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Sample records for australian young adults

  1. Shakespearean Girlhoods in Contemporary Australian Young Adult Fiction

    OpenAIRE

    Hateley, Erica

    2015-01-01

    This paper reads a selection of contemporary Australian young adult novels in order to consider their depiction of the meaning and significance of Shakespeare in the formation of young women’s subjectivity. In the competing tensions of patriarchal and postcolonial social values, these novels suggest that Australian girls may take up Shakespeare in order to further their emotional development and interpersonal relationships, or they may take up Shakespeare as an academic (‘professional’) exerc...

  2. Gender, intoxication and the developing brain: Problematisations of drinking among young adults in Australian alcohol policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manton, Elizabeth; Moore, David

    2016-05-01

    In this article, we draw on recent scholarly work in the poststructuralist analysis of policy to consider how policy itself functions as a key site in the constitution of alcohol 'problems', and the political implications of these problematisations. We do this by examining Australian alcohol policy as it relates to young adults (18-24 years old). Our critical analysis focuses on three national alcohol policies (1990, 2001 and 2006) and two Victorian state alcohol policies (2008 and 2013), which together span a 25-year period. We argue that Australian alcohol policies have conspicuously ignored young adult men, despite their ongoing over-representation in the statistical 'evidence base' on alcohol-related harm, while increasingly problematising alcohol consumption amongst other population subgroups. We also identify the development of a new problem representation in Australian alcohol policy, that of 'intoxication' as the leading cause of alcohol-related harm and rising hospital admissions, and argue that changes in the classification and diagnosis of intoxication may have contributed to its prioritisation and problematisation in alcohol policy at the expense of other forms of harm. Finally, we draw attention to how preliminary and inconclusive research on the purported association between binge drinking and brain development in those under 25 years old has been mobilised prematurely to support calls to increase the legal purchasing age from 18 to 21 years. Our critical analysis of the treatment of these three issues - gender, intoxication, and brain development - is intended to highlight the ways in which policy functions as a key site in the constitution of alcohol 'problems'. PMID:26644026

  3. Risk indicators for severe impaired oral health among indigenous Australian young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts-Thomson Kaye F

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral health impairment comprises three conceptual domains; pain, appearance and function. This study sought to: (1 estimate the prevalence of severe oral health impairment as assessed by a summary oral health impairment measure, including aspects of dental pain, dissatisfaction with dental appearance and difficulty eating, among a birth cohort of Indigenous Australian young adults (n = 442, age range 16-20 years; (2 compare prevalence according to demographic, socio-economic, behavioural, dental service utilisation and oral health outcome risk indicators; and (3 ascertain the independent contribution of those risk indicators to severe oral health impairment in this population. Methods Data were from the Aboriginal Birth Cohort (ABC study, a prospective longitudinal investigation of Aboriginal individuals born 1987-1990 at an Australian regional hospital. Data for this analysis pertained to Wave-3 of the study only. Severe oral health impairment was defined as reported experience of toothache, poor dental appearance and food avoidance in the last 12 months. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate effects of demographic, socio-economic, behavioural, dental service utilisation and clinical oral disease indicators on severe oral health impairment. Effects were quantified as odds ratios (OR. Results The percent of participants with severe oral health impairment was 16.3 (95% CI 12.9-19.7. In the multivariate model, severe oral health impairment was associated with untreated dental decay (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.6-9.6. In addition to that clinical indicator, greater odds of severe oral health impairment were associated with being female (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.6, being aged 19-20 years (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.6, soft drink consumption every day or a few days a week (OR 2.6, 95% 1.2-5.6 and non-ownership of a toothbrush (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.4. Conclusions Severe oral health impairment was prevalent among this population. The findings

  4. Problem gambling patterns among Australian young adults: Associations with prospective risk and protective factors and adult adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Toumbourou, John W; Dowling, Nicki A

    2016-04-01

    There is instability in the developmental course of problem gambling [PG] over time; however, studies that examine PG at an aggregate level obscure these variations. The current study employed data from a longitudinal study of Australian young adults to investigate: 1) PG patterns (i.e., resistance, persistence, desistence, and new incidence); 2) prospective risk and protective factors for these patterns; and 3) behavioural outcomes associated with these patterns. A sample of 2261 young adults (55.73% female) from Victoria, Australia, who were part of the International Youth Development Study completed a survey in 2010 (T1, age 21) and 2012 (T2, age 23) measuring PG (two items based on established measures), risk and protective factors, and behavioural outcomes. The majority of the sample (91.69%) were resistors (no PG at T1 and T2), 3.62% were new incidence PG cases, 2.63% were desistors (PG at T1 but not T2), and 2.07% reported persistent PG at T1 and T2. Individual civic activism was protective of new incidence PG, while affiliation with antisocial peers and frequent alcohol use increased the risk of persistence. Persistent problem gamblers also experienced the greatest number of poor behavioural outcomes at T2. New incidence was associated with internalising symptoms at T2, while desistance was not associated with any behavioural outcomes. In conclusion, each PG pattern was associated with different predictors and outcomes, highlighting the need to consider variation in the course of young adult PG in order to provide efficacious prevention and intervention approaches, and to protect against relapse. PMID:26790138

  5. Young Australian adults' beliefs about alcohol's role in sexual aggression and victimisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starfelt, Louise C; Young, Ross McD; Palk, Gavan R M; White, Katherine M

    2015-01-01

    Beliefs and misconceptions about sex, gender, and rape have been explored extensively to explain attributions concerning alcohol-involved sexual violence. However, less is known about the specific beliefs that people hold about how alcohol facilitates sexual aggression and victimisation. The present study aimed to identify these alcohol-related beliefs among young Australian adults. Six men and nine women (N = 15; 18-24 years) in focus groups (n = 13) and interviews (n = 2) were asked to discuss the role of alcohol in a hypothetical alcohol-involved rape. Using a consensual qualitative research methodology, the effects of alcohol that were seen to introduce, progress, and intensify risks for rape were: increased confidence; character transformation; impaired cognition; behavioural disinhibition; altered sexual negotiation; enhanced self-centredness; impaired awareness of wrongdoing; increased/decreased sexual assertiveness; and compromised self-protection. Some of the beliefs identified in this study are not currently captured in alcohol expectancy measures which assess people's beliefs about alcohol's effects on cognition, emotion, and behaviour. This study's findings offer a conceptual basis for the development of a new alcohol expectancy measure that can be used in future rape-perception research. PMID:25187278

  6. Active Citizens or Passive Recipients: How Australian Young Adults with Cerebral Palsy Define Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Polly H. Y.; Passmore, Anne E.; Packer, Tanya L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Citizenship participation by young adults has reciprocal benefits both for the individual and for society. This paper provides an insight into the ways young people with cerebral palsy (CP) perceive their citizenship experiences, and also examines factors which may influence citizenship participation for this group. Method: Qualitative…

  7. Adolescent predictors of young adult cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization among Australian youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Heerde, Jessica A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the current paper was to examine the adolescent risk and protective factors (at the individual, peer group, and family level) for young adult cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization. Methods Data from 2006 (Grade 9) to 2010 (young adulthood) were analyzed from a community sample of 927 Victorian students originally recruited as a state-wide representative sample in Grade 5 (age 10–11 years) in 2002 and followed up to age 18–19 years in 2010 (N = 809). Participants completed a self-report survey on adolescent risk and protective factors and traditional and cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization, and young adult cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization. Results As young adults, 5.1% self-reported cyber-bullying perpetration only, 5.0% cyber-bullying victimization only, and 9.5% reported both cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization. In fully adjusted logistic regression analyses, the adolescent predictors of cyber-bullying perpetration only were traditional bullying perpetration, traditional bullying perpetration and victimization, and poor family management. For young adulthood cyber-bullying victimization only, the adolescent predictor was emotion control. The adolescent predictors for young adult cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization were traditional bullying perpetration and cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization. Conclusions Based on the results of this study, possible targets for prevention and early intervention are reducing adolescent involvement in (traditional or cyber-) bullying through the development of social skills and conflict resolution skills. In addition, another important prevention target is to support families with adolescents to ensure they set clear rules and monitor adolescent’s behavior. Universal programs that assist adolescents to develop skills in emotion control are warranted. PMID:24939014

  8. Romantic Relationships, Relationship Styles, Coping Strategies, and Psychological Distress among Chinese and Australian Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cynthia; Moore, Susan; Karnilowicz, Wally; Lung, C. L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the association between relationship styles, coping strategies, and psychological distress among 144 Anglo-Australian and 250 Hong Kong Chinese undergraduate students. The results indicated that relationship styles (secure, clingy, and fickle) influenced psychological distress through their association with coping strategies…

  9. Trajectories of Mental Health over 16 Years amongst Young Adult Women: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Libby; Ware, Robert S.; Lee, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This article used data from 5,171 young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study, to identify longitudinal trajectory patterns of mental health across 6 surveys over 16 years of early adulthood, from age 18-23 to age 34-39. In addition, we identified both…

  10. Oral health and social and emotional well-being in a birth cohort of Aboriginal Australian young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Cairney Sheree J; Gunthorpe Wendy; Paradies Yin C; Jamieson Lisa M; Sayers Susan M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Social and emotional well-being is an important component of overall health. In the Indigenous Australian context, risk indicators of poor social and emotional well-being include social determinants such as poor education, employment, income and housing as well as substance use, racial discrimination and cultural knowledge. This study sought to investigate associations between oral health-related factors and social and emotional well-being in a birth cohort of young Aborig...

  11. Oral health and social and emotional well-being in a birth cohort of Aboriginal Australian young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cairney Sheree J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social and emotional well-being is an important component of overall health. In the Indigenous Australian context, risk indicators of poor social and emotional well-being include social determinants such as poor education, employment, income and housing as well as substance use, racial discrimination and cultural knowledge. This study sought to investigate associations between oral health-related factors and social and emotional well-being in a birth cohort of young Aboriginal adults residing in the northern region of Australia's Northern Territory. Methods Data were collected on five validated domains of social and emotional well-being: anxiety, resilience, depression, suicide and overall mental health. Independent variables included socio-demographics, dental health behaviour, dental disease experience, oral health-related quality of life, substance use, racial discrimination and cultural knowledge. Results After adjusting for other covariates, poor oral health-related items were associated with each of the social and emotional well-being domains. Specifically, anxiety was associated with being female, having one or more decayed teeth and racial discrimination. Resilience was associated with being male, having a job, owning a toothbrush, having one or more filled teeth and knowing a lot about Indigenous culture; while being female, having experienced dental pain in the past year, use of alcohol, use of marijuana and racial discrimination were associated with depression. Suicide was associated with being female, having experience of untreated dental decay and racial discrimination; while being female, having experience of dental disease in one or more teeth, being dissatisfied about dental appearance and racial discrimination were associated with poor mental health. Conclusion The results suggest there may be value in including oral health-related initiatives when exploring the role of physical conditions on Indigenous

  12. Intergenerational educational mobility is associated with cardiovascular disease risk behaviours in a cohort of young Australian adults: The Childhood Determinants of Adult Health (CDAH Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwyer Terence

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although educational disparity has been linked to single risk behaviours, it has not previously been studied as a predictor of overall lifestyle. We examined if current education, parental education or educational mobility between generations was associated with healthy lifestyles in young Australian adults. Methods In 2004-06, participant and parental education (high [bachelor degree or higher], intermediate [vocational training], low [secondary school only] were assessed. Educational mobility was defined as: stable high (participant and parent in high group, stable intermediate (participant and parent in intermediate group, stable low (participant and parent in low group, downwardly (lower group than parent and upwardly (higher group than parent mobile. We derived a lifestyle score from 10 healthy behaviours (BMI, non-smoking, alcohol consumption, leisure time physical activity and six components of diet. Scores >4 indicated a high healthy lifestyle score. We estimated the likelihood of having a high healthy lifestyle score by education (participant and parent and educational mobility. Results Complete data were available for 1973 participants (53% female, age range 26 to 36 years. Those with lower education were less likely to have healthy lifestyles. Parental education was not associated with having a high healthy lifestyle score after adjustment for participant's education. Those who moved upward or downward were as likely to have a high healthy lifestyle score as those in the group they attained. Conclusions We found clear disparities in health behaviour by participant education and intergenerational educational mobility. People attaining a higher level of education than their parents appeared protected from developing an unhealthy lifestyle suggesting that population-wide improvements in education may be important for health.

  13. Developmental trajectories of adolescent cannabis use and their relationship to young adult social and behavioural adjustment: A longitudinal study of Australian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Evans-Whipp, Tracy J; Toumbourou, John W; Patton, George C

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to identify distinct developmental trajectories (sub-groups of individuals who showed similar longitudinal patterns) of cannabis use among Australian adolescents, and to examine associations between trajectory group membership and measures of social and behavioural adjustment in young adulthood. Participants (n=852, 53% female) were part of the International Youth Development Study. Latent class growth analysis was used to identify distinct trajectories of cannabis use frequency from average ages 12 to 19, across 6 waves of data. Logistic regression analyses and analyses of covariance were used to examine relationships between trajectory group membership and young adult (average age: 21) adjustment, controlling for a range of covariates. Three trajectories were identified: abstainers (62%), early onset users (11%), and late onset occasional users (27%). The early onset users showed a higher frequency of antisocial behaviour, violence, cannabis use, cannabis-related harms, cigarette use, and alcohol harms, compared to the abstinent group in young adulthood. The late onset occasional users reported a higher frequency of cannabis use, cannabis-related harms, illicit drug use, and alcohol harms, compared to the abstinent group in young adulthood. There were no differences between the trajectory groups on measures of employment, school completion, post-secondary education, income, depression/anxiety, or alcohol use problems. In conclusion, early onset of cannabis use, even at relatively low frequency during adolescence, is associated with poorer adjustment in young adulthood. Prevention and intervention efforts to delay or prevent uptake of cannabis use should be particularly focussed on early adolescence prior to age 12. PMID:26414206

  14. Young Adult Smoking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Pamela M.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Young adults have the highest smoking rate of any age group in the U.S., and new strategies to decrease young adult smoking are needed. The objective of the current study was to identify psychographic and demographic factors associated with current smoking and quitting behaviors among young adults. Methods Attitudes, social groups, and self-descriptors, including supporting action against the tobacco industry, advertising receptivity, depression, alcohol use, and other factors associated with smoking were tested for associations with smoking behaviors in a 2005 cross-sectional survey of 1528 young adults (aged 18–25 years) from a web-enabled panel. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Results Being older was associated with current smoking, whereas having some higher education and being African American or Hispanic were negatively associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was negatively associated with smoking (AOR=0.34 [95% CI=0.22, 0.52]). Perceived usefulness of smoking, exposure to smokers, increased perceived smoking prevalence, receptivity to tobacco advertising, binge drinking, and exposure to tobacco advertising in bars and clubs were associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was associated with intentions to quit smoking (AOR= 4.43 [95% CI=2.18, 8.60]). Conclusions Young adults are vulnerable to tobacco-industry advertising. Media campaigns that denormalize the tobacco industry and appeal to young adults appear to be a powerful intervention to decrease young adult smoking. PMID:19269128

  15. Leaving Home: What Economics Has to Say about the Living Arrangements of Young Australians

    OpenAIRE

    Cobb-Clark, Deborah A.

    2008-01-01

    Like their counterparts elsewhere, more young Australians than ever are delaying the move to establish residential independence from their parents. This paper reviews the developing economics literature surrounding young people’s decisions to continue living in their parents’ homes in order to begin to assess the causes and consequences of this decision. In particular, co-residence with parents appears to be an important form of intergenerational support for young adults. It is important to u...

  16. Are Young Muslims Adopting Australian Values?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Nahid Afrose

    2008-01-01

    Recently politicians in Australia have raised concerns that some Muslims are not adopting Australian values to a sufficient extent. In this paper I explore the notion of Australian values with respect to immigrant youth. By analysing interviews with 32 Muslim students who are 15-18 years of age and of diverse backgrounds in two state schools in…

  17. Adult Cancers in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurence, Valérie; Marples, Maria; Stark, Daniel P

    2016-01-01

    The pattern of cancer seen in young people changes with increasing age, transitioning from childhood- to adult-type cancer in adolescence and the third decade. The risk factors, presentation and biology of cancer in young adults differ from those in the older adult population. Factors of particular significance in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) include genetic predisposition to adult-type cancer, diagnostic uncertainty, long-term morbidity and considerations of fertility. New systemic therapies are being introduced that can prolong life and even increase the chance of cure, but the impact on AYAs is uncertain, as these patients are often under-represented in clinical trials. Here, we discuss the management of AYAs with 3 of the most common cancers affecting adults, when they emerge in the AYA populations, and therefore are currently met by medical oncologists - breast cancer, colorectal cancer and melanoma. PMID:27595357

  18. Cannabis and Anxiety and Depression in Young Adults: A Large Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayatbakhsh, Mohammad R.; Najman, Jake M.; Jamrozik, Konrad; Mamun, Abdullah A.; Alati, Rosa; Bor, William

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether age of first use or frequency of use of cannabis is associated with anxiety and depression (AD) in young adults, independent of known potential confounders, including the use of other illicit drugs. Method: A cohort of 3,239 Australian young adults was followed from birth to the age of 21 when data on AD were obtained…

  19. Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Quiz Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Types of Cancers ... Fund for Young Adults Vital Options Teens and Adolescents CureSearch Starlight Children's Foundation Teens Living with Cancer ...

  20. Guiding young adults at risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Karen Egedal; Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær; Ydesen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    in the project and by the youths participating in the project. The project was designed to facilitate and support transition to an adult life by giving participants social support, feedback, experiences, room for reflection and feeling of acceptance and inclusion. In Denmark all social work with young people...

