WorldWideScience

Sample records for australian young adults

  1. Gender, intoxication and the developing brain: Problematisations of drinking among young adults in Australian alcohol policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manton, Elizabeth; Moore, David

    2016-05-01

    In this article, we draw on recent scholarly work in the poststructuralist analysis of policy to consider how policy itself functions as a key site in the constitution of alcohol 'problems', and the political implications of these problematisations. We do this by examining Australian alcohol policy as it relates to young adults (18-24 years old). Our critical analysis focuses on three national alcohol policies (1990, 2001 and 2006) and two Victorian state alcohol policies (2008 and 2013), which together span a 25-year period. We argue that Australian alcohol policies have conspicuously ignored young adult men, despite their ongoing over-representation in the statistical 'evidence base' on alcohol-related harm, while increasingly problematising alcohol consumption amongst other population subgroups. We also identify the development of a new problem representation in Australian alcohol policy, that of 'intoxication' as the leading cause of alcohol-related harm and rising hospital admissions, and argue that changes in the classification and diagnosis of intoxication may have contributed to its prioritisation and problematisation in alcohol policy at the expense of other forms of harm. Finally, we draw attention to how preliminary and inconclusive research on the purported association between binge drinking and brain development in those under 25 years old has been mobilised prematurely to support calls to increase the legal purchasing age from 18 to 21 years. Our critical analysis of the treatment of these three issues - gender, intoxication, and brain development - is intended to highlight the ways in which policy functions as a key site in the constitution of alcohol 'problems'.

  2. Life, lifestyle and location: examining the complexities of psychological distress in young adult Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, B; Nagel, T; Singh, G R

    2017-03-27

    Mental health is fundamental to an individual's health and well-being. Mental health disorders affect a substantial portion of the Australian population, with the most vulnerable time in adolescence and young adulthood. Indigenous Australians fare worse than other Australians on almost every measure of physical and mental health. Cross-sectional data from young adults (21-27 years) participating in the Life Course Program, Northern Territory, Australia, is presented. Rates of psychological distress were high in remote and urban residing Indigenous and urban non-Indigenous young adults. This rate was more pronounced in young women, particularly in Indigenous remote and urban residing women. Young adults with high psychological distress also had lower levels of positive well-being, higher perceived stress levels, experienced a higher number of major life events and were at an increased risk of suicidal ideation and/or self-harm. This study supports the need for a continued focus on early screening and treatment at this vulnerable age. The significant association seen between psychological distress and other markers of emotional well-being, particularly risk of suicidal ideation and/or self-harm, highlights the need for a holistic approach to mental health assessment and treatment. A concerted focus on improving the environs of young adults by lowering levels of stress, improving access to adequate housing, educational and employment opportunity, will assist in improving the emotional health of young adults.

  3. Risk indicators for severe impaired oral health among indigenous Australian young adults

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    Roberts-Thomson Kaye F

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral health impairment comprises three conceptual domains; pain, appearance and function. This study sought to: (1 estimate the prevalence of severe oral health impairment as assessed by a summary oral health impairment measure, including aspects of dental pain, dissatisfaction with dental appearance and difficulty eating, among a birth cohort of Indigenous Australian young adults (n = 442, age range 16-20 years; (2 compare prevalence according to demographic, socio-economic, behavioural, dental service utilisation and oral health outcome risk indicators; and (3 ascertain the independent contribution of those risk indicators to severe oral health impairment in this population. Methods Data were from the Aboriginal Birth Cohort (ABC study, a prospective longitudinal investigation of Aboriginal individuals born 1987-1990 at an Australian regional hospital. Data for this analysis pertained to Wave-3 of the study only. Severe oral health impairment was defined as reported experience of toothache, poor dental appearance and food avoidance in the last 12 months. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate effects of demographic, socio-economic, behavioural, dental service utilisation and clinical oral disease indicators on severe oral health impairment. Effects were quantified as odds ratios (OR. Results The percent of participants with severe oral health impairment was 16.3 (95% CI 12.9-19.7. In the multivariate model, severe oral health impairment was associated with untreated dental decay (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.6-9.6. In addition to that clinical indicator, greater odds of severe oral health impairment were associated with being female (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.6, being aged 19-20 years (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.6, soft drink consumption every day or a few days a week (OR 2.6, 95% 1.2-5.6 and non-ownership of a toothbrush (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.4. Conclusions Severe oral health impairment was prevalent among this population. The findings

  4. Concurrent and simultaneous polydrug use: latent class analysis of an Australian nationally representative sample of young adults.

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    Lake-Hui eQuek

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alcohol use and illicit drug use peak during young adulthood (around 18-29 years of age, but comparatively little is known about polydrug use in nationally representative samples of young adults. Drawing on a nationally representative cross-sectional survey (Australian National Drug Strategy Household Survey, this study examines polydrug use patterns and associated psychosocial risk factors among young adults (n = 3,333; age 19-29. Method: The use of a broad range of licit and illicit drugs were examined, including alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, cocaine, hallucinogens, ecstasy, ketamine, GHB, inhalants, steroids, barbiturates, meth/amphetamines, heroin, methadone/buprenorphine, other opiates, painkillers and tranquillizers/sleeping pills. Latent class analysis was employed to identify patterns of polydrug use. Results: Polydrug use in this sample was best described using a 5-class solution. The majority of young adults predominantly used alcohol only (52.3%, alcohol and tobacco (34.18%. The other classes were cannabis, ecstasy, and licit drug use (9.4%, cannabis, amphetamine derivative, and licit drug use (2.8%, and sedative and alcohol use (1.3%. Young adult males with low education and/or high income were most at risk of polydrug use. Conclusion: Almost half of young adults reported polydrug use, highlighting the importance of post-high school screening for key risk factors and polydrug use profiles, and the delivery of early intervention strategies targeting illicit drugs.

  5. Young Australian adults with NF1 have poor access to health care, high complication rates, and limited disease knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, Emily C; Payne, Jonathan M; Foster, Sheryl L; Clarke, Nigel F; North, Kathryn N

    2013-04-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a multisystem disease associated with a lifelong risk of debilitating and potentially life-limiting complications, however many adults with NF1 have no regular health surveillance. We interviewed and examined 17 young adults with NF1 between the ages of 25 and 33. Most had not been assessed for NF1-related complications within the previous 8 years, including patients with known serious vascular complications, for example, renal artery stenosis. Acute and/or chronic pain, particularly back and plexiform-related pain were common symptoms, and despite a significant impact on quality of life, was untreated in most instances. Symptom and examination-directed imaging revealed serious complications in 41% of the cohort. These included severe spinal cord compression (two cases), a highly SUV avid lesion suggestive of malignancy (one case), and a Juvenile Pilocytic Astrocytoma in a patient without any previous NF1-related complications. Few study participants had a good understanding of NF1, its associated risks and complications, and many had not sought appropriate medical advice as questions or problems arose. NF1-related cognitive deficits in some participants, and the lack of a clear source of expert medical advice for adults with NF1 likely contributed to poor health surveillance and management in this population. Overall, these findings suggest that many Australian adults with NF1 are at risk of serious and life-threatening medical complications, but are not accessing and receiving adequate health care. Access to multidisciplinary adult clinics that specialize in NF1 may address many of the unmet health needs of young adults with NF1.

  6. Psychological Distress and Drug Use Patterns of Young Adult Ecstasy Users: A Complementary Analysis of Australian Datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Andrew; Hayatbakhsh, Reza; Alati, Rosa; Legosz, Margot; Burns, Lucy; Kemp, Robert; Wells, Helene; Najman, Jake M

    2013-08-01

    We examine psychological distress (PD) in young adult Ecstasy users in relation to age of initiation and frequency of use of Ecstasy, cannabis, alcohol, and tobacco. Using two Australian community samples, we assess whether different sampling methods produce comparable estimates of these associations. The Natural History Study of Drug Use (NHSDU; N = 339) in 2009 used population sampling and the 2009 Ecstasy and Related Drug Reporting System (EDRS; N = 359) used purposive sampling. Participants, aged 19-23 years, were recurrent Ecstasy users. PD was assessed using Kessler 10 in the EDRS and Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale in the NHSDU. In both samples, PD was associated with daily tobacco use and early drug initiation, but not frequent Ecstasy use. One-third smoke tobacco daily. Study limitations and implications are noted.

  7. Romantic Relationships, Relationship Styles, Coping Strategies, and Psychological Distress among Chinese and Australian Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cynthia; Moore, Susan; Karnilowicz, Wally; Lung, C. L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the association between relationship styles, coping strategies, and psychological distress among 144 Anglo-Australian and 250 Hong Kong Chinese undergraduate students. The results indicated that relationship styles (secure, clingy, and fickle) influenced psychological distress through their association with coping strategies…

  8. Trajectories of Mental Health over 16 Years amongst Young Adult Women: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Libby; Ware, Robert S.; Lee, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This article used data from 5,171 young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study, to identify longitudinal trajectory patterns of mental health across 6 surveys over 16 years of early adulthood, from age 18-23 to age 34-39. In addition, we identified both…

  9. Cancer incidence and mortality trends in Australian adolescents and young adults, 1982–2007

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    Haggar Fatima A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing incidence and lack of survival improvement in adolescents and young adults (AYAs with cancer have led to increased awareness of the cancer burden in this population. The objective of this study was to describe overall and type-specific cancer incidence and mortality trends among AYAs in Western Australia from 1982–2007. Methods Age–adjusted incidence and mortality rates were calculated for all malignancies combined and for each of the most common diagnostic groups, using five-year age–specific rates. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to derive annual percentage changes (APC for incidence and mortality rates. Results The annual incidence rate for all cancers combined increased in males from 1982 until 2000 (APC = 1.5%, 95%CI: 0.9%; 2.1% and then plateaued, whilst rates for females remained stable across the study period (APC = −0.1%; 95%CI: −0.2%; 0.4% across the study period. For males, significant incidence rate increases were observed for germ cell tumors, lymphoblastic leukemia and thyroid cancer. In females, the incidence of Hodgkin’s lymphoma, colorectal and breast cancers increased. Significant incidence rate reductions were noted for cervical, central nervous system and lung cancers. Mortality rates for all cancers combined decreased from 1982 to 2005 for both males (APC = −2.6%, 95%CI:−3.3%;−2.0% and females (APC = −4.6%, 95%CI:−5.1%;−4.1%. With the exception of bone sarcoma and lung cancer in females, mortality rates for specific cancer types decreased significantly for both sexes during the study period. Conclusions Incidence of certain AYA cancers increased, whilst it decreased for others. Mortality rates decreased for most cancers, with the largest improvement observed for breast carcinomas. Further research is needed to identify the reasons for the increasing incidence of certain cancers.

  10. Oral health and social and emotional well-being in a birth cohort of Aboriginal Australian young adults

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    Cairney Sheree J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social and emotional well-being is an important component of overall health. In the Indigenous Australian context, risk indicators of poor social and emotional well-being include social determinants such as poor education, employment, income and housing as well as substance use, racial discrimination and cultural knowledge. This study sought to investigate associations between oral health-related factors and social and emotional well-being in a birth cohort of young Aboriginal adults residing in the northern region of Australia's Northern Territory. Methods Data were collected on five validated domains of social and emotional well-being: anxiety, resilience, depression, suicide and overall mental health. Independent variables included socio-demographics, dental health behaviour, dental disease experience, oral health-related quality of life, substance use, racial discrimination and cultural knowledge. Results After adjusting for other covariates, poor oral health-related items were associated with each of the social and emotional well-being domains. Specifically, anxiety was associated with being female, having one or more decayed teeth and racial discrimination. Resilience was associated with being male, having a job, owning a toothbrush, having one or more filled teeth and knowing a lot about Indigenous culture; while being female, having experienced dental pain in the past year, use of alcohol, use of marijuana and racial discrimination were associated with depression. Suicide was associated with being female, having experience of untreated dental decay and racial discrimination; while being female, having experience of dental disease in one or more teeth, being dissatisfied about dental appearance and racial discrimination were associated with poor mental health. Conclusion The results suggest there may be value in including oral health-related initiatives when exploring the role of physical conditions on Indigenous

  11. Intergenerational educational mobility is associated with cardiovascular disease risk behaviours in a cohort of young Australian adults: The Childhood Determinants of Adult Health (CDAH Study

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    Dwyer Terence

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although educational disparity has been linked to single risk behaviours, it has not previously been studied as a predictor of overall lifestyle. We examined if current education, parental education or educational mobility between generations was associated with healthy lifestyles in young Australian adults. Methods In 2004-06, participant and parental education (high [bachelor degree or higher], intermediate [vocational training], low [secondary school only] were assessed. Educational mobility was defined as: stable high (participant and parent in high group, stable intermediate (participant and parent in intermediate group, stable low (participant and parent in low group, downwardly (lower group than parent and upwardly (higher group than parent mobile. We derived a lifestyle score from 10 healthy behaviours (BMI, non-smoking, alcohol consumption, leisure time physical activity and six components of diet. Scores >4 indicated a high healthy lifestyle score. We estimated the likelihood of having a high healthy lifestyle score by education (participant and parent and educational mobility. Results Complete data were available for 1973 participants (53% female, age range 26 to 36 years. Those with lower education were less likely to have healthy lifestyles. Parental education was not associated with having a high healthy lifestyle score after adjustment for participant's education. Those who moved upward or downward were as likely to have a high healthy lifestyle score as those in the group they attained. Conclusions We found clear disparities in health behaviour by participant education and intergenerational educational mobility. People attaining a higher level of education than their parents appeared protected from developing an unhealthy lifestyle suggesting that population-wide improvements in education may be important for health.

  12. Young Adult Literature for Young Adult Males.

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    Gill, Sam D.

    1999-01-01

    Argues that young adult literature can play a significant role in the emotional and mental health of an adolescent as well as help young males become more literate. Offers a 19-item annotated list of young adult novels with male protagonists, sorted by themes: nature and adventure stories, sports stories, genre stories, historical stories, and…

  13. Financial Management and Young Australian Workers

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    Dowling, Nicki; Hoiles, Lauren; Corney, Tim; Clark, David

    2008-01-01

    In two studies of young Australian workers, participants generally displayed positive attitudes towards financial management practices; however, a substantial proportion failed to display positive financial management practices, experienced financial problems and dissatisfaction, and reported low rates of seeking financial assistance, particularly…

  14. Cannabis use and quality of life of adolescents and young adults: findings from an Australian birth cohort.

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    Fischer, Jane A; Clavarino, Alexandra M; Plotnikova, Maria; Najman, Jackob M

    2015-01-01

    Cannabis is generally used to enhance mood (quality of life), but it is not known whether it has this effect in the medium to longer term. Little is currently known about the temporal sequence between cannabis use and the quality of life (QOL). Data are taken from a prospective longitudinal study of pregnant women recruited at their first antenatal visit in Brisbane, Australia. Offspring data from the follow-ups with 14-year-olds and 21-year-olds are used here. Indicators of QOL, happiness, and satisfaction at 14 years are considered as predictors of subsequent cannabis use. The association between cannabis use and QOL at 21 years, adjusting for prior QOL (14 years), is also examined. Socio-demographic characteristics were included as potential confounders relevant to QOL assessments. In this cohort, lower QOL in the early teenage years predicted subsequent onset of cannabis use in young adulthood. After adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics and for QOL pre-cannabis use, participants who used cannabis more frequently had a lower QOL at the 21-years follow-up. Frequent use of cannabis does not appear to enhance the user's QOL and appears to be associated with a reduced QOL into young adulthood.

  15. Life Transitions and Mental Health in a National Cohort of Young Australian Women

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    Lee, Christiana; Gramotnev, Helen

    2007-01-01

    Young adulthood, a time of major life transitions and risk of poor mental health, may affect emotional well-being throughout adult life. This article uses longitudinal survey data to examine young Australian women's transitions across 4 domains: residential independence, relationships, work and study, and motherhood. Changes over 3 years in…

  16. Hypertension in young adults.

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    De Venecia, Toni; Lu, Marvin; Figueredo, Vincent M

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension remains a major societal problem affecting 76 million, or approximately one third, of US adults. While more prevalent in the older population, an increasing incidence in the younger population, including athletes, is being observed. Active individuals, like the young and athletes, are viewed as free of diseases such as hypertension. However, the increased prevalence of traditional risk factors in the young, including obesity, diabetes mellitus, and renal disease, increase the risk of developing hypertension in younger adults. Psychosocial factors may also be contributing factors to the increasing incidence of hypertension in the younger population. Increased left ventricular wall thickness and mass are increasingly found in young adults on routine echocardiograms and predict future cardiovascular events. This increasing incidence of hypertension in the young calls for early surveillance and prompt treatment to prevent future cardiac events. In this review we present the current epidemiological data, potential mechanisms, clinical implications, and treatment of hypertension in young patients and athletes.

  17. Young Adult Books.

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    Epstein, Connie C.

    1987-01-01

    Considers the similarities between science fiction writing and young adult literature, and points out that several well-known authors, such as Robert Heinlein and Jane Yolen, write in both genres. (NKA)

  18. College-Age & Young Adults

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    ... Home » Related Topics » College-Age & Young Adults College-Age & Young Adults Email Facebook Twitter Daily marijuana use ... the country. Drug and Alcohol Use in College-Age Adults in 2015 Infographic View Full Infographic Monitoring ...

  19. Childhood sexual abuse and its association with adult physical and mental health: results from a national cohort of young Australian women.

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    Coles, Jan; Lee, Adeline; Taft, Angela; Mazza, Danielle; Loxton, Deborah

    2015-07-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) occurs across the world, with a prevalence of 20% internationally. Our aim was to investigate the associations between CSA, CSA plus adult violence experiences, and selected self-reported physical and mental health in a community sample of women. Data from 7,700 women aged 28-33 years from the 1973-1978 cohort who completed Survey 4 of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH) were analyzed. Questions about prior abuse experience such as child sexual abuse, IPV, adult physical and sexual assaults, andphysical and mental health. Women who experienced CSA were 1.4 times more likely to experience bodily pain (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.37, confidence interval [CI] = [1.19, 1.58]), 1.3 times more likely to have poorer general health (AOR = 1.33, CI = [1.15, 1.54]), and 1.4 times more likely to be depressed in the past 3 years (AOR = 1.44, CI = [1.22, 1.71]) compared with those without abuse.. Women who experienced both CSA and adult violence were 2.4 to 3.1 times more likely to experience poor general (AOR = 2.35, CI = [1.76, 3.14]) and mental health (AOR = 2.69, CI = [1.98, 3.64]), and suffer from depression (AOR = 2.84, CI = [2.13, 3.78]) and anxiety (AOR = 3.10, CI = [2.12, 4.53]) compared with women with no abuse. This study demonstrates the importance of CSA in pain and poorer long-term mental and physical health.. It emphasizes how prior CSA may amplify pain and poorer long-term mental and physical health among women who are again exposed to violence in adulthood.

  20. Clueless? Adult Mysteries with Young Adult Appeal.

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    Charles, John; Morrison, Joanna

    1997-01-01

    Presents a list of adult mystery titles for young adult readers. Includes first titles in a series (for reading in order); new and lesser-known mystery authors' works are the focus. Annotations include plot summary. The rest of each annotation is for professional use (includes date and name of award bestowed). (AEF)

  1. Transitions from School for Young Adults with Intellectual Disability: Parental Perspectives on "Life as an Adjustment"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Michael D.; Beamish, Wendi

    2009-01-01

    Background: Few studies have investigated transition programs and outcomes for young adults with disabilities as viewed from the parent perspective. The current Australian study provided a voice for parents to report on the experiences of and outcomes for young adults following their recent transition from school into post-school life. Method: A…

  2. Cannabis and Anxiety and Depression in Young Adults: A Large Prospective Study

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    Hayatbakhsh, Mohammad R.; Najman, Jake M.; Jamrozik, Konrad; Mamun, Abdullah A.; Alati, Rosa; Bor, William

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether age of first use or frequency of use of cannabis is associated with anxiety and depression (AD) in young adults, independent of known potential confounders, including the use of other illicit drugs. Method: A cohort of 3,239 Australian young adults was followed from birth to the age of 21 when data on AD were obtained…

  3. Young Adult Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochman, Hazel

    1986-01-01

    Applies the idea of the theme booktalk to "Wuthering Heights," which serves as a springboard for talking about themes of family rage, confrontation, quarrel and rebellion in other works of literature with relevance to contemporary young people. (JK)

  4. Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer

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    ... Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Quiz Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer View this video ... Fund for Young Adults Vital Options Teens and Adolescents CureSearch Starlight Children's Foundation Teens Living with Cancer ...

  5. Raising Educational Attainment: How Young People's Experiences Speak Back to the "Compact with Young Australians"

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    te Riele, Kitty

    2011-01-01

    In the context of international consensus that the knowledge economy requires more highly educated people, the Australian federal, state and territory governments agreed on a set of policies and targets for lifting the minimum level of educational attainment of young people, which are analysed in Part 1 of this paper. This "Compact with young…

  6. Young Adults' Choices for 2008

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    Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents annotations of 30 trade books on the 2008 list of Young Adults' Choices that are the result of voting by students in five different regions of the United States. Trade books (books other than textbooks) published in 2006 were submitted by more than 50 publishers. Each book had to have at least two positive reviews from…

  7. 78 FR 32116 - TRICARE Young Adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 199 RIN 0720-AB48 TRICARE Young Adult AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2011 (NDAA for FY11). It establishes the TRICARE Young Adult... worldwide. TYA is similar to young adult coverage under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act,...

  8. Raising "Hot Topics" through Young Adult Literature

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    Groenke, Susan; Maples, Joellen; Henderson, Jill

    2010-01-01

    While young adult literature increases adolescents' motivation to read, and adolescents choose to read young adult novels over more canonical works when given opportunities to choose, the authors present yet another reason for teaching young adult literature in the middle school classroom: it provides a medium through which adolescents and their…

  9. Guiding young adults at risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Karen Egedal; Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær; Ydesen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    in the project and by the youths participating in the project. The project was designed to facilitate and support transition to an adult life by giving participants social support, feedback, experiences, room for reflection and feeling of acceptance and inclusion. In Denmark all social work with young people...... at risk involves guidance to “the right path”, since individual guidance seems to be the key asset in mobilizing young person’s needs and experiences. The article indicates important elements in the guidance of youth at risk, such as psychological intervention and personal support, support from...

  10. Trends in BMI of urban Australian adults, 1980-2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walls, Helen L; Wolfe, Rory; Haby, Michelle M;

    2010-01-01

    of 7.4 kg/m2 at the higher end for women aged 55-64 years. While the prevalence of obesity (BMI >or= 30 kg/m2) doubled, the prevalence of obesity class III (BMI >or= 40 kg/m2) increased fourfold. CONCLUSIONS: BMI in urban Australian adults has increased and its distribution has become increasingly...

  11. Simulation Frames: Young Adult Dystopian Cinema

    OpenAIRE

    Alison Tedman

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the ways in which Young Adult dystopian film Divergent (2014) successfully repurposes dystopia for a young demographic, making dystopia an aesthetically appealing space for heroic adventure. The film recombines Young Adult literary tropes with film conventions including those of science fiction. Divergent and other Young Adult dystopian films modify the potential for social critique associated with canonic dystopian fiction. The article’s critical framework includes t...

  12. Just How Adult Is This Young Adult Book: Young Adult Books for the Junior High Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Charlotte

    1999-01-01

    Discusses young adult novels and presents a bibliography to acquaint librarians with titles and authors that are suitable for emerging young adult readers in grades five through nine. Subject categories include realistic fiction, in the news, historical fiction, short stories, legendary characters, mysteries, science fiction/fantasy/horror, and…

  13. Empowering young people/ young adults to action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, Birgitte Gade

    2014-01-01

    Research questions: How do the young students relate to their community? How do young students position themselves as agents in their own lives and in the places they live – which discourse is used?......Research questions: How do the young students relate to their community? How do young students position themselves as agents in their own lives and in the places they live – which discourse is used?...

  14. WILMS’ TUMOUR IN YOUNG ADULT

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    Senthilvel Arumugam

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Wilms’ tumour also called as nephroblastoma is a malignant renal neoplasm of childhood that arises from remnant of immature kidney. About 80% of Wilms’ tumour cases occur before age 5 with a median age of 3.5 years. But adult Wilms’ tumour can occur at any age from 16 to 70 years, the median age in young adult is around 24. CASE REPORT A 16-year-old girl came with history of mass right abdomen, which she noticed for 1 week duration; no urinary symptoms. Her recent blood pressure was 140/90 mmHg. Per abdomen a 10 x 9 cm mass palpable in the right lumbar region, surface smooth, firmto-hard in consistency, non-tender, well defined, no bruit. Urine routine examination was normal; urine culture was sterile; renal and liver function tests were within normal limits; Sr. calcium 9.5 mg/dL. CT abdomen plain and contrast showed a 10 x 9 cm heterodense lesion equivocal with renal cell carcinoma and angiomyolipoma. MR angiogram was done. It showed well-defined encapsulated heterointense mass of size 12 x 8 x 7cm, IVC and bilateral renal vein normal. Since findings were inconclusive, we did a CT-guided biopsy and report came as feature positive for small round cell tumour. Hence, proceeded with right radical nephrectomy. The final histopathology report came as Wilms’ tumour spindle cell variant. Margins clear and ureter not involved. She was then started on adjuvant chemotherapy Inj. Vincristine 2 mg weekly for 27 weeks. She is on regular followup now. CONCLUSION Wilms’ tumour should be considered in a patient who presents with a renal mass with or without loin pain, haematuria especially in young adults. Every attempt should be made to differentiate it from renal cell carcinoma. The outcome for adult Wilms’ tumour is steadily improving with current multimodality treatment approach.

  15. Young Adult Failure to Thrive Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    W.C. Sanderson; Skirbekk, V.; Stonawski, M.

    2011-01-01

    Many young working age adults in developed countries are failing to thrive in economic, demographic and social terms. Their 'failure to thrive' is a relatively new phenomenon that has not been widely recognized, but it affects young adults in virtually all the more developed countries for which we have relevant data. Young adults nowadays are more often in poverty. They are leaving their parental homes at ever later ages and in some countries the frequency of psychological problems increased....

  16. Multicultural Literature for Children and Young Adults

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    Bista, Krishna

    2012-01-01

    In the selection of multicultural literature for children and young adults, educators and researchers focus on two main controversial issues--authority and authenticity--that the authors portray in their writing. What type of author can accurately portray realistic pictures of minority cultures in multicultural literature for young adults? Must it…

  17. Best Books for Young Adults. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Betty

    This book presents an annotated listing of the Young Adult Library Services Association's "Best Books for Young Adults" (BBYA) from 1966-99. Selected books are listed in topical bibliographies under the following subjects: Too Good To Miss; Adventure; Animals; Family; Fantasy; Friendship; Historical Fiction; The Holocaust; Humor;…

  18. The Relevance of Young Adult Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallworth, B. Joyce

    2006-01-01

    Although young adult literature is often recommended as a reading bridge to the classics, Stallworth insists that the genre deserves a prominent place in the middle school canon in its own right. She describes several examples from middle school classrooms of how young adult novels can enhance tweens' "life literacy" by both helping them develop…

  19. Abuse of Prescription (Rx) Drugs Affects Young Adults Most

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Affects Young Adults Most Abuse of Prescription (Rx) Drugs Affects Young Adults Most Email Facebook Twitter Text Description of Infographic Young adults (age 18 to 25) are the biggest abusers of prescription (Rx) opioid pain relievers, ADHD stimulants, ...

  20. Young Adults Seeking Medical Care: Do Race and Ethnicity Matter?

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    ... Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Young Adults Seeking Medical Care: Do Race and Ethnicity Matter? ... insurance coverage differ by race and ethnicity for young adults? More than one-half of Hispanic young adults ...

  1. Young adult palliative care: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jennifer K; Fasciano, Karen

    2015-02-01

    Young adulthood is a time of immense growth and possibilities. As a result, it is also a time when serious illness can have profound effects. This review examines the current data pertinent to young adult palliative care and discusses the challenges and opportunities where palliative medicine can enhance the care provided to this growing and vulnerable population. From the data, 2 primary themes emerged (1) ongoing young adult development not only generates unique biologic disease burdens and clinical treatment options but also requires frequent assessment and promotion and (2) binary health care systems often leave young adults without access to developmentally appropriate health care. Given its interdisciplinary approach, palliative care is uniquely poised to address the challenges known to caring for the seriously ill young adult.

  2. Strokes in young adults: epidemiology and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smajlović D

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Dževdet Smajlović Department of Neurology, University Clinical Centre Tuzla, School of Medicine, University of Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina Abstract: Strokes in young adults are reported as being uncommon, comprising 10%–15% of all stroke patients. However, compared with stroke in older adults, stroke in the young has a disproportionately large economic impact by leaving victims disabled before their most productive years. Recent publications report an increased incidence of stroke in young adults. This is important given the fact that younger stroke patients have a clearly increased risk of death compared with the general population. The prevalence of standard modifiable vascular risk factors in young stroke patients is different from that in older patients. Modifiable risk factors for stroke, such as dyslipidemia, smoking, and hypertension, are highly prevalent in the young stroke population, with no significant difference in geographic, climatic, nutritional, lifestyle, or genetic diversity. The list of potential stroke etiologies among young adults is extensive. Strokes of undetermined and of other determined etiology are the most common types among young patients according to TOAST (Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment criteria. Prevention is the primary treatment strategy aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality related to stroke. Therefore, primary prevention is very important with regard to stroke in young adults, and aggressive treatment of risk factors for stroke, such as hypertension, smoking, and dyslipidemia, is essential. The best form of secondary stroke prevention is directed toward stroke etiology as well as treatment of additional risk factors. However, there is a lack of specific recommendations and guidelines for stroke management in young adults. In conclusion, strokes in young adults are a major public health problem and further research, with standardized methodology, is needed in order to give us more

  3. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Australian adults: prevalence, persistence, conduct problems and disadvantage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane L Ebejer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Prevalence and persistence of ADHD have not been described in young Australian adults and few studies have examined how conduct problems (CP are associated with ADHD for this age group. We estimate lifetime and adult prevalence and persistence rates for three categories of ADHD for 3795 Australian adults, and indicate how career, health and childhood risk factors differ for people with ADHD symptoms and ADHD symptoms plus CP. METHODOLOGY: Trained interviewers collected participant experience of ADHD, CP, education, employment, childhood experience, relationship and health variables. Three diagnostic definitions of ADHD used were (i full DSM-IV criteria; (ii excluding the age 7 onset criterion (no age criterion; (iii participant experienced difficulties due to ADHD symptoms (problem symptoms. RESULTS: Prevalence rates in adulthood were 1.1%, 2.3% and 2.7% for each categorization respectively. Persistence of ADHD from childhood averaged across gender was 55.3% for full criteria, 50.3% with no age criterion and 40.2% for problem symptoms. ADHD symptoms were associated with parental conflict, poor health, being sexually assaulted during childhood, lower education, income loss and higher unemployment. The lifetime prevalence of conduct problems for adults with ADHD was 57.8% and 6.9% for adults without ADHD. The greatest disadvantage was experienced by participants with ADHD plus CP. CONCLUSION: The persistence of ADHD into adulthood was greatest for participants meeting full diagnostic criteria and inattention was associated with the greatest loss of income and disadvantage. The disadvantage associated with conduct problems differed in severity and was relevant for a high proportion of adults with ADHD. Women but not men with ADHD reported more childhood adversity, possibly indicating varied etiology and treatment needs. The impact and treatment needs of adults with ADHD and CP and the report of sexual assault during childhood by

  4. Cyberbullying: Experiences, Impacts and Coping Strategies as Described by Australian Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Megan; Dalgleish, John

    2010-01-01

    Cyberbullying impacts on the wellbeing, schooling, family and peer relationships of many young people. The current study of 548 young Australians revealed that cyberbullying is a group phenomenon most prevalent during the transitional ages between primary and secondary school. It takes on many forms and shows an overlap in roles between…

  5. Introduction to Adolescent and Young Adult Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer researchers, advocates, and a cancer survivor introduce the topic of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancers, covering distinct aspects of cancer in these patients and research questions to answer.

  6. Young adults' reactions to infant crying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hechler, C.H.; Beijers, R.; Weerth, C. de

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether young childless adults show negative emotions and cognitive disturbances when listening to infant crying, compared to other disturbing noises, and whether negative emotions and cognitive disturbances are associated. METHODS: We tested the cognitive performances and emotiona

  7. LUNG CARCINOMA IN YOUNG ADULT MALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanasekar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Here we report three case of Lung Carcinoma in young adult males, non - smokers, no family history of malignancy and no other risk factors like occupational or environmental exposure, past history of tuberculosis or chronic obstructive bronchitis, who presented with variable chest radiographic and computerized tomog raphic findings, these cases warrants further analysis regarding the changing trend of higher incidents of lung carcinoma in young adult males.

  8. LUNG CARCINOMA IN YOUNG ADULT MALES

    OpenAIRE

    Dhanasekar; Anbumaran; Rajagopalan; Shanmugapriya

    2015-01-01

    Here we report three case of Lung Carcinoma in young adult males, non - smokers, no family history of malignancy and no other risk factors like occupational or environmental exposure, past history of tuberculosis or chronic obstructive bronchitis, who presented with variable chest radiographic and computerized tomog raphic findings, these cases warrants further analysis regarding the changing trend of higher incidents of lung carcinoma in young adult males.

  9. Increasing Employment Opportunities for Disadvantaged Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Farhana; Terwelp, Emily

    2015-01-01

    In the past four decades, profound changes in the U.S. economy--including falling wages, widening inequality, and the polarization of jobs at the top and bottom of the education and wage distributions--have had dramatic implications for the labor-market fortunes of young adults. Only about half of young people ages 16 to 24 held jobs in 2014, and…

  10. From Insider to Outsider: The Evolution of Young Adult Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cart, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Discusses changes in the field of young adult literature since the 1980s. Examines how the definition of "young adult" has evolved. Offers a brief overview of the history of young adult literature from the 1940s. Considers the rise of awards for merit in young adult publishing, noting three in particular. Concludes this is a golden age of young…

  11. Myocardial infarction in young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Egred, M; Viswanathan, G; Davis, G.

    2005-01-01

    Although myocardial infarction (MI) mainly occurs in patients older than 45, young men or women can suffer MI. Fortunately, its incidence is not common in patients younger than 45 years. However, the disease carries a significant morbidity, psychological effects, and financial constraints for the person and the family when it occurs at a young age. The causes of MI among patients aged less than 45 can be divided into four groups: (1) atheromatous coronary artery disease; (2) non-atheromatous ...

  12. Talking With Your College-Bound Young Adult About Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an adult. But they are not there yet. Young adults still need and value their parents’ guidance as ... of advice on the issue. Talk with your young adult about avoiding underage drinking, even if you suspect ...

  13. Mixed Heritage in Young Adult Literature. Scarecrow Studies in Young Adult Literature #32

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Nancy Thalia

    2009-01-01

    Mixed-heritage people are one of the fastest-growing groups in the United States, yet culturally they have been largely invisible, especially in young adult literature. "Mixed Heritage in Young Adult Literature" is a critical exploration of how mixed-heritage characters (those of mixed race, ethnicity, religion, and/or adoption) and real-life…

  14. Quantification of biological aging in young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsky, Daniel W.; Caspi, Avshalom; Houts, Renate; Cohen, Harvey J.; Corcoran, David L.; Danese, Andrea; Harrington, HonaLee; Israel, Salomon; Levine, Morgan E.; Schaefer, Jonathan D.; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Ben; Yashin, Anatoli I.; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2015-01-01

    Antiaging therapies show promise in model organism research. Translation to humans is needed to address the challenges of an aging global population. Interventions to slow human aging will need to be applied to still-young individuals. However, most human aging research examines older adults, many with chronic disease. As a result, little is known about aging in young humans. We studied aging in 954 young humans, the Dunedin Study birth cohort, tracking multiple biomarkers across three time points spanning their third and fourth decades of life. We developed and validated two methods by which aging can be measured in young adults, one cross-sectional and one longitudinal. Our longitudinal measure allows quantification of the pace of coordinated physiological deterioration across multiple organ systems (e.g., pulmonary, periodontal, cardiovascular, renal, hepatic, and immune function). We applied these methods to assess biological aging in young humans who had not yet developed age-related diseases. Young individuals of the same chronological age varied in their “biological aging” (declining integrity of multiple organ systems). Already, before midlife, individuals who were aging more rapidly were less physically able, showed cognitive decline and brain aging, self-reported worse health, and looked older. Measured biological aging in young adults can be used to identify causes of aging and evaluate rejuvenation therapies. PMID:26150497

  15. Young people with heroin dependence: findings from the Australian Treatment Outcome Study (ATOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Katherine L; Teesson, Maree; Darke, Shane; Ross, Joanne; Lynskey, Michael

    2004-07-01

    This paper examines the patterns and correlates of heroin use in a cohort of 210 young Australians aged between 18 and 24, who were participants in the Australian Treatment Outcome Study, a longitudinal study of treatment outcomes for heroin dependence. Of major importance were the high rates of psychiatric comorbidity found among this group (37% lifetime Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, 23% current Major Depression, 75% Anti-Social Personality Disorder, and 51% Borderline Personality Disorder). Seventeen percent had attempted suicide in the preceding year. Although both the young (aged 18-24 years) heroin users and their older counterparts (aged 25-56 years) initiated drug use at the same age, young heroin users progressed to heroin use, regular heroin use, and treatment for heroin use, twice as quickly as older heroin users. These findings suggest that there is a limited window of opportunity in which early interventions may be applied before young heroin users progress to problematic use.

  16. Airflow obstruction in young adults in Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Hazmi, Manal; Wooldrage, Kate; Anthonisen, Nicholas R.;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Airflow obstruction is relatively uncommon in young adults, and may indicate potential for the development of progressive disease. The objective of the present study was to enumerate and characterize airflow obstruction in a random sample of Canadians aged 20 to 44 years. SETTING......% were nonsmokers with asthma and 17% were nonsmokers with no history of asthma. Bronchial hyper-responsiveness increased the prevalence of airflow obstruction in each of these groups. CONCLUSION: Smoking and asthma, jointly and individually, are major determinants of obstructive disorders in young...... adults. Bronchial hyper-responsiveness contributes to obstruction in both groups....

  17. Young adults as users of adult healthcare: experiences of young adults with complex or life-limiting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresford, B; Stuttard, L

    2014-08-01

    Awareness is growing that young adults may have distinctive experiences of adult healthcare and that their needs may differ from those of other adult users. In addition, the role of adult health teams in supporting positive transitions from paediatrics is increasingly under discussion. This paper contributes to these debates. It reports a qualitative study of the experiences of young adults - all with complex chronic health conditions - as users of adult health services. Key findings from the study are reported, including an exploration of factors that help to explain interviewees' experiences. Study findings are discussed in the context of existing evidence from young adults in adult healthcare settings and theories of 'young adulthood'. Implications for training and practice are considered, and priorities for future research are identified.

  18. Through the Looking Glass: Adult Education through the Lens of the Australian Journal of Adult Learning over Fifty Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Roger; Morrison, Anne

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we review fifty years of articles published in Australian Journal of Adult Learning in its various iterations. We examine the different roles of the journal: to illuminate the history and trends of adult education authors; to be the flagship of the adult education profession in Australia; to reflect on significant national events;…

  19. Simulation Frames: Young Adult Dystopian Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Tedman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the ways in which Young Adult dystopian film Divergent (2014 successfully repurposes dystopia for a young demographic, making dystopia an aesthetically appealing space for heroic adventure. The film recombines Young Adult literary tropes with film conventions including those of science fiction. Divergent and other Young Adult dystopian films modify the potential for social critique associated with canonic dystopian fiction. The article’s critical framework includes theories of dystopia and of Young Adult dystopian literature, the Freudian uncanny, studies of the post-apocalyptic film city and new media theory. In Divergent, the dystopian division of society into factions is made enjoyable through production design, particularly in ‘Dauntless’, the faction joined by heroine Tris. This extends to transmedia marketing. The book’s violence is reduced to increase audience engagement, while lack of contextual detail precludes a critical dystopia. In Divergent, the spaces and ideologies of the post-apocalyptic film city are reframed as youth culture. Chicago is gamified, connoting an adventure playground. The space of the Dauntless ‘Pit’ offers symbolic rebirth, community and romance, yet its appeal is uncanny, as with communal spaces in The Host (2013 and The Maze Runner (2014. Divergent’s mirror simulation foregrounds spectacle but other simulations construct immediacy, appearing dream-like not immersive. Like the visions in Young Adult dystopian adaptations How I Live Now (2013 and Ender’s Game (2013, simulations convey individual awareness and supernatural communication. The film combines pleasurable classification and a divergence motif with its heroine’s development, revising dystopian cinematic space. Divergent represents a new form of dystopian cinema.

