04-01

    Information on governmental and industrial energy RD and D expenditures for the year 1997 in Austria: The government (state and federal) energy RD and D budget in Austria was 137.6 Mio ATS in 1990, 245.0 Mio ATS in 1991, 210.7 Mio ATS in 1992, 286.9 Mio ATS in 1993, 324.6 Mio ATS in 1994, 332.1 Mio ATS in 1995, 334.3 Mio ATS in 1996 and 354.1 Mio ATS in 1997. The expenditures of the Austrian private industry for energy RD and D are estimated to be about 89 Mio ATS for the year 1990, about 122 Mio ATS for the year 1991, about 98 Mio ATS for the year 1992, about 124 Mio ATS for 1993, about 170 Mio ATS for 1994, about 128 Mio ATS for 1995, about 116 Mio ATS for 1996 and about 133 Mio ATS for 1997. The energy RD and D budget of the Austrian Electricity Companies was 133.3 Mio ATS for 1991, 181.1 Mio ATS for 1992, 192.4 Mio ATS for 1993, 126.6 Mio ATS for 1994, 191.0 Mio ATS for 1995, 207.3 Mio ATS for 1996 and 227.7 Mio ATS for 1997. (author)

  15. Transitions Between Art and Pedagogy: Mentoring Music Teacher Novices in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isolde Malmberg

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Teacher education in Austria is currently undergoing a fundamental reform process. Investigations into teachers’ first experience in school indicate that the transition from university life to professional life is not smooth for teachers. In the arts, the adjustment seems to be even more complex (De Vugt, 2013. Artistically well-trained university graduates seem to have difficulty in applying their knowledge and artistic skills. Career crashes and a shortage of music teachers in Austria are some of the consequences (Bailer, 2009. Recently I commenced the Grounded Theory Study, mentoring in music, investigating how mentors act in the induction phase, as well as how mentees cope with it. Narrative interviews beyond mentors and mentees, expert interviews, as well as group discussions with mentor teams, show that mentoring in music education has to find ways to support trainee teachers’ transition between art and pedagogy since they are two fundamentally different practices (Benner, 2001. In this article, I present and discuss two main results of the study: First I show the multilayered status passage (Glaser & Strauss, 1971 that music teacher novices move through from their identity as music students to their identity as music teachers in schools. Second, I suggest and discuss four types of music teacher novices who cope with this status passage in music education differently and how they can be supported by mentors

  16. Does the new EU-BSS improve radon protection in Austria?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringer, W.; Haider, W.

    2015-01-01

    The new Council Directive 2013/59/EURATOM regarding radiation protection (EU-BSS) contains comprehensive regulations regarding radon protection in dwellings, in public buildings, and at workplaces for the first time. Key elements are the specification of a reference level of maximum 300 Bq/m 3 , the establishment of a national radon action plan, and a more comprehensive regulation of radon protection at workplaces and public buildings. The radon action plan shall contain strategies and measures regarding for example the estimation of the distribution of indoor radon concentrations, the mapping of radon, the radon risk communication strategy, the assignment of responsibilities, and regular reviews of the action plan. The new EU-BSS often requires only the establishment of strategies and the specification of measures, leaving the precise content of the strategies and measures to the member states. This gives the member states flexibility for the implementation of the EU-BSS into national legislation and allows to account for specific national experiences and circumstances. This contribution discusses and evaluates - based on the existing regulations concerning radon protection in Austria - the effectiveness of different new measures and regulations with respect to reducing the radon risk in Austria. Furthermore, their feasibility and practicability in terms of administrative and financial effort will be discussed. Thus, efficient new measures which lead to an improvement of the current radon control system will be identified.

  17. Towards an Excursion Flora for Austria and all the Eastern Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred A. Fischer

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This is on the one hand an announcement of the two-volume Fourth Edition of the Excursion Flora for Austria expanded by also including the remaining parts of the Eastern Alps (chapter 1, and on the other hand a rough survey of the flora of the Eastern Alps in connection with the main vegetation types (chapter 2. The geographical scope includes, besides Austria, the entire Eastern Alps from the Rhine valley in E Switzerland (Grisons to the Vipava valley in SW Slovenia. Volume 1 mainly contains comprehensive introductory chapters like introductions to plant morphology, taxonomy, and nomenclature, as well as a sketch of ecomorphology and habitat ecology, a survey of vegetation types (phytosociology and floristic peculiarities of the different natural regions, a rough history of floristic research, a detailed glossary including the meaning of epithets, etc., and drawings of several plant species characteristic of the flora covered. The structure of the keys concentrated in volume 2 is explained: besides the descriptive traits, they include for each taxon comprehensive ecological and plant geographical data, as well as information about Red Lists of the countries involved, plant uses, and taxonomical problems. Genus names are given not only in German, but also in the Romansh (Rumantsch Grischun, Italian, and Slovenian languages. In chapter 2, some important chorotypes including endemics are characterised, and an overview of floristic diversity (lists of exemplary taxa in accordance with the main and most characteristic vegetation types is presented.

  18. The wood pellet market in Austria: A structural market model analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristöfel, Christa; Strasser, Christoph; Schmid, Erwin; Morawetz, Ulrich B.

    2016-01-01

    EU bioenergy policies and oil price hikes have resulted in a significant increase of installed pellet boilers for residential heating. Hence, European demand for wood pellets has been growing faster and more steadily than supply leading to rising market prices in recent years. This article presents an econometric analysis of demand and supply of wood pellets in the residential heating sector in Austria, one of the most dynamic markets for residential pellets. Annual and monthly time series data between 2000 and 2014 are used in a two-stage least-squares (2SLS) regression to estimate supply and demand elasticities of wood pellets. In all model specifications, pellets demand is found to be inelastic (from −0.66 to −0.76) and pellets supply unit-elastic (from 1.03 to 1.18). Thus, consumers are highly exposed to price changes resulting from supply shocks. Policies which support investments in pellet boilers will shift the demand of wood pellets and likely leading to higher prices for consumers. - Highlights: • Characterisation of the European pellet market. • A structural market model for wood pellets in Austria. • Estimation of supply and demand price elasticities using a two-stage least-squares (2SLS) regression. • Pellets demand is found to be inelastic and pellets supply unit-elastic in the short run. • Policies stimulating demand will likely increase pellet and sawmill by-product prices.

  19. Modelling informally collected quantities of bulky waste and reusable items in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramusch, R; Pertl, A; Scherhaufer, S; Schmied, E; Obersteiner, G

    2015-10-01

    Disparities in earnings between Western and Eastern European countries are the reason for a well-established informal sector actively involved in collection and transboundary shipment activities from Austria to Hungary. The preferred objects are reusable items and wastes within the categories bulky waste, WEEE and metals, intended to be sold on flea markets. Despite leading to a loss of recyclable resources for Austrian waste management, these informal activities may contribute to the extension of the lifetime of certain goods when they are reused in Hungary; nevertheless they are discussed rather controversially. The aim of this paper is to provide objective data on the quantities informally collected and transhipped. The unique activities of informal collectors required the development and implementation of a new set of methodologies. The concept of triangulation was used to verify results obtained by field visits, interviews and a traffic counting campaign. Both approaches lead to an estimation of approx. 100,000 t per year of reusable items informally collected in Austria. This means that in addition to the approx. 72 kg/cap/yr formally collected bulky waste, bulky waste wood, household scrap (excluding packaging) and WEEE, up to a further 12 kg/cap/yr might, in the case that informal collection is abandoned, end up as waste or in the second-hand sector. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of low ozone episodes on erythemal UV-B radiation in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Matthias; Baumgartner, Dietmar J.; Pietsch, Helga; Blumthaler, Mario; Weihs, Philipp; Rieder, Harald E.

    2017-06-01

    This study investigates the influence of low ozone episodes on UV-B radiation in Austria during the period 1999 to 2015. To this aim observations of total column ozone (TCO) in the Greater Alpine Region (Arosa, Switzerland; Hohenpeissenberg, Germany; Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic; Sonnblick, Austria), and erythemal UV-B radiation, available from 12 sites of the Austrian UV-B monitoring network, are analyzed. As previous definitions for low ozone episodes are not particularly suited to investigate effects on UV radiation, a novel threshold approach—considering anomalies—is developed to provide a joint framework for the analysis of extremes. TCO and UV extremes are negatively correlated, although modulating effects of sunshine duration impact the robustness of the statistical relationship. Therefore, information on relative sunshine duration (SDrel), available at (or nearby) UV-B monitoring sites, is included as explanatory variable in the analysis. The joint analysis of anomalies of both UV index (UVI) and total ozone (∆UVI, ∆TCO) and SDrel across sites shows that more than 65% of observations with strongly negative ozone anomalies (∆TCO 1), we find (across all sites) that about 90% correspond to negative ∆TCO. The remaining 10% of days occurred during fair weather conditions (SDrel ≥ 80%) explaining the appearance of ∆UVI > 1 despite positive TCO anomalies. Further, we introduce an anomaly amplification factor (AAF), which quantifies the expected change of the ∆UVI for a given change in ∆TCO.

  1. Environmental monitoring study of selected veterinary antibiotics in animal manure and soils in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Carballo, Elena; Gonzalez-Barreiro, Carmen; Scharf, Sigrid; Gans, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    LC-MS/MS was used for determination of selected tetracyclines, sulfonamides, trimethoprim, and fluoroquinolones in manure samples of pig, chicken and turkey, as well as arable soils fertilized with manure. Recoveries from spiked samples ranged from 61 to 105%. Method quantification limits were set to 100 μg/kg for all substances. Analysis of 30 pig manure, 20 chicken and turkey dung, and 30 lyophilized soil samples taken in Austria revealed that in pig manure up to 46 mg/kg chlortetracycline, 29 mg/kg oxytetracycline and 23 mg/kg tetracycline could be detected. As representatives of the group of sulfonamides, sulfadimidine in pig manure and sulfadiazine in chicken and turkey dung were detected in significant amounts (maximum concentration, 20 and 91 mg/kg, respectively). Enrofloxacin was particularly observed in chicken and turkey samples. Positive detection of chlortetracycline, enrofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin, in soil samples should be outlined as most important results of this study. - Specific exposure data of selected veterinarian antibiotics in manure and samples of agriculturally used soils are reported for the first time in Austria

  2. Environmental monitoring study of selected veterinary antibiotics in animal manure and soils in Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Carballo, Elena [Department of Hazardous Substances and Metabolites, Umweltbundesamt GmbH - Austrian Federal Environment Agency, Spittelauer Laende 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Gonzalez-Barreiro, Carmen [Department of Hazardous Substances and Metabolites, Umweltbundesamt GmbH - Austrian Federal Environment Agency, Spittelauer Laende 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Scharf, Sigrid [Department of Hazardous Substances and Metabolites, Umweltbundesamt GmbH - Austrian Federal Environment Agency, Spittelauer Laende 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Gans, Oliver [Department of Hazardous Substances and Metabolites, Umweltbundesamt GmbH - Austrian Federal Environment Agency, Spittelauer Laende 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2007-07-15

    LC-MS/MS was used for determination of selected tetracyclines, sulfonamides, trimethoprim, and fluoroquinolones in manure samples of pig, chicken and turkey, as well as arable soils fertilized with manure. Recoveries from spiked samples ranged from 61 to 105%. Method quantification limits were set to 100 {mu}g/kg for all substances. Analysis of 30 pig manure, 20 chicken and turkey dung, and 30 lyophilized soil samples taken in Austria revealed that in pig manure up to 46 mg/kg chlortetracycline, 29 mg/kg oxytetracycline and 23 mg/kg tetracycline could be detected. As representatives of the group of sulfonamides, sulfadimidine in pig manure and sulfadiazine in chicken and turkey dung were detected in significant amounts (maximum concentration, 20 and 91 mg/kg, respectively). Enrofloxacin was particularly observed in chicken and turkey samples. Positive detection of chlortetracycline, enrofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin, in soil samples should be outlined as most important results of this study. - Specific exposure data of selected veterinarian antibiotics in manure and samples of agriculturally used soils are reported for the first time in Austria.

  3. A non-foodborne norovirus outbreak among school children during a skiing holiday, Austria, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Hung-Wei; Schmid, Daniela; Schwarz, Karin; Pichler, Anna-Margaretha; Klein, Heidelinde; König, Christoph; de Martin, Alfred; Allerberger, Franz

    2009-01-01

    Norovirus is increasingly recognized as a leading cause of outbreaks of foodborne disease. We report on an outbreak in Austria that reached a total of 176 cases, affecting pupils and teachers from four schools on a skiing holiday in a youth hostel in the province of Salzburg in December 2007. A questionnaire was sent to the four schools in order to obtain data from persons attending the school trip on disease status, clinical onset, duration of illness and hospitalization. A cohort study was undertaken to identify the sources of infection. The school trip attendees were interviewed by questionnaire or face-to-face on their exposure to food items from the menu provided by the hostel owner. Of the 284 school holiday-makers, 176 fitted the definition of an outbreak case (attack rate 61.9%). A total of 264 persons on the ski holiday participated in the cohort study (response rate 93%). The day-by-day food-specific analyses did not find any food items served on any of five days (December 8-12) of the holiday to be associated with infection risk. The day-specific risk analyses revealed Monday December 10 (RR: 9.04; 95% CI: 6.02-13.6; P Tourism is one of the primary industries in Austria. Timely involvement of the relevant public health authorities is essential in any outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis, irrespective of its genesis.

  4. Impact of stereotactic 11-g vacuum-assisted breast biopsy on cost of diagnosis in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, R.; Walter, E.; Helbich, T.H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the frequency with which stereotactic 11-g vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (11-g SVAB) obviates an open surgical biopsy (OSB), to compare the costs of these two biopsy methods, and to estimate the potential cost savings attributable to 11-g SVAB in the diagnosis of suspicious breast lesions in patients in Austria. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed 318 consecutive breast lesions of BI-RADS categories IV and V (microcalcifications n = 166; masses n = 152) on which 11-g SVAB and OSB were performed. Cost savings were calculated using nationally allowed flat rates and patient charges. Costs were measured from a hospital and a socioeconomic perspective. Common clinical scenarios and sensitivity analyses assessed the extent of achievable cost savings. Results: 11-g SVAB obviated the need for an OSB in 93 (29%) of 318 women. Overall cost savings per 11-g SVAB over OSB were Euro 242 per case from a hospital perspective, and Euro 422 per case from a socioeconomic perspective. The use of 11-g SVAB decreased the cost of diagnosis by 7% from a hospital perspective, and by 10% from a socioeconomic perspective. Conclusion: In Austria, annual national savings of over 5 million Euro could be realized with the use of 11-g SVAB for the diagnosis of suspicious breast lesions. Although savings per case are modest, the national health care system realizes significant cost reduction as women benefit from a faster and less invasive approach to diagnosis.

  5. Impact of stereotactic 11-g vacuum-assisted breast biopsy on cost of diagnosis in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, R; Walter, E; Helbich, T H

    2011-01-01

    To determine the frequency with which stereotactic 11-g vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (11-g SVAB) obviates an open surgical biopsy (OSB), to compare the costs of these two biopsy methods, and to estimate the potential cost savings attributable to 11-g SVAB in the diagnosis of suspicious breast lesions in patients in Austria. We retrospectively reviewed 318 consecutive breast lesions of BI-RADS categories IV and V (microcalcifications n=166; masses n=152) on which 11-g SVAB and OSB were performed. Cost savings were calculated using nationally allowed flat rates and patient charges. Costs were measured from a hospital and a socioeconomic perspective. Common clinical scenarios and sensitivity analyses assessed the extent of achievable cost savings. 11-g SVAB obviated the need for an OSB in 93 (29%) of 318 women. Overall cost savings per 11-g SVAB over OSB were € 242 per case from a hospital perspective, and € 422 per case from a socioeconomic perspective. The use of 11-g SVAB decreased the cost of diagnosis by 7% from a hospital perspective, and by 10% from a socioeconomic perspective. In Austria, annual national savings of over 5 million Euro could be realized with the use of 11-g SVAB for the diagnosis of suspicious breast lesions. Although savings per case are modest, the national health care system realizes significant cost reduction as women benefit from a faster and less invasive approach to diagnosis. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of stereotactic 11-g vacuum-assisted breast biopsy on cost of diagnosis in Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, R., E-mail: renate.gruber@meduniwien.ac.at [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Division of Molecular and Gender Imaging, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Walter, E. [Institute of Pharmacoeconomic Research, Wolfengasse 4/7, A-1010 Vienna (Austria); Helbich, T.H. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Division of Molecular and Gender Imaging, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2011-01-15

    Purpose: To determine the frequency with which stereotactic 11-g vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (11-g SVAB) obviates an open surgical biopsy (OSB), to compare the costs of these two biopsy methods, and to estimate the potential cost savings attributable to 11-g SVAB in the diagnosis of suspicious breast lesions in patients in Austria. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed 318 consecutive breast lesions of BI-RADS categories IV and V (microcalcifications n = 166; masses n = 152) on which 11-g SVAB and OSB were performed. Cost savings were calculated using nationally allowed flat rates and patient charges. Costs were measured from a hospital and a socioeconomic perspective. Common clinical scenarios and sensitivity analyses assessed the extent of achievable cost savings. Results: 11-g SVAB obviated the need for an OSB in 93 (29%) of 318 women. Overall cost savings per 11-g SVAB over OSB were Euro 242 per case from a hospital perspective, and Euro 422 per case from a socioeconomic perspective. The use of 11-g SVAB decreased the cost of diagnosis by 7% from a hospital perspective, and by 10% from a socioeconomic perspective. Conclusion: In Austria, annual national savings of over 5 million Euro could be realized with the use of 11-g SVAB for the diagnosis of suspicious breast lesions. Although savings per case are modest, the national health care system realizes significant cost reduction as women benefit from a faster and less invasive approach to diagnosis.

  7. Comparing MODIS Net Primary Production Estimates with Terrestrial National Forest Inventory Data in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Neumann

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The mission of this study is to compare Net Primary Productivity (NPP estimates using (i forest inventory data and (ii spatio-temporally continuous MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer remote sensing data for Austria. While forest inventories assess the change in forest growth based on repeated individual tree measurements (DBH, height etc., the MODIS NPP estimates are based on ecophysiological processes such as photosynthesis, respiration and carbon allocation. We obtained repeated national forest inventory data from Austria, calculated a “ground-based” NPP estimate and compared the results with “space-based” MODIS NPP estimates using different daily climate data. The MODIS NPP estimates using local Austrian climate data exhibited better compliance with the forest inventory driven NPP estimates than the MODIS NPP predictions using global climate data sets. Stand density plays a key role in addressing the differences between MODIS driven NPP estimates versus terrestrial driven inventory NPP estimates. After addressing stand density, both results are comparable across different scales. As forest management changes stand density, these findings suggest that management issues are important in understanding the observed discrepancies between MODIS and terrestrial NPP.

  8. In-situ-gamma-spectrometry intercomparison exercise in Salzburg, Austria, September 26-30, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steger, F.; Lettner, H.; Andrasi, A.

    1996-06-01

    In-situ gamma spectrometry has become a useful method to assess the nuclide concentration of artificial and natural gamma-emitters in the soil. With such measurements it is possible to calculate the activity concentration in soil and also the nuclide specific exposure rates 1 m above ground. For the quality assurance of the measurements periodically intercomparison exercises are essential. To meet this requirement exercises were organised in different European countries since 1989. The last exercise in September 1994 was organised in Salzburg / Austria. The participation of 24 measurement teams from all over Europe emphasises the importance of the intercomparison. Salzburg was selected because the Province of Salzburg / Austria was among the heaviest contaminated region outside the former USSR by the Chernobyl fallout. Two different typical sites were selected for the measurements: Site 1 was inside the urban area of Salzburg on intensively used agricultural land which had not been disturbed since the fallout. This site is representative for intensively used agricultural regions in the Province of Salzburg. Site 2 was in the mountainous region of the Tauern on elevated altitude of approx. 1700 m. This site represents the soil and contamination conditions of the Alpine region. Both sites differ significantly in terms of different soil distribution and contents of natural and artificial radionuclides. Results of the intercomparison exercise are presented. (author)

  9. Prevalence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and hepatitis E in New World camelids in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanitznig, A; Khol, J L; Lambacher, B; Franz, S; Wittek, T; Kralik, P; Slana, I; Vasickova, P

    2017-07-07

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of paratuberculosis in domestic ruminants and New World Camelids (NWC). Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an important public health concern worldwide. The virus has been identified in several species, some of them serving as a reservoir for zoonotic HEV strains. Husbandry and breeding of llamas and alpacas have increased in Austria in recent years. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of MAP and HEV in NWC in Austria. Altogether 445 animals, originating from 78 farms were enrolled in the study. Of the animals sampled, 184 (41.35%) were llamas and 261 (58.65%) were alpacas. 443 blood samples for MAP-ELISA and 399 faecal samples for quantitative PCR (qPCR) and culture for MAP as well as for HEV detection by RT-qPCR have been collected. All of the 399 animals tested for shedding of MAP were negative by faecal solid culture. Using qPCR, 15 (3.8%) of the animals were MAP positive and 384 (96.2%) negative. Out of the 443 serum samples examined for specific antibodies against MAP by ELISA, 6 (1.4%) were positive, 1 (0.2%) was questionable and 436 (98.4%) samples were negative. All faecal samples were tested negative for HEV.