  1. Arnold Hely and Australian Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Arnold Hely (1907-1967) was a most significant figure in the history of adult education in New Zealand, in Australia and internationally. Arnold Hely, a New Zealander, Director of Tutorial Classes (later Adult Education) at the University of Adelaide from 1957 to 1965, was the prime mover in the establishment in 1964 of the Asian South Pacific…

  2. Strokes in young adults: epidemiology and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smajlović D

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Dževdet Smajlović Department of Neurology, University Clinical Centre Tuzla, School of Medicine, University of Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina Abstract: Strokes in young adults are reported as being uncommon, comprising 10%–15% of all stroke patients. However, compared with stroke in older adults, stroke in the young has a disproportionately large economic impact by leaving victims disabled before their most productive years. Recent publications report an increased incidence of stroke in young adults. This is important given the fact that younger stroke patients have a clearly increased risk of death compared with the general population. The prevalence of standard modifiable vascular risk factors in young stroke patients is different from that in older patients. Modifiable risk factors for stroke, such as dyslipidemia, smoking, and hypertension, are highly prevalent in the young stroke population, with no significant difference in geographic, climatic, nutritional, lifestyle, or genetic diversity. The list of potential stroke etiologies among young adults is extensive. Strokes of undetermined and of other determined etiology are the most common types among young patients according to TOAST (Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment criteria. Prevention is the primary treatment strategy aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality related to stroke. Therefore, primary prevention is very important with regard to stroke in young adults, and aggressive treatment of risk factors for stroke, such as hypertension, smoking, and dyslipidemia, is essential. The best form of secondary stroke prevention is directed toward stroke etiology as well as treatment of additional risk factors. However, there is a lack of specific recommendations and guidelines for stroke management in young adults. In conclusion, strokes in young adults are a major public health problem and further research, with standardized methodology, is needed in order to give us more

  3. [Cerebral ischemia in young adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlit, P; Endemann, B; Vetter, P

    1991-08-01

    An overview is given over etiology and prognosis of cerebral ischemias until the age of 40. In a time period of 19 years, 168 patients were diagnosed with cerebral ischemia until the age of 40 (91 females, 77 males). The most frequent etiology is premature atherosclerosis in patients with vascular risk factors (up to 50%). Cardiogenic embolism is responsible for 1 to 34% of the cases: cardiac valve diseases and endocarditis being the most frequent sources. In 2 to 19% a vasculitis is diagnosed. While infectious arteritis is especially frequent in countries of the third world, immunovasculitides are common in Europe and the USA. Noninflammatory vasculopathies include spontaneous or traumatic dissection, fibromuscular dysplasia and vascular malformations. A migrainous stroke is especially frequent in female smokers with intake of oral contraceptives. During pregnancy both sinus thrombosis and arterial ischemia occur. Hematologic causes for ischemia are polycythemia, thrombocytosis and genetic diseases (sickle cell anemia, AT3-deficiency). Cerebral ischemia may occur in connection with the ingestion of ergot-derivates. The prognosis of cerebral ischemia in young adults is better than in older stroke-patients. PMID:1937340

  4. Young adults' reactions to infant crying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hechler, C.H.; Beijers, R.; Weerth, C. de

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether young childless adults show negative emotions and cognitive disturbances when listening to infant crying, compared to other disturbing noises, and whether negative emotions and cognitive disturbances are associated. METHODS: We tested the cognitive performances and emotiona

  5. Communicating with young adults with cystic fibrosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, A. K.

    1995-01-01

    The care of the young adult with cystic fibrosis is complex, requiring a multidisciplinary input from different carers. Communication with and education of patients covers many areas; topics may include medical and personal problems, transplantation, survival, current scientific breakthroughs and the future. Communicating in these areas with knowledgeable young adults requires skill, tact and self-education upon the part of the cystic fibrosis team.

  6. Emotion Regulation and Impulsivity in Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Schreiber, Liana R.N.; Grant, Jon E.; Odlaug, Brian L.

    2012-01-01

    Past research has linked both emotion regulation and impulsivity with the development and maintenance of addictions. However, no research has investigated the relationship between emotion regulation and impulsivity within young adults. In the present study, we analyzed 194 young adults (27.8% female; 21.3 ± 3.32 years old; 91.8% single; 85.1% Caucasian), grouping them as low, average, or high emotionally dysregulated, and compared self-reported impulsivity, impulsive behavio...

  7. Strokes in young adults: epidemiology and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Smajlović D

    2015-01-01

    Dževdet Smajlović Department of Neurology, University Clinical Centre Tuzla, School of Medicine, University of Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina Abstract: Strokes in young adults are reported as being uncommon, comprising 10%–15% of all stroke patients. However, compared with stroke in older adults, stroke in the young has a disproportionately large economic impact by leaving victims disabled before their most productive years. Recent publications report an increased incidence of str...

  8. Increasing Employment Opportunities for Disadvantaged Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Farhana; Terwelp, Emily

    2015-01-01

    In the past four decades, profound changes in the U.S. economy--including falling wages, widening inequality, and the polarization of jobs at the top and bottom of the education and wage distributions--have had dramatic implications for the labor-market fortunes of young adults. Only about half of young people ages 16 to 24 held jobs in 2014, and…

  9. The incidence of melanoma is increasing in the susceptible young Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, Douglas

    2014-09-01

    The number of melanomas removed from Australians is increasing. Despite this, it has been reported that the incidence of melanoma is decreasing in the young Australian population. However, the denominator for these estimates includes individuals at low risk of melanoma, and the proportion of such individuals has changed over recent decades due to immigration. In this study, the incidence was calculated for the susceptible young population. Data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics were analysed to determine the number of people younger than 30 years at low risk of developing melanoma in 1982 and 2009. Low risk people were defined as those born in Asia, the Pacific Islands, The Middle East, or Sub-Saharan Africa, or had parents born in these regions. There was a significant increase in the number of young Australians at low risk for melanoma. If these people are not included when calculating the crude rate of melanoma, the rate increased from 5.9 per 100,000 in 1982 to 6.3 in 2009. If the estimated number of young Maoris and young Aborigines is excluded from the susceptible population, the crude rate increased from 6.0 per 100,000 in 1982 to 6.8 in 2009. This is the first calculation of the rate of melanoma for the susceptible young Australian population. PMID:24889972

  10. Australian Vocational Education and Training Statistics: Young People in Education and Training, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Australian education and training system offers a range of options for young people. This publication provides a summary of the statistics relating to young people aged 15 to 19 years who participated in an education and training activity during 2011. Information on participation is presented for VET in Schools students, school students,…

  11. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Oral HPV Infection in Young Australians

    OpenAIRE

    Antonsson, Annika; Cornford, Michelle; Perry, Susan; Davis, Marcia; Dunne, Michael P.; Whiteman, David C.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV)–associated head and neck cancers is increasing, but the prevalence of oral HPV infection in the wider community remains unknown. We sought to determine the prevalence of, and identify risk factors for, oral HPV infection in a sample of young, healthy Australians. For this study, we recruited 307 Australian university students (18–35 years). Participants reported anonymously about basic characteristics, sexual behaviour, and alcohol, tobacco and ill...

  12. Psychopathology in adolescents and young adults : prediction, course and prevalence

    OpenAIRE

    Ferdinand, Robert

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThis manuscript contains results of an epidemiological study of psychopathology in adolescents and young adults. The first aim of the study was to determine the development of psychopathology from adolescence into young adulthood. The second aim was to validate recently developed' procedures to assess psychopathology in young adults. The third aim was to assess the prevalence of psychopathology in young adults.

  13. Simulation Frames: Young Adult Dystopian Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Tedman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the ways in which Young Adult dystopian film Divergent (2014 successfully repurposes dystopia for a young demographic, making dystopia an aesthetically appealing space for heroic adventure. The film recombines Young Adult literary tropes with film conventions including those of science fiction. Divergent and other Young Adult dystopian films modify the potential for social critique associated with canonic dystopian fiction. The article’s critical framework includes theories of dystopia and of Young Adult dystopian literature, the Freudian uncanny, studies of the post-apocalyptic film city and new media theory. In Divergent, the dystopian division of society into factions is made enjoyable through production design, particularly in ‘Dauntless’, the faction joined by heroine Tris. This extends to transmedia marketing. The book’s violence is reduced to increase audience engagement, while lack of contextual detail precludes a critical dystopia. In Divergent, the spaces and ideologies of the post-apocalyptic film city are reframed as youth culture. Chicago is gamified, connoting an adventure playground. The space of the Dauntless ‘Pit’ offers symbolic rebirth, community and romance, yet its appeal is uncanny, as with communal spaces in The Host (2013 and The Maze Runner (2014. Divergent’s mirror simulation foregrounds spectacle but other simulations construct immediacy, appearing dream-like not immersive. Like the visions in Young Adult dystopian adaptations How I Live Now (2013 and Ender’s Game (2013, simulations convey individual awareness and supernatural communication. The film combines pleasurable classification and a divergence motif with its heroine’s development, revising dystopian cinematic space. Divergent represents a new form of dystopian cinema.

  14. Airflow obstruction in young adults in Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Hazmi, Manal; Wooldrage, Kate; Anthonisen, Nicholas R.;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Airflow obstruction is relatively uncommon in young adults, and may indicate potential for the development of progressive disease. The objective of the present study was to enumerate and characterize airflow obstruction in a random sample of Canadians aged 20 to 44 years. SETTING: The ...

  15. Snapshot of Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of cancer, AYA cancer survivors have excess medical expenditures greater than $3,000 per person and excess annual productivity losses greater than $2,000 per person. [PubMed Abstract] Additional Resources for AYA Cancers NCI Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Portal Information about cancer in ...

  16. Iron Deficiency in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, William L.; Risser, Jan M. H.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews the prevalence, natural history, causes, impact on performance, diagnosis, and treatment of iron deficiency in adolescent and young adult athletes. All athletes should be screened and treated. The best diagnosis involves determining serum ferritin and hemoglobin levels. Treatment requires therapeutic doses of oral ferrous iron for several…

  17. Radiation nephropathy in young and adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of bilateral kidney irradiation were compared in young and adult rats. During a 1 year period after a single dose of 0, 7.5, 10, 12.5, or 15 Gy on both kidneys, renal function (glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow), urine composition, and systolic blood pressure were measured periodically. The first changes after irradiation were observed in the glomerular filtration rate and urine osmolality. One month after 10, 12.5, and 15 Gy, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urine osmolality had declined below control values in the young rats. After this initial decline, renal function increased at control rate or even more during the third and fourth month after irradiation but decreased progressively thereafter. In the adult rats, GFR and urine osmolality started to decrease 3 months after 10, 12.5, and 15 Gy. A rise in systolic blood pressure and proteinuria started 2-3 months after 12.5 and 15 Gy in both age groups. Early changes in the glomerular filtration rate with a drop in urine osmolality in young rats, occurring during a period of rapid renal development indicated an irradiation-induced inhibition of glomerular and tubular development. Although renal function deteriorated at a later time in adult rats, dose-response relationships obtained in young and adult rats did not show significant differences

  18. Classic Readers Theatre for Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchers, Suzanne I.; Kroll, Jennifer L.

    This book presents 16 original scripts that have been adapted from classic works of literature for use for readers theatre with young adults and ESL (English as a Second Language) students. Adaptations of the following works are included: "Little Women" (Louisa May Alcott); episodes from "Don Quixote" (Miguel de Cervantes; "The Necklace" (Guy de…

  19. Functional Performance in Young Australian Children with Achondroplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Penelope Jane; McGill, James; Zankl, Andreas; Ware, Robert S.; Pacey, Verity; Ault, Jenny; Savarirayan, Ravi; Sillence, David; Thompson, Elizabeth M.; Townshend, Sharron; Johnston, Leanne Marie

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine population-specific developmental milestones for independence in self-care, mobility, and social cognitive skills in children with achondroplasia, the most common skeletal dysplasia. Methods: Population-based recruitment from October 2008 to October 2010 identified 44 Australian children with…

  20. The consumer competence of young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice

    2007-01-01

    , particularly with respect to how new, complex buying decisions are managed. Findings Guidance from family and friends was found to be of major significance as regards complex consumer decisions made in the transition period from home to first household. The young adults did not display very high levels......Purpose The consumer competence concept is loaded with ambiguity in the academic as well as in the public use of the term. The purpose of this paper was to examine the concept theoretically and empirically. Methodology/Approach Consumer socialization theories were compared and combined...... for the theoretical background, and a mixed-methods methodology was applied for the empirical part. The study included young adults aged 18-25, who had recently established their first household. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to explore the way in which young consumers establish their first household...

  1. 2010 YALSA Fabulous Films and Amazing Audiobooks for Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Library Journal, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA), a division of the American Library Association (ALA), announced its 2010 annual lists of Fabulous Films for Young Adults and Amazing Audiobooks for Young Adults ages 12 to 18. This article presents the list of titles that were released in January 2010 during the ALA Midwinter Meeting in Boston,…

  2. 2009 YALSA Fabulous Films & Amazing Audiobooks for Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Library Journal, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA), a division of the American Library Association (ALA), announced its 2009 annual lists of Fabulous Films for Young Adults and Amazing Audiobooks for Young Adults ages 12 to 18. This article presents the titles that were released in January 2009 during the ALA Midwinter Meeting in Denver,…

  3. Financial Literacy of Young Adults: The Importance of Parental Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Bryce L.; Savla, Jyoti

    2010-01-01

    This article tests a conceptual model of perceived parental influence on the financial literacy of young adults. Structural equation modeling was used to test whether (a) parents were perceived to influence young adults' financial knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors and (b) the degree to which young adults' financial attitudes mediated financial…

  4. Time for National Renewal: Australian adult literacy and numeracy as ‘foundation skills’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Black

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Those working in the field of adult literacy and numeracy are currently anticipating changes in the near future as the federal government has flagged the development of a National Foundation Skills Strategy (Australian Government 2010. ‘Foundation skills’ is a term that has recently been suggested as a way of simplifying discussions about literacy and numeracy (Perkins 2009:8, and it has gained traction in various Australian national policy environments (e.g. Gillard 2009, Council of Australian Governments [COAG] Reform Council 2009, Australian Government 2010. Foundation skills appears to encapsulate adult language, literacy and numeracy, and more broadly, it may also include so-called employability skills such as communication and teamwork (Roberts and Wignall 2010:1. In this paper, our main focus is on the adult literacy and numeracy dimensions of what is needed in the policy renewal.

  5. Sunscreen Purchase Intention amongst Young Moroccan Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine Bachleda; Ahlam Fakhar; Laila Hlimi

    2012-01-01

    Employing structural equation modeling and an extended theory of planned behaviour (TPB) incorporating the additional influence of price perception as a conceptual framework, this paper explored the determinants of sunscreen purchase intention for young Moroccan adults. Consistent with the TPB, results confirmed the importance of subjective norms, attitude and perceived control in shaping sunscreen purchase intention. However, contrary to assumptions price was not found to be a significant fa...

  6. Reproductive health of adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Reşit Ersay

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In Turkey, one out of five person belonging to 10-24 age group, is at risk concerning reproductive health. Topics related to the reproductive health, are neither discussed within the family or society, nor within the educational system. Adolescents, who have to experience sexual intercourse with insufficient and incorrect knowledge, have to face with sexually transmitted diseases (STD, teenage pregnancy, abortion and other problems as a consequence of this experience. Research on this area has showed that both adolescents and young adults, especially health personnel, requested training on reproductive health. In terms of planning health services effectively, these topics should be evaluated carefully in Turkey. In this research, reproductive health regarding adolescents and young adults is examined under the four headings of sexual experience, STD, use of protection and productivity. As a result, depending on all the cultural restrictions and health service limitations, it is observed that adolescents and young adults experience sexual relationship with an inadequate knowledge and consequently, they have to face with problems. Within this context, it is suggested to expand the reproductive health educational programmes involving family, school and society within long term.

  7. Improving Work Participation of Young Adults with Physical Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoef, Joan

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis addresses the work participation of young adults with physical disabilities caused by a chronic condition. With increasing numbers of young people with a chronic physical condition living into adulthood, knowledge about the development of work participation in these young adults and the support they need to achieve suitable employment is needed. Interventions to improve the work participation of young adults with physical disabilities were lacking. The...

  8. Social Participation Among Young Adults with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Orsmond, Gael I.; Shattuck, Paul T.; Cooper, Benjamin P.; Sterzing, Paul R.; Anderson, Kristy A.

    2013-01-01

    Investigating social participation of young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is important given the increasing number of youth aging into young adulthood. Social participation is an indicator of life quality and overall functioning. Using data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2, we examined rates of participation in social activities among young adults who received special education services for autism (ASD group), compared to young adults who received special educ...

  9. Demographic Demise: The Declining Young Adult Population in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittell, Ross

    2007-01-01

    Young adult workers provide businesses with the dynamic labor force and fresh ideas they need to innovate and grow. With their contributions to cultural, intellectual and social life, young adults also make New England a vibrant and interesting place to live. Young families support local schools and demand a strong educational system. Yet New…

  10. Preventing Tobacco Use Among Youth and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... youth and young adults by focusing on the social, environmental, advertising, and marketing influences that encourage youth and young adults to ... cancer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Why Young People Use Tobacco. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Social ... youth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Retail marketing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Using media to promote products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 What ...

  11. Lost Talent? The Occupational Ambitions and Attainments of Young Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Joanna; Saha, Lawrence J.

    2011-01-01

    Given ongoing interest in increasing productivity and participation in the workforce, understanding when talent is lost is a useful exercise. The term "lost talent" describes the underutilisation or wastage of human potential. Focusing on young people, Sikora and Saha define lost talent as occurring when students in the top 50% of academic…

  12. Does Vocational Training Matter for Young Adults in the Labour Market?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Asa; Skarlind, Anders

    2005-01-01

    The impact of vocational training on employment and income is investigated for young adults. Young adults without further education and training are compared to young adults with two-years and young adults with three-years of vocational training. The sample consists of 41 000 Swedish young adults born in 1974. The employment of these young adults…

  13. Acute Brucellosis in a young adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girija Subramanian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease primarily affecting cattle, goats, sheep and other animals occasionally transmitted to man. The clinical manifestations are protean and often missed. A case of acute brucellosis in a young adult male who presented primarily with loss of weight, malaise, fatigue and with no known risk factors is reported here. Brucella melitensis was isolated from blood culture and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Brucella IgM antibodies were detected by ELISA test and the patient was treated successfully with injection Amikacin for two weeks and oral Doxycycline for a period of six weeks.

  14. Sunscreen Purchase Intention amongst Young Moroccan Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Bachleda

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Employing structural equation modeling and an extended theory of planned behaviour (TPB incorporating the additional influence of price perception as a conceptual framework, this paper explored the determinants of sunscreen purchase intention for young Moroccan adults. Consistent with the TPB, results confirmed the importance of subjective norms, attitude and perceived control in shaping sunscreen purchase intention. However, contrary to assumptions price was not found to be a significant factor in sunscreen purchase intention. Results of this study support the application of the TPB in the sunscreen purchase context and highlight the importance of using its constructs over price in the development of effective marketing campaigns.