  20. Airflow Obstruction in Young Adults in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal Al-Hazmi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Airflow obstruction is relatively uncommon in young adults, and may indicate potential for the development of progressive disease. The objective of the present study was to enumerate and characterize airflow obstruction in a random sample of Canadians aged 20 to 44 years.

  1. Challenging Perspectives on Young Adult Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners, Sean P.

    2013-01-01

    As proponents of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) publish lists of "Exemplar Texts" that are said to represent the degree of textual complexity appropriate for the different grade levels, and that are overwhelmingly canonical, those who value young adult literature and recognize a place for it in the high school literature…

  2. Young Adult Literature and Alternative Assessment Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    The principal purpose of assessment, regardless of teaching level, should be to guide instruction. Unlike evaluation, the goal of assessment is not to arrive at a grade for students. Rather, it is to inform the educator as to what needs to be addressed in the classroom. Assessment in a young adult literature (YAL) curriculum is no different. Its…

  3. Young Adult Literature and Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Jacqueline; Choate, Laura Hensley; Parker, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    As the body of high quality young adult literature (YAL) continues to grow, what role might these texts play in professional development for educators? This article describes ways in which schools can develop book study programs that use this literature to promote meaningful dialogue and understanding of contemporary adolescent issues. Based on…

  4. Young Adult Literature: From Romance to Realism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cart, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Today's young adult (YA) literature is every bit as complex as the audience it's written for, unflinchingly addressing such topics as homosexuality, mental illness, AIDS and drug abuse. In this much expanded revision of his 1996 book, veteran author Michael Cart shows how the best of contemporary YA lit has evolved to tackle such daunting subjects…

  5. Literary Maps for Young Adult Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass, Mary Ellen

    The activities presented in this handbook are designed to help students envision the locations and landmarks of sites along journeys described in popular young adult literature (e.g., "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn,""Born Free,""The Call of the Wild,""Catcher in the Rye,""I Know Why the Caged Bird…

  6. Caries risk assessment in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Gunnel Hänsel; Twetman, Svante

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To validate baseline caries risk classifications according to the Cariogram model with the actual caries development over a 3-year period in a group of young adults living in Sweden. METHODS: The study group consisted of 1,295 19-year-old patients that completed a comprehensive clinical...

  7. Iron Deficiency in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, William L.; Risser, Jan M. H.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews the prevalence, natural history, causes, impact on performance, diagnosis, and treatment of iron deficiency in adolescent and young adult athletes. All athletes should be screened and treated. The best diagnosis involves determining serum ferritin and hemoglobin levels. Treatment requires therapeutic doses of oral ferrous iron for several…

  8. Suggested Interventions for Young Adults' Relationship Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terneus, Sandra K.; Martin, H. Dan

    2005-01-01

    Professionals in the social psychology field concur that teenagers and young adults may not have the appropriate skills and ego strength to affirm healthy relationship decisions. This article reviews current research regarding partner selection from adolescence through early adulthood. It also provides appendices of interventions used in clinical…

  9. The Prevalence of Lisping in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Borsel, John; Van Rentergem, Sigrid; Verhaeghe, Leen

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a pilot study that investigated the prevalence of lisping in a cohort of young adults. The motivation for the study was the observation that a substantial number of incoming students in speech language pathology at the Ghent University (Belgium), still presented with frontal lisping of the /s/, /z/ and sometimes…

  10. Scaffolding young Australian women's journey to motherhood: a narrative understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Gabrielle; Morrison, Paul; Down, Barry; WestBrook, Be

    2014-09-01

    Pregnant and young mothers' stories often go untold within community social and health service policy, planning and practice. Consequently, there is a significant gap between young women's experiences of motherhood and current service provision. This study was undertaken in response to a paucity of observational and contextually rich research that explores young women's experiences of pregnancy and motherhood, including the role a community service played in scaffolding their motherhood journeys. Fundamental to this study's purpose was the premise that to improve planning and delivery of more appropriate services for this group, we need to listen, consult and consider what life is like for young mothers. The purpose of this paper is to describe the role a community service played in scaffolding young women's experiences as they transitioned to motherhood. Using a narrative approach, this study draws on data collected from contextual observations of 31 informants and 11 in-depth interviews over 7 months of fieldwork in 2010 at a community service in the Peel region of Western Australia. The integral role a community service played in the young women's transition to motherhood was analysed thematically and captured in three metaphorical themes, finding a circle of friends, weaving a tapestry and turning the page. The young women's storied experiences of motherhood present a strong argument for radical re-visioning of community and social health policy, practice and service delivery for young mothers. The findings revealed that judgement-free services that foster social and supportive relationships were integral in developing positive motherhood identities. The power of narrative and social learning when working with young mothers suggests that social models of health that foster a relational, narrative approach to practice are fundamental to young mothers finding their own voices and solutions and becoming active agents in re-authoring future narratives of hope

  11. Time for National Renewal: Australian adult literacy and numeracy as ‘foundation skills’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Black

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Those working in the field of adult literacy and numeracy are currently anticipating changes in the near future as the federal government has flagged the development of a National Foundation Skills Strategy (Australian Government 2010. ‘Foundation skills’ is a term that has recently been suggested as a way of simplifying discussions about literacy and numeracy (Perkins 2009:8, and it has gained traction in various Australian national policy environments (e.g. Gillard 2009, Council of Australian Governments [COAG] Reform Council 2009, Australian Government 2010. Foundation skills appears to encapsulate adult language, literacy and numeracy, and more broadly, it may also include so-called employability skills such as communication and teamwork (Roberts and Wignall 2010:1. In this paper, our main focus is on the adult literacy and numeracy dimensions of what is needed in the policy renewal.

  12. Psychosocial factors impacting on life transitions among young adults with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Vibeke; Rasmussen, B; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) prevalence is increasing rapidly worldwide with a significant increase in young adults. There is limited information about psychosocial and service needs of this group. AIM: To explore similarities and differences in how psychosocial factors impact on Australian....... FINDINGS: Eligible participants were from Australia (12) and Denmark (14), aged 19-42 years who had T2DM for more than 10 months. In general, they reported diabetes management was difficult during transitions and diabetes self-care routines had to change to accommodate life changes. The underpinning sense......, and the need for flexible access to health professionals, age-specific tailored support and lower costs for Australians. Australian participants were more concerned than Danish participants about the cost associated with diabetes care and their ability to stay employed; hence, they were reluctant to disclose...

  13. Adolescent and young adult medicine is a special and specific area of medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbeck, Kate; Towns, Susan; Bennett, David

    2014-06-01

    Adolescent and young adult medicine is a concept that has gained traction in the last decade or so. The medical literature has come primarily from oncology. Advances in neuroscience that document continuing brain development into the third decade, and research that shows risk behaviours associated with adolescence both remain and may increase in the third decade, have been two of the drivers in the conversation around linking these two age groups together as a medical practice group. A third driver of importance is transition care in chronic illness, where older adolescents and young adults continue to have difficulties making effective linkages with adult care. The case for specific training in adolescent and young adult medicine, including the developmental concepts behind it, the benefits of the delineation and the particular challenges in the Australian health-care system, are discussed. On balance, there is a strong case for managing the health issues of adolescents and young adults together. This scenario does not fit easily with the age demarcations that are in place in acute care facilities. However, this is less the case in community services and can work in focused private practice. Such a situation suggests that both paediatric and adult physicians might be interested in adolescent and young adult medicine training and practice.

  14. Financial Literacy of Young Adults: The Importance of Parental Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Bryce L.; Savla, Jyoti

    2010-01-01

    This article tests a conceptual model of perceived parental influence on the financial literacy of young adults. Structural equation modeling was used to test whether (a) parents were perceived to influence young adults' financial knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors and (b) the degree to which young adults' financial attitudes mediated financial…

  15. Young Adults Deserve the Best: YALSA's Competencies in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    As high school enrollment continues to rise, the need for effective librarianship serving young adults is greater than ever before. "Young Adults Deserve the Best: Competencies for Librarians Serving Youth," developed by Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA), is a document outlining areas of focus for providing quality library service…

  16. Value Preferences Predicting Narcissistic Personality Traits in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gungor, Ibrahim Halil; Eksi, Halil; Aricak, Osman Tolga

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at showing how the value preferences of young adults could predict the narcissistic characteristics of young adults according to structural equation modeling. 133 female (59.6%) and 90 male (40.4%), total 223 young adults participated the study (average age: 25.66, ranging from 20 to 38). Ratio group sampling method was used while…

  17. 2010 YALSA Fabulous Films and Amazing Audiobooks for Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Library Journal, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA), a division of the American Library Association (ALA), announced its 2010 annual lists of Fabulous Films for Young Adults and Amazing Audiobooks for Young Adults ages 12 to 18. This article presents the list of titles that were released in January 2010 during the ALA Midwinter Meeting in Boston,…

  18. On the Use of Natural Elements in Young Adult Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴嘉萱

    2014-01-01

    As a reading group, young adults are specially targeted to make them grow healthily. Generally speaking, the moral sense of young adult literature is positive. To explore the outlook on nature of young adult literature, this paper selects four books as analyzing sources including Charlotte’s Web (1952), A Day No Pigs Would Die (1972), Julie of the Wolves (1972), and Homecoming (1981).

  19. Defining Success in Young Adults with Emotional Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrescia, Susanne G.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a definition of success by constructing a portrait of successful young adults with emotional disabilities. Nine young adults with emotional disabilities were interviewed individually after graduating from high school. The research questions that guided the study centered on the young adults'…

  20. Connecting the Canon to Current Young Adult Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybakova, Katie; Roccanti, Rikki

    2016-01-01

    In this article we discuss the respective roles of young adult literature and literary texts in the secondary level English Language Arts classroom and explore the connections that can be made between popular young adult books and the traditional canon. We provide examples showing how young adult literature bestsellers such as "The Book…

  1. Bare Bones Young Adult Services: Tips for Public Library Generalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillancourt, Renee J.

    This book is a hands-on guide to the philosophy and practice of young adult services in the public libraries. The following chapters are included: (1) "Young Adult Services Philosophy," including reasons to serve teens, why teens are the way they are, who serves young adults, and how to interact with teens; (2) "Youth Participation," including…

  2. Research in Young Adult Literature: Four Recent Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John Noell; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Discusses a study of young adult literature in light of contemporary literary theories; family relationships in selected young adult novels by Cynthia Vogt and Sue Ellen Bridgers; teaching young adult literature, moral inquiry, and the personal journey toward meaning; and using recorded books in a high school classroom. (RS)

  3. Minimally invasive aesthetic procedures in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wollina U

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Uwe Wollina1, Alberto Goldman21Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Academic Teaching Hospital Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Dresden, Germany; 2Clinica Goldman, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande du Sul, BrazilAbstract: Age is a significant factor in modifying specific needs when it comes to medical aesthetic procedures. In this review we will focus on young adults in their third decade of life and review minimally invasive aesthetic procedures other than cosmetics and cosmeceuticals. Correction of asymmetries, correction after body modifying procedures, and facial sculpturing are important issues for young adults. The implication of aesthetic medicine as part of preventive medicine is a major ethical challenge that differentiates aesthetic medicine from fashion.Keywords: acne scars, ice pick scars, boxcar scars, fillers 

  4. Do young children have adult syntactic competence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasello, M

    2000-03-14

    Many developmental psycholinguists assume that young children have adult syntactic competence, this assumption being operationalized in the use of adult-like grammars to describe young children's language. This "continuity assumption" has never had strong empirical support, but recently a number of new findings have emerged - both from systematic analyses of children's spontaneous speech and from controlled experiments - that contradict it directly. In general, the key finding is that most of children's early linguistic competence is item based, and therefore their language development proceeds in a piecemeal fashion with virtually no evidence of any system-wide syntactic categories, schemas, or parameters. For a variety of reasons, these findings are not easily explained in terms of the development of children's skills of linguistic performance, pragmatics, or other "external" factors. The framework of an alternative, usage-based theory of child language acquisition - relying explicitly on new models from Cognitive-Functional Linguistics - is presented.

  5. Young People on the Margins: Australian Studies of Social Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelsberg, Harry Joseph; Martin-Giles, Bonnie Mercedes

    2008-01-01

    Drawing upon empirical data from four research projects undertaken in Adelaide, South Australia, we examine the cumulative effects of deprivation on the lives of young people. Utilising a social exclusion framework for analysis we demonstrate the dynamic interplay between the various dimensions of social exclusion. We present the experiences and…

  6. Reproductive health of adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Reşit Ersay

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In Turkey, one out of five person belonging to 10-24 age group, is at risk concerning reproductive health. Topics related to the reproductive health, are neither discussed within the family or society, nor within the educational system. Adolescents, who have to experience sexual intercourse with insufficient and incorrect knowledge, have to face with sexually transmitted diseases (STD, teenage pregnancy, abortion and other problems as a consequence of this experience. Research on this area has showed that both adolescents and young adults, especially health personnel, requested training on reproductive health. In terms of planning health services effectively, these topics should be evaluated carefully in Turkey. In this research, reproductive health regarding adolescents and young adults is examined under the four headings of sexual experience, STD, use of protection and productivity. As a result, depending on all the cultural restrictions and health service limitations, it is observed that adolescents and young adults experience sexual relationship with an inadequate knowledge and consequently, they have to face with problems. Within this context, it is suggested to expand the reproductive health educational programmes involving family, school and society within long term.

  7. Depression, anxiety and self-care behaviours of young adults with Type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browne, Jessica L; Nefs, Giesje; Pouwer, F

    2015-01-01

    diabetes with two matched control groups. METHODS: Using cross-sectional survey data from the Australian and Dutch Diabetes Management and Impact for Long-term Empowerment and Success (MILES) studies, we matched 93 young adults (aged 18-39 years) with Type 2 diabetes (case group) with: (i) 93 older adults...... more likely to have clinically meaningful depressive symptoms (Cramer's V = 0.23) than those in the Type 2 diabetes control group. Participants in the case group had statistically equivalent depression scores to the Type 1 diabetes control group. The groups did not differ in anxiety scores. Those...... psychological and self-care support than their older counterparts....

  8. Body weight, body image, and eating behaviours: relationships with ethnicity and acculturation in a community sample of young Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Kylie; Kenardy, Justin

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate associations between ethnicity and acculturation status and risk factors for eating disorders among young adult women. A community sample of 14,779 women aged 18-23 completed a comprehensive mail-out survey, which incorporated questions on country of birth, length of time spent in Australia, body weight, weight dissatisfaction, dieting, binge eating, and compensatory disordered eating behaviours. Results showed that risk factors for eating disorders were present across a range of ethnic groups. Further, a strong acculturation effect was observed, such that the longer the time spent in Australia, the more women reported weight-related values and behaviours similar to those of Australian-born women. Results challenge claims that risk factors for disordered eating are restricted to Caucasian females in Western societies. Implications for understanding ethnic and sociocultural influences on body weight, dieting, and disordered eating are considered.

  9. Marriage Matters But How Much? Marital Centrality Among Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Brian J; Hall, Scott S; Goff, Saige

    2015-01-01

    Marriage, once a gateway to adulthood, is no longer as widely considered a requirement for achieving adult status. With declining marriage rates and delayed marital transitions, some have wondered whether current young adults have rejected the traditional notion of marriage. Utilizing a sample of 571 young adults, the present study explored how marital centrality (the expected importance to be placed on the marital role relative to other adult roles) functioned as a unique and previously unexplored marital belief among young adults. Results suggested that marriage remains an important role for many young adults. On average, young adults expected that marriage would be more important to their life than parenting, careers, or leisure activities. Marital centrality profiles were found to significantly differ based on both gender and religiosity. Marital centrality was also associated with various outcomes including binge-drinking and sexual activity. Specifically, the more central marriage was expected to be, the less young adults engaged in risk-taking or sexual behaviors.

  10. Errors and Predictors of Confidence in Condom Use amongst Young Australians Attending a Music Festival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina M. Hall

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine the confidence and ability to use condoms correctly and consistently and the predictors of confidence in young Australians attending a festival. Methods. 288 young people aged 18 to 29 attending a mixed-genre music festival completed a survey measuring demographics, self-reported confidence using condoms, ability to use condoms, and issues experienced when using condoms in the past 12 months. Results. Self-reported confidence using condoms was high (77%. Multivariate analyses showed confidence was associated with being male (P<0.001 and having had five or more lifetime sexual partners (P=0.038. Reading packet instructions was associated with increased condom use confidence (P=0.011. Amongst participants who had used a condom in the last year, 37% had experienced the condom breaking and 48% had experienced the condom slipping off during intercourse and 51% when withdrawing the penis after sex. Conclusion. This population of young people are experiencing high rates of condom failures and are using them inconsistently or incorrectly, demonstrating the need to improve attitudes, behaviour, and knowledge about correct and consistent condom usage. There is a need to empower young Australians, particularly females, with knowledge and confidence in order to improve condom use self-efficacy.

  11. Defining Cigarette Smoking Status in Young Adults: A Comparison of Adolescent vs Adult Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnevo, Cristine D.; Lewis, M. Jane; Kaufman, Ira; Abatemarco, Diane J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the agreement between 2 measures (adult vs adolescent) of current cigarette smoking among young adults. Methods: We examined data from 1007 young adults from the New Jersey Adult Tobacco Survey. The adult measure incorporates lifetime and present use, whereas the adolescent measure assesses past 30-day use. The kappa…

  12. Living Arrangements of Young Adults in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Schwanitz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Comparative research suggests that there are great cross-national and cross-temporal differences in living arrangements of young adults aged 18-34 in Europe. In this paper, we examine young adults’ living arrangements (1 across several European countries and different national contexts, and (2 by taking into account cross-time variability. In doing so, we pay careful attention to a comprehensive conceptualisation of living arrangements (including extended and non-family living arrangements. The aim of this paper is to deepen our understanding of family structure and household arrangements in Europe by examining and mapping the cross-national and cross-temporal variety of young adults’ living arrangements. For our analysis we use data from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series International (IPUMSi for the census rounds 1980, 1990, and 2000 for eight European countries (Austria, France, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Portugal, Romania, and Switzerland. We employ log-linear models to ascertain the influence of individual and contextual factors on living arrangements. The analyses lend further support to a North/West – South/East divide in living arrangements and general gender differentials in extended family living. Other interesting results are the heterogeneity in the living arrangements of single mothers across geographic areas, and the upward trend of extended household living for young men and women between 1980 and 2000.

  13. Cannabis Use and Related Harms in the Transition to Young Adulthood: A Longitudinal Study of Australian Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Patton, George C.; Toumbourou, John W.

    2013-01-01

    The current study documents the changing rates of cannabis use, misuse and cannabis-related social harms among Australian adolescents as they grow into young adulthood. It utilised data from a longitudinal study of young people at ages 15, 16, 17, and 19. The rates of cannabis use were found to increase as participants aged; past year use…

  14. Factors Affecting Sentence Severity for Young Adult Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Peter W.; And Others

    This document analyzes the sentencing of young adult defendants in comparison with older adult and younger juvenile offenders, and disputes prior research which held that young adults received more lenient sentencing, perhaps because of the restrictions on disclosing juvenile delinquency histories. The document presents data from samples of young…

  15. Sunscreen Purchase Intention amongst Young Moroccan Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Bachleda

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Employing structural equation modeling and an extended theory of planned behaviour (TPB incorporating the additional influence of price perception as a conceptual framework, this paper explored the determinants of sunscreen purchase intention for young Moroccan adults. Consistent with the TPB, results confirmed the importance of subjective norms, attitude and perceived control in shaping sunscreen purchase intention. However, contrary to assumptions price was not found to be a significant factor in sunscreen purchase intention. Results of this study support the application of the TPB in the sunscreen purchase context and highlight the importance of using its constructs over price in the development of effective marketing campaigns.

  16. Merchandising Library Materials to Young Adults. Libraries Unlimited Professional Guides for Young Adult Librarians Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Mary Anne

    By addressing the concept of merchandising, this handbook shows librarians how to turn their young adult collection into one that will attract teenagers. Delivering an introduction to marketing and merchandising concepts, the author shares years of experience as a teen services librarian, combined with the latest studies and research findings on…

  17. On the Use of Natural Elements in Young Adult Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴嘉萱

    2014-01-01

    As a reading group,young adults are specially targeted to make them grow healthily.Generally speaking,the moral sense of young adult literature is positive.To explore the outlook on nature of young adult literature,this paper selects four books as analyzing sources including Charlotte’s Web(1952),A Day No Pigs Would Die(1972),Julie of the Wolves(1972),and Homecoming(1981).

  18. Young Adults' Implicit and Explicit Attitudes towards the Sexuality of Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ashley E; O'Sullivan, Lucia F; Byers, E Sandra; Shaughnessy, Krystelle

    2014-09-01

    Sexual interest and capacity can extend far into later life and result in many positive health outcomes. Yet there is little support for sexual expression in later life, particularly among young adults. This study assessed and compared young adults' explicit and implicit attitudes towards older adult sexuality. A sample of 120 participants (18-24 years; 58% female) completed a self-report (explicit) measure and a series of Implicit Association Tests capturing attitudes towards sexuality among older adults. Despite reporting positive explicit attitudes, young people revealed an implicit bias against the sexual lives of older adults. In particular, young adults demonstrated implicit biases favouring general, as compared to sexual, activities and young adults as compared to older adults. Moreover, the bias favouring general activities was amplified with regard to older adults as compared to younger adults. Our findings challenge the validity of research relying on self-reports of attitudes about older adult sexuality.

  19. Learning about Sex in Later Life: Sources of Education and Older Australian Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fileborn, Bianca; Lyons, Anthony; Hinchliff, Sharron; Brown, Graham; Heywood, Wendy; Minichiello, Victor

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the preferred sexuality education sources of older Australian adults in later life. Drawing on findings from qualitative interviews with 30 men and 23 women aged 60 years and older, we consider the sources that participants currently use, or would like to use, in seeking information about sex. Where relevant, we examine…

  20. Differences between Irish and Australian psychiatric nurses' family-focused practice in adult mental health services

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Grant, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Psychiatric nurses\\' practice with parents who have mental illness, their children and families is an important issue internationally. This study provides a comparison of Irish and Australian psychiatric nurses\\' family-focused practices in adult mental health services. Three hundred and forty three nurses across Ireland and 155 from Australia completed the Family Focused Mental Health Practice Questionnaire. Cross-country comparisons revealed significant differences, in terms of family-focused skill, knowledge, confidence and practice. Australian psychiatric nurses engaged in higher family-focused practice compared to Irish nurses. The comparative differences between countries may be attributable to differences in training, workplace support and policy.

  1. Young Australian Indigenous students' effective engagement in mathematics: the role of language, patterns, and structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Elizabeth; Miller, Jodie

    2013-03-01

    This paper explores the outcomes of the first year of the implementation of a mathematics program ( Representations, oral language and engagement in Mathematics: RoleM) which is framed upon research relating to effectively supporting young Indigenous students' learning. The sample comprised 230 Indigenous students (average age 5.76 years) from 15 schools located across Queensland. The pre-test and post-test results from purposely developed language and mathematics tests indicate that young Indigenous Australian students are very capable learners of mathematics. The results of a multiple regression analysis denoted that their ability to ascertain the structure of patterns and to understand mathematical language were both strong predictors of their success in mathematics, with the latter making the larger contribution.

  2. Critical Beliefs Underlying Young Australian Males’ Intentions to Engage in Drinking and Swimming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyra Hamilton

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examined key targets for interventions aimed at reducing drinking and swimming among young males, an at-risk group for drowning. Two-hundred and eleven Australian males aged 18 to 34 years completed a Theory of Planned Behavior belief-based questionnaire either online or paper based. Behavioral beliefs of “be more relaxed” and “having fun,” normative beliefs of “friends/mates” and “parents,” and the control belief of “presence of other people” were revealed as independent predictors of intentions to drink and swim. These identified beliefs can be used to inform interventions to challenge young males’ alcohol use in, on, and around water.

  3. The Relationship between Dietary Patterns and Metabolic Health in a Representative Sample of Adult Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda K. Bell

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies assessing dietary intake and its relationship to metabolic phenotype are emerging, but limited. The aims of the study are to identify dietary patterns in Australian adults, and to determine whether these dietary patterns are associated with metabolic phenotype and obesity. Cross-sectional data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics 2011 Australian Health Survey was analysed. Subjects included adults aged 45 years and over (n = 2415. Metabolic phenotype was determined according to criteria used to define metabolic syndrome (0–2 abnormalities vs. 3–7 abnormalities, and additionally categorized for obesity (body mass index (BMI ≥30 kg/m2 vs. BMI <30 kg/m2. Dietary patterns were derived using factor analysis. Multivariable models were used to assess the relationship between dietary patterns and metabolic phenotype, with adjustment for age, sex, smoking status, socio-economic indexes for areas, physical activity and daily energy intake. Twenty percent of the population was metabolically unhealthy and obese. In the fully adjusted model, for every one standard deviation increase in the Healthy dietary pattern, the odds of having a more metabolically healthy profile increased by 16% (odds ratio (OR 1.16; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.04, 1.29. Poor metabolic profile and obesity are prevalent in Australian adults and a healthier dietary pattern plays a role in a metabolic and BMI phenotypes. Nutritional strategies addressing metabolic syndrome criteria and targeting obesity are recommended in order to improve metabolic phenotype and potential disease burden.

  4. Adolescents and Young Adults Mates Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Martina Casullo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The study sought to identify the relation between gender and age on mate pre- ferences using an intentional sample drawn in Buenos Aires city and its suburban area. A questionnaire adapted from a previous study developed by D.Buss (1990 requested subjects to rank each of 19 characteristics on its desirability in a mate. Subjects for this study were 900 adolescents and young adults aging 13 to 30 years old. Means and standard deviations were calculated as well as Spearman ́s Rho coefficients. High correlations between gender, age, and ordering were found. Mutual attraction and love, kindness and understanding and trust are cho- sen as the most important criteria. Phisically attractive is important for younger males. Similar political and religious background as well as chastity are conside- red among the less important criteria. 

  5. Trust and trustworthiness in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Phoebe E; Slessor, Gillian; Rieger, Matthias; Rendell, Peter G; Moustafa, Ahmed A; Ruffman, Ted

    2015-12-01

    In a series of 1-shot economic trust games in which participants could make real monetary profits, but also risked losing money, 2 studies compared young and older adults' trust (amount invested with trustees) and trustworthiness (amount returned to investors by trustees). In Study 1, young (n = 35) and older (n = 32) participants acted as investors, and the age of simulated trustees (young, older) was manipulated. In Study 2, young (n = 61) and older (n = 67) participants acted in real life as both investors and trustees. They completed 2 face-to-face trust games with same- and other-age partners, and 3 anonymous trust games with same-, other-, and unknown-age partners. Study 1 found that young and older participants rate older trustees as appearing more trustworthy than young trustees, but neither group invest more with older than young trustees. Rather, older participants were more likely than young participants to invest money averaged across trustee age. In Study 2, there were no age-related differences in trust, but older adults were more trustworthy than young adults in anonymous games with same- and unknown-age partners. It was also found that young adults demonstrate greater reputational concerns than older adults by reciprocating more trust when face-to-face than anonymous. We discuss the complex influences of age on trust game investing and reciprocation, as well as the implications for older adults' wellbeing and financial security.

  6. Spatial navigation in young versus older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana eGazova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Older age is associated with changes in the brain, including the medial temporal lobe, which may result in mild spatial navigation deficits, especially in allocentric navigation. The aim of the study was to characterize the profile of real-space allocentric (world-centered, hippocampus dependent and egocentric (body-centered, parietal lobe dependent navigation and learning in young vs. older adults, and to assess a possible influence of gender. We recruited healthy participants without cognitive deficits on standard neuropsychological testing, white matter lesions or pronounced hippocampal atrophy: 24 young participants (18-26 years old and 44 older participants stratified as participants 60-70 years old (n=24 and participants 71-84 years old (n=20. All underwent spatial navigation testing in the real-space human analog of the Morris Water Maze, which has the advantage of assessing separately allocentric and egocentric navigation and learning. Of the 8 consecutive trials, trials 2-8 were used to reduce bias by a rebound effect (more dramatic changes in performance between trials 1 and 2 relative to subsequent trials. The participants who were 71-84 years old (p< .001, but not those 60-70 years old, showed deficit in allocentric navigation compared to the young participants. There were no differences in egocentric navigation. All three groups showed spatial learning effect (p´s ≤.01. There were no gender differences in spatial navigation and learning. The linear regression limited to older participants showed linear (β=0.30, p=.045 and quadratic (β=0.30, p=.046 effect of age on allocentric navigation. There was no effect of age on egocentric navigation. These results demonstrate that navigation deficits in older age may be limited to allocentric navigation, whereas egocentric navigation and learning may remain preserved. This specific pattern of spatial navigation impairment may help differentiate normal aging from prodromal Alzheimer

  7. Perceptions of Resiliency and Coping: Homeless Young Adults Speak Out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sanna J.; Ryan, Tiffany N.; Montgomery, Katherine L.; Lippman, Angie Del Prado; Bender, Kimberly; Ferguson, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the perceptions of resilience and coping among homeless young adults, a focus that differs from previous research by considering the unconventional resilience and coping of this high-risk population. Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 45 homeless young adults. Individual interviews were audio recorded,…

  8. Young Adults Deserve the Best: Competencies for Librarians Serving Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Library Journal, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Outlines competencies needed by librarians working with young adults in any type of information agency. Developed by the Education Committee of the Young Adult Services Division, competencies are listed in seven areas: leadership and professionalism, knowledge of client group, communication, administration, knowledge of materials, access to…

  9. Young Adults' Linguistic Manipulation of English in Bangla in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Shaila

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed in the print media that bilingual young adults in Bangladesh are subjugated by the colonial legacy of English and they are "polluting" Bangla, the national language of Bangladesh, by their indiscriminate insertion of English in it. However, this ethnographic study on a group of young adults in a university in…

  10. Dental Care among Young Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancherla, Vijaya; Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2013-01-01

    Dental care among young adults with intellectual disability (ID) is poorly documented and largely unmet. By using population-based data from the Metropolitan Atlanta Developmental Disabilities Follow-Up Study, we assessed factors associated with at least one or two dental visits per year among young adults with and without ID. Significantly fewer…

  11. Young Adult Literature in the Malaysian Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajoo, Mallika V.; Mukundan, Jayakaran

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study on the experience of the Malaysian secondary school student with Young Adult Literature in the English language classroom. The study aimed to determine the extent to which the Malaysian secondary school student identified with the young adult protagonists and issues in the novels which have been…

  12. Kohlberg's Moral Development Stages in Young Adults' Choices Novels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, Frances A.; Haden, Dawn

    1994-01-01

    Describes a content analysis study that used Kohlberg's theory of moral development to determine the stage of moral development represented by protagonists in Young Adult Choices (i.e., lists of titles preferred by adolescent readers) fiction and the relationship to the level of moral reasoning of real-life young adults. (Contains 20 references.)…

  13. Reinforcement Learning in Young Adults with Developmental Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joanna C.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine reinforcement learning (RL) in young adults with developmental language impairment (DLI) within the context of a neurocomputational model of the basal ganglia-dopamine system (Frank, Seeberger, & O'Reilly, 2004). Two groups of young adults, one with DLI and the other without, were recruited. A probabilistic…

  14. Life satisfaction of young adults with spina bifida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barf, H. A.; Post, M. W. M.; Verhoef, M.; Jennekens-Schinkel, A.; Gooskens, R. H. J. M.; Prevo, A. J. H.

    2007-01-01

    This study concerns life satisfaction and its determinants in Dutch young adults with spina bifida (SB). Data on life satisfaction (Life Satisfaction Questionnaire [LiSat-9]) were related to hydrocephalus, lesion level, disabilities, and demographic variables. In total, 179 young adults with SB part

  15. Acute necrotising ulcerative gingivitis in an immunocompromised young adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jessie; Kent, Paul; Lennon, Joshua M; Logan, Latania K

    2015-09-16

    Acute necrotising ulcerative gingivitis is an acute onset disease characterised by ulceration, necrosis, pain and bleeding in gingival surfaces. It is predominantly seen in severely malnourished children and young adults with advanced HIV infection. We present a unique presentation in a young adult with high-grade osteogenic sarcoma.

  16. Identifying Correlates of Young Adults' Weight Behavior: Survey Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary; van den Berg, Patricia; Hannan, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe the development and psychometric properties of survey measures relevant to eating, physical activity, and weight-related behaviors among young adults. Methods: Focus groups and reliability testing guided the development of the Project EAT-III survey. The final survey was completed by 2287 young adults. Results: The…

  17. Quality Books about Bullying in the Young Adult Tradition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Joanne; Hoover, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Anti-bullying experts employ trade books in dealing with contemporary issues facing young people, including bullying. At least three conceptual strands underpin the application of young adult literature (YAL) in such enterprises: (1) reliance on tested voices appealing to young readers; (2) the potential effect of quality YAL on literacy…

  18. Young adults today:substance misuse and young adults in the criminal justice system

    OpenAIRE

    Devitt, Kerry

    2011-01-01

    Having a drug or alcohol problem seriously increases the chances of an offender committing further crimes. In 2010, 71% of poly-drug using offenders were reconvicted of an offence within a year of being discharged from custody1. The following document explores key facts and figures about substance misuse amongst young adult offenders, aged 18-24. It covers topics relating to alcohol misuse, drug misuse and smoking.

  19. Tobacco use among urban Aboriginal Australian young people: a qualitative study of reasons for smoking, barriers to cessation and motivators for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosh, Suzanne; Hawkins, Kimberley; Skaczkowski, Gemma; Copley, David; Bowden, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Smoking prevalence among Aboriginal Australian young people greatly exceeds the prevalence in the broader population of Australian young people, yet limited research has explored the social context in which young Aboriginal Australians smoke. Four focus groups were conducted in 2009 with South Australian Aboriginal smokers aged 15-29 years residing in urban areas (n = 32) to examine attitudes and experiences surrounding smoking and quitting. The primary reasons for smoking initiation and maintenance among Aboriginal Australian young people were identified as stress, social influence and boredom. Motivators for quitting were identified as pregnancy and/or children, sporting performance (males only), cost issues and, to a lesser extent, health reasons. The barriers to cessation were identified as social influence, the perception of quitting as a distant event and reluctance to access cessation support. However, it appears that social influences and stress were particularly salient contributors to smoking maintenance among Aboriginal Australian young people. Smoking cessation interventions targeted at young urban Aboriginal Australian smokers should aim to build motivation to quit by utilising the motivators of pregnancy and/or children, sporting performance (males only), cost issues and, to a lesser extent, health reasons, while acknowledging the pertinent role of social influence and stress in the lives of young urban Aboriginal Australian smokers.

  20. Using Young Adult Realistic Literature to Help Troubled Teenagers: Something New, Tried and True, and Recommended Nonfiction (Young Adult Literature).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaywell, Joan F.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a seven-step process that uses young adult literature to help teenagers understand and deal with their troubles. Offers brief annotations of five young adult titles in each of nine areas: alienation and identity; divorce; dropouts, delinquency, and gangs; poverty; teenage pregnancy; abused children; alcohol and drugs; homosexuality; and…

  1. Exploring the experiences of young people nursed on adult wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Linda; Black, Sharon

    This paper reports on a study of experiences of young people aged 14 to 18 years who were nursed on acute adult hospital wards in NHS hospitals in England. In spite of British government guidelines, young people from 14 years of age continue to be admitted to adult wards in the UK. Although much has been written about the transition of the young person to adult services, there is little research about the experiences of young people who are nursed on adult wards. Hermeneutic phenomenology was used to explore the lived experiences of eight young people who had been nursed on adult wards between 2004 and 2010. Data were collected in 2010. In-depth interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using Colaizzi's framework ( Colaizzi, 1978 ). Themes explored included expectations of what the experience may be like, young people's first impressions of the ward environment, the feelings of the young person while in hospital, the attitudes of people towards them including, both staff and other patients, and future admissions and how they would cope with readmissions. Better provision needs to be made for young people including appropriately trained staff, adolescent-friendly environments and areas in adult wards that are dedicated to adolescents.

  2. Young Adults, Technology, and Weight Loss: A Focus Group Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna Stephens

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Overweight and obesity are a major concern in young adults. Technology has been integrated into many weight loss interventions; however little is known about the use of this technology in young adults. The purpose of this study was to explore through focus group sessions the opinions of young adults on the use of technology for weight loss. A total of 17 young adults, between 18 and 25 years of age, participated in three focus group sessions. Major results indicated that young adults have very little knowledge on the use of Smartphone technology for weight loss but would like to use this type of technology to help them lose weight. Results also indicated that young adults struggle to make healthy food choices and have priorities that outweigh exercise and they need support and guidance to make better decisions. In conclusion, young adults would be open to using Smartphone technology for weight loss but also need feedback and guidance to help make healthy decisions.

  3. Laparoscopic cryoablation of angiomyolipomas in adolescents and young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trelborg, Karina; Nielsen, Tommy Kjærgaard; Østraat, Ernst Øyvind;

    2016-01-01

    described in adults, whereas experiences with adolescents and young adults are limited. We present here for the first time a series of renal AMLs within adolescents and young adults treated with laparoscopic assisted cryoablation (LCA). OBJECTIVE: The aim was to evaluate whether LCA of AMLs in adolescents...... and young adults is a safe and feasible treatment modality. STUDY DESIGN: From October 2009 to September 2013 a total of five patients at our institution were diagnosed with AMLs requiring treatment. Four patients had TS and one had AML of sporadic origin, all five patients underwent LCA. Data were......-sparing approach in adolescents and young adults. The low perioperative complication rate and promising effect on outcome might allow treatment of subclinical AMLs in order to minimize the risk of potentially life-threatening complications and preserve renal function....

  4. Is the mental wellbeing of young Australians best represented by a single, multidimensional or bifactor model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hides, Leanne; Quinn, Catherine; Stoyanov, Stoyan; Cockshaw, Wendell; Mitchell, Tegan; Kavanagh, David J

    2016-07-30

    Internationally there is a growing interest in the mental wellbeing of young people. However, it is unclear whether mental wellbeing is best conceptualized as a general wellbeing factor or a multidimensional construct. This paper investigated whether mental wellbeing, measured by the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF), is best represented by: (1) a single-factor general model; (2) a three-factor multidimensional model or (3) a combination of both (bifactor model). 2220 young Australians aged between 16 and 25 years completed an online survey including the MHC-SF and a range of other wellbeing and mental ill-health measures. Exploratory factor analysis supported a bifactor solution, comprised of a general wellbeing factor, and specific group factors of psychological, social and emotional wellbeing. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the bifactor model had a better fit than competing single and three-factor models. The MHC-SF total score was more strongly associated with other wellbeing and mental ill-health measures than the social, emotional or psychological subscale scores. Findings indicate that the mental wellbeing of young people is best conceptualized as an overarching latent construct (general wellbeing) to which emotional, social and psychological domains contribute. The MHC-SF total score is a valid and reliable measure of this general wellbeing factor.

  5. An Early Mathematical Patterning Assessment: identifying young Australian Indigenous children's patterning skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papic, Marina

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents an Early Mathematical Patterning Assessment (EMPA) tool that provides early childhood educators with a valuable opportunity to identify young children's mathematical thinking and patterning skills through a series of hands-on and drawing tasks. EMPA was administered through one-to-one assessment interviews to children aged 4 to 5 years in the year prior to formal school. Two hundred and seventeen assessments indicated that the young low socioeconomic and predominantly Australian Indigenous children in the study group had varied patterning and counting skills. Three percent of the study group was able to consistently copy and draw an ABABAB pattern made with coloured blocks. Fifty percent could count to six by ones and count out six items with 4 % of the total group able to identify six items presented in regular formations without counting. The integration of patterning into early mathematics learning is critical to the abstraction of mathematical ideas and relationships and to the development of mathematical reasoning in young children. By using the insights into the children's thinking that the EMPA tool provides, early childhood educators can better inform mathematics teaching and learning and so help close the persistent gap in numeracy between Indigenous and non-Indigenous children.

  6. Modelling Gender Differences in the Economic and Social Influences of Obesity in Australian Young People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulay Avsar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In Australia, as in many other developed economies, the prevalence of obesity has risen significantly in all age groups and especially in young males and females over the past decade. Using data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA Survey, this paper investigates the influence of economic, personality and social factor demographics on the incidence of obesity in Australian youths. The study uses two random parameters logit models, including one that allows for gender-specific differences in the conditioning variables. The models reveal notable differences between the most important variables affecting the incidence of obesity amongst females compared to males. These differences are notable to consider for policy and intervention programs aimed at reducing the problem of obesity.