  10. Effects of feedback on residential electricity demand—Findings from a field trial in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, Joachim; Klobasa, Marian; Gölz, Sebastian; Brunner, Marc

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of providing feedback on electricity consumption in a field trial involving more than 1500 households in Linz, Austria. About half of these households received feedback together with information about electricity-saving measures (pilot group), while the remaining households served as a control group. Participation in the pilot group was random, but households were able to choose between two types of feedback: access to a web portal or written feedback by post. Results from cross section OLS regression suggest that feedback provided to the pilot group corresponds with electricity savings of around 4.5% for the average household. Our results from quantile regressions imply that for households in the 30th to the 70th percentile of electricity consumption, feedback on electricity consumption is statistically significant and effects are highest in absolute terms and as a share of electricity consumption. For percentiles below or above this range, feedback appears to have no effect. Finally, controlling for a potential endogeneity bias induced by non random participation in the feedback type groups, we find no difference in the effects of feedback provided via the web portal and by post. - Highlights: • We estimate the effects of feedback on household electricity use in a field trial in Linz, Austria. • Providing feedback on electricity use corresponds with average savings of around 4.5%. • Effects of feedback are most pronounced in the 30th to the 70th percentile. • Feedback provided via a web portal and by post appears equally effective

  11. [Competition between branded and generic drugs in Austria: evidence from the market for ACE inhibitors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlich, J C; Stadler, I

    2012-01-01

    The market for pharmaceuticals in Austria is highly regulated and manufacturers cannot set prices freely after patent expiration of the pioneer drug. We wanted to examine the effect of price regulation on price competition between branded and generic drugs in Austria. We examined the Austrian market for ACE inhibitors and describe competitive dynamics by means of 6 indices. We compared our results with those of Grabowski and Vernon who studied the US market. According to our analysis the competition amongst the producers of generic drugs is not great and consequently, compared to the USA, over time the prices for generic products decrease less and their market share increases less. This is due to a market-oriented system in the USA which waives most regulatory provisions. Our conclusions are in line with the findings by Danzon und Chao (2000) who argue that in a price-regulated market competitive dynamics are less strongly developed. From a politico-economic view, the necessity of price regulations in the pharmaceutical market seems questionable, as price regulations generally also cause other negative effects, such as distorted economic incentives for research and development investments. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Austria's CO2 responsibility and the carbon content of its international trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, Pablo; Steininger, Karl W.

    2010-01-01

    Seeking to limit global warming to 2 C puts narrow restrictions on the remaining carbon budget. While the prevalent accounting framework for carbon emissions is production based (Production-Based Principle, PBP), we here quantify the CO 2 emissions on the basis of the Consumption-Based Principle (CBP) for Austria. At a methodological level, a Multi-Regional Input-Output model with full linkages is used to account for Austria's CO 2 responsibility on a global scale. Estimates are carried out for the years 1997 and 2004. Results show that during 1997 CO 2 responsibility based on CBP were 36% larger than those based on PBP. This relation has increased through time. The CBP indicator of 2004 was 44% larger than the PBP. In terms of carbon emission location, for each Euro spent on Austrian final demand in 2004, it is estimated that two-thirds of the CO 2 emissions occur outside Austrian borders. Regarding the origin of the emissions embodied in imports, it is estimated that about one-fourth originated in non-Annex I countries in 1997. This proportion increased to one-third by 2004. Due to this divergence between CBP and PBP indicators, there is a need to re-think current accounting bases in order to properly assign CO 2 responsibilities. (author)

  13. Implementation of landslide susceptibility maps in Lower Austria as part of risk governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Rainer; Petschko, Helene; Bauer, Christian; Glade, Thomas; Granica, Klaus; Heiss, Gerhard; Leopold, Philip; Pomaroli, Gilbert; Proske, Herwig; Schweigl, Joachim

    2013-04-01

    Landslides frequently cause damage to agricultural land and infrastructure in Lower Austria - a province of Austria. Also settlements and people are threatened by landslides. To reduce landslide risks and to prevent the establishment of new settlements in highly landslide prone areas, the project "MoNOE" (Method development for landslide susceptibility modeling in Lower Austria) was set up by the provincial government. The main aim of the project is the development of methods to model rock fall and slide susceptibility for an area of approx. 15,900 km2 and to implement the resulting susceptibility maps into the spatial planning strategies of the state. Right from the beginning of the project a close cooperation between the involved scientists and the stakeholders from the Geological Survey of Lower Austria and the Department of Spatial Planning and Regional Policy of Lower Austria was established to ensure that method development and final susceptibility maps meet exactly the needs and demands of the stakeholders. This posed huge challenges, together with its realization in the large study area and a (heterogeneous) complex geological situation,. Limitations were given by restricted data availability (e.g. for geology or landslide inventories) in such a large study area. Rock fall susceptibility was modeled by a combined approach of determining rock fall release areas by empirical slope thresholds (dependent on geology) followed by empirical run-out modeling. Slide susceptibility was modeled based on the statistical approaches of weights of evidence (WofE) and generalized additive models (GAM) by two different research groups. Huge efforts were spent on the validation of all susceptibility models. In a later stage of the project we found that the best scientific maps are not necessarily the best maps to be implemented in spatial planning strategies. Thus, in close cooperation with the stakeholders, decisions had to be taken to find the best resolution of the maps

  14. Rise, use and treatment of works in Austria. Compiled for the Austrian Federal Waste Management Plan 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perz, K.

    2001-06-01

    The Austrian Waste Management Act (AWG) entered into force on 1 July 1990. Paragraph 1 of the act defines the following objectives: to keep detrimental, unbeneficial or otherwise unhealthy influences on man, as well as on animals, plants, their living conditions and their natural environment as low as possible; to preserve raw material and energy resources; to keep the demand for landfill capacities as low as possible; to ensure that only such materials should remain as waste, the dumping of which does not present any potential hazard for future generations (precautionary principle). The waste management act thus places the highest priority on the protection of human beings and the environment and upon the preservation of natural resources. Accordingly, it must be the aim of waste management to handle waste in such a way that environmental pollution is kept as low as possible by prevention, recovery and disposal. Paragraph 5 of the Austrian waste management act stipulates that the Federal Minister of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management has to issue the Federal Waste Management Plan in order to reach the objectives and observing the rules of modern waste management. Following the first waste management plan in 1992 an amendment is required every three years. This is why the Austrian Federal Environment Agency elaborated the following studies: waste generation, recovery and disposal in Austria; hazardous waste and waste oils in Austria; non-hazardous waste in Austria. Further information on waste management facilities in Austria is presented on our homepage (http://www.ubavie.gv.at). (author)

  15. Sensitivities of crop models to extreme weather conditions during flowering period demonstrated for maize and winter wheat in Austria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eitzinger, Josef; Thaler, S.; Schmid, E.; Strauss, F.; Ferrise, R.; Moriondo, M.; Bindi, M.; Palosuo, T.; Rötter, R.; Kersebaum, K. C.; Olesen, J. E.; Patil, R. H.; Saylan, L.; Çaldag, B.; Caylak, O.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 151, č. 6 (2013), s. 813-835 ISSN 0021-8596 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : crop models * weather conditions * winter wheat * Austria Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.891, year: 2013

  16. The effect of skiing on soil, hydrology and erosion hazard in the ski area of Sölden, Tyrol, Austria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thonon, I.

    2006-01-01

    In July and August 1999, we investigated the influence of skiing on the catchment hydrology and soil (erosion) in the surroundings of Sölden, Tyrol, Austria. Sölden is a ski village located in the Ötztal valley in between the Ötztaler and Stubaier Alps. During this research, we conducted 122

  17. 'Fast-track' colonic surgery in Austria and Germany--results from the survey on patterns in current perioperative practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenberg, T; Keese, M; Längle, F; Reibenwein, B; Schindler, K; Herold, A; Beck, G; Post, S; Jauch, K W; Spies, C; Schwenk, W; Shang, E

    2009-02-01

    'Fast-track' rehabilitation has been shown to accelerate recovery, reduce general morbidity and decrease hospital stay after elective colonic surgery. Despite this evidence, there is no information on the acceptance and utilization of these concepts among the entirety of Austrian and German surgeons. In 2006, a questionnaire concerning perioperative routines in elective, open colonic resection was sent to the chief surgeons of 1270 German and 120 Austrian surgical centres. The response rate was 63% in Austria (76 centres) and 30% in Germany (385 centres). Mechanical bowel preparation is used by the majority (Austria, 91%; Germany, 94%); the vertical incision is the standard method of approach to the abdomen in Austria (79%) and Germany (83%), nasogastric decompression tubes are rarely used, one-third of the questioned surgeons in both countries use intra-abdominal drains. Half of the surgical centres allow the intake of clear fluids on the day of surgery and one-fifth offer solid food on that day. Epidural analgesia is used in three-fourths of the institutions. Although there is an evident benefit of fast-track management, the survey shows that they are not yet widely used as a routine in Austria and Germany.

  18. Emotional Problems and Victimisation among Youth with National and International Migration Experience Living in Austria and Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmeier, Dagmar; Dogan, Aysun

    2012-01-01

    Young people with international migration experiences constitute an increasing proportion of the population in many European countries. In Austria, a substantial proportion of these international migrants come from Turkey. In Turkey, many adolescents are national migrants, having moved from the eastern part to the western part of the country. This…

  19. What Does It Take to Be an Adult in Austria? Views of Adulthood in Austrian Adolescents, Emerging Adults, and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirsch, Ulrike; Dreher, Eva; Mayr, Eva; Willinger, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the defining features of emerging adulthood, subjects' conceptions of the transition to adulthood, and the perceived adult status in Austria. The sample consisted of 775 subjects (226 adolescents, 317 emerging adults, 232 adults). Results showed that most Austrian emerging adults feel themselves to be between adolescence…

  20. Sensitivities of crop models to extreme weather conditions during flowering period demonstrated for maize and winter wheat in Austria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eitzinger, J; Thaler, S; Schmid, E

    2013-01-01

    the start of flowering. Two locations in Austria, representing different agro-climatic zones and soil conditions, were included in the simulations over 2 years, 2003 and 2004, exhibiting contrasting weather conditions. In addition, soil management was modified at both sites by following either ploughing...

  1. Which characteristics of nursing home residents influence differences in malnutrition prevalence? An international comparison of The Netherlands, Germany and Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nie-Visser, Noémi C; Meijers, Judith; Schols, Jos; Lohrmann, Christa; Bartholomeyczik, Sabine; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke; Halfens, Ruud

    2014-03-28

    Prevalence rates of malnutrition vary considerably internationally, partly due to differences in measurement methodology and instruments. In the present study, the same measurement methodology and instruments were used in The Netherlands, Germany and Austria. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether resident characteristics influence possible differences in malnutrition prevalence between countries. The study followed a cross-sectional, multi-centre design that measured malnutrition in nursing home residents from The Netherlands, Germany and Austria. Resident data were gathered using a standardised questionnaire. Malnutrition was operationalised using BMI, unintentional weight loss and nutritional intake. Data were analysed using an association model. The prevalence rates of malnutrition in The Netherlands, Germany and Austria were 18·3, 20·1 and 22·5 %, respectively. The multivariate generalised estimating equation (GEE) logistic regression analysis showed that sex, age, care dependency, the mean number of diseases and some specific diseases were influencing factors for whether the resident was malnourished or not. The OR of malnutrition in the three countries declined after including the influencing factors resulting from the multivariate GEE analysis. The present study reveals that differences in the prevalence rates of malnutrition in nursing homes in The Netherlands, Germany and Austria are influenced by different resident characteristics. Since other country-related factors could also play an important role in influencing differences in the prevalence rates of malnutrition between the countries (structural and process factors of malnutrition care policy). We recommend the investigation of these factors in future studies.

  2. Austria uuringu tõlgendus: Eesti on eurotsooni must majandus / Kaja Koovit ; kommenteerinud Maria Alajõe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koovit, Kaja, 1968-

    2011-01-01

    Austrias asuva Linzi ülikooli uuringu kohaselt moodustab varimajandus Eesti majandusest kolmandiku. SSE Riga ehk Stockholmi majanduskooli Riias Balti varimajanduse uuringu põhjal võib varimajanduse osakaal Eestis olla 19,4 protsenti. Varimajanduse alal maailma juhtivaks eksperdiks peetava Friedrich Schneideri uuringust. Marje Josingu ja Juhan Partsi hinnanguid. Tabel: Varimajandus

  3. The Effect of Data Structure and Model Choices on MFA Results: A Comparison of Phosphorus Balances for Denmark and Austria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinglmair, Manfred; Zoboli, Ottavia; Laner, David

    2016-01-01

    to be disregarded. We identify and quantify the effects of choices made in system layout, data material and uncertainty assessment on the outcome of regional MFAs using two recent country-scale MFAs (of Denmark and Austria) of phosphorus as a case study. We highlight the differences in system boundaries...

  4. Geothermal energy: an important but disregarded form of renewable energy; geological situation, projects and economy in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker-Hertkorn, S.

    2000-05-01

    This study deals with the topic geothermal energy. Although geothermal energy is an important energy sector within the area of the renewable energies, the European policy downgraded this important, promising energy sector in 1999. Normally, geothermal energy cannot be regarded as a renewable energy source because the heat content of the Earth, the gravitational heat, the source heat, frictional heat and the decay of radioactive isotopes in the further process of geologic history will eventually be exhausted. However, we are referring here to many millions of years. At the present time, geothermal energy can thus be regarded as an inexhaustible renewable energy source. This work is focused on the geothermal situation in Austria. For many people, the term 'geothermal energy' is associated with countries such as Iceland, Italy (Larderello) and New Zealand. However, in Austria there are also innovative projects in the geothermal energy sector that only very few people know about. Some of these trend-setting projects are presented here. Regarding the total situation in Austria, the geothermal potential is described specifically for the Calcareous Alpine nappe and the Vienna Basin. Furthermore, the first results concerning successful injection in Upper Austria and up to now unconsidered locations for geothermal energy plants are presented. This work attempts to present the attractiveness of geothermal energy projects to the public, thus emphasizing the importance of discussing it again on the political level. (author)

  5. An analysis of the impact of the thermonuclear pilot project ITER on industry and research in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hangel, G.

    2007-03-01

    An analysis of the influence of the thermonuclear pilot project ITER on Austrian research and industrial activities is presented in terms of the following subjects: fusion research history, ITER technique, security, nuclear fusion, ITER (reactor, project specifications for quotations), possibilities for Austrian companies and fusion research in Austria. (nevyjel)

  6. Epidemiology and patterns of transport-related fatalities in Austria 1980-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdan, Marek; Rusnak, Martin; Rehorcikova, Veronika; Brazinova, Alexandra; Leitgeb, Johannes; Mauritz, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Transport-related accidents remain the largest single cause of death among people aged 15 to 29 in the European Union, and despite the decrease in number of fatalities from 1990 onwards they remain a significant public health problem. The aim of this article was to analyze the long-term trends and patterns of transport-related fatalities, identify the anatomic distribution of most significant injuries in different road users, and identify the primary populations at risk of transport-related death in Austria between 1980 and 2013. Data on transport-related fatalities based on death certificates were obtained from Statistics Austria for the analyzed period. Crude and age-standardized mortality rates per 100,000 were calculated and broken down by age, gender, and month of death, and the anatomic distribution of most significant injuries were identified. Potential years of life lost before age 75 (PYLL-75) were used as a measure of public health impact. A total of 39,709 transport-related fatalities were identified for the studied years; 74% were males and the mean age was 42.1 years (range 0-103). A decrease in the number of fatalities (from 2018 in 1980 to 554 in 2012), mortality rates (from 26 in 1980 to 7 in 2012), and PYLL-75 (from 68,960 in 1980 to 14,931 in 2012) was observed. Introduction of major prevention milestones (compulsory use of seat belts or child restraints) may have contributed to this decrease. Men 16-24 years old were at the highest risk of transport-related death. Pedestrian victims were more likely to be women and car drivers and motorcyclists were more often men. Most fatal transport accidents occurred between the months of May and October and prevailingly in towns of fewer than 20,000 inhabitants. Injuries to the head were the most significant injuries in all user groups (>50% of cases in all road user types). Reduced mortality rates could translate into higher prevalence of long-term disabilities in survivors of transport accidents. Despite

  7. The bumpy road to implementing the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative in Austria: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Christina C; Schmied, Hermann; Dorner, Thomas E; Dür, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) aims to promote and support breastfeeding. Globally, around 20,000 facilities have been designated Baby-Friendly. In Austria, however, only 16% of the maternity units have received BFHI-certification. Internationally, few studies have investigated facilitating or hindering factors for BFHI implementation. The need to extend BFHI-certification rates has been investigated previously, but little is known about why maternity units decide to become BFHI-certified, how BFHI is installed at the unit level, and which factors facilitate or impede the operation of the BFHI in Austria and how barriers are overcome. Using a qualitative approach, (health) professionals' perceptions of the selection, installation, as well as facilitators of and barriers to the BFHI were investigated. 36 semi-structured interviews with persons responsible for BFHI implementation (midwives, nurses, physicians, quality manager) were conducted in three Austrian maternity units. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Interviewees mentioned several motives for selecting the BFHI, including BFHI as a marketing tool, improvement of existing services, as well as collaboration between different professional groups. In each hospital, "change agents" were identified, who promoted the BFHI, teamed up with the managers of other professional groups and finally, with the manager of the unit. Installation of BFHI involved the adoption of project management, development and dissemination of new standards, and training of all staff. Although multiple activities were planned to prepare for actually putting the BFHI into practice, participants mentioned not only facilitating, but also several hindering factors. Interpretations of what facilitated or impeded the operation of BFHI differed among and between professional groups. Successful implementation of the BFHI in Austria depends on a complex interplay of multiple factors including a consensual "bottom

  8. Training Programmes in Sustainable Forest Management in Austria, Croatia and Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvija Krajter Ostoić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: During the Erasmus+ project “Cooperation for Innovative Approach in Sustainable Forest Management Training (CIA2SFM” a study of the existing vocational education and training (VET and lifelong learning (LLL programmes in the field of sustainable forest management (SFM was conducted in Austria, Croatia and Slovenia. The aim of this paper is to get an overview of and analyse SFM-related VET and LLL programmes in the study area, with an emphasis on the identification of good practice examples and providing recommendations for improvement. Materials and Methods: A combined approach of literature review, Internet search and consultations with training providers was applied in order to collect data on training programmes conducted in the period 2006-2015 in Austria, Croatia and Slovenia. The programmes were analysed based on topics, types of methods used, existence of specified learning outcomes, programme evaluation by participants and how the programme was advertised. The analysis employed basic descriptive statistics. Topics were grouped into broader themes. Only training programmes targeting private forest owners, forestry professionals, and forestry entrepreneurs were analysed. Three examples of good practice in each country were selected based on collaboratively developed criteria. Results: In Austria, Croatia and Slovenia numerous training courses related to SFM were conducted in the analysed period, predominantly addressing target groups in forestry sector and covering a variety of topics. The relative importance of themes varied among countries. In order to facilitate the knowledge uptake by participants various methods were applied. Although indoor ex-cathedra approaches prevailed, it could be recognized that there is a growth in interest for foster demonstrations in the field, organizing field trips, emphasize on practical work and combining methods and approaches in most countries. Conclusions: Even if national

  9. Antibiotic resistance in primary care in Austria - a systematic review of scientific and grey literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Antibiotic resistance is an increasing challenge for health care services worldwide. While up to 90% of antibiotics are being prescribed in the outpatient sector recommendations for the treatment of community-acquired infections are usually based on resistance findings from hospitalized patients. In context of the EU-project called "APRES - the appropriateness of prescribing antibiotic in primary health care in Europe with respect to antibiotic resistance" it was our aim to gain detailed information about the resistance data from Austria in both the scientific and the grey literature. Methods A systematic review was performed including scientific and grey literature published between 2000 and 2010. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined and the review process followed published recommendations. Results Seventeen scientific articles and 23 grey literature documents could be found. In contrast to the grey literature, the scientific publications describe only a small part of the resistance situation in the primary health care sector in Austria. Merely half of these publications contain data from the ambulatory sector exclusively but these data are older than ten years, are very heterogeneous concerning the observed time period, the number and origin of the isolates and the kind of bacteria analysed. The grey literature yields more comprehensive and up-to-date information of the content of interest. These sources are available in German only and are not easily accessible. The resistance situation described in the grey literature can be summarized as rather stable over the last two years. For Escherichia coli e.g. the highest antibiotic resistance rates can be seen with fluorochiniolones (19%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (27%). Conclusion Comprehensive and up-to-date antibiotic resistance data of different pathogens isolated from the community level in Austria are presented. They could be found mainly in the grey literature, only few are

  10. Is the introduction of anonymous delivery associated with a reduction of high neonaticide rates in Austria? A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klier, C M; Grylli, C; Amon, S; Fiala, C; Weizmann-Henelius, G; Pruitt, S L; Putkonen, H

    2013-03-01

    To assess rates of neonaticide after the implementation of a preventative 'anonymous delivery' law in mid-2001 in Austria. Women are allowed to access antenatal care and give birth in a hospital anonymously, without showing any ID and free of charge. Retrospective study. A complete census of police-reported neonaticides was obtained from the police statistics of Austria, Sweden and Finland. All neonaticides reported to the police, 1991-2009. Neonaticide rates before (1991-2001) and after (2002-2009) the introduction of anonymous delivery legislation per 100 000 births. The Mann-Whitney U-test for two independent samples was used to compare neonaticide rates in the period before the new law was introduced with the rates observed after the implementation of the new law for each country. On average the rate of police-reported neonaticides was 7.2 per 100 000 births (SD 3.5, median 7.1) in Austria prior to the new law being passed, and 3.1 per 100 000 births (SD 2.1, median 2.6) after the law was passed. A significant decrease in neonaticide was observed in Austria after the implementation of anonymous delivery (Mann-Whitney U-test P = 0.017). Whereas the Finnish and Swedish rates were lower than the Austrian rates before and after the implementation of the Austrian law, they remained unchanged over the study period. Our data demonstrate a significant decrease in the number of police-reported neonaticides in Austria after the implementation of anonymous delivery. Even though underlying factors associated with neonaticide are complex, the findings could indicate an effect of anonymous delivery in the prevention of this crime. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2012 RCOG.