  15. Young Adult Literature in the Malaysian Secondary School

    OpenAIRE

    Mallika V Govindarajoo; Jayakaran Mukundan

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study on the experience of the Malaysian secondary school student with Young Adult Literature in the English language classroom. The study aimed to determine the extent to which the Malaysian secondary school student identified with the young adult protagonists and issues in the novelswhich have been prescribed as literary texts in the English language classroom. As the study required in-depth knowledge of young adult students’ ‘essence of experience’ in...

  16. Factors associated with substance use among homeless young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez, Rebecca; Thompson, Sanna J.; Barczyk, Amanda N.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate factors associated with substance use among homeless young adults. Multinomial logistic regression analyses examined the influence of social networks and economic factors among a group of homeless young adults with differing levels of alcohol and drug use. In addition, for those with an alcohol use disorder the role of future time expectancies was examined. A sample (n=185) of homeless young adults aged 18-23 were recruited from a community drop-in...

  17. The changing determinants of UK young adults' living arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Juliet Stone; Ann Berrington; Jane Falkingham

    2011-01-01

    The postponement of partnership formation and parenthood in the context of an early average age at leaving home has resulted in increased heterogeneity in the living arrangements of young adults in the UK. More young adults now remain in the parental home, or live independently of the parental home but outside of a family. The extent to which these trends are explained by the increased immigration of foreign-born young adults, the expansion in higher education, and the increased economic inse...

  18. The changing living arrangements of young adults in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, Juliet; Berrington, Ann; Falkingham, Jane

    2009-01-01

    More young adults in the UK now remain in the parental home, or live independently outside a family. This research, published in Demographic Research, examines for the period 1998-2008, the extent to which these trends are explained by increased immigration of foreign-born young adults, expansion in higher education and increased economic insecurity faced by young adults. The findings suggest that shared non-family living is particularly prominent among those with experience of higher educati...

  19. On the Use of Natural Elements in Young Adult Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴嘉萱

    2014-01-01

    As a reading group,young adults are specially targeted to make them grow healthily.Generally speaking,the moral sense of young adult literature is positive.To explore the outlook on nature of young adult literature,this paper selects four books as analyzing sources including Charlotte’s Web(1952),A Day No Pigs Would Die(1972),Julie of the Wolves(1972),and Homecoming(1981).

  20. YOUNG ADULT PERCEPTION AND ATTITUDE TOWARD CONSPICUOUS CONSUMPTION AND POVERTY

    OpenAIRE

    Toni Yvette Sims-Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the perception and attitude of young adults toward conspicuous consumption portrayed in mass media and their conception of poverty. Many young adults may not realize the cadre of consumerist ideologies portrayed throughout the culture and mass media such as buy more, buy newer and improved, buy wants over needs, buy comparatively, buy exclusively and buy to prove. In light of such mass media portrayal, young adult consumption habits may reflect unrealistic ideas about what...

  1. Cannabis Use and Related Harms in the Transition to Young Adulthood: A Longitudinal Study of Australian Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Patton, George C.; Toumbourou, John W.

    2013-01-01

    The current study documents the changing rates of cannabis use, misuse and cannabis-related social harms among Australian adolescents as they grow into young adulthood. It utilised data from a longitudinal study of young people at ages 15, 16, 17, and 19. The rates of cannabis use were found to increase as participants aged; past year use…

  2. Lymphoma in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugières, Laurence; Brice, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    Lymphomas are one of the commonest malignancies in adolescents and young adults (AYA) accounting respectively for 22% of all cancers in patients aged 15-24 years (16% for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and 6% for non-HL (NHL)). The distribution of NHL subtypes in this age group differs strikingly from the distribution in children and in older adults with 4 main subtypes accounting for the majority of the cases: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) including primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma, lymphoblastic lymphoma or anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Age-related differences in tumor biology have been demonstrated mainly in DLBCL but there is still a need for biological studies to better understand age-related differences in this age group. AYA patients currently diagnosed with HL and NHL have 5-year survival expectations exceeding 90 and 75%, respectively. Different therapeutic strategies are often used in children and adult lymphoma and the dispersion of lymphoma care between adult and pediatric hematologist-oncologists results in heterogeneous strategies for each subgroup according to age. The impact of these different strategies on outcomes is not easy to evaluate given the paucity of population-based data focused on this age group, taking into account tumor biology and the lack of a uniform staging system. Given the excellent results obtained with current therapies, the challenge now is to develop strategies aimed at reducing acute and long-term toxicity in most patients while maintaining high cure rates and to identify patients at high risk of failure requiring new strategies including more selective targeted therapies. PMID:27595360

  3. Communicating about Loss: Experiences of Older Australian Adults with Cerebral Palsy and Complex Communication Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dark, Leigha; Balandin, Susan; Clemson, Lindy

    2011-01-01

    Loss and grief is a universal human experience, yet little is known about how older adults with a lifelong disability, such as cerebral palsy, and complex communication needs (CCN) experience loss and manage the grieving process. In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 Australian participants with cerebral palsy and CCN to determine the types…

  4. Family therapy with single, young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, J

    1981-01-01

    Family therapy with the single, young adult can be successfully carried out using the Bowen family systems theory when the process is staged over time. The therapist who has gone back into his or her own family of origin can be of greatest help as a "coach" to the client in this ongoing process. The therapist assists the client in a process of orderly differentiation that enables the client to develop a more solid sense of self. Reactive distance and emotional cut-offs are modified as solutions to anxiety. More personal, flexible family, peer, and work relationships are promoted. The client's initial presenting problems diminish as he/she comes to terms with his/her ultimate aloneness and self-responsibility, and begins to accept family members as they are and relationships with them for what they can be. PMID:6917974

  5. Adolescents and Young Adults Mates Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Martina Casullo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The study sought to identify the relation between gender and age on mate pre- ferences using an intentional sample drawn in Buenos Aires city and its suburban area. A questionnaire adapted from a previous study developed by D.Buss (1990 requested subjects to rank each of 19 characteristics on its desirability in a mate. Subjects for this study were 900 adolescents and young adults aging 13 to 30 years old. Means and standard deviations were calculated as well as Spearman ́s Rho coefficients. High correlations between gender, age, and ordering were found. Mutual attraction and love, kindness and understanding and trust are cho- sen as the most important criteria. Phisically attractive is important for younger males. Similar political and religious background as well as chastity are conside- red among the less important criteria. 

  6. Identifying effective healthy weight and lifestyle advertisements: Focus groups with Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Helen; Murphy, Michael; Scully, Maree; Rose, Mischa; Cotter, Trish

    2016-08-01

    This study explored adult's attitudes and reactions to a range of television advertisements (ads) promoting healthy weight, physical activity and healthy eating. Twenty-four focus groups (N = 179) were conducted in metropolitan and regional areas of the Australian states of Victoria, New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, with participants segmented by sex, education (no tertiary, at least some tertiary) and life stage (young adults, parents). Each group was assigned to one of the three advertising streams - Weight, Activity, or Nutrition - where responses to five different ads were explored using semi-structured, moderator-led discussions. Discussion transcripts were qualitatively content analysed using a conventional approach. Four main themes were identified in participants' discussions about the ads' main messages - (i) Why is it a problem? (ii) Who is it a problem for? (iii) What should I do about it? (iv) How do I make the changes? Reactions varied by demographic factors and current weight and lifestyle status. Participants furthest from achieving public health recommendations for weight, diet and activity were motivated by 'what' and 'how' ads involving gentle persuasion and helpful hints. Participants who were closer to meeting these recommendations were motivated by 'why' ads featuring more graphic and emotive content and new information. Findings suggest a strategic approach is important for the development of public health ads promoting healthy weight and lifestyle, with consideration given to the specific communication goals and who the target audience is. This should help ensure an appropriate message is delivered to priority population subgroups in the most informative and motivating manner. PMID:27079189

  7. Economic Socialization, Saving and Assets in European Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webley, Paul; Nyhus, Ellen K.

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the role economic socialization plays in the economic behavior and asset accumulation of young adults by parents using data from European young adults and teenagers. We study the role of four distinct strands of economic socialization (providing pocket money, jobs at home, work for others, and parental encouragement) using a Dutch…

  8. Perceptions of Resiliency and Coping: Homeless Young Adults Speak Out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sanna J.; Ryan, Tiffany N.; Montgomery, Katherine L.; Lippman, Angie Del Prado; Bender, Kimberly; Ferguson, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the perceptions of resilience and coping among homeless young adults, a focus that differs from previous research by considering the unconventional resilience and coping of this high-risk population. Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 45 homeless young adults. Individual interviews were audio recorded,…

  9. Dental Care among Young Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancherla, Vijaya; Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2013-01-01

    Dental care among young adults with intellectual disability (ID) is poorly documented and largely unmet. By using population-based data from the Metropolitan Atlanta Developmental Disabilities Follow-Up Study, we assessed factors associated with at least one or two dental visits per year among young adults with and without ID. Significantly fewer…

  10. Risky Sex Behavior and Substance Use among Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staton, Michele; Leukefeld, Carl; Logan, T. K.; Zimmerman, Rick; Lynam, Donald; Milich, Richard; Martin, Catherine; McClanahan, Karen; Clayton, Richard

    1999-01-01

    Examines the relationship between substance use during adolescence and HIV risk behavior among young adults ages 19 to 21 with and without a college education. Results indicate that increased use of alcohol and marijuana at younger ages is related to riskier sexual activity as well as increased use of alcohol and marijuana as young adults.…

  11. Reinforcement Learning in Young Adults with Developmental Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joanna C.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine reinforcement learning (RL) in young adults with developmental language impairment (DLI) within the context of a neurocomputational model of the basal ganglia-dopamine system (Frank, Seeberger, & O'Reilly, 2004). Two groups of young adults, one with DLI and the other without, were recruited. A probabilistic…

  12. Herbal medicine use behaviour in Australian adults who experience anxiety: a descriptive study

    OpenAIRE

    McIntyre, Erica; Anthony J. Saliba; Wiener, Karl K.; Sarris, Jerome

    2016-01-01

    Background Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent mental health condition in Australia. In addition, there are many people who experience problematic anxiety symptoms who do not receive an anxiety disorder diagnosis but require treatment. As herbal medicine use is popular in Australia, and little is known about how adults experiencing anxiety are using these medicines, this study aimed to identify how Australian adults who experience anxiety are using herbal medicines. Methods An online cro...

  13. Incorporating health literacy in education for socially disadvantaged adults: an Australian feasibility study

    OpenAIRE

    Muscat, Danielle M.; Smith, Sian; Dhillon, Haryana M; Morony, Suzanne; Davis, Esther L.; Luxford, Karen; Shepherd, Heather L; Hayen, Andrew; Comings, John; Nutbeam, Don; McCaffery, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Background Adult education institutions have been identified as potential settings to improve health literacy and address the health inequalities that stem from limited health literacy. However, few health literacy interventions have been tested in this setting. Methods Feasibility study for an RCT of the UK Skilled for Health Program adapted for implementation in Australian adult education settings. Implementation at two sites with mixed methods evaluation to examine feasibility, test for ch...

  14. Spatial navigation in young versus older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Gazova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Older age is associated with changes in the brain, including the medial temporal lobe, which may result in mild spatial navigation deficits, especially in allocentric navigation. The aim of the study was to characterize the profile of real-space allocentric (world-centered, hippocampus dependent and egocentric (body-centered, parietal lobe dependent navigation and learning in young vs. older adults, and to assess a possible influence of gender. We recruited healthy participants without cognitive deficits on standard neuropsychological testing, white matter lesions or pronounced hippocampal atrophy: 24 young participants (18-26 years old and 44 older participants stratified as participants 60-70 years old (n=24 and participants 71-84 years old (n=20. All underwent spatial navigation testing in the real-space human analog of the Morris Water Maze, which has the advantage of assessing separately allocentric and egocentric navigation and learning. Of the 8 consecutive trials, trials 2-8 were used to reduce bias by a rebound effect (more dramatic changes in performance between trials 1 and 2 relative to subsequent trials. The participants who were 71-84 years old (p< .001, but not those 60-70 years old, showed deficit in allocentric navigation compared to the young participants. There were no differences in egocentric navigation. All three groups showed spatial learning effect (p´s ≤.01. There were no gender differences in spatial navigation and learning. The linear regression limited to older participants showed linear (β=0.30, p=.045 and quadratic (β=0.30, p=.046 effect of age on allocentric navigation. There was no effect of age on egocentric navigation. These results demonstrate that navigation deficits in older age may be limited to allocentric navigation, whereas egocentric navigation and learning may remain preserved. This specific pattern of spatial navigation impairment may help differentiate normal aging from prodromal Alzheimer

  15. Nutrition Promotion to Prevent Obesity in Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Allman-Farinelli, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    Young adulthood is a vulnerable period for weight gain and the health consequences of becoming obese during this life-stage of serious concern. Some unhealthy dietary habits are typical of young adults in many developed nations encountering the obesity epidemic. These include high sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, lower vegetable intake and greater consumption of foods prepared outside the home including fast foods. Each of these dietary behaviours may place young adults at increased risk...

  16. Six Year Refractive Change among White Children and Young Adults: Evidence for Significant Increase in Myopia among White UK Children

    OpenAIRE

    McCullough, Sara J.; O’Donoghue, Lisa; Saunders, Kathryn J

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine six-year spherical refractive error change among white children and young adults in the UK and evaluate differences in refractive profiles between contemporary Australian children and historical UK data. Design Population-based prospective study. Participants The Northern Ireland Childhood Errors of Refraction (NICER) study Phase 1 examined 1068 children in two cohorts aged 6–7 years and 12–13 years. Prospective data for six-year follow-up (Phase 3) are available for 21...

  17. Using Young Adult Realistic Literature to Help Troubled Teenagers: Something New, Tried and True, and Recommended Nonfiction (Young Adult Literature).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaywell, Joan F.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a seven-step process that uses young adult literature to help teenagers understand and deal with their troubles. Offers brief annotations of five young adult titles in each of nine areas: alienation and identity; divorce; dropouts, delinquency, and gangs; poverty; teenage pregnancy; abused children; alcohol and drugs; homosexuality; and…

  18. Differences between Irish and Australian psychiatric nurses' family-focused practice in adult mental health services

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Grant, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Psychiatric nurses\\' practice with parents who have mental illness, their children and families is an important issue internationally. This study provides a comparison of Irish and Australian psychiatric nurses\\' family-focused practices in adult mental health services. Three hundred and forty three nurses across Ireland and 155 from Australia completed the Family Focused Mental Health Practice Questionnaire. Cross-country comparisons revealed significant differences, in terms of family-focused skill, knowledge, confidence and practice. Australian psychiatric nurses engaged in higher family-focused practice compared to Irish nurses. The comparative differences between countries may be attributable to differences in training, workplace support and policy.

  19. Young Australian Indigenous students' effective engagement in mathematics: the role of language, patterns, and structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Elizabeth; Miller, Jodie

    2013-03-01

    This paper explores the outcomes of the first year of the implementation of a mathematics program ( Representations, oral language and engagement in Mathematics: RoleM) which is framed upon research relating to effectively supporting young Indigenous students' learning. The sample comprised 230 Indigenous students (average age 5.76 years) from 15 schools located across Queensland. The pre-test and post-test results from purposely developed language and mathematics tests indicate that young Indigenous Australian students are very capable learners of mathematics. The results of a multiple regression analysis denoted that their ability to ascertain the structure of patterns and to understand mathematical language were both strong predictors of their success in mathematics, with the latter making the larger contribution.