  7. Caffeine Consumption and Sleep Quality in Australian Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Emily J.; Alison M. Coates; Kohler, Mark; Banks, Siobhan

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine is commonly consumed to help offset fatigue, however, it can have several negative effects on sleep quality and quantity. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between caffeine consumption and sleep quality in adults using a newly validated caffeine food frequency questionnaire (C-FFQ). In this cross sectional study, 80 adults (M ± SD: 38.9 ± 19.3 years) attended the University of South Australia to complete a C-FFQ and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Caf...

  8. Life History Strategy and Young Adult Substance Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George B. Richardson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study tested whether life history strategy (LHS and its intergenerational transmission could explain young adult use of common psychoactive substances. We tested a sequential structural equation model using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. During young adulthood, fast LHS explained 61% of the variance in overall liability for substance use. Faster parent LHS predicted poorer health and lesser alcohol use, greater neuroticism and cigarette smoking, but did not predict fast LHS or overall liability for substance use among young adults. Young adult neuroticism was independent of substance use controlling for fast LHS. The surprising finding of independence between parent and child LHS casts some uncertainty upon the identity of the parent and child LHS variables. Fast LHS may be the primary driver of young adult use of common psychoactive substances. However, it is possible that the young adult fast LHS variable is better defined as young adult mating competition. We discuss our findings in depth, chart out some intriguing new directions for life history research that may clarify the dimensionality of LHS and its mediation of the intergenerational transmission of substance use, and discuss implications for substance abuse prevention and treatment.

  9. Predictors of Hazardous Alcohol Consumption Among Young Adult Amphetamine-Type Stimulant Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen M. Leslie

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Very high levels of alcohol consumption have been observed in young adult amphetamine-type stimulant (i.e., ecstasy and methamphetamine users. The reasons for this association are poorly understood. Objective: To examine predictors of hazardous alcohol consumption in a sample of young adult amphetamine-type stimulant users after 30 months of follow-up, controlling for potential confounders. Method: Analysis of longitudinal data from a population-derived sample of Australian young adult amphetamine-type stimulant users (n = 292. A prediction model of alcohol use at 30 months was developed using generalized linear latent and mixed modeling (GLLAMM. Results: Concurrently using ecstasy (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 2.67, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = [1.41, 5.07], frequently attending nightclubs (AOR = 2.53, 95% CI = [1.04, 6.16], high baseline alcohol use patterns (AOR = 2.06, 95% CI = [1.32, 3.20], and being male (AOR = 3.60, 95% CI = [1.48, 8.78] were associated with an increased likelihood of hazardous alcohol use at 30 months. Conclusion: Concurrent, but not baseline, ecstasy use was associated with hazardous alcohol use, suggesting that combined use of these substances may have an instrumental role in terms of the social functions of drug use (e.g., increasing capacity to drink. Integration of educational interventions concerning alcohol and stimulants is warranted.

  10. Psychosocial functioning in children and young adults with juvenile arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungerer, J A; Horgan, B; Chaitow, J; Champion, G D

    1988-02-01

    A questionnaire survey of 363 children and young adults with juvenile arthritis was conducted to assess the relations among disease severity, psychosocial functioning, and adjustment in three age groups--primary school, high school, and young adult. Parents were surveyed separately to determine which characteristics of the ill child at different ages most significantly impact the well-being of the family. Indices of psychologic functioning and disease severity were associated with adjustment in the primary school and high school groups, whereas measures of social relationships were strongly associated with adjustment only in the high school group. Relations among measures of psychologic functioning, social relationships, disease severity, and adjustment in young adults were minimal. Level of disease severity was associated with the presence of financial concerns, emotional problems, and physical strain in parents of high school children and young adults. The results emphasize the importance of using a developmental model for understanding the adjustment of individuals with chronic juvenile arthritis and their families.

  11. Caffeine Consumption and Sleep Quality in Australian Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Emily J.; Coates, Alison M.; Kohler, Mark; Banks, Siobhan

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine is commonly consumed to help offset fatigue, however, it can have several negative effects on sleep quality and quantity. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between caffeine consumption and sleep quality in adults using a newly validated caffeine food frequency questionnaire (C-FFQ). In this cross sectional study, 80 adults (M ± SD: 38.9 ± 19.3 years) attended the University of South Australia to complete a C-FFQ and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Caffeine consumption remained stable across age groups while the source of caffeine varied. Higher total caffeine consumption was associated with decreased time in bed, as an estimate of sleep time (r = −0.229, p = 0.041), but other PSQI variables were not. Participants who reported poor sleep (PSQI global score ≥ 5) consumed 192.1 ± 122.5 mg (M ± SD) of caffeine which was significantly more than those who reported good sleep quality (PSQI global score < 5; 125.2 ± 62.6 mg; p = 0.008). The C-FFQ was found to be a quick but detailed way to collect population based caffeine consumption data. The data suggests that shorter sleep is associated with greater caffeine consumption, and that consumption is greater in adults with reduced sleep quality. PMID:27527212

  12. Caffeine Consumption and Sleep Quality in Australian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Emily J; Coates, Alison M; Kohler, Mark; Banks, Siobhan

    2016-08-04

    Caffeine is commonly consumed to help offset fatigue, however, it can have several negative effects on sleep quality and quantity. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between caffeine consumption and sleep quality in adults using a newly validated caffeine food frequency questionnaire (C-FFQ). In this cross sectional study, 80 adults (M ± SD: 38.9 ± 19.3 years) attended the University of South Australia to complete a C-FFQ and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Caffeine consumption remained stable across age groups while the source of caffeine varied. Higher total caffeine consumption was associated with decreased time in bed, as an estimate of sleep time (r = -0.229, p = 0.041), but other PSQI variables were not. Participants who reported poor sleep (PSQI global score ≥ 5) consumed 192.1 ± 122.5 mg (M ± SD) of caffeine which was significantly more than those who reported good sleep quality (PSQI global score caffeine consumption data. The data suggests that shorter sleep is associated with greater caffeine consumption, and that consumption is greater in adults with reduced sleep quality.

  13. Obesity Among Young Adults in Developing Countries: A Systematic Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Poobalan, Amudha; Aucott, Lorna

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the overweight/obesity situation among young adults in developing countries. For this target population, obesity prevalence ranges from 2.3 to 12 %, and overweight is 28.8 %, mostly affecting females. Weight is now increasing during this life stage of transition at a higher rate, 1 kg/year, than in developed countries. Maternal factors and early childhood socioeconomic status are associated with BMI in young adults along with changing environmental and behavioural facto...

  14. Dreams End: A Young Adult Urban Fantasy with Critical Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Leavitt, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    This two-section thesis explores the subjective nature of villainy. The larger section, "Dream’s End," is an urban-fantasy young-adult fiction piece I’ve written in epistolary form. I preface the fiction with a critical introduction in which I briefly examine existing definitional scholarship on 1) epistolary fiction, 2) the urban fantasy genre, and 3) the young adult genre. Epistolary fiction may be letters, diaries, or journal entries. Following this exploration, I examine the subjective na...

  15. Self-Evaluated Dental Appearance Satisfaction among Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Azodo, CC; Ogbomo, AC

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dental appearance satisfaction is important among young adults because judgment concerning the personal characteristics of individuals is influenced by their dental appearance in the absence of other information. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the self-evaluated dental appearance satisfaction among young adults. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional survey of financial industry prone undergraduates of University of Benin was conducted between July and September, 2...

  16. Improving Work Participation of Young Adults with Physical Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.C. Verhoef (Joan)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis addresses the work participation of young adults with physical disabilities caused by a chronic condition. With increasing numbers of young people with a chronic physical condition living into adulthood, knowledge about the development of work participation

  17. Psychopathology in adolescents and young adults : prediction, course and prevalence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.F. Ferdinand (Robert)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThis manuscript contains results of an epidemiological study of psychopathology in adolescents and young adults. The first aim of the study was to determine the development of psychopathology from adolescence into young adulthood. The second aim was to validate recently developed' proced

  18. Multiple Voices, Multiple Genres: Fiction for Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Candida

    2002-01-01

    Notes that with so many multivoice novels accessible to teens, there is a great opportunity to expand students' reading repertoire. Proposes that young adult novels are an excellent transition to classic literature that may seem remote or difficult. Offers advice on teaching multivoice novels. Concludes that multivoice novels show young readers…

  19. Psychiatric Comorbidity in Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, David S.; Tonge, Bruce J.; Brereton, Avril V.; Einfeld, Stewart L.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a study investigating rates and types of comorbid mental disorder evident in adolescents and young adults with autism. A sample of 84 young people (M = 19.5 years, SD = 4.6) with "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders," 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric…

  20. Psychiatric Comorbidity in Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, David S.; Tonge, Bruce J.; Brereton, Avril V.; Einfeld, Stewart L.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a study investigating rates and types of comorbid mental disorder evident in adolescents and young adults with autism. A sample of 84 young people (M = 19.5 years, SD = 4.6) with "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders," 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association,…

  1. Do oral health conditions adversely impact young adults?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Carvalho; H.D. Mestrinho; S. Stevens; A.J. van Wijk

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the extent to which clinically measured oral health conditions, adjusted for sociodemographic and oral health behavior determinants, impact adversely on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in a sample of Belgian young adults. The null hypothesis was that, among young

  2. Five Invaluable Resources for Young Adult Religious Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winings, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    More than a decade ago, the popular topic of discussion in higher education and in pop culture concerned the character traits of what was then called "Generation X" or "GenX" for short. One lasting impact of this focus has been a renewed effort on the part of higher education to define young adulthood and to reassess young adult education. In the…

  3. It's Special and It's Specific: Understanding the Early Childhood Education Experiences and Expectations of Young Indigenous Australian Children and Their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Karen L.

    2017-01-01

    Whilst early childhood education is regarded as important for young Indigenous Australians and it has been a feature of policy since the 1960s, it does not receive the same attention as compulsory schooling for Indigenous Australian students. A serious lack of large-scale research contributes to the devaluing of early childhood education for young…

  4. NAVIGATING BETWEEN ETHNIC AND RELIGIOUS IDENTITY: HERITAGE LANGUAGE MAINTENANCE AMONG YOUNG AUSTRALIANS OF INDONESIAN ORIGIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Bukhori Muslim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available For ethnic minority groups, speaking a heritage language signifies belonging to their country of origin and enriches the dominant culture. The acculturation of major ethnic groups in Australia – Greek, Italian, Chinese, Indian and Vietnamese – has been frequently studied, but a minor one like Indonesian has not. Through semi-structured interviews at various places and observations at cultural events, the study explores the contextual use, meaning and perceived benefits of Bahasa Indonesia (Indonesian language among Indonesian families and how this practice influences the young participants’ (18-26 years old identification with Indonesia, the origin country of their parents, and Australia, their current culture of settlement. The findings suggest that Bahasa Indonesia serves as a marker of ethnic and religious identity glued in family socialization. Parents believe that not only does the language signify their Indonesian ethnic identity, but also provides a means for socializing family values, and is beneficial for educational purposes and future career opportunities. However, parents face a dilemma whether to focus on ethnic or religious identity in socializing the use of Bahasa Indonesia. Interestingly, most young participants demonstrate a more global worldview by embracing both Indonesian and Australian values. How religious identity relates to more global worldview should be addressed more comprehensively in future studies.

  5. Sleep difficulties and the development of depression and anxiety: a longitudinal study of young Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Melinda L; Sztendur, Ewa M; Diamond, Neil T; Byles, Julie E; Bruck, Dorothy

    2014-06-01

    Previous longitudinal studies have demonstrated that poor sleep may precede depression and anxiety. The current study examined the association between self-reported sleeping difficulties and new onset depression and anxiety in young women. A nationally representative sample of 9,683 young women from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health was analyzed. Women were surveyed in 2000 (aged 22 to 25 years), 2003, 2006, and 2009. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the association between sleeping difficulties in 2000 and new-onset depression (excluding postnatal depression) and anxiety at each subsequent survey. Significant increased risk of new onset depression (odds ratio (OR)=2.6 in 2003; OR=4.4 in 2006; OR=4.4 in 2009) and anxiety (OR=2.4 in 2006; OR=2.9 in 2009) was found at each follow-up survey in women who reported sleeping difficulties "often" in 2000. Further research is needed to uncover the mechanisms underlying the link between sleep problems and mental health.

  6. Life Course Status and Exchanges of Support between Young Adults and Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucx, Freek; van Wel, Frits; Knijn, Trudie

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated intergenerational support exchanges in relation to young adults' life course status. In a sample of 2,022 young adults (ages 18-34 years) in The Netherlands, single young adults reported receiving more advice from parents than married young adults, and those with children of their own received more practical support.…

  7. Approximate Quantification in Young, Healthy Older Adults', and Alzheimer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandini, Delphine; Lemaire, Patrick; Michel, Bernard Francois

    2009-01-01

    Forty young adults, 40 healthy older adults, and 39 probable AD patients were asked to estimate small (e.g., 25) and large (e.g., 60) collections of dots in a choice condition and in two no-choice conditions. Participants could choose between benchmark and anchoring strategies on each collection of dots in the choice condition and were required to…

  8. Mature Young Adult Books Are Given a Bad Reputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Julia

    1998-01-01

    Presents the viewpoints of a tenth grader on novels for young adults that portray troubled teens dealing with alcoholism, drugs, depression, suicide, sexual abuse, and violence. Suggests that contrary to adult opinions that these novels are not always age-appropriate, they in fact broaden teens' outlooks and prepare them for the real world. (LRW)

  9. Clinical characteristics and outcome of intracerebral hemorrhage in young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten-Jacobs, L.C.A.; Maaijwee, N.A.M.M.; Arntz, R.M.; Schoonderwaldt, H.C.; Dorresteijn, L.D.A.; Dijk, E.J. van; Leeuw, F.E. de

    2014-01-01

    Data on determinants of prognosis after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in young adults are scarce. Our aim was to identify clinical determinants of prognosis after ICH in adults aged 18-50. We investigated 98 consecutive patients with an ICH, aged 18-50 years, admitted to our hospital between 1980 a

  10. Cardiovascular risk factors in young adults: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dieu-My T; Zimmerman, Lani M

    2015-01-01

    This extensive literature review focuses on cardiovascular risk factors in young adults, with an emphasis on hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Multiple studies have confirmed that hyperlipidemia and hypertension during young adulthood are associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) in later decades, and CHD is one type of cardiovascular disease. The primary risk factors identified in the literature that are predictive of CHD are age; gender; race/ethnicity; smoking status; high blood pressure; and elevated lipid levels, especially low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The current guidelines are insufficient to address screening and treatment in young adults with cardiovascular risk factors. Future studies are warranted to confirm the extent of cardiovascular risks in young adults, which can then be targeted to this population for prevention and intervention strategies.

  11. Education mentoring for teenagers and young adults with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pini, Simon

    This article provides a review of the unique learning mentor role developed in the Leeds Hospital Teaching Trust since 2004. The role provides educational support to teenage and young adult cancer patients aged 13-25 years. During the period September 2004-December 2008 the learning mentor worked with 234 teenage and young adult patients. A questionnaire was administered in the summer of 2008 to gather reflections of patients and professionals, to evaluate the impact of this post. The questionnaire findings support the success of the role and the positive impact it has had for patients and professionals. There is potential for the role to be extended to national teenage and young adult cancer services, and to wider clinical areas where young people are living with chronic illness.

  12. Do young adults with bipolar disorder benefit from early intervention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Hansen, Hanne Vibe; Christensen, Ellen Margrethe

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether young adults with bipolar disorder are able to benefit from early intervention combining optimised pharmacological treatment and group psychoeducation. The aim of the present report was to compare the effects of early intervention among patients with bipolar...... disorder aged 18-25 years to that of patients aged 26 years or older. METHODS: Patients were randomised to early treatment in a specialised outpatient mood disorder clinic versus standard care. The primary outcome was risk of psychiatric re-hospitalisation. RESULTS: A total of 158 patients with mania/bipolar...... different, the observed differences of the point estimates was surprisingly larger for young adults suggesting that young adults with bipolar disorder may benefit even more than older adults from early intervention combining pharmacological treatment and group psychoeducation....

  13. Genetics of adult plant stripe rust resistance in CSP44, a selection from Australian wheat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Renu Khanna; U. K. Bansal; R. G. Saini

    2005-12-01

    Wheat line CSP44, a selection from an Australian bread wheat cultivar Condor, has shown resistance to stripe rust in India since the last twenty years. Seedlings and adult plants of CSP44 showed susceptible infection types against stripe rust race 46S119 but displayed average terminal disease severity of 2.67 on adult plants against this race as compared to 70.33 of susceptible Indian cultivar, WL711. This suggests the presence of nonhypersensitive adult plant stripe rust resistance in the line CSP44. The evaluation of F1, F2 and F3 generations and F6 SSD families from the cross of CSP44 with susceptible wheat cultivar WL711 for stripe rust severity indicated that the resistance in CSP44 is based on two genes showing additive effect. One of these two genes is Yr18 and the second gene is not yet described.

  14. Validation of Autism Spectrum Quotient Adult Version in an Australian Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Broadbent

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Autism Spectrum Quotient is used to assess autistic spectrum traits in intellectually competent adults in both the general population and the autism spectrum community. While the autism spectrum Quotient has been validated in several different cultures, to date no study has assessed the psychometrics of the Autism Spectrum Quotient on an Australian population. The purpose of this study was to assess the psychometrics of the autism spectrum Quotient in an Australian sample of both typically developing individuals ( and individuals with autism spectrum disorder (. The results revealed that the internal consistency and the test-retest reliability were satisfactory; individuals with autism spectrum disorder scored higher on total Autism Spectrum Quotient score and its subscales than typically developing individuals; however, gender differences were not apparent on total score. Possible cultural differences may explain some of the psychometric variations found. The results of this analysis revealed that the Autism Spectrum Quotient was a reliable instrument for investigating variation in autistic symptomology in both typically developing and Autism Spectrum Disorders populations within an Australian population.

  15. Validation of Autism Spectrum Quotient Adult Version in an Australian Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, J.; Galic, I.; Stokes, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    The Autism Spectrum Quotient is used to assess autistic spectrum traits in intellectually competent adults in both the general population and the autism spectrum community. While the autism spectrum Quotient has been validated in several different cultures, to date no study has assessed the psychometrics of the Autism Spectrum Quotient on an Australian population. The purpose of this study was to assess the psychometrics of the autism spectrum Quotient in an Australian sample of both typically developing individuals (n = 128) and individuals with autism spectrum disorder (n = 104). The results revealed that the internal consistency and the test-retest reliability were satisfactory; individuals with autism spectrum disorder scored higher on total Autism Spectrum Quotient score and its subscales than typically developing individuals; however, gender differences were not apparent on total score. Possible cultural differences may explain some of the psychometric variations found. The results of this analysis revealed that the Autism Spectrum Quotient was a reliable instrument for investigating variation in autistic symptomology in both typically developing and Autism Spectrum Disorders populations within an Australian population. PMID:23762552

  16. Characterizing upper limb muscle volume and strength in older adults: a comparison with young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidt, Meghan E; Daly, Melissa; Miller, Michael E; Davis, Cralen C; Marsh, Anthony P; Saul, Katherine R

    2012-01-10

    Aging is associated with the loss of muscle volume (MV) and force leading to difficulties with activities of daily living. However, the relationship between upper limb MV and joint strength has not been characterized for older adults. Quantifying this relationship may help our understanding of the functional declines of the upper limb that older adults experience. Our objective was to assess the relationship between upper limb MV and maximal isometric joint moment-generating capacity (IJM) in a single cohort of healthy older adults (age ≥ 65 years) for 6 major functional groups (32 muscles). MV was determined from MRI for 18 participants (75.1±4.3 years). IJM at the shoulder (abduction/adduction), elbow (flexion/extension), and wrist (flexion/extension) was measured. MV and IJM measurements were compared to previous reports for young adults (28.6±4.5 years). On average older adults had 16.5% less total upper limb MV compared to young adults. Additionally, older adult wrist extensors composed a significantly increased percentage of upper limb MV. Older adult IJM was reduced across all joints, with significant differences for shoulder abductors (pIJM was accounted for by MV changes (p≤0.027), compared to 81.0% in young adults. We conclude that for older adults, MV and IJM are, on average, reduced but the significant linear relationship between MV and IJM is maintained. These results suggest that older adult MV and IJM cannot be simply scaled from young adults.

  17. YOUNG ADULT PERCEPTION AND ATTITUDE TOWARD CONSPICUOUS CONSUMPTION AND POVERTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Yvette Sims-Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the perception and attitude of young adults toward conspicuous consumption portrayed in mass media and their conception of poverty. Many young adults may not realize the cadre of consumerist ideologies portrayed throughout the culture and mass media such as buy more, buy newer and improved, buy wants over needs, buy comparatively, buy exclusively and buy to prove. In light of such mass media portrayal, young adult consumption habits may reflect unrealistic ideas about what it means to be poor. This research quantitatively examined the impact of mass media on young adult consumption patterns and sought to determine if there is a relationship between conspicuous consumption and poverty perception based on portrayals in popular mass media culture. The population for this research was primarily college-age student consumers under 25. The findings indicate that young adults view their consumption as an indicator of class and social status and that mass media portrayal have a significant relationship on their consumption perception.

  18. Reverse correlating trustworthy faces in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethier-Majcher, Catherine; Joubert, Sven; Gosselin, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about how older persons determine if someone deserves their trust or not based on their facial appearance, a process referred to as "facial trustworthiness."In the past few years, Todorov and colleagues have argued that, in young adults, trustworthiness judgments are an extension of emotional judgments, and therefore, that trust judgments are made based on a continuum between anger and happiness (Todorov, 2008; Engell et al., 2010). Evidence from the literature on emotion processing suggest that older adults tend to be less efficient than younger adults in the recognition of negative facial expressions (Calder et al., 2003; Firestone et al., 2007; Ruffman et al., 2008; Chaby and Narme, 2009). Based on Todorov';s theory and the fact that older adults seem to be less efficient than younger adults in identifying emotional expressions, one could expect that older individuals would have different representations of trustworthy faces and that they would use different cues than younger adults in order to make such judgments. We verified this hypothesis using a variation of Mangini and Biederman's (2004) reverse correlation method in order to test and compare classification images resulting from trustworthiness (in the context of money investment), from happiness, and from anger judgments in two groups of participants: young adults and older healthy adults. Our results show that for elderly participants, both happy and angry representations are correlated with trustworthiness judgments. However, in young adults, trustworthiness judgments are mainly correlated with happiness representations. These results suggest that young and older adults differ in their way of judging trustworthiness.

  19. Reverse correlating trustworthy faces in young and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eÉthier-Majcher

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about how older persons determine if someone deserves their trust or not based on their facial appearance, a process referred to as facial trustworthiness. In the past few years, Todorov and colleagues have argued that, in young adults, trustworthiness judgments are an extension of emotional judgments, and therefore, that trust judgments are made based on a continuum between anger and happiness (Engell, Todorov & Haxby, 2010; Todorov, 2008. Evidence from the literature on emotion processing suggest that older adults tend to be less efficient than younger adults in the recognition of negative facial expressions (Chaby & Narme, 2009; Ruffman, Henry, Livingstone et al., 2008; Firestone, Turk-Browne & Ryan, 2007; Calder, Keane, Manly et al., 2003. Based on Todorov’s theory and the fact that older adults seem to be less efficient than younger adults in identifying emotional expressions, one could expect that older individuals would have different representations of trustworthy faces and that they would use different cues than younger adults in order to make such judgments. We verified this hypothesis using a variation of Mangini and Biederman's (2004 reverse correlation method in order to test and compare classification images resulting from trustworthiness (in the context of money investment, from happiness, and from anger judgments in two groups of participants: young adults and older healthy adults. Our results show that for elderly participants, both happy and angry representations are correlated with trustworthiness judgments. However, in young adults, trustworthiness judgments are mainly correlated with happiness representations. These results suggest that young and older adults differ in their way of judging trustworthiness.

  20. Genetic susceptibility of intervertebral disc degeneration among young Finnish adults

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Disc degeneration (DD) is a common condition that progresses with aging. Although the events leading to DD are not well understood, a significant genetic influence has been found. This study was undertaken to assess the association between relevant candidate gene polymorphisms and moderate DD in a well-defined and characterized cohort of young adults. Focusing on young age can be valuable in determining genetic predisposition to DD. Methods We investigated the associations...

  1. Prevalence and structure of periodontal disease in young aged adults

    OpenAIRE

    Kholodnyak, O. V.

    2017-01-01

    Under modern condotions the problem of prevention and treatment of periodontal does not lose its relevance, This is significant prevalence of periodontal lesions, including young people. One of the promising areas that help to reduce the incidence and intensity of periodontal disease is the development and implementation of objective methods for predicting and preventing their development. Data on periodontal status in young aged adults are contradictory, and rates of prevalence of periodonta...

  2. Ewing sarcoma in adolescents and young adults: diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis LE

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Lara E Davis,1,2 Suman Malempati2 1Department of Medicine, 2Department of Pediatrics, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, USA Abstract: Ewing sarcoma (ES is a rare tumor that most often occurs in adolescents and young adults. This review discusses the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of localized and metastatic ES, with an emphasis on the care of adolescent and young adult patients. The pathobiology is reviewed. Particular attention is given to recent and current clinical trials, and an introduction to future directions for therapy of ES is provided. Keywords: Ewing, sarcoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumor, PNET

  3. Impact of Personality on Vengeance and Forgiveness in Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marium Javaid Bajwa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify personality traits that affect vengeful and forgiving behavior among young adults. Big Five Personality Inventory, Vengeance Scale and Trait Forgiveness Scale were administered to 159 male and female students selected by using convenient sampling technique to have a base-line data for the study. Overall, agreeableness trait predicted forgiveness. Vengeance showed significant negative correlation with agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness. Whereas Independent T-test indicated that personality traits plays crucial role in determining vengeful and forgiving behaviors in contrast to gender in young adults.

  4. Social cognitive correlates of young adult sport competitors' sunscreen use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Nadine C; O'Riordan, David L; Winkler, Elisabeth; McDermott, Liane; Spathonis, Kym; Owen, Neville

    2011-02-01

    Young adults participating in outdoor sports represent a high-risk group for excessive sun exposure. The purpose of this study was to identify modifiable social cognitive correlates of sunscreen use among young adult competitors. Participants aged 18 to 30 years who competed in soccer (n = 65), surf-lifesaving (n = 63), hockey (n = 61), and tennis (n = 48) completed a sun habits survey. Almost half (n = 113) of the participants used sunscreen inadequately and 30% (n = 70) reported not using sunscreen. In fully adjusted models, social cognitive attributes significantly (p competitors and as a result may be useful in informing behavior change interventions within the sporting context.

  5. The distinctive biology of cancer in adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleyer, Archie; Barr, Ronald; Hayes-Lattin, Brandon; Thomas, David; Ellis, Chad; Anderson, Barry

    2008-04-01

    One explanation for the relative lack of progress in treating cancer in adolescents and young adults is that the biology of malignant diseases in this age group is different than in younger and older persons, not only in the spectrum of cancers but also within individual cancer types and within the patient (host). Molecular, epidemiological and therapeutic outcome comparisons offer clues to this distinctiveness in most of the common cancers of adolescents and young adults. Translational and clinical research should not assume that the biology of cancers and patients is the same as in other age groups, and treatment strategies should be tailored to the differences.

  6. Facilitating Teamwork in Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rebecca H; Macpherson, Catherine Fiona; Smith, Ashley W; Block, Rebecca G; Keyton, Joann

    2016-11-01

    A case of a young adult patient in the days immediately after a cancer diagnosis illustrates the critical importance of three interrelated core coordinating mechanisms-closed-loop communication, shared mental models, and mutual trust-of teamwork in an adolescent and young adult multidisciplinary oncology team. The case illustrates both the opportunities to increase team member coordination and the problems that can occur when coordination breaks down. A model for teamwork is presented, which highlights the relationships among these coordinating mechanisms and demonstrates how balance among them works to optimize team function and patient care. Implications for clinical practice and research suggested by the case are presented.

  7. Takeaway food consumption and its associations with diet quality and abdominal obesity: a cross-sectional study of young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwyer Terence

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have investigated the associations of takeaway food consumption with overall diet quality and abdominal obesity. Young adults are high consumers of takeaway food so we aimed to examine these associations in a national study of young Australian adults. Methods A national sample of 1,277 men and 1,585 women aged 26–36 completed a self-administered questionnaire on demographic and lifestyle factors, a 127 item food frequency questionnaire, usual daily frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption and usual weekly frequency of takeaway food consumption. Dietary intake was compared with the dietary recommendations from the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Waist circumference was measured for 1,065 men and 1,129 women. Moderate abdominal obesity was defined as ≥ 94 cm for men and ≥ 80 cm for women. Prevalence ratios (PR were calculated using log binomial regression. Takeaway food consumption was dichotomised, with once a week or less as the reference group. Results Consumption of takeaway food twice a week or more was reported by more men (37.9% than women (17.7%, P Conclusion Eating takeaway food twice a week or more was associated with poorer diet quality and a higher prevalence of moderate abdominal obesity in young men and women.

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  8. Clueless: Adult Mysteries with Young Adult Appeal 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John; Morrison, Joanna

    2002-01-01

    This annotated bibliography includes adult mysteries that appeal to teen readers under the categories of Sherlock Holmes; reference sources; private investigators; amateur sleuths; historical sleuths; suspense and thrillers; police procedurals; mystery blends; and anthologies. (LRW)

  9. The consumer competence of young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice

    2007-01-01

    Purpose The consumer competence concept is loaded with ambiguity in the academic as well as in the public use of the term. The purpose of this paper was to examine the concept theoretically and empirically. Methodology/Approach Consumer socialization theories were compared and combined...... of 'desirable consumer socialization', but also added a fundamental consumer competence to the list: to carefully consider one's need to make a purchase. Research limitations/implications The study included only a certain segment of young consumers. Future studies of consumer competence may include consumers...

  10. A Complementary Alternative Medicine Questionnaire for Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Patterson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited information exists on how adolescents decide to use complementary/alternative medicine (CAM. There are also no instruments specific to CAM, for the young adult population, which makes it difficult to explore knowledge in this area. The purpose of this study was to develop and examine the psychometric properties of the CAM Questionnaire for Young Adults which measures young adults’ attitudes about CAM. Participants for this cross-sectional survey were selected from enrolled undergraduate students at an urban university. Factor analysis identified three subscales: 1 positive beliefs about CAM; 2 environmental influence; and 3 psychological comfort. The scale has good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.79 and shows beginning demonstration of validity. Its use in this sample revealed that young adults who are female and have used CAM in the past for preventing or treating illness have the most positive attitude towards CAM and the greatest likelihood for continued use. The implication that prevention may play a role in young adults’ attitudes about CAM is a potential focus for future research.

  11. Pelvic alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma in a young adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Reisner, MD

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhabdomyosarcomas are soft-tissue tumors, rare in adults. Accounting for nearly 5% of childhood cancers, they represent less than 0.03% of adult malignancies (1, 2. Three different subtypes of rhabdomyosarcoma have been described (embryonal, alveolar and pleomorphic, making up approximately 50%, 30%, and 20% of the cases, respectively (3. Although the definitive diagnosis is made pathologically, some distinguishing features among these subtypes, and between rhabdomyosarcomas and other soft-tissue tumors, can be suggested on MRI and CT. We present an interesting case of a 20-year-old female with a locally aggressive pelvic alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. While the prognosis has improved with newer treatment techniques, overall survival rates remain poor. Our case study presents typical features of a rare disease, which can often present a diagnostic dilemma for clinicians.

  12. Immunosuppressive drugs and young adults: a difficult combination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielen, M.; Jedeloo, Susan; Staa, Anneloes van; Weimar, W.

    2008-01-01

    In our center we encounter serious problems with a number young adult (18- 25yrs) renal transplant recipients that are non-compliant to the medication regime. This could well be one of the reasons for the significantly worse unadjusted 10 years kidney graft survival in this patient group compared to

  13. Young Adults with Gambling Problems: The Impact of Childhood Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felsher, Jennifer R.; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Gupta, Rina

    2010-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment has been thought to be a significant risk factor in the development of gambling problems. Incorporating a developmental psychopathology perspective, 1,324 adolescents and young adults, age 17-22 years completed self-report measures on gambling behaviors, gambling severity, and childhood maltreatment. Problem gamblers…

  14. The effectiveness of aftercare for juvenile and young adult offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    James, C.; Asscher, J.J.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; van der Laan, P.H.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the New Perspectives Aftercare Program (NPAP) for serious juvenile and young adult offenders in The Netherlands. Participants (n = 127) were randomly assigned to NPAP (n = 66) or existing aftercare services ("treatment as usual" [TAU], n = 61). The aim was to determine whether NP

  15. Young Adult Capacity Initiative Cross-Site Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Academy for Educational Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This cross-site analysis presents findings about the implementation, impact, and outcomes of the Young Adult Capacity Initiative (YACI), at 13 community-based organizations in New York City. These agencies received technical assistance and small incentive grants from the Fund for the City of New York Youth Development Institute (YDI) to build…

  16. Life Satisfaction among Young Adults from Rural Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stephan M.; Peterson, Gary W.

    1988-01-01

    Examined possible predictors of life satisfaction among 322 low-income young adults from rural Appalachia. Both objective and subjective conditions of life were predictors of life satisfaction: financial resources, self-esteem, and proximity to childhood home were positive predictors; frustrations about limited job opportunities and community size…

  17. Development of Food Safety Psychosocial Questionnaires for Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd-Bredbenner, C.; Wheatley, V.; Schaffner, D.; Bruhn, C.; Blalock, L.; Maurer, J.

    2007-01-01

    Food mishandling is thought to be more acute among young adults; yet little is known about why they may engage in risky food handling behaviors. The purpose of this study was to create valid, reliable instruments for assessing key food safety psychosocial measures. Development of the measures began by examining published studies and behavior…

  18. Recognize the Signs: Reading Young Adult Literature to Address Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytash, Kristine E.; Morgan, Denise N.; Batchelor, Katherine E.

    2013-01-01

    This article summarizes preservice teachers' experiences in a book club that read young adult literature focused on issues related to bullying. Preservice teachers learned to recognize various incidents of bullying in the books. They also began to consider how they might handle incidents of bullying in their future classrooms. (Contains 2 figures.)

  19. Future HIV Vaccine Acceptability among Young Adults in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayles, Jennifer N.; Macphail, Catherine L.; Newman, Peter A.; Cunningham, William E.

    2010-01-01

    Developing and disseminating a preventive HIV vaccine is a primary scientific and public health objective. However, little is known about HIV vaccine acceptability in the high-prevalence setting of South Africa--where young adults are likely to be targeted in early dissemination efforts. This study reports on six focus groups (n = 42) conducted in…

  20. Executive Functions in Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Danielle I.; Saklofske, Donald H.; Schwean, Vicki L.; Montgomery, Janine M.; Thorne, Keoma J.; McCrimmon, Adam W.

    2017-01-01

    Researchers have proposed that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized, at least in part, by executive function (EF) difficulties associated with the integrity of the frontal lobe. Given the paucity of research regarding EFs in young adults with high functioning ASD (HF-ASD), this research involves an examination of various indices of EF…

  1. Aesthetic Learning Theory and the Faith Formation of Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, Katherine M.

    2013-01-01

    Participation in the arts is a form of practical reason and as such has the potential to form and transform the faith of individuals. The findings from Katherine M. Douglass's 2011 study on the role of the arts in the faith lives of young adults provides examples of the transformative potential of the arts as they foster expression,…

  2. America's Young Adults: Special Issue, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Traci; Kappeler, Evelyn; Ellis, Renee; Kominski, Robert; Cooper, Alexia; Smith, Erica; Donoghue, Brecht; Whitestone, Yuko; Snyder, Tom; Aud, Susan; Williamson, Lisa; Henderson, Steve; Steffen, Barry; Madans, Jennifer; Lukacs, Susan; Pastor, Patricia; Goldstrom, Ingrid; Han, Beth; Bures, Regina; Chamberlain, Seth; Despain, Jason; Chadwick, Laura; Park, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The well-being of young adults in the United States today remains an area of key interest to the public and policy-makers alike. This age group faces the well-known challenges of achieving financial and social independence while forming their own households at a time of greater economic uncertainty than in the past. Better understanding of the…

  3. Student Sex: More or Less Risky than Other Young Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Lorraine; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Young, Honor

    2015-01-01

    Sexually active young adults are at an increased risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs) or experiencing an unplanned pregnancy. Sexual behaviours such as inconsistent condom use, multiple partners and casual sex are known risk factors for negative sexual health outcomes. Sexually active higher education students are classified as…

  4. A Qualitative Survey Examining the Moral Identities of Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onat Kocabiyik, Oya; Kulaksizoglu, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    Moral identity can orient one's behaviors when exhibiting any kind of moral behavior. In this study, the moral identities of young adults are analyzed to a certain extent. For this purpose, the "interpretative phenomenological pattern" and "grounded theory" models are used as qualitative survey models. The study group for…

  5. Engagement with Young Adult Literature: Outcomes and Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Gay; Johnston, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines students' perceptions of the outcomes and processes of engaged reading in classrooms prioritizing engagement through self-selected, self-paced reading of compelling young adult literature. The primary data were 71 end-of-year student interviews, supported by end-of-year teacher interviews, biweekly observational data,…

  6. Promoting Young Adult Literature: The Other "Real" Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoli, Susan P.; Wagner, Mary Elaine

    2004-01-01

    Getting students to read is a common problem in many secondary English language arts classrooms. Many teachers continue to assign only classic literature with novels that have been traditionally used in English language arts classrooms because of the belief in timelessness. There is evidence that the use of young adult literature in the secondary…

  7. Negotiating Understanding through the Young Adult Literature of Muslim Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Allison L.; Glasgow, Jacqueline N.

    2010-01-01

    Although United States citizens generally pride themselves on their understanding and acceptance of diversity, all too many of them harbor a fear of Muslims, which transformed into widespread bigotry after September 11, 2001. Knowing that young adult literature can be a powerful means of negotiating understanding of the other, this article…

  8. Thematic Solutions Using Young Adult Literature to Increase Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jill; Bushman, John H.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss thematic solutions using young adult literature to increase reading comprehension. Here, they emphasize that prior knowledge plays a very important role in the reading process. As students read, they actively "construct meaning through the integration of existing and new knowledge and the flexible use of…

  9. Portrayals of Bullying in Young Adult Literature: Considerations for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Janette; Laffier, Jennifer Lynn

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors examine how bullying is portrayed in three recent young adult novels, focusing specifically on whether the information about bullying is accurate, biased, or represents old myths in comparison to current research. The authors conduct a systematic analysis of the following four themes: (1) What is bullying?; (2) Who are…

  10. Exploring Notions of Freedom in and through Young Adult Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Thomas W.; Harper, Helen J.

    2006-01-01

    This article offers teachers a critical framework for use and adaptation in organizing class discussions focused on notions of freedom in young adult literature. The authors open by discussing the notion of freedom, including concepts related to negative and positive freedom and to arguments advocating critical discussion of common assumptions…

  11. Connecting with Texts: Teacher Candidates Reading Young Adult Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Kelly Byrne

    2011-01-01

    Preparing teachers to understand their students' reading processes so that they can guide their students toward connecting with texts in meaningful and personal ways are goals that can be met through the study of young adult literature. Twenty-first century learners live in an increasingly interconnected world and have access to countless texts…

  12. Supplemental Reading for Ninth Graders: Classic or Young Adult Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Katherine Jane Roney

    2012-01-01

    The project addressed the debate over supplemental literature: young adult or classic selections to better support teaching ninth graders Tennessee's English I curriculum standards. Research supported both classical and contemporary literature for teaching ninth graders, making it difficult to determine which type of literature might produce the…

  13. Primary care for young adult cancer survivors: an international perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holge-Hazelton, B.; Blake-Gumbs, L.; Miedema, B.; Rijswijk, E. van

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: Internationally, family physicians (FP) are not routinely involved in young adult cancer (YAC) care. In this short report, we would like to make a compelling argument for primary care involvement. METHODS: Comparative descriptions and literature review. RESULTS: Cancer among YAs is rare and

  14. Critical Conversations on Whiteness with Young Adult Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieble, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author argues that whiteness remains an overwhelmingly absent dimension in literacy teaching that addresses systems of power from a critical perspective. One way literacy teachers may bring this dimension more explicitly into the classroom is by facilitating critical conversations on whiteness with young adult literature. As…

  15. Off the Shelves: Poetry and Verse Novels for Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letcher, Mark, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Of all the material in the English language arts curricula, poetry seems to cause the most consternation among teachers. For a number of teachers, and many students, poetry continues to be a difficult topic to teach and learn. In this article, the author focuses on the ways that young adult literature can help teachers expose their students to…

  16. Monstrous Acts: Problematizing Violence in Young Adult Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzak, Judith; Noll, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    Despite a growing body of work that draws attention to the presence of violence in the mass media and its effects on youth, little critical attention has been paid to the role of violence in young adult literature. The authors believe that by bringing violence to the foreground in the study of texts, they can enrich and deepen what these stories…

  17. Parental Status Characteristics and Self-Placement of Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBroom, William H.; Hammer, Gail

    1983-01-01

    Examines status self-placement literature. Tests Talcott Parsons's inferences that, in predicting young adults' self-placement, (1) father's occupation is more important than other status variables of the father, (2) mother's employment makes the process of self-placement less predictable, and (3) "emancipation" from family of…

  18. Getting young adults back to church: A marketing approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle C. van der Merwe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, church membership is decreasing. A decline in the number of young adults that attend church services is also evident. The purpose of the research was to determine whether the application of a well-established body of knowledge of marketing theories and principles could be used by churches to encourage young adults to return to the church. The application of services marketing to the church as a non-profit organisation is discussed by focussing on non-physical and physical atmospheric cues in the church’s servicescape that could enhance church attendance. A quantitative approach was used by testing the opinions of 200 church service attendees of different denominations. The findings indicated that certain elements in the servicescape of a church may be useful in attracting young adults. It was found that music is a strong determinant of whether young adults attend church services, followed by layout and design of the church and then by the signs and symbols used in the church. Females reported significantly higher levels of positive perceptions concerning the layout and design. Although the research showed that some marketing elements, such as a positive servicescape, could improve church attendance, other personal elements such as forming personal relationships with fellow Christians and God need to be further explored.