  11. Acceptance, Prevalence and Indications for Robot-Assisted Laparoscopy - Results of a Survey Among Urologists in Germany, Austria and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imkamp, Florian; Herrmann, Thomas R W; Tolkach, Yuri; Dziuba, Sebastian; Stolzenburg, Jens U; Rassweiler, Jens; Sulser, Tullio; Zimmermann, Uwe; Merseburger, Axel S; Kuczyk, Markus A; Burchardt, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Robotic-assisted laparoscopy (RAL) is being widely accepted in the field of urology as a replacement for conventional laparoscopy (CL). Nevertheless, the process of its integration in clinical routines has been rather spontaneous. To determine the prevalence of robotic systems (RS) in urological clinics in Germany, Austria and Switzerland, the acceptance of RAL among urologists as a replacement for CL and its current use for 25 different urological indications. To elucidate the practice patterns of RAL, a survey at hospitals in Germany, Austria and Switzerland was conducted. All surgically active urology departments in Germany (303), Austria (37) and Switzerland (84) received a questionnaire with questions related to the one-year period prior to the survey. The response rate was 63%. Among the participants, 43% were universities, 45% were tertiary care centres, and 8% were secondary care hospitals. A total of 60 RS (Germany 35, Austria 8, Switzerland 17) were available, and the majority (68%) were operated under public ownership. The perception of RAL and the anticipated superiority of RAL significantly differed between robotic and non-robotic surgeons. For only two urologic indications were more than 50% of the procedures performed using RAL: pyeloplasty (58%) and transperitoneal radical prostatectomy (75%). On average, 35% of robotic surgeons and only 14% of non-robotic surgeons anticipated RAL superiority in some of the 25 indications. This survey provides a detailed insight into RAL implementation in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. RAL is currently limited to a few urological indications with a small number of high-volume robotic centres. These results might suggest that a saturation of clinics using RS has been achieved but that the existing robotic capacities are being utilized ineffectively. The possible reasons for this finding are discussed, and certain strategies to solve these problems are offered. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Mammoths inside the Alps during the last glacial period: Radiocarbon constraints from Austria and palaeoenvironmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spötl, Christoph; Reimer, Paula J.; Göhlich, Ursula B.

    2018-06-01

    This study examines remains of the woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) found inside the Austrian Alps, an area occupied by an extensive ice-stream network during the Last Glacial Maximum. The data demonstrate that these cold steppe-adapted animals locally migrated several tens of kilometers into alpine valleys. Radiocarbon analyses constrain the age of these fossils to the first half of Marine Isotope Stage 3, documenting ice-free conditions in major valleys at that time. We also provide a list of all traceable Austrian sites of Mammuthus primigenius, totaling about 230 localities, compiled through 15 museums and collections in Austria. The vast majority of these findings are from the corridors of the Danube and Mur rivers and their tributaries and the adjacent loess-covered foreland of the Alps, areas that were never ice-covered during Pleistocene glaciations.

  13. Morphological and molecular identification of nasopharyngeal bot fly larvae infesting red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Natascha; Schwarzmann, Laurin; Zittra, Carina; Palmieri, Nicola; Eigner, Barbara; Otranto, Domenico; Glawischnig, Walter; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter

    2016-11-01

    Nasopharyngeal myiases are caused by larvae of bot flies (Diptera: Oestridae), which have evolved a high specificity for their hosts. Bot flies (n = 916) were collected from 137 (57.6 %) out of 238 red deer (Cervus elaphus) hunted in Vorarlberg and Tyrol (Western Austria). After being stored in 75 % ethanol, larvae were identified to species level and developmental stage using morphological and morphometric keys. Larvae were also molecularly characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and partial sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene. Morphological and molecular analysis allowed identification of larvae as Cephenemyia auribarbis and Pharyngomyia picta. Genetic variations were also examined within the specimens collected in both geographical locations.

  14. U-Th-Geochemistry of Permian and Triassic sediments of the Drauzug, Carinthia, Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurat, G.; Korkisch, J.; Niedermayr, G.; Seemann, R.

    1976-05-01

    Chemical analysis of samples of Triassic and Permian rocks from the Drauzug, Carinthia and Austria was carried out. U concentration was measured by flurimetry, Th and Cu by spectrophotometry using Thoronol method or Arsenazo III method for Th, Fe by titrimetry and V, Ba, Sr by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The average U concentration ranged from 0.8 to 4.6 ppm and the Th concentration from 3.2 to 15.6 ppm depending upon the mineral material. The quartzporphyries contained the highest concentration of both. It was concluded that the Permian-Triassic series are very similar to the equivalent deposits in Northern Italy. Assuming a lateral displacement, the former represent the Northern marginal part of the latter and therefore are inferior in thickness and thus not favourable for larger U mineralization

  15. Hungarian Refugees of 1956: From the Border to Austria, Camp Kilmer, and Elsewhere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P. Niessen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Camp Kilmer dominates the story of flight from Hungary in 1956-1957 for many Hungarian Americans who experienced the Revolution, and with good reason: roughly four-fifths of them came through the camp, and their subsequent integration into American life was largely successful.  But it is less well known that many fifty-sixers did not share this experience: as many may have returned to Hungary as came to the US, and by far most of the refugees ended up in other countries.  US restrictions on entry steered many refugees to other countries, but the US provided most of the funding for the international relief effort.  This article seeks to relativize the myth of Camp Kilmer by examining the refugees’ motives for leaving Hungary, their experience in Austria, and why so many ended up in the US, in other countries, or back in their homeland.

  16. Radiocaesium concentration in mushrooms collected in the Koralpe, Austria in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witzani, J.; Klingbacher, U.

    2007-01-01

    137 Cs activity concentrations in wild mushrooms (mostly cantharellus cibarius ) were investigated in the Koralpe, Austria in summer 2006. They indicate that the limit of the European Union of 600 Bq/kg fresh matter is being exceeded in almost half of the 29 cantharellus cibarius samples (with a maximum value of 25.7 kBq/kg dry matter), while the activity concentration in boletus edulis (six samples) was found to be slightly above the limit only in one case. Within the investigated region areas with different levels of activity concentrations in mushrooms could be identified. These areas roughly correlate with the pattern of varying soil contamination in this region. But the spatial variability of the activity concentration in mushrooms can be considerable even over a scale of 1 km. (author)

  17. Impacts of Market Liberalisation on the Power Sector: Lessons Learned in Austria and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madlener, R.; Jochem, E.

    2001-01-01

    The specific impacts of market liberalisation on the power supply industry depend on numerous factors and boundary conditions. A comparison of these impacts in Austria and Germany, two countries which both are part of the EU single market and centrally located within Western Europe, and which both have borders and important trade relationships with Central European countries, leads to important insights. The paper also covers the expected influence of the increase in the power trade volumes in the two countries, also with their Central European neighbours, and the concerns that this may lead to conflicts in the achievement of targets in energy policy, environmental policy, and climate change policy aimed for both at the national and European level.(author)

  18. Assistive Solutions in Practice: Experiences from AAL Pilot Regions in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Nesrin; Aumayr, Georg; Drobics, Mario; Förster, Kristina Maria; Frauenberger, Christopher; Garschall, Markus; Kofler, Manfred; Krainer, Daniela; Kropf, Johannes; Majcen, Kurt; Oberzaucher, Johannes; Piazolo, Felix; Rzepka, Angelika; Sauskojus, Julia; Schneider, Cornelia; Stainer-Hochgatterer, Andreas; Sturm, Nadine; Waibel, Uli; Willner, Viktoria

    2017-01-01

    Since 2012 six AAL pilot regions were launched in Austria. The main goal of these pilot regions is to evaluate the impact of AAL technologies in daily use considering the entire value chain. Additionally, go-to market strategies for assistive technologies based on an involvement of all relevant stakeholders are developed. Within this paper an overview of the specific objectives, approaches and the status of all Austrian AAL pilot regions is given. Taking into account the different experiences of the different pilot regions, specific challenges in establishing, implementing and sustaining pilot region projects are discussed and lessons-learned are presented. Results show that a careful planning of all project phases taking into account available resources is crucial for the successful implementation of an AAL pilot region. In particular, this applies to all activities related to the active involvement of end-users.

  19. Ozone reduction strategy for the northeastern part of Austria: cooperation and compilation of the fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orthofer, R.; Winiwarter, W.

    1996-05-01

    This report is contribution to the implementation of an ozone reduction strategy for the northeastern part of Austria. The report contains a regional emission inventory, an emission projection for the years 1996, 2001 and 2006, an evaluation of further stationary sources reduction options. The ozone formation potentials of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) emissions were calculated separately for both mobile and stationary source group, in order to assess the respective contribution to the local ozone formation. It can be shown that status-quo reduction measures are more efficient in terms of ozone formation potential during the summer season than in terms of NMVOC emission mass reduction. It is recommended that further NMVOC emission control should focus primarily on industrial solvent emissions, domestic heating of water during summertime with solid fuels, and on stubble burning in the fields. (author)

  20. The Salcher landslide observatory: a new long-term monitoring site in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canli, Ekrem; Engels, Alexander; Glade, Thomas; Schweigl, Joachim; Bertagnoli, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Landslides pose a significant hazard in the federal district of Lower Austria. The Geological Survey of Lower Austria is responsible for detailed site investigations as well as the planning and installation of protective measures. The most landslide prone area in Lower Austria is within the Rhenodanubian Flyschzone whose materials consist of alterations of fine grained layers (clayey shales, silty shales, marls) and sandstones. It exhibits over 6200 landslides within an area of approx. 1300 km². For areas susceptible to landsliding, protection works are not feasible or simply too costly. Therefore, monitoring systems have been installed in the past, most of them, however, are not operated automatically and require field visits for data readouts. Thus, it is difficult to establish any relation between initiating and controlling factors to gain a comprehensive understanding of the underlying process mechanism that is essential for any early warning applications. In this presentation, we present the design and first results of an automated landslide monitoring system in Gresten (Lower Austria). The deep-seated, slow moving Salcher landslide extends over approx. 8000 m² and is situated adjacent to residential buildings and infrastructure. This monitoring setup is designed to run for at least a decade to account for investigations of long term sliding dynamics and pattern. Historically the Salcher landslide has shown shorter phases with accelerated movements followed by longer phases with barely any movements. Those periods of inactivity commonly exceed regular project durations, thus it is important to cover longer periods. Such slope dynamics can be investigated throughout many parts in the world, thus this monitoring might allow to understand better also landslides with infrequent movement patterns. The monitoring setup consists of surface as well as subsurface installations. All installations are connected to permanent power supply, are taking the respective

  1. Comparison and Evaluation of Bank Efficiency in Austria and the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitalkova Zuzana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article compares and evaluates the efficiency of the banking sector in Austria and the Czech Republic in the period 2004-2011. The paper is divided into the following parts. It begins with a literature review dealing with the bank efficiency generally and then with the efficiency of the banking sector in chosen countries. The second section provides an overview of used methodology. The non-parametric Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA with undesirable output is used for estimating the efficiency. The undesirable output is usually omitted by current authors. Simultaneously were used CCR and BCC models that differ in returns to scale. Section three summarizes the results, discusses them and compares the estimated efficiency rates in both states. This study also attempts to further identify the main sources of inefficiency.

  2. Brachiopod biogeochemistry and isotope stratigraphy from the Rhaetian Eiberg section in Austria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korte, Christoph; Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph; Ullmann, Clemens Vinzenz

    2017-01-01

    The end-Triassic is characterized by one of the most severe biotic crises of the entire Phanerozoic, with strong carbon cycle perturbations potentially predating the biotic event. In order to improve and test the chemostratigraphic framework for the Rhaetian Stage, which culminated in the end......-Triassic extinction, a total of 675 and 108 carbonate δ13C and δ18O values have been measured from bulk rock carbonate and articulate brachiopod samples from the Rhaetian Eiberg quarry succession (Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria) respectively. Both brachiopod and bulk rock oxygen isotope trends are compatible...... the calcite composing the bulk rock micrite. Significant metabolic disequilibrium effects on brachiopod carbon isotope ratios are suggested by a clear negative correlation between δ13C values and Sr/Ca ratios of the samples. Consequently, chemostratigraphy based on brachiopod Δ13C data, especially with regard...

  3. The Importance of Strategic Competence in HRM: Evidence from Austria, Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Covarrubias Venegas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM is vital in order to gain competitive advantage for organisations. Although there is extant literature on SHRM from academia and practitioners alike, looking closer at HR activities in today’s organisations, resource allocation is still inclined towards more operational, day-to-day activities. The main objective of this paper is to give a deeper understanding about how the importance of strategic competence in HR might vary depending on the country, the work experience of HR managers and whether it differs between HR and stakeholders HR (namely, middle and top management, or if company size and the organisational life cycle play a role. A quantitative study of HR managers and stakeholders HR using telephone interviews was conducted in Austria and three CEE countries. Findings on the perceived importance of the strategic competence of HRM are presented in detail and suggestions for further research are presented.

  4. Mixing heights over hilly terrain - a case study in northern austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, K. [Central Inst. for Meteorology and Geodynamics, ZAMG, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-10-01

    Simultaneous Sodar measurements (Remtech PA2) were conducted from 10 October 1996 to 24 January 1997 at two sites in northern Austria, near the village Allensteig on top of a hill (590 m.s.l.) and in the village Lenzing (460 m.s.l.) near the lake Attersee. The two sites are 145 km apart from each other and differ much according to the complexity of the surrounding terrain, land use and altitude. Mixing height and inversions height estimations from the Sodar measurements are compared with mixing heights derived from radiosonde potential temperature profiles at the next stations Linz and Vienna using the parcel method of Stull (1991) explained by M. Piringer (this volume). The information about the static stability at different Sodar heights, which is provided by the new Sodar software in terms of vertical temperature gradients, is discussed. (au)

  5. "Saving lives": Adapting and adopting Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccination in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Katharina T

    2016-03-01

    Vaccination against the sexually transmitted Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), a necessary agent for the development of cervical cancer, has triggered much debate. In Austria, HPV policy turned from "lagging behind" in 2008 into "Europe's frontrunner" by 2013. Drawing on qualitative research, the article shows how the vaccine was transformed and made "good enough" over the course of five years. By means of tinkering and shifting storylines, policy officials and experts disassociated the vaccine from gender, vaccine manufacturers, and youth sexuality. Ultimately, the HPV vaccine functioned to strengthen the national immunization program. To this end, preventing an effective problematization of the extant screening program was essential. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Occupational radiation exposure in Austria - results of personnel monitoring using thermoluminescent dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duftschmid, K.E.

    1979-01-01

    The Institut fuer Strahlenschutz, Seibersdorf, can look back on more than two years of experience with the automated TLD personnel monitoring system for routine control and dose record keeping of currently about 10.000 persons per month. For more than 100.000 entries on monthly received doses have been stored so far in the Master File of the Institute's computer centre. This paper presents a survey of the statistical dose distribution in the various sectors of employment such as industry, research establishments, medical establishments and nuclear facilities, including data on the mean annual doses and the collective doses for the various sectors; information is also given on the number of cases where a dose has been in excess of the set level, and on the measured data. The data stored in the dose record keeping system allow a detailed assessment to be made of the occupational radiation exposure in Austria. (orig.) [de

  7. Dirofilaria in Humans, Dogs, and Vectors in Austria (1978–2014)—From Imported Pathogens to the Endemicity of Dirofilaria repens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Auer, Herbert; Leschnik, Michael; Silbermayr, Katja; Duscher, Georg; Joachim, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Background Dirofilaria repens and D. immitis are filarioid helminths with domestic and wild canids as main hosts and mosquitoes as vectors. Both species are known to cause zoonotic diseases, primarily pulmonary (D. immitis), ocular (D. repens), and subcutaneous (D. repens) dirofilariosis. Both D. immitis and D. repens are known as invasive species, and their distribution seems associated with climate change. Until very recently, both species were known to be nonendemic in Austria. Methodology and Principal Findings Metadata on introduced and possibly autochthonous cases of infection with Dirofilaria sp. in dogs and humans in Austria are analysed, together with analyses of mosquito populations from Austria in ongoing studies. In Austria, most cases of Dirofilaria sp. in humans (30 cases of D. repens—six ocular and 24 subcutaneous) and dogs (approximately 50 cases—both D. immitis and D. repens) were most likely imported. However, occasionally infections with D. repens were discussed to be autochthonous (one human case and seven in dogs). The introduction of D. repens to Austria was confirmed very recently, as the parasite was detected in Burgenland (eastern Austria) for the first time in mosquito vectors during a surveillance program. For D. immitis, this could not be confirmed yet, but data from Germany suggest that the successful establishment of this nematode species in Austria is a credible scenario for the near future. Conclusions The first findings of D. repens in mosquito vectors indicate that D. repens presumably invaded in eastern Austria. Climate analyses from central Europe indicate that D. immitis also has the capacity to establish itself in the lowland regions of Austria, given that both canid and culicid hosts are present. PMID:27196049

  8. Fertility in Austria, Germany and Switzerland:Is there a Common Pattern?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Sobotka

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews major similarities and differences in period and cohort fertility in Austria, Germany and Switzerland. These three countries share a long history of low fertility and currently belong to countries with the lowest cohort fertility rates globally. The study highlights persistent differences in fertility and family patterns between Eastern and Western Germany, which are often rooted in pre-unification contrasts and can be partly linked to continuing differences in institutional set-up and norms on organised childcare, living arrangements and maternal employment. The remarkable stability in period fertility over the last 30 years (with the exception of Eastern Germany is illustrated with various indicators and discussed on the backdrop of recent reversals in European fertility trends. This stability in fertility levels contrasts with the long-term shift in childbearing towards less stable living arrangements (especially in Eastern Germany, including a high share of single mothers. The study also discusses a relatively small but persistent negative impact of the ongoing shift towards a late timing of childbearing on period fertility in the region. It highlights the educational gradient in fertility, which can be largely attributed to elevated childlessness rates among women with a higher educational degree. Migrant women have on average higher fertility rates than “native-born” women, but their net positive impact on aggregate fertility rates has diminished over time and has become negligible in Germany. A concluding discussion suggests that Austria, Germany and Switzerland share a common pattern of low fertility that sets these countries apart from other regions in Europe.