  20. Adolescent and young adult medicine in Australia and New Zealand: towards specialist accreditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Susan M; Farrant, Bridget; Hall, Anganette; Kennedy, Andrew; Payne, Donald; Steinbeck, Kate; Vogel, Veronica

    2016-08-01

    In Australia and New Zealand, a critical mass of academic and clinical leadership in Adolescent Medicine has helped advance models of clinical services, drive investments in teaching and training, and strengthen research capacity over the past 30 years. There is growing recognition of the importance of influencing the training of adult physicians as well as paediatricians. The Royal Australasian College of Physicians (RACP) is responsible for overseeing all aspects of specialist physician training across the two countries. Following advocacy from adolescent physicians, the RACP is advancing a three-tier strategy to build greater specialist capacity and sustain leadership in adolescent and young adult medicine (AYAM). The first tier of the strategy supports universal training in adolescent and young adult health and medicine for all basic trainees in paediatric and adult medicine through an online training resource. The second and third tiers support advanced training in AYAM for specialist practice, based on an advanced training curriculum that has been approved by the RACP. The second tier is dual training; advanced trainees can undertake 2 years training in AYAM and 2 years training in another area of specialist practice. The third tier consists of 3 years of advanced training in AYAM. The RACP is currently seeking formal recognition from the Australian Government to have AYAM accredited, a process that will be subsequently undertaken in New Zealand. The RACP is expectant that the accreditation of specialist AYAM physicians will promote sustained academic and clinical leadership in AYAM to the benefit of future generations of young Australasians. PMID:26115493

  1. Recruiting online: lessons from a longitudinal survey of contraception and pregnancy intentions of young Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Melissa L; Loxton, Deborah; Wigginton, Britta; Lucke, Jayne C

    2015-05-15

    Recruitment of young people for epidemiologic research remains challenging, with marked decreases in the effectiveness of face-to-face, mail, and telephone recruitment methods. We report on the implementation and feasibility of an innovative and flexible approach used to recruit participants for a longitudinal cohort study about contraceptive use and pregnancy (the Contraceptive Use, Pregnancy Intention, and Decisions (CUPID) Study). Australian women aged 18-23 years were recruited using a range of online, networking, and offline methods, including social media (primarily Facebook (Facebook Inc., Menlo Park, California; http://www.facebook.com)), face-to-face events, distribution of promotional material, and media releases. Over the course of the 1-year recruitment period (beginning in September 2012), a total of 3,795 eligible women were recruited to complete the online survey, at a cost of approximately A$11 per participant. This sample was found to be broadly representative of the Australian population of women aged 18-23 years in terms of demographic characteristics, with the exception of an overrepresentation of tertiary-educated women (88.7% compared with 72.6%). This study demonstrated that although current recruitment strategies are required to be innovative and flexible in order to engage young people in epidemiologic research, representative samples can be achieved online at reasonable cost. PMID:25883155

  2. Anthropometric measurements of Australian Aboriginal adults living in remote areas: comparison with nationally representative findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondalsamy-Chennakesavan, Srinivas; Hoy, Wendy E; Wang, Zhiqiang; Briganti, Esther; Polkinghorne, Kevan; Chadban, Steven; Shaw, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    To compare body size measurements in Australian Aboriginals living in three remote communities in the Northern Territory of Australia with those of the general Australian population. Height, weight, waist and hip circumferences and derivative values of body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), waist-height ratio (WHT), and waist-weight ratios (WWT) of adult Aboriginal volunteers (n = 814), aged 25 to 74 years were compared with participants in the nationally representative 'AusDiab' survey (n = 10,434). The Aboriginal body habitus profiles differed considerably from the Australian profile. When compared to Australian females, Aboriginal females were taller and had lower hip circumference but had higher WC, WHR, WHT, and WWT (P Australian counterparts, Aboriginal males were shorter, had lower body weight, WC, hip circumference, BMI, and WHT but had higher WHR and WWT (P Aboriginal females were classified as overweight and or obese using cutoffs defined by WC and by WHR than by BMI. Aboriginal males were less often overweight and/or obese by BMI than their counterparts, but were significantly more often overweight or obese by WHR. There were significant variations in body size profiles between Aboriginal communities. However, the theme of excess waist measurements relative to their weight was uniform. Aboriginal people had preferential central fat deposition in relation to their overall weight. BMI significantly underestimated overweight and obesity as assessed by waist measurements among Aboriginals. This relationship of preferential central fat deposition to the current epidemic of chronic diseases needs to be explored further. PMID:18203125

  3. Trends in BMI of urban Australian adults, 1980-2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walls, Helen L; Wolfe, Rory; Haby, Michelle M;

    2010-01-01

    . Survey participants were aged 25-64 years and resident in Australian capital cities. BMI was calculated as weight divided by height squared (kg/m2), where weight and height were measured using standard procedures. RESULTS: Mean BMI was higher in 2000 than 1980 in all sex and age groups. The age......-adjusted increase was 1.4 kg/m2 in men and 2.1 kg/m2 in women. The BMI distribution shifted rightwards for all sex and age groups and became increasingly right-skewed. The change between 1980 and 2000 ranged from a decrease of 0.04 kg/m2 at the lower end of the distribution for men aged 25-34 years to an increase...

  4. Life history strategy and young adult substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, George B; Chen, Ching-Chen; Dai, Chia-Liang; Swoboda, Christopher M

    2014-01-01

    This study tested whether life history strategy (LHS) and its intergenerational transmission could explain young adult use of common psychoactive substances. We tested a sequential structural equation model using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. During young adulthood, fast LHS explained 61% of the variance in overall liability for substance use. Faster parent LHS predicted poorer health and lesser alcohol use, greater neuroticism and cigarette smoking, but did not predict fast LHS or overall liability for substance use among young adults. Young adult neuroticism was independent of substance use controlling for fast LHS. The surprising finding of independence between parent and child LHS casts some uncertainty upon the identity of the parent and child LHS variables. Fast LHS may be the primary driver of young adult use of common psychoactive substances. However, it is possible that the young adult fast LHS variable is better defined as young adult mating competition. We discuss our findings in depth, chart out some intriguing new directions for life history research that may clarify the dimensionality of LHS and its mediation of the intergenerational transmission of substance use, and discuss implications for substance abuse prevention and treatment. PMID:25365695

  5. Psychological Distress in Young Adult Males with Atopic Dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Si-Heon; Hur, Jae; Jang, Jae-Yeon; Park, Hae-Sim; Hong, Chang Hyung; Son, Sang Joon; Chang, Ki Jung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The relationship between atopic dermatitis (AD) and psychological distress has been well established for children and adolescents. However, it is unclear whether this relationship exists in young adults. This study aimed to assess the relationship between AD and psychological distress in young male adults in South Korea. A cross-sectional study was conducted using regional conscription data from 2008 to 2012. A dermatologist diagnosed AD based on historical and clinical features, and...

  6. Cognitive Models of HIV Decision-making in Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Kubose, Tate T.; O'Sullivan, Lucia; Patel, Vimla L.

    2002-01-01

    Although studies show that many young adults have high HIV knowledge, the incidence rate of HIV among this population continues to increase. We investigated this discrepancy by using theories and methods from cognitive and decision sciences to develop models of young adults' decision making processes in real-life sexual encounters. We identified several factors influencing decision making, which were unrelated to participants' knowledge of HIV. This poster presents our theoretical framework a...

  7. The Affordable Care Act and implications for young adult health

    OpenAIRE

    Monaghan, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    In the USA, young adults are most likely to be uninsured and least likely to report a usual source of medical care than any age group. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) recognizes the critical need for expanded insurance coverage for this age group, and multiple provisions of the ACA address insurance coverage and health care utilization in young adults. This paper presents a brief overview of the challenges of maintaining health insurance coverage and accessing health care...

  8. RESILIENCE IN IGBO RURAL COMMUNITY ADOLESCENTS AND YOUNG ADULTS

    OpenAIRE

    JohnBosco Chika Chukwuorji; Chukwuedozie K. Ajaero

    2014-01-01

    While involved in organising an empowerment seminar for the Igbo rural youths, the authors investigated resilience among rural adolescents and young adults. Three hundred and twenty nine (329) adolescents (n = 162) and young adults (n = 167), comprising 159 males and 170 females, were participants. They completed the 14-item Resilience scale and provided some relevant demographic information. Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA) was used to test for differences in resilience on account of age, gender...

  9. Facebook, friendship and faith : connecting practices of young adult Christians

    OpenAIRE

    Van Landuyt, Cathryn A.

    2014-01-01

    This research is about practising friendship as a Christian in contemporary contexts. The thesis uses methods of practical theology, explained in the first chapter, to explore three practices that are important to many young adult Christians: Facebook, friendship and faith. In Chapter 2 we attend to descriptions of Facebook and friendship practices of young adult Christians based on qualitative research conducted through fieldwork. Models are developed to organize assumptions and values of th...

  10. From Child to Young Adult, the Brain Changes Its Connections

    OpenAIRE

    Kaustubh Supekar; Mark Musen; Vinod Menon

    2009-01-01

    The ontogeny of large-scale functional organization of the human brain is not well understood. Here we use network analysis of intrinsic functional connectivity to characterize the organization of brain networks in 23 children (ages 7-9 y) and 22 young-adults (ages 19-22 y). Comparison of network properties, including path-length, clustering-coefficient, hierarchy, and regional connectivity, revealed that although children and young-adults' brains have similar "small-world" organization at th...

  11. Attitudes toward Life and Death and Suicidality in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Brenda J.; Range, Lillian M.

    1995-01-01

    Examines attitudes toward life and death, alone and in combination with life events, to determine suicide risk for young adults. Used the Multi-Attitude Suicide Tendency Scale for Adolescents, Life and Death Attitudes Scale, Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire, Death Anxiety Scale, and Life Experiences Survey to measure responses of 140 young adults…

  12. Social Participation among Young Adults with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsmond, Gael I.; Shattuck, Paul T.; Cooper, Benjamin P.; Sterzing, Paul R.; Anderson, Kristy A.

    2013-01-01

    Investigating social participation of young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is important given the increasing number of youth aging into young adulthood. Social participation is an indicator of life quality and overall functioning. Using data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2, we examined rates of participation in…

  13. Growing up with Dyslexia: Interviews with Teenagers and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingesson, S. Gunnel

    2007-01-01

    Interviews with 75 teenagers and young adults were performed to investigate how young people with dyslexia experienced school in terms of well-being, educational achievement, self-esteem, peer relations and belief in their future. Results from earlier studies suggest that secondary emotional problems are common. The first six grades in school were…

  14. Weight-Related Dietary Behaviors in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Partridge, Stephanie R; Roy, Rajshri

    2016-03-01

    The origins of the obesogenic environment date back to the early 1980s. This means that young adults i.e., those aged 18 to 35 years, have only ever experienced a food milieu that promotes obesity. Indeed, younger generations are becoming heavier sooner than their parents in developed countries, such as the USA. Young adults demonstrate food consumption patterns and dietary behaviors implicated in an excessive gain of body fat. They are the highest consumers of fast food and sugar-sweetened beverages among adult age groups and the lowest consumers of fruit and vegetables. Younger adults are meal skippers but may consume more energy from snacks than older adults. So that the gains made in stemming obesity in childhood are not undone during young adulthood, prevention programs are needed. This review highlights areas for consideration in planning such programs. PMID:26811006

  15. Bibliography of Australian Adult Education, 1835-1965.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crew, Vernon

    General works (bibliographies, year books, directories, encyclopedias, periodicals), historical and descriptive surveys and biographical notes, international, national, and state organizations and movements, adult education methods and subject fields, theoretical aspects, service to special clientele groups (women, youth, immigrants, aborigines,…

  16. An Early Mathematical Patterning Assessment: identifying young Australian Indigenous children's patterning skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papic, Marina

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents an Early Mathematical Patterning Assessment (EMPA) tool that provides early childhood educators with a valuable opportunity to identify young children's mathematical thinking and patterning skills through a series of hands-on and drawing tasks. EMPA was administered through one-to-one assessment interviews to children aged 4 to 5 years in the year prior to formal school. Two hundred and seventeen assessments indicated that the young low socioeconomic and predominantly Australian Indigenous children in the study group had varied patterning and counting skills. Three percent of the study group was able to consistently copy and draw an ABABAB pattern made with coloured blocks. Fifty percent could count to six by ones and count out six items with 4 % of the total group able to identify six items presented in regular formations without counting. The integration of patterning into early mathematics learning is critical to the abstraction of mathematical ideas and relationships and to the development of mathematical reasoning in young children. By using the insights into the children's thinking that the EMPA tool provides, early childhood educators can better inform mathematics teaching and learning and so help close the persistent gap in numeracy between Indigenous and non-Indigenous children.

  17. Caffeine Consumption and Sleep Quality in Australian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Emily J; Coates, Alison M; Kohler, Mark; Banks, Siobhan

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine is commonly consumed to help offset fatigue, however, it can have several negative effects on sleep quality and quantity. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between caffeine consumption and sleep quality in adults using a newly validated caffeine food frequency questionnaire (C-FFQ). In this cross sectional study, 80 adults (M ± SD: 38.9 ± 19.3 years) attended the University of South Australia to complete a C-FFQ and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Caffeine consumption remained stable across age groups while the source of caffeine varied. Higher total caffeine consumption was associated with decreased time in bed, as an estimate of sleep time (r = -0.229, p = 0.041), but other PSQI variables were not. Participants who reported poor sleep (PSQI global score ≥ 5) consumed 192.1 ± 122.5 mg (M ± SD) of caffeine which was significantly more than those who reported good sleep quality (PSQI global score caffeine consumption data. The data suggests that shorter sleep is associated with greater caffeine consumption, and that consumption is greater in adults with reduced sleep quality. PMID:27527212

  18. Young Adults in the United States: A Profile

    OpenAIRE

    Rumbaut, RG

    2004-01-01

    What do we know about young adults in the United States? How many young adults are there between the ages of 18 and 34? What are their demographic and socioeconomic characteristics? What percent of them have “completed” any or all of the conventional milestones marking normative transitions into adulthood? How many have left home, finished school, work full time, have been married or had children — and by what age? Does the timing and sequencing of these transitions differ for young men and w...

  19. Mature Young Adult Books Are Given a Bad Reputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Julia

    1998-01-01

    Presents the viewpoints of a tenth grader on novels for young adults that portray troubled teens dealing with alcoholism, drugs, depression, suicide, sexual abuse, and violence. Suggests that contrary to adult opinions that these novels are not always age-appropriate, they in fact broaden teens' outlooks and prepare them for the real world. (LRW)

  20. Financial Dependence of Young Adults with Childhood ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altszuler, Amy R; Page, Timothy F; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Coxe, Stefany; Arrieta, Alejandro; Molina, Brooke S G; Pelham, William E

    2016-08-01

    This study used data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS) to evaluate financial outcomes of young adults (YA) with ADHD relative to comparisons. Participants for this study included 309 individuals who had been diagnosed with ADHD (DSM-III-R or DSM-IV) in childhood and 208 comparison YA without childhood ADHD diagnoses (total N = 517) who were followed through age 25. Participants were predominately male (88 %) and Caucasian (84 %). Diagnostic interviews were conducted in childhood. Young adults and their parents reported on financial outcomes and a number of predictor variables. Young adults with ADHD experienced greater financial dependence on family members (p market outcomes as well as the development of interventions that target the management of personal finances for individuals with ADHD in young adulthood. PMID:26542688

  1. Health insurance status of young adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, M A; Greaney, A M; Newacheck, P W

    1989-10-01

    Sociodemographic and health characteristics of young adults who are uninsured, publicly insured, and privately insured were examined using the 1984 National Health Interview Survey. The results indicated that 26% of 19 to 24-year-old persons had no health insurance protection, 65% were privately insured, 7% were publicly insured, and 1% had both private and public coverage. Young adults at greatest risk for being uninsured were male, Hispanic and black, poor and near-poor, unemployed, high school dropouts, living with others, and residing in the South and West. All young adults predictably lose or change health insurance as they move from dependence to independence. It was concluded that greater use of new and existing transitional insurance options should be offered as well as targeted educational and communication strategies to assure that all young persons enter adulthood with some basic insurance protection. PMID:2780134

  2. Financial Dependence of Young Adults with Childhood ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altszuler, Amy R.; Page, Timothy F.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Coxe, Stefany; Arrieta, Alejandro; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Pelham, William E.

    2016-01-01

    This study used data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS) to evaluate financial outcomes of young adults (YA) with ADHD relative to comparisons. Participants for this study included 309 individuals who had been diagnosed with ADHD (DSM-III-R or DSM-IV) in childhood and 208 comparison YA without childhood ADHD diagnoses (total N=517) who were followed through age 25. Participants were predominately male (88 %) and Caucasian (84 %). Diagnostic interviews were conducted in childhood. Young adults and their parents reported on financial outcomes and a number of predictor variables. Young adults with ADHD experienced greater financial dependence on family members (pfinances for individuals with ADHD in young adulthood. PMID:26542688

  3. Adolescent and young adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Jessica; El-Mallawany, Nader Kim; Abla, Oussama

    2016-05-01

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a heterogeneous group of lymphoid malignancies accounting for a significant portion of cancers occurring in children, adolescents and young adults with an increasing incidence with age. The adolescent and young adult (AYA) population presents a specific set of characteristics and challenges. The most common diseases occurring in adolescents and young adults include Burkitt lymphoma, lymphoblastic lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, anaplastic large cell lymphoma and primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma. There is also a higher incidence of primary central nervous system lymphoma in AYA patients. Cure rates largely depend on risk-stratification, and are generally superior to outcomes in comparison to older adult data but less than in younger children. Here, we review the unique clinical and biological characteristics of NHL occurring in the AYA population with a focus on how to achieve similar curative outcomes in AYA that have been established in younger cohorts. PMID:27071675

  4. Do young adults with bipolar disorder benefit from early intervention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Hansen, Hanne Vibe; Christensen, Ellen Margrethe;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether young adults with bipolar disorder are able to benefit from early intervention combining optimised pharmacological treatment and group psychoeducation. The aim of the present report was to compare the effects of early intervention among patients with bipolar...... disorder aged 18-25 years to that of patients aged 26 years or older. METHODS: Patients were randomised to early treatment in a specialised outpatient mood disorder clinic versus standard care. The primary outcome was risk of psychiatric re-hospitalisation. RESULTS: A total of 158 patients with mania/bipolar...... different, the observed differences of the point estimates was surprisingly larger for young adults suggesting that young adults with bipolar disorder may benefit even more than older adults from early intervention combining pharmacological treatment and group psychoeducation....

  5. Treating young adults with type 2 diabetes or monogenic diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Katharine R

    2016-06-01

    It is increasingly recognised that diabetes in young adults has a wide differential diagnosis. There are many monogenic causes, including monogenic beta-cell dysfunction, mitochondrial diabetes and severe insulin resistance. Type 2 diabetes in the young is becoming more prevalent, particularly after adolescence. It's important to understand the clinical features and diagnostic tools available to classify the different forms of young adult diabetes. Classic type 1 diabetes is characterised by positive β-cell antibodies and absence of endogenous insulin secretion. Young type 2 diabetes is accompanied by metabolic syndrome with obesity, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. Monogenic β-cell dysfunction is characterised by non-autoimmune, C-peptide positive diabetes with a strong family history, while mitochondrial diabetes features deafness and other neurological involvement. Severe insulin resistance involves a young-onset metabolic syndrome often with a disproportionately low BMI. A suspected diagnosis of monogenic diabetes is confirmed with genetic testing, which is widely available in specialist centres across the world. Treatment of young adult diabetes is similarly diverse. Mutations in the transcription factors HNF1A and HNF4A and in the β-cell potassium ATP channel components cause diabetes which responds to low dose and high dose sulfonylurea agents, respectively, while glucokinase mutations require no treatment. Monogenic insulin resistance and young-onset type 2 diabetes are both challenging to treat, but first line management involves insulin sensitisers and aggressive management of cardiovascular risk. Outcomes are poor in young-onset type 2 diabetes compared to both older onset type 2 and type 1 diabetes diagnosed at a similar age. The evidence base for treatments in monogenic and young-onset type 2 diabetes relies on studies of moderate quality at best and largely on extrapolation from work conducted in older type 2 diabetes subjects. Better quality

  6. Muscle dissatisfaction in young adult men

    OpenAIRE

    Bulik Cynthia M; Keski-Rahkonen Anna; Raevuori Anu; Rose Richard J; Rissanen Aila; Kaprio Jaakko

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Backround Appearance concerns are of increasing importance in young men's lives. We investigated whether muscle dissatisfaction is associated with psychological symptoms, dietary supplement or anabolic steroid use, or physical activity in young men. Methods As a part of a questionnaire assessment of health-related behaviors in the population-based FinnTwin16 study, we assessed factors associated with muscle dissatisfaction in 1245 men aged 22–27 using logistic regression models. Resu...