  19. Riskiness in the Elderly: Attitudes of Young and Elderly Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldstein, Jerome H.; Feldman, Barbara

    Risk-taking attitudes and behaviors among young and elderly adults were investigated. Elderly subjects, from both a nursing home and the community, and college students responded to choice dilemmas involving aged central characters. Each subject responded twice, once under "self" instructions, and once as the "average elderly person" would…

  20. Investigating the News Seeking Behavior of Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qayyum, M. Asim; Williamson, Kirsty; Liu, Ying-Hsang; Hider, Philip

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the news-seeking and browsing behaviours of young adults, partly in the context of everyday life information seeking (ELIS), in order to explore their perceptions of and attitudes towards print and online news media. The study is significant because traditional print newspapers face a steady decline in their readership with…

  1. The social networks of teens and young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ling, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the way in which social networks operate within small groups. The study examines the social networks of teens and young adults. Groups of friends were recruited for the study and thus the unit of analysis is the group as opposed to the individual. The members of each group...

  2. Whole Body Vibration Improves Cognition in Healthy Young Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regterschot, G. Ruben H.; Van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; Zeinstra, Edzard B.; Fuermaier, Anselm B.M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Oliver; Van der Zee, Eddy A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV) on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5 +/- 2.2 years) underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm) and six non-vibration con

  3. ERIC/RCS: Booklists on Young Adult Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorney, Jacqueline M.

    1987-01-01

    Annotates booklists of literature for young adults that were selected on the basis of their quality and interest. Topics include: (1) contemporary nonfiction; (2) fantasy, science fiction, and the supernatural; (3) titles for reluctant readers; (4) death and war; (5) love and teen sexuality; (6) science; (7) American and world culture; (8) Black…

  4. STROKE IN YOUNG ADULTS: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF 68 CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Harirchian

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous etiologies are responsible for cases of stroke in young adults. This study reviews the causes of two types of stroke (ischemic and intracerebral hemorrhage in young adults aged 15 to 40years, admitted to our center (a tertiary care center from 1997 to 2002. The purpose of this study is to determine the relative frequency of causes of stroke in young adults and compare this with published data in the literature. Using the codes 46.0 to 46.8 of the International Classification of Diseases- 10th Edition (ICD-10, cases were identified from the records of the stroke patients admitted in Imam Khomeini Hospital and the data were collected from their files using a comprehensive questionnaire. Forty-two cases of ischemic stroke (62% and 26 cases of intracerebral hemorrhage (38% were identified. The leading cause of ischemic stroke was cardioembolism (38.1%, followed by atherosclerosis in 5 cases (11.9%. Among cardiac causes infarction was attributable to consequences of rheumatic heart disease in 8 cases. In 3 cases a cessation or decrease in dose of warfarin was followed directly by an ischemic stroke. The most leading cause of intracerebral hemorrhage was hypertension (30.8%. Other causes were anticoagulant therapy, intratumoral hemorrhage, aplastic anemia, leukemia, arteriovenous malformations, and chronic active hepatitis. In conclusion, cardioembolism and hypertension were the most leading causes of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in young adults admitted in our hospital.

  5. The Young Adult Book Review Media: An Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locker, Linda S.

    This study examines eight reviewing tools which include reviews for young adult (YA) books. The following journals are examined to determine scope, coverage, analysis of content, and reviewing policies: "Booklist,""School Library Journal,""Horn Book Magazine,""Wilson Library Bulletin,""Voice of Youth…

  6. Loneliness in the daily lives of young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Roekel, E.; Ha, Thao; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Verhagen, Maaike

    2016-01-01

    A socio-cognitive model of loneliness states that lonely people are characterized by two characteristics, hypersensitivity to social threat and hyposensitivity to social reward. However, these characteristics have not yet been examined in the daily lives of young adults. Therefore, the main aim of t

  7. Living with Cystic Fibrosis: A Guide for the Young Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, Atlanta, GA.

    Intended for the young adult with cystic fibrosis, the booklet provides information on dealing with problems and on advances in treatment and detection related to the disease. Addressed are the following topics: description of cystic fibrosis; inheritance of cystic fibrosis; early diagnosis; friends, careers, and other matters; treatment;…

  8. Cover Art, Consumerism, and YA [Young Adult] Reading Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Cosette

    Cover art has long been used as a marketing device for books, particularly with books aimed at young adults (YAs) aged 12 to 18. An examination of some of the teen thrillers published by novelist Lois Duncan since the 1970s yields several discoveries about changes in cover art that come with various editions. Many covers have been resigned to…

  9. Assessing Decision Making in Young Adult Romantic Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennum, Amber; Fincham, Frank D.

    2011-01-01

    Romantic relationships among young adults are rich with ambiguity and without a clear, universal progression emphasizing the need for active decision making. Lack of active decision making in romantic relationships can lead to increases in constraints (e.g. pregnancy, shared living space or finances) that promote the continuation of relationships…

  10. Strategic Selection of Children's and Young Adult Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Laura M.; McIlhagga, Kristen K. A.

    2013-01-01

    The authors discuss strategic selection of literature for children and young adults based on the characteristics of written text and images as teachers and parents choose books for classroom and home settings. The topic is approached from two stances/lenses: (1) the cognitive processes used while reading and the ways different genres, topics, and…

  11. Young Adult Literature Research in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayn, Judith A.; Kaplan, Jeffrey S.; Nolen, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    The study of young adult literature (YAL) as both an art form and teaching tool is in its infancy. Barely 50 years old, this emerging genre began to establish a presence in the canon of both classical and popular literature. As a developing field of inquiry, however, YAL struggles for legitimacy and prestige. The purpose of this article is to…

  12. Family Influences on the Career Development of Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splete, Howard; Freeman-George, Ann

    1985-01-01

    This article (1) reviews family influences on career development (geographic location, genetic inheritance, family background, socioeconomic status, family composition, parenting style, parental work-related attitudes) and (2) suggests counselor interventions to aid young adults in becoming autonomous in their career development (e.g., review…

  13. Parental Attachment, Interparental Conflict, and Young Adults' Emotional Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jennifer; Fuertes, Jairo

    2010-01-01

    This study extends Engels et al.'s model of emotional adjustment to young adults and includes the constructs of interparental conflict and conflict resolution. Results indicate that parental attachment is better conceived as a two-factor construct of mother and father attachment and that although attachment to both mothers and fathers directly…

  14. Exposure to Interparental Conflict and Psychological Disorder among Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Heather A.; Kopiec, Kathleen

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the effect of exposure to interparental conflict on the mental health of young adults. Based on a diverse sample of 649 students from three New England colleges, the authors investigate the association between nonviolent interparental conflict during childhood, subsequent distress and disorder, and identified factors that…

  15. The Black Experience: Recent Resources for Children and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell-Powell, Brenda

    1994-01-01

    Recent titles for children and young adults that focus on the black experience are annotated. Included are four picture books; three books of poetry; five reference books (Heritage Library of African Peoples series); two books on music; five biographies; and one history book. (SLD)

  16. Substance Abuse by Youth and Young Adults in Rural America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, David; Gale, John A.; Hartley, David

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Addressing substance abuse in rural America requires extending our understanding beyond urban-rural comparisons to how substance abuse varies across rural communities of different sizes. We address this gap by examining substance abuse prevalence across 4 geographic levels, focusing on youth (age 12-17 years) and young adults (age 18-25…

  17. Perceived Effectiveness of Tobacco Countermarketing Advertisements among Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy-Hoefer, Rebecca; Hyland, Andrew; Higbee, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To measure relative effectiveness of tobacco countermarketing advertisements by category and emotive execution style among young adults. Methods: Participants (n = 1011) from 2 US 4-year colleges, one southern and one northern were surveyed before and after viewing advertisements in one of 3 categories: social norms, health…

  18. Young Adults Do Not Think World Knowledge Is Vital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2006-01-01

    A new survey has found that most young adults in the United States have difficulty identifying Iraq on an unlabeled map of the Middle East, or are unaware that the population of China is more than four times that of the United States. This lack of geographic literacy goes beyond simple gaps in knowledge and skills for most of these people do not…

  19. Parentification, Parental Alcoholism, and Academic Status among Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Nancy D.; Wells, Marolyn C.; Deming, Mary P.

    1998-01-01

    Examines young adults (N=360) in terms of their perceptions of having assumed a parentified role in their family of origin as a function of academic status and classification as children of alcoholics or nonalcoholics. Low academic status participants reported having greater caretaking responsibilities and worries in their families. Children of…

  20. Executive function in young Colombian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, David A; Merchan, Vilma

    2003-03-01

    The aim of this article was to observe the correlation between executive function (EF) variables, and to determine the factor structure of the EF in young university students, as mathematical models for supporting its multidimensional structure. Participants were both males and females, aged 16 to 21 years (N = 100) and with normal Full Scale IQ selected in a randomized and representative approach in private universities of Medellín, Colombia. They were students of verbal, visual-spatial, and mathematical careers. An executive function assessment battery was applied and which included: Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Trail Making Test (TMT) A and B, verbal fluency test (FAS) by phonologic and semantic cues, and Stroop's conflict word/color test. The results were as follows: An orthogonal structure of five factors, which explained 74.9% of the variance, was found. Factor 1 was formed by WCST variables (organization and flexibility), and explained 25.8% of the variance. Errors from the Stroop reading and naming were assigned to factor 2, which explained 17.3% of the variance. Factor 3 was the time for executing Stroop's test, and explained 13.1% of the variance. Factor 4 was TMT A and B (10.1%). Factor 5 was verbal fluency (8.5% of the variance). In conclusion, executive function in young university students was conformed by five orthogonal cognitive dimensions.

  1. Muscle dissatisfaction in young adult men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulik Cynthia M

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backround Appearance concerns are of increasing importance in young men's lives. We investigated whether muscle dissatisfaction is associated with psychological symptoms, dietary supplement or anabolic steroid use, or physical activity in young men. Methods As a part of a questionnaire assessment of health-related behaviors in the population-based FinnTwin16 study, we assessed factors associated with muscle dissatisfaction in 1245 men aged 22–27 using logistic regression models. Results Of men, 30% experienced high muscle dissatisfaction, while 12% used supplements/steroids. Of highly muscle-dissatisfied men, 21.5% used supplements/steroids. Mean body mass index, waist circumference, or leisure aerobic activity index did not differ between individuals with high/low muscle dissatisfaction. Muscle dissatisfaction was significantly associated with a psychological and psychosomatic problems, alcohol and drug use, lower height satisfaction, sedentary lifestyle, poor subjective physical fitness, and lower life satisfaction. Conclusion Muscle dissatisfaction and supplement/steroid use are relatively common, and are associated with psychological distress and markers of sedentary lifestyle.

  2. Adolescents' and Young Adults' Lived Experiences Following Venous Thromboembolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højen, Anette Arbjerg; Dreyer, Pia S; Lane, Deirdre A;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-term, mental well-being of adolescence and young adults diagnosed with venous thromboembolism (VTE) as experienced by the patients has received little attention. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore the essential meaning of adolescents' and young adults' lived...... experiences following VTE to gain an in-depth understanding of their long-term, mental well-being. METHODS: Semistructured interviews were conducted with 12 Danish patients who were diagnosed with VTE in adolescence or young adulthood. Interviews were analyzed according to a phenomenological hermeneutical...... approach inspired by the French philosopher Paul Ricœur's theory of interpretation. RESULTS: Four themes emerged. Participants described an experience of a creeping loss of youth immortality, a perception of being different, to live with a body in a state of alarm, and feel symptom management insecurity...

  3. Marital Status and Problem Gambling Among Australian Older Adults: The Mediating Role of Loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botterill, Emma; Gill, Peter Richard; McLaren, Suzanne; Gomez, Rapson

    2016-09-01

    Problem gambling rates in older adults have risen dramatically in recent years and require further investigation. Limited available research has suggested that social needs may motivate gambling and hence problem gambling in older adults. Un-partnered older adults may be at greater risk of problem gambling than those with a partner. The current study explored whether loneliness mediated the marital status-problem gambling relationship, and whether gender moderated the mediation model. It was hypothesised that the relationship between being un-partnered and higher levels of loneliness would be stronger for older men than older women. A community sample of Australian men (n = 92) and women (n = 91) gamblers aged from 60 to 90 years (M = 69.75, SD = 7.28) completed the UCLA Loneliness Scale and the Problem Gambling Severity Index. The results supported the moderated mediation model, with loneliness mediating the relationship between marital status and problem gambling for older men but not for older women. It appears that felt loneliness is an important predictor of problem gambling in older adults, and that meeting the social and emotional needs of un-partnered men is important.

  4. The Impact of Neurofibromatosis Type 1 on the Health and Wellbeing of Australian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Hilda A; Barton, Belinda; Wilson, Meredith J; Berman, Yemima; McKelvey-Martin, Valerie J; Morrison, Patrick J; North, Kathryn N

    2015-12-01

    The complications of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) are widespread, unpredictable and variable and each person's experience of this disorder is unique. However, few studies have addressed the impact of NF1 from an individual's perspective. This qualitative study aims to identify the ways in which NF1 impacts upon affected Australian adults. Sixty adults with NF1, with a range of disease severity and visibility participated in a semi-structured interview about the ways in which NF1 impacted upon their life and health. Data were analyzed using grounded theory methodology. Results indicated that NF1 impacts upon affected adults in five major ways: 1) cosmetic burden of disease 2) learning difficulties 3) concerns about the risk of passing NF1 to offspring 4) uncertain disease progression, and 5) pain. Participants identified the aspects of NF1 that bothered them the most, creating a hierarchy of NF1 concerns within the cohort. Importantly, mildly affected adults shared many of the same concerns as those more severely affected. This study enhances our current understanding of the impact of NF1 in adulthood, and augments existing recommendations for the care of these patients.

  5. Clueless? Adult Mysteries with Young Adult Appeal 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John; Morrison, Joanna

    1999-01-01

    Presents an annual list of adult mystery titles (in print as of September 1999) to recommend to teenagers, as well as recently published mystery readers advisory sources or nonfiction mystery-related titles that school and public libraries may want for their collections. (AEF)

  6. Health Care Transition Experiences of Young Adults With Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Ellen McLaughlin

    2015-01-01

    Health care transition (HCT) describes the purposeful, planned movement of adolescents from child to adult-orientated care. The purpose of this qualitative study is to uncover the meaning of transition to adult-centered care as experienced by young adults with cerebral palsy (YA-CP) through the research question: What are the lived experiences of young adults with cerebral palsy transitioning from pediatric to adult healthcare? Six females and 3 males, aged 19-25 years of age, who identified as carrying the diagnosis of cerebral palsy without cognitive impairment, were interviewed. Giorgi's (1985) method for analysis of phenomenology was the framework for the study and guided the phenomenological reduction. The meaning of the lived experiences of YA-CPs transition to adult health care is expert novices with evidence and experience-based expectations, negotiating new systems interdependently and accepting less than was expected. More information and support is needed for the YA-CP during transition to ensure a well-organized move to appropriate adult-oriented health care that is considerate of the lifelong impact of the disorder. The nurses' role as advocate, mentor and guide can optimize the individual's response to the transition process.

  7. Text comprehension products and processes in young, young-old, and old-old adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Debra

    2009-03-01

    Aging may be associated with an increase in generalized text processing, particularly in adults older than 75 years. The current study examined text comprehension in young, young-old, and old-old adults. Experiment 1 included a comprehension measure (product) and Experiment 2 examined inferences generated during reading (process). Comprehension scores were lowest in old-old adults. Generalized and elaborative inference scores were highest in old-old adults. Participants over 65 years with the lowest scores on cognitive integrity variables also had significantly lower comprehension scores, but there was no effect of cognitive integrity on inference scores. This dissociation suggests that inferential processes may be maintained even when cognitive integrity and comprehension declines are present. Relevance to cognitive aging theories addressing text processing and self-regulatory processes is addressed.

  8. Many Young Adults with High Cholesterol Not on Statins as Recommended

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162877.html Many Young Adults With High Cholesterol Not on Statins as Recommended ... News) -- Too few Americans who need them -- especially young adults -- are getting cholesterol-lowering statin medications, a new ...

  9. Recurrent Indigestion in a Young Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdinc Soylu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Bochdalek hernias (BHs arise due to congenital diaphragmatic defect and can result in gross displacement of abdominal tissues into the thorax. Although they are uncommon in occurrence, they usually present as serious respiratory distress in infants. In the adult population, they are asymptomatic and only detected incidentally. In this report, we present the case of a 26-year-old male who acutely presented with severe epigastric pain radiating to the back and deranged vital signs as a result of incorrect previous diagnoses. A large left diaphragmatic hernia containing his pancreatic tail, spleen, stomach and other intra-abdominal organs was confirmed by CT scan, together occupying a third of the hemithorax. Although not common, diagnostics of BHs should be considered in patients presenting with acute abdomen. A plain chest X-ray displaying diminished left diaphragmatic outline or signs of mediastinal shift should raise suspicion. Previous normal chest X-ray can be deceptive and does not rule out a diaphragmatic hernia. Herein, we also review the literature for previously reported acute presentation of 11 similar cases in adults and highlight the value of including BH as one of the differential diagnoses.

  10. The experience of transition in adolescents and young adults transferring from paediatric to adult care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fegran, Liv; Ludvigsen, Mette Spliid; Aagaard, Hanne;

    : To synthesize qualitative studies on how adolescents and young adults with chronic diseases experience transition from paediatric to adult care. Methods: Literature search in major databases covering the years from 1999 to November 2010 was performed. Further forward citation snowballing search was conducted...... responsibility. Conclusion: Young adults’ transition experiences seem to be commensurable across diagnoses and cultures. Feelings of not belonging and being redundant during the transfer process moving from paediatric to adult ward, is striking. Appreciating young adults’ need to be acknowledged and valued......Introduction: Despite research and implementation of transition models in the last decades, transfer from paediatric to adult care still poses great challenges. Predominantly studies on health care transition have been based on the perspective of experts or health care professionals. Aim...

  11. Everyday Life of Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Inclusionary and Exclusionary Processes among Young Adults of Parents with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, Mikaela

    2013-01-01

    Ten young adults with an intellectual disability whose parents, too, have an intellectual disability were interviewed and completed questionnaires for this exploratory study aimed at charting their experiences of everyday life. Most of the participants reported high life satisfaction, especially with the domains of friends, leisure time, and…

  12. Young Adults' Risk Perceptions of Various Tobacco Products Relative to Cigarettes: Results from the National Young Adult Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackowski, Olivia A.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Tobacco product risk perceptions may influence whether individuals use those products instead of or in addition to regular cigarettes. This study aimed to explore risk perceptions of various tobacco products relative to traditional cigarettes with young adults, a group with higher rates of tobacco use. Method: We examined risk…

  13. DETECTING PSYCHOPATHOLOGY IN YOUNG-ADULTS - THE YOUNG-ADULT SELF REPORT, THE GENERAL HEALTH QUESTIONNAIRE AND THE SYMPTOM CHECKLIST AS SCREENING INSTRUMENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIZNITZER, M; VERHULST, FC; VANDENBRINK, W; KOETER, M; VANDERENDE, J; GIEL, R; KOOT, HM

    1992-01-01

    This study compares the screening capacity of an age-adjusted child-oriented questionnaire, the Young Adult Self Report (YASR) with two adult-oriented questionnaires, the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) and Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) in a sample of young adults (18-25 years). The YASR pe

  14. Is having a family member with chronic health concerns bad for young people's health? Cross-sectional evidence from a national survey of young Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Gerry

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Young people's perspectives on the association between having a family member with a chronic health concern (FHC) and their own health are under-researched. This study used young people's reports to assess the prevalence of FHCs and their association with negative health outcomes, with an aim of identifying potential inequalities between marginalised and non-marginalised young people. Family cohesion was examined as a moderating factor. Design Cross-sectional data from the Australian Child Wellbeing Project survey were used. Respondents were asked whether someone in their family experienced one or more FHCs (disability, mental illness or drug/alcohol addiction). In addition, their experience of different psychosomatic symptoms (headache, sleeplessness, irritability, etc), aspects of family relationships and social and economic characteristics (disability, materially disadvantaged and Indigenous) were documented. Setting Nationally representative Australian sample. Participants 1531 students in school years 4 and 6 and 3846 students in year 8. Results A quarter of students reported having an FHC (years 4 and 6: 23.96% (95% CI 19.30% to 28.62%); year 8: 25.35% (95% CI 22.77% to 27.94%)). Significantly, more students with FHCs than those without reported experiencing 2 or more negative health symptoms at least weekly (OR=1.78; 95% CI 1.19 to 2.65; pcohesion had an increased prevalence of FHCs and notably higher symptom loads where FHCs were present. Level of family cohesion did not impact the relationship between FHCs and symptom load. Conclusions The burden of FHCs is inequitably distributed between marginalised and non-marginalised groups, and between young people experiencing different levels of family cohesion. More work is required regarding appropriate targets for community and family-level interventions to support young people in the context of FHCs. PMID:28062472

  15. Differences in Dietary Preferences, Personality and Mental Health in Australian Adults with and without Food Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Burrows

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Increased obesity rates, an evolving food supply and the overconsumption of energy dense foods has led to an increase in research exploring addictive eating behaviours. This study aimed to investigate food addiction in a sample of Australian adults using the revised Yale Food Addiction Survey (YFAS 2.0 tool and how it is associated with dietary intake, personality traits and mental health issues. Australian adults were invited to complete an online survey that collected information including: demographics, dietary intake, depression, anxiety, stress and personality dimensions including impulsivity, sensation seeking, hopelessness and anxiety sensitivity. A total of 1344 individuals were recruited with the samples comprising 75.7% female, mean age 39.8 ± 13.1 years (range 18–91 years and body mass index BMI 27.7 ± 9.5. Food addiction was identified in 22.2% of participants using the YFAS 2.0 tool, which classified the severity of food addiction as “mild” in 0.7% of cases, “moderate” in 2.6% and “severe” in 18.9% of cases. Predictors of severe food addiction were female gender (odds ratio (OR 3.65 95% CI 1.86–7.11 and higher levels of soft drink OR 1.36 (1.07–1.72, confectionary consumption and anxiety sensitivity 1.16 (1.07–1.26. Overall people with “severe” (OR 13.2, 5.8–29.8 or extremely severe depressive symptoms (OR 15.6, range 7.1–34.3 had the highest odds of having severe food addiction. The only variable that reduced the odds of having severe food addiction was vegetable intake. The current study highlights that addictive food behaviours are associated with a complex pattern of poor dietary choices and a clustering with mental health issues, particularly depression.

  16. Differences in Dietary Preferences, Personality and Mental Health in Australian Adults with and without Food Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Tracy; Hides, Leanne; Brown, Robyn; Dayas, Christopher V; Kay-Lambkin, Frances

    2017-01-01

    Increased obesity rates, an evolving food supply and the overconsumption of energy dense foods has led to an increase in research exploring addictive eating behaviours. This study aimed to investigate food addiction in a sample of Australian adults using the revised Yale Food Addiction Survey (YFAS) 2.0 tool and how it is associated with dietary intake, personality traits and mental health issues. Australian adults were invited to complete an online survey that collected information including: demographics, dietary intake, depression, anxiety, stress and personality dimensions including impulsivity, sensation seeking, hopelessness and anxiety sensitivity. A total of 1344 individuals were recruited with the samples comprising 75.7% female, mean age 39.8 ± 13.1 years (range 18–91 years) and body mass index BMI 27.7 ± 9.5. Food addiction was identified in 22.2% of participants using the YFAS 2.0 tool, which classified the severity of food addiction as “mild” in 0.7% of cases, “moderate” in 2.6% and “severe” in 18.9% of cases. Predictors of severe food addiction were female gender (odds ratio (OR) 3.65 95% CI 1.86–7.11) and higher levels of soft drink OR 1.36 (1.07–1.72), confectionary consumption and anxiety sensitivity 1.16 (1.07–1.26). Overall people with “severe” (OR 13.2, 5.8–29.8) or extremely severe depressive symptoms (OR 15.6, range 7.1–34.3) had the highest odds of having severe food addiction. The only variable that reduced the odds of having severe food addiction was vegetable intake. The current study highlights that addictive food behaviours are associated with a complex pattern of poor dietary choices and a clustering with mental health issues, particularly depression. PMID:28294965

  17. Financial Dependence of Young Adults with Childhood ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altszuler, Amy R.; Page, Timothy F.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Coxe, Stefany; Arrieta, Alejandro; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Pelham, William E.

    2016-01-01

    This study used data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS) to evaluate financial outcomes of young adults (YA) with ADHD relative to comparisons. Participants for this study included 309 individuals who had been diagnosed with ADHD (DSM-III-R or DSM-IV) in childhood and 208 comparison YA without childhood ADHD diagnoses (total N=517) who were followed through age 25. Participants were predominately male (88 %) and Caucasian (84 %). Diagnostic interviews were conducted in childhood. Young adults and their parents reported on financial outcomes and a number of predictor variables. Young adults with ADHD experienced greater financial dependence on family members (pearnings (pearnings indicated that ADHD group participants could expect to earn $543,000–$616,000 less over their lifetimes than comparisons. Due to the propensity of individuals with ADHD to underreport problems, the data are likely to be underestimates. These findings support the need for interventions to improve labor market outcomes as well as the development of interventions that target the management of personal finances for individuals with ADHD in young adulthood. PMID:26542688

  18. Technology-Facilitated Sexual Violence Victimization: Results From an Online Survey of Australian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Anastasia; Henry, Nicola

    2016-10-03

    Online forms of sexual harassment and abuse as experienced by adults represent an emerging yet under-researched set of behaviors, such that very few studies have sought to estimate the extent of the problem. This article presents the results of an online survey of 2,956 Australian adult (aged 18 to 54 years) experiences of technology-facilitated sexual violence (TFSV) victimization. The prevalence of TFSV was analyzed in relation to a 21-item scale developed in accordance with prior conceptual research identifying multiple dimensions of TFSV including digital sexual harassment, image-based sexual abuse, sexual aggression and/or coercion, and, gender and/or sexuality-based harassment (including virtual sexual violence). Results revealed significant differences in lifetime TFSV victimization for younger (18-24) and non-heterosexual identifying adults. Lifetime TFSV victimization for men and women was not significantly different, though women were more likely to report sexual harassment victimization and men were more likely to report victimization through the distribution of non-consensual images, as well as gender and/or sexuality-based harassment. The authors conclude that although women and men report experiencing similar overall prevalence of TFSV victimization, the nature and impacts of those experiences differ in particular gendered ways that reflect broader patterns in both gender relations and "offline" sexual harassment.

  19. Social capital, socio-economic status and psychological distress among Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phongsavan, Philayrath; Chey, Tien; Bauman, Adrian; Brooks, Robert; Silove, Derrick

    2006-11-01

    High levels of social capital may be associated with positive mental health in adults. However, quantifying the various dimensions of social capital has presented a challenge due in part to the diverse definitions and measures used. Data from a representative, population-wide survey of Australian adults aged 16 years and older were used to investigate the links between dimensions of social capital and mental health morbidity. Social capital comprised three constructs and was measured at the individual level: feelings of trust and safety, community participation and neighbourhood connections and reciprocity. Mental health was measured by the 10-item Kessler (K10) instrument and assessed symptoms of psychological distress (i.e., depression and anxiety) over the previous month. Community participation showed a weak, and neighbourhood connections and reciprocity a moderate association with distress. Having higher levels of trust and feeling safe were consistently associated with low levels of psychological distress, after adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics and health conditions. The results clearly demonstrate that having trust in people, feeling safe in the community and having social reciprocity are associated with lower risk of mental health distress. The implications for conceptualising and measuring the individual and collective (contextual) dimensions of social capital are discussed. The findings also suggest the importance of examining the interrelationships between socio-economic status, social capital and mental health for community-dwelling adults.

  20. A Comparison of Support for Two Groups of Young Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenen, Sarah; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina; Scholte, Evert

    2016-01-01

    Young adults with mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID) have varying profiles of cognitive, adaptive and behavioural functioning. There is also variability in their educational and therapeutic needs. This study compares recommended and actual provision of support for two groups of young adults with MBID and looks at young adults'…

  1. The Effects of Framing Vocational Choices on Young Adults' Sets of Career Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Daniel C.; Whitcomb, Kathleen M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The present paper examines the effects of two decision-framing inductions on young adults' set of career options: first, whether young adults use abilities or interests as the grounds for their vocational choices and, second, whether young adults approach the decision-making task by including all career options to which they feel…

  2. Direct Effects of Assets and Savings on the College Progress of Black Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, William; Nam, Ilsung

    2012-01-01

    Descriptive data indicate that 62% of White young adults between the ages of 17 and 23 years were on course (i.e., either in college or have graduated from college) in 2007, compared with only 37% of Black young adults. Given this, finding novel and promising ways to promote college progress among Black young adults, in particular, is a growing…

  3. 76 FR 23479 - Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services (CHAMPUS); TRICARE Young Adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ... (CHAMPUS); TRICARE Young Adult AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, DoD. ACTION: Interim final rule with... Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2011 (NDAA for FY11). It establishes the TRICARE Young Adult... age of 26 of uniformed services sponsors. The TRICARE Young ] Adult program is a premium-based...

  4. Promising Practices in Young Adult Employment: Hands-On Multidisciplinary Career Exploration and Mentorships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    The National Fund for Workforce Solution's Young Adult Initiatives aim to test and implement new strategies for targeting America's young adults and share this information so that employers and workforce development can join forces in investing in the millions of young adults across the nation. This case study focuses on promising findings from…

  5. Promising Practices in Young Adult Employment: Lessons Learned from Manufacturing and Automotive Career Pathway Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    The National Fund's Young Adult Initiatives aim to test and implement new strategies for targeting America's young adults and share this information so that employers and workforce development can join forces in investing in the millions of young adults across the nation. This case study focuses on promising findings from automotive and…

  6. Promising Practices in Young Adult Employment: Lessons Learned from EMT Career Pathway Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Loh-Sze

    2015-01-01

    The National Fund for Workforce Solution's Young Adult Initiatives aim to test and implement new strategies for targeting America's young adults and share this information so that employers and workforce development can join forces in investing in the millions of young adults across the nation. This case study will focus on challenges and…

  7. 78 FR 58290 - TRICARE; Calendar Year 2014 TRICARE Young Adult Program Premium Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... of the Secretary TRICARE; Calendar Year 2014 TRICARE Young Adult Program Premium Update AGENCY: Office of the Secretary of Defense, DoD. ACTION: Notice of Updated TRICARE Young Adult Premiums for Calendar Year 2014. SUMMARY: This notice provides the updated TRICARE Young Adult program premiums...

  8. Addiction Treatment Experience among a Cohort of Street-Involved Youths and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jellena; Marshall, Brandon D. L.; Kerr, Thomas; Lai, Calvin; Wood, Evan

    2009-01-01

    Very little is known about the accessibility and potential barriers to addiction treatment among street youths and young adults. We sought to examine the prevalence and correlates of enrollment in addiction treatment among a cohort of street-involved youths and young adults in Vancouver, Canada. Street-involved youths and young adults who use…

  9. Age and Time Population Differences: Young Adults, Gen Xers, and Millennials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Lauren A.

    2013-01-01

    Age and Time disparities in young adult research populations are common because young adults are defined by varying age spans; members of Generation X and Millennial generations may both be considered young adults; study years vary, affecting populations; and qualitative methods with limited age/year samples are frequently utilized. The current…

  10. Intergenerational transmission of drinking motives and how they relate to young adults' alcohol use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mares, S.H.W.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Aims This study examined whether parental drinking motives are associated with young adults' drinking motives, and their association with young adults' drinking behaviors. Methods: The sample consisted of 290 18-year-old and 289 20-year-old drinking young adults and their parents. Results: For the y

  11. Young Adult Dystopias: Bildungsroman for the 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    Ljiljana Gavrilović

    2016-01-01

    The paper examines young adult dystopian novels written in the first decade of the 21st century, as heirs to the tradition of the bildungsroman, and the great dystopias. The focus of this new genre has shifted from maintaining "the best of all worlds" – where the young person adjusts and fits into the existing world, to the shaping of the hero’s critical spirit which is supposed to result in the hero/heroine growing up, but also in changes in the world which they inhabit. Two other important ...

  12. Antimnemonic effects of schemas in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badham, Stephen P; Maylor, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    Schema-consistent material that is aligned with an individual's knowledge and experience is typically more memorable than abstract material. This effect is often more extreme in older adults and schema use can alleviate age deficits in memory. In three experiments, young and older adults completed memory tasks where the availability of schematic information was manipulated. Specifying nonobvious relations between to-be-remembered word pairs paradoxically hindered memory (Experiment 1). Highlighting relations within mixed lists of related and unrelated word pairs had no effect on memory for those pairs (Experiment 2). This occurred even though related word pairs were recalled better than unrelated word pairs, particularly for older adults. Revealing a schematic context in a memory task with abstract image segments also hindered memory performance, particularly for older adults (Experiment 3). The data show that processing schematic information can come with costs that offset mnemonic benefits associated with schema-consistent stimuli.

  13. 'Jumping around': exploring young women's behaviour and knowledge in relation to sexual health in a remote Aboriginal Australian community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Sarah; Narjic, Concepta Wulili; Belton, Suzanne; Saggers, Sherry; McGrath, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Sexual health indicators for young remote-living Aboriginal women are the worst of all of Australian women. This study aimed to describe and explore young women's behaviour and knowledge in relation to sexual health, as well as to provide health professionals with cross-cultural insights to assist with health practice. A descriptive ethnographic study was conducted, which included: extended ethnographic field work in one remote community over a six-year period; community observation and participation; field notes; semi-structured interviews; group reproductive ethno-physiology drawing and language sessions; focus-group sessions; training and employment of Aboriginal research assistants; and consultation and advice from a local reference group and a Cultural Mentor. Findings reveal that young women in this remote community have a very poor biomedical understanding of sexually transmitted infections and contraception. This is further compounded by not speaking English as a first language, low literacy levels and different beliefs in relation to body functions. In their sexual relationships, young women often report experiences involving multiple casual partners, marijuana use and violence. Together, the findings contribute to a better understanding of the factors underlying sexual health inequity among young Aboriginal women in Australia.

  14. Reinforcement learning in young adults with developmental language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joanna C; Tomblin, J Bruce

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the study was to examine reinforcement learning (RL) in young adults with developmental language impairment (DLI) within the context of a neurocomputational model of the basal ganglia-dopamine system (Frank, Seeberger, & O'Reilly, 2004). Two groups of young adults, one with DLI and the other without, were recruited. A probabilistic selection task was used to assess how participants implicitly extracted reinforcement history from the environment based on probabilistic positive/negative feedback. The findings showed impaired RL in individuals with DLI, indicating an altered gating function of the striatum in testing. However, they exploited similar learning strategies as comparison participants at the beginning of training, reflecting relatively intact functions of the prefrontal cortex to rapidly update reinforcement information. Within the context of Frank's model, these results can be interpreted as evidence for alterations in the basal ganglia of individuals with DLI.

  15. Understanding and Targeting Indonesian Young Adult Internet Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Chang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available As the number of global internet users increases, companies’ online advertisement expenditure also grows rapidly. Companies face challenges in targeting the right customers. Understanding which websites are often visited by target users and what they do on the internet will help companies direct their online advertisement to the right target. Using questionnaires, this study examines which sites are most often visited by Indonesian young adult internet users and what they do on the internet. It aims to understand the patterns of behavior of these users. The findings of this study provide some understanding to the marketers. Of consequence, such understanding would help them to select where and what to do with their advertisements when they are targeting the young adult internet users in Indonesia. 

  16. Binge Drinking Effects on EEG in Young Adult Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly E. Courtney

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Young adult (N = 96 university students who varied in their binge drinking history were assessed by electroencephalography (EEG recording during passive viewing. Groups consisted of male and female non-binge drinkers (>1 to 5/4 drinks/ounces in under two hours, low-binge drinkers (5/4–7/6 drinks/ounces in under two hours, and high-binge drinkers (≥ 10 drinks/ounces in under two hours, who had been drinking alcohol at their respective levels for an average of 3 years. The non- and low-binge drinkers exhibited less spectral power than the high-binge drinkers in the delta (0–4 Hz and fast-beta (20–35 Hz bands. Binge drinking appears to be associated with a specific pattern of brain electrical activity in young adults that may reflect the future development of alcoholism.

  17. Financial Dependence of Young Adults with Childhood ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Altszuler, Amy R.; Page, Timothy F.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Coxe, Stefany; Arrieta, Alejandro; Molina, Brooke S.G.; Pelham, William E.

    2016-01-01

    This study used data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS) to evaluate financial outcomes of young adults (YA) with ADHD relative to comparisons. Participants for this study included 309 individuals who had been diagnosed with ADHD (DSM-III-R or DSM-IV) in childhood and 208 comparison YA without childhood ADHD diagnoses (total N=517) who were followed through age 25. Participants were predominately male (88 %) and Caucasian (84 %). Diagnostic interviews were conducted in childhoo...

  18. Impact of Personality on Vengeance and Forgiveness in Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Marium Javaid Bajwa; Ruhi Khalid

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify personality traits that affect vengeful and forgiving behavior among young adults. Big Five Personality Inventory, Vengeance Scale and Trait Forgiveness Scale were administered to 159 male and female students selected by using convenient sampling technique to have a base-line data for the study. Overall, agreeableness trait predicted forgiveness. Vengeance showed significant negative correlation with agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness. Whereas Independe...

  19. Condylar volume and surface in Caucasian young adult subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Cordasco Giancarlo; Pagnoni Mario; Polimeni Antonella; Nucera Riccardo; Saccucci Matteo; Tecco Simona; Festa Felice; Iannetti Giorgio

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background There have been no quantitative standards for volumetric and surface measurements of the mandibular condyle in Caucasian population. However, the recently developed cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) system allows measurement of these parameters with high accuracy. Methods CBCT was used to measure the condylar volume, surface and the volume to surface ratio, called the Morphometric Index (MI), of 300 temporo-mandibular joints (TMJ) in 150 Caucasian young adult subjects, ...

  20. Participation in Daily Activities of Young Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollum, Mary; LaVesser, Patti; Berg, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) struggle to assume adult roles. This research assessed the feasibility of using the Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort (AYA-ACS) with emerging adults with high functioning ASD. Two phases were utilized during this research: (1) comparing the activity participation reported by emerging…

  1. Prediction of outcomes in young adults with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotai, Silky; Ahn, Sung-Yong; Moon, Hong-Joo; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Chung, Heung-Seob; Chung, Yong-Gu; Kwon, Taek-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is rare in young adults and little is known about aneurysms in this subgroup. The effect of clinical and prognostic factors on the outcome based on the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) scores and the predictors of unfavorable outcomes were analyzed in young adults with aneurysmal SAH. A retrospective review of the clinical parameters, including age, sex, hypertension, smoking status, hyperlipidemia, location of the cerebral aneurysm, size of the aneurysm, multiplicity, perioperative complication such as hydrocephalus, vasospasm, and hematoma, and Hunt and Hess and Fisher grading on presentation, was conducted in 108 young adults (mean age 34.8 years) managed at our institute. The outcome was classified based on GOS grading into unfavorable (GOS scores 1-3) or favorable (GOS scores 4 or 5). The overall mortality rate was 3.7% (4/108 patients). Univariate regression analysis for the outcomes at discharge found that age at the time of presentation, male sex, size of aneurysm, multiple aneurysms, hyperlipidemia, and poor Hunt and Hess and Fischer grades were associated with unfavorable outcome. Multivariate regression analysis found independent effects of sex, multiple aneurysms, size of aneurysm, and Hunt and Hess grade on the outcome at discharge. Size of aneurysm, presence of multiple aneurysms, Hunt and Hess grade, and hypertension were the predictors of outcome at mean 2-year follow up based on multivariate exact regression analysis. The multimodal approach with aggressive medical management, early intervention, and surgical treatment might contribute to favorable long-term outcomes in patients with poor expected outcomes.