  9. Decomposing final energy use for heating in the residential sector in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzmann, Angela; Adensam, Heidelinde; Kratena, Kurt; Schmid, Erwin

    2013-01-01

    In Austria a considerable number of measures have been implemented to reduce final energy use for residential heating since the 1990s. The aim of this analysis is to investigate, why – despite these implemented measures – final energy use for heating has not decreased in the expected way. The impact of eight factors on final energy use for heating is quantified by applying the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI I) method. The dataset covers the sector of private households in Austria for the period from 1993 to 2009. The main findings of the analysis are: (1) while technical improvements reduce final energy use for heating significantly, rising comfort needs nearly outweigh these savings. (2) Consumer behaviour reduces calculated final energy use considerably. (3) The extent of this reduction is declining significantly in the period observed. (4) The growing share of single-family houses has increased energy demand for heating in the observed period, though a reversal of this trend is detected from 2007 onwards. (5) The impact of growing floor space per person is the major effect revealed by the analysis. (6) Weather conditions have a major impact on annual fluctuations of energy consumption. -- Highlights: •We did an Index decomposition analysis of the Austrian residential heating demand. •Eight impact factors on heating demand have been identified. •Rising comfort needs outweigh savings caused by technical improvements. •Consumer behaviour has a major impact on residential final energy use for heating. •Weather changes play a major role when analysing annual changes in energy use

  10. [Breast cancer screening in Austria: Key figures, age limits, screening intervals and evidence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeitler, Klaus; Semlitsch, Thomas; Posch, Nicole; Siebenhofer, Andrea; Horvath, Karl

    2015-01-01

    In January 2014, the first nationwide quality-assured breast cancer screening program addressing women aged ≥ 40 years was introduced in Austria. As part of the process of developing a patient information leaflet, the Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) Review Center of the Medical University of Graz was charged with the task of assessing the potential benefits and harms of breast cancer screening from the available evidence. Based on these results, key figures were derived for mortality, false-positive and false-negative mammography results, and overdiagnosis, considering Austria-specific incidence rates for breast cancer and breast cancer mortality. Furthermore, the current evidence regarding age limits and screening interval, which were the subjects of controversial public discussions, was analyzed. A systematic search for primary and secondary literature was performed and additional evidence was screened, e. g., evaluation reports of European breast cancer screening programs. On the basis of the available evidence and of the Austrian breast cancer mortality and incidence rates, it can be assumed that - depending on the age group - 1 to 4 breast cancer deaths can be avoided per 1,000 women screened in a structured breast cancer screening program, while the overall mortality remains unchanged. On the other hand, 150 to 200 of these 1,000 women will be affected by false-positive results and 1 to 9 women by overdiagnosis due to the structured breast cancer screening. Therefore, the overall benefit-harm balance is uncertain. If women from 40 to 44 or above 70 years of age are considered, who can also participate in the Austrian screening program, even a negative benefit-harm balance seems possible. However, with the implementation of quality standards in breast cancer screening and the dissemination of a patient information leaflet, an improvement in the medical treatment situation, specifically in terms of informed decision-making, can be expected. Copyright © 2015

  11. Patterns of globalized reproduction: Egg cells regulation in Israel and Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalev Carmel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since the successful introduction of in vitro fertilization in 1978, medically assisted reproduction (MAR has proliferated in multiple clinical innovations. Consequently, egg cells have become an object of demand for both infertility treatment and stem cell research, and this raises complex legal, ethical, social and economic issues. In this paper we compare how the procurement and use of human egg cells is regulated in two countries: Israel and Austria. Israel is known for its scientific leadership, generous public funding, high utilization and liberal regulation of assisted reproductive technology (ART. Austria lies at the other extreme of the regulatory spectrum in terms of restrictions on reproductive interventions. In both countries, however, there is a constant increase in the use of the technology, and recent legal developments make egg cells more accessible. Also, in both countries the scarcity of egg cells in concert with the rising demand for donations has led to the emergence of cross-border markets and global 'reproductive tourism' practices. In Israel, in particular, a scandal known as the 'eggs affair' was followed by regulation that allowed egg cell donations from outside the country under certain conditions. Cross-border markets are developed by medical entrepreneurs, driven by global economic gaps, made possible by trans-national regulatory lacunae and find expression as consumer demand. The transnational practice of egg cell donations indicates the emergence of a global public health issue, but there is a general lack of medical and epidemiological data on its efficacy and safety. We conclude that there is need for harmonisation of domestic laws and formulation of new instruments for international governance.

  12. Childlessness and fertility by couples' educational gender (inequality in Austria, Bulgaria, and France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Osiewalska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: In modern, highly developed countries the association between education and fertility seems to be equivocal: A negative influence of education mainly applies to women, while among men the correlation is often positive or negligible. Although the gender differences have been examined in depth, couples' procreative behaviour treated as the result of a conflict between male and female characteristics is still understudied. Objective: This study aims to investigate couples' reproductive behaviour among contemporary European populations with regard to (inequality between partners' educational levels and the joint educational resources of a couple. Various measures of educational endogamy are considered. Methods: The hurdle zero-truncated Poisson model within the Bayesian framework is applied. The data comes from the first wave of the Generations and Gender Survey for Austria, Bulgaria, and France. Results: Homogamous low-educated partners have, on average, the highest fertility. The highly educated postpone childbearing and have a smaller number of children in all countries except France, where their completed fertility does not differ from that of other unions. The effect of hypergamy is insignificant and is thus similar to homogamy in medium education. Hypogamy negatively influences fertility in Bulgaria and Austria, while in France the effect is insignificant. Conclusions: The small variation in fertility due to couple-level education observed in France indicates that proper institutional support for families might help couples overcome possible obstacles and enhance fertility for all educational profiles. Contribution: This study provides a perspective on the relationship between reproductive behaviour and educational pairing in varying country-specific contexts. It reaches key conclusions on contemporary fertility regarding both childlessness and parenthood and their association with couples' different educational profiles.

  13. CHANGES IN HIGHER EDUCATION: A COMPARISON OF KEY FACTORS CONCERNING UNIVERSITIES IN AUSTRIA AND SWITZERLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Rybnicek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Society has changed sustainably and universities have thus faced new requirements. As a result of competition and globalization, education and knowledge management had to be adapted. Universities were forced to establish a modern management system primarily known from the private sector and governments had to reconsider their legal and economic relationship to universities. In recent years, many countries have implemented new rules for their universities. Two of these countries were Austria and Switzerland. But even when they pursued the same goals, they have chosen quite different approaches and as a matter of fact achieved very differing results. The objective of this study was twofold. Firstly, we analyzed the challenges and contradictions when implementing a modern university model. Secondly, we investigated specific characteristics of the university systems of Austria and Switzerland to identify factors that may have impacted the performance and success of the universities. Referring to our first objective, a literature review has revealed severe contradictions between modern university management and the traditional understanding of it. While the traditional scheme has focused mainly on research, teaching is becoming more relevant in the new demand orientated university. Also, the freedom of science and teaching is limited by the strong orientation on goals that have been agreed upon with the government. Further contradictions can be identified in autonomy, budgeting, leadership, hierarchy, and employee participation. To examine the second research aim, we reviewed national and international databases and reports. Our results emphasize the importance of monetary aspects, the student-teacher-ratio, autonomy, and the relevance of the universities’ reputation and acceptance within society and politics. Our findings can help to understand the different approaches which have been chosen to cope with global changes in higher education. They

  14. The impact of health technology assessment reports on decision making in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zechmeister, Ingrid; Schumacher, Ines

    2012-01-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) was established in Austria in the 1990s and, since then, it has gained considerable importance. In this study, we aim to analyze whether the HTA reports that have been produced at the Institute for Technology Assessment (ITA) and at the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for HTA (LBI-HTA) have had an impact on decision making within the Austrian health care system. We selected all reports that were intended for supporting (i) reimbursement/investment or (ii) disinvestment decisions. Eleven full HTA reports and fifty-eight rapid assessments fulfilled the inclusion criteria. We used interview data and administrative data on volumes, tariffs and expenditure of products/services to analyze whether and how reports were in reality used in decision making and what the consequences for health care expenditure and resource distribution have been. Five full HTA reports and fifty-six rapid technology assessments were used for reimbursement decisions. Four full HTA reports and two rapid assessments were used for disinvestment decisions and resulted in reduced volumes and expenditure. Two full HTA reports showed no impact on decision making. Impact was most evident for hospital technologies. HTA has played some role in reducing volumes of over-supplied hospital technologies, resulting in reduced expenditure for several hospital providers. Additionally, it has been increasingly included in prospective planning and reimbursement decisions of late, indicating re-distribution of resources toward evidence-based technologies. However, further factors may have influenced the decisions, and the impact could be considerably increased by systematically incorporating HTA into the decision-making process in Austria.

  15. Patterns of globalized reproduction: Egg cells regulation in Israel and Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalev, Carmel; Werner-Felmayer, Gabriele

    2012-04-18

    Since the successful introduction of in vitro fertilization in 1978, medically assisted reproduction (MAR) has proliferated in multiple clinical innovations. Consequently, egg cells have become an object of demand for both infertility treatment and stem cell research, and this raises complex legal, ethical, social and economic issues.In this paper we compare how the procurement and use of human egg cells is regulated in two countries: Israel and Austria. Israel is known for its scientific leadership, generous public funding, high utilization and liberal regulation of assisted reproductive technology (ART). Austria lies at the other extreme of the regulatory spectrum in terms of restrictions on reproductive interventions.In both countries, however, there is a constant increase in the use of the technology, and recent legal developments make egg cells more accessible. Also, in both countries the scarcity of egg cells in concert with the rising demand for donations has led to the emergence of cross-border markets and global 'reproductive tourism' practices. In Israel, in particular, a scandal known as the 'eggs affair' was followed by regulation that allowed egg cell donations from outside the country under certain conditions.Cross-border markets are developed by medical entrepreneurs, driven by global economic gaps, made possible by trans-national regulatory lacunae and find expression as consumer demand. The transnational practice of egg cell donations indicates the emergence of a global public health issue, but there is a general lack of medical and epidemiological data on its efficacy and safety. We conclude that there is need for harmonisation of domestic laws and formulation of new instruments for international governance.

  16. Soil organic matter change - analysis on a regional scale of Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruendling, Ralf; Franko, Uwe; Sedy, Katrin; Freudenschuß, Alexandra; Spiegel, Adelheid; Formayer, Herbert

    2014-05-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is an important resource in agriculture. It influences soil fertility, erosion processes and prevents soil degradation. However, SOM is strongly affected by climate change, soil conditions and management alterations. The presented study analyzes SOM changes in Austria on a regional scale in the "Marchfeld" and the "Muehlviertel". For quantification these SOM changes the model CCB (Candy Carbon Balance) was used. Based on a 1 square kilometer raster, the impact of specific site conditions on SOM are determined to characterize the study areas. Used as a main indicator for these conditions is the biologic active time (BAT). BAT describes the biologic activity for carbon cycling in top soils depending on soil and climatic conditions. High values of BAT indicate fast SOM reproduction rates. Hence, BAT changes over last years signpost the risk of SOM loss and can be used as an on-farm decision tool. The change of risks of SOM loss due to climate change is assessed by model results. Therefore, three climate scenarios are used to compute reproduction rates of SOM. "High risk-regions" can be identified for policy consulting. Different climate scenarios can help to develop best case and worst case results. First results show that the region "Marchfeld" had a higher change in BAT during last 2 decades comparing to the "Muehlviertel". A higher risk of SOM loosing is evident. Nevertheless, future scenarios predict a higher change of BAT for the "Muehlviertel". Apparently, the sensitivity of "Marchfeld" sites regard to climate change has been higher in the past and most BAT changes took place until now. With this method an evaluation of farm management in regard to SOM reproduction and recommendation of crop rotations for the future are possible. In conclusion, the aim of the project is a tool box for farmers and policy makers to evaluate present and future agricultural management. An examination of additional regions in Austria is planned.

  17. Patterns of ice nuclei from natural water sources in the mountains of Tirol, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloh, Philipp; Hanlon, Regina; Pietsch, Renee; Anderson, Christopher; Schmale, David G., III; Grothe, Hinrich

    2017-04-01

    Heterogeneous ice nucleation—the process by which particles can nucleate ice between 0 and -35°C—is important for generating artificial snow. Though abiotic and biotic ice nuclei are present in many different natural and managed ecosystems, little is known about their nature, sources, and ecological roles. We collected samples of water and snow from the mountains of Tyrol, Austria in June, July, and November, 2016. The collected water was mostly from sources with minimal anthropogenic pollution, since most of the water from the sampled streams came from glacial melt. The samples were filtered through a 0.22μm filter, and microorganisms were cultured on different types of media. Resulting colonies were tested for their ice nucleation ability using a droplet freezing assay and identified to the level of the species. The unfiltered water and the filtered water will be subjected to additional assays using cryo microscopy and vibrational microscopy (IR and Raman- spectroscopy). Preliminary analyses suggested that the percentage of ice-nucleating microbes varied with season; greater percentages of ice nucleating microbes were present during colder months. The glacial melt also varies strongly over the year with the fraction of mineral dust suspended in it which serves as an inorganic ice nucleation agent. Further investigation of these samples may help to show the combined ice nuleation abilities of biological and non biological particles present in the mountains of Tirol, Austria. Future work may shed light on how the nucleation properties of the natural water changes with the time of the year and what may be responsible for these changes.

  18. Determining water and nitrogen balances for beneficial management practices using lysimeters at Wagna test site (Austria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klammler, Gernot; Fank, Johann

    2014-11-15

    The shallow Murtal aquifer south of Graz, Austria, provides easily withdrawable groundwater, which is supplied as drinking water without any chemical treatment. The aquifer is also used intensively by agriculture. Common agricultural management practices are the main source for diffuse nitrogen leaching and high groundwater nitrate concentrations. To safeguard the coexisting use of these two important resources, lysimeters are operated at the agricultural test site Wagna, Austria, and the influence of two beneficial management practices--low nitrogen input and organic farming--on nitrogen leaching towards groundwater is investigated. The technical lysimeter design as presented here consists of: (1) high-resolution weighing cells, (2) a suction controlled lower boundary condition for sucking off seepage water, thus emulating undisturbed field conditions, (3) comparative soil temperature, water content and matrix potential measurements inside and outside the lysimeter at different depths, (4) an installation of the lysimeters directly into test plots and (5) a removable upper lysimeter ring enabling machinery soil tillage. Our results indicate that oasis effects or fringe effects of the lysimeter cylinder on unsaturated water flow did not occur. Another lysimeter cultivated with lawn is operated for observing grass-reference evapotranspiration, which resulted in good agreement with calculated grass-reference evapotranspiration according to the FAO-Penman-Monteith method. We conclude that lysimeters installed at Wagna test site did not show any fringe effects and, thus, are appropriate tools for measuring water balance elements and nitrogen leaching of arable and grass land at point scale. Furthermore, our results for the period of 2005 to 2011 show that beneficial management practices reduced nitrate leaching and, hence, may allow for a sustainable coexistence of drinking water supply and agriculture in the Murtal aquifer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  19. Holistic assessment of a landfill mining pilot project in Austria: Methodology and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Robert; Baumgartner, Rupert J; Vorbach, Stefan; Wolfsberger, Tanja; Ragossnig, Arne; Pomberger, Roland

    2016-07-01

    Basic technical and economic examinations of Austrian mass waste landfills, concerning the recovery of secondary raw materials, have been carried out by the 'LAMIS - Landfill Mining Austria' pilot project for the first time in Austria. A main focus of the research - the subject of this article - was the first devotion of a pilot landfill to an integrated ecological and economic assessment so that its feasibility could be verified before a landfill mining project commenced. A Styrian mass waste landfill had been chosen for this purpose that had been put into operation in 1979 and received mechanically-biologically pre-treated municipal waste till 2012. The whole assessment procedure was divided into preliminary and main assessment phases to evaluate the general suitability of a landfill mining project with little financial and human resource expense. A portfolio chart, based on a questionnaire, was created for the preliminary assessment that, as a result, has provided a recommendation for subsequent investigation - the main assessment phase. In this case, specific economic criteria were assessed by net present value calculation, while ecological or socio-economic criteria were rated by utility analysis, transferring the result into a utility-net present value chart. In the case of the examined pilot landfill, assessing the landfill mining project produced a higher utility but a lower net present value than a landfill leaving-in for aftercare. Since no clearly preferable scenario could be identified this way, a cost-revenue analysis was carried out in addition that determined a dimensionless ratio: the 'utility - net present value quotient' of both scenarios. Comparing this quotient showed unmistakably that in the overall assessment, 'leaving the landfill in aftercare' was preferable to a 'landfill mining project' in that specific case. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Trends in incidence, survival and mortality of childhood and adolescent cancer in Austria, 1994-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim-Kos, Henrike E; Hackl, Monika; Mann, Georg; Urban, Christian; Woehrer, Adelheid; Slavc, Irene; Ladenstein, Ruth

    2016-06-01

    This is the first study on trends in cancer incidence, survival and mortality for children and adolescents in Austria. The aim was to assess to what extent progress against childhood and adolescent cancer has been made in Austria since the 1990s and to complement the childhood and adolescent cancer trends for Central Europe. All malignant neoplasms and non-malignant tumours of the Central Nervous System (CNS) in patients aged less than 20 years and diagnosed between 1994 and 2011 (N=5425) were derived from the Austrian National Cancer Registry (ANCR). Incidence and mortality trends were evaluated by the average annual percentage change (AAPC). Observed survival rates were calculated based on follow-up until December 31st 2013. Childhood cancer remained stable with 182 cases per million in 2011, but rose among girls by 1.4% (95% CI: .1, 3.6) annually due to an increase of non-malignant CNS tumours and Non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Adolescent cancer rose by 1.5% (95% CI: .4, 2.6) annually, from 182 cases per million in 1994-269 in 2011, especially leukaemia, CNS tumours (including non-malignant types) and epithelial tumours. Five-year survival improved by 5-7% reaching 86% for both groups (p<.05). Mortality declined by -2.4% (95% CI: -3.7, -1.2) and -2.0% (95% CI: -4.6, .5), respectively, especially for childhood leukaemia. Progress is demonstrated by improved survival and declined mortality most likely related to improved diagnostic techniques, more effective therapeutic regimes, supportive care and a central advisory function of experts in the Austrian paediatric oncology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Congenital toxoplasmosis in Austria: Prenatal screening for prevention is cost-saving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prusa, Andrea-Romana; Kasper, David C; Sawers, Larry; Walter, Evelyn; Hayde, Michael; Stillwaggon, Eileen

    2017-07-01

    Primary infection of Toxoplasma gondii during pregnancy can be transmitted to the unborn child and may have serious consequences, including retinochoroiditis, hydrocephaly, cerebral calcifications, encephalitis, splenomegaly, hearing loss, blindness, and death. Austria, a country with moderate seroprevalence, instituted mandatory prenatal screening for toxoplasma infection to minimize the effects of congenital transmission. This work compares the societal costs of congenital toxoplasmosis under the Austrian national prenatal screening program with the societal costs that would have occurred in a No-Screening scenario. We retrospectively investigated data from the Austrian Toxoplasmosis Register for birth cohorts from 1992 to 2008, including pediatric long-term follow-up until May 2013. We constructed a decision-analytic model to compare lifetime societal costs of prenatal screening with lifetime societal costs estimated in a No-Screening scenario. We included costs of treatment, lifetime care, accommodation of injuries, loss of life, and lost earnings that would have occurred in a No-Screening scenario and compared them with the actual costs of screening, treatment, lifetime care, accommodation, loss of life, and lost earnings. We replicated that analysis excluding loss of life and lost earnings to estimate the budgetary impact alone. Our model calculated total lifetime costs of €103 per birth under prenatal screening as carried out in Austria, saving €323 per birth compared with No-Screening. Without screening and treatment, lifetime societal costs for all affected children would have been €35 million per year; the implementation costs of the Austrian program are less than €2 million per year. Calculating only the budgetary impact, the national program was still cost-saving by more than €15 million per year and saved €258 million in 17 years. Cost savings under a national program of prenatal screening for toxoplasma infection and treatment are

  2. Prevalence of emm types and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Eva; Zollner-Schwetz, Ines; Zarfel, Gernot; Masoud-Landgraf, Lilian; Gehrer, Michael; Wagner-Eibel, Ute; Grisold, Andrea J; Feierl, Gebhard

    2015-12-01

    An increase of severe infections caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) similar to infections caused by Streptococcus pyogenes has been reported over the last years. Little is known about infections with SDSE in Austria. Therefore, we investigated a collection of 113 SDSE invasive and non-invasive isolates from different infection sites and type of infections as well as patients' characteristics. The isolates were phenotypically identified and emm typed using the enlarged emm database from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Additionally, 13 antimicrobial agents were tested using EUCAST guidelines and virulence genes were investigated. Severe SDSE infections were most common in elderly men with underlying diseases especially diabetes mellitus. With VitekMS identification of SDSE isolates was successful to the species level only. Emm typing revealed 24 different emm types, one new type and one new subtype. StG485, stG6, stC74a, stG643, and stG480 were the predominant types in this study, stC74a and stG652 in invasive infections and stG643, stC74a and stG485 in non-invasive infections. Resistance was observed to tetracycline (62%), macrolides (13%) with one M phenotype, and clindamycin (12%) presenting 6 constitutive MLS(B) phenotypes and 8 inducible MLS(B) phenotypes. Levofloxacin resistance was detected only in one isolate. All isolates tested for virulence genes were positive for scpA, ska, saga and slo. Superantigenic genes were negative except speG(dys) (positive 17/34; 50%). This paper presents the first report of SDSE infections in Austria. Severe SDSE infections were found mainly in elderly men with underlying diseases. SDSE isolates demonstrated substantial emm type diversity without association with infections site or invasiveness. Analysis of virulence genes showed no significant difference between invasive and non-invasive infections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Current status of circularity for aluminum from household waste in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrings, R; Fellner, J