  7. Nutrition Promotion to Prevent Obesity in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allman-Farinelli, Margaret A

    2015-01-01

    Young adulthood is a vulnerable period for weight gain and the health consequences of becoming obese during this life-stage of serious concern. Some unhealthy dietary habits are typical of young adults in many developed nations encountering the obesity epidemic. These include high sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, lower vegetable intake and greater consumption of foods prepared outside the home including fast foods. Each of these dietary behaviours may place young adults at increased risk for overweight and obesity. Evidence suggests many young adults with unhealthy nutrition behaviours are not considering nor preparing to make changes. To improve their nutrition and health as they progress through the lifecycle requires approaches specifically targeted to this age group. Strategies and programs should include both individual level and population approaches. The evidence base for prevention of weight gain and halting overweight and obesity in young adulthood is currently small with few studies of high quality. Studies modifying food environments in colleges and universities are also of limited quality, but sufficiently promising to conduct further research employing better, more sophisticated, study designs and additionally to include health outcome measures. More research into programs tailored to the needs of young adults is warranted with several studies already underway. PMID:27417798

  8. Nutrition Promotion to Prevent Obesity in Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret A. Allman-Farinelli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Young adulthood is a vulnerable period for weight gain and the health consequences of becoming obese during this life-stage of serious concern. Some unhealthy dietary habits are typical of young adults in many developed nations encountering the obesity epidemic. These include high sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, lower vegetable intake and greater consumption of foods prepared outside the home including fast foods. Each of these dietary behaviours may place young adults at increased risk for overweight and obesity. Evidence suggests many young adults with unhealthy nutrition behaviours are not considering nor preparing to make changes. To improve their nutrition and health as they progress through the lifecycle requires approaches specifically targeted to this age group. Strategies and programs should include both individual level and population approaches. The evidence base for prevention of weight gain and halting overweight and obesity in young adulthood is currently small with few studies of high quality. Studies modifying food environments in colleges and universities are also of limited quality, but sufficiently promising to conduct further research employing better, more sophisticated, study designs and additionally to include health outcome measures. More research into programs tailored to the needs of young adults is warranted with several studies already underway.

  9. YOUNG ADULT PERCEPTION AND ATTITUDE TOWARD CONSPICUOUS CONSUMPTION AND POVERTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Yvette Sims-Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the perception and attitude of young adults toward conspicuous consumption portrayed in mass media and their conception of poverty. Many young adults may not realize the cadre of consumerist ideologies portrayed throughout the culture and mass media such as buy more, buy newer and improved, buy wants over needs, buy comparatively, buy exclusively and buy to prove. In light of such mass media portrayal, young adult consumption habits may reflect unrealistic ideas about what it means to be poor. This research quantitatively examined the impact of mass media on young adult consumption patterns and sought to determine if there is a relationship between conspicuous consumption and poverty perception based on portrayals in popular mass media culture. The population for this research was primarily college-age student consumers under 25. The findings indicate that young adults view their consumption as an indicator of class and social status and that mass media portrayal have a significant relationship on their consumption perception.

  10. Disability Pensions Among Young Adults in Vocational Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhr, Arnhild; Haugan, Tommy; Espnes, Geir A; Lillefjell, Monica

    2016-03-01

    Objectives Lack of work-participation and early disability pensions (DP's) among young adults are increasing public health problems in most western European countries. The present study investigated determinants of early DP in young adults in vocational rehabilitation. Methods Data from 928 young adults (aged 18-40 years) attending a vocational rehabilitation program was linked to DP's recorded in the Norwegian Labor and Welfare Organization registries (1992-2010) and later compared to a group of 65 employees (workers). We used logistic regression to estimate the odds ratio for entitlement to DP following rehabilitation, adjusting for socio-demographical, psychosocial and health-behavior factors. Results Significant differences in socio-demographical, psychosocial and health-behavior factors were found between the rehabilitation group and workers. A total of 60 individuals (6.5 %) were granted a DP during follow-up. Increase in age, teenage parenthood, single status, as well as low education level and not being employed were found to be the strongest independent determinants of DP. Conclusion Poor social relations (being lone), early childbearing and weak connection to working life contributed to increase in risk of DP's among young adults in vocational rehabilitation, also after adjusting for education level. These findings are important in the prevention of early disability retirements among young adults and should be considered in the development of targeted interventions aimed at individuals particularly at risk of not being integrated into future work lives. PMID:26141951

  11. Reverse correlating trustworthy faces in young and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eÉthier-Majcher

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about how older persons determine if someone deserves their trust or not based on their facial appearance, a process referred to as facial trustworthiness. In the past few years, Todorov and colleagues have argued that, in young adults, trustworthiness judgments are an extension of emotional judgments, and therefore, that trust judgments are made based on a continuum between anger and happiness (Engell, Todorov & Haxby, 2010; Todorov, 2008. Evidence from the literature on emotion processing suggest that older adults tend to be less efficient than younger adults in the recognition of negative facial expressions (Chaby & Narme, 2009; Ruffman, Henry, Livingstone et al., 2008; Firestone, Turk-Browne & Ryan, 2007; Calder, Keane, Manly et al., 2003. Based on Todorov’s theory and the fact that older adults seem to be less efficient than younger adults in identifying emotional expressions, one could expect that older individuals would have different representations of trustworthy faces and that they would use different cues than younger adults in order to make such judgments. We verified this hypothesis using a variation of Mangini and Biederman's (2004 reverse correlation method in order to test and compare classification images resulting from trustworthiness (in the context of money investment, from happiness, and from anger judgments in two groups of participants: young adults and older healthy adults. Our results show that for elderly participants, both happy and angry representations are correlated with trustworthiness judgments. However, in young adults, trustworthiness judgments are mainly correlated with happiness representations. These results suggest that young and older adults differ in their way of judging trustworthiness.

  12. Reverse correlating trustworthy faces in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethier-Majcher, Catherine; Joubert, Sven; Gosselin, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about how older persons determine if someone deserves their trust or not based on their facial appearance, a process referred to as "facial trustworthiness."In the past few years, Todorov and colleagues have argued that, in young adults, trustworthiness judgments are an extension of emotional judgments, and therefore, that trust judgments are made based on a continuum between anger and happiness (Todorov, 2008; Engell et al., 2010). Evidence from the literature on emotion processing suggest that older adults tend to be less efficient than younger adults in the recognition of negative facial expressions (Calder et al., 2003; Firestone et al., 2007; Ruffman et al., 2008; Chaby and Narme, 2009). Based on Todorov';s theory and the fact that older adults seem to be less efficient than younger adults in identifying emotional expressions, one could expect that older individuals would have different representations of trustworthy faces and that they would use different cues than younger adults in order to make such judgments. We verified this hypothesis using a variation of Mangini and Biederman's (2004) reverse correlation method in order to test and compare classification images resulting from trustworthiness (in the context of money investment), from happiness, and from anger judgments in two groups of participants: young adults and older healthy adults. Our results show that for elderly participants, both happy and angry representations are correlated with trustworthiness judgments. However, in young adults, trustworthiness judgments are mainly correlated with happiness representations. These results suggest that young and older adults differ in their way of judging trustworthiness. PMID:24046755

  13. Genetics of adult plant stripe rust resistance in CSP44, a selection from Australian wheat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Renu Khanna; U. K. Bansal; R. G. Saini

    2005-12-01

    Wheat line CSP44, a selection from an Australian bread wheat cultivar Condor, has shown resistance to stripe rust in India since the last twenty years. Seedlings and adult plants of CSP44 showed susceptible infection types against stripe rust race 46S119 but displayed average terminal disease severity of 2.67 on adult plants against this race as compared to 70.33 of susceptible Indian cultivar, WL711. This suggests the presence of nonhypersensitive adult plant stripe rust resistance in the line CSP44. The evaluation of F1, F2 and F3 generations and F6 SSD families from the cross of CSP44 with susceptible wheat cultivar WL711 for stripe rust severity indicated that the resistance in CSP44 is based on two genes showing additive effect. One of these two genes is Yr18 and the second gene is not yet described.

  14. RESILIENCE IN IGBO RURAL COMMUNITY ADOLESCENTS AND YOUNG ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JohnBosco Chika Chukwuorji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While involved in organising an empowerment seminar for the Igbo rural youths, the authors investigated resilience among rural adolescents and young adults. Three hundred and twenty nine (329 adolescents (n = 162 and young adults (n = 167, comprising 159 males and 170 females, were participants. They completed the 14-item Resilience scale and provided some relevant demographic information. Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA was used to test for differences in resilience on account of age, gender and level of education. Young adults had significantly higher resilience scores than adolescents. No significant difference was found in resilience scores of males and females. Participants with higher education had significantly higher resilience scores than those with lower education. Of all the interaction effects tested, only age * gender * education had a significant interaction effect on resilience. Discussion of the findings were based on the literature, realities of life in contemporary Igbo society and the authors’ observations.

  15. Mental ill-health in contemporary young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Kosidou, Kyriaki

    2013-01-01

    Young adulthood is the peak age for the onset of most mental disorders and is a period of crucial importance for the establishment of emotional well-being in adult life. Mental health problems, including psychological distress and depressive symptoms, as well as suicide attempts, are reported to be increasing among young people, especially females, in many Western countries. Thus, the overall purpose of this thesis is to examine trends and causes of mental ill-health in contemp...

  16. Psychosocial Correlates of Sunburn among Young Adult Women

    OpenAIRE

    Manne, Sharon L; Perlis, Clifford S.; Teja Munshi; KLOSS, JACQUELINE D.; Jessye Cohen-Filipic; Susan Darlow; HECKMAN, CAROLYN J.

    2012-01-01

    Skin cancer is an increasingly common disease, particularly among young adult women. Sunburn early in life is a risk factor for skin cancer. Few studies have reported on psychosocial correlates of sunburn. The current study consisted of an online survey of undergraduate women from a university in the northeastern part of the USA. A logistic regression demonstrated that young women who reported a history of four or more sunburns were significantly more likely to report fair skin, higher percei...

  17. A Conceptual Framework of Internet Contributions to Young Adult Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Dy, Angela Carmina Martinez

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops the basis of a conceptual framework of the effects of the Internet and World Wide Web on entrepreneurship in the present day. As academic literature suggests Web experience and familiarity with search tools can contribute significantly to usage for beneficial purposes, and journalists credit the Internet for rising numbers of young Internet entrepreneurs due to the various types of access it enables, young adult Internet users are the focus of the paper. In July 2010, a ...

  18. Young adults and disability: transition to independent living?

    OpenAIRE

    Hendey, Nicola

    1999-01-01

    The study aims to explore young disabled peoples I concerns about independent living, and how they view the source of that independence. The transition to adulthood poses particular problems for young physically disabled adults and independent living is a widely shared goal. The independent living movement has spearheaded an increasing awareness amongst disabled people of their rights as human beings and citizens and has brought together ideas on independent living and ways of achieving ...

  19. Young Adult Veteran Perceptions of Peers’ Drinking Behavior and Attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Eric R.; Marshall, Grant N; Schell, Terry L.; Neighbors, Clayton

    2015-01-01

    Social norms-based interventions have shown promise in reducing drinking behavior and resulting consequences in young adults. Although most research has focused on young civilians (i.e., college students), some studies have investigated social norms-based interventions with active duty military and veteran samples. Yet, research has not yet determined how to maximize the effectiveness of social norms-based intervention in this heavy drinking population. As an initial step toward this goal, th...

  20. Developmental Antecedents of Young Adult Civic Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obradovic, Jelena; Masten, Ann S.

    2007-01-01

    Civic engagement was studied in relation to overall development in adolescence, emerging adulthood, and young adulthood to examine how earlier activity involvement and success in prior and concurrent age-salient domains of competence may contribute to 2 forms of civic engagement in adulthood (citizenship and volunteering). Data on 163 youth were…

  1. Dimensions of Problem Drinking among Young Adult Restaurant Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Roland S.; Cunradi, Carol B.; Duke, Michael R.; Ames, Genevieve M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Nationwide surveys identify food service workers as heavy alcohol users. Objectives This article analyzes dimensions and correlates of problem drinking among young adult food service workers. Methods A telephone survey of national restaurant chain employees yielded 1294 completed surveys. Results Hazardous alcohol consumption patterns were seen in 80% of men and 64% of women. Multivariate analysis showed that different dimensions of problem drinking measured by the AUDIT were associated with workers' demographic characteristics, smoking behavior and job category. Conclusions & Scientific Significance These findings offer evidence of extremely high rates of alcohol misuse among young adult restaurant workers. PMID:20180660

  2. Perception of young adults toward hookah use in Mumbai

    OpenAIRE

    Dani, K. K.; K Oswal; S Maudgal; Saranath, D

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of tobacco has been on the rise globally including in India, posing a grave public health problem. Recently, tobacco use through hookah smoking has increased among young adults in India, Middle East, Southwest Asia, Africa, Europe and North America. Hookah prevalence of 0.4-15% has been reported in India. AIM: The aim of the study was to understand perception of hookah use among young adults in Mumbai. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 500 college students, with/without ho...

  3. Current lifestyle of young adults treated for cancer in childhood.

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, S E; Radford, M

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to look at the current lifestyle of young adult survivors of childhood cancer between the ages of 16 and 30 years to document their achievements and expose any psychosocial problems. Sixty six young adult survivors were contacted and asked if they and their siblings (16-30 years) would take part in a lifestyle study; 48 patients and 38 sibling controls were interviewed. This took the form of a structured lifestyle questionnaire, a self esteem questionnaire (Oxford Ps...

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  4. Prevalent and incident bacterial vaginosis are associated with sexual and contraceptive behaviours in young Australian women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catriona S Bradshaw

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To determine prevalence and incidence of bacterial vaginosis (BV and risk factors in young sexually-active Australian women. METHODS: 1093 women aged 16-25 years were recruited from primary-care clinics. Participants completed 3-monthly questionnaires and self-collected vaginal smears 6-monthly for 12-months. The primary endpoint was a Nugent Score = 7-10 (BV and the secondary endpoint was a NS = 4-10 (abnormal flora [AF]. BV and AF prevalence estimates and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI were derived, and adjusted odds ratios (AOR calculated to explore epidemiological associations with prevalent BV and AF. Proportional-hazards regression models were used to examine factors associated with incident BV and AF. RESULTS: At baseline 129 women had BV [11.8% (95%CI: 9.4-14.2] and 188 AF (17.2%; 15.1-19.5. Prevalent BV was associated with having a recent female partner [AOR = 2.1; 1.0-4.4] and lack of tertiary-education [AOR = 1.9; 1.2-3.0]; use of an oestrogen-containing contraceptive (OCC was associated with reduced risk [AOR = 0.6; 0.4-0.9]. Prevalent AF was associated with the same factors, and additionally with >5 male partners (MSP in 12-months [AOR = 1.8; 1.2-2.5], and detection of C.trachomatis or M.genitalium [AOR = 2.1; 1.0-4.5]. There were 82 cases of incident BV (9.4%;7.7-11.7/100 person-years and 129 with incident AF (14.8%; 12.5-17.6/100 person-years. Incident BV and AF were associated with a new MSP [adjusted rate ratio (ARR = 1.5; 1.1-2.2 and ARR = 1.5; 1.1-2.0], respectively. OCC-use was associated with reduced risk of incident AF [ARR = 0.7; 0.5-1.0]. CONCLUSION: This paper presents BV and AF prevalence and incidence estimates from a large prospective cohort of young Australian women predominantly recruited from primary-care clinics. These data support the concept that sexual activity is strongly associated with the development of BV and AF and that use of an OCC is associated with

  5. The Australian national binge drinking campaign: campaign recognition among young people at a music festival who report risky drinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacks-Davis Rachel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Australian Government launched a mass media campaign in 2009 to raise awareness of the harms and costs associated risky drinking among young Australians. The aim of this study was to assess if young people attending a music festival who report frequent risky single occasions of drinking (RSOD recognise the key message of the campaign, "Binge drinking can lead to injuries and regrets", compared to young people who report less frequent RSOD. Methods A cross-sectional behavioural survey of young people (aged 16-29 years attending a music festival in Melbourne, Australia, was conducted in January 2009. We collected basic demographics, information on alcohol and other drug use and sexual health and behaviour during the previous 12 months, and measured recognition of the Australian National Binge Drinking Campaign key message. We calculated the odds of recognition of the key slogan of the Australian National Binge Drinking Campaign among participants who reported frequent RSOD (defined as reported weekly or more frequent RSOD during the previous 12 months compared to participants who reported less frequent RSOD. Results Overall, three-quarters (74.7% of 1072 participants included in this analysis recognised the campaign message. In the adjusted analysis, those reporting frequent RSOD had significantly lower odds of recognising the campaign message compared to those not reporting frequent RSOD (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5-0.9, whilst females had significantly greater odds of recognising the campaign message compared to males (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.4-2.1. Conclusions Whilst a high proportion of the target group recognised the campaign, our analysis suggests that participants that reported frequent RSOD - and thus the most important group to target - had statistically significantly lower odds of recognising the campaign message.

  6. Clueless: Adult Mysteries with Young Adult Appeal 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John; Morrison, Joanna

    2002-01-01

    This annotated bibliography includes adult mysteries that appeal to teen readers under the categories of Sherlock Holmes; reference sources; private investigators; amateur sleuths; historical sleuths; suspense and thrillers; police procedurals; mystery blends; and anthologies. (LRW)

  7. Preterm birth and psychiatric disorder in young adult life

    OpenAIRE

    Nosarti, Chiara; Reichenberg, Abraham; Murray, Robin M.; Cnattingius, Sven; Lambe, Mats P.; Yin, Li; MacCabe, James; Rifkin, Larry; Hultman, Christina M

    2012-01-01

    Context: Preterm birth, intrauterine growth restriction, and delivery-related hypoxia have been associated with schizophrenia. It is unclear whether these associations pertain to other adult-onset psychiatric disorders and whether these perinatal events are independent.Objective: To investigate the relationships among gestational age, nonoptimal fetal growth, Apgar score, and various psychiatric disorders in young adult life.Design: Historical population-based cohort study.Setting: Identifica...