  2. Youth and young adult physical activity and body composition of young adult women: findings from the dietary intervention study in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Melissa G; Hovinga, Mary; Shepherd, John A; Egleston, Brian; Gabriel, Kelley; Van Horn, Linda; Robson, Alan; Snetselaar, Linda; Stevens, Victor K; Jung, Seungyoun; Dorgan, Joanne

    2015-02-01

    This study prospectively investigates associations between youth moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and body composition in young adult women using data from the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC) and the DISC06 Follow-Up Study. MVPA was assessed by questionnaire on 5 occasions between the ages 8 and 18 years and at age 25-29 years in 215 DISC female participants. Using whole body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), overall adiposity and body fat distribution were assessed at age 25-29 years by percent body fat (%fat) and android-to-gynoid (A:G) fat ratio, respectively. Linear mixed effects models and generalized linear latent and mixed models were used to assess associations of youth MVPA with both outcomes. Young adult MVPA, adjusted for other young adult characteristics, was significantly inversely associated with young adult %fat (%fat decreased from 37.4% in the lowest MVPA quartile to 32.8% in the highest (p-trend = 0.02)). Adjusted for youth and young adult characteristics including young adult MVPA, youth MVPA also was significantly inversely associated with young adult %fat (β=-0.40 per 10 MET-hrs/wk, p = .02) . No significant associations between MVPA and A:G fat ratio were observed. Results suggest that youth and young adult MVPA are important independent predictors of adiposity in young women.

  3. Metabolic syndrome and Framingham risk score in obese young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix F. Widjaja

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increase number of the metabolic syndrome (MetS among young adults was mostly caused by obesity. MetS increases the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD which can be estimated by Framingham risk score (FRS. The study was aimed to know the prevalence of MetS and FRS in obese young adults and to associate them with the components of MetS. Methods: A total of 70 male and female students aged 18 to 25 years with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 in Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia were selected consecutively. The blood samples used to test fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and triglyceride were examined in Department of Clinical Pathology, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital after fasting for 14 to 16 hours. International Diabetes Federation (IDF definition was used to diagnose MetS. Univariate and bivariate analysis were done. Results: The prevalence of MetS based on IDF definition was 18.6% among obese young adults. The most associated MetS components was hypertriglyceridemia (OR 12.13; 95% CI 2.92-50.46; p = 0.001, followed with high blood pressure (OR 9.33; 95% CI 2.26-38.56; p = 0.001, low-HDL (OR 8.33; 95% CI 2.17-32.05; p = 0.003, and impaired fasting glucose (p = 0.03. Four subjects had FRS ≥ 1% and 66 subjects had risk < 1%. Increased FRS was not associated with MetS (p = 0.154. There was no component of MetS associated with increased FRS. Conclusion: Prevalence of MetS in obese young adults was similar with obese children and adolescents. Although no association of MetS and FRS was found, they are significant predictors for CHD which should not be used separately. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:100-6Keywords: Abdominal obesity, Framingham risk score, metabolic syndrome, young adults

  4. Attractiveness judgments and discrimination of mommies and grandmas: perceptual tuning for young adult faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Lindsey A; Mondloch, Catherine J; Hackland, Anne T

    2015-01-01

    Adults are more accurate in detecting deviations from normality in young adult faces than in older adult faces despite exhibiting comparable accuracy in discriminating both face ages. This deficit in judging the normality of older faces may be due to reliance on a face space optimized for the dimensions of young adult faces, perhaps because of early and continuous experience with young adult faces. Here we examined the emergence of this young adult face bias by testing 3- and 7-year-old children on a child-friendly version of the task used to test adults. In an attractiveness judgment task, children viewed young and older adult face pairs; each pair consisted of an unaltered face and a distorted face of the same identity. Children pointed to the prettiest face, which served as a measure of their sensitivity to the dimensions on which faces vary relative to a norm. To examine whether biases in the attractiveness task were specific to deficits in referencing a norm or extended to impaired discrimination, we tested children on a simultaneous match-to-sample task with the same stimuli. Both age groups were more accurate in judging the attractiveness of young faces relative to older faces; however, unlike adults, the young adult face bias extended to the match-to-sample task. These results suggest that by 3 years of age, children's perceptual system is more finely tuned for young adult faces than for older adult faces, which may support past findings of superior recognition for young adult faces.

  5. Genetic susceptibility of intervertebral disc degeneration among young Finnish adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelempisioti Anthi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disc degeneration (DD is a common condition that progresses with aging. Although the events leading to DD are not well understood, a significant genetic influence has been found. This study was undertaken to assess the association between relevant candidate gene polymorphisms and moderate DD in a well-defined and characterized cohort of young adults. Focusing on young age can be valuable in determining genetic predisposition to DD. Methods We investigated the associations of existing candidate genes for DD among 538 young adults with a mean age of 19 belonging to the 1986 Northern Finland Birth Cohort. Nineteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in 16 genes were genotyped. We evaluated lumbar DD using the modified Pfirrmann classification and a 1.5-T magnetic resonance scanner for imaging. Results Of the 538 individuals studied, 46% had no degeneration, while 54% had DD and 51% of these had moderate DD. The risk of DD was significantly higher in subjects with an allele G of IL6 SNPs rs1800795 (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.07-1.96 and rs1800797 (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.02-1.85 in the additive inheritance model. The role of IL6 was further supported by the haplotype analysis, which resulted in an association between the GGG haplotype (SNPs rs1800797, rs1800796 and rs1800795 and DD with an OR of 1.51 (95% CI 1.11-2.04. In addition, we observed an association between DD and two other polymorphisms, SKT rs16924573 (OR 0.27 95% CI 0.07-0.96 and CILP rs2073711 in women (OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.07-3.89. Conclusion Our results indicate that IL6, SKT and CILP are involved in the etiology of DD among young adults.

  6. Hypertension after bilateral kidney irradiation in young and adult rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jongejan, H.T.; van der Kogel, A.J.; Provoost, A.P.; Molenaar, J.C.

    1987-09-01

    The mechanism of a rise in blood pressure after kidney irradiation is unclear but most likely of renal origin. We have investigated the role of the renin-angiotensin system and dietary salt restriction in the development of systolic hypertension after bilateral kidney irradiation in young and adult rats. Three to 12 months after a single X-ray dose of 7.5 or 12.5 Gy to both kidneys of young and adult rats, the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and plasma renin concentration (PRC) were measured regularly. A single X-ray dose of 12.5 Gy caused a moderate rise in SBP and a slight reduction in PRC in both young and adult rats. A dose of 7.5 Gy did not significantly alter the SBP or PRC during the follow-up period of 1 year. In a second experiment, the kidneys of young rats received an X-ray dose of 20 Gy. Subsequently, rats were kept on a standard diet (110 mmol sodium/kg) or a sodium-poor diet (10 mmol sodium/kg). On both diets, SBP started to rise rapidly 3 months after kidney irradiation. Sodium balance studies carried out at that time revealed an increased sodium retention in the irradiated rats compared to controls on the same diet. In rats on a low sodium intake, there was neither a delay nor an alleviation in the development of hypertension. Compared to controls, the PRC tended to be lower in irradiated rats up to 4 months after irradiation. Subsequently, malignant hypertension developed in all 20 Gy rats, resulting in pressure natriuresis, stimulating the renin-angiotensin system. Our findings indicated that hypertension after bilateral kidney irradiation was not primarily the result of an activation of the renin-angiotensin system. Although there were some indications that sodium retention played a role, dietary sodium restriction did not influence the development of hypertension.

  7. Regional Differences in Correlates of Daily Walking among Middle Age and Older Australian Rural Adults: Implications for Health Promotion

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Rural Australians are less physically active than their metropolitan counterparts, and yet very little is known of the candidate intervention targets for promoting physical activity in rural populations. As rural regions are economically, socially and environmentally diverse, drivers of regular physical activity are likely to vary between regions. This study explored the region-specific correlates of daily walking among middle age and older adults in rural regions with contrasting dominant pr...

  8. Subjective Wellbeing and Its Meaning for Young People in a Rural Australian Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Lisa; Geldens, Paula M.

    2007-01-01

    In Australia, wellbeing has been used as an assessment of how young people are doing by health researchers, youth researchers and psychologists. The concept "wellbeing" is increasingly applied to young people in their late teens and early twenties with little discussion of young people's perspectives. Using quantitative measures of subjective…

  9. Sociality Online: An Exploratory Study into the Online Habits of Young Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    In response to polarising and emotive debates around young people using the internet, this paper presents recent research findings and offers insight into the issue from the perspective of young people. In early 2010, young people in two rural Victorian towns were asked to complete surveys answering questions about their online habits. Their…

  10. Young Children as Active Citizens in Local Government: Possibilities and Challenges from an Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomaeus, Clare; Gregoric, Carolyn; Krieg, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Despite considerable research and discussion regarding children and young people's rights and citizenship, the participation of young children in community decision-making is still limited. In this exploratory research, a case study is reported on how ideas about young children as active citizens are interpreted within one local government…

  11. Young People outside the Labour Force and Full-Time Education: Activities and Profiles. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth. Research Report 45

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Kylie

    2005-01-01

    This report focuses on a group of young people who are not involved in full-time education or the labour force, that is, they are not studying full-time, nor are they working or looking for work. The data used in this report are drawn from the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY), which studies the progress of cohorts of young…

  12. Young adults: beloved by food and drink marketers and forgotten by public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Becky; Kelly, Bridget; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Baur, Louise

    2016-12-01

    Young adults are a highly desirable target population for energy-dense, nutrient-poor (EDNP) food and beverage marketing. But little research, resources, advocacy and policy action have been directed at this age group, despite the fact that young adults are gaining weight faster than previous generations and other population groups. Factors such as identity development and shifting interpersonal influences differentiate young adulthood from other life stages and influence the adoption of both healthy and unhealthy eating behaviours. EDNP food and beverage marketing campaigns use techniques to normalize brands within young adult culture, in particular through online social media. Young adults must be a priority population in future obesity prevention efforts. Stronger policies to protect young adults from EDNP food and beverage marketing may also increase the effectiveness of policies that are meant to protect younger children. Restrictions on EDNP food and beverage marketing should be extended to include Internet-based advertising and also aim to protect vulnerable young adults.

  13. The importance of taste on dietary choice, behaviour and intake in a group of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourouniotis, S; Keast, R S J; Riddell, L J; Lacy, K; Thorpe, M G; Cicerale, S

    2016-08-01

    The 'taste of food' plays an important role in food choice. Furthermore, foods high in fat, sugar and salt are highly palatable and associated with increased food consumption. Research exploring taste importance on dietary choice, behaviour and intake is limited, particularly in young adults. Therefore, in this study a total of 1306 Australian university students completed questionnaires assessing dietary behaviors (such as how important taste was on food choice) and frequency of food consumption over the prior month. Diet quality was also assessed using a dietary guideline index. Participants had a mean age of 20 ± 5 years, Body Mass Index (BMI) of 22 ± 3 kg/m(2), 79% were female and 84% Australian. Taste was rated as being a very or extremely important factor for food choice by 82% of participants. Participants who rated taste as highly important, had a poorer diet quality (p = 0.001) and were more likely to consume less fruit (p = 0.03) and vegetables (p = 0.05). Furthermore, they were significantly more likely to consume foods high in fat, sugar and salt, including chocolate and confectionary, cakes and puddings, sweet pastries, biscuits, meat pies, pizza, hot chips, potato chips, takeaway meals, soft drink, cordial and fruit juice (p = 0.001-0.02). They were also more likely to consider avoiding adding salt to cooking (p = 0.02) and adding sugar to tea or coffee (p = 0.01) as less important for health. These findings suggest that the importance individuals place on taste plays an important role in influencing food choice, dietary behaviors and intake.

  14. Integrating Adolescents and Young Adults into Adult-Centered Care for IBD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Itishree; Holl, Jane L; Hanauer, Stephen; Keefer, Laurie

    2016-05-01

    Planned healthcare transition, initiated in pediatric care, is a gradual process aimed at fostering the adolescent patient's disease knowledge and skills with the ultimate objective of preparing patients and families for adult-centered care. The process is critical in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) where there is an increased risk of non-adherence, hospitalizations, and emergency department use as young adult patients graduate from pediatric to adult-centered care. While evidence for healthcare transition in IBD is mounting, important gaps remain in the understanding of this process from the perspective of the adult gastroenterologist. This paper summarizes what is known about healthcare transition in IBD and explores the unanswered questions-a conceptual and methodological framework for transition interventions, relevant outcomes that define successful transition, and key stakeholder perspectives. For the adult gastroenterologist managing the young adult patient population, this paper presents the paradigm of "care integration"-a process of ongoing, multi-modality support for the patient, initiated in the adult care setting, with the goal of improving self-management skills and active participation in medical decision-making.

  15. Canon Fodder: Young Adult Literature as a Tool for Critiquing Canonicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hateley, Erica

    2013-01-01

    Young adult literature is a tool of socialisation and acculturation for young readers. This extends to endowing "reading" with particular significance in terms of what literature should be read and why. This paper considers some recent young adult fiction with an eye to its engagement with canonical literature and its representations of…

  16. Emotional memory for musical excerpts in young and older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene eAlonso

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The emotions evoked by music can enhance recognition of excerpts. It has been suggested that memory is better for high than for low arousing music (Eschrich et al., 2005; Samson et al., 2009, but it remains unclear whether positively (Eschrich et al., 2008 or negatively valenced music (Aubé et al., 2013; Vieillard and Gilet, 2013 may be better recognized. Moreover, we still know very little about the influence of age on emotional memory for music. To address these issues, we tested emotional memory for music in young and older adults using musical excerpts varying in terms of arousal and valence. Participants completed immediate and 24h delayed recognition tests. We predicted highly arousing excerpts to be better recognized by both groups in immediate recognition. We hypothesized that arousal may compensate consolidation deficits in aging, thus showing more prominent benefit of high over low arousing stimuli in older than younger adults on delayed recognition. We also hypothesized worst retention of negative excerpts for the older group, resulting in a recognition benefit for positive over negative excerpts specific to older adults. Our results suggest that although older adults had worse recognition than young adults overall, effects of emotion on memory do not seem to be modified by aging. Results on immediate recognition suggest that recognition of low arousing excerpts can be affected by valence, with better memory for positive relative to negative low arousing music. However, 24h delayed recognition results demonstrate effects of emotion on memory consolidation regardless of age, with a recognition benefit for high arousal and for negatively valenced music. The present study highlights the role of emotion on memory consolidation. Findings are examined in light of to the literature on emotional memory for music and for other stimuli. We finally discuss the implication of the present results for potential music interventions in aging and

  17. Registration and classification of adolescent and young adult cancer cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Brad H; Birch, Jillian M

    2008-05-01

    Cancer registries are an important research resource that facilitate the study of etiology, tumor biology, patterns of delayed diagnosis and health planning needs. When outcome data are included, registries can track secular changes in survival related to improvements in early detection or treatment. The surveillance, epidemiology, and end results (SEER) registry has been used to identify major gaps in survival for older adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients compared with younger children and older adults. In order to determine the reasons for this gap, the complete registration and accurate classification of AYA malignancies is necessary. There are inconsistencies in defining the age limits for AYAs although the Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology Progress Review Group proposed a definition of ages 15 through 39 years. The central registration and classification issues for AYAs are case-finding, defining common data elements (CDE) collected across different registries and the diagnostic classification of these malignancies. Goals to achieve by 2010 include extending and validating current diagnostic classification schemes and expanding the CDE to support AYA oncology research, including the collection of tracking information to assess long-term outcomes. These efforts will advance preventive, etiologic, therapeutic, and health services-related research for this understudied age group.

  18. Investing in the health and well-being of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Clare; Walker, Leslie R; Davis, Maryann; Irwin, Charles E

    2015-02-01

    Contrary to popular perception, young adults-ages approximately 18-26 years-are surprisingly unhealthy. They are less healthy than adolescents, and they also show a worse health profile than those in their late 20s and 30s. The Affordable Care Act provisions to extend coverage for young adults are well known, and some states had already been pursuing similar efforts before the Affordable Care Act was enacted. These initiatives have resulted in important gains in young adults' heath care coverage. However, too little attention has been paid to the care that young adults receive once they are in the system. Given young adults' health problems, this is a critical omission. The Institute of Medicine and National Research Council recently released a report titled Investing in the Health and Well-Being of Young Adults. The report concludes that young adulthood is a critical developmental period and recommends that young adults ages 18-26 years be treated as a distinct subpopulation in policy, planning, programming, and research. The report also recommends action in three priority areas to improve health care for young adults: improving the transition from pediatric to adult medical and behavioral health care, enhancing preventive care for young adults, and developing evidence-based practices.

  19. Management of total cancer pain: A case of young adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aanchal Satija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain due to cancer is one of the most distressing symptoms experienced by the patients at some or the other time during the course of treatment or disease progression. The multidimensional nature of cancer pain is characterized by various dimensions including physical, social, psychological, and spiritual; which together constitute the term "total pain". Young cancer patients illustrate their unique psychological and developmental needs. This case report highlights the concept of "total cancer pain" in a young adult and demonstrates his distinctive social, spiritual, and psychological sufferings. The report emphasizes that addressing all these concerns is considerably significant in order to provide optimal pain relief to the patient. In the present scenario, it has been done by a skillful multiprofessional team communicating effectively with both the patient and the carer.

  20. Entry into labour: The experience of young adults in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Candido A.

    1990-12-01

    This study focuses on the experience of young adults employed in the tertiary sector in Brasília. The results show that young people are prepared for work by on-the-job training and nonformal education; schooling is mainly an indicator of trainability. Entry into the labour force reinforces social differences in family background and schooling. The results tend to support the moderate version of classical theory with regard to the nature of school/work relationships. In the context of the conflict paradigm, the data run contrary to both reproductionism and the radical critique of this view. From the comparative standpoint youth is an underprivileged group in the labour market, regardless of sex, socioeconomic status and country of residence. Despite these variations, societies are stratified by age groups.

  1. Young Adults' Perceived Purposes of Emerging Adulthood: Implications for Cohabitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Adam A; Willoughby, Brian J; Nelson, Larry J

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated associations between young adults' perceived purposes of emerging adulthood and their attitudes toward and participation in cohabitation. In a sample of 775 never married individuals, ages 18-29 (69% female, 69% white) from the United States, young people's perceptions of this period of life were associated with their acceptance of cohabitation, their reasoning for accepting cohabitation, and the likelihood of cohabiting. Results showed that the perception that emerging adulthood is a time to prepare for future family roles was negatively associated with acceptance of cohabitation whereas the perception that emerging adulthood is a time to take risks was positively associated with acceptance of cohabitation. The perception that emerging adulthood is a time to prepare for future family roles was associated with an increased likelihood of having cohabited while the perception that emerging adulthood is a time of possibilities was associated with a decreased likelihood of having cohabited. Implications for future research are discussed.

  2. Super Behaviour: A Note on Young Australian Adults’ Engagement With Their Superannuation Accounts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm Anderson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We examine the behaviour and attitudes towards superannuation of 25-34 year old Australians. Our results suggest that they are generally uninterested in their superannuation accounts. They seldom read the information provided by their funds, rarely change their fund, and a majority of them do not make voluntary contributions. Overall the results suggest significant lack of interest in, and engagement and concern with issues related to their retirement planning.

  3. Prevention of alcohol misuse among children, youths and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korczak, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite many activities to prevent risky alcohol consumption among adolescents and young adults there is an increase of alcohol intoxications in the group of ten to twenty year old juveniles. Objectives: This report gives an overview about the recent literature as well as the German federal prevention system regarding activities concerning behavioral and policy prevention of risky alcohol consumption among children, adolescents and young adults. Furthermore, effective components of prevention activities are identified and the efficiency and efficacy of ongoing prevention programs is evaluated. Methods: A systematic literature review is done in 34 databases using Bool’sche combinations of the key words alcohol, prevention, treatment, children, adolescents and young adults. Results: 401 studies were found and 59 studies were selected for the health technology assessment (HTA. Most of the studies are done in USA, nine in Germany. A family strengthening program, personalized computer based intervention at schools, colleges and universities, brief motivational interventions and policy elements like increase of prices and taxes proved effective. Discussion: Among the 59 studies there are three meta-analyses, 15 reviews, 17 randomized controlled trials (RCT and 18 cohort studies. Despite the overall high quality of the study design, many of them have methodological weaknesses (missing randomization, missing or too short follow-ups, not clearly defined measurement parameters. The transferability of US-results to the German context is problematic. Only a few prevention activities reach a sustainable reduction of frequency and/or amount of alcohol consumption. Conclusion: The HTA-report shows the need to develop specific and target group focused prevention activities for the German situation. Essential for that is the definition of target goals (reduction of consumption, change of behaviour as well as the definition and empirical validation

  4. Life Satisfaction of Young Australians: Relationships between Further Education, Training and Employment and General and Career Satisfaction. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth Research Report 43

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Kylie; McMillan, Julie

    2005-01-01

    Prepared by the Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER) under an agreement with the Australian Government Department of Education, Science and Training (DEST), this report has three broad aims: (1) To describe the relationship between life satisfaction and participation in a range of post-school education, training and labour market…

  5. Psychotic symptoms in young adults exposed to childhood trauma--a 20 year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galletly, Cherrie; Van Hooff, Miranda; McFarlane, Alexander

    2011-04-01

    Childhood adversity has been shown to increase the risk of psychotic symptoms in adult life. However, there are no previous studies looking at the association between experiencing a natural disaster during childhood and the development of psychotic symptoms in young adulthood. Eight hundred and six bushfire-exposed children and 725 control children were evaluated following the 1983 South Australian bushfires. Five hundred and twenty nine (65.6%) of the bushfire group and 464 (64%) controls participated in a follow up study 20 years later. Childhood data on emotional and behavioural disorders and dysfunctional parenting was available. The adult assessment included the Australian National Health and Well-Being psychosis screen and detailed information about trauma, childhood adversity and alcohol and cannabis abuse. 5.6% of subjects responded positively to the psychosis screen and 2.6% responded positively to a further probe question. Psychotic symptoms were more common in subjects exposed to a greater number of traumas, and were associated with higher rates of childhood adversity, emotional and behavioural disturbance, dysfunctional parenting, and alcohol and cannabis abuse. Subjects exposed to bushfires as children did not have a greater risk of psychosis. Our results indicate that exposure to multiple traumas, rather than a single major trauma, increases the risk of later psychosis.

  6. The Black Arts Movement and African American Young Adult Literature: An Evaluation of Narrative Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Laretta

    2005-01-01

    In this article I question whether or not African American young adult literature serves as a primer for, and a version of, African American adult literature. Using the Black Aesthetic as my literary theory and the Coretta Scott King Award as the young adult canon, I note that while the content of adolescent literature is consistent with the…

  7. Recognition of asthma in adolescents and young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Postma, Dirkje S; Backer, Vibeke

    2005-01-01

    Objective assessment of airway function is important in epidemiologic studies of asthma to facilitate comparison between studies. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), peak expiratory flow (PEF) variability, and bronchodilator reversibility (BR) are widely used as markers of airway lability in such s...... in such studies. Data from a survey of a population sample of adolescents and young adults (n = 609; 288 males), aged 13-23 years, were analyzed to investigate whether AHR, PEF variability, and BR can be used interchangeably as markers of asthma in an epidemiological setting....

  8. Posture and Texting: Effect on Balance in Young Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Retno Nurwulan

    Full Text Available Using a mobile phone while doing another activity is a common dual-task activity in our daily lives. This study examined the effect of texting on the postural stability of young adults. Twenty college students were asked to perform static and dynamic postural stability tasks. Traditional COP and multivariate multiscale entropy (MMSE were used to assess the static postural stability and the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT was used to assess the dynamic postural stability. Results showed that (1 texting impaired postural stability, (2 the complexity index did not change much although the task conditions changed, and (3 performing texting is perceived to be more difficult.

  9. Characterizing and Comparing Young Adult Intermittent and Daily Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Lenk, Kathleen M.; Chen, Vincent; Bernat, Debra H.; Forster, Jean L.; Rode, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    To examine young adult smoking patterns, we interviewed 732 smokers (from five U.S. upper Midwestern states) via telephone in 2006. We first defined two groups of intermittent smokers—low (smoked 1–14 days in past 30) and high (smoked 15–29 days in past 30), and then analyzed differences between these two groups and daily smokers. Low intermittent smokers were much less likely than high intermittent smokers to consider themselves smokers, feel addicted, or smoke with friends. Daily smokers we...

  10. Social cognition and communication skills in Asperger syndrome young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Figueira

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to compare patients with Asperger syndrome (AS and control participants on social cognition tasks and communication skills. Twenty young adults were assessed in three social cognition domains; recognition of basic emotions, recognition of complex emotions and Theory of Mind (ToM. In addition participants completed a self-report questionnaire as a measure of social communication skills. The results indicate that adults with AS perform below neurotypical control participants in emotion processing, ToM and communication skills. There were no significant correlations between the variables of social cognition and communication skills in the group of AS. Taken together, results suggest that people with a diagnosis of AS present a deficit in ToM and emotional processing as well as in communication skills. However, it was not possible to identify a significant association between the variables of social cognition and communication skills.

  11. Childhood social inequalities influences neural processes in young adult caregiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pilyoung; Ho, Shaun S; Evans, Gary W; Liberzon, Israel; Swain, James E

    2015-12-01

    Childhood poverty is associated with harsh parenting with a risk of transmission to the next generation. This prospective study examined the relations between childhood poverty and non-parent adults' neural responses to infant cry sounds. While no main effects of poverty were revealed in contrasts of infant cry versus acoustically matched white noise, a gender by childhood poverty interaction emerged. In females, childhood poverty was associated with increased neural activations in the posterior insula, striatum, calcarine sulcus, hippocampus, and fusiform gyrus, while, in males, childhood poverty was associated with reduced levels of neural responses to infant cry in the same regions. Irrespective of gender, neural activation in these regions was associated with higher levels of annoyance with the cry sound and reduced desire to approach the crying infant. The findings suggest gender differences in neural and emotional responses to infant cry sounds among young adults growing up in poverty.

  12. Incidental and intentional encoding in young and elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Téllez-Alanís, Bernarda; Cansino, Selene

    2004-08-06

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in young and elderly adults during the performance of an incidental encoding task (subjects were unexpectedly given a recognition test) followed by an intentional task (subjects expected the recognition test). Both tasks consisted of an encoding stage in which subjects classified words (natural/artificial) and a recognition stage in which they indicated whether the words were old (presented during the encoding stage) or new. In both groups and tasks, the ERPs, during encoding, differed as a function of subsequent recognition: the old words correctly recognized generated greater amplitude potentials than the incorrect ones. The memory processes expressed by these ERPs are preserved in elderly adults, independently of whether the information is incidentally or intentionally encoded.

  13. What distinguishes successful from unsuccessful tobacco smoking cessation? Data from a study of young adults (TEMPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inès Khati

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Work and family circumstances, co-occurring substance use and psychological difficulties may influence smoking cessation in young adults. These characteristics should be considered by individual and collective interventions aiming to help young smokers quit successfully.

  14. Clinical Feature And Pathogeny Analysis Of Brain Hemorrhage In Young Adult Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jianming; Zeng Xiaoyun

    2000-01-01

    Objection: The trend of brain hemorrhage cases of young adults have increased recently. In this article, We studied brain hemorrhage clinical feature and pathogenic causes of 72 young adults, Whose ages are all beneath 45Y. We found That the major pathogen reasons of young adult brain hemorrhage are blood system diseases、 arteriovenous malformation of cerebral blood vessel、 hypertension arteriosclerosis、 arteritis and rheumatic heart disease et. We also found that the trend can be related to hard work、 tense life、 drinking too much alcohol and eating high lipid food, and cercbral vascular disease family history. So in order to reduce the incidence of young adult brain hemorrhage, Young adults should not drink and smoke heavily, should not eat too much high lipid food. Young adults who have hypertension and brain vessel disease family history should be regularly measured blood pressure and blood lipid. If they had hypertension, should be treated regularly.

  15. Expectancies toward the intake of alcohol in young adults of Bucaramanga, Colombia, 2005

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To settle down in young adults of Bucaramanga if the statistical and conceptual performance of the test AEQ-III is similar to the one reached in young adults from Mexico, and to describe the relationship of these expectancies with some variables of the context. Methods: Study of factorial validation and internal consistency. In Bucaramanga, Colombia, 156 young adults, answered 51 items of the alcohol expectancy questionnaire. A model of structural equation was developed to evaluat...

  16. Young adults' contraceptive practices: an investigation of influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, C S; Radius, S M

    1987-01-01

    This study investigated young adults' contraceptive behaviors and attitudes through application of a comprehensive, theoretical framework. Specifically, a social-psychological approach to understanding preventive behaviors (e.g., contraceptive practices), was developed, incorporating the Health Belief Model and other factors, which offered a means for evaluating the extent to which contraceptive behaviors were influenced by individual and group characteristics. The study group consisted of 283 unmarried students at several schools who were, on average, 19 years of age. Results suggested that effective contraceptive behavior associated most strongly with respondents' perceiving relatively few barriers to their use of contraception, their maintenance of extensive interpersonal skills, and their regarding peer norms as consistent with effective contraceptive behavior. Findings also underlined a need for continuing education about sexuality and contraception. Dangerous misinformation prevailed regarding respondents' knowledge of areas that include anatomy, physiology, and appropriate use of effective contraceptive methods. Finally, results implied a need to consider broad behavioral, social, and interpersonal issues as they relate to young adults' effective contraceptive behavior. Future studies of contraceptive risk taking are encouraged to examine both individual and social factors affecting sexual and contraceptive practices if unplanned pregnancy is to be minimized, if not eliminated.

  17. Tobacco Industry Lifestyle Magazines Targeted to Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Daniel K.; Lewis, M. Jane; Ling, Pamela M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This is the first study describing the tobacco industry’s objectives developing and publishing lifestyle magazines, linking them to tobacco marketing strategies, and how these magazines may encourage smoking. Methods Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents and content analysis of 31 lifestyle magazines to understand the motives behind producing these magazines and the role they played in tobacco marketing strategies. Results Philip Morris (PM) debuted Unlimited in 1996 to nearly 2 million readers and RJ Reynolds (RJR) debuted CML in 1999 targeting young adults with their interests. Both magazines were developed as the tobacco companies faced increased advertising restrictions Unlimited contained few images of smoking, but frequently featured elements of the Marlboro brand identity in both advertising and article content. CML featured more smoking imagery and fewer Camel brand identity elements. Conclusions Lifestyle promotions that lack images of smoking may still promote tobacco use through brand imagery. The tobacco industry still uses the “under the radar” strategies used in development of lifestyle magazines in branded websites. Prohibiting lifestyle advertising including print and electronic media that associate tobacco with recreation, action, pleasures, and risky behaviors or that reinforces tobacco brand identity may be an effective strategy to curb young adult smoking. PMID:19699423

  18. Physical activity, body composition and metabolic syndrome in young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna K Salonen

    Full Text Available Low physical activity (PA is a major risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in all age groups. We measured intensity and volume of PA and examined the associations between PA and the metabolic syndrome (MS, its components and body composition among young Finnish adults.The study comprises 991 men and women born 1985-86, who participated in a clinical study during the years 2009-11 which included assessments of metabolism, body composition and PA. Objectively measured (SenseWear Armband five-day PA data was available from 737 participants and was expressed in metabolic equivalents of task (MET.The prevalence of MS ranged between 8-10%. Higher total mean volume (MET-hours or intensity (MET were negatively associated with the risk of MS and separate components of MS, while the time spent at sedentary level of PA was positively associated with MS.MS was prevalent in approximately every tenth of the young adults at the age of 24 years. Higher total mean intensity and volume rates as well as longer duration spent at moderate and vigorous PA level had a beneficial impact on the risk of MS. Longer time spent at the sedentary level of PA increased the risk of MS.

  19. Whole body vibration improves cognition in healthy young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Ruben H Regterschot

    Full Text Available This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5±2.2 years underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm and six non-vibration control sessions of two minutes each while sitting on a chair mounted on a vibrating platform. A passive WBV session was alternated with a control session. Directly after each session, performance on the Stroop Color-Block Test (CBT, Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT, Stroop Difference Score (SDS and Digit Span Backward task (DSBT was measured. In half of the passive WBV and control sessions the test order was CBT-CWIT-DSBT, and DSBT-CBT-CWIT in the other half. Passive WBV improved CWIT (p = 0.009; effect size r = 0.20 and SDS (p = 0.034; r = 0.16 performance, but only when the CBT and CWIT preceded the DSBT. CBT and DSBT performance did not change. This study shows that two minutes passive WBV has positive acute effects on attention and inhibition in young adults, notwithstanding their high cognitive functioning which could have hampered improvement. This finding indicates the potential of passive WBV as a cognition-enhancing therapy worth further evaluation, especially in persons unable to perform active forms of exercise.

  20. Young Adult Dystopias: Bildungsroman for the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Gavrilović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines young adult dystopian novels written in the first decade of the 21st century, as heirs to the tradition of the bildungsroman, and the great dystopias. The focus of this new genre has shifted from maintaining "the best of all worlds" – where the young person adjusts and fits into the existing world, to the shaping of the hero’s critical spirit which is supposed to result in the hero/heroine growing up, but also in changes in the world which they inhabit. Two other important characteristics of these novels are the critical relationship toward ancestors and tradition on the one hand, and on the other the positive assessment of non-rational decisions which are made impulsively and are based on emotions, which points to the abandonment of different aspects of the heritage of modernity (the traditions of rationalism and romanticism. Thus they set the stage for a new, different view of the world and the role which the individual is to fulfill by growing from a child into an adult in such a world.

  1. Clues of subjective social status among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, François; Roos, J Micah; Combs, R M

    2015-07-01

    We investigate determinants of subjective social status (SSS) as measured by respondents placing themselves on a ten-rung ladder from least to most "money", "education" and "respected job", in a large sample of young adults. The most potent clues of SSS are proximate in the life course, reflecting educational attainment and current socioeconomic and job situation, rather than distal characteristics such as family background, although relatively distal High school GPA has a lingering effect. Additional analyses reveal that College selectivity has a substantial impact on SSS, net of other variables in the model; Currently married does not significantly contribute to SSS, but contrary to some expectations Number of children significantly lowers SSS. We find no evidence of greater "status borrowing" by women as associations of SSS with shared household characteristics (Household income, Household assets, Home ownership) do not differ by gender. Our findings for these young adults support the conclusion of earlier research that SSS reflects a "cognitive averaging" of standard dimensions of socioeconomic status.

  2. Arthroplasty in young adults: options, techniques, trends, and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mody, Bharat S; Mody, Kshitij

    2014-06-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has been established as a very successful and commonly performed procedure for primary and secondary osteoarthritis, and also for inflammatory arthropathies of the knee in all age groups and both genders. It has predominantly been used as a procedure in the age group of patients 65 years and above. Consequently, the literature is replete with data relevant to various issues associated with TKA in the above 65 years age group population. Although there is reasonable clarity and consensus on the broad parameters of the use of TKA in the above 65 years age group (older), this cannot be said for the same issue as relevant to the below 65 years age group (young adults). Over the last 2 decades there has been an increasing tendency toward the use of TKA in young adults, with some countries reporting a 5-fold increase in the last 10 years [1]. The present article is designed to review the most recent literature specific to this subject and assess it vis-à-vis various issues as listed in the subsequent text, with the aim of highlighting evolving thoughts and trends, which could be useful for decision making by clinicians practicing in the community.

  3. Determinants of vitamin D status in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Rune; Hovind, Peter Hambak; Jensen, Lars Thorbjørn

    2016-01-01

    based on 25[OH]D in serum into; vitamin D sufficiency (S-25[OH]D > 50 nmol/L), vitamin D insufficiency (25 nmol/L ≤ S-25[OH]D ≤ 50 nmol/L), vitamin D deficiency (S-25[OH]D factors and education was obtained by self-reported questionnaires. RESULTS: 700 subjects.......68). For vitamin D insufficiency, the highest RR was again for men 1.31 (1.06, 1.61); obese subjects 1.57 (1.17, 2.11); and subjects who exercised 0-½ hours a week 1.51 (1.11, 2.06). CONCLUSION: In this study of young adults, vitamin D deficiency was highly prevalent. Modifiable factors such as smoking......, maintenance of normal BMI, and physical activity are all potential targets for interventional trials to determine the causal order; such knowledge would be useful in improving S-25[OH]D in young adults. The small group with severe vitamin D deficiency warrants increased attention....

  4. Prescription Drug Misuse and Sexual Behavior Among Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Brooke E; Kelly, Brian C; Rendina, H Jonathon; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2015-01-01

    Though research indicates a complex link between substance use and sexual risk behavior, there is limited research on the association between sexual risk behavior and prescription drug misuse. In light of alarming increases in prescription drug misuse and the role of demographic characteristics in sexual risk behavior and outcomes, the current study examined demographic differences (gender, sexual identity, age, relationship status, parental class background, and race/ethnicity) in sexual risk behavior, sexual behavior under the influence of prescription drugs, and sexual risk behavior under the influence of prescription drugs in a sample of 402 young adults (ages 18 to 29) who misused prescription drugs. Nearly half of the sexually active young adult prescription drug misusers in this sample reported recent sex under the influence of prescription drugs; more than three-quarters reported recent sex without a condom; and more than one-third reported recent sex without a condom after using prescription drugs. Zero-inflated Poisson regression models indicated that White race, younger age, higher parental class, and being a heterosexual man were all associated with sexual risk behavior, sex under the influence of prescription drugs, and sexual risk under the influence of prescription drugs. Findings have implications for the targeting of prevention and intervention efforts.

  5. Articulation of young adult readers in a digitalized and medialized landscape of texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henkel, Ayoe Qvist

    2015-01-01

    The digital turn does not bring about changes in young adultliterature considered as aesthetic artifacts and literary works but it changes the perception and reception of the reader. Digital young adult literature is increasingly multimodal, including interactivity and the integration of elements...... of game aesthetics. The way the young person is articulated within such texts must be presumed to be new, and the pivotal point of this paper will be to explore how the young adult reader is thematized in content, form, and medium in digital young adult literature....

  6. Somatosensory mismatch response in young and elderly adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juho M. Strömmer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with cognitive decline and alterations in early perceptual processes. Studies in the auditory and visual modalities have shown that the mismatch negativity (or the mismatch response, MMR, an event-related potential (ERP elicited by a deviant stimulus in a background of homogenous events, diminishes with aging and cognitive decline. However, the effects of aging on the somatosensory MMR are not known. In the current study, we recorded ERPs to electrical pulses to different fingers of the left hand in a passive oddball experiment in young (22–36 years and elderly (66–95 years adults engaged in a visual task. The MMR was found to deviants as compared to standards at two latency ranges: 180–220 ms and 250–290 ms post-stimulus onset. At 180–220 ms, within the young, the MMR was found at medial electrode sites, whereas aged did not show any amplitude difference between the stimulus types at the same latency range. At 250–290 ms, the MMR was evident with attenuated amplitude and narrowed scalp distribution among aged (Fz compared to young (fronto-centrally and lateral parietal sites. Hence, the results reveal that the somatosensory change detection mechanism is altered in aging. The somatosensory MMR can be used as a reliable measure of age-related changes in sensory-cognitive functions.

  7. Psychological predictors of young adults' use of social networking sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kathryn; Fornasier, Stephanie; White, Katherine M

    2010-04-01

    Young people are increasingly using social networking sites (SNSs) like MySpace and Facebook to engage with others. The use of SNSs can have both positive and negative effects on the individual; however, few studies identify the types of people who frequent these Internet sites. This study sought to predict young adults' use of SNSs and addictive tendency toward the use of SNSs from their personality characteristics and levels of self-esteem. University students (N = 201), aged 17 to 24 years, reported their use of SNSs and addictive tendencies for SNSs use and completed the NEO Five-Factor Personality Inventory and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Multiple regression analyses revealed that, as a group, the personality and self-esteem factors significantly predicted both level of SNS use and addictive tendency but did not explain a large amount of variance in either outcome measure. The findings indicated that extroverted and unconscientious individuals reported higher levels of both SNS use and addictive tendencies. Future research should attempt to identify which other psychosocial characteristics explain young people's level of use and propensity for addictive tendencies for these popular Internet sites.