    2018-02-20

    Aluminum (Al) represents the metal with the highest consumption growth in the last few decades. Beside its increasing usage in the transport (lightweight construction of vehicles) and building sector, Al is used ever more frequently for household goods like packaging material, which represents a readily available source for secondary aluminum due to its short lifetime. The present paper investigates the extent to which this potential source for recycling of Al is already utilized in Austria and highlights areas for future improvements. Thereto a detailed material flow analysis for Al used in packaging & household non-packaging in 2013 was conducted. In practice, all Al flows starting from market entrance through waste collection and processing until its final recycling or disposal have been investigated. The results indicate that about 25,100 t/a (2.96 kg/cap/a) of Al packaging & household non-packaging arose as waste. At present about 9800 t/a, or 39%, are recycled as secondary Al, of which 26% is regained from separate collection and sorting, 8% from bottom ash and 5% from mechanical treatment. The type of Al packaging & household non-packaging affects the recycling rate: 82% of the total recycled quantities come from rigid packaging & household non-packaging, while only 3% of the total recycled Al derives from flexible materials. A significant amount of Al was lost during thermal waste treatment due to oxidation (10%) and insufficient recovery of Al from both waste incineration bottom ash and municipal solid waste treated in mechanical biological treatment plants (49%). Overall it can be concluded that once Al ends up in commingled waste the recovery of Al becomes less likely and its material quality is reduced. Although Austria can refer to a highly developed recycling system, the Austrian packaging industry, collection and recovery systems and waste management need to increase their efforts to comply with future recycling targets. Copyright © 2018

  4. McCainiga hakkab rinda pistma Obama / Hendrik Vosman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vosman, Hendrik

    2008-01-01

    USA demokraatide presidendikandidaat Hillary Clinton ei söandanud oma allajäämist Barack Obamale tunnistada. Lisa: Obama ja McCaini seisukohad. Vt. samas: Hillary Clinton võib saada asepresidendi kandidaadiks

  5. Miljardär Armin Karu hakkab telestaariks / Heidit Kaio

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaio, Heidit, 1971-

    2007-01-01

    TV3 on Eesti Ekspressi andmetel jõudmas kokkuleppele, et tuua järgmisest hooajast ekraanile saatesari, mida võiks nimetada "Suurim tööintervjuu". Ameerika Ühendriikides tuli saade ekraanile 2004. aastal, kus seda juhtis miljardär Donald Trump

  6. Eesti Energia hakkab Jordaanias varsti ehitama / Alyona Stadnik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stadnik, Alyona

    2011-01-01

    Eesti Energia loodab, et Jordaania esimese põlevkivielektrijaama ehitus algab juba 2012. aastal. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Partsi sõnul on Jordaani puhul tegemist Eesti võimalusega, Eesti Energia on Jordaania projekti kaasanud juba rahastajaid

  7. Nokia hakkab väsima / Heikki Kirotar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kirotar, Heikki

    2005-01-01

    Nokia mobiiltelefonide müük kasvas ka III kvartalis, kuid maailma ulatuses oli see vaid 1%. Aasta jooksul on mobiiltelefonide müük kasvanud 25%, eelkõige on kasvanud Motorola mobiiltelefonide müük. Keerulisemate ja kallimate telefonide turu liider on aga Nokia. Lisa: Sony-Ericssoni uus toode on Walkman-muusikatelefon

  8. Euroopa Liit hakkab võitlema antisemitismiga / Margo Pajuste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pajuste, Margo

    2004-01-01

    EL-i konverentsil, kus osalesid Euroopa Komisjon, Euroopa Juudikongress ja Euroopa Rabide Kongress, kutsus Romano Prodi EL-i riikide valitsusi üles kiitma heaks komisjoni ettepanekut võtta vastu rassismi- ja ksenofoobiaseadus

  9. Politsei hakkab kiiruskaamera abil kihutajaid trahvima / Ingvar Bärenklau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bärenklau, Ingvar, 1967-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 13. apr. lk. 5. Politsei alustab Eesti teedel teste eravärvides politseiautole paigutatud mobiilse kiiruskaameraga, mille abil saab tuvastada kiiruseületajaid ja neid trahvida

  10. Pesukuningas hakkab Kalevit valitsema / Indrek Rahumaa ; interv. Andrus Karnau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rahumaa, Indrek, 1972-

    2007-01-01

    Alta Capital Partnersi enamusosanik räägib Kalevi ja Tere ostmisest, ettevõtete edasistest perspektiividest ja soovist ehitada Läänemere äärde tugev toiduainete tootmise kontsern. Lisad: Indrek Rahumaa CV ; Alta Capital Partners omanikud ; Alta Capital Partnersi investeeringud

  11. Võru maavalitsuse suurim europrojekt hakkab lõppema

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Lõpule jõuab suurim rahvusvaheline projekt "Baltic rural broadband", mis on üheksa Läänemere-äärse riigi 27 partneri koostööprojekt saamaks kogemust piirkondade infotehnoloogilise võimekuse tõstmiseks

  12. Ruhnu saarele hakkab lennutama Saksa firma / Mehis Tulk, Andres Sepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tulk, Mehis, 1967-

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Meie Maa 9. nov lk. 1. Riigihankekonkursi Pärnu-Ruhnu-Kuressaare lennuliini teenindamiseks võitnud Saksa firmaga Luftverkehr Friesland Brunzema und Partner KG sõlmib Saare maavalitsus avaliku teenindamise lepingu neljaks aastaks. Kaart

  13. Island hakkab võlaorjusele vastu / Sirje Rank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rank, Sirje, 1966-

    2010-01-01

    Islandi president jättis rahva suurt vastuseisu arvestades allkirjastamata seaduse, mis pani maksumaksja õlule kohustuse kompenseerida välisriigi hoiustajatele Islandi pankades kaotatud hoiused. Seadus läheb rahvahääletusele. See võib seisata IMFi eestvedamisel Islandi majanduse stabiliseerimiseks eraldatud abilaenu väljamaksed ja segada Euroopa Liiduga liitumist

  14. Tallinn hakkab Põhjaväila tarvis maid ostma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Seoses Russalkast Ahtri tänavani ulatuva tee-ehitusega seisab linnal ees 16 maaküsimuse lahendamine. Probleemidest seoses väila osaliselt merre ehitamisega ja väila lõpuniehitamiseks lammutada tulevad hooned. Kommenteerivad Alo Brandt ja Ain Valdmann

  15. Vene muuseum hakkab lagunevat hoonet euromiljonitega elustama / Teele Tammeorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammeorg, Teele

    2010-01-01

    Loodav SA Tallinna Vene Muuseum võtab üle MTÜ Vene Muuseum projektid ja saab muuseumihoone kordategemiseks euroraha taotlema hakata. Koidula t. 23 asuva muuseumile rendile antud hoone seisukorrast. Halbade hoiutingimuste tõttu tuli hoonest ära viia kunstikogu. Hoone renoveerimisprojekt valmis 2006. aastal

  16. Vene suurfirma Nutritek hakkab Eestis piima tootma / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister, 1977-

    2004-01-01

    Vene ettevõte Nutritek ostab ära piimatootmisfirma Estmilk Productions, mis sai eelmisel aastal 2,5 mln krooni kahjumit. AS-i Trigon Capital nõukogu esimees Joakim Helenius leiab, et investeeringuid piimatööstusse on endiselt vähe. Lisa: Helenius pani ka raha piimandusse. Tabel: Estmilk Productions

  17. Avalik sektor hakkab kasutama avatud failiformaate / Madis Filippov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Filippov, Madis

    2010-01-01

    Et võimaldada soovijail lisakulutusteta lugeda riigiasutuste dokumente, hakkavad asutused järjest rohkem kasutama tasuta programme Open Office ja Adobe Reader. Samuti võimaldab see avalikul sektoril hoida kokku kulutusi tarkvarale

  18. Kontsert : Hardi Volmer hakkab loitsima. Kuus stiilset kontsertetendust

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Kontserdist "Tõrva loits" 16. aug. Tõrvas. 15.-24. augustini annab kontserdisarjas "Eesti mõisad 2008" kuus kontsertetendust barokkmuusika ansambel Corelli Consort (vt. www.corelli.ee), kontsertetenduste kostüümid on loonud Ivo Nikkolo brändi naisteriiete peadisainer Eve Hanson

  19. Analysis of the ‘reformpool’-activity in Austria: is the challenge met?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czypionka, Thomas; Röhrling, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    Aim The purpose of our study is to analyse the activities initiated by the foundation of the reformpools on the regional level. We wanted to see not only what projects have emerged from these funds, but also how the incentives of this special way of funding influence the activity and what overall impact can be expected on health services delivery in the future. Context In Austria, all expenses in the outpatient sector are borne by the statutory health insurance. But in the inpatient sector, SHI just co-finances about 45% of all costs incurred by patients, with the rest contributed by the federal, regional and municipal level. This, however, leads to a number of problems in today's epidemiological situation with patients in need of many different interventions in the course of their chronic disease. Originally with the aim of finding solutions to these interface problems between inpatient and outpatient care, the healthcare reform 2005 instated the instrument of the reformpool. The reformpool unites funds from social health insurance and regions to finance projects that develop new ways of health services delivery across the sectors. In the course of recent reforms, it became explicitly possible to sponsor projects of integrated care, which had de facto already been the case before. Theory The reform pool has various disincentives or wrong incentives compared to e.g. the German ‘Anschubfinanzierung’ for IC-contracts, which was probably a role-model for the Austrian reformpool, because of the underlying differences in the healthcare system and the distinct differences in the regulation. For example, the ‘Anschubfinanzierung’ in Germany withdraws money from the available funds for contract physicians to finance IC-projects, whereas in Austria, their fees are fixed. So in Austria, there is no incentive to retrieve money by participating in such projects. For the stakeholders supplying the pool, mainly the sickness funds and the regions, many projects inflict

  20. Effect of altitude on solar UVR and spectral and spatial variations of UV irradiances measured inWagrain, Austria in winter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baczynska, Katarzyna A; Pearson, Andy J; O'Hagan, John B

    2013-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation spectral irradiance was measured at different altitudes on horizontal and tilted planes in different azimuth directions on cloudless days in Austria, in March 2010, within the Impact of Climatic and Environmental factors on Personal Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure project...

  1. Dementia service centres in Austria: A comprehensive support and early detection model for persons with dementia and their caregivers - theoretical foundations and model description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Stefanie R; Span, Edith; Reisberg, Barry

    2015-07-01

    Despite the highly developed social services in Austria, the County of Upper Austria, one of the nine counties of Austria had only very limited specialized services for persons with dementia and their caregivers in 2001. Support groups existed in which the desire for more specialized services was voiced. In response to this situation, funding was received to develop a new structure for early disease detection and long term support for both the person with dementia and their caregivers. This article describes the development of the model of the Dementia Service Centres (DSCs) and the successes and difficulties encountered in the process of implementing the model in six different rural regions of Upper Austria. The DSC was described in the First Austrian Dementia Report as one of the potential service models for the future. © The Author(s) 2013.

  2. Communication dated 26 May 2009 received from the Permanent Mission of Austria to the Agency enclosing a working paper regarding Multilateralisation of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a communication dated 26 May 2009 from the Permanent Mission of Austria, transmitting a working paper entitled 'Multilateralisation of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Increasing Transparency and Sustainable Security'. The working paper is based on a food-for-thought paper previously submitted by Austria on 10 May 2007, and issued as INFCIRC/706. As requested in that communication, the working paper is herewith circulated for the information of all Member States

  3. Austria; Financial Sector Assessment Program Update Technical Note: Factual Update and Analysis of the IOSCO Objectives and Principles of Securities Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2008-01-01

    This technical note focuses on the International Organization of Securities Commissions objectives and principles of securities regulations of Austria. The 2003 assessment found that Austria had fully broadly implemented a large majority of principles. The human resources of the Securities Supervision Department of the Financial Market Authority (FMA) should be increased, especially to conduct on-site inspections, in addition to the 14 planned appointments. Administrative fines should be rais...

  4. "Why should I have come here?"--A qualitative investigation of migration reasons and experiences of health workers from sub-Saharan Africa in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirovsky, Elena; Hoffmann, Kathryn; Maier, Manfred; Kutalek, Ruth

    2015-02-26

    There are many health professionals from abroad working in the European Union and in Austria. The situation of sub-Saharan health workers in particular has now been studied for the first time. The objective was to explore their reasons for migration to Austria, as well as their personal experiences concerning the living and working situation in Austria. We conducted semi-structured, qualitative interviews with African health workers. They were approached via professional networks and a snowball system. The interviews were transcribed and analysed using atlas.ti. For most of our participants, the decision to migrate was not professional but situation dependent. Austria was not their first choice as a destination country. Several study participants left their countries to improve their overall working situation. The main motivation for migrating to Austria was partnership with an Austrian citizen. Other immigrants were refugees. Most of the immigrants found the accreditation process to work as a health professional to be difficult and hindering. This resulted in some participants not being able to work in their profession, while others were successful in their profession or in related fields. There have been experiences of discrimination, but also positive support. Austria is not an explicit target country for health workers from sub-Saharan Africa. Most of the study participants experienced bad work and study conditions in their home countries, but they are in Austria mostly because of personal connections. The competencies of those who are here are not fully utilised. The major reason is Austria's current resident and work permit regulations concerning African citizens. In addition, the accreditation process and the German language appear to be barriers.

  5. [Relevance of pharmacoeconomic analyses to price and reimbursement decisions in Austria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Führlinger, Susanne

    2006-12-01

    Since the social sick funds have only limited amounts of money at their disposal, whereas the pharmaceutical market is constantly growing, thorough evaluations have to be undertaken how contributions are to be spent to get adequate value for money and especially to gain utmost benefit for the patients. When deciding on whether a pharmaceutical is listed in the Code of Reimbursement or not, pharmacoeconomic studies are obligatory in two cases: for real innovations with substantial therapeutic benefit and for applications for inclusion in the Yellow Box, when there are no alternatives listed in the Yellow Box. On the basis of the pharmacoeconomic study a comprehensible and justifiable cost/use relation of the pharmaceutical applied for should be proven in comparison with therapeutic alternatives in Austria. However, a pharmacoeconomic study is always only one aspect among others deciding on reimbursement and price. Even though the pharmaceutical applied for is not included in the Code of Reimbursement, reimbursement is possible in special cases if there is no adequate pharmaceutical listed in the Code of Reimbursement and the pharmaceutical is absolutely needed for therapeutic reasons. In these cases prior approval from a chief medical officer is required. Pharmacoeconomic studies for the purpose of section sign 25 of the Rules of Procedure for publishing the Code of Reimbursement (VO-EKO) must meet the following requirements: From a methodical point of view both cost-effectiveness analyses and--in justified cases--cost-utility analyses may be used. Due to required accuracy and traceability incremental analyses are preferred. Medical and economic data underlying the pharmacoeconomic study have to show a high degree of validity and evidence. The perspective to be taken is that of the Austrian Health Insurance. When determining the therapeutic alternatives, the most frequent indication, the most purposeful medical dosage and the main group of affected patients have to

  6. The Atlas of Natural Hazards and Risks of Austria: first results for fluvial and pluvial floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergili, Martin; Tader, Andreas; Glade, Thomas; Neuhold, Clemens; Stiefelmeyer, Heinz

    2015-04-01

    Incoherent societal adaptation to natural processes results in significant losses every year. A better knowledge of the spatial and temporal distribution of hazards and risks, and of particular hot spots in a given region or period, is essential for reducing adverse impacts. Commonly, different hazard and risk estimations are performed within individual approaches based on tailor-made concepts. This works well as long as specific cases are considered. The advantage of such a procedure is that each individual hazard and risk is addressed in the best possible manner. The drawback, however, consists in the fact that the results differ significantly in terms of quality and accuracy and therefore cannot be compared. Hence, there is a need to develop a strategy and concept which uses similar data sources of equivalent quality in order to adequately analyze the different natural hazards and risks at broader scales. The present study is aiming to develop such a platform. The project Risk:ATlas focuses on the design of an atlas visualizing the most relevant natural hazards and, in particular, possible consequences for the entire territory of Austria. Available as a web-based tool and as a printed atlas, it is seen as a key tool to improve the basis for risk reduction, risk adaptation and risk transfer. The atlas is founded on those data sets available for the entire territory of Austria at a consistent resolution and quality. A 1 m resolution DEM and the official cadastre and building register represent the core, further data sets are employed according to the requirements for each natural hazard and risk. In this contribution, the methodology and the preliminary results for fluvial and pluvial floods and their consequences to buildings for three selected test areas in different types of landscapes (rural, urban and mountainous) are presented. Flooding depths expected for annualities of 30, 100 and 300 are derived from existing data sets for fluvial floods and are computed

  7. UAV-based Natural Hazard Management in High-Alpine Terrain - Case Studies from Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotier, Bernadette; Adams, Marc; Lechner, Veronika

    2015-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) have become a standard tool for geodata collection, as they allow conducting on-demand mapping missions in a flexible, cost-effective manner at an unprecedented level of detail. Easy-to-use, high-performance image matching software make it possible to process the collected aerial images to orthophotos and 3D-terrain models. Such up-to-date geodata have proven to be an important asset in natural hazard management: Processes like debris flows, avalanches, landslides, fluvial erosion and rock-fall can be detected and quantified; damages can be documented and evaluated. In the Alps, these processes mostly originate in remote areas, which are difficult and hazardous to access, thus presenting a challenging task for RPAS data collection. In particular, the problems include finding suitable landing and piloting-places, dealing with bad or no GPS-signals and the installation of ground control points (GCP) for georeferencing. At the BFW, RPAS have been used since 2012 to aid natural hazard management of various processes, of which three case studies are presented below. The first case study deals with the results from an attempt to employ UAV-based multi-spectral remote sensing to monitor the state of natural hazard protection forests. Images in the visible and near-infrared (NIR) band were collected using modified low-cost cameras, combined with different optical filters. Several UAV-flights were performed in the 72 ha large study site in 2014, which lies in the Wattental, Tyrol (Austria) between 1700 and 2050 m a.s.l., where the main tree species are stone pine and mountain pine. The matched aerial images were analysed using different UAV-specific vitality indices, evaluating both single- and dual-camera UAV-missions. To calculate the mass balance of a debris flow in the Tyrolean Halltal (Austria), an RPAS flight was conducted in autumn 2012. The extreme alpine environment was challenging for both the mission and the evaluation of the aerial

  8. On the principles of the determination of the safe shut-down earthquake for nuclear power plants in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drimmel, J.

    1976-01-01

    At present no legal guide lines exist in Austria for the determination of the Safe Shut-Down Earthquake. According to experience, the present requirements for a nuclear power plant site are the following: It must be free of marked tectonic faults and it must never have been situated within the epicentral region of a strong earthquake. The maximum expected earthquake and the Safe Shut-Down Earthquake respectively, are fixed by the aid of a frequency map of strong earthquakes and a map of extreme earthquake intensities in Austria based on macroseismic data since 1201 A.D. The corresponding values of acceleration will be prescribed according to the state of science, but must at least be 0.10 g for the horizontal and 0.05 g for the vertical component of acceleration at the basement

  9. Evidence-based information on mammography screening in Austria--reality or more pie in the sky?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rásky, É; Groth, S

    2013-03-01

    Health literacy is gaining increasing importance in prevention and health care. This is the case for patients and for health-care professionals. Information and risk communication should comply with defined criteria and strengthen health literacy as they are a prerequisite for informed decision making. In this study, we analyse the content of the printed information material (brochures and pamphlets) on mammography screening for consumers that were distributed in Austria in 2011. The evaluation of the 11 brochures shows that the content does not comply with the prerequisites for informed decision making. Since the last study - published in 2004 - the situation has only slightly improved. The authors reemphasise the need for a targeted multimodal information campaign. This is particularly important as a systematic national mammography screening program in compliance with the guidelines of the European Commission will be introduced in Austria in 2013. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Nuclear Energy Futures: the Appropriation of the 'Atomic Age' in post-war Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, F.