  8. Antimnemonic effects of schemas in young and older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Badham, Stephen P.; Maylor, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Schema-consistent material that is aligned with an individual’s knowledge and experience is typically more memorable than abstract material. This effect is often more extreme in older adults and schema use can alleviate age deficits in memory. In three experiments, young and older adults completed memory tasks where the availability of schematic information was manipulated. Specifying nonobvious relations between to-be-remembered word pairs paradoxically hindered memory (Experiment 1). Highli...

  9. Experience of young adults from divorced families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Spalding

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the way in which the effects of parental divorce surface during the developmental period of young adulthood.

    Opsomming
    Hierdie studie is ontwerp om die effek wat ouers se egskeiding op die ontwikkelingsfase van jong volwassenheid het, te bestudeer. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  10. Hypermnesia: age-related differences between young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widner, R L; Otani, H; Smith, A D

    2000-06-01

    Hypermnesia is a net improvement in memory performance that occurs across tests in a multitest paradigm with only one study session. Our goal was to identify possible age-related differences in hypermnesic recall. We observed hypermnesia for young adults using verbal (Experiment 1) as well as pictorial (Experiment 2) material, but no hypermnesia for older adults in either experiment. We found no age-related difference in reminiscence (Experiments 1 and 2), though there was a substantial difference in intertest forgetting (Experiments 1 and 2). Older, relative to young, adults produced more forgetting, most of which occurred between Tests 1 and 2 (Experiments 1 and 2). Furthermore, older, relative to young, adults produced more intrusions. We failed to identify a relationship between intrusions and intertest forgetting. We suggest that the age-related difference in intertest forgetting may be due to less efficient reinstatement of cues at test by older adults. The present findings reveal that intertest forgetting plays a critical role in hypermnesic recall, particularly for older adults. PMID:10946539

  11. Takeaway food consumption and its associations with diet quality and abdominal obesity: a cross-sectional study of young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwyer Terence

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have investigated the associations of takeaway food consumption with overall diet quality and abdominal obesity. Young adults are high consumers of takeaway food so we aimed to examine these associations in a national study of young Australian adults. Methods A national sample of 1,277 men and 1,585 women aged 26–36 completed a self-administered questionnaire on demographic and lifestyle factors, a 127 item food frequency questionnaire, usual daily frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption and usual weekly frequency of takeaway food consumption. Dietary intake was compared with the dietary recommendations from the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Waist circumference was measured for 1,065 men and 1,129 women. Moderate abdominal obesity was defined as ≥ 94 cm for men and ≥ 80 cm for women. Prevalence ratios (PR were calculated using log binomial regression. Takeaway food consumption was dichotomised, with once a week or less as the reference group. Results Consumption of takeaway food twice a week or more was reported by more men (37.9% than women (17.7%, P Conclusion Eating takeaway food twice a week or more was associated with poorer diet quality and a higher prevalence of moderate abdominal obesity in young men and women.

  12. Effects of Assertive Training on Hospitalized Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Phyllis E.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    This study focuses on reducing the hostility of hospitalized adolescent and young adult psychiatric patients through assertive training techniques designed to teach appropriate responses to interpersonal conflict. It was predicted that, after treatment, the assertive group would show greater assertiveness, less hostility, and a more positive…

  13. Substance Abuse by Youth and Young Adults in Rural America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, David; Gale, John A.; Hartley, David

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Addressing substance abuse in rural America requires extending our understanding beyond urban-rural comparisons to how substance abuse varies across rural communities of different sizes. We address this gap by examining substance abuse prevalence across 4 geographic levels, focusing on youth (age 12-17 years) and young adults (age 18-25…

  14. STROKE IN YOUNG ADULTS: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF 68 CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Harirchian

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous etiologies are responsible for cases of stroke in young adults. This study reviews the causes of two types of stroke (ischemic and intracerebral hemorrhage in young adults aged 15 to 40years, admitted to our center (a tertiary care center from 1997 to 2002. The purpose of this study is to determine the relative frequency of causes of stroke in young adults and compare this with published data in the literature. Using the codes 46.0 to 46.8 of the International Classification of Diseases- 10th Edition (ICD-10, cases were identified from the records of the stroke patients admitted in Imam Khomeini Hospital and the data were collected from their files using a comprehensive questionnaire. Forty-two cases of ischemic stroke (62% and 26 cases of intracerebral hemorrhage (38% were identified. The leading cause of ischemic stroke was cardioembolism (38.1%, followed by atherosclerosis in 5 cases (11.9%. Among cardiac causes infarction was attributable to consequences of rheumatic heart disease in 8 cases. In 3 cases a cessation or decrease in dose of warfarin was followed directly by an ischemic stroke. The most leading cause of intracerebral hemorrhage was hypertension (30.8%. Other causes were anticoagulant therapy, intratumoral hemorrhage, aplastic anemia, leukemia, arteriovenous malformations, and chronic active hepatitis. In conclusion, cardioembolism and hypertension were the most leading causes of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in young adults admitted in our hospital.

  15. Getting young adults back to church: A marketing approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle C. van der Merwe

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, church membership is decreasing. A decline in the number of young adults that attend church services is also evident. The purpose of the research was to determine whether the application of a well-established body of knowledge of marketing theories and principles could be used by churches to encourage young adults to return to the church. The application of services marketing to the church as a non-profit organisation is discussed by focussing on non-physical and physical atmospheric cues in the church’s servicescape that could enhance church attendance. A quantitative approach was used by testing the opinions of 200 church service attendees of different denominations. The findings indicated that certain elements in the servicescape of a church may be useful in attracting young adults. It was found that music is a strong determinant of whether young adults attend church services, followed by layout and design of the church and then by the signs and symbols used in the church. Females reported significantly higher levels of positive perceptions concerning the layout and design. Although the research showed that some marketing elements, such as a positive servicescape, could improve church attendance, other personal elements such as forming personal relationships with fellow Christians and God need to be further explored.

  16. A Qualitative Survey Examining the Moral Identities of Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onat Kocabiyik, Oya; Kulaksizoglu, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    Moral identity can orient one's behaviors when exhibiting any kind of moral behavior. In this study, the moral identities of young adults are analyzed to a certain extent. For this purpose, the "interpretative phenomenological pattern" and "grounded theory" models are used as qualitative survey models. The study group for…

  17. Using Young Adult Literature To End Discrimination against Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Kathy

    In an effort to inform junior and senior high school students about mental illness, this document provides educators with an annotated bibliography of young adult fiction and a set of supporting activities. Included in the bibliography are nearly 100 current fiction titles, grouped according to the following topics: anorexia, drugs and alcohol,…

  18. Living with Cystic Fibrosis: A Guide for the Young Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, Atlanta, GA.

    Intended for the young adult with cystic fibrosis, the booklet provides information on dealing with problems and on advances in treatment and detection related to the disease. Addressed are the following topics: description of cystic fibrosis; inheritance of cystic fibrosis; early diagnosis; friends, careers, and other matters; treatment;…

  19. Transglossic Language Practices of Young Adults in Bangladesh and Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Shaila; Dovchin, Sender; Pennycook, Alastair

    2015-01-01

    The paper explores the use of varied semiotic resources in the linguistic, social and cultural practices of young adults in the context of Bangladesh and Mongolia. Based on a translinguistic analysis (including pre-textual history, contextual relations, sub-textual meaning, intertextual echoes and post-textual interpretation) of these practices,…

  20. Miranda Rights Comprehension in Young Adults with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, Gwyneth C.; McGregor, Karla K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether citizens with language impairment understand legal rights as conveyed in Miranda warnings. Method: Grisso's Instruments for Assessing Understanding and Appreciation of Miranda Rights (1998) was administered to 34 young adults, half of whom met the diagnostic criteria for specific language…

  1. The social networks of teens and young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ling, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the way in which social networks operate within small groups. The study examines the social networks of teens and young adults. Groups of friends were recruited for the study and thus the unit of analysis is the group as opposed to the individual. The members of each group...

  2. Monstrous Acts: Problematizing Violence in Young Adult Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzak, Judith; Noll, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    Despite a growing body of work that draws attention to the presence of violence in the mass media and its effects on youth, little critical attention has been paid to the role of violence in young adult literature. The authors believe that by bringing violence to the foreground in the study of texts, they can enrich and deepen what these stories…

  3. Restrictions in social participation of young adults with spina bifida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barf, H. A.; Post, M. W. M.; Verhoef, M.; Jennekens-Schinkel, A.; Gooskens, R. H. J. M.; Prevo, A. J. H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose. To determine participation restrictions of young adults with spina bifida (SB) in relation to health condition and activity limitations. Method. A total of 179 persons aged 16-25 years and born with SB participated in a cross-sectional study. The main outcome on four domains of participatio

  4. Perspectives of Young Adults with Disabilities on Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Erik W.; Swedeen, Beth; Walter, Martha J.; Moss, Colleen K.; Hsin, Ching-Ting

    2011-01-01

    Increasingly, researchers have linked greater self-determination capacities to improved postsecondary outcomes for youth with disabilities. Although leadership is one component of self-determination, little is known about how youth and young adults with disabilities define, develop, and demonstrate leadership. In this qualitative interview study,…

  5. Parental Divorce and Union Disruption among Young Adults in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahler, Michael; Hong, Ying; Bernhardt, Eva

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes the impact of parental divorce on the disruption of marital and nonmarital unions among young adults in Sweden, using longitudinal data from repeated mail questionnaire surveys (1999 and 2003) with 1,321 respondents (aged 26, 30, and 34 in 2003). The study takes into account several possible mechanisms governing the…

  6. Parental Death in Childhood and Loneliness in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Patricia Ann

    1987-01-01

    Examined relationship between self-esteem and reported mourning behavior as it pertains to loneliness in young adults who, as children, had experienced parental death. Subjects (N=184) aged 18 to 25 completed four questionnaires. Revealed that self-esteem was the single best predictor of loneliness; reported mourning behaviors significantly added…

  7. Development of Food Safety Psychosocial Questionnaires for Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd-Bredbenner, C.; Wheatley, V.; Schaffner, D.; Bruhn, C.; Blalock, L.; Maurer, J.

    2007-01-01

    Food mishandling is thought to be more acute among young adults; yet little is known about why they may engage in risky food handling behaviors. The purpose of this study was to create valid, reliable instruments for assessing key food safety psychosocial measures. Development of the measures began by examining published studies and behavior…

  8. Off the Shelves: Poetry and Verse Novels for Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letcher, Mark, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Of all the material in the English language arts curricula, poetry seems to cause the most consternation among teachers. For a number of teachers, and many students, poetry continues to be a difficult topic to teach and learn. In this article, the author focuses on the ways that young adult literature can help teachers expose their students to…

  9. Young Adults with Gambling Problems: The Impact of Childhood Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felsher, Jennifer R.; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Gupta, Rina

    2010-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment has been thought to be a significant risk factor in the development of gambling problems. Incorporating a developmental psychopathology perspective, 1,324 adolescents and young adults, age 17-22 years completed self-report measures on gambling behaviors, gambling severity, and childhood maltreatment. Problem gamblers…

  10. Perceived Effectiveness of Tobacco Countermarketing Advertisements among Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy-Hoefer, Rebecca; Hyland, Andrew; Higbee, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To measure relative effectiveness of tobacco countermarketing advertisements by category and emotive execution style among young adults. Methods: Participants (n = 1011) from 2 US 4-year colleges, one southern and one northern were surveyed before and after viewing advertisements in one of 3 categories: social norms, health…

  11. Initial College Attendance of Low-Income Young Adults. Portraits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute for Higher Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    More than 2.3 million low-income young adults began postsecondary education in 2008. Where these students initially enroll is of greater consequence than it is to their economically better-off peers because the likelihood of completing college for students from low-income backgrounds depends strongly on where they start their studies. This brief…

  12. Recognize the Signs: Reading Young Adult Literature to Address Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytash, Kristine E.; Morgan, Denise N.; Batchelor, Katherine E.

    2013-01-01

    This article summarizes preservice teachers' experiences in a book club that read young adult literature focused on issues related to bullying. Preservice teachers learned to recognize various incidents of bullying in the books. They also began to consider how they might handle incidents of bullying in their future classrooms. (Contains 2 figures.)

  13. Whole Body Vibration Improves Cognition in Healthy Young Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regterschot, G. Ruben H.; Van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; Zeinstra, Edzard B.; Fuermaier, Anselm B.M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Oliver; Van der Zee, Eddy A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV) on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5 +/- 2.2 years) underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm) and six non-vibration con

  14. Fatal varicella in a healthy young adult.

    OpenAIRE

    Coppack, S W; Doshi, R.; Ghose, A. R.

    1985-01-01

    A healthy adult presented with severe neurological disturbance 4 d after developing chicken-pox. Although pneumonic and renal problems were also present the neurological state dominated the clinical picture. After the patient's sudden death an autopsy revealed that renal and cerebral problems were secondary to myocardial involvement. This was of an unusual type for varicella with features of dilated cardiomyopathy resembling that previously related to Coxsackie infections. We conclude that ca...

  15. Recruiting young adult cancer survivors for behavioral research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Carolyn; Horowitz, Santina; Marcus, Bess

    2013-03-01

    Young adults have been dramatically underrepresented in cancer survivorship research. One contributing factor is the difficulty recruiting this population. To identify effective recruitment strategies, the current study assessed the yield of strategies used to recruit young survivors for an exercise intervention including: clinic-based recruitment, recruitment at cancer-related events, mailings, telephone-based recruitment, advertising on the internet, radio, television and social networking media, distributing brochures and word-of-mouth referrals. When taking into account the strategies for which we could track the number of survivors approached, recruitment at an oncology clinic was the most productive: 38 % of those approached were screened and 8 % enrolled. When evaluating which strategy yielded the greatest percentage of the sample, however, mailings were the most productive. Given widespread use of the internet and social networking by young adults, investigators should also consider these low-cost recruitment strategies. PMID:22810954

  16. 76 FR 56263 - Titles II and XVI: Documenting and Evaluating Disability in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... young adults, we use the same definition for disability as we do for other adults.\\1\\ We also use adult... sometimes use the adult definition of disability to make disability determinations or decisions for people... learning disability or language disorder. Any such underlying MDI may affect a young adult's RFC. As...

  17. Young Adults' Risk Perceptions of Various Tobacco Products Relative to Cigarettes: Results from the National Young Adult Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackowski, Olivia A.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Tobacco product risk perceptions may influence whether individuals use those products instead of or in addition to regular cigarettes. This study aimed to explore risk perceptions of various tobacco products relative to traditional cigarettes with young adults, a group with higher rates of tobacco use. Method: We examined risk…

  18. Typical food portion sizes consumed by Australian adults: results from the 2011–12 Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Miaobing; Wu, Jason H Y; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Flood, Victoria M; Gill, Tim; Thomas, Beth; Cleanthous, Xenia; Neal, Bruce; Rangan, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Considerable evidence has associated increasing portion sizes with elevated obesity prevalence. This study examines typical portion sizes of commonly consumed core and discretionary foods in Australian adults, and compares these data with the Australian Dietary Guidelines standard serves. Typical portion sizes are defined as the median amount of foods consumed per eating occasion. Sex- and age-specific median portion sizes of adults aged 19 years and over (n = 9341) were analysed using one day 24 hour recall data from the 2011–12 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. A total of 152 food categories were examined. There were significant sex and age differences in typical portion sizes among a large proportion of food categories studied. Typical portion sizes of breads and cereals, meat and chicken cuts, and starchy vegetables were 30–160% larger than the standard serves, whereas, the portion sizes of dairy products, some fruits, and non-starchy vegetables were 30–90% smaller. Typical portion sizes for discretionary foods such as cakes, ice-cream, sausages, hamburgers, pizza, and alcoholic drinks exceeded the standard serves by 40–400%. The findings of the present study are particularly relevant for establishing Australian-specific reference portions for dietary assessment tools, refinement of nutrition labelling and public health policies. PMID:26786684

  19. Typical food portion sizes consumed by Australian adults: results from the 2011-12 Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Miaobing; Wu, Jason H Y; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Flood, Victoria M; Gill, Tim; Thomas, Beth; Cleanthous, Xenia; Neal, Bruce; Rangan, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Considerable evidence has associated increasing portion sizes with elevated obesity prevalence. This study examines typical portion sizes of commonly consumed core and discretionary foods in Australian adults, and compares these data with the Australian Dietary Guidelines standard serves. Typical portion sizes are defined as the median amount of foods consumed per eating occasion. Sex- and age-specific median portion sizes of adults aged 19 years and over (n = 9341) were analysed using one day 24 hour recall data from the 2011-12 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. A total of 152 food categories were examined. There were significant sex and age differences in typical portion sizes among a large proportion of food categories studied. Typical portion sizes of breads and cereals, meat and chicken cuts, and starchy vegetables were 30-160% larger than the standard serves, whereas, the portion sizes of dairy products, some fruits, and non-starchy vegetables were 30-90% smaller. Typical portion sizes for discretionary foods such as cakes, ice-cream, sausages, hamburgers, pizza, and alcoholic drinks exceeded the standard serves by 40-400%. The findings of the present study are particularly relevant for establishing Australian-specific reference portions for dietary assessment tools, refinement of nutrition labelling and public health policies. PMID:26786684

  20. Psychological, social, and behavioral issues for young adults with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrack, Brad J

    2011-05-15

    Theories of human development suggest that, although all cancer patients experience a common set of life disruptions, they experience them differently, focus on different issues, and attach different levels of importance to different aspects of the experience depending on the time in life at which they were diagnosed. During the critical developmental transition from childhood to adulthood, older adolescents and young adults in particular have typical concerns with establishing identity, developing a positive body image and sexual identity, separating from parents, increasing involvement with peers and dating, and beginning to make decisions about careers or employment, higher education, and/or family. Accordingly, cancer-related issues such as premature confrontation with mortality, changes in physical appearance, increased dependence on parents, disruptions in social life and school/employment because of treatment, loss of reproductive capacity, and health-related concerns about the future may be particularly distressing for adolescents and young adults. Psychosocial and behavioral interventions for young adult cancer patients and survivors often involve assisting these individuals in retaining or returning to function in significant social roles, such as spouse, parent, student, worker, or friend. Successful interventions will enable these young people to overcome the detrimental impact of a health crisis and strengthen the internal and external coping resources available to them. PMID:21523748