  8. Young Adults' Attitudes and Perceptions of Obesity and Weight Management: Implications for Treatment Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanoye, Autumn; Gorin, Amy A; LaRose, Jessica Gokee

    2016-03-01

    Young adults are underrepresented in standard behavioral weight loss trials, and evidence suggests that they differ from older adults on many weight-related constructs. The aim of this review is to explore young adults' attitudes toward obesity and weight management, with particular attention to those factors that may play a role in the development of future treatment efforts. Both intrapersonal and interpersonal considerations unique to young adulthood are assessed; in addition, we examine young adults' perceptions of specific weight-related behaviors such as dieting, physical activity, and self-weighing. Conclusions are consistent with other findings suggesting that weight management interventions should be adapted and designed specifically for this age group.

  9. What to Do If Your Teen or Young Adult Has a Problem with Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults ...

  10. What to Do If You Have a Problem with Drugs: For Teens and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults ...

  11. Serum Predictors of Percent Lean Mass in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustgarten, Michael S; Price, Lori L; Phillips, Edward M; Kirn, Dylan R; Mills, John; Fielding, Roger A

    2016-08-01

    Lustgarten, MS, Price, LL, Phillips, EM, Kirn, DR, Mills, J, and Fielding, RA. Serum predictors of percent lean mass in young adults. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2194-2201, 2016-Elevated lean (skeletal muscle) mass is associated with increased muscle strength and anaerobic exercise performance, whereas low levels of lean mass are associated with insulin resistance and sarcopenia. Therefore, studies aimed at obtaining an improved understanding of mechanisms related to the quantity of lean mass are of interest. Percent lean mass (total lean mass/body weight × 100) in 77 young subjects (18-35 years) was measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Twenty analytes and 296 metabolites were evaluated with the use of the standard chemistry screen and mass spectrometry-based metabolomic profiling, respectively. Sex-adjusted multivariable linear regression was used to determine serum analytes and metabolites significantly (p ≤ 0.05 and q ≤ 0.30) associated with the percent lean mass. Two enzymes (alkaline phosphatase and serum glutamate oxaloacetate aminotransferase) and 29 metabolites were found to be significantly associated with the percent lean mass, including metabolites related to microbial metabolism, uremia, inflammation, oxidative stress, branched-chain amino acid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, glycerolipid metabolism, and xenobiotics. Use of sex-adjusted stepwise regression to obtain a final covariate predictor model identified the combination of 5 analytes and metabolites as overall predictors of the percent lean mass (model R = 82.5%). Collectively, these data suggest that a complex interplay of various metabolic processes underlies the maintenance of lean mass in young healthy adults.

  12. Prolonged cannabis withdrawal in young adults with lifetime psychiatric illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Randi Melissa; Fontaine, Madeleine; Nip, Emily; Zhang, Haiyue; Hanly, Ailish; Eden Evins, A

    2017-02-27

    Young adults with psychiatric illnesses are more likely to use cannabis and experience problems from use. It is not known whether those with a lifetime psychiatric illness experience a prolonged cannabis withdrawal syndrome with abstinence. Participants were fifty young adults, aged 18-25, recruited from the Boston-area in 2015-2016, who used cannabis at least weekly, completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV to identify Axis I psychiatric diagnoses (PD+ vs PD-), and attained cannabis abstinence with a four-week contingency management protocol. Withdrawal symptom severity was assessed at baseline and at four weekly abstinent visits using the Cannabis Withdrawal Scale. Cannabis dependence, age of initiation, and rate of abstinence were similar in PD+ and PD- groups. There was a diagnostic group by abstinent week interaction, suggesting a difference in time course for resolution of withdrawal symptoms by group, F(4,46)=3.8, p=0.009, controlling for sex, baseline depressive and anxiety symptoms, and frequency of cannabis use in the prior 90days. In post hoc analyses, there was a difference in time-course of cannabis withdrawal. PD- had significantly reduced withdrawal symptom severity in abstinent week one [t(46)=-2.2, p=0.03], while PD+ did not report improved withdrawal symptoms until the second abstinent week [t(46)=-4.1, p=0.0002]. Cannabis withdrawal symptoms improved over four weeks in young people with and without a lifetime psychiatric diagnosis. However, those with a psychiatric illness reported one week delayed improvement in withdrawal symptom severity. Longer duration of cannabis withdrawal may be a risk factor for cannabis dependence and difficulty quitting.

  13. Growing Old With Ice: A Review of the Potential Consequences of Methamphetamine Abuse in Australian Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searby, Adam; Maude, Phil; McGrath, Ian

    2015-01-01

    This review analyzes contemporary literature in the context of Australian aging methamphetamine users, service response, and challenges to provision of care to this population. The article focuses on Australian literature with comparisons made with trends arising from international scholarship. Searches of the CINAHL, ProQuest, and Scopus electronic journal databases were performed in early 2014 as part of a wider study investigating dual diagnosis in older adults. Methamphetamine abuse is common in individuals with comorbid mental illness. The literature presented in this review outlines potential neuropsychological and persistent psychiatric sequelae associated with the use of methamphetamine, along with a number of concerning behaviors prevalent in individuals with comorbid human immunodeficiency virus-positive status. Despite an abundance of literature discussing methamphetamine use in adult populations, this is the first review exploring methamphetamine use in the context of aging and older adult mental health. Contemporary literature suggests that methamphetamine dependence will be a significant challenge for services that cater to older adults, requiring further research to fully assess the impact this cohort will have on the healthcare system.

  14. Transfer to Adult Care--Experiences of Young Adults with Congenital Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asp, Ann; Bratt, Ewa-Lena; Bramhagen, Ann-Cathrine

    2015-01-01

    More than 90% of children born with congenital heart disease survive into adulthood due to successes of cardiac surgery and medical management. Interviews with 16 young adults with congenital heart disease to explore their experiences of transfer from pediatric to adult care were performed. The analysis identified five themes; Feeling secure during the transfer process, Experiencing trust in the care, Expecting to be involved, Assuming responsibility for one's health is a process and Lack of knowledge leads to uncertainty. In conclusion; a structured and gradual transfer process was necessary to enable the informants to shoulder the responsibility for self-care.

  15. Nasal allergies hayfever among young adults in Melbourne, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Abramson

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there is wide variation in the prevalence of nasal allergies internationally, the extent to which this is due to variation in etiological factors is not known. The purpose of the present study was to define the relative importance of atopy and other risk factors for nasal allergies, including hayfever, among young adults in Melbourne. The subjects were participants in the second phase of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey; 876 adults between 20 and 45 years of age completed a detailed respiratory questionnaire, 745 had skin prick testing with common aeroallergens and 675 underwent methacholine challenge. Total and allergen-specific IgE levels were measured in 701 and 693 subjects by radioimmunoassay and RAST, respectively. Nasal allergies, including hayfever, were reported by 47.5% of randomly selected participants. Females, non- smokers, subjects with a family history of allergies, those with current asthma, a history of eczema and nasal symptoms induced by dust, pollen or food were significantly more likely to have nasal allergies. Oral antihistamines had been used by 45.7% of those reporting nasal allergies and 12.4% had received allergen immunotherapy. The risk of nasal allergies, including hayfever, was increased 6.1-fold by atopy, particularly by positive skin tests to outdoor allergens such as Birch, Timothy grass, plantain, olive, Cladosporium and Rye grass pollen. Total serum IgE was significantly higher in subjects reporting nasal allergies than in those who did not report such allergies. There were significant trends in the prevalence of nasal allergies with increasing titers of specific IgE directed against all allergens tested. In conclusion, the significant independent risk factors for nasal allergies, including hayfever, in young adults were atopy, particularly sensitization to Timothy grass, house dust mites and plantain, current asthma, not smoking, a history of eczema and female gender. Future research

  16. Shared decision-making: the perspectives of young adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiley J

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Janice Wiley,1 Mary Westbrook,1 Jerry R Greenfield,2,3 Richard O Day,4 Jeffrey Braithwaite11Centre for Clinical Governance Research in Health, Australian Institute of Health Innovation, University of New South Wales, 2Diabetes and Obesity Program, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, 3Department of Endocrinology, St Vincent's Hospital, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 4Department of Clinical Pharmacology, St Vincent's Hospital, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, AustraliaBackground: Shared decision-making (SDM is at the core of patient-centered care. We examined whether young adults with type 1 diabetes perceived the clinician groups they consulted as practicing SDM.Methods: In a web-based survey, 150 Australians aged 18–35 years and with type 1 diabetes rated seven aspects of SDM in their interactions with endocrinologists, diabetes educators, dieticians, and general practitioners. Additionally, 33 participants in seven focus groups discussed these aspects of SDM.Results: Of the 150 respondents, 90% consulted endocrinologists, 60% diabetes educators, 33% dieticians, and 37% general practitioners. The majority of participants rated all professions as oriented toward all aspects of SDM, but there were professional differences. These ranged from 94.4% to 82.2% for "My clinician enquires about how I manage my diabetes"; 93.4% to 82.2% for "My clinician listens to my opinion about my diabetes management"; 89.9% to 74.1% for "My clinician is supportive of my diabetes management"; 93.2% to 66.1% for "My clinician suggests ways in which I can improve my self-management”; 96.6% to 85.7% for “The advice of my clinician can be understood”; 98.9% to 82.2% for “The advice of my clinician can be trusted”; and 86.5% to 67.9% for “The advice of my clinician is consistent with other members of the diabetes team". Diabetes educators received the highest ratings on all aspects of SDM. The mean weighted average of

  17. Forearm hair density and risk of keratinocyte cancers in Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schuckmann, L A; Hughes, M C; Green, A C; van der Pols, J C

    2016-11-01

    Evidence suggests that progenitor cells of keratinocyte cancers (basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)) may originate from epidermal stem cells including hair follicle stem cells. We hypothesised that, therefore, a relatively higher density of hair follicles on human skin may increase keratinocyte cancer risk. To evaluate this, we assessed density of mid-forearm hair in Australian adults who were randomly selected participants in a community-based cohort study of skin cancer. Hair density was assessed clinically against a set of four standard photographs showing grades of hair density, and incidence data on histologically confirmed BCC and SCC across a 20-year period were collected. Incidence rate ratios were calculated for categories of forearm hair density using multivariable regression analysis with adjustment for age, sex, phenotypic characteristics and markers of chronic sun exposure. Among the 715 participants (43 % male, average age 61 years), 237 developed at least one BCC and 115 persons developed at least one SCC. Participants with dense forearm hair (n = 169, all male) had a higher incidence of BCC (IRR = 2.24, 95 % CI 1.20, 4.18, P = 0.01) and SCC (IRR = 2.80, 95 % CI 1.20, 6.57, P = 0.02) compared to individuals with sparse forearm hair after multivariable adjustment. Stratified analyses showed that among men, those with dense versus sparse hair developed SCC more commonly (IRR = 3.01, 95 % CI 1.03, 8.78, P = 0.04). Women with moderate versus sparse hair density were more likely affected by BCC (IRR = 2.29, 95 % CI 1.05, 5.00, P = 0.038). Thus, our study suggests that in both men and women, a higher density of body hair may be associated with increased BCC and SCC risk.

  18. Evaluation of Seafood Product Concepts by Young Adults and Families with Young Children from Denmark, Norway, and Iceland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altintzoglou, T.; Sveinsdottir, K.; Einarsdottir, G.; Schelvis, R.; Luten, J.B.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the results of a study that tested the responses to 14 seafood concepts among young adults and families with young children in Denmark, Norway, and Iceland. This study was aimed at gaining insight into the evaluation of new seafood product concepts by individuals with low seaf

  19. A factor analytic investigation of the Tripartite model of affect in a clinical sample of young Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosgrave Elizabeth M

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (MASQ was designed to specifically measure the Tripartite model of affect and is proposed to offer a delineation between the core components of anxiety and depression. Factor analytic data from adult clinical samples has shown mixed results; however no studies employing confirmatory factor analysis (CFA have supported the predicted structure of distinct Depression, Anxiety and General Distress factors. The Tripartite model has not been validated in a clinical sample of older adolescents and young adults. The aim of the present study was to examine the validity of the Tripartite model using scale-level data from the MASQ and correlational and confirmatory factor analysis techniques. Methods 137 young people (M = 17.78, SD = 2.63 referred to a specialist mental health service for adolescents and young adults completed the MASQ and diagnostic interview. Results All MASQ scales were highly inter-correlated, with the lowest correlation between the depression- and anxiety-specific scales (r = .59. This pattern of correlations was observed for all participants rating for an Axis-I disorder but not for participants without a current disorder (r = .18. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to evaluate the model fit of a number of solutions. The predicted Tripartite structure was not supported. A 2-factor model demonstrated superior model fit and parsimony compared to 1- or 3-factor models. These broad factors represented Depression and Anxiety and were highly correlated (r = .88. Conclusion The present data lend support to the notion that the Tripartite model does not adequately explain the relationship between anxiety and depression in all clinical populations. Indeed, in the present study this model was found to be inappropriate for a help-seeking community sample of older adolescents and young adults.

  20. Religious Background and Gambling Among Young Adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uecker, Jeremy E; Stokes, Charles E

    2016-03-01

    Despite the rapid growth of the gambling industry over the last 40 years, there have been few large-scale, nationally representative longitudinal studies of gambling among young adults. We use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health to investigate whether and how the gambling behavior of young adults is associated with their religious beliefs and practices during adolescence. We find that young adults who grew up as conservative Protestants, mainline Protestants, Mormons, and Jehovah's Witnesses; those were raised in a community with a higher percentage of conservative Protestants; and those who attended religious services weekly are less likely to have ever gambled. Among gamblers, young adults who attended religious services up to three times per month as adolescents are more likely to experience gambling problems than those who never attend. Notably, accounting for a young adult's propensity for risk-taking behavior does not explain the associations between religion and gambling.

  1. The Experiences of Mothers of Young Adults with an Intellectual Disability Transitioning from Secondary School to Adult Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyke, Paula; Bourke, Jenny; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; Leonard, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Background: The transition from school to adulthood for young adults with an intellectual disability involves movement from a generally secure and supported school environment to an emerging adult life that may be characterised by a wide variation in adoption of adult roles related to employment, independent living, friendships, and day…

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  14. Mobile phones are a viable option for surveying young Australian women: a comparison of two telephone survey methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Bette

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Households with fixed-line telephones have decreased while mobile (cell phone ownership has increased. We therefore sought to examine the feasibility of recruiting young women for a national health survey through random digit dialling mobile phones. Methods Two samples of women aged 18 to 39 years were surveyed by random digit dialling fixed and mobile numbers. We compared participation rates and responses to a questionnaire between women surveyed by each contact method. Results After dialling 5,390 fixed-lines and 3,697 mobile numbers, 140 and 128 women were recruited respectively. Among women contacted and found to be eligible, participation rates were 74% for fixed-lines and 88% for mobiles. Taking into account calls to numbers where eligibility was unknown (e.g. unanswered calls the estimated response rates were 54% and 45% respectively. Of women contacted by fixed-line, 97% reported having a mobile while 61% of those contacted by mobile reported having a fixed-line at home. After adjusting for age, there were no significant differences between mobile-only and fixed-line responders with respect to education, residence, and various health behaviours; however compared to those with fixed-lines, mobile-only women were more likely to identify as Indigenous (OR 4.99, 95%CI 1.52-16.34 and less likely to live at home with their parents (OR 0.09, 95%CI 0.03-0.29. Conclusions Random digit dialling mobile phones to conduct a health survey in young Australian women is feasible, gives a comparable response rate and a more representative sample than dialling fixed-lines only. Telephone surveys of young women should include mobile dialling.

  15. Memory Monitoring and Control in Young and Intermediate-Age Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxciel Zortea

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The way adults perceive and regulate learning (metamemory is an important indicator of how they perform on memory tasks. This study assessed memory monitoring, control and performance in young and intermediate-age adults according to item type (with or without semantic relation, type of judgment of learning (JOL - immediate or delayed, and age. Twenty-six young adults (M = 22 years old and 18 intermediate-age adults (M = 47 years old participated, who responded to an experimental paradigm to evaluate metamemory. Results showed that related word-pairs received higher magnitude for the JOLs and better cued-recall scores. JOLs’ accuracy was similar between the age groups, delayed JOLs being more accurate only for young adults. Intermediate-age adults apparently based their allocation of study time less on JOLs or cued-recall than young adults.

  16. Modulation of prepulse inhibition and startle reflex by emotions: A comparison between young and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolyanne eLe Duc

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examined whether or not the acoustic startle response and sensorimotor gating may be modulated by emotions differentially between young and older adults. Two groups of participants (mean age Young: 24 y.o.; Elderly: 63.6 y.o. were presented with three types of auditory stimuli (Startle alone, High or Low frequency Prepulse while viewing pleasant, neutral, or unpleasant images. Electromyographic activity of the eyeblink response was measured. Results show that older adults displayed diminished eyeblink responses whereas younger adults displayed enhanced eyeblink responses when viewing negative images. Sensorimotor gating also differed between young and older adults, with enhanced sensorimotor gating abilities while viewing positive pictures in older adults and diminished abilities while viewing negative pictures among younger adults. These results argue in favor of a differential emotional influence on the sensorimotor abilities of young and older adults, with a positivity bias among the latter.

  17. Modulation of Prepulse Inhibition and Startle Reflex by Emotions: A Comparison between Young and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Duc, Jolyanne; Fournier, Philippe; Hébert, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether or not the acoustic startle response and sensorimotor gating may be modulated by emotions differentially between young and older adults. Two groups of participants (mean age Young: 24 years old; Elderly: 63.6 years old) were presented with three types of auditory stimuli (Startle alone, High or Low frequency Prepulse) while viewing pleasant, neutral, or unpleasant images. Electromyographic activity of the eyeblink response was measured. Results show that older adults displayed diminished eyeblink responses whereas younger adults displayed enhanced eyeblink responses when viewing negative images. Sensorimotor gating also differed between young and older adults, with enhanced sensorimotor gating abilities while viewing positive pictures in older adults and diminished abilities while viewing negative pictures among younger adults. These results argue in favor of a differential emotional influence on the sensorimotor abilities of young and older adults, with a positivity bias among the latter.

  18. Gender differences in pornography consumption among young heterosexual Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Gert Martin

    2006-01-01

    a representative sample of 688 young heterosexual Danish adult men and women. The study found large gender differences in prevalence rates of pornography consumption and consumption patterns. Compared to women, men were exposed to pornography at a younger age, consumed more pornography as measured by time...... and frequency, and used pornography more often during sexual activity on their own. Gender differences in the interpersonal context of use were also evident, with women using pornography more often with a regular sexual partner than men. In turn, men were found to use pornography more often on their own...... or with friends (non-sexual partners) than women. For both men and women, the usual place of use was home and no significant gender difference was found in this regard. Men and women were found to vary in their preferences in pornographic materials, with men both preferring a wider range of hardcore pornography...

  19. Topical spironolactone reduces sebum secretion rates in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, A; Ito, M

    1996-04-01

    The effects of topically applied spironolactone on the sebum secretion rates (SSR) of young adults were investigated. SSR was expressed as the ratio of wax esters/[cholesterol+cholesterol esters] (WE/[C+CE]) and the amount of sebaceous lipids (squalene, triacylglycerol and wax esters). Topical spironolactone 5% gel applied to the right cheeks of the subjects produced a significant reduction in the SSR at 12 weeks (4 weeks after termination of application), but not at 8 weeks (the end of treatment). Untreated "control" areas (the left cheeks of the subjects) showed no significant change during the study. None of the subjects experienced skin rash or signs of local irritation. This results suggests that topical spironolactone may be effective in the treatment of acne patients with high SSR.

  20. Adolescents, Young Adults, and the Legalization of Marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoopes, Andrea J; Manskopf, Inga; Walker, Leslie

    2014-08-01

    Marijuana is the most common illicit drug of abuse in adolescents, nationally and globally. What is currently known about the effects of marijuana on adolescents and their lives reveals a number of concerns, ranging from acute physical effects to long-term physical, mental, and social consequences. As states begin to re-evaluate marijuana policies, it is important that the health and well-being of adolescents and young adults remain a priority. Much about marijuana and its medicinal uses is still not known, nor is there adequate data about the long-term effects of use of stronger marijuana products over the life course. Although much research is needed on marijuana and its derivatives, enough is known about its effects on adolescents to recommend an increased focus on preventing marijuana use in this stage of life.

  1. Prospective content in the friendship conversations of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Richard A; Marshall, Sheila K; Murray, John

    2017-01-01

    Prospection is cognitive processes that involve constructing, encoding, and remembering the future. Less is known about the how these processes are evident in the prospective content of conversations. This study sought to identify and describe evidence of the prospective content in the conversations of friends as they transition to adulthood. The present secondary content analysis of the videotaped conversations of 15 young adult friendship dyads (n = 30, 16 females, 14 males, mean age = 21.3 years) in Canada examined these conversations based the following characteristics of prospection: simulation, reasoning about counterfactuals, constructing multiple possible futures, and episodic memory of the past. Four categories of prospective content were evident in these conversations, these processes were used sparingly in all but one conversation, and relatively few of them were collaborative in that dyad partners did not appear to serve to augment, clarify, or disconfirm prospective content.

  2. Cardiovascular Disease in Survivors of Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugbjerg, Kathrine; Mellemkjaer, Lene; Boice, John D

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease has emerged as a serious late effect in survivors of adolescent and young adult cancer, but risk has not been quantified comprehensively in a population-based setting. METHODS: In the Danish Cancer Registry, we identified 43153 1-year survivors of cancer diagnosed...... at ages 15 to 39 years (1943-2009) and alive in 1977; from the Danish Civil Registration System, we randomly selected a comparison cohort of the same age and sex. Subjects were linked to the Danish Patient Register, and observed numbers of first hospitalizations for cardiovascular disease (International......-sided. RESULTS: During follow-up, 10591 survivors (24.5%) were discharged from the hospital with cardiovascular disease, whereas 8124 were expected (RR = 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI)] = 1.28 to 1.33; P cardiovascular disease per 100000...

  3. Food safety knowledge and practices of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Eric J; Knechtges, Paul L

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the study described in this article was to ascertain the food safety knowledge and practices of undergraduate students attending a major American university. The study participants were undergraduate college students (mean age 18.9 +/- 1.14 SD) enrolled in a required health course. The students were invited to take a validated food safety knowledge questionnaire as part of a health risk behavior online survey. The 786 respondents indicated their food is most often prepared at on-campus dining facilities and the majority of the students (72%) felt they were "unlikely or "very unlikely" at risk of foodborne disease. The mean food safety knowledge score of the participants was 10.23 (43%) +/- 4.13 SD (25%-60%), indicating the study population overall has poor knowledge of safe food practices. As a result, food safety educational initiatives and awareness campaigns should be developed to better inform young adults about safe food handling practices and habits.

  4. Perceptions of Family Alcohol Use in a Young Adult Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Kelly A.; Stewart, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Perceptions of family alcohol use have been linked to adolescent alcohol use behaviors, yet there have been no studies that have assessed this relationship in young adults. This study examined perceptions of family alcohol use and their association with participants’ self-reported alcohol use. Participants included 171 undergraduate students (mean age = 21.67, 71.9 percent female, 75.4 percent Caucasian). Participants completed measures assessing quantity and frequency of alcohol use, negative consequences of use, and sibling relationship quality. They also reported their perceptions of alcohol use for siblings and parents during a typical week. Perceptions of siblings’ quantity of weekly alcohol use were significantly associated with participants’ quantity of alcohol use (r = .21, p = .006) and frequency of alcohol use (r = .23, p = .002). Perceptions of parental alcohol use were not related to the participants’ alcohol use patterns. PMID:26339202

  5. Effect of Obesity on Arch Index in Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneha Sameer Ganu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Excessive increases in weight bearing forces caused by obesity may negatively affect the lower limbs and feet but minimal research has examined the long-term loading effects of obesity on the musculoskeletal system, particularly in reference to the feet. Objectives: The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of obesity on medial longitudinal arch of foot in young adults. Method: 60 subjects, 30 obese & 30 non obese were assessed for height & weight using standard technique. Radiographic images under static condition were used for calculating the arch index. Result: The arch index of obese subjects was significantly lower than the non obese subjects & there is a negative correlation between the BMI & the arch index. Conclusion: These results suggests that obesity lowers the medial longitudinal arch of foot.

  6. Characterizing and comparing young adult intermittent and daily smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenk, Kathleen M; Chen, Vincent; Bernat, Debra H; Forster, Jean L; Rode, Peter A

    2009-01-01

    We interviewed 732 smokers (from five US upper Midwestern states) via telephone in 2006 to examine young adult smoking patterns. We first defined two groups of intermittent smokers-low (who smoked for 1-14 days in the past 30 days) and high (who smoked for 15-29 days in the past 30 days), and then analyzed differences between these two groups and daily smokers. Low intermittent smokers were much less likely to consider themselves smokers, feel addicted, or smoke with friends than high intermittent smokers. Daily smokers were more likely to feel addicted and have trouble quitting smoking than high intermittent smokers. Implications, limitations, and ideas for future studies will be discussed.

  7. Stories of management in the future by young adults and young nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmoinen, Merja; Niiranen, Kaisa; Niiranen, Vuokko; Astedt-Kurki, Päivi; Suominen, Tarja

    2014-04-11

    Abstract Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the phenomenon of management by way of the ideas by secondary school students and young nurses. Background: Young adults are changing workplaces more than ever before, yet their work expectations and perspectives of management differ to those of previous generations. Methods: The data was collected from upper secondary school students and professionally educated nurses (n = 68), some of whom were immigrants (n = 41). Framed essays were used as a research method and emergent data was analysed using content analysis. Results: According to the results, good management involves systematic management, equality, appreciation of know-how, and the promotion of wellbeing at work. Conclusion: New perspectives on management were drawn from the study, in particular the multiple dimensions of equality in workplace organization and the manager's role in an employee's professional development process. Implication for nursing management: The interactive skills of the manager are emphasized in promoting wellbeing at work. This is especially so in multi-cultural teams, where the manager is expected to be adept at understanding intercultural communication and the values of young employees.

  8. Adolescent and young adult health in the United States in the past decade: little improvement and young adults remain worse off than adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, M Jane; Scott, Jazmyn T; Adams, Sally H; Brindis, Claire D; Irwin, Charles E

    2014-07-01

    Adolescence and young adulthood are unique developmental periods that present opportunities and challenges for improving health. Health at this age can affect health throughout the lifespan. This review has two aims: (1) to examine trends in key indicators in outcomes, behaviors, and health care over the past decade for U.S. adolescents and young adults; and (2) to compare U.S. adolescents and young adults on these indicators. The review also assesses sociodemographic differences in trends and current indicators. Guided by our aims, previous reviews, and national priorities, the present review identified 21 sources of nationally representative data to examine trends in 53 areas and comparisons of adolescents and young adults in 42 areas. Most health and health care indicators have changed little over the past decade. Encouraging exceptions were found for adolescents and young adults in unintentional injury, assault, and tobacco use, and, for adolescents, in sexual/reproductive health. Trends in violence and chronic disease and related behaviors were mixed. Review of current indicators demonstrates that young adulthood continues to entail greater risk and worse outcomes than adolescence. Young adults fared worse on about two-thirds of the indicators examined. Differences among sociodemographic subgroups persisted for both trends and current indicators.

  9. Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs among young adult in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Salfa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections (STIs include a large group of widespread infectious diseases, which may cause acute symptoms, chronic infections and severe long term complications.The control and prevention of these infections are public health priorities for several reasons: • the large number of people that acquire an STI per year; • the major proportion of asymptomatic infected individuals; • the high circulation in patients with sexual risk behavior (young adults, pluripartner, men who have sex with men, foreigners, commercial sex workers; • increased biological susceptibility of some subjects, such as young adults (immature genital tissues and more receptive to pathogens, women (genital apparatus more complex and extended in which pathogens are more likely to settle, or individuals carrying states of severe immunodeficiency; • the serious complications in the event of failure or incorrect diagnosis and treatment (chronic disease, infertility, oncogenic transformation, synergy with HIV infection; • the possibility of preventing and treating many of these infections. Therefore, recent guidelines from international agencies have recommended countries from the European Union to improve epidemiological STI surveillance systems in order to standardize data collection to facilitate their comparability between different geographical areas and to improve the information flow for faster tracking of the impact; furthermore, to extend surveillance to widespread, but often asymptomatic, disease (e.g. Chlamydia trachomatis, to conduct behavioural surveillance in patients with STIs, to increase public awareness of the role of STIs in the transmission/acquisition of HIV, and to increase the commitment of institutions in the prevention and control of STIs.

  10. Psychosocial problems in thalassemic adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the availability of better treatment regimen, life span of thalassemic patients is increasing. Chronic nature of thalassemia and its intensive and demanding treatment result in significant psychologic burden on the patients and their families. A lot has been studied about beta-thalassemia major but little attention has been paid to the psychological aspect of this disease. Hence, the study was planned to analyse the psychosocial problems in thalassemic adolescents and young adults. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, conducted from January 2007 to March 2008 in thalassemic day-care centre of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Fifty four thalassemic children and controls above 9 years of age were enrolled. Psychosocial assessment done with assessment of Finer Psychopathology using ICMR Symptom checklist (ICMR task force, 1983. The prevalence of various problems was calculated and compared with controls. Student′s t-test and Chi-square test were used for testing differences in variables. Results: Patients were divided into three groups - Group A (10-15 years, 30 patients; Group B (15-20 years, 18 patients, and Group C (20-25 years, 6 patients. In group A, behavior problems were common (12 patients -40% (P< 0.001, significant. In group B, mood disorders were common (8 patients, 44% (P< 0.001, significant. In group C, psychotic symptoms were common (3 patients, 50% (P< 0.05, significant. Conclusion: Our findings support the hypothesis that psychosocial problems are more in thalassemic adolescents and young adults. Psychosocial aspects need to be addressed in the overall treatment of children with thalassemia.

  11. Young adults' trajectories of Ecstasy use: a population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Andrew; Najman, Jake M; Hayatbakhsh, Reza; Plotnikova, Maria; Wells, Helene; Legosz, Margot; Kemp, Robert

    2013-11-01

    Young adults' Ecstasy use trajectories have important implications for individual and population-level consequences of Ecstasy use, but little relevant research has been conducted. This study prospectively examines Ecstasy trajectories in a population-based sample. Data are from the Natural History Study of Drug Use, a retrospective/prospective cohort study conducted in Australia. Population screening identified a probability sample of Ecstasy users aged 19-23 years. Complete data for 30 months of follow-up, comprising 4 time intervals, were available for 297 participants (88.4% of sample). Trajectories were derived using cluster analysis based on recent Ecstasy use at each interval. Trajectory predictors were examined using a generalized ordered logit model and included Ecstasy dependence (World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Instrument), psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale), aggression (Young Adult Self Report) and contextual factors (e.g. attendance at electronic/dance music events). Three Ecstasy trajectories were identified (low, intermediate and high use). At its peak, the high-use trajectory involved 1-2 days Ecstasy use per week. Decreasing frequency of use was observed for intermediate and high-use trajectories from 12 months, independently of market factors. Intermediate and high-use trajectory membership was predicted by past Ecstasy consumption (>70 pills) and attendance at electronic/dance music events. High-use trajectory members were unlikely to have used Ecstasy for more than 3 years and tended to report consistently positive subjective effects at baseline. Given the social context and temporal course of Ecstasy use, Ecstasy trajectories might be better understood in terms of instrumental rather than addictive drug use patterns.

  12. Health promotion in young adults at a university in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joh, Hee-Kyung; Kim, Hyun-Ji; Kim, Young-Oh; Lee, Jae-Young; Cho, BeLong; Lim, Chun Soo; Jung, Sung-Eun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Young adulthood is a critical developmental period for establishing life-long health behaviors. However, too little attention has been paid to young adult health promotion. The purpose of this study was to describe the processes of development and implementation involved in a collaborative university-wide health promotion program and to evaluate the achievements of the program. A 3-day university-wide health promotion program was developed and implemented in the nation's largest public university in South Korea in September 2013. Its objectives were to heighten health awareness, to promote healthy behaviors, especially active lifestyle and healthy diet, and to disseminate health knowledge, skills, and access to health resources among young people. The program comprised 14 health lectures, 12 events, and 25 booths. To monitor and evaluate the program, a cross-sectional postevent survey was conducted. A convenience sample of 625 university members who participated in the program was used. The statistics were analyzed with a general linear model and paired t test. The program evaluation demonstrated that this university-wide program effectively provided opportunities for students to access health information, knowledge, skills, self-confidence, and available health services and resources. Participants positively evaluated most of the processes of the program activities and services. Participants’ overall evaluation score (83% rated “excellent” or “good”) and reparticipation intention (86%) were high. The majority of participants reported increased awareness of health (80%) and the need for a university health promotion program (87%) after the program. Most of the evaluation scores were similarly high for health lectures and booths/events. In conclusion, the university-wide health promotion program was effective in improving university members’ health awareness and providing opportunities for students to access various health information and

  13. Pramipexole Impairs Stimulus-Response Learning in Healthy Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallant, Haley; Vo, Andrew; Seergobin, Ken N; MacDonald, Penny A

    2016-01-01

    Dopaminergic therapy has paradoxical effects on cognition in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, with some functions worsened and others improved. The dopamine overdose hypothesis is proposed as an explanation for these opposing effects of medication taking into account the varying levels of dopamine within different brain regions in PD. The detrimental effects of medication on cognition have been attributed to exogenous dopamine overdose in brain regions with spared dopamine levels in PD. It has been demonstrated that learning is most commonly worsened by dopaminergic medication. The current study aimed to investigate whether the medication-related learning impairment exhibited in PD patients is due to a main effect of medication by evaluating the dopamine overdose hypothesis in healthy young adults. Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 40 healthy young undergraduate students completed a stimulus-response learning task. Half of the participants were treated with 0.5 mg of pramipexole, a dopamine agonist, whereas the other half were treated with a placebo. We found that stimulus-response learning was significantly impaired in participants on pramipexole relative to placebo controls. These findings are consistent with the dopamine overdose hypothesis and suggest that dopaminergic medication impairs learning independent of PD pathology. Our results have important clinical implications for conditions treated with pramipexole, particularly PD, restless leg syndrome, some forms of dystonia, and potentially depression.

  14. Recruitment and retention of young adult veteran drinkers using Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Eric R; Naranjo, Diana; Marshall, Grant N

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the feasibility of using Facebook as a platform to recruit and retain young adult veteran drinkers into an online-alcohol use intervention study. Facebook's wide accessibility and popularity among the age group that comprises the majority of veterans from the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan make it a compelling resource through which research can extend its reach to this otherwise hard-to-reach group. We developed a series of Facebook advertisement campaigns to reach veteran drinkers not specifically searching for alcohol treatment. In doing so, we recruited 793 valid veteran participants in approximately two weeks for an advertising cost of $4.53 per obtained participant. The study sample consisted primarily of male veterans, between 19 and 34 years of age, who were drinking at moderate to heavy levels. Although about half of the sample reported mental health comorbidity, few had received any mental health or substance use treatment in the past year. Facebook appears to be a valuable mechanism through which to recruit young veterans with unmet behavioral health needs, although more specific efforts may be needed to engage certain types of veterans after initial study enrollment.

  15. Recruitment and retention of young adult veteran drinkers using Facebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Eric R.; Naranjo, Diana; Marshall, Grant N.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the feasibility of using Facebook as a platform to recruit and retain young adult veteran drinkers into an online-alcohol use intervention study. Facebook’s wide accessibility and popularity among the age group that comprises the majority of veterans from the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan make it a compelling resource through which research can extend its reach to this otherwise hard-to-reach group. We developed a series of Facebook advertisement campaigns to reach veteran drinkers not specifically searching for alcohol treatment. In doing so, we recruited 793 valid veteran participants in approximately two weeks for an advertising cost of $4.53 per obtained participant. The study sample consisted primarily of male veterans, between 19 and 34 years of age, who were drinking at moderate to heavy levels. Although about half of the sample reported mental health comorbidity, few had received any mental health or substance use treatment in the past year. Facebook appears to be a valuable mechanism through which to recruit young veterans with unmet behavioral health needs, although more specific efforts may be needed to engage certain types of veterans after initial study enrollment. PMID:28249027

  16. Parent Perceptions of Time Spent Meaningfully by Young Adults with Pervasive Support Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Zachary; Lehr, Donna; Lederer, Leslie; Pelerin, Dana; Huang, Shuoxi

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative study that examined how 23 young adults with pervasive support needs and limited functional communication spent their time and how their parents (n = 23) and direct support professionals (DSPs; n = 2) defined meaningfulness in relation to the young adults' experiences. Data were collected through…

  17. Together is better?: effects of relationship status and resources on young adults' well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soons, J.P.M.; Liefbroer, A.C.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines differences in well-being among young adults across relationship status. Multilevel regression analyses on two waves of data of the Dutch Panel Study of Social Integration (N = 2818) show that singles have the lowest level of well-being, followed by young adults who are steady da

  18. The views of young adults and their parents on hormone treatment for short stature in adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser-van Balen, Hanneke; Geenen, Rinie; Looij, Janneke; Huisman, Jaap; Wit, Jan M.; Sinnema, Gerben

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To examine the view of young adults and their parents on growth hormone (GH) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) treatment in adolescence for idiopathic short stature (ISS) or short stature born small for gestational age (SGA). Methods: Thirty young adults with ISS or SGA (18 tre

  19. Designing a Weight Gain Prevention Trial for Young Adults: The CHOICES Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytle, Leslie A.; Moe, Stacey G.; Nanney, M. Susie; Laska, Melissa N.; Linde, Jennifer A.; Petrich, Christine A.; Sevcik, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Young adults are at risk for weight gain. Little is known about how to design weight control programs to meet the needs of young adults and few theory-based interventions have been evaluated in a randomized control trial. The Choosing Healthy Options in College Environments and Settings (CHOICES) study was funded to create a…

  20. Comorbid psychopathology in adolescents and young adults treated for substance use disorders: a review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couwenbergh, C.; Brink, W. van den; Zwart, K.P.; Vreugdenhil, C.; Wijngaarden-Cremers, P. van; Gaag, R.J. van der

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In a recent review, the prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders in non-treated adolescents and young adults with substance use disorders (SUD) in the general population was summarized. This review looks into the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity in adolescents and young adults tr

  1. The Relationship among Alcohol Consumption, Dietery Intake, and Body Mass Index in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about the relationship of diet and weight to alcohol consumption in young adults. Dietary intake data were collected in 1995–1996 on 1,335 young adults (20–38 years) (62% female; 27% black) using a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire (YAQ), and the Health Lifestyle-Behavio...

  2. Adapting the Individual Placement and Support Model with Homeless Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Kristin M.; Xie, Bin; Glynn, Shirley

    2012-01-01

    Background: Prior research reveals high unemployment rates among homeless young adults. The literature offers many examples of using evidence-based supported employment models with vulnerable populations to assist them in obtaining and maintaining competitive employment; yet few examples exist to date with homeless young adults with mental…

  3. The Relationship between the Self-Efficacy and Life Satisfaction of Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakar, Firdevs Savi

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between self-efficacy and life satisfaction of young adults. This study is cross-sectional study and variables. Data were collected between March 2012 and April 2012 from young adults who were bachelor degree and attending the Celal Bayar University Pedagogical Formation Program the academic…

  4. Demographic differences and food patterns associated with metabolic syndrome in young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MS) in young adults. Intake was collected on 1,012 young adults (20-38 years) (61% female; 26% black) using a food-frequency questionnaire. Demographics, anthropometrics, blood pressure, insulin sensitivity, and lipid profiles were quantifi...

  5. African American Young Adult Smoking Initiation: Identifying Intervention Points and Prevention Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Marshall K.; Mansker, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans have one of the lowest smoking rates as teens yet have one of the highest smoking rates as adults. Approximately 40% of African Americans who have ever smoked started smoking between the ages of 18 and 21. Purpose: This study aimed to identify why African American young adults began smoking in young adulthood and what…

  6. Civic Engagement in Relation to Outcome Expectations among African American Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, He Len; Probert, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined civic engagement--volunteering and political activism--among 129 African American young adults from an urban community. The proposed model considered factors that motivate young adults to participate in civic activities as well as barriers that might inhibit involvement. Drawing upon social cognitive theory, this study…

  7. Sexual Activity of Young Adults Who Are Visually Impaired and the Need for Effective Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Stacy M.; Kapperman, Gaylen

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Little research has been reported on all aspects of sexuality as it pertains to individuals with visual impairments. This article analyzes data on the sexual experiences of young adults who are visually impaired and young adults without disabilities. Methods: The authors conducted a secondary analysis of the National Longitudinal…

  8. Disparities in Debt: Parents' Socioeconomic Resources and Young Adult Student Loan Debt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Jason N.