    2015-01-01

    While recent scholarship in Science and Technology Studies and Science and Technology Policy carved out that techno-scientific developments take distinct national styles and shapes, less attention has been payed to such differences in the scholarship on nuclear history in Austria. In the context of the struggles over the non-commissioning of the already completed nuclear power plant at Zwentendorf (1978) and in the aftermath of the reactor explosion in Chernobyl (1986) the formation of a specific technopolitical identity, revolving around the sociotechnical imaginary of keeping nuclear technologies out of Austrian territory, has been observed. At the backdrop of this imaginary the history of nuclear enthusiasm in Austria is only present in narratives about how 'the people' have resisted and rejected the implementation of nuclear technologies in Austria and thus overcome u nreasonable promises of the so called atomic age . On the other hand historical scholarship shows that Austria has a long history of nuclear research and nuclear (power) policy that was hardly questioned until the early 1970s. Departing from this discrepancy this master thesis investigates the appropriation of the 'atomic age' in Austria in the mid 1950s. When US President Dwight D. Eisenhower gave his famous Atoms for Peace address in front of the UN General Assembly in late 1953 global nuclear enthusiasm in the immediate post--war era reached a new highpoint. Analyzing the following developments in Austria until late 1955 - of which the formation of an Austrian Commission on Atomic Energy and the participation in the UN Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy are to be considered milestones - thus enables me to observe how the appropriation of the 'atomic age' was deeply entangled with imaginations of national collectivity and different forms of imagining the future. In reference to the broader frameworks of 'appropriating' science and technology

  11. Near-surface geothermal potential assessment of the region Leogang - Saalbach-Hinterglemm in Salzburg, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottig, Magdalena; Rupprecht, Doris; Hoyer, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    Within the EU-funded Alpine Space project GRETA (Near-surface Geothermal Resources in the Territory of the Alpine space), a potential assessment for the use of near-surface geothermal energy is being performed. The focus region for Austria is represented by the two communities Leogang and Saalbach-Hinterglemm where settlements are located in altitudes of about 800 - 1.000 m. In these communities, as well as in large parts of the alpine space region in Austria, winter sports tourism is an important economic factor. The demand for heating and domestic hot water in this region of about 6.000 inhabitants rises significantly in the winter months due to around 2 million guest nights per year. This makes clear why the focus is on touristic infrastructure like alpine huts or hotels. It is a high-altitude area with a large number of remote houses, thus district-heating is not ubiquitous - thus, near-surface geothermal energy can be a useful solution for a self-sufficient energy supply. The objective of detailed investigation within the project is, to which extent the elevation, the gradient and the orientation of the hillside influence the geothermal usability of the shallow underground. To predict temperatures in depths of up to 100 m and therefore make statements on the geothermal usability of a certain piece of land, it is necessary to attain a precise ground-temperature map which reflects the upper model boundary. As there are no ground temperature measurement stations within the region, the GBA has installed four monitoring stations. Two are located in the valley, at altitudes of about 800 m, and two in higher altitudes of about 1.200 m, one on a south- and one on a north-slope. Using a software invented by the University of Soil Sciences in Vienna a ground-temperature map will be calculated. The calculation is based on climatic data considering parameters like soil composition. Measured values from the installed monitoring stations will help to validate or to

  12. Health status convergence at the local level: empirical evidence from Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gächter Martin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Health is an important dimension of welfare comparisons across individuals, regions and states. Particularly from a long-term perspective, within-country convergence of the health status has rarely been investigated by applying methods well established in other scientific fields. In the following paper we study the relation between initial levels of the health status and its improvement at the local community level in Austria in the time period 1969-2004. Methods We use age standardized mortality rates from 2381 Austrian communities as an indicator for the health status and analyze the convergence/divergence of overall mortality for (i the whole population, (ii females, (iii males and (iv the gender mortality gap. Convergence/Divergence is studied by applying different concepts of cross-regional inequality (weighted standard deviation, coefficient of variation, Theil-Coefficient of inequality. Various econometric techniques (weighted OLS, Quantile Regression, Kendall's Rank Concordance are used to test for absolute and conditional beta-convergence in mortality. Results Regarding sigma-convergence, we find rather mixed results. While the weighted standard deviation indicates an increase in equality for all four variables, the picture appears less clear when correcting for the decreasing mean in the distribution. However, we find highly significant coefficients for absolute and conditional beta-convergence between the periods. While these results are confirmed by several robustness tests, we also find evidence for the existence of convergence clubs. Conclusions The highly significant beta-convergence across communities might be caused by (i the efforts to harmonize and centralize the health policy at the federal level in Austria since the 1970s, (ii the diminishing returns of the input factors in the health production function, which might lead to convergence, as the general conditions (e.g. income, education etc. improve

  13. Gratkorn - A new late Middle Miocene vertebrate fauna from Styria (Late Sarmatian, Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, M.; Böhme, M.; Prieto, J.

    2009-04-01

    Paratethys (Late Middle Miocene/Early Late Miocene; Styrian Basin; Austria).- Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 264/3-4: 263-276. Harzhauser, M., Gross, M. & Binder, H., 2008. Biostratigraphy of Middle Miocene (Sarmatian) wetland systems in an Eastern Alpine intramontane basin (Gratkorn Basin, Austria): the terrestrial gastropod approach.- Geologica Carpathica, 59/1: 45-58.

  14. A survey of treatment approaches of malignant ascites in Germany and Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehn, C F; Küpferling, S; Oskay-Özcelik, G; Lüftner, D

    2015-07-01

    Malignant ascites (MA) is a common manifestation of advanced cancer. Currently, there are no evidence-based guidelines for the management of MA. We conducted a survey with physicians throughout Germany and Austria, to get an overview of current approaches and opinions in the treatment of MA. One hundred and twenty-eight medical oncologists (MO), gastroenterologists (GE), and gynecologists (GYN) completed an electronic questionnaire consisting of 33 questions. Ninety percent of the physicians were from Germany and 10% from Austria; 48% of those were MO, 30% were GYN, and 14% were GE. Most physicians treated an average of 34 patients (pts)/year with MA. Twenty-six percent of these pts suffered from ovarian, 20% from pancreatic, 17% from gastric, and 14% from colorectal cancer. The majority of the physicians associated MA with poor prognosis (92%) and significant reduction in quality of life (87%). One third felt that MA was a contraindication for full dosing of systemic chemotherapy. Paracentesis (PC) was performed in 70% of pts with symptom relieve and quality of life being the main reasons. Almost half of the pts required 3-5 PC, 50% even more than 5 PC during the course of their disease. Only 15% of pts needed multiple PC per week; the majority (79%) needed the procedure either once a week or every 14 days. In 61% of pts, 3-5 L of ascites fluid was drained. Only in 8%, 5 L and more were removed. Volume substitution with IV albumin was performed in 40% of pts. Most pts (55%) had to stay 1-3 h in a healthcare facility for the procedure. However, 21% had to stay ≥1 day. While almost all physicians (89%) performed a PC at some point in the treatment of MA, 75% felt that a systemic chemotherapy and 55% thought a concomitant diuretic therapy were a necessary adjunct. Seven percent of the pts received a targeted treatment with catumaxomab. Repeated PC is the main pillar of treatment of MA; its effect is only temporary and requires significant hospital resources

  15. Structural assessment and multi-parameter monitoring - an application to the Salcher landslide (Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Alexander; Canli, Ekrem; Thiebes, Benni; Glade, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Landslides pose a serious threat to many communities in Austria. The region of Lower Austria is underlayed, amongst others, by the lithological units of the Flysch Zone and the Gresten Klippenbelt. Both are particularly affected by landslides and the majority of episodic occurrences are bound to these two units. The active Salcher landslide is situated at the western border of the municipality of Gresten and is embedded in the geologic transition zone of the respective lithological units. The landslide is a reactivated and deep seated complex landslide that endangers buildings, parts of a road and lifelines such as power and optical fiber lines, fresh and sewage water supplies. Its varying movement rates are in the order of a few centimeters per year and consequently are classified as slow to extremely slow. Despite biannual geodetic surveys, little is known about the dynamic behavior including the triggering and controlling factors and its internal structure. Surface and subsurface investigations were therefore carried out on that landslide. With the intention to detect morphological surface changes, comparative geomorphologic mapping and terrestrial laser scanning was performed. Additionally, surface kinematical information was acquired by historical documents and GNSS measurements. The detailed present soil-physical conditions and their relation to current dynamics were investigated by six drill cores and three inclinometer installations. Soil specimens were obtained by percussion drilling. Particle size distribution, and water and carbonate content were subsequently analyzed in the laboratory. In addition, dynamic probing was performed at 13 sites across the landslide body and resistance values were compared to textural findings. The soil specimens show a heterogeneous texture and large variations in carbonate and water content. Soil wedges, originating from local displacements, were determined in two drill cores. Very high water content and resulting plastic

  16. Congenital toxoplasmosis in Austria: Prenatal screening for prevention is cost-saving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea-Romana Prusa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Primary infection of Toxoplasma gondii during pregnancy can be transmitted to the unborn child and may have serious consequences, including retinochoroiditis, hydrocephaly, cerebral calcifications, encephalitis, splenomegaly, hearing loss, blindness, and death. Austria, a country with moderate seroprevalence, instituted mandatory prenatal screening for toxoplasma infection to minimize the effects of congenital transmission. This work compares the societal costs of congenital toxoplasmosis under the Austrian national prenatal screening program with the societal costs that would have occurred in a No-Screening scenario.We retrospectively investigated data from the Austrian Toxoplasmosis Register for birth cohorts from 1992 to 2008, including pediatric long-term follow-up until May 2013. We constructed a decision-analytic model to compare lifetime societal costs of prenatal screening with lifetime societal costs estimated in a No-Screening scenario. We included costs of treatment, lifetime care, accommodation of injuries, loss of life, and lost earnings that would have occurred in a No-Screening scenario and compared them with the actual costs of screening, treatment, lifetime care, accommodation, loss of life, and lost earnings. We replicated that analysis excluding loss of life and lost earnings to estimate the budgetary impact alone. Our model calculated total lifetime costs of €103 per birth under prenatal screening as carried out in Austria, saving €323 per birth compared with No-Screening. Without screening and treatment, lifetime societal costs for all affected children would have been €35 million per year; the implementation costs of the Austrian program are less than €2 million per year. Calculating only the budgetary impact, the national program was still cost-saving by more than €15 million per year and saved €258 million in 17 years.Cost savings under a national program of prenatal screening for toxoplasma infection and

  17. Circular economy of plastic packaging: Current practice and perspectives in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eygen, Emile; Laner, David; Fellner, Johann

    2018-02-01

    Plastics, especially from packaging, have gained increasing attention in waste management, driving many policy initiatives to improve the circularity of these materials in the economy to increase resource efficiency. In this context, the EU has proposed increasing targets to encourage the recycling of (plastic) packaging. To accurately calculate the recycling rates, detailed information on the flows of plastic packaging is needed. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to quantitatively and qualitatively investigate the waste management system for plastic packaging in Austria in 2013 using material flow analysis, taking into account the used product types and the polymer composition. The results show that 300,000 ± 3% t/a (35 kg/cap·a) of waste plastic packaging were produced, mainly composed of large and small films and small hollow bodies, including PET bottles. Correspondingly, the polymer composition of the waste stream was dominated by LDPE (46% ± 6%), PET (19% ± 4%) and PP (14% ± 6%). 58% ± 3% was collected separately, and regarding the final treatment, 26% ± 7% of the total waste stream was recovered as re-granulates, whereas the rest was thermally recovered in waste-to-energy plants (40% ± 3%) and the cement industry (33% ± 6%). The targets set by the EU and Austria were reached comfortably, although to reach the proposed future target major technological steps regarding collection and sorting will be needed. However, the current calculation point of the targets, i.e. on the input side of the recycling plant, is not deemed to be fully in line with the overall objective of the circular economy, namely to keep materials in the economy and prevent losses. It is therefore recommended that the targets be calculated with respect to the actual output of the recycling process, provided that the quality of the output products is maintained, to accurately assess the performance of the waste management system. Copyright © 2017

  18. Congenital toxoplasmosis in Austria: Prenatal screening for prevention is cost-saving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prusa, Andrea-Romana; Kasper, David C.; Sawers, Larry; Walter, Evelyn; Hayde, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Background Primary infection of Toxoplasma gondii during pregnancy can be transmitted to the unborn child and may have serious consequences, including retinochoroiditis, hydrocephaly, cerebral calcifications, encephalitis, splenomegaly, hearing loss, blindness, and death. Austria, a country with moderate seroprevalence, instituted mandatory prenatal screening for toxoplasma infection to minimize the effects of congenital transmission. This work compares the societal costs of congenital toxoplasmosis under the Austrian national prenatal screening program with the societal costs that would have occurred in a No-Screening scenario. Methodology/Principal findings We retrospectively investigated data from the Austrian Toxoplasmosis Register for birth cohorts from 1992 to 2008, including pediatric long-term follow-up until May 2013. We constructed a decision-analytic model to compare lifetime societal costs of prenatal screening with lifetime societal costs estimated in a No-Screening scenario. We included costs of treatment, lifetime care, accommodation of injuries, loss of life, and lost earnings that would have occurred in a No-Screening scenario and compared them with the actual costs of screening, treatment, lifetime care, accommodation, loss of life, and lost earnings. We replicated that analysis excluding loss of life and lost earnings to estimate the budgetary impact alone. Our model calculated total lifetime costs of €103 per birth under prenatal screening as carried out in Austria, saving €323 per birth compared with No-Screening. Without screening and treatment, lifetime societal costs for all affected children would have been €35 million per year; the implementation costs of the Austrian program are less than €2 million per year. Calculating only the budgetary impact, the national program was still cost-saving by more than €15 million per year and saved €258 million in 17 years. Conclusions/Significance Cost savings under a national program of

  19. Assessment of radon exposure in Austria based on geology and settlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, Valeria; Seidel, Claudia

    2008-01-01

    In Austria a fundamental radon indoor data net (about 40 000 measurements) exists. These radon indoor data are standardized and provide averaged political communities' values. This data net should be enhanced by soil gas measurements with regard to geological conditions, to avoid averaging and influences by political boundaries. Different geological units (characterized by geology, geochemical conditions, mineralogy, geophysics) will be surveyed regarding radon concentration by soil gas measurements and estimated to their potential radon hazard. To assess the radon exposure of the population geological units are selected which are either existing settlement areas or potential ones. So this survey can also provide a basis for land use planning. In this paper results of first studies for this purpose are shown. 160 soil gas measurements were carried out in different soil and sediment deposits originating from different ice age glacier movements in the Alps. These deposits are popular settlement areas, and indoor radon levels of some 1000 Bq/l were detected. 50 % of the results of soil gas radon measurements were above 60 kBq/m 3 , 18 % above 120 kBq/m 3 , which is likely to exceed the indoor radon standard of 400 Bq/l according to the Austrian standard ONORM S 5280-2. Higher radon activity concentrations were found in older ice ages, because of further progressed weathering. The radon soil gas measurements were carried out in different seasons to verify seasonal variations, and other parameters like Ra-226, Ra-228 activity concentration in soils, radon emanation factor, soil permeability and soil moisture were determined and related to the radon activity concentration. According to the example of this study, further soil gas measurements will be carried out in selected geological units. Additional research on the impact of actual dwelling and inhabitation situation on public exposure due to radon in Austria is being done currently. The soil gas radon measurement data

  20. Impact of environmental change on the radioecology of spruce trees in Upper Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, Claudia; Gruber, V.; Baumgartner, A.; Fuerst, A.

    2008-01-01

    In a two years project spruce needle samples of the Austrian Bioindicator Grid were analysed by gamma spectrometry to detect the geographical and temporal distribution of radionuclides in spruce needles of the last 25 years with the main focus on the radioactive contamination before and after the Chernobyl fallout in 1986. This radioecological evaluation is an important part of an existing environmental surveillance programme in Upper Austria in order to gain basic information on the impact of environmental changes on the radioecological behaviour of spruce trees. Moreover, the results of the current studies can be an important input for the discussion of using whole trees for biomass energy. Every year spruce needle samples of the two youngest needle sprouts are taken from two spruce trees at each location of the Bioindicator Grid. For this study samples of selected locations evenly spaced out among the area of Upper Austria were analysed for different natural and anthropogenic radionuclides: 137 Cs, 40 K, 210 Pb, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 238 U. Additionally, soil samples were taken at selected sites to study the relationship between 137 Cs and 40 K-activity concentrations in soils and spruce needles and to estimate transfer factors. Another important question of the study is the correlation between anthropogenic pollutants and radionuclides. To date more than 500 spruce needle samples were analysed. 137 Cs- activity concentrations reach D.L. (2 Bq/kg)-5150 Bq/kg, whereas the maximum was measured after the Chernobyl fallout in 1986. In time series of 137 Cs-activity concentrations Caesium cycling was observed. The activity concentrations of 40 K reached D.L. (15 Bq/kg)- 294 Bq/kg and 210 Pb reach D.L. (5 Bq/kg)-45 Bq/kg. The measured 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 238 U concentrations were mostly below detection limits. Most samples of younger sprouts revealed higher 137 Cs activity concentrations than older sprouts. 40 K-activity concentrations showed nearly the same level in

  1. Proceedings, LHCSki 2016 - A First Discussion of 13 TeV Results: Obergurgl, Austria, April 10-15, 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Adam, Wolfgang; Pradler, Josef; Schieck, Jochen; Schwanda, Christoph; Waltenberger, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    These are the proceedings of the LHCSki 2016 workshop "A First Discussion of 13 TeV Results" that has been held at the Obergurgl Universit\\"atszentrum, Tirol, Austria, April 10 - 15, 2016. In this workshop the consequences of the most recent results from the LHC have been discussed, with a focus also on the interplay with dark matter physics, flavor physics, and precision measurements. Contributions from the workshop speakers have been compiled into this document. Much is at stake when the...

  2. 1985-1995 - 10 years of geothermal drilling in Austria; 1985-1995 - 10 Jahre Geothermiebohrungen in Oesterreich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldbrunner, J

    1997-12-01

    From 1985 to 1995 19 deep drillings with a cumulative length of more than 35 were sunk in Austria for thermal water for energetic or balneological use. Most of the drillings took place in the Styrian Basin and the Upper Austrian Molasse basin, which are the most favourable reas for the exploitation of geothermal energy. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Zeitraum 1985-1995 war in Oesterreich durch eine intensive Tiefbohrtaetigkeit zur Erschliessung thermaler Tiefengrundwaesser gekennzeichntet. Insgesamt wurden 35.180 Bohrmeter niedergebracht. (orig.)

  3. Transmission of Helminths between Species of Ruminants in Austria Appears More Likely to Occur than Generally Assumed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Jakob; Rehbein, Steffen; Joachim, Anja

    2018-01-01

    Helminth infections of the gastrointestinal tract and lungs can lead to devastating economical losses to the pastoral based animal production. Farm animals can suffer from malnutrition, tissue damage, and blood loss resulting in impaired production traits and reproduction parameters. In Austria, pastures grazed by sheep, goats, and cattle overlap with the habitats of several species of wild cervids (roe deer, red deer, sika deer, and fallow deer) and bovids (mouflon, chamois, and ibex), and transmission of parasites between different ruminant species seems likely. A complete and updated overview on the occurrence of helminths of domestic and wild ruminants in Austria is presented. Based on these data, intersections of the host spectrum of the determined parasites were depicted. The “liability index” was applied to identify the ruminant species, which most likely transmit parasites between each other. A degree for host specificity was calculated for each parasite species based on the average taxonomic distance of their host species. Of the 73 identified helminth species 42 were identified as generalists, and 14 transmission experiments supported the assumed broad host specificity for 14 generalists and 1 specialist helminth species. Overall, 61 helminths were found to infect more than one host species, and 4 were found in all 10 ruminant species investigated. From these analyses, it can be concluded that a number of helminth parasites of the gastrointestinal tract and the lungs are potentially transmitted between domestic and wild ruminants in Austria. For some parasites and host species, experimental evidence is in support for possible transmission, while for other such studies are lacking. Host preference of different genotypes of the same parasite species may have a confounding effect on the evaluation of cross-transmission, but so far this has not been evaluated systematically in helminths in Austria. Further studies focusing on experimental cross

  4. Species distribution modeling for the invasive raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Austria and first range predictions for alpine environments

    OpenAIRE

    Duscher Tanja; Nopp-Mayr Ursula

    2017-01-01

    Species distribution models are important tools for wildlife management planning, particularly in the case of invasive species. We employed a recent framework for niche-based invasive species distribution modeling to predict the probability of presence for the invasive raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Austria. The raccoon dog is an adaptive, mobile and highly reproductive Asiatic canid that has successfully invaded many parts of Europe. It is known...