  1. Obesity Among Young Adults in Developing Countries: A Systematic Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poobalan, Amudha; Aucott, Lorna

    2016-03-01

    This article discusses the overweight/obesity situation among young adults in developing countries. For this target population, obesity prevalence ranges from 2.3 to 12 %, and overweight is 28.8 %, mostly affecting females. Weight is now increasing during this life stage of transition at a higher rate, 1 kg/year, than in developed countries. Maternal factors and early childhood socioeconomic status are associated with BMI in young adults along with changing environmental and behavioural factors in some low and middle income countries, brought about by demographic and socioeconomic transitions. Young adults with 'normal weight' obesity need identification using other convenient low cost measures (skin folds or waist circumference) along with BMI. Obesity prevention or management interventions were not identified, but clearly needed to help stem the obesity pandemic. Young people generally give little priority to their future health, so such interventions need to be conducted at some optimal age, be innovative, country specific and culturally acceptable. PMID:26883372

  2. Addiction Treatment Experience among a Cohort of Street-Involved Youths and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jellena; Marshall, Brandon D. L.; Kerr, Thomas; Lai, Calvin; Wood, Evan

    2009-01-01

    Very little is known about the accessibility and potential barriers to addiction treatment among street youths and young adults. We sought to examine the prevalence and correlates of enrollment in addiction treatment among a cohort of street-involved youths and young adults in Vancouver, Canada. Street-involved youths and young adults who use…

  3. "I will guide you" The indirect link between overparenting and young adults' adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Sofie; Scharf, Miri

    2015-08-30

    This study addresses knowledge gaps regarding family dynamics, and identifies young adults at-risk for psychopathological symptoms. In particular, we examined overparenting and its associations with young adults' adjustment (distress and interpersonal sensitivity). Both direct and indirect relations were assessed, the latter through young adults' relational characteristics (attachment, psychological control perception, and boundaries diffusion perception). Also, the contribution of gender of parents and young adults was addressed. Questionnaires were collected from 89 Jewish-Israeli intact families. Mothers reported significantly more use of overparenting than fathers. More overparenting of fathers had a direct relation with less adjustment in young adults. This direct relation was partially mediated by higher levels of young adults' attachment anxiety (for the dependent variables distress and interpersonal sensitivity) and young adults' perceptions of parental psychological control (for the dependent variable distress). More overparenting of mothers was related to less interpersonal sensitivity for male young adults and for young adults who reported less parental psychological control. This study showed that parenting qualities and their interplay with young adults' relational characteristics continue to play an important role in the lives of young adult offspring. Therefore, clinicians dealing with young adults at risk for, or suffering from, psychopathology, should be attentive to overparenting and its possible implications. PMID:26051175

  4. Young Adult Children of Divorced Parents: Depression and the Perception of Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drill, Rebecca L.

    1986-01-01

    Examined long-term effects of divorce in young adult children by comparing young adults of divorce (N=104) and those of intact families (N=172). When non-custodial parent was perceived as "lost" the young adult was more depressed. After-divorce perception of non-custodial father changed negatively, while perception of mother remained stable.…

  5. 76 FR 23479 - Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services (CHAMPUS); TRICARE Young Adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ... (CHAMPUS); TRICARE Young Adult AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, DoD. ACTION: Interim final rule with... Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2011 (NDAA for FY11). It establishes the TRICARE Young Adult... age of 26 of uniformed services sponsors. The TRICARE Young ] Adult program is a premium-based...

  6. 78 FR 58290 - TRICARE; Calendar Year 2014 TRICARE Young Adult Program Premium Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... Register (FR) on May 29, 2013 (78 FR 32116-32121) sets forth rules to implement the TRICARE Young Adult... of the Secretary TRICARE; Calendar Year 2014 TRICARE Young Adult Program Premium Update AGENCY: Office of the Secretary of Defense, DoD. ACTION: Notice of Updated TRICARE Young Adult Premiums...

  7. A Comparison of Support for Two Groups of Young Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenen, Sarah; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina; Scholte, Evert

    2016-01-01

    Young adults with mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID) have varying profiles of cognitive, adaptive and behavioural functioning. There is also variability in their educational and therapeutic needs. This study compares recommended and actual provision of support for two groups of young adults with MBID and looks at young adults'…

  8. Promising Practices in Young Adult Employment: Lessons Learned from Manufacturing and Automotive Career Pathway Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    The National Fund's Young Adult Initiatives aim to test and implement new strategies for targeting America's young adults and share this information so that employers and workforce development can join forces in investing in the millions of young adults across the nation. This case study focuses on promising findings from automotive and…

  9. The Attainability of University Degrees and Their Labour Market Benefits for Young Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Sook

    2014-01-01

    I used data from the 1995 cohort of the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth to investigate the factors associated with the attainment of Australian university degrees and estimate their domestic labour market benefits. I considered vertical and horizontal stratification in education and examined monetary and non-monetary benefits. The…

  10. Health Status and Coping Strategies among Older Parent-Carers of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities in an Australian Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; McConnell, David; Gething, Lindsay; Cant, Rosemary; Kendig, Hal

    2010-01-01

    Background: Older parent-carers in Australia are the subject of increasing policy and practice attention due to concerns about their ongoing ability to care in the light of their own ageing and the ageing of their adult son or daughter. This paper examines health status and the coping strategies of a group of older Australian parents caring for an…

  11. Caring for young adults on a paediatric ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Paul A J; Routley, Christine; Paul, Siba Prosad

    The need for adolescents and young adults (AYA) to have suitable age-specific inpatient facilities has been recognised for many years, yet has received relatively little attention. This article reports the successful introduction of an inpatient facility for AYA, aged 17-24 years, on a general paediatric ward in a small district general hospital. From December 2010, a young person's unit (YPU) consisting of an 8-bed area was opened within a 24-bed children's ward. Nursing care was provided by the ward staff, all of whom had been trained in the care of young adults. Policies regarding admission criteria, safeguarding, patient choice, visiting and 'house rules' were drafted, implemented and modified as necessary. Discussions with the adult clinicians (for medical care) and site managers were held to ensure smooth running of the system, and to address any concerns or difficulties. Paediatric patients had priority of admission at times of bed crisis. During 2012, there were a total of 2351 inpatient admissions to the paediatric ward, of whom 379 (16%) were YPU patients aged from 17-24 years. Median length of stay was 2 days for patients aged 17-24 years as compared with 1 day for patients aged less than or equal to 16 years. Patients who chose admission to the paediatric ward tended to be younger, in transition from paediatric to adult services for chronic conditions, or with special needs. Patient surveys showed a high level of satisfaction with the facility. Young adults can be cared for safely and effectively on a paediatric ward with minimal additional costs. The essential ingredients for success include discussion with affected parties to address specific concerns, and the establishment of a clear, simple and unambiguous admission policy. PMID:24165407

  12. Corrective Tibial Osteotomy in Young Adults Using an Intramedullary Nail

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kang-Il; Thaller, Peter H.; Ramteke, Alankar; Lee, Sang Hak; Lee, Seung-Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to document results of a less invasive technique of open wedge proximal tibial osteotomy (PTO) for the varus knee in young adults using an intramedullary tibial nail. Materials and Methods We prospectively studied 24 knees in 16 young patients with varus knee deformity. The mean follow-up was 54 months (range, 36 to 107 months) and the mean age of patients at the time of operation was 25.8 years (range, 18 to 40 years). The open wedge PTO was performed be...

  13. Antimnemonic effects of schemas in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badham, Stephen P; Maylor, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    Schema-consistent material that is aligned with an individual's knowledge and experience is typically more memorable than abstract material. This effect is often more extreme in older adults and schema use can alleviate age deficits in memory. In three experiments, young and older adults completed memory tasks where the availability of schematic information was manipulated. Specifying nonobvious relations between to-be-remembered word pairs paradoxically hindered memory (Experiment 1). Highlighting relations within mixed lists of related and unrelated word pairs had no effect on memory for those pairs (Experiment 2). This occurred even though related word pairs were recalled better than unrelated word pairs, particularly for older adults. Revealing a schematic context in a memory task with abstract image segments also hindered memory performance, particularly for older adults (Experiment 3). The data show that processing schematic information can come with costs that offset mnemonic benefits associated with schema-consistent stimuli. PMID:25980799

  14. Breakfast and the diets of Australian adults: an analysis of data from the 1995 National Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Peter

    2005-02-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the nutrients provided to Australian adults by the breakfast meal and to compare the food and nutrient intakes and health of regular breakfast eaters and breakfast skippers. The Australian Bureau of Statistics was commissioned to undertake additional analysis of data collected in the 1995 Australian National Nutrition Survey (NNS). The survey included 24-h recalls, physical measurements and a food habits questionnaire collected during the period February 1995-March 1996, with a nationally representative sample of 10,851 Australians aged 19 years and older. The median nutrient intakes at breakfast and the proportion of the daily total contributed by breakfast were calculated. Differences between regular breakfast eaters and breakfast skippers in terms of nutrient intake, body mass index and health status were compared using Student t-tests. The findings show the typical Australian breakfast was low in fat, high in carbohydrate and a good source of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, calcium and magnesium. In the NNS regular breakfast eaters had more adequate diets overall, particularly those aged 65+ years. People who did not eat breakfast cereal were much more likely to have inadequate nutrient intakes, especially of thiamin, riboflavin, calcium, magnesium and iron. Regular breakfast eaters were more likely to rate their health as excellent or good than those who skip breakfast, but there was no difference between the fat intake or the body mass index of regular breakfast eaters compared with breakfast skippers. Regular breakfast consumption is associated with better diets for adults overall. PMID:16019316

  15. Development of the Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Christine; McCollum, Mary; Cho, Esther; Jason, Dawn

    2015-10-01

    Emerging adulthood defines transition to employment, higher education, and domestic life. This study describes the development of an assessment of self-reported participation in a range of age-appropriate activities. Item selection was established from literature review, feedback from youth and professionals, the former Adolescent Activity Card Sort (AACS), and the original Activity Card Sort (ACS). Iterative item selection occurred with three separate samples of emerging adults and six professionals. Test-retest reliability was evaluated. The Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort (AYA-ACS) consists of chores (11 items), leisure (13), social (10), health and fitness (9), work (10), education (8), and parenting (9). Test-retest reliability showed significant moderate to substantial Kappa agreement (.48-.85) for all domains except parenting (κ = .15). This preliminary study describes the development of the AYA-ACS to be used with individuals who encounter challenges when transitioning to young adulthood. PMID:27505902

  16. Young adults with intellectual disability recall their childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, Mikaela

    2011-12-01

    Eleven young adults with an intellectual disability were interviewed for this exploratory study aimed at charting their experiences of growing up in homes where at least one parent had the same or a similar disability. Two main themes emerged from the interviews. Firstly, a clear majority of the young adults had positive experiences of family life during their upbringing, as expressed especially through their memories of their grandparents. Secondly, the study participants all described experiences of being bullied and harassed outside the family context. The results obtained in this study highlight the importance of the parents, the family, and informal networks in the upbringing of these children. The study also considers the consequences that the study participants' negative experiences of peer contacts and their sense of exclusion might have for their prospects in later life. PMID:22129525

  17. Efficiency of caries risk assessment in young adults using Cariogram

    OpenAIRE

    Celik, Esra Uzer; Gokay, Necmi; Ates, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to: (1) evaluate the caries risk in young adults using Cariogram and (2) compare the efficiency of Cariogram with the regression risk models created using the same variables in Cariogram by examining the actual caries progression over a 2-year period. Methods: This study included 100 subjects that were either twenty or twenty-one years-old. Data on general health, diet, oral hygiene and use of fluoride were obtained. Saliva analyses were performed, includ...

  18. Multiple tobacco product use among US adolescents and young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Soneji, Samir; Sargent, James; Tanski, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the extent to which multiple tobacco product use among adolescents and young adults falls outside current Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulatory authority. Methods We conducted a web-based survey of 1596 16–26-year-olds to assess use of 11 types of tobacco products. We ascertained current (past 30 days) tobacco product use among 927 respondents who ever used tobacco. Combustible tobacco products included cigarettes, cigars (little filtered, cigarillos, premium) and ...

  19. Posture and Texting: Effect on Balance in Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Nurwulan, Nurul Retno; Bernard C. Jiang; Iridiastadi, Hardianto

    2015-01-01

    Using a mobile phone while doing another activity is a common dual-task activity in our daily lives. This study examined the effect of texting on the postural stability of young adults. Twenty college students were asked to perform static and dynamic postural stability tasks. Traditional COP and multivariate multiscale entropy (MMSE) were used to assess the static postural stability and the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) was used to assess the dynamic postural stability. Results showed th...

  20. Reverse correlating trustworthy faces in young and older adults

    OpenAIRE

    CatherineÉthier-Majcher; SvenJoubert

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about how older persons determine if someone deserves their trust or not based on their facial appearance, a process referred to as “facial trustworthiness”. In the past few years, Todorov and colleagues have argued that, in young adults, trustworthiness judgments are an extension of emotional judgments, and therefore, that trust judgments are made based on a continuum between anger and happiness (Engell, Todorov & Haxby, 2010; Todorov, 2008). Evidence from the literature ...

  1. Pulmonary function in healthy young adult Indians in Madras.

    OpenAIRE

    Vijayan, V. K.; Kuppurao, K V; Venkatesan, P; Sankaran, K; Prabhakar, R

    1990-01-01

    Forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, functional residual capacity, residual volume, total lung capacity, and single breath diffusing capacity measurements (effective alveolar volume, carbon monoxide transfer factor, and transfer coefficient) were measured in 247 young healthy adults (130 male, 117 female) aged 15-40 years living in Madras. Subjects were of Dravidian stock, living at sea level with rice as their staple diet. Regression equations were derived for men a...

  2. A Bilingual Advantage in Young Adults: Unfounded or Undetectable

    OpenAIRE

    Clarkson, Harriet

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that a bilingual cognitive advantage in young adults manifests inconsistently. The objective of the present study was to investigate the existence of a bilingual advantage in this age group, whilst looking at factors which may influence its detectability and thus contribute to explaining the variability in previous research. In order to ensure that all bilinguals had spent a period of time speaking their second language in its natural environment, bilingual exchange student...

  3. Adolescent and young adult cancer: principles of care

    OpenAIRE

    Ramphal, R; Aubin, S.; Czaykowski, P.; Pauw, S; Johnson, A.; McKillop, S.; Szwajcer, D; Wilkins, K; ROGERS, P.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults (ayas) with cancer in active treatment face a number of barriers to optimal care. In the present article, we focus on the 3 critical domains of care for ayas—medical, psychosocial, and research—and how changes to the system could overcome barriers. We summarize the current literature, outline recommended principles of care, raise awareness of barriers to optimal care, and suggest specific changes to the system to overcome those barriers in the Canadian context. Ma...

  4. Speaking up for Vocabulary: Reading Skill Differences in Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Braze, David; Tabor, Whitney; Shankweiler, Donald; Mencl, Einar

    2007-01-01

    This study is part of a broader project that has the goal of developing cognitive and neuro-cognitive profiles of adolescent and young adult readers whose educational and occupational prospects are constrained by their limited literacy skills. The study explores relationships among reading related abilities in participants aged 16 to 24 years spanning a wide range of reading ability. Two specific questions are addressed: (1) Does the Simple View of Reading (Gough & Tunmer, 1986) capture all n...

  5. Understanding and Targeting Indonesian Young Adult Internet Users

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Chang

    2010-01-01

    As the number of global internet users increases, companies online advertisement expenditure also grows rapidly. Companies face challenges in targeting the right customers. Understanding which websites are often visited by target users and what they do on the internet will help companies direct their online advertisement to the right target. Using questionnaires, this study examines which sites are most often visited by Indonesian young adult internet users and what they do on the internet. I...

  6. Self-Ear-Cleaning Among Educated Young Adults in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Olaosun, Adedayo Olugbenga

    2014-01-01

    Context: Self-ear-cleaning has been reported to be common from several hospital-based studies and it has been associated with some diseases of the ear. Aims: To determine community-based prevalence of self-ear-cleaning and its sociodemographic correlates among educated young adults in Nigeria. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional survey conducted in a National Youth Service Corps camp in Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: Semistructured questionnaires were administered on a randomly selected sa...

  7. Risks of radicalization among Turkish-Dutch young adults?

    OpenAIRE

    Staring, Richard

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Young adults heading for Syria to join the jihad and the safety risks associated with their return are currently a topic of debate in the Netherlands and in many other European countries. Around 120 Dutch citizens have gone abroad to join the jihad and the Dutch government is concerned about the possible dangers these jihadists might pose to society when they return to the Netherlands. Over the past years, the Dutch security services have focused on Turkish religi...

  8. NON-METROPOLITAN TO METROPOLITAN AREA MIGRATION OF YOUNG ADULTS

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Bradford F.; Hazarika, Gautam

    1999-01-01

    The decisions of young adults from non-metropolitan areas to either migrate to metropolitan areas or remain in non-metropolitan areas following the completion of schooling are studied in this paper. The migration decision is decomposed into an hourly initial earnings component and a cost component comprising the financial, psychic, and employment attainment costs of migration. There are three noteworthy findings. First, while the propensity to migrate increases in educational attainment, cont...

  9. Analysis of the preferences of young adults regarding touristic destinations

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Miguel Celestino Marques

    2013-01-01

    The Portuguese economy has been struggling for the last decade. However, Portuguese tourism is rising due to the growth of external demand. Thus, it is very important to be aware of the strengths and weaknesses of the Portuguese touristic sector once it is helping Portugal’s economy. This study analyses the preferences of young adults for travel destinations. More specifically, those preferences are explained based on different variables such as the travellers’ awareness, the p...

  10. A Multilevel Analysis of Young Adult Migration, 1980-1998

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ji-Youn

    2002-01-01

    The primary objective of this research was to investigate the propensity to migrate the destination choices of young adults, and the importance of individual, household, and community characteristics in these migration choices. Using cohort data from the National Longitudinal Survey ofYouth79 from 1980 to 1998, this study specifies the set of individual-, household-, and community-level of determinants on migrat ion and then incorporates these variables in multivariate analyses to test their ...