    2014-01-01

    In an era of rising college costs and stagnant grant-based student aid, many young adults rely on their parents' resources and student loans to pay for their postsecondary education. In this study I ask how parents' income and education are linked to young adults' student loan debt. I develop and test two perspectives regarding the…

  9. Tensions in Teaching Adolescence/ts: Analyzing Resistances in a Young Adult Literature Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigianides, Sophia Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    Identifying English Education courses focused on young adult literature as apposite sites for exploring teacher conceptions of youth and the texts aimed for youths' consumptions, this article addresses the multiple sources of tension--and pedagogical potential--of teaching a young adult literature course centrally framed around controversial…

  10. Reading for a Better World: Teaching for Social Responsibility with Young Adult Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolk, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Teaching for social responsibility should be one of the vital aims of our schools. Young adult literature offers an authentic, meaningful, and critical way to teach for social responsibility. This article offers an overview of the different elements of social responsibility and some young adult novels and graphic novels that could be used to teach…

  11. Privileged High School Girls' Responses to Depictions of Femininity in Popular Young Adult Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suico, Theresa Go

    2013-01-01

    Young adult literature has been a subject of contention for educators, adolescent psychologists, and critics for decades. Although some commentators maintain that young adult literature can be educationally and developmentally beneficial for adolescent readers, others argue that it often contains negative and potentially harmful messages that…

  12. Teaching Adolescent/Young Adult Literature: Course Handbook II--Education L535.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulecky, Larry, Comp.; And Others

    This handbook presents two core units for a distance education course that provides an introduction to the genre of texts targeted for adolescent/young adult readers. The first core unit in the handbook discusses the teaching of literary aspects of using adolescent/young adult literature. The second core unit addresses alternative approaches to…

  13. Young Adult Couples Transitioning to Work: The Intersection of Career and Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domene, Jose F.; Nee, Jessica J.; Cavanaugh, Ashley K.; McLelland, Serita; Stewart, Becky; Stephenson, Michelle; Kauffman, Bradley; Tse, Christopher K.; Young, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Contextual action theory was used to frame an exploratory qualitative study of young adult couples' experiences of transitioning from post-secondary education into the labor force, addressing the specific research question ''What kinds of projects for future work and life together do young adult couples jointly construct and pursue as they…

  14. Physical Fitness Performance of Young Adults with and without Cognitive Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiabei; Piwowar, Nathan; Reilly, Coleen Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the physical fitness performance of young adults with and without cognitive impairments. Participants were 75 young adults, including 41 without disabilities (23 females, 18 males; M of age = 21.88) and 34 with mild cognitive impairments (14 females, 20 males; M of age = 21.79). They received…

  15. Expectations from Different Perspectives on Future Work Outcome of Young Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, Anja; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R.; Groothoff, Johan W.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Expectations strongly influence future employment outcomes and social networks seem to mediate employment success of young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The aim of this study is to examine the expectations of young adults with intellectual and developmental disabil

  16. Suicide Acceptability Is Related to Suicide Planning in U.S. Adolescents and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, Sean; Romer, Daniel; Jamieson, Patrick E.

    2007-01-01

    The association between adolescents' and young adults' attitudes toward suicide and their own suicidality across five racial-ethnic classifications was studied in a nationally representative sample of 3,301 youth ages 14 to 22 years from the National Annenberg Risk Survey of Youth. Results indicate that adolescents and young adults who most…

  17. The Longitudinal Relationships between Rural Adolescents' Prosocial Behaviors and Young Adult Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo, Gustavo; Crockett, Lisa J.; Wilkinson, Jamie L.; Beal, Sarah J.

    2011-01-01

    While many adolescents and young adults experiment with substances (e.g., alcohol, cigarette smoking, marijuana), recent research suggests that rural youth and young adults may be more at risk for substance use than their urban counterparts. This study was designed to examine the longitudinal relationships between rural adolescents' prosocial…

  18. Understanding Tobacco-Related Attitudes among College and Noncollege Young Adult Hookah and Cigarette Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youn Ok; Bahreinifar, Sareh; Ling, Pamela M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine differences in tobacco-related attitudes and hookah and cigarette use among college and noncollege young adults. Participants: Time-location samples of young adult bar patrons in San Diego, California ("N" = 2,243), Tulsa ("N" = 2,095) and Oklahoma City ("N" = 2,200), Oklahoma, Albuquerque…

  19. Mental Health Problems and Barriers to Service Use in Dutch Young Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Vanheusden (Kathleen)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractOnly up to one-third of young adults with a mental disorder seek professional help. The reasons for this low help-seeking rate are largely unclear. The first aim of this thesis is to explain why young adults are unlikely to seek professional help when facing mental health problems. The s

  20. On the Border: Young Adults with LGBQ Parents Navigate LGBTQ Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Kinkler, Lori A.; Richardson, Hannah B.; Downing, Jordan B.

    2012-01-01

    Little research has examined the perspectives of young adults with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) parents, particularly in relation to their identification with the LGBTQ community. To address this gap, we conducted a qualitative study of 42 young adults (ages 18-29) who were raised by LGBQ parents. We found that…

  1. Factors Related to Smoking in College and Not in College Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koval, John; Pederson, Linda; Zhang, Xiaohe

    2006-01-01

    This study sought variables associated with current smoking for young adult males and females in college compared with those not in college. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by a cohort of 1,270 young adults (ages 20-24) who have been followed from grade 6 for 10 years. Both bivariate and multivariable analyses of demographic…

  2. Sweet and sour preferences in young children and adults: role of repeated exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, D.G.; Graaf, de C.

    2004-01-01

    The authors investigated the influence of repeated exposure to orangeades with added sucrose and different concentrations of citric acid, on the taste preferences of 6- to-11-year-old children and young adults. During an intervention study of 8 days, 59 children (9.2±0.9 years) and 46 young adults (

  3. Young adult type 1 diabetes care in the West of Ireland: an audit of hospital practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Casey, R

    2014-11-01

    It is well recognised that management of young adults with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) poses difficult challenges for physicians and health care organisations as a whole. In Ireland and in particular the west of Ireland there has been little audit or research on young adults with T1DM and the services available to them.

  4. Career Interests and Self-Estimated Abilities of Young Adults with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Sherri; Unkefer, Lesley Craig; Cichy, Bryan Ervin; Peper, Christine; Juang, Ju-Ping

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain vocational interests and self-estimated work-relevant abilities of young adults with disabilities. Results showed that young adults with both low incidence and high incidence disabilities have a wide range of interests and self-estimated work-relevant abilities that are comparable to those in the general…

  5. Healthy Behaviors and Lifestyles in Young Adults with a History of Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rurangirwa, Jacqueline; Braun, Kim Van Naarden; Schendel, Diana; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Measure select Healthy People 2010 Leading Health Indicators in young adults with and without a history of developmental disabilities (DD) using a population-based cohort. Methods: Young adults were interviewed to assess the prevalence of seven Leading Health Indicators: physical activity, overweight and obesity, tobacco use, substance…

  6. The Social Inclusion of Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: A Phenomenology of Their Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sarah A.

    2010-01-01

    Social inclusion enhances the quality of life of young adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). Young adults with ID continue to face prejudice and discrimination that limit their social inclusion. They experience limited social inclusion because there are not enough appropriate activities available and they have limited opportunities to…

  7. Educator Perceptions of Visual Support Systems and Social Skills for Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David James

    2016-01-01

    Young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) face unique social skills challenges as they transition into independent living environments and seek fulfilling relationships within their communities. Research has focused on social education and interventions for children with autism, while transitioning young adults with ASD have received…

  8. Voices of Young Adults with Autism and Their Perspective on Life Choices after Secondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galler, Susan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological qualitative research study was to explore how young adults who have an autism spectrum disorder perceive their life choices after secondary education. The focus participants in the sample were young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). For the purpose of this research, ASD includes autism and Asperger's…

  9. Priorities for young adults when accessing UK primary care: literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Antoinette; Carter, Mary; Campbell, John L

    2013-10-01

    This literature review focuses on what matters to young adults when they access primary care services in the United Kingdom. Patients' access to and experience of primary care services differs across age groups. Existing research has largely focused on the needs and experiences of children, adolescents, and adults. There is some evidence to suggest the views of young adults (aged 18-25 years) that may differ from the views of other age groups, and research has not previously reported specifically on the views of this group of the population. The literature was reviewed to identify the views and priorities of young UK adults regarding primary healthcare provision, and furthermore, to identify those related topics that would benefit from further research. Relevant academic publications and grey literature published from 2000 onwards was reviewed and synthesised. We identified and reported emerging themes that were of importance to young adults in respect of the UK primary care provision. A total of 19 papers met our inclusion criteria. Young adults access primary care services less frequently than other age groups; this may be because of their experience of primary care throughout childhood and adolescence. Five aspects of primary care provision emerged as being of importance to young adults--the accessibility and availability of services, the confidentiality of health-related information, issues relating to communication with healthcare professionals, continuity of care, and behaviours and attitudes expressed towards young adults by healthcare professionals. There is a lack of focus of current research on the expectations, needs, and primary healthcare experiences of young adults. Young adults may hold views that are distinct from other age groups. Further research is needed to better understand the needs of a young adult population as their needs may impact the future use of services.

  10. Assessing peer and parental influence on the religious attitudes and attendance of young churchgoers : exploring the Australian National Church Life Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, Leslie J.; Penny, Gemma; Powell, Ruth, Ph.D.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on data from the 2011 Australian National Church Life Survey, this study was designed to assess peer and parental influence on frequency of church attendance, attitude toward church, and attitude toward Christianity among a sample of 6,256 young churchgoers between the ages of 8 and 14 years, attending a range of denominations, including Catholic, Anglican, Uniting, Pentecostal, and other Protestant Churches. The data indicated the power of parental example on frequency of church atte...

  11. Affordable Care Act Provision Had Similar, Positive Impacts For Young Adults With And Without Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porterfield, Shirley L; Huang, Jin

    2016-05-01

    Beginning in 2010 the Affordable Care Act (ACA) allowed young adults (ages 19-25) to remain on their parents' private health insurance plans, even if they were not full-time students. This study investigated the impact of the ACA on health insurance coverage for young adults with disabilities, comparing their experience with that of young adults without disabilities and that of a group of older adults (ages 26-34) with disabilities. We analyzed the periods 2006-09 and 2011-14, which were before and after implementation of the dependent coverage provision in the ACA, respectively. Coverage gains for older adults with disabilities were entirely attributable to changes in public insurance. Gains for young adults overall were driven by changes in private insurance. Both young adults with and without disabilities experienced a 4-percentage-point increase in private health insurance coverage between the two time periods, so the gap in private coverage between the two groups did not change significantly over time. Gains in coverage affected perhaps 2.9 million young adults overall and nearly 300,000 young adults with disabilities.

  12. Young People in an Economic Downturn. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth. Briefing Paper 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anlezark, Alison

    2011-01-01

    Following the collapse of the US investment bank Lehmann Brothers in September 2008, the world economy began a downward spiral, with many countries falling into recession. Australia experienced significant stock market losses and unemployment rates began to climb. This briefing paper considers how young people fared in previous downturns and…

  13. Young Australian Indigenous Students' Growing Pattern Generalisations: The Role of Gesture When Generalising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jodie

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores how young Indigenous students' (Year 2 and 3) generalise growing patterns. Piagetian clinical interviews were conducted to determine how students articulated growing pattern generalisations. Two case studies are presented displaying how students used gesture to support and articulate their generalisations of growing patterns.…

  14. Cocaine use among American adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, P M; Johnston, L D; Bachman, J G

    1985-01-01

    In this chapter, we have tried to provide some objective information about the levels of and recent trends in cocaine use among America's adolescents and young adults, as well as some of their attitudes and beliefs about the drug and their reasons for using it. We have also examined cross-time patterns of use, certain predictors of use, and some of the conditions of the social and physical environments which are associated with use. Overall, we have found levels of use to be relatively stable for the past several years after a period of rapid increase between 1976 and 1979. We also found a strong age effect, with cocaine use increasing in the first few years after high school. The levels of use, though stable recently, are disturbingly high, particularly among young adults in their early to mid twenties. Self reported use has followed patterns that parallel exposure to use and use by friend, as would be expected, assuming valid measures. Perceived availability also has moved in tandem with these other measures. The great majority of today's seniors believe regular use to be dangerous, and 77% disapprove of even experimenting with cocaine. Use is found most frequently in the western and northeastern regions of the country, in more urban areas, among males, and among those who are not college-bound. Neither socioeconomic status nor personal income are very strongly associated with use; but a history of truancy, going out frequently in the evenings, and having relatively low religious involvement are. Cocaine users tend to use other illicit drugs (particularly marijuana) and to be cigarette smokers and heavy drinkers much more frequently than nonusers. Thus, there is little evidence that cocaine involves a separate drug-using syndrome. In fact, it is not uncommon for cocaine users to use marijuana or alcohol concurrently. When taking cocaine, high school students most often snort it, though some (24% of recent users) smoke it while only 4% of the users inject it. It

  15. Comparison of survival of adolescents and young adults with hematologic malignancies in Osaka, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata-Yamada, Kayo; Inoue, Masami; Ioka, Akiko; Ito, Yuri; Tabuchi, Takahiro; Miyashiro, Isao; Masaie, Hiroaki; Ishikawa, Jun; Hino, Masayuki; Tsukuma, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    The survival gap between adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with hematological malignancies persists in many countries. To determine to what extent it does in Japan, we investigated survival and treatment regimens in 211 Japanese AYAs (15-29 years) in the Osaka Cancer Registry diagnosed during 2001-2005 with hematological malignancies, and compared adolescents (15-19 years) with young adults (20-29 years). AYAs with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) had a poor 5-year survival (44%), particularly young adults (29% vs. 64% in adolescents, p = 0.01). Additional investigation for patients with ALL revealed that only 19% of young adults were treated with pediatric treatment regimens compared with 45% of adolescents (p = 0.05). Our data indicate that we need to focus on young adults with ALL and to consider establishing appropriate cancer care system and guidelines for them in Japan.

  16. Cancer incidence, hospital morbidity, and mortality in young adults in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sabrina da Silva; Melo, Leticia Rodrigues; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge; Koifman, Sergio

    2013-05-01

    There are still relatively few studies in the world on cancer incidence and mortality in young adults. The current study aimed to explore cancer distribution in young adults in Brazil. A descriptive study was conducted on cancer incidence (selected State capitals), hospital morbidity, and mortality (Brazil and selected capitals) in the 20-24-year age strata in 2000-2002, and trends in cancer mortality rates in Brazil in 1980-2008 in the same population. Testicular cancer was the principal anatomical site in young adult males; in young adult women, the main sites were thyroid, uterine cervix, and Hodgkin disease. Brain cancer was the principal cause of death from cancer in both sexes, and time trends in mortality showed an increase in mortality from brain cancer in men and from lymphocytic leukemia in both sexes. As a whole, the results show an epidemiological pattern of cancer in young adults with regional distribution characteristics.

  17. A multimodal assessment of balance in elderly and young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Gregory W.; Abreu, Eduardo L.; Cheng, An-Lin; Chertoff, Keyna K.; Brotto, Leticia; Kelly, Patricia J.; Brotto, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Falling is a significant health issue among elderly adults. Given the multifactorial nature of falls, effective balance and fall risk assessment must take into account factors from multiple sources. Here we investigate the relationship between fall risk and a diverse set of biochemical and biomechanical variables including: skeletal muscle-specific troponin T (sTnT), maximal strength measures derived from isometric grip and leg extension tasks, and postural sway captured from a force platform during a quiet stance task. These measures were performed in eight young and eleven elderly adults, along with estimates of fall risk derived from the Tinetti Balance Assessment. We observed age-related effects in all measurements, including a trend toward increased sTnT levels, increased postural sway, reduced upper and lower extremity strength, and reduced balance scores. We observed a negative correlation between balance scores and sTnT levels, suggesting its use as a biomarker for fall risk. We observed a significant positive correlation between balance scores and strength measures, adding support to the notion that muscle strength plays a significant role in postural control. We observed a significant negative correlation between balance scores and postural sway, suggesting that fall risk is associated with more loosely controlled center of mass regulation. PMID:26934319

  18. Adolescence in тhe literature for young adult of Tome Arsovski

    OpenAIRE

    Denkova, Jovanka

    2015-01-01

    This paper first examines the issue of adolescent literature, some of its main features, the meaning and functions. Then, by analyzing the work for young adult by Tome Arsovski (novels "Young and Wild", "Spring behind my window", etc.) we will elaborate the aforementioned theoretical settings of adolescent literature. "Spring behind my window" is a novel that captures the problems of young adult in the urban area and has a story that is told interesting, with a sovereign language whomarks are...

  19. Uptake of health monitoring and disease self-management in Australian adults with neurofibromatosis type 1: strategies to improve care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, H A; Barton, B; Wilson, M J; Berman, Y; McKelvey-Martin, V J; Morrison, P J; North, K N

    2016-03-01

    Lifelong health monitoring is recommended in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) because of the progressive and unpredictable range of disabling and potentially life-threatening symptoms that arise. In Australia, strategies for NF1 health surveillance are less well developed for adults than they are for children, resulting in inequalities between pediatric and adult care. The aims of this study were to determine the uptake of health monitoring and capacity of adults with NF1 to self-manage their health. Australian adults with NF1 (n = 94, 18-40 years) participated in a semi-structured interview. Almost half reported no regular health monitoring. Thematic analysis of interviews identified four main themes as to why: (i) did not know where to seek care, (ii) unaware of the need for regular monitoring, (iii) futility of health monitoring as nothing can be done for NF1, and (iv) feeling healthy, therefore monitoring unnecessary. Overall, there were low levels of patient activation, indicating that adults with NF1 lacked knowledge and confidence to manage their health and health care. Findings are discussed in the context of service provision for adults with NF1 in New South Wales, Australia.

  20. The enigma of the Australian Alps, young landscapes and missing cryogenic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slee, Adrian; Shulmeister, James; Clark, Doug

    2014-05-01

    Widespread evidence for pre last glacial cycle glaciation of late Quaternary ages has been documented from mid-latitude southern hemisphere mountain environments in New Zealand, southern South America and the Tasmanian Highlands. On mainland Australia however cirque and small valley glaciation in the Australian Alps is limited to OIS 4-3 and the last glacial maximum (OIS 2) (Barrows et al. 2001). This contrasts with the other southern hemisphere glacial records that indicate significantly more extensive glaciations preceding the last glacial cycle. In both the Southern Andes and Tasmania the maximum glaciations occurred prior to 783 kya (Glasser et al. 2008, Colhoun et al. 2010) while in tectonically active New Zealand it is at least clear that the scale of glaciation has been diminishing over the last 3 glacial cycles (Shulmeister et al. 2010). In all these locations early workers argued for extensive ice coverage, but subsequent investigations limited the extent and number of glacial advances before more recent work has locally re-extended the glacial limits and greatly increased the number of glacial advances. Similarly, in the highlands of SE Australia the possibility of more pervasive ice coverage was initially entertained; but since the 1960s and especially the 1980s the general consensus is that the lack of glacial evidence is a result of cold dry conditions prevailing for much of the Quaternary on the Australian Alps (Reeves et al. 2013) Recent work by the authors on the extent of relict periglacial block deposits in Australia have identified these block deposits as far north as 29°30'S on the Great Dividing Range, confirming strong freeze-thaw conditions well into the sub-tropics at moderate (900-1200 m) elevations. Curiously, however, the same mapping work has also highlighted the limited development of block deposits and other freeze-thaw landforms, such as tors, in the highest regions of the Australian Alps, in areas beyond the known limits of

  1. Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) mothers huddle with their young offspring instead of adult females for thermoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Masataka; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2016-08-01

    It is unclear whom animals select to huddle with for thermoregulation. In this study, we investigated whom Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) mothers huddled with-their young offspring or other adult group members-when there is need for thermoregulation. We used a focal-animal sampling method, targeting 17 females at Katsuyama, Okayama Prefecture, Japan. A majority of huddling among adult females was recorded during winter season (December, January, and February). Females who had young (0- or 1-year-old) offspring huddled less frequently with other adult females compared to females who did not have young offspring in winter. However, including young offspring, the frequency of huddling with any other individuals did not differ by whether females had young offspring. Moreover, the females who did not have young offspring huddled with other adult females more often in cloudy than in sunny weather during winter season. In contrast, females who had young offspring increased huddling with their young offspring in cloudy than in sunny weather, but did not do so with other adult females. This study indicates that Japanese macaque mothers huddle with their young offspring instead of other adult females when there is need for thermoregulation.

  2. Therapeutic and adverse effects of flunixin-meglumine in adult and young cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Kenji; Hikasa, Yoshiaki; Satoh, Hiroshi

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we elucidated the difference in nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug sensitivities between young and adult cats on therapeutic and adverse effects. In the prevention of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hyperthermia using flunixin-meglumine, young (12 months old) cats of both sexes were given LPS (0.3 µg/kg, i.v.), and body temperature was measured 24 hr later. Flunixin (1 mg/kg, s.c.) was administered 30 min before the LPS injection. LPS-induced hyperthermia was almost completely inhibited by pre-treatment with flunixin in both adult and young cats. In addition, flunixin showed almost the same antipyretic effects in both young and adult cats. The animals were administered flunixin (1 mg/kg, s.c.) once a day for 3 days, and sacrificed 24 hr later to examine the gastrointestinal mucosal lesions. In adult cats, flunixin caused many severe lesions in the small intestine. In contrast, very few gastrointestinal lesions were produced by flunixin in young cats. In the pharmacokinetics of flunixin, plasma concentrations of flunixin were analysed using a high performance liquid chromatography. There were no significant differences in plasma concentration of flunixin between young and adult cats from 0.5 to 4 hr after the injection. These results demonstrated that NSAIDs could be used more safely in young than in adult cats from the points of gastrointestinal adverse effects. Furthermore, this difference in gastrointestinal lesions between adult and young cats was not related with the plasma concentration of flunixin.

  3. Health-related stigma as a determinant of functioning in young adults with narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapella, Mary C; Berger, Barbara E; Vern, Boris A; Vispute, Sachin; Prasad, Bharati; Carley, David W

    2015-01-01

    Symptoms of narcolepsy tend to arise during adolescence or young adulthood, a formative time in human development during which people are usually completing their education and launching a career. Little is known about the impact of narcolepsy on the social aspects of health-related quality of life in young adults. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between health-related stigma, mood (anxiety and depression) and daytime functioning in young adults with narcolepsy compared to those without narcolepsy. Young adults (age 18-35) with narcolepsy (N = 122) and without narcolepsy (N = 93) were mailed a packet that included questionnaires and a self-addressed postage paid envelope. The questionnaire included demographic information and a composite of instruments including the SF 36, Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ), Fife Stigma Scale (FSS), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Variable associations were assessed using descriptive statistics, ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U Test, correlations, stepwise multiple regression and path analysis. Young adults with narcolepsy perceived significantly more stigma and lower mood and health-related quality of life than young adults without narcolepsy (pnarcolepsy. Health-related stigma in young adults with narcolepsy is at a level consistent with other chronic medical illnesses. Health-related stigma may be an important determinant of functioning in young adults with narcolepsy. Future work is indicated toward further characterizing stigma and developing interventions that address various domains of stigma in people with narcolepsy.

  4. Amplified music and young people's hearing. Review and report of Australian findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, N.L.; Waugh, R.L.; Keen, K.; Murray, N.; Bulteau, V.G.

    1982-08-07

    We gave 944 young people (aged 16 to 20 years) pure-tone audiometry, electroacoustic impedance tests, and ear, nose and throat examination. We questioned them about their histories of exposure to occupational and recreational noise. The data do not support the view that there is wide-spread hearing loss caused by exposure to amplified music in young people under the age of 21 years. However, the accumulated exposure of some of them to noise is such that, if their recreational patterns remain the same, they are at risk of some noise-induced hearing loss by their mid-twenties. Further empirical studies are necessary to determine whether these hearing losses will eventuate.

  5. Determinants of resilience to cigarette smoking among young Australians at risk: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikocka-Walus Antonina A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous researchers studied risk factors associated with smoking uptake, however, few examined protective factors associated with smoking resilience. This study therefore aims to explore determinants of smoking resilience among young people from lower socioeconomic backgrounds who are at risk of smoking. Methods Overall, 92 out of 92 vocational education students accepted invitation to participate in this exploratory study. The Adelaide Technical and Further Education (TAFE Arts campus was chosen for the study given the focus on studying resilience in young people of lower socioeconomic status i.e. resilient despite the odds. A self-report questionnaire comprising a measure of resilience: sense of coherence, sense of humour, coping styles, depression, anxiety and stress, and family, peers and community support, was distributed among participants aged 15 to 29. Additional factors researched are parental approval and disapproval, course type, and reasons for not smoking. Using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, version 13.0, analyses were undertaken using frequencies, means, standard deviations, independent sample t-tests, correlations, analysis of variance, logistic regression, and chi-square test. Results Twenty five (27% out of 92 students smoked. Young people with peer support tended to smoke (p Conclusions The current study showed that most students chose 'health and fitness' as the reason for not smoking. Single anti-smoking messages cannot be generalised to all young people, but should recognise that people within different contexts, groups and subcultures will have different reasons for choosing whether or not to smoke. Future studies should use larger samples with a mixed methods design (quantitative and qualitative.

  6. Determinants of resilience to cigarette smoking among young Australians at risk: an exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Mikocka-Walus Antonina A; Turnbull Deborah A; Colgan Yola; Delfabbro Paul

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Numerous researchers studied risk factors associated with smoking uptake, however, few examined protective factors associated with smoking resilience. This study therefore aims to explore determinants of smoking resilience among young people from lower socioeconomic backgrounds who are at risk of smoking. Methods Overall, 92 out of 92 vocational education students accepted invitation to participate in this exploratory study. The Adelaide Technical and Further Education (TA...

  7. Associations between Young Adult Romantic Relationship Quality and Problem Behaviors: An Examination of Personality-Environment Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Rongqin; Branje, Susan; Keijsers, Loes; Meeus, Wim

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined person-environment interplay by testing interaction effects between adolescent personality type (i.e., overcontrollers, undercontrollers, and resilients) and young adult romantic relationship quality on young adult delinquency and anxiety. The study employed six wave

  8. Cultures for mental health care of young people: an Australian blueprint for reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGorry, Patrick D; Goldstone, Sherilyn D; Parker, Alexandra G; Rickwood, Debra J; Hickie, Ian B

    2014-12-01

    Mental ill health is now the most important health issue facing young people worldwide. It is the leading cause of disability in people aged 10-24 years, contributing 45% of the overall burden of disease in this age group. Despite their manifest need, young people have the lowest rates of access to mental health care, largely as a result of poor awareness and help-seeking, structural and cultural flaws within the existing care systems, and the failure of society to recognise the importance of this issue and invest in youth mental health. We outline the case for a specific youth mental health stream and describe the innovative service reforms in youth mental health in Australia, using them as an example of the processes that can guide the development and implementation of such a service stream. Early intervention with focus on the developmental period of greatest need and capacity to benefit, emerging adulthood, has the potential to greatly improve the mental health, wellbeing, productivity, and fulfilment of young people, and our wider society.

  9. Similar representations of sequence knowledge in young and older adults: A study of effector independent transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Sebastiaan Barnhoorn

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Older adults show reduced motor performance and changes in motor skill development. To better understand these changes, we studied differences in sequence knowledge representations between young and older adults using a transfer task. Transfer, or the ability to apply motor skills flexibly, is highly relevant in day-to-day motor activity and facilitates generalization of learning to new contexts. By using movement types that are completely unrelated in terms of muscle activation and response location, we focused on transfer facilitated by the early, visuospatial system.We tested 32 right-handed older adults (65 – 74 and 32 young adults (18 – 30. During practice of a discrete sequence production task, participants learned two 6-element sequences using either unimanual key-presses (KPs or by moving a lever with lower arm flexion-extension (FE movements. Each sequence was performed 144 times. They then performed a test phase consisting of familiar and random sequences performed with the type of movements not used during practice. Both age groups displayed transfer from FE to KP movements as indicated by faster performance on the familiar sequences in the test phase. Only young adults transferred their sequence knowledge from KP to FE movements. In both directions, the young showed higher transfer than older adults. These results suggest that the older participants, like the young, represented their sequences in an abstract visuospatial manner. Transfer was asymmetric in both age groups: there was more transfer from FE to KP movements than vice versa. This similar asymmetry is a further indication that the types of representations that older adults develop are comparable to those that young adults develop. We furthermore found that older adults improved less during FE practice, gained less explicit knowledge, displayed a smaller visuospatial working memory capacity and had lower processing speed than young adults. Despite the many differences

  10. Massive Gains in IQ Do Not Appear to Extend to the Elderly: A Note on Adult Australian Inpatient Performance on Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (1938) and the Simpson Adult Vocabulary Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivison, David

    1990-01-01

    Raven's Progressive Matrices and the Simpson Adult Vocabulary Scale were administered to 400 Australian hospitalized adults without psychiatric or neurological impairment in 4 age groups from 30 to 69 years. Compared to pre-1964 data, the subjects did not show gains in intelligence quotient as did younger age groups. (SLD)

  11. Labor market participation among young adults: an event history analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R J; Herring, C

    1989-09-01

    This study models culture of poverty explanations, earlier experiences that tend to restrict opportunities, demographic effects representing differential rates of participation by social groups, and health and marijuana use variables indicating the influence of individual life- style differences as predictors of the rate of labor market entry, promotion, and dismissal among subjects from early adolescence to young adulthood. The data are drawn from the 1st and 4th waves of a 4-wave panel of half the 1971 Houston, Texas, Independent School District 7th grade born in 1958. The findings indicate that those who believe most in the efficacy of alternatives to conventional social and economic institutions and those who expect to benefit least are most likely to have higher rates of participation. This higher rate of participation is significantly greater for earlier years and contradicts predictions of a culture of poverty theory. 1 opportunity-structure variable, poor grades, significantly increases the rate of entry into the labor market primarily because it represents the inability of individuals to pursue advanced education prior to labor market entry. Education reduces overall rates of labor market entry for a young adult cohort by delaying labor market entry. The strong relationship between drug use and unemployment may be due to motivation, impaired ability, probability of failure, or increased time to use drugs. The findings also indicate that females are more capable overall of performing their jobs and getting along with co-workers but are less likely to be promoted. Finally, those who have been sanctioned or disadvantaged within the institutions that define and enforce the norms of the economic opportunity structure are significantly more likely to enter the labor market earlier and continue to have higher rates of negative experiences, such as dismissal, within those institutions.

  12. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of internet addiction in young adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gianna Sepede; Margherita Tavino; Rita Santacroce; Federica Fiori; Rosa Maria Salerno; Massimo Di Giannantonio

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To report the results of functional magnetic resonance imaging(f MRI) studies pertaining internet addiction disorder(IAD) in young adults.METHODS: We conducted a systematic review on Pub Med, focusing our attention on f MRI studies involving adult IAD patients, free from any comorbid psychiatric condition. The following search words were used, both alone and in combination: f MRI, internet addiction, internet dependence, functional neuroimaging. The search was conducted on April 20th, 2015 and yielded 58 records. Inclusion criteria were the following: Articles written in English, patients’ age ≥ 18 years, patients affected by IAD, studies providing f MRI results during resting state or cognitive/emotional paradigms. Structural MRI studies, functional imaging techniques other than f MRI, studies involving adolescents, patients with comorbid psychiatric, neurological or medical conditions were excluded. By reading titles and abstracts, we excluded 30 records. By reading the full texts of the 28 remaining articles, we identified 18 papers meeting our inclusion criteria and therefore included in the qualitative synthesis.RESULTS: We found 18 studies fulfilling our inclusion criteria, 17 of them conducted in Asia, and including a total number of 666 tested subjects. The included studies reported data acquired during resting state or different paradigms, such as cue-reactivity, guessing or cognitive control tasks. The enrolled patients were usually males(95.4%) and very young(21-25 years). The most represented IAD subtype, reported in more than 85% of patients, was the internet gaming disorder, or videogame addiction. In the resting state studies, the more relevant abnormalities were localized in the superior temporal gyrus, limbic, medial frontal and parietal regions. When analyzing the task related fmri studies, we found that less than half of the papers reported behavioral differences between patients and normal controls, but all of them found

  13. Burkitt lymphoma in adolescents and young adults: management challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dozzo M

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Massimo Dozzo,1 Francesca Carobolante,1 Pietro Maria Donisi,2 Annamaria Scattolin,1 Elena Maino,1 Rosaria Sancetta,1 Piera Viero,1 Renato Bassan1 1Complex Operative Unit of Hematology, Ospedale dell’Angelo, 2Simple Departmental Operative Unit of Anatomic Pathology, Ospedale Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, Venice, Italy Abstract: About one-half of all Burkitt lymphoma (BL patients are younger than 40 years, and one-third belong to the adolescent and young adult (AYA subset, defined by an age between 15 and 25–40 years, based on selection criteria used in different reports. BL is an aggressive B-cell neoplasm displaying highly characteristic clinico-diagnostic features, the biologic hallmark of which is a translocation involving immunoglobulin and c-MYC genes. It presents as sporadic, endemic, or epidemic disease. Endemicity is pathogenetically linked to an imbalance of the immune system which occurs in African children infected by malaria parasites and Epstein–Barr virus, while the epidemic form strictly follows the pattern of infection by HIV. BL shows propensity to extranodal involvement of abdominal organs, bone marrow, and central nervous system, and can cause severe metabolic and renal impairment. Nevertheless, BL is highly responsive to specifically designed short-intensive, rotational multiagent chemotherapy programs, empowered by the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab. When carefully applied with appropriate supportive measures, these modern programs achieve a cure rate of approximately 90% in the average AYA patient, irrespective of clinical stage, which is the best result achievable in any aggressive lymphoid malignancy to date. The challenges ahead concern the following: optimization of management in underdeveloped countries, with reduction of diagnostic and referral-for-care intervals, and the applicability of currently curative regimens; the development of lower intensity but equally effective treatments for frail or

  14. Adult Attachment and Relationship Status (Single vs. Partnered in Polish Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamila Bookwala

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined links between adult attachment and relationship status (single vs. partnered in Polish young adults. Three hundred and seventeen participants (173 females and 144 males aged 22-27 years old (M = 24.69, SD = 1.87, completed the Polish-language version of the Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS used to measure adult attachment. All the respondents were heterosexual, unmarried and had no children. One hundred and fifty seven (49.50% students declared being in a romantic relationship at the time of the assessment whilst 160 students (50.50% were not. Results indicated that single participants reported higher levels of worry about being rejected or unloved (Anxiety dimension and lower levels of comfort with closeness (Close dimension, and comfort with depending on others (Depend dimension. In terms of attachment categories, analyses indicated that higher proportions of single participants were categorized into fearful and preoccupied attachment styles and a lower proportion of them were categorized into the secure attachment style compared to partnered individuals. Discriminant analysis revealed that worry of being rejected or unloved (Anxiety dimension was the strongest factor discriminating between single and partnered relationship status: the higher the anxiety dimension scores, the higher chances of being single. No gender differences were obtained on attachment dimensions and styles.

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  11. Mental health trajectories from childhood to young adulthood affect the educational and employment status of young adults : results from the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, Karin; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Almansa, Josue; Verhulst, Frank C.; Bultmann, Ute

    2015-01-01

    Background Young adults at work without basic educational level (BEL), and young adults in Neither Employment, Education nor Training (NEET) are at high risk of adverse employment outcomes. Evidence lacks on the impact of mental health problems during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood on em

  12. Comparison of gastrointestinal adverse effects of ketoprofen between adult and young cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Kenji; Hikasa, Yoshiaki; Satoh, Hiroshi

    2012-12-01

    This study elucidated differences in predisposition to the gastrointestinal adverse effects of ketoprofen between young and adult cats. Ketoprofen was administered subcutaneously (2.0 mg/kg, s.c.) once a day for 3 days. The animals were sacrificed 24 hr after final injection to allow examination of gastrointestinal mucosal lesions. Ketoprofen caused gastric lesions in adult cats (>6 months) but not in young cats (Ketoprofen caused more severe small intestinal lesions in adult cats than in young cats. In the study of prevention of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hyperthermia using ketoprofen, young and adult cats of both sexes were administered LPS (0.3 μg/kg, intravenously), and body temperature was measured 24 hr later. Ketoprofen was administered subcutaneously 30 min before LPS injection. LPS-induced hyperthermia was almost completely inhibited by pretreatment with ketoprofen in both adult and young cats. In the pharmacokinetics of ketoprofen, plasma concentrations were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. No significant differences were observed in plasma concentrations of two mirror-image R(-) and S(+) ketoprofen between young and adult cats from 0.5-4 hr after injection. As observed in a previous study using flunixin, the degree of gastrointestinal damage was unrelated to plasma concentrations of ketoprofen. The results of this study demonstrated that ketoprofen is safer for use in young cats than in adult cats from the viewpoint of gastrointestinal adverse effects.

  13. Turkish and Moroccan Young Adults in the Netherlands: The Relationship Between Acculturation and Psychological Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbek, Emel; Bongers, Ilja L; Lobbestael, Jill; van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the relationship between acculturation and psychological problems in Turkish and Moroccan young adults living in the Netherlands. A sample of 131 healthy young adults aged between 18 and 24 years old, with a Turkish or Moroccan background was recruited using snowball sampling. Data on acculturation, internalizing and externalizing problems, beliefs about psychological problems, attributions of psychological problems and barriers to care were collected and analyzed using Latent Class Analysis and multinomial logistic regression. Three acculturation classes were identified in moderately to highly educated, healthy Turkish or Moroccan young adults: integration, separation and diffusion. None of the participants in the sample were marginalized or assimilated. Young adults reporting diffuse acculturation reported more internalizing and externalizing problems than those who were integrated or separated. Separated young adults reported experiencing more practical barriers to care than integrated young adults. Further research with a larger sample, including young adult migrants using mental health services, is required to improve our understanding of acculturation, psychological problems and barriers to care in this population. Including experiences of discrimination in the model might improve our understanding of the relationship between different forms of acculturation and psychological problems.

  14. Why and How the Tobacco Industry Sells Cigarettes to Young Adults: Evidence From Industry Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Pamela M.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. To improve tobacco control campaigns, we analyzed tobacco industry strategies that encourage young adults (aged 18 to 24) to smoke. Methods. Initial searches of tobacco industry documents with keywords (e.g., “young adult”) were extended by using names, locations, and dates. Results. Approximately 200 relevant documents were found. Transitions from experimentation to addiction, with adult levels of cigarette consumption, may take years. Tobacco marketing solidifies addiction among young adults. Cigarette advertisements encourage regular smoking and increased consumption by integrating smoking into activities and places where young adults' lives change (e.g., leaving home, college, jobs, the military, bars). Conclusions. Tobacco control efforts should include both adults and youths. Life changes are also opportunities to stop occasional smokers' progress to addiction. Clean air policies in workplaces, the military, bars, colleges, and homes can combat tobacco marketing. (Am J Public Health. 2002;92:908–916) PMID:12036776

  15. Working memory test battery for young adults: Computerized working memory assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liang; Chang, Lei; Chen, Xiaoying

    2017-01-01

    This study developed a battery of computerized working memory (WM) tests and a scoring system suitable for young adult users. The tests comprised five classic tasks derived from Baddeley’s model of WM, reflecting each of the five WM functions. We recruited 115 undergraduate and graduate students from various academic fields and constructed a preliminary WM scoring norm for young adults. The scoring norm was used as a basis for developing a computerized assessment system. The results of correlation analysis show that the fluid intelligence of young adults is related to the memory function of WM, but not to the central executive system. The proposed working memory test battery for young adults comprehensively reflects the WM capacity of adults. PMID:28362867

  16. Growth Patterns and Adult Diseases: Growth During Childhood and Determinants of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Profi le in Young Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.W.J. Leunissen (Ralph)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractTh is doctoral thesis describes the infl uence of diff erent growth patterns during childhood on determinants of adult disease, like cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus and osteoporosis, in healthy young adults. Additionally, diff erences in these determinants are described

  17. Determinants of Aortic Root Dilatation and Reference Values Among Young Adults Over a 20-Year Period: Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixido-Tura, Gisela; Almeida, Andre L C; Choi, Eui-Young; Gjesdal, Ola; Jacobs, David R; Dietz, Harry C; Liu, Kiang; Sidney, Stephen; Lewis, Cora E; Garcia-Dorado, David; Evangelista, Artur; Gidding, Samuel; Lima, João A C

    2015-07-01

    Aortic size increases with age, but factors related to such dilatation in healthy young adult population have not been studied. We aim to evaluate changes in aortic dimensions and its principal correlates among young adults over a 20-year time period. Reference values for aortic dimensions in young adults by echocardiography are also provided. Healthy Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study participants aged 23 to 35 years in 1990-1991 (n=3051) were included after excluding 18 individuals with significant valvular dysfunction. Aortic root diameter (ARD) by M-mode echocardiography at year-5 (43.7% men; age, 30.2 ± 3.6 years) and year-25 CARDIA exams was obtained. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to assess associations of ARD with clinical data at years-5 and -25. ARD from year-5 was used to establish reference values of ARD in healthy young adults. ARD at year-25 was greater in men (33.3 ± 3.7 versus 28.7 ± 3.4 mm; P<0.001) and in whites (30.9 ± 4.3 versus 30.5 ± 4.1 mm; P=0.006). On multivariable analysis, ARD at year-25 was positively correlated with male sex, white ethnicity, age, height, weight, 20-year gain in weight, active smoking at baseline, and 20-year increase in diastolic, systolic, and mean arterial pressure. A figure showing the estimated 95th percentile of ARD by age and body surface area stratified by race and sex is provided. This study demonstrates that smoking, blood pressure, and increase in body weight are the main modifiable correlates of aortic root dilation during young adulthood. Our study also provides reference values for ARD in young adults.