  5. International Working Group on Fast Reactors Eight Annual Meeting, Vienna, Austria, 15-18 April 1975. Summary Report. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-07-01

    The Eighth Annual Meeting of the IAEA International Working Group on Past Reactors was held at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna, Austria, from 15 to 18 April 1975. The Summary Report (Part I) contains the Minutes of the Meeting. The Summary Report (Part II) contains the papers which review the national programmes in the field of LMPBR’s and other presentations at the Meeting. The Summary Report (Part III) contains the discussions on the review of the national programmes

  6. Transmission of Helminths between Species of Ruminants in Austria Appears More Likely to Occur than Generally Assumed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Winter

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Helminth infections of the gastrointestinal tract and lungs can lead to devastating economical losses to the pastoral based animal production. Farm animals can suffer from malnutrition, tissue damage, and blood loss resulting in impaired production traits and reproduction parameters. In Austria, pastures grazed by sheep, goats, and cattle overlap with the habitats of several species of wild cervids (roe deer, red deer, sika deer, and fallow deer and bovids (mouflon, chamois, and ibex, and transmission of parasites between different ruminant species seems likely. A complete and updated overview on the occurrence of helminths of domestic and wild ruminants in Austria is presented. Based on these data, intersections of the host spectrum of the determined parasites were depicted. The “liability index” was applied to identify the ruminant species, which most likely transmit parasites between each other. A degree for host specificity was calculated for each parasite species based on the average taxonomic distance of their host species. Of the 73 identified helminth species 42 were identified as generalists, and 14 transmission experiments supported the assumed broad host specificity for 14 generalists and 1 specialist helminth species. Overall, 61 helminths were found to infect more than one host species, and 4 were found in all 10 ruminant species investigated. From these analyses, it can be concluded that a number of helminth parasites of the gastrointestinal tract and the lungs are potentially transmitted between domestic and wild ruminants in Austria. For some parasites and host species, experimental evidence is in support for possible transmission, while for other such studies are lacking. Host preference of different genotypes of the same parasite species may have a confounding effect on the evaluation of cross-transmission, but so far this has not been evaluated systematically in helminths in Austria. Further studies focusing on

  7. International Scientific Studies Conference (ISS09), Vienna, Austria, 10-12 June 2009. First announcement and call for papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The results of the scientific studies carried out will be presented at the International Scientific Studies Conference - the ISS09 Conference - in Vienna, Austria. The Conference will focus on issues related to the capability and readiness of the CTBT's verification regime to detect nuclear explosions worldwide. It will also address how the verification regime has benefited from scientific and technical developments since the Treaty opened for signature in 1996.

  8. Long-term changes in CO2 emissions in Austria and Czechoslovakia-Identifying the drivers of environmental pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gingrich, Simone; Kuskova, Petra; Steinberger, Julia K.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents fossil-fuel related CO 2 emissions in Austria and Czechoslovakia (current Czech Republic and Slovakia) for 1830-2000. The drivers of CO 2 emissions are discussed by investigating the variables of the standard Kaya identity for 1920-2000 and conducting a comparative Index Decomposition Analysis. Proxy data on industrial production and household consumption are analysed to understand the role of the economic structure. CO 2 emissions increased in both countries in the long run. Czechoslovakia was a stronger emitter of CO 2 throughout the time period, but per-capita emissions significantly differed only after World War I, when Czechoslovakia and Austria became independent. The difference in CO 2 emissions increased until the mid-1980s (the period of communism in Czechoslovakia), explained by the energy intensity and the composition effects, and higher industrial production in Czechoslovakia. Counterbalancing factors were the income effect and household consumption. After the Velvet revolution in 1990, Czechoslovak CO 2 emissions decreased, and the energy composition effect (and industrial production) lost importance. Despite their different political and economic development, Austria and Czechoslovakia reached similar levels of per-capita CO 2 emissions in the late 20th century. Neither Austrian 'eco-efficiency' nor Czechoslovak restructuring have been effective in reducing CO 2 emissions to a sustainable level. - Research Highlights: →CO 2 emissions in Austria and Czechoslovakia increased during industrialisation. →The differences were strongest during periods of different political regimes. →The main drivers for differences were energy composition and energy intensity.

  9. Impacts of Alternative Implementations of the Single Farm Payment on Organi-cally and Conventionally Producing Farms in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, Erwin; Sinabell, Franz

    2007-01-01

    In 2003, the Common Agricultural Policy underwent a substantial reform. Direct pay-ments that were linked to the production of certain crops and livestock were abolished. Alternatively, the Single Farm Payment was introduced in EU-15 Member States. We investigate the distributional consequences of alternative implementation choices for organic farms in Austria. Results show that net-returns of farms and the distribution of farm revenues depend on the particular implementation of the reform.

  10. Primary health care teams put to the test a cross-sectional study from Austria within the QUALICOPC project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Kathryn; George, Aaron; Dorner, Thomas E; Süß, Katharina; Schäfer, Willemijn L A; Maier, Manfred

    2015-11-16

    Multidisciplinary Primary Health Care Teams (PHCT) provide a comprehensive approach to address the social and health needs of communities. It was the aim of this analysis to assess the number of PHCT in Austria, a country with a weak PHC system, and to compare preventive activities, psychosocial care, and work satisfaction between GPs who work and those who do not work in PHCT. Within the QUALICOPC study, data collection was performed between November 2011 and May 2012, utilizing a standardized questionnaire for GPs. A stratified sample of GPs from across Austria was invited. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics and tests. Data from 171 GPs questionnaires were used for this analysis. Of these, 61.1 % (n = 113) had a mono-disciplinary office, 26.3 % (n = 45) worked in an office consisting of GP, receptionist and one additional primary care profession, and 7.6 % (n = 13) worked in a larger PHCT. GPs that worked in larger PHCT were younger and more involved in psychosocial and preventive care. No differences were found with regard to work satisfaction or workload. This study gives insight into the structures of PHC in Austria. The results indicate a low number of PHCT; however, the overall return rate in our sample was low with more male GPs, more GPs from urban areas and more GPs working in offices together with other physicians than the national average. Younger GPs demonstrate a greater tendency to implement this primary care practice model in their practices, which seems to be associated with an emphasis in psychosocial and preventive care. If Austria is to increase the number of PHC teams, the country should embrace the work of young GPs and should offer relevant support for PHCT. Future developments could be guided by considering effective models of good practice and governmental support as in other countries.

  11. [On the economy of "wealth of people": demographic-political theories in the Austria of enlightened absolutism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichtl, T

    1985-01-01

    "This essay focuses on mercantilist theories and interpretations of demographic trends [in Austria] in the late 18th century." The writings of several mercantilist authors are summarized, and the influence of their views on population policy is discussed. It is noted that the official population policy, which aimed at fast population growth to strengthen the economy and increase the number of soldiers, was based on the mercantilist theory that greater population size means higher per capita incomes. (summary in ENG) excerpt

  12. The Text of a Safeguards Transfer Agreement Relating to a Bilateral Agreement between Austria and the United States of America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1971-05-18

    The text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement between the Agency, Austria and the United States of America relating to the agreement of 11 July 1969 between the two Governments for cooperation in the promotion and development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Safeguards Transfer Agreement entered into force on 24 January 1970.

  13. Long-term changes in CO{sub 2} emissions in Austria and Czechoslovakia Identifying the drivers of environmental pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simone Gingrich; Petra Kuskova; Julia K. Steinberger [University of Klagenfurt, Wien (Austria). Institute of Social Ecology

    2011-02-15

    This study presents fossil-fuel related CO{sub 2} emissions in Austria and Czechoslovakia (current Czech Republic and Slovakia) for 1830-2000. The drivers of CO{sub 2} emissions are discussed by investigating the variables of the standard Kaya identity for 1920-2000 and conducting a comparative Index Decomposition Analysis. Proxy data on industrial production and household consumption are analysed to understand the role of the economic structure. CO{sub 2} emissions increased in both countries in the long run. Czechoslovakia was a stronger emitter of CO{sub 2} throughout the time period, but per-capita emissions significantly differed only after World War I, when Czechoslovakia and Austria became independent. The difference in CO{sub 2} emissions increased until the mid-1980s (the period of communism in Czechoslovakia), explained by the energy intensity and the composition effects, and higher industrial production in Czechoslovakia. Counterbalancing factors were the income effect and household consumption. After the Velvet revolution in 1990, Czechoslovak CO{sub 2} emissions decreased, and the energy composition effect (and industrial production) lost importance. Despite their different political and economic development, Austria and Czechoslovakia reached similar levels of per-capita CO{sub 2} emissions in the late 20th century. Neither Austrian 'eco-efficiency' nor Czechoslovak restructuring have been effective in reducing CO{sub 2} emissions to a sustainable level. 43 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Long-term changes in CO{sub 2} emissions in Austria and Czechoslovakia. Identifying the drivers of environmental pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gingrich, Simone; Steinberger, Julia K. [Institute of Social Ecology, Faculty for Interdisciplinary Studies Vienna, University of Klagenfurt, Schottenfeldgasse 29/5, 1070 Wien (Austria); Kuskova, Petra [Department of Social Geography and Regional Development, Charles University in Prague (Czech Republic)

    2011-02-15

    This study presents fossil-fuel related CO{sub 2} emissions in Austria and Czechoslovakia (current Czech Republic and Slovakia) for 1830-2000. The drivers of CO{sub 2} emissions are discussed by investigating the variables of the standard Kaya identity for 1920-2000 and conducting a comparative Index Decomposition Analysis. Proxy data on industrial production and household consumption are analysed to understand the role of the economic structure. CO{sub 2} emissions increased in both countries in the long run. Czechoslovakia was a stronger emitter of CO{sub 2} throughout the time period, but per-capita emissions significantly differed only after World War I, when Czechoslovakia and Austria became independent. The difference in CO{sub 2} emissions increased until the mid-1980s (the period of communism in Czechoslovakia), explained by the energy intensity and the composition effects, and higher industrial production in Czechoslovakia. Counterbalancing factors were the income effect and household consumption. After the Velvet revolution in 1990, Czechoslovak CO{sub 2} emissions decreased, and the energy composition effect (and industrial production) lost importance. Despite their different political and economic development, Austria and Czechoslovakia reached similar levels of per-capita CO{sub 2} emissions in the late 20th century. Neither Austrian 'eco-efficiency' nor Czechoslovak restructuring have been effective in reducing CO{sub 2} emissions to a sustainable level. (author)

  15. Genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from Portugal, Austria and Israel reveals higher genetic variability within the type II lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S K; Ajzenberg, D; Rivera-Sanchez, A; Su, C; Dubey, J P

    2015-06-01

    This study compared genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from Portugal, Austria and Israel. For this, we genotyped 90 T. gondii isolates (16 from Portugal, 67 from Austria and 7 from Israel) using 10 nested PCR-restriction length polymorphism (RFLP) genetic markers and 15 microsatellite (MS) markers. By PCR-RFLP typing, 7 isolates from Portugal chickens were identified as type II (ToxoDB #1 or #3), 4 were type III (ToxoDB #2) and the remaining 4 isolates have unique genotype pattern were designated as ToxoDB #254. One mouse virulent isolate from a bovine fetus (Bos taurus) in Portugal was type I (ToxoDB #10) at all loci and designated as TgCowPr1. All 67 isolates from Austria and 7 from Israel were type II (ToxoDB #1 or #3). By MS typing, many additional genetic variations were revealed among the type II and type III isolates. Phylogenetic analysis showed that isolates from the same geographical locations tend to cluster together, and there is little overlapping of genotypes among different locations. This study demonstrated that the MS markers can provide higher discriminatory power to reveal association of genotypes with geographical locations. Future studies of the type II strains in Europe by these MS markers will be useful to reveal transmission patterns of the parasite.

  16. Species distribution modeling for the invasive raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides in Austria and first range predictions for alpine environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duscher Tanja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Species distribution models are important tools for wildlife management planning, particularly in the case of invasive species. We employed a recent framework for niche-based invasive species distribution modeling to predict the probability of presence for the invasive raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides in Austria. The raccoon dog is an adaptive, mobile and highly reproductive Asiatic canid that has successfully invaded many parts of Europe. It is known to occur in Austria since 1963 and is now widespread in the northern and eastern parts of the country, but its population density remains low. With the help of a species distribution model we identified focal areas for future monitoring and management actions, and we address some management implications for the raccoon dog in Austria. We also determined the environmental predictors of raccoon dog distribution in this alpine country. Its distribution seems to be mainly limited by climatic factors (snow depth, duration of snow cover, winter precipitation and mean annual temperature and is thus linked to elevation. Consequently, we assumed the Alps to be a barrier for the spread of the invasive raccoon dog in Europe; however, its ecological permeability is expected to increase with ongoing climate change.

  17. Configuration of multiple human stressors and their impacts on fish assemblages in Alpine river basins of Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinegger, Rafaela; Pucher, Matthias; Aschauer, Christiane; Schmutz, Stefan

    2018-03-01

    This work addresses multiple human stressors and their impacts on fish assemblages of the Drava and Mura rivers in southern Austria. The impacts of single and multiple human stressors on riverine fish assemblages in these basins were disentangled, based on an extensive dataset. Stressor configuration, i.e. various metrics of multiple stressors belonging to stressor groups hydrology, morphology, connectivity and water quality were investigated for the first time at river basin scale in Austria. As biological response variables, the Fish Index Austria (FIA) and its related single as well as the WFD biological- and total state were investigated. Stressor-response analysis shows divergent results, but a general trend of decreasing ecological integrity with increasing number of stressors and maximum stressor is observed. Fish metrics based on age structure, fish region index and biological status responded best to single stressors and/or their combinations. The knowledge gained in this work provides a basis for advanced investigations in Alpine river basins and beyond, supports WFD implementation and helps prioritizing further actions towards multi-stressor restoration- and management. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Long-term changes in CO(2) emissions in Austria and Czechoslovakia-Identifying the drivers of environmental pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingrich, Simone; Kušková, Petra; Steinberger, Julia K

    2011-02-01

    This study presents fossil-fuel related CO(2) emissions in Austria and Czechoslovakia (current Czech Republic and Slovakia) for 1830-2000. The drivers of CO(2) emissions are discussed by investigating the variables of the standard Kaya identity for 1920-2000 and conducting a comparative Index Decomposition Analysis. Proxy data on industrial production and household consumption are analysed to understand the role of the economic structure. CO(2) emissions increased in both countries in the long run. Czechoslovakia was a stronger emitter of CO(2) throughout the time period, but per-capita emissions significantly differed only after World War I, when Czechoslovakia and Austria became independent. The difference in CO(2) emissions increased until the mid-1980s (the period of communism in Czechoslovakia), explained by the energy intensity and the composition effects, and higher industrial production in Czechoslovakia. Counterbalancing factors were the income effect and household consumption. After the Velvet revolution in 1990, Czechoslovak CO(2) emissions decreased, and the energy composition effect (and industrial production) lost importance. Despite their different political and economic development, Austria and Czechoslovakia reached similar levels of per-capita CO(2) emissions in the late 20th century. Neither Austrian "eco-efficiency" nor Czechoslovak restructuring have been effective in reducing CO(2) emissions to a sustainable level.

  19. Long-term changes in CO2 emissions in Austria and Czechoslovakia—Identifying the drivers of environmental pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingrich, Simone; Kušková, Petra; Steinberger, Julia K.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents fossil-fuel related CO2 emissions in Austria and Czechoslovakia (current Czech Republic and Slovakia) for 1830–2000. The drivers of CO2 emissions are discussed by investigating the variables of the standard Kaya identity for 1920–2000 and conducting a comparative Index Decomposition Analysis. Proxy data on industrial production and household consumption are analysed to understand the role of the economic structure. CO2 emissions increased in both countries in the long run. Czechoslovakia was a stronger emitter of CO2 throughout the time period, but per-capita emissions significantly differed only after World War I, when Czechoslovakia and Austria became independent. The difference in CO2 emissions increased until the mid-1980s (the period of communism in Czechoslovakia), explained by the energy intensity and the composition effects, and higher industrial production in Czechoslovakia. Counterbalancing factors were the income effect and household consumption. After the Velvet revolution in 1990, Czechoslovak CO2 emissions decreased, and the energy composition effect (and industrial production) lost importance. Despite their different political and economic development, Austria and Czechoslovakia reached similar levels of per-capita CO2 emissions in the late 20th century. Neither Austrian “eco-efficiency” nor Czechoslovak restructuring have been effective in reducing CO2 emissions to a sustainable level. PMID:21461052

  20. Gonococcal infections in Austria: a long-term observation of prevalence and resistance profiles from 1999 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stary, Angelika; Heller-Vitouch, Claudia; Binder, Michael; Geusau, Alexandra; Stary, Georg; Rappersberger, Klemens; Komericki, Peter; Hoepfl, Reinhard; Haller, Maria

    2015-11-01

    The increase in minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of cephalosporins for Neisseria gonorrhoeae has given rise to concerns regarding potentially untreatable gonococcal infections. The goal was to ascertain the prevalence of gonorrhea in a Viennese patient group and determine resistance patterns. Another objective was to evaluate resistance profiles and MIC values of gonococcal isolates in an Austria-wide surveillance project. From 1999 to 2014, 350,000 individuals were tested for gonococci at the Viennese Outpatient Clinic. In addition, from 2010 to 2014, the MICs of recommended antibiotics was determined in 3,584 gonococcal isolates, initially by agar dilution and breakpoint determination, and, from 2012 onwards, by Etest®. During the observation period, the prevalence of gonorrhea increased eightfold, with a significantly greater number of quinolone, penicillin, and tetracycline- resistant strains. In gonococcal strains isolated from across Austria, there was an increase in cefixime and ceftriaxone MICs toward breakpoints. Twenty-one isolates showed cefixime resistance, and while there was an increase in azithromycin resistance from 0.9 % (2013) to 3.2 % (2014), no resistance to ceftriaxone was observed. Currently, there is no imminent risk of untreatable gonorrhea in Austria. However, continuing the use of gonococcal cultures as a diagnostic tool for establishing resistance profiles is essential in order to monitor trends in the development of Neisseria (N.) gonorrhoeae resistance. © 2015 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Hospital admissions for traumatic brain injury of Austrian residents vs. of visitors to Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauritz, Walter; Brazinova, Alexandra; Majdan, Marek; Leitgeb, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    The goal was to compare epidemiology of hospital admissions for traumatic brain injury (TBI) in Austrian residents vs. visitors to Austria. Data on all hospital admissions due to TBI (ICD-10 codes S06.0-S06.9; years 2009-2011) was provided by the Austrian Statistical Office. Data on Austrian population and on tourism (visitor numbers, nights spent) was retrieved from www.statistik.at . Age, sex, mechanism of injury, season and mortality was analysed for Austrian residents vs. visitors. Visitors contributed 3.9% to the total population and 9.2% of all TBI cases. Incidence of hospital admissions was 292/100,000/year in Austrian residents and was 727/100,000/year in visitors. Male:female ratio was 1.39:1 in Austrian residents and 1.55:1 in visitors. Austrian cases were older than visitors' cases (mean age 41 vs. 28 years). Austrian cases were distributed evenly over the seasons, while 75% of the visitors' cases happened during winter and spring. The most frequently observed causes of TBI in Austrian residents were private accidents, while sports caused almost half of the visitors' cases. Hospital mortality was lower in visitors than in Austrian residents (0.8 vs. 2.1%). Sports-related TBI of visitors causes a significant workload for Austrian hospitals. Better prevention is warranted.

  2. The future bioclimatic conditions in Austria under the aspect of climate change scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudel, E.; Matzarakis, A.; Neumke, R.; Endler, Ch,; Koch, E.

    2009-09-01

    The IPCC quantifies Heat Stress as a combination of air temperature and air humidity. In order to describe the future bioclimatic conditions in a human-biometeorological manner the analysis a modern thermal index has been chosen. The PET (Physiologically Equivalent Temperature) allows the assessment of the effect of the thermal environment based on the energy balance of humans including thermo-physiological information. The data for the calculation of the PET came from climate models. The required data are for the climatic parameters air temperature, relative humidity, wind velocity and mean cloud cover as the necessary inputs for Physiologically Equivalents Temperature. Regarding future climatic changes PET calculations for the time slices 1961 and 1990 and also 2070 and 2100 have been run in 0.5 ° resolution. By the use of statistical regression for the 0.5 ° resolution the results have been downscaled to 1 km resolution in order to identify and quantify the areas in Austria, which will be more affected bioclimatologically. The constructed maps present current and future climatic conditions and also differences for the different time slices and SRES-scenarios of the IPCC. Maps of the difference between the Physiological Equivalent temperature and air temperature have been constructed to show that the used thermal indices, which have been applied by the IPCC underestimate the expected thermal bioclimate conditions for future climate. The results offer fundamental information for tourism and recreation authorities for present and expected climatic and bioclimatic conditions.