  18. Ventilatory Function in Young Adults and Dietary Antioxidant Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Garcia-Larsen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dietary antioxidants may protect against poor ventilatory function. We assessed the relation between ventilatory function and antioxidant components of diet in young Chileans. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1, forced vital capacity (FVC, and the ratio FEV1/FVC were measured in 1232 adults aged 22–28 years, using a Vitalograph device. Dietary intake was ascertained with a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ designed for this study, from which nutrient and flavonoid intakes were estimated. Dietary patterns were derived with Principal Component Analysis (PCA. After controlling for potential confounders, dietary intake of total catechins was positively associated with FVC (Regression coefficient (RC of highest vs. lowest quintile of intake 0.07; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.15; p per trend 0.006. Total fruit intake was related to FVC (RC of highest vs. lowest quintile 0.08; 95% CI 0.003 to 0.15; p per trend 0.02. Intake of omega 3 fatty acids was associated with a higher FEV1 (RC for highest vs. lowest quintile 0.08; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.15 L; p per trend 0.02 and with FVC 0.08 (RC in highest vs. lowest quintile of intake 0.08, 95% CI 0.001 to 0.16; p per trend 0.04. Our results show that fresh fruits, flavonoids, and omega 3 fatty acids may contribute to maintain ventilatory function.

  19. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions in young adult and geriatric cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, George M; McGee, Kain A

    2017-03-01

    Recordings of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) were taken from 15 geriatric cats (mean age ± standard deviation, SD, 13.6 ± 2.7 years; range 10.2-19.4 years) and 12 young adult control cats (mean ± SD 4.6 ± 0.5 years; range 3.4-5 years) to identify frequency-specific age-related changes in cochlear responses. Recordings were performed for primary frequencies from 2 to 12 kHz in 2 kHz increments. Cats were considered to be geriatric > 11.9 ± 1.9 years of age. Brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) recordings were also made for subjective comparison with DPOAE responses. No differences in DPOAE response amplitudes were observed at any tested frequency in geriatric cats compared to control cats, reflecting an apparent absence of loss of cochlear outer hair cells along the length of the cochlea. No linear regression relationships were found for DPOAE response amplitude versus age in geriatric cats, despite the progressive nature of age-related hearing loss in other species. The absence of reductions in response at any of the tested frequencies in cats within the age span where cats are considered to be geriatric indicates that age-related hearing loss, if it does develop in cats, begins later in the life span of cats than in dogs or human beings.

  20. Condylar volume and surface in Caucasian young adult subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordasco Giancarlo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been no quantitative standards for volumetric and surface measurements of the mandibular condyle in Caucasian population. However, the recently developed cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT system allows measurement of these parameters with high accuracy. Methods CBCT was used to measure the condylar volume, surface and the volume to surface ratio, called the Morphometric Index (MI, of 300 temporo-mandibular joints (TMJ in 150 Caucasian young adult subjects, with varied malocclusions, without pain or dysfunction of TMJs. Results The condylar volume was 691.26 ± 54.52 mm3 in males and 669.65 ± 58.80 mm3 in, and was significantly higher (p2 in males and 394.77 ± 60.73 mm2 in females. Furthermore, the condylar volume (693.61 ± 62.82 mm3 in the right TMJ was significantly higher than in the left (666.99 ± 48.67 mm3, p 2 in the right TMJ and 389.41 ± 56.63 mm2 in the left TMJ; t = 3.29; p Conclusion These data from temporomandibular joints of patients without pain or clinical dysfunction might serve as examples of normal TMJ's in the general population not seeking orthodontic care.

  1. Effect of Smoking on Cognitive Functioning in Young Saudi Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Shahid; Alghamdi, Faisal; Alhussien, Ahmed; Alohali, Meshal; Alatawi, Abdullah; Almusned, Tariq; Habib, Syed Shahid

    2017-01-01

    Background Smoking is the predominant form of tobacco consumption and is growing worldwide, particularly in the younger generation in the Middle-East. We aimed to determine the effects of tobacco smoking on cognitive functions among young Saudi adults. Material/Methods We recruited a group of cigarette smokers (N=22) and a group of controls (non-smokers) (N=30) from apparently healthy male volunteers aged 18–29 years. Cognitive function was assessed by using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Automated Battery (CANTAB). The cognitive functions outcome variables were the response time (attention-switching task [AST]), and the percentage of correct response (pattern recognition memory [PRM] task). Clinical, demographic, blood markers (brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and apolipoprotein E) were assessed between groups. Results The 2 groups were matched for age and educational status. In comparison to the control group, smokers showed significant cognitive impairments in AST-Latency (p=0.001), AST-Congruent (p=0.001), and AST-Incongruent condition (p=0.001). There was not significant difference in BDNF APOE serum level between the 2 groups. Conclusions These results indicate that attention and alertness were significantly impaired in smokers compared to non-smokers. PMID:28223681

  2. Qualitative analysis of young adult ENDS users' expectations and experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek, Janet; Thrul, Johannes; Ling, Pamela

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Despite extensive research into the determinants of electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS) uptake, few studies have examined the psychosocial benefits ENDS users seek and experience. Using a consumer ritual framework, we explored how ENDS users recreated or replaced smoking practices, and considered implications for smoking cessation. Design In-depth interviews; data analysed using thematic analysis. Setting Dunedin, New Zealand. Participants 16 young adult ENDS users (age M=21.4, SD=1.9; 44% female). Results Participants reported using different ENDS to achieve varying outcomes. Some used ‘cigalikes’ to recreate a physically and visually similar experience to smoking; they privileged device appearance over nicotine delivery. In contrast, others used personally crafted mods to develop new rituals that differentiated them from smokers and showcased their technical expertise. Irrespective of the device they used, several former smokers and dual users of cigarettes and ENDS experienced strong nostalgia for smoking attributes, particularly the elemental appeal of fire and the finiteness of a cigarette. Non-smoking participants used ENDS to maintain social connections with their peers. Conclusions Participants used ENDS to construct rituals that recreated or replaced smoking attributes, and that varied in the emphasis given to device appearance, nicotine delivery, and social performance. Identifying how ENDS users create new rituals and the components they privilege within these could help promote full transition from smoking to ENDS and identify those at greatest risk of dual use or relapse to cigarette smoking. PMID:28270392

  3. Awareness of and attitudes toward direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperstein, Neil M

    2014-01-01

    This study examines awareness and knowledge of and attitudes toward direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug advertising among young adults between 18 and 24 years of age. The study finds that young adults are not as aware of prescription drug advertising as older consumers, however, they are aware of specific heavily advertised drugs, especially those for allergy medications, birth control, and sleep aids. Young adults hold mixed to negative views about advertising in general, and they do not view DTC prescription drug advertising as a beneficial source of information, nor do they believe such advertising serves to educate consumers.

  4. Bracing the trunk and neck in young adults leads to a more aged-like gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Daniel M; Kelleran, Kyle J; Morrison, Steven

    2016-09-01

    Older individuals typically walk at slower speeds, with shorter step lengths, greater step widths and spend a larger proportion of the gait cycle in double stance. Changes in neck and trunk mobility may underlie some of the changes in walking seen with increasing age. Consequently, this study was designed to assess whether externally increasing trunk/neck stiffness in young adults leads to similar changes in gait pattern observed with aging. Twelve young adults (20-29 years), sixteen old adults (60-69 years) and fifteen older adults (70-79 years) walked across a 20' pressure sensitive GAITRite© instrumented walkway at their preferred speed. The young adults also walked under three bracing conditions: (1) Neck braced, (2) Trunk braced, and (3) Neck and Trunk braced. The results revealed that the old and older age groups walked significantly slower, with a shorter step length and with a narrower base of support (p'syoung adults. In young adults, combined neck and trunk bracing led to reduced walking speed, shorter step length, wider base of support and a larger proportion of the gait cycle spent in double stance (p'sadults remained less than fully braced young adults (p'syoung individuals leads to systematic gait changes similar to aging. Consequently, age-related changes in mobility of the neck and torso may in part contribute to the decrements in walking seen for older adults.

  5. Defining Adult Experiences: Perspectives of a Diverse Sample of Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sarah R.; Dillon, Colleen O.; Rhodes, Jean E.; Zwiebach, Liza

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the roles and psychological experiences identified as defining adult moments using mixed methods with a racially, ethnically, and socioeconomically diverse sample of young adults both enrolled and not enrolled in college (N = 726; ages 18-35). First, we evaluated results from a single survey item that asked participants to rate how adult they feel. Consistent with previous research, the majority of participants (56.9%) reported feeling “somewhat like an adult,” and older participants had significantly higher subjective adulthood, controlling for other demographic variables. Next, we analyzed responses from an open-ended question asking participants to describe instances in which they felt like an adult. Responses covered both traditional roles (e.g., marriage, childbearing; 36.1%) and nontraditional social roles and experiences (e.g., moving out of parent’s home, cohabitation; 55.6%). Although we found no differences by age and college status in the likelihood of citing a traditional or nontraditional role, participants who had achieved more traditional roles were more likely to cite them in their responses. In addition, responses were coded for psychological experiences, including responsibility for self (19.0%), responsibility for others (15.3%), self-regulation (31.1%), and reflected appraisals (5.1%). Older participants were significantly more likely to include self-regulation and reflected appraisals, whereas younger participants were more likely to include responsibility for self. College students were more likely than noncollege students to include self-regulation and reflected appraisals. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:23554545

  6. Health-related stigma as a determinant of functioning in young adults with narcolepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary C Kapella

    Full Text Available Symptoms of narcolepsy tend to arise during adolescence or young adulthood, a formative time in human development during which people are usually completing their education and launching a career. Little is known about the impact of narcolepsy on the social aspects of health-related quality of life in young adults. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between health-related stigma, mood (anxiety and depression and daytime functioning in young adults with narcolepsy compared to those without narcolepsy. Young adults (age 18-35 with narcolepsy (N = 122 and without narcolepsy (N = 93 were mailed a packet that included questionnaires and a self-addressed postage paid envelope. The questionnaire included demographic information and a composite of instruments including the SF 36, Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ, Fife Stigma Scale (FSS, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Variable associations were assessed using descriptive statistics, ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U Test, correlations, stepwise multiple regression and path analysis. Young adults with narcolepsy perceived significantly more stigma and lower mood and health-related quality of life than young adults without narcolepsy (p<0.01. Health-related stigma was directly and indirectly associated with lower functioning through depressed mood. Fifty-two percent of the variance in functioning was explained by the final model in the young adults with narcolepsy. Health-related stigma in young adults with narcolepsy is at a level consistent with other chronic medical illnesses. Health-related stigma may be an important determinant of functioning in young adults with narcolepsy. Future work is indicated toward further characterizing stigma and developing interventions that address various domains of stigma in people with narcolepsy.

  7. Food fears: a national survey on the attitudes of Australian adults about the safety and quality of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Peter; Stirling, Emma; Keynes, Nick

    2004-01-01

    A national telephone survey of a representative sample of 1200 Australian adults was conducted in March 2002 in order to identify the factors of greatest concern to consumers in relation to the safety and quality of food, to measure recent trends in views about hazards in the food supply, to explore beliefs about the safety of additives and to discover whether consumers use food labels to check for ingredients of concern. Forty five percent of Australians responded that they were more concerned about the safety and quality of food than they were five years previously, while only 5% were less concerned. The most common potential hazards volunteered were additives and chemical residues (28%), followed by food processing/handling/freshness (21%), food hygiene or contamination (14%), and also genetic modification (14%). More than half of the respondents believe that additives and preservatives are harmful to your health and that many foods contain high levels of pesticides. A greater proportion of consumers claimed to be conscious of checking for additives, either general or specific, on food labels than for information on the salt or sugar content of products. Food regulators, journalists, the food industry and health professionals need to work together to correct misconceptions about the risks to health posed by common food additives and pesticide residues.

  8. Physical activity, healthy lifestyle behaviors, neighborhood environment characteristics and social support among Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macniven, Rona; Richards, Justin; Gubhaju, Lina; Joshy, Grace; Bauman, Adrian; Banks, Emily; Eades, Sandra

    2016-06-01

    Physical inactivity is the third leading cause of the burden of disease for Australian Aboriginal adults. The neighborhood environment and social support are known to influence physical activity (PA) participation. This study examined these factors in relation to achieving PA recommendations in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. Cross-sectional data from the 2010 Social, Economic, and Environmental Factor (SEEF) Study in New South Wales, Australia were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR) for Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal participants for PA-related attributes, including achieving PA recommendations. ORs for achieving PA recommendations were estimated in both groups. Overall, 63.1% of Aboriginal (n = 314) and 65.4% of non-Aboriginal (n = 59,175) participants met PA recommendations. Odds of healthy sleep duration were lower, and receiving GP advice to be active was higher, among Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal participants. Aboriginal respondents had higher odds of reporting that the crime rate made it unsafe to walk and that local public transport was inaccessible. They had higher odds of disagreeing they have local shops, footpaths or free/low cost recreation facilities. PA correlates were similar in both groups. The factors relating to PA were similar in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people. Neighborhood and social features were less PA-favorable for Aboriginal participants suggesting multiple possible avenues for increasing PA in this older population group.

  9. Adult attachment, personality traits, and borderline personality disorder features in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Lori N; Levy, Kenneth N; Pincus, Aaron L

    2009-06-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that insecure attachment patterns and a trait disposition toward negative affect and impulsivity are both associated with borderline personality disorder (BPD) features. According to attachment theory, insecure attachment patterns impart greater risk for the maladaptive personality traits underlying BPD. Hence, insecure attachment might be indirectly related to BPD through its association with these traits. The current cross-sectional study used structural equation modeling to compare two competing models of the relationship between adult attachment patterns, trait negative affect and impulsivity, and BPD features in a large nonclinical sample of young adults: (M1) attachment anxiety and avoidance are positively related to trait negative affect and impulsivity, which in turn, are directly associated with BPD features; and (M2) trait negative affect and impulsivity are positively related to attachment anxiety and avoidance, which in turn, are directly associated with BPD features. Consistent with attachment theory, M1 provided a better fit to the data than M2. However, only attachment anxiety, and not attachment avoidance, was significantly associated with negative affect and impulsivity. The results favored a model in which the relationship between adult attachment anxiety and BPD features is fully mediated by trait negative affect and impulsivity.

  10. Neural control of the lips differs for young and older adults following a perturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miranda Marzullo, Ana Carolina; Neto, Osmar Pinto; Ballard, Kirrie J; Robin, Donald A; Chaitow, Lauren; Christou, Evangelos A

    2010-10-01

    Aging impairs the control of many skilled movements including speech. The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether young and older adults adapt to lower lip perturbations during speech differently. Twenty men (10 young, 26 ± 3 years of age; 10 older, 60 ± 9 years of age) were requested to repeat the word ("papa") 300 times. In 15% of the trials, the subjects experienced a mechanical perturbation on the lower lip. Displacement and neural activation (EMG) of the upper and lower lips were evaluated. Perturbations to the lower lip caused a greater increase in the maximum displacement of the lower lip for older adults compared with young adults (34.7 ± 19% vs. 13.4 ± 17%; P=0.017). Furthermore, young adults exhibited significantly greater 30-100 Hz normalized EMG power for the lower lip compared to the upper lip (P<0.005). In young adults, changes from normal to perturbed trials in the 30-50 Hz frequency band of the EMG were negatively correlated to the changes from normal to perturbed trials in the lower lip maximum displacement (R (2) =0.48; P=0.025). It is concluded that young adults adapt better to lower lip perturbations compared with older adults and that the associated neural activation strategy of the involved muscle is different for the two age groups.

  11. Determining the needs, priorities, and desired rehabilitation outcomes of young adults who have had a stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Maggie; Kinn, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Background. Guidelines state that young adults' (aged 18-55 years) rehabilitation needs and priorities following stroke are different from older adults'. However, there is a lack of evidence regarding young adults' perspectives of their needs and priorities. Aim. To gain an understanding of young adults' experience of stroke and associated rehabilitation needs, priorities, and desired outcomes. Methods. A qualitative approach was adopted, based on the phenomenology of Merleau-Ponty. Longitudinal data were gathered using unstructured interviews and analysed using phenomenological reduction. Results. Ten young adults took part in up to four interviews over two years. An overarching theme, Embodied Disorientation, and three subthemes: Mortal Body, Situated Body, and Embodied Perception of Difference, described the young adults' experience. A subsequent iterative process enabled tabulation of patient-centred rehabilitation needs, priorities, and outcomes. Conclusion. Rehabilitation professionals can use the evidence-based outcomes table to work with young adults to develop meaningful patient-centred goals and select appropriate interventions which align with identified needs and outcomes throughout the stroke recovery trajectory.

  12. Substance use in young adults with ADHD: Comorbidity and symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Miranda; Carla Colomer; Carmen Berenguer; Rocio Roselló; Belén Roselló

    2016-01-01

    Young adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at high risk of substance use (SU). The aims of the current study were: 1) to examine the use of alcohol, tobacco, marijuana and other illegal drugs by adults with and without ADHD; 2) to compare the oppositional, conduct, anxiety, depression, sleep and antisocial personality symptoms of ADHD adults with SU and ADHD adults without SU; 3) to examine the ability of ADHD symptoms and conduct problems to predict SU. A total of ...

  13. Microrna profiling analysis of differences between the melanoma of young adults and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drogowski Laura M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study represents the first attempt to perform a profiling analysis of the intergenerational differences in the microRNAs (miRNAs of primary cutaneous melanocytic neoplasms in young adult and older age groups. The data emphasize the importance of these master regulators in the transcriptional machinery of melanocytic neoplasms and suggest that differential levels of expressions of these miRs may contribute to differences in phenotypic and pathologic presentation of melanocytic neoplasms at different ages. Methods An exploratory miRNA analysis of 666 miRs by low density microRNA arrays was conducted on formalin fixed and paraffin embedded tissues (FFPE from 10 older adults and 10 young adults including conventional melanoma and melanocytic neoplasms of uncertain biological significance. Age-matched benign melanocytic nevi were used as controls. Results Primary melanoma in patients greater than 60 years old was characterized by the increased expression of miRs regulating TLR-MyD88-NF-kappaB pathway (hsa-miR-199a, RAS/RAB22A pathway (hsa-miR-204; growth differentiation and migration (hsa-miR337, epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT (let-7b, hsa-miR-10b/10b*, invasion and metastasis (hsa-miR-10b/10b*, hsa-miR-30a/e*, hsa-miR-29c*; cellular matrix components (hsa-miR-29c*; invasion-cytokinesis (hsa-miR-99b* compared to melanoma of younger patients. MiR-211 was dramatically downregulated compared to nevi controls, decreased with increasing age and was among the miRs linked to metastatic processes. Melanoma in young adult patients had increased expression of hsa-miR-449a and decreased expression of hsa-miR-146b, hsa-miR-214*. MiR-30a* in clinical stages I-II adult and pediatric melanoma could predict classification of melanoma tissue in the two extremes of age groups. Although the number of cases is small, positive lymph node status in the two age groups was characterized by the statistically significant expression of hsa

  14. Original article Unfulfilled parenthood in the eyes of young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Kalus

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The goal of the study was to present young adults’ perceptions of the experience of loss of a child at different stages of its prenatal development, as well as the level of declared support for couples after the loss. Participants and procedure The study used a scenario method based on the method by Claudia Lapman and Seana Dowling-Guyer (1995, translated into Polish by Joanna Szymańska (2013. One of the Berlin Social Support Scales (BSSS, Łyszczyńska, Kowalska, Mazurkiewicz, & Schwarzer, 2006 was also used. One hundred ninety two young adults (mean age = 26.76, SD = 4.64 took part in the research, mainly university students of technical subjects and humanities. Results The study showed that couples who lost their child, regardless of the stage at which it occurred (miscarriage or fetal death, were assessed more frequently as caring, loving, tender and sensitive, in comparison to couples for whom there was no mention of a child at all. Women who lost their child at a later stage (after the 22nd week of pregnancy were assessed significantly more frequently as relaxed, less lonely, calm and more self-confident than women who miscarried. The results were similar to those for women from the control scenario, where there was no mention of a child at all. In terms of declared support, the subjects declared significantly higher emotional support (expressing empathy, care, trust, intimacy, allowing for self-expression, etc. for couples who experienced the loss at a later stage of pregnancy than in the control scenario, as well as a higher level of instrumental support (providing material goods, solving difficult tasks together for couples who experienced miscarriage than the controls. Conclusions The experience of miscarriage and dealing with the loss is met with lower levels of empathy from the social environment, and, presumably, lower acceptance for grief. It seems important to sensitize people to the experiences of couples who

  15. Bisphenol A in Urine of Chinese Young Adults: Concentrations and Sources of Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chongjing; Liu, Liyan; Ma, Wanli; Zhu, Ningzheng; Jiang, Ling; Ren, Nanqi; Li, Yi-Fan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2016-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting environmental chemical. Urinary concentrations of BPA were measured in samples collected nationwide from Chinese young adults. The geometric mean urinary concentration of BPA in Chinese young adults was 2.23 ng/mL. The estimated daily exposure dose for BPA was 64.8 ng/kg bw/day. Contributions of various BPA sources to exposure in Chinese young adults were estimated. Dietary intake was the primary exposure pathway. The contribution of dietary intake, indoor dust, paper products and personal care products to BPA intake was 72.5 %, 0.74 %, 0.98 %, 0.22 % of the total exposure dose, respectively. This is the first study on the occurrence of BPA in young adults from most provinces and autonomous regions of China. The results can be used to establish a database for BPA exposure assessment for Chinese general population.

  16. One Hundred of Our Best Ideas: Young Adult Literature with Staying Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesesne, Teri S.

    2003-01-01

    Presents two lists of young adult literature titles totaling 100 works. Notes that the first list includes books with lasting appeal and the second list includes some new and notable books to fill a summer reading list. (SG)

  17. From Overlooked to Looking Over: Lesbians in Children's and Young Adult Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, June

    2015-01-01

    This introduction focuses on the relative absence of lesbians in scholarly and intellectual conversations about homosexuality in children's and young adult literature. It also discusses the various articles in this special issue of the Journal of Lesbian Studies.

  18. A Longitudinal Study of Objectively Measured Built Environment as Determinant of Physical Activity in Young Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schipperijn, Jasper; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Nielsen, Merete S;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This longitudinal study aimed to examine if a Moveability Index (MI), based on objectively measured built environment characteristics, was a determinant for objectively measured physical activity (PA) among young adults. METHOD: Data collected from 177 persons participating...

  19. Some of My Favorite Books Are by Young Adult Authors and Some Are by Jane Austen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Robert C., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of reading young adult novels. Remarks on their serious intent, careful craftmanship, effective expression, as well as their ability to illuminate the human condition and provide insights. (EL)

  20. Literacy through Literature: A Reading Club with Imprisoned Youth and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budweg, Peter; Schins, Marie-Therese

    1991-01-01

    A prison reading club can provide motivation to learn to read and write, reinforce conventional learning, and support individual development. The literate environment created is a tool for resocialization of incarcerated youth and young adults. (SK)

  1. Training on Working Memory and Inhibitory Control in Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jesus Maraver

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Different types of interventions have focused on trying to improve Executive Functions (EF due to their essential role in human cognition and behavior regulation. Although EF are thought to be diverse, most training studies have targeted cognitive processes related to working memory (WM, and fewer have focused on training other control mechanisms, such as inhibitory control (IC. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the differential impact of training WM and IC as compared with control conditions performing non-executive control activities. Young adults were divided into two training (WM/IC and two (active/passive control conditions. Over six sessions, the training groups engaged in three different computer-based adaptive activities (WM or IC, whereas the active control group completed a program with low control-demanding activities that mainly involved processing speed. In addition, motivation and engagement were monitored through the training. The WM-training activities required maintenance, updating and memory search processes, while those from the IC group engaged response inhibition, and interference control. All participants were pre- and post-tested in criterion tasks (n-back and Stroop, near transfer measures of WM (Operation Span and IC (Stop-Signal. Non-trained far transfer outcome measures included an abstract reasoning test (Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices and a well-validated experimental task (AX-CPT that provides indices of cognitive flexibility considering proactive/reactive control. Training results revealed that strongly motivated participants reached higher levels of training improvements. Regarding transfer effects, results showed specific patterns of near transfer effects depending on the type of training. Interestingly, it was only the IC training group that showed far transfer to reasoning. Finally, all trained participants showed a shift towards a more proactive mode of cognitive control, highlighting a

  2. Pinch Strengths in Healthy Iranian Children and Young Adult Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianat, Iman; Feizi, Hossein; Hasan-khali, Kosar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Data on the physical strength capabilities are essential for designing safe and usable products and are useful in a wide range of clinical settings especially during treatment of disease affecting the function of the hand. The purpose of this study was to determine peak lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions in a healthy Iranian children and young adult population. Methods: The study was conducted among 511 participants (242 males and 269 females) aged 7-30 years. Measurements were carried out with both dominant and non-dominant hands in standard sitting posture using a B&L pinch gauge. Two repetitions of each strength measurement were recorded for each condition and the average value of the two trials was used in the subsequent analysis. Results: The results showed significant differences in the pinch strength data in terms of the age, gender and hand dominance. The lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions by females were 68.4%, 68.8%, 78.8% and 81.8% of those exerted by males, respectively. Strength exertions with the non-dominant hand were 6.4%, 5.2%, 6.6% and 5.1% lower than strength exertions of the dominant hand for the lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions, respectively. Conclusion: These findings can be used to fill the gaps in strength data for Iranian population. PMID:26000246

  3. Pinch Strengths in Healthy Iranian Children and Young Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Dianat

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data on the physical strength capabilities are essential for design-ing safe and usable products and are useful in a wide range of clinical settings especially during treatment of disease affecting the function of the hand. The purpose of this study was to determine peak lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions in a healthy Iranian children and young adult population.Methods: The study was conducted among 511 participants (242 males and 269 females aged 7-30 years. Measurements were carried out with both dominant and non-dominant hands in standard sitting posture using a B&L pinch gauge. Two repetitions of each strength measurement were recorded for each condition and the average value of the two trials was used in the subsequent analysis.Results: The results showed significant differences in the pinch strength data in terms of the age, gender and hand dominance. The lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions by females were 68.4%, 68.8%, 78.8% and 81.8% of those exerted by males, respectively. Strength exertions with the non-dominant hand were 6.4%, 5.2%, 6.6% and 5.1% lower than strength exertions of the dominant hand for the lat-eral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions, respectively.Conclusion: These findings can be used to fill the gaps in strength data for Iranian population.

  4. Burkitt lymphoma in adolescents and young adults: management challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozzo, Massimo; Carobolante, Francesca; Donisi, Pietro Maria; Scattolin, Annamaria; Maino, Elena; Sancetta, Rosaria; Viero, Piera; Bassan, Renato

    2017-01-01

    About one-half of all Burkitt lymphoma (BL) patients are younger than 40 years, and one-third belong to the adolescent and young adult (AYA) subset, defined by an age between 15 and 25–40 years, based on selection criteria used in different reports. BL is an aggressive B-cell neoplasm displaying highly characteristic clinico-diagnostic features, the biologic hallmark of which is a translocation involving immunoglobulin and c-MYC genes. It presents as sporadic, endemic, or epidemic disease. Endemicity is pathogenetically linked to an imbalance of the immune system which occurs in African children infected by malaria parasites and Epstein–Barr virus, while the epidemic form strictly follows the pattern of infection by HIV. BL shows propensity to extranodal involvement of abdominal organs, bone marrow, and central nervous system, and can cause severe metabolic and renal impairment. Nevertheless, BL is highly responsive to specifically designed short-intensive, rotational multiagent chemotherapy programs, empowered by the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab. When carefully applied with appropriate supportive measures, these modern programs achieve a cure rate of approximately 90% in the average AYA patient, irrespective of clinical stage, which is the best result achievable in any aggressive lymphoid malignancy to date. The challenges ahead concern the following: optimization of management in underdeveloped countries, with reduction of diagnostic and referral-for-care intervals, and the applicability of currently curative regimens; the development of lower intensity but equally effective treatments for frail or immunocompromised patients at risk of death by complications; the identification of very high-risk patients through positron-emission tomography and minimal residual disease assays; and the assessment in these and the few refractory/relapsed ones of new monoclonals (ofatumumab, blinatumomab, inotuzumab ozogamicin) and new molecules targeting c-MYC and

  5. Training on Working Memory and Inhibitory Control in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraver, Maria J.; Bajo, M. Teresa; Gomez-Ariza, Carlos J.

    2016-01-01

    Different types of interventions have focused on trying to improve Executive Functions (EFs) due to their essential role in human cognition and behavior regulation. Although EFs are thought to be diverse, most training studies have targeted cognitive processes related to working memory (WM), and fewer have focused on training other control mechanisms, such as inhibitory control (IC). In the present study, we aimed to investigate the differential impact of training WM and IC as compared with control conditions performing non-executive control activities. Young adults were divided into two training (WM/IC) and two (active/passive) control conditions. Over six sessions, the training groups engaged in three different computer-based adaptive activities (WM or IC), whereas the active control group completed a program with low control-demanding activities that mainly involved processing speed. In addition, motivation and engagement were monitored through the training. The WM-training activities required maintenance, updating and memory search processes, while those from the IC group engaged response inhibition and interference control. All participants were pre- and post-tested in criterion tasks (n-back and Stroop), near transfer measures of WM (Operation Span) and IC (Stop-Signal). Non-trained far transfer outcome measures included an abstract reasoning test (Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices) and a well-validated experimental task (AX-CPT) that provides indices of cognitive flexibility considering proactive/reactive control. Training results revealed that strongly motivated participants reached higher levels of training improvements. Regarding transfer effects, results showed specific patterns of near transfer effects depending on the type of training. Interestingly, it was only the IC training group that showed far transfer to reasoning. Finally, all trained participants showed a shift toward a more proactive mode of cognitive control, highlighting a general

  6. Trajectories of metabolic syndrome development in young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian T W Poon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS is a constellation of metabolic aberrations that collectively increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Greater understanding of MetS developments may provide insight into targeted prevention strategies for individuals at greatest risk. The purpose of this study was to i identify distinct patterns of longitudinal MetS development and; ii develop a character profile that differentiates groups by level of MetS risk. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA study (n = 3 804; 18-30 y was obtained by limited access application from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and used for this analysis. MetS, as defined by the Harmonized criteria, was assessed over a 20 year follow-up period. Group-level trajectory analysis identified 4 distinct groups with varying rates of component development [No (23.8% of sample; Low (33.5%; Moderate (35.3%; and High MetS (7.4%]. After adjusting for covariates, individuals in the At-Risk groups (Low, Moderate and High MetS were more likely to be of black ethnicity (1.37, 1.14-1.66, have a family history of cardiovascular disease (1.61, 1.31-1.97 and history of dieting (1.69, 1.20-2.39 when compared to the No Risk trajectory group (No MetS. Conversely, increasing baseline education (0.76, 0.65-0.89 and aerobic fitness (0.55, 0.47-0.64 was inversely associated with At-Risk group membership. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest distinct profiles of MetS development that can be identified by baseline risk factors. Further research is necessary to understand the clinical implication of intermediate MetS development groups with respect to overall cardiometabolic risk.

  7. Cognitive flexibility correlates with gambling severity in young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppink, Eric W.; Redden, Sarah A.; Chamberlain, Samuel R.; Grant, Jon E.

    2017-01-01

    Although gambling disorder (GD) is often characterized as a problem of impulsivity, compulsivity has recently been proposed as a potentially important feature of addictive disorders. The present analysis assessed the neurocognitive and clinical relationship between compulsivity on gambling behavior. A sample of 552 non-treatment seeking gamblers age 18–29 was recruited from the community for a study on gambling in young adults. Gambling severity levels included both casual and disordered gamblers. All participants completed the Intra/Extra-Dimensional Set Shift (IED) task, from which the total adjusted errors were correlated with gambling severity measures, and linear regression modeling was used to assess three error measures from the task. The present analysis found significant positive correlations between problems with cognitive flexibility and gambling severity (reflected by the number of DSM-5 criteria, gambling frequency, amount of money lost in the past year, and gambling urge/behavior severity). IED errors also showed a positive correlation with self-reported compulsive behavior scores. A significant correlation was also found between IED errors and non-planning impulsivity from the BIS. Linear regression models based on total IED errors, extra-dimensional (ED) shift errors, or pre-ED shift errors indicated that these factors accounted for a significant portion of the variance noted in several variables. These findings suggest that cognitive flexibility may be an important consideration in the assessment of gamblers. Results from correlational and linear regression analyses support this possibility, but the exact contributions of both impulsivity and cognitive flexibility remain entangled. Future studies will ideally be able to assess the longitudinal relationships between gambling, compulsivity, and impulsivity, helping to clarify the relative contributions of both impulsive and compulsive features. PMID:27355427

  8. The Functional Profile of Young Adults with Suspected Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal-Saban, Miri; Zarka, Salman; Grotto, Itamar; Ornoy, Asher; Parush, Shula

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the non-academic and academic functioning of young adults with DCD, and investigated the emotional influences and the role of strategy use within this population. A random sample of 2379 adolescents and young adults aged 19-25 (1081 males [45.4%]; mean age = 20.68, SD = 3.42) was used to develop the instruments. From this sample, three…

  9. Optimal use of visual information in adolescents and young adults with developmental coordination disorder

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Recent reports offer contrasting views on whether or not the use of online visual control is impaired in individuals with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). This study explored the optimal temporal basis for processing and using visual information in adolescents and young adults with DCD. Participants were 22 adolescents and young adults (12 males and 10 females; M = 19 years, SD = 3). Half had been diagnosed with DCD as children and still performed poorly on the movement assessment b...

  10. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Coronary Artery Calcification in Young Adults: The CARDIA Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Chong-Do; Jacobs, David R; Hankinson, Arlene; Iribarren, Carlos; SIDNEY, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Whether cardiorespiratory fitness relates to early subclinical atherosclerotic vascular disease remains unknown. We investigated the relation of cardiorespiratory fitness to coronary artery calcification (CAC) in 2373 African-American and White young adults from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. We measured cardiorespiratory fitness in 1985-1986 (baseline) using a symptom-limited exercise test on a treadmill. Coronary calcium scores were measured in 2001-200...

  11. Attitudes of Family Planning Workers toward Setting Up Special Counseling Stations for Unmarried Young Adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂晓雯; 刘英惠; 楼超华; 高尔生

    2001-01-01

    Objective To understand attitudes of family planning workers to setting up special counseling stations for unmarried young adults and to identify the acceptable and feasible ways to provide the services for unmarried young adults in eight provinces/cities in ChinaMethods From May 1998to December 1998, 1 927family planning workers including 965 contraceptive providers and 962 contraceptive distributors were recruited for questionnaire survey in eight provinces/cities in China.Results Except the subjects from Hebei Province, over 70% of all the subjects from other provinces/cities thought it was necessary to have a special counseling station set up for unmarried young adults, while 10~ 20% of them opposed to it. Result of Multivariable Logistic regression analysis showed that where the subjects came from, were contraceptive distributors, have higher education level, younger than 50, expressed tolerance for premarital sex, perceived that unmarried young adults had no or inadequate knowledge about sexuality and considered it was difficult for unmarried young adults to obtain contraceptive methods, were more likely to support the establishment of special counseling stations for unmarried youth. The acceptable and feasible ways to provide contraceptive services varied from one province/city to another. Generally,family planning counseling stations and hospital were the most acceptable place to provide counseling services for unmarried young adults in eight provinces/cities. Specially trained persons were recommended as the suitable persons for providing the services for unmarried young adults. Conclusion It is acceptable and feasible to set up special counseling stations for unmarried young adults.

  12. Parents' Economic Support of Young-Adult Children: Do Socioeconomic Circumstances Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Cobb-Clark, Deborah A.; Gorgens, Tue

    2012-01-01

    This paper assesses how the economic support provided by parents to young adults as they complete their education and enter the labor market is related to the family's socioeconomic circumstances. We address this issue using detailed survey data on intergenerational co-residence and financial transfers merged with nearly a decade of administrative data on the family's welfare receipt while the young person was growing up. We find that young people who experience socioeconomic disadvantage are...

  13. THE LOVING RELATIONSHIPS IN CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF YOUNG ADULTS

    OpenAIRE

    Smeha, Luciane Najar; Oliveira, Micheli Viera de

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: The present study intended to investigate the perception of young adults about loving relationships in the current society. For this research, was made a semistructured interview with eight young people of both sexes, aged between 18 and 23 years, and the data were analyzed in terms of content. As a result, young people showed that the current relationships are based on individuality, freedom, disposability, search for romance, gender equality and superficiality. What they look for ...

  14. Literacy, Sexuality, and the Value(s) of Queer Young Adult Literatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, William P.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses that there is an abundance of quality LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender) literature for young adults, filled with complexly rendered and experiences that mirror the often difficult and often exciting lives that young LGBT people live today. English language arts teachers work in a genuinely new and…

  15. The Relationship between P3 Amplitude and Working Memory Performance Differs in Young and Older Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saliasi, Emi; Geerligs, Linda; Lorist, Monicque M.; Maurits, Natasha M.

    2013-01-01

    While some elderly show deteriorations in cognitive performance, others achieve performance levels comparable to young adults. To examine whether age-related changes in brain activity varied with working memory performance efficiency, we recorded electroencephalography (EEG) from young and older hea

  16. All Night Spectral Analysis of EEG Sleep in Young Adult and Middle-Aged Male Subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Derk Jan; Beersma, Domien G.M.; Hoofdakker, Rutger H. van den

    1989-01-01

    The sleep EEGs of 9 young adult males (age 20-28 years) and 8 middle-aged males (42-56 years) were analyzed by visual scoring and spectral analysis. In the middle-aged subjects power density in the delta, theta and sigma frequencies were attenuated as compared to the young subjects. In both age grou

  17. Recycling and Ambivalence: Quantitative and Qualitative Analyses of Household Recycling among Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojala, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Theories about ambivalence, as well as quantitative and qualitative empirical approaches, are applied to obtain an understanding of recycling among young adults. A questionnaire was mailed to 422 Swedish young people. Regression analyses showed that a mix of negative emotions (worry) and positive emotions (hope and joy) about the environmental…

  18. "Murder Me…become a Man": Establishing the Masculine Care Circle in Young Adult Dystopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Young adult (YA) dystopia, a genre which is led almost exclusively by young female protagonists, has gained much scholarly attention in recent years. While most of the academic discussions focus, rightly, on portrayals of female characters and gender performance, portrayals of masculinity have failed to elicit the same scholarly response. This…

  19. Television as a Means of Training Rural Young-Adult Apprentices in Solar Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edington, Everett D.; Keaton, Laurie

    Using television as a means of delivery for an educational program in rural areas and looking at the media preferences of young adults, this study was conducted in a non-metropolitan area of northwestern New Mexico to examine the effectiveness of television and videotape to provide basic principles of solar energy to 15 young apprentices in a…

  20. "Spinning Themselves into Poetry": Images of Urban Adolescent Writers in Two Novels for Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissman, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    In contrast to the educational research and policy literature depicting urban adolescents as reluctant and struggling readers and writers, young people in recent young adult novels claim writing as an efficacious practice for self-discovery and social understanding. Analysis of the images of writers and writing in "Locomotion" and "Call Me Maria"…