  3. Investigations on indoor radon in Austria, Part 1: Seasonality of indoor radon concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossew, Peter; Lettner, Herbert

    2007-01-01

    In general, indoor radon concentration is subject to seasonal variability. The reasons are to be found (1) in meteorological influence on the transport properties of soil, e.g. through temperature, frozen soil layers and soil water saturation; and (2) in living habits, e.g. the tendency to open windows in summer and keep them closed in winter, which in general leads to higher accumulation of geogenic Rn in closed rooms in winter. If one wants to standardize indoor Rn measurements originally performed at different times of the year, e.g. in order to make them comparable, some correction transform as a function of measurement time which accounts for these effects must be estimated. In this paper, the seasonality of indoor Rn concentration measured in Austria is investigated as a function of other factors that influence indoor Rn. Indoor radon concentration is clearly shown to have seasonal variability, with higher Rn levels in winter. However, it is complicated to quantify the effect because, as a consequence of the history of an Rn survey, the measurement season maybe correlated to geological regions, which may introduce a bias in the estimate of the seasonality amplitude

  4. Wildlife reservoirs for vector-borne canine, feline and zoonotic infections in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duscher, Georg G.; Leschnik, Michael; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Joachim, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Austria's mammalian wildlife comprises a large variety of species, acting and interacting in different ways as reservoir and intermediate and definitive hosts for different pathogens that can be transmitted to pets and/or humans. Foxes and other wild canids are responsible for maintaining zoonotic agents, e.g. Echinococcus multilocularis, as well as pet-relevant pathogens, e.g. Hepatozoon canis. Together with the canids, and less commonly felids, rodents play a major role as intermediate and paratenic hosts. They carry viruses such as tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), bacteria including Borrelia spp., protozoa such as Toxoplasma gondii, and helminths such as Toxocara canis. The role of wild ungulates, especially ruminants, as reservoirs for zoonotic disease on the other hand seems to be negligible, although the deer filaroid Onchocerca jakutensis has been described to infect humans. Deer may also harbour certain Anaplasma phagocytophilum strains with so far unclear potential to infect humans. The major role of deer as reservoirs is for ticks, mainly adults, thus maintaining the life cycle of these vectors and their distribution. Wild boar seem to be an exception among the ungulates as, in their interaction with the fox, they can introduce food-borne zoonotic agents such as Trichinella britovi and Alaria alata into the human food chain. PMID:25830102

  5. Molar incisor hypomineralization: proportion and severity in primary public school children in Graz, Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchgraber, Barbara; Kqiku, Lumnije; Ebeleseder, Kurt A

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the proportion and severity of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) in primary school children in Graz (southeast of Austria). In 1111 children aged 6 to 12 years (mean age 9.0 ± 1.2), a wet examination of all teeth was performed by three trained examiners using a dental chair, optimal illumination, a dental mirror, and a dental explorer. All teeth with MIH lesions were registered so that different definitions of MIH were applicable. According to the European Academy of Pediatric Dentistry criteria that were considered valid at the time of the investigation, MIH was diagnosed when at least one first primary molar (FPM) was affected. MIH was present in 78 children (7.0%). In 64 children (5.8%), at least one molar and one incisor were affected (so-called M + IH). Additionally, in 9 children, only incisors were affected. In 7 affected children, teeth other than FPMs and incisors had MIH lesions. Almost an equal number of males (38) and females (40) were affected. The upper and lower molars were equally affected. The upper incisors were more frequently affected than the lower ones. Demarcated enamel opacities were the predominant types of defects. The proportion of MIH was 7.0% in Graz, which is similar to other comparable trials. This study has proven that MIH is an existing dental problem in Graz.

  6. Trusted Spotter Network Austria - a new standard to utilize crowdsourced weather and impact observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krennert, Thomas; Kaltenberger, Rainer; Pistotnik, Georg; Holzer, Alois M.; Zeiler, Franz; Stampfl, Mathias

    2018-05-01

    Information from voluntary storm spotters has been an increasingly important part for the severe weather warning process at the Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie and Geodynamik (ZAMG), Austria's National Weather Service, for almost 15 years. In 2010 a collaboration was formalized and an annual training was established to educate voluntary observers into Trusted Spotters. The return of this investment is a higher credibility of their observations after these spotters have undergone a basic meteorological training and have become aware of their responsibility. The European Severe Storms Laboratory (ESSL) was included to this collaboration to adopt their successful quality control system of severe weather reports, which is employed in the European Severe Weather Database ESWD. That way, reports from Trusted Spotters automatically obtain a higher quality flag, which enables a faster processing by forecasters on duty for severe weather warnings, when time is a critical issue. The concept of combining training for voluntary storm spotters and a thorough quality management was recognized as a Best Practice Model by the European Meteorological Society. We propose to apply this concept also in other European countries and present its advancement into an even broader, pan-European approach. The European Weather Observer app EWOB, recently released by ESSL, provides a novel and easy-to-handle tool to submit weather and respective impact observations. We promote its use to provide better data and information for a further real-time improvement of severe weather warnings.

  7. ["Paternity leave"? Retrospective view on a delayed reform of maternity leave in Austria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munz, R

    1984-01-01

    Only 1 of 3 Austrian fathers involves himself daily in child rearing, and the younger the children, the less likely he is to be involved. Austria is among those European countries with the greatest pregnancy benefits. New mothers may take up to 1 year of paid maternity leave without fear of losing their jobs. This article uses 1982 Institute of Demography survey data to determine support for similar paternity leave for fathers. In the last few years, both Social Democrat and Conservative women have worked for this leave, although the movement has also found opposition by women in trade unions, as well as from conservative groups. Survey results show that 46% of married Austrian women, under age 40, favor paternity leave; 1 or 4 women can imagine their husbands taking such leave. Among husbands, 34% favored the leave option, and 1 of 4 could imagine taking the leave for a least part of the baby's first year. The study attempts to identify those husbands most likely to take advantage of paternity leave. At present, most men will not choose to stay with their children at the expense of earnings reduction. Compensation reforms for both mothers and fathers must first occur before men and women in a position to make real decisions on maternity and paternity leave.

  8. Parascolymia (Scleractinia: Lobophylliidae in the Central Paratethys Sea (Vienna Basin, Austria and its possible biogeographic implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Reuter

    Full Text Available Palaeobiogeographical and palaeodiversity patterns of scleractinian reef corals are generally biased due to uncertain taxonomy and a loss of taxonomic characters through dissolution and recrystallization of the skeletal aragonite in shallow marine limestones. Herein, we describe a fossil lobophylliid coral in mouldic preservation from the early middle Miocene Leitha Limestone of the Central Paratethys Sea (Vienna Basin, Austria. By using grey-scale image inversion and silicone rubber casts for the visualization of the original skeletal anatomy and the detection of distinct micromorphological characters (i.e. shape of septal teeth, granulation of septocostae Parascolymia bracherti has been identified as a new species in spite of the dissolved skeleton. In the recent era, Parascolymia like all Lobophylliidae is restricted to the Indo-Pacific region, where it is represented by a single species. The new species proves the genus also in the Miocene Mediterranean reef coral province. A review of the spatio-temporal relationships of fossil corals related to Parascolymia indicates that the genus was probably rooted in the Eastern Atlantic‒Western Tethys region during the Paleocene to Eocene and reached the Indo-Pacific region not before the Oligocene. The revealed palaeobiogeographical pattern shows an obvious congruence with that of Acropora and tridacnine bivalves reflecting a gradual equatorwards retreat of the marine biodiversity center parallel to the Cenozoic climate deterioration.

  9. Landfill mining in Austria: foundations for an integrated ecological and economic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Robert; Baumgartner, Rupert J; Sarc, Renato; Ragossnig, Arne; Wolfsberger, Tanja; Eisenberger, Martin; Budischowsky, Andreas; Pomberger, Roland

    2014-09-01

    For the first time, basic technical and economic studies for landfill mining are being carried out in Austria on the basis of a pilot project. An important goal of these studies is the collection of elementary data as the basis for an integrated ecological and economic assessment of landfill mining projects with regard to their feasibility. For this purpose, economic, ecological, technical, organizational, as well as political and legal influencing factors are identified and extensively studied in the article. An important aspect is the mutual influence of the factors on each other, as this can significantly affect the development of an integrated assessment system. In addition to the influencing factors, the definition of the spatial and temporal system boundaries is crucial for further investigations. Among others, the quality and quantity of recovered waste materials, temporal fluctuations or developments in prices of secondary raw material and fuels attainable in the markets, and time and duration of dumping, play a crucial role. Based on the investigations, the spatial system boundary is defined in as much as all the necessary process steps, from landfill mining, preparing and sorting to providing a marketable material/product by the landfill operator, are taken into account. No general accepted definition can be made for the temporal system boundary because the different time-related influencing factors necessitate an individual project-specific determination and adaptation to the facts of the on-site landfill mining project. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Theory and empiricism of shadow economy - an economic analysis example for Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuntzer, H.-P.

    2000-09-01

    Illegally circulating streams of net output will exist as long as economic events are registered and taxed by state authorities. Since the beginning of the eighties this part of the economic process has been more and more involved in scientific and political discussions not least because of the stagnating officially registered domestic content (as a result of two oil crisis) which lead to a continually financial crisis of all social security systems in Europe. Even if the shadow economic domestic content of GDP in Austria can be seen as relatively low in comparison to international figures, the steady increase of this sector during the last few years gives rise to concerns. In order to approach the phenomenon of shadow economy and especially illegal activities in the Alpine republic this treatise gives an abstract on the state of affairs as far as theoretical researches on the shadow economy is concerned. In this connection the following influencing factors are seen as important. On the one hand the variety of costs that go with the factor work (direct and indirect taxes, social security contributions and regulating costs) and on the other hand the steadily rising offers of illegal activities as a result of decreasing working hours and increasing unemployment. Moreover this development is supported by the growing sullenness towards state authorities (hypotheses of changing values). The interplay of all these factors ends up in an increasing share value of shadow economic activities in the OECD. The effects of this circumstance are evaluated ambivalently by theory because there are negative effects (growing unemployment, low tax receipts) as well as positive effects (induced costs, better supply of consumer demands). Punitive measures to control these activities are also regarded as ineffective. In order to approach the shadow economy - especially in Austria - this treatise first deals with the different methods to measure shadow economic activities, which are all

  11. Knowledge of and Adherence to Hygiene Guidelines among Medical Students in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena G. Herbert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adherence to hygiene guidelines is of utmost importance for healthcare professionals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge on and the adherence to hygiene guidelines among medical students in Austria. Additionally, a possible difference between female and male students was investigated. Methods. An open paper-based survey among third-year medical students at the Medical University of Graz was conducted. The questionnaire consisted of 20 single-choice questions covering compliance with basic hygiene standards, self-rated knowledge of hygiene guidelines, and satisfaction with current hygiene education, equipment, and quality standards. Results. Of 192 medical students, 70% judged their knowledge of hygiene standards as “excellent” or “good”; however, only 49% reported adherence to hygiene guidelines and only 43% performed hygienic hand disinfection according to WHO guidelines. Of the respondents, 79% voted for a mandatory course on hygiene standards in medical education. No significant gender differences were observed. Conclusion. While the knowledge on hygiene guidelines appears to be good among medical students, adherence is limited and requires improvement. The need for an optimum education in hygiene is high.

  12. Towards a Sustainable Spatial Organization of the Energy System: Backcasting Experiences from Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Knoflacher

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The transition to a sustainable energy system faces more challenges than a simple replacement of fossil energy sources by renewable ones. Since current structures do not favor sustainable energy generation and use, it is indispensable to change the existing infrastructure. A fundamental change of the energy system also requires re-organizing spatial structures and their respective institutions and governance structures. Especially in Austria, urban sprawl and unsustainable settlement structures are regarded as one of the main developments leading to increased energy demand. One of the aims within the project E-Trans 2050 was to identify socio-economic constellations that are central to the further transformation of the energy system and to focus on actors and their socio-technical framework conditions. Based on a sustainable future vision for the year 2050 a backcasting workshop was conducted to identify necessary steps for the envisaged transition to a more sustainable energy system. The results shed light on the necessary changes for a transformation towards sustainability in the specific Austrian situation. Critical issues are region-specific production of energy and its use, settlement and regional structures and values and role models, which all have a determining influence on energy demand. Combining the knowledge of extensive energy use with available energy resources in spatial planning decisions is a main challenge towards a long term sustainable energy system.

  13. Socio-ecological regime transitions in Austria and the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krausmann, Fridolin [Institute of Social Ecology, Klagenfurt University, Klagenfurt (Austria); Schandl, Heinz [CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems, Canberra (Australia); Sieferle, Rolf Peter [Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of St. Gallen, Sankt Gallen (Switzerland)

    2008-03-15

    We employ the concepts of socio-ecological regime and regime transition to better understand the biophysical causes and consequences of industrialization. For two case studies, the United Kingdom and Austria we describe two steps in a major transition from an agrarian to an industrial socio-ecological regime and the resulting consequences for energy use, land use and labour organization. In a first step, the coal based industrial regime co-existed with an agricultural sector remaining within the bounds of the old regime. In a second step, the oil/electricity based industrial regime, agriculture was integrated into the new pattern and the socio-ecological transition had been completed. Industrialization offers an answer to the input and growth related sustainability problems of the agrarian regime but creates new sustainability problems of a larger scale. While today's industrial societies are stabilizing their resource use albeit at an unsustainable level large parts of the global society are in midst of the old industrial transition. This poses severe problems for global sustainability. (author)

  14. Socio-ecological regime transitions in Austria and the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krausmann, Fridolin; Schandl, Heinz; Sieferle, Rolf Peter

    2008-01-01

    We employ the concepts of socio-ecological regime and regime transition to better understand the biophysical causes and consequences of industrialization. For two case studies, the United Kingdom and Austria we describe two steps in a major transition from an agrarian to an industrial socio-ecological regime and the resulting consequences for energy use, land use and labour organization. In a first step, the coal based industrial regime co-existed with an agricultural sector remaining within the bounds of the old regime. In a second step, the oil/electricity based industrial regime, agriculture was integrated into the new pattern and the socio-ecological transition had been completed. Industrialization offers an answer to the input and growth related sustainability problems of the agrarian regime but creates new sustainability problems of a larger scale. While today's industrial societies are stabilizing their resource use albeit at an unsustainable level large parts of the global society are in midst of the old industrial transition. This poses severe problems for global sustainability. (author)

  15. Socio-economic drivers of large urban biomass cogeneration: Sustainable energy supply for Austria's capital Vienna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madlener, Reinhard; Bachhiesl, Mario

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed case study on Austria's by far largest biomass cogeneration plant. The plant is located in the city of Vienna and scheduled to be put into operation by mid-2006. Given the urban location of the plant and its significant biomass fuel input requirements, fuel delivery logistics play an important role-not only from an economic point of view, but also in relation to supply security and environmental impact. We describe and analyse the history of the project, putting particular emphasis on the main driving forces and actors behind the entire project development process. From this analysis we deduce the following main socio-economic drivers and success factors for the realisation of large bioenergy projects in urban settings: (1) a critical mass of actors; (2) a priori political consensus; (3) the existence of a problem (and problem awareness) that calls for decisive steps to be taken; (4) institutional innovation and changes in the mindset of the main decision makers; (5) favourable economic conditions; (6) change agents that are actively engaged from an early stage of development; (7) intra-firm supporters at different hierarchical levels and from different departments; and (8) targeted study tours that help to reduce uncertainty, to enable leapfrogging in project planning and design, and to build up confidence in the project's feasibility and chance of success

  16. Consistent economic cross-sectoral climate change impact scenario analysis: Method and application to Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl W. Steininger

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change triggers manifold impacts at the national to local level, which in turn have various economy-wide implications (e.g. on welfare, employment, or tax revenues. In its response, society needs to prioritize which of these impacts to address and what share of resources to spend on each respective adaptation. A prerequisite to achieving that end is an economic impact analysis that is consistent across sectors and acknowledges intersectoral and economy-wide feedback effects. Traditional Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs are usually operating at a level too aggregated for this end, while bottom-up impact models most often are not fully comprehensive, focusing on only a subset of climate sensitive sectors and/or a subset of climate change impact chains. Thus, we develop here an approach which applies climate and socioeconomic scenario analysis, harmonized economic costing, and sector explicit bandwidth analysis in a coupled framework of eleven (biophysical impact assessment models and a uniform multi-sectoral computable general equilibrium model. In applying this approach to the alpine country of Austria, we find that macroeconomic feedbacks can magnify sectoral climate damages up to fourfold, or that by mid-century costs of climate change clearly outweigh benefits, with net costs rising two- to fourfold above current damage cost levels. The resulting specific impact information – differentiated by climate and economic drivers – can support sector-specific adaptation as well as adaptive capacity building. Keywords: climate impact, local impact, economic evaluation, adaptation

  17. Integrative Laser Medicine and High-Tech Acupuncture at the Medical University of Graz, Austria, Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Litscher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available At the moment, modernization of acupuncture has a high priority. On the traditional side, acupuncture has only recently been awarded the status of Intangible Cultural Heritage by the UNESCO. On the innovative side, high-tech acupuncture is a registered trademark in Austria. Acupuncture has been used for medical treatment for thousands of years. A large number of empirical data are available but the technical quantification of effects was not possible up to now. Using electroacupuncture, needle, or laser stimulation and modern biomedical techniques, it was possible for the first time to quantify changes in biological activities caused by acupuncture. This paper which serves as introduction for the special issue “High-Tech Acupuncture and Integrative Laser Medicine” of the present journal, focuses on the latest innovative aspects that underline the further enhancement and development of acupuncture. Special emphasis is given to new methodological and technical investigations, for example, results obtained from all kinds of acupuncture innovations (e.g., teleacupuncture and integrative laser medicine.

  18. Dental injuries in mountain biking--a survey in Switzerland, Austria, Germany and Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Kathrin E; Persic, Robert; Pohl, Yango; Krastl, Gabriel; Filippi, Andreas

    2008-10-01

    Mountain biking is considered an extreme sport, causing not only head and neck injuries, but also injuries to every part of the body. Using standardised interview, the aim of this work was to survey the frequency of dental injuries in mountain biking, as well as the behaviour of athletes after experiencing dental trauma, depending on their intensity level. Furthermore, habits of wearing helmets and mouthguards as well as knowledge about the tooth rescue kit were investigated. A total of 423 male mountain bikers from Germany, Italy, Austria and Switzerland were surveyed for this study, including 50 juniors from Switzerland. 27 athletes (5.7%) had endured tooth accidents in mountain biking. Only 246 (52%) were aware of the fact that avulsed teeth can be replanted, and only 30 individuals knew about the tooth rescue kit (6.3%). 71.9% (n=340) were familiar with mouthguards; however, only 21 individuals (4.4%) used mouthguards while mountain biking. The results show that where mountain biking is concerned, more information about prevention is required.

  19. The Long Night of Research, Vienna International Centre (VIC), Vienna, Austria, 22 April 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jandrić, Zora; Abrahim, Aiman; Kelly, Simon; Cannavan, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    On 22 April the IAEA, along with other VIC-based organizations, took part in the biannual Long Night of Research (Lange Nacht der Forschung); an Austria-wide event coordinated by several Austrian government ministries that aims to spark interest in science and research. This was the seventh year of the Long Night of Research, and the first time the IAEA was involved. The VIC was one of around 250 exhibit locations across the country. The event gave visitors a chance to learn about the variety of nuclear applications in various fields. The Food and Environmental Protection Laboratory (FEPL) exhibition booth focused on testing for food authenticity, posing the question ‘is your food what you think it is?’. Food is an essential part of our daily lives. We need our food to be safe and we want to know what we are eating. Nuclear and related techniques can be used to control food safety and to fight food fraud – the deliberate mislabelling of food products

  20. Structural complexity at and around the Triassic-Jurassic GSSP at Kuhjoch, Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palotai, M.; Pálfy, J.; Sasvári, Á.

    2017-10-01

    One of the key requirements for a Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) is the absence of tectonic disturbance. The GSSP for the Triassic-Jurassic system boundary was recently defined at Kuhjoch, Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria. New field observations in the area of the Triassic-Jurassic boundary GSSP site demonstrate that the overturned, tight, and almost upright Karwendel syncline was formed at semibrittle deformation conditions, confirmed by axial planar foliation. Tight to isoclinal folds at various scales were related to a tectonic transport to the north. Brittle faulting occurred before and after folding as confirmed by tilt tests (the rotation of structural data by the average bedding). Foliation is ubiquitous in the incompetent units, including the Kendlbach Formation at the GSSP. A reverse fault (inferred to be formed as a normal fault before folding) crosscuts the GSSP sections, results in the partial tectonic omission of the Schattwald Beds, and thus makes it impossible to measure a complete and continuous stratigraphic section across the whole Kendlbach Formation. Based on these observations, the Kuhjoch sections do not fulfil the specific requirement for a GSSP regarding the absence of tectonic disturbances near boundary level.