  11. Prescription Drug Misuse among Young Adults: Looking Across Youth Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brian C; Wells, Brooke E; LeClair, Amy; Tracy, Daniel; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Golub, Sarit A

    2012-01-01

    Aims Youth cultures play a key role in the social organisation of drug trends among young people; the current prescription drug misuse trend is no different. The authors evaluated whether patterns of prescription drug misuse differed across several youth cultures. Methods Using field survey methods and time-space sampling during 2011, the authors assessed the patterns and prevalence of prescription drug misuse among young adults who are socially active in various urban youth cultures (n = 1781). Findings The prevalence of lifetime prescription drug misuse is highest within indie rock scenes (52.5%), electronic dance music scenes (52.1%), lesbian parties (53.8%) and alt scenes (50.9%). Prescription drug misuse was lowest among young adults in hip-hop scenes (25.0%). These findings were upheld in logistic regression analyses that accounted for demographic differences across youth cultures: indie rock scenes (adjusted odds ratio = 2.11), electronic dance music scenes (adjusted odds ratio = 2.20), lesbian parties (adjusted odds ratio = 2.30) and alt scenes (adjusted odds ratio = 2.65) all reported statistically significant (P drug misuse mirrored patterns for lifetime misuse. Conclusions: The differing prevalence of prescription drug misuse across distinct youth cultures suggests that the trend has not diffused equally among young people. The differing prevalence across youth cultures indicates that the most efficacious strategies for youth intervention may be targeted approaches that account for the subculturally rooted differences in attitudes and social norms. PMID:23190213

  12. Current lifestyle of young adults treated for cancer in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, S E; Radford, M

    1995-05-01

    The aim of this study was to look at the current lifestyle of young adult survivors of childhood cancer between the ages of 16 and 30 years to document their achievements and expose any psychosocial problems. Sixty six young adult survivors were contacted and asked if they and their siblings (16-30 years) would take part in a lifestyle study; 48 patients and 38 sibling controls were interviewed. This took the form of a structured lifestyle questionnaire, a self esteem questionnaire (Oxford Psychologists Press), and an unstructured interview. Fifty five per cent of patients achieved five or more A-C grades at 'O' level/GCSE compared with 62% of siblings and a national average of 30%. Despite that these patients were significantly less likely to go on to higher education than their siblings. The two groups were equally employable and earning similar salaries. There were three cases of known employer prejudice. A slightly higher percentage of patients than siblings had their driving licence. Seventeen patients felt their appearance had changed and eight felt that they had a residual physical mobility problem. Both groups were socially active and equally likely to partake in competitive sports. There was no overall difference in the self esteem of the two groups. In general the survivors of childhood cancer were coping well in their young adult life and achieving the same lifestyle goals as their siblings. However, significant problems have been identified. PMID:7618909

  13. OBSERVATIONAL STUDY ON FOOT PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION IN YOUNG AND ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanimozhi,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, the plantar pressure has widely been accepted as a vital biomechanical parameter to evaluate human biomechanics.. The present study endeavours to find the effect of age in foot pressure distribution and its influence over medial, lateral, anterior and posterior mask of foot pressure distribution. It is an observational and comparative study on foot pressure distribution in young (25-35 years and adults (40-60 years. Materials such as anthropometric rod, weighing machine and Podia Scan including Harrison mats have been used for the purpose of this study. Both an inter group and intra group comparison has been made. The mean and SD values of medial & lateral masks in the case of young subjects were 16.98±2.80 & 16.13±2.77, while these were 13.72±1.59 & 19.38±1.58 in old subjects indicating the lateralisation of weight bearing in adults. Nevertheless, the difference in plantar pressure distribution was not statistically significant when anterior mask (t=1.819, p<0.05 and posterior mask (t=1.907,p<0.05 were compared between young and adults.

  14. Suicide Risks among Adolescents and Young Adults in Rural China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibo Zhao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In China, suicide is one of the major causes of death among adolescents and young adults aged 15 to 34 years. Aim: The current study examines how risk factors vary by age groups in rural China, referring to those aged 15 to 24 years and those aged 25 to 34 years. Method: A case-control psychological autopsy (PA study is conducted in sixteen counties from three Chinese provinces, including 392 suicide cases and 416 community living controls in the sample. Results: In China, young adults aged 25 to 34 years have a higher risk for suicide than adolescents aged 15 to 24 years, and it holds true even controlling for relevant social factors. In addition, age-related factors such as education, marital status, whether having children, status in the family, physical health, and personal income all have varying degrees of impact on suicide risks for rural youth. Conclusions: This study shows that there are some age-related risk factors for suicide at certain life stages and emphasizes that young adults in rural China aged 25 to 34 years have an increased risk of suicide as a result of experiencing more psychological strains with age.

  15. Youth and young adult physical activity and body composition of young adult women: findings from the dietary intervention study in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Melissa G; Hovinga, Mary; Shepherd, John A; Egleston, Brian; Gabriel, Kelley; Van Horn, Linda; Robson, Alan; Snetselaar, Linda; Stevens, Victor K; Jung, Seungyoun; Dorgan, Joanne

    2015-02-01

    This study prospectively investigates associations between youth moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and body composition in young adult women using data from the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC) and the DISC06 Follow-Up Study. MVPA was assessed by questionnaire on 5 occasions between the ages 8 and 18 years and at age 25-29 years in 215 DISC female participants. Using whole body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), overall adiposity and body fat distribution were assessed at age 25-29 years by percent body fat (%fat) and android-to-gynoid (A:G) fat ratio, respectively. Linear mixed effects models and generalized linear latent and mixed models were used to assess associations of youth MVPA with both outcomes. Young adult MVPA, adjusted for other young adult characteristics, was significantly inversely associated with young adult %fat (%fat decreased from 37.4% in the lowest MVPA quartile to 32.8% in the highest (p-trend = 0.02)). Adjusted for youth and young adult characteristics including young adult MVPA, youth MVPA also was significantly inversely associated with young adult %fat (β=-0.40 per 10 MET-hrs/wk, p = .02) . No significant associations between MVPA and A:G fat ratio were observed. Results suggest that youth and young adult MVPA are important independent predictors of adiposity in young women. PMID:25387239

  16. Depression Treatment Non-adherence and its Psychosocial Predictors: Differences between Young and Older Adults?

    OpenAIRE

    Stein-Shvachman, Ifat; Karpas, Dikla Segel; Werner, Perla

    2013-01-01

    Depression is a common disease among young and older adults. Although it can be treated, non-adherence is very common among individuals of different ages. The aim of the present paper is to review and summarize research findings regarding depression among young and older adults, with a special focus on the phenomenon of treatment non-adherence among young and older adults with depression. The first section of the review focuses on describing the characteristics of depression in young and olde...

  17. TREATMENT OF ADOLESCENT AND YOUNG ADULTS WITH ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep-Maria Ribera

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this review was to update and discuss the current concepts andthe results of the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL in adolescents and young adults(AYA. After a brief consideration of the epidemiologic and clinicobiologic characteristics of ALLin the AYA population, the main retrospective comparative studies stating the superiority ofpediatric over adult-based protocols were reviewed. The most important prospective studies inyoung adults using pediatric inspired or pediatric unmodified protocols were also reviewedemphasizing their feasibility at least up to the age of 40 yr and their promising results, with eventfreesurvival rates of 60-65% or greater. Results of trials from pediatric groups have shown that theunfavourable prognosis of adolescents is no more adequate. The majority of the older adolescentswith ALL can be cured with risk-adjusted and minimal residual disease-guided intensivechemotherapy, without stem cell transplantation. However, some specific subgroups, which aremore frequent in adolescents than in children (e.g., early pre-T, iAMP21, and BCR-ABL-like,deserve particular attention. In summary, the advances in treatment of ALL in adolescents havebeen translated to young adults, and that explains the significant improvement in survival of thesepatients in recent years.

  18. Metabolic syndrome and Framingham risk score in obese young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix F. Widjaja

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increase number of the metabolic syndrome (MetS among young adults was mostly caused by obesity. MetS increases the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD which can be estimated by Framingham risk score (FRS. The study was aimed to know the prevalence of MetS and FRS in obese young adults and to associate them with the components of MetS. Methods: A total of 70 male and female students aged 18 to 25 years with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 in Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia were selected consecutively. The blood samples used to test fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and triglyceride were examined in Department of Clinical Pathology, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital after fasting for 14 to 16 hours. International Diabetes Federation (IDF definition was used to diagnose MetS. Univariate and bivariate analysis were done. Results: The prevalence of MetS based on IDF definition was 18.6% among obese young adults. The most associated MetS components was hypertriglyceridemia (OR 12.13; 95% CI 2.92-50.46; p = 0.001, followed with high blood pressure (OR 9.33; 95% CI 2.26-38.56; p = 0.001, low-HDL (OR 8.33; 95% CI 2.17-32.05; p = 0.003, and impaired fasting glucose (p = 0.03. Four subjects had FRS ≥ 1% and 66 subjects had risk < 1%. Increased FRS was not associated with MetS (p = 0.154. There was no component of MetS associated with increased FRS. Conclusion: Prevalence of MetS in obese young adults was similar with obese children and adolescents. Although no association of MetS and FRS was found, they are significant predictors for CHD which should not be used separately. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:100-6Keywords: Abdominal obesity, Framingham risk score, metabolic syndrome, young adults

  19. Young adult veteran perceptions of peers' drinking behavior and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Eric R; Marshall, Grant N; Schell, Terry L; Neighbors, Clayton

    2016-02-01

    Social norms-based interventions have shown promise in reducing drinking behavior and the resulting consequences in young adults. Although most research has focused on young civilians (i.e., college students), some studies have investigated social norms-based interventions with active-duty military and veteran samples. Yet, research has not yet determined how to maximize the effectiveness of social norms-based interventions in this heavy-drinking population. As an initial step toward this goal, the current study utilized a community sample of 1,023 young adult veterans to examine (a) whether veteran perceptions of the drinking behavior of their veteran peers differ from their perceptions of civilian drinking behavior, (b) whether perceptions of specific veteran groups differ from the actual drinking behavior of veterans within those groups, (c) what levels of specificity in reference groups (same-gender civilians, same-branch veterans, same-gender veterans, or same-branch-and-gender veterans) are most strongly associated with veterans' own drinking, and (d) whether perceptions about others' attitudes toward drinking also contribute independently of perceived behavioral norms to veteran drinking. Findings indicated that participants perceived that other veterans drank more than civilians and that veteran groups drank more than veterans in the sample actually drank. Veteran-specific perceived behavioral norms were similar in their associations with drinking outcomes, whereas same-gender civilian perceived behavioral norms exhibited little or no associations with drinking. Veteran-specific perceived attitudinal norms exhibited little or no association with drinking behavior after controlling for perceived behavioral norms. These findings can be used to inform the development of social norms interventions for young adult veterans. PMID:26415056

  20. A Young Adult Diet for Adults: Bring on the Good Stuff!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follos, Alison

    2004-01-01

    "Title Trekking program" is a young adult reading program that encourages students to read books from a carefully selected reading list and reflect about them in a journal. The program's momentum comes from personal communication and encouragement, which includes staff sharing good books with their students, sharing them with each other, and…

  1. The experience of transition in adolescents and young adults transferring from paediatric to adult care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fegran, Liv; Ludvigsen, Mette Spliid; Aagaard, Hanne;

    Introduction: Despite research and implementation of transition models in the last decades, transfer from paediatric to adult care still poses great challenges. Predominantly studies on health care transition have been based on the perspective of experts or health care professionals. Aim: To...... synthesize qualitative studies on how adolescents and young adults with chronic diseases experience transition from paediatric to adult care. Methods: Literature search in major databases covering the years from 1999 to November 2010 was performed. Further forward citation snowballing search was conducted in...

  2. The association of levels of physical activity with metabolic syndrome in rural Australian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laatikainen Tiina

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity (PA reduces risk factors related to metabolic syndrome. Rurality influences the way people incorporate physical activity into daily life. The aim of this study is to determine the association of PA level with metabolic syndrome in a rural Australian population. The influence of adiposity on these associations is also investigated. Methods Three cross-sectional population health surveys were conducted in south-east Australia during 2004–2006 using a random population sample (n = 1563, participation rate 49% aged 25–74 years. PA was assessed via a self-administered questionnaire, and components of the metabolic syndrome via anthropometric measurements taken by specially trained nurses and laboratory tests. Results Approximately one-fifth of participants were inactive in leisure-time and over one-third had metabolic syndrome (men 39%, women 33%; p = 0.022. There was an inverse association between level of PA and metabolic syndrome (p Conclusion Some PA is better than none if adults, particularly women, are to reduce their risk of metabolic syndrome and associated vascular diseases. Specialised interventions that take rurality into consideration are recommended for adults who are inactive.

  3. Young adult females' perceptions of high-risk social media behaviors: a focus-group approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virden, Amber L; Trujillo, Angelia; Predeger, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    This study describes young adult female college students' perceptions of risky social media behaviors. A sample of 14 young adult females, aged 18-22 years and residing in an urban university, participated in 1 of 3 focus groups held in campus housing. Data analysis yielded 4 themes surrounding young adults' engagement in risky behaviors associated with social media. Themes described the predominant culture, associated risk, and prevention. Important insights into young adult female college students' thoughts on risky social media behaviors can be used by advanced practice nurses to inform preventive education for young college women. PMID:25051319

  4. Integrating Adolescents and Young Adults into Adult-Centered Care for IBD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Itishree; Holl, Jane L; Hanauer, Stephen; Keefer, Laurie

    2016-05-01

    Planned healthcare transition, initiated in pediatric care, is a gradual process aimed at fostering the adolescent patient's disease knowledge and skills with the ultimate objective of preparing patients and families for adult-centered care. The process is critical in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) where there is an increased risk of non-adherence, hospitalizations, and emergency department use as young adult patients graduate from pediatric to adult-centered care. While evidence for healthcare transition in IBD is mounting, important gaps remain in the understanding of this process from the perspective of the adult gastroenterologist. This paper summarizes what is known about healthcare transition in IBD and explores the unanswered questions-a conceptual and methodological framework for transition interventions, relevant outcomes that define successful transition, and key stakeholder perspectives. For the adult gastroenterologist managing the young adult patient population, this paper presents the paradigm of "care integration"-a process of ongoing, multi-modality support for the patient, initiated in the adult care setting, with the goal of improving self-management skills and active participation in medical decision-making. PMID:27086002

  5. Vowel perception by noise masked normal-hearing young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richie, Carolyn; Kewley-Port, Diane; Coughlin, Maureen

    2005-08-01

    This study examined vowel perception by young normal-hearing (YNH) adults, in various listening conditions designed to simulate mild-to-moderate sloping sensorineural hearing loss. YNH listeners were individually age- and gender-matched to young hearing-impaired (YHI) listeners tested in a previous study [Richie et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 114, 2923-2933 (2003)]. YNH listeners were tested in three conditions designed to create equal audibility with the YHI listeners; a low signal level with and without a simulated hearing loss, and a high signal level with a simulated hearing loss. Listeners discriminated changes in synthetic vowel tokens /smcapi e ɛ invv æ/ when F1 or F2 varied in frequency. Comparison of YNH with YHI results failed to reveal significant differences between groups in terms of performance on vowel discrimination, in conditions of similar audibility by using both noise masking to elevate the hearing thresholds of the YNH and applying frequency-specific gain to the YHI listeners. Further, analysis of learning curves suggests that while the YHI listeners completed an average of 46% more test blocks than YNH listeners, the YHI achieved a level of discrimination similar to that of the YNH within the same number of blocks. Apparently, when age and gender are closely matched between young hearing-impaired and normal-hearing adults, performance on vowel tasks may be explained by audibility alone.

  6. Now and Then - Diasporic Identity Processes among South Asian Young Adults in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2008-01-01

    . The young adults are perceived as active actors in relation to their life situation. The results show the young adults as well as parental generations´ reinterpretation of the self, other and home. They also depict that the young adults’ diasporic identities involve the countries of origin as well as...

  7. Emotional memory for musical excerpts in young and older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene eAlonso

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The emotions evoked by music can enhance recognition of excerpts. It has been suggested that memory is better for high than for low arousing music (Eschrich et al., 2005; Samson et al., 2009, but it remains unclear whether positively (Eschrich et al., 2008 or negatively valenced music (Aubé et al., 2013; Vieillard and Gilet, 2013 may be better recognized. Moreover, we still know very little about the influence of age on emotional memory for music. To address these issues, we tested emotional memory for music in young and older adults using musical excerpts varying in terms of arousal and valence. Participants completed immediate and 24h delayed recognition tests. We predicted highly arousing excerpts to be better recognized by both groups in immediate recognition. We hypothesized that arousal may compensate consolidation deficits in aging, thus showing more prominent benefit of high over low arousing stimuli in older than younger adults on delayed recognition. We also hypothesized worst retention of negative excerpts for the older group, resulting in a recognition benefit for positive over negative excerpts specific to older adults. Our results suggest that although older adults had worse recognition than young adults overall, effects of emotion on memory do not seem to be modified by aging. Results on immediate recognition suggest that recognition of low arousing excerpts can be affected by valence, with better memory for positive relative to negative low arousing music. However, 24h delayed recognition results demonstrate effects of emotion on memory consolidation regardless of age, with a recognition benefit for high arousal and for negatively valenced music. The present study highlights the role of emotion on memory consolidation. Findings are examined in light of to the literature on emotional memory for music and for other stimuli. We finally discuss the implication of the present results for potential music interventions in aging and

  8. Psychosocial Correlates of Sunburn among Young Adult Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon L. Manne

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Skin cancer is an increasingly common disease, particularly among young adult women. Sunburn early in life is a risk factor for skin cancer. Few studies have reported on psychosocial correlates of sunburn. The current study consisted of an online survey of undergraduate women from a university in the northeastern part of the USA. A logistic regression demonstrated that young women who reported a history of four or more sunburns were significantly more likely to report fair skin, higher perceived susceptibility to skin cancer, greater perceived benefits of tanning (e.g., appearance enhancement, lower perceived control over skin protection, and more frequent sunscreen use. Sunbathing was not associated with a greater number of sunburns. These results suggest that young women who sunburn more often possess other skin cancer risk factors, are aware of their susceptibility to skin cancer, and try to use sunscreen, but feel limited control over their skin protection behavior and are not less likely to sunbathe than others. Therefore, interventions are needed to assist high risk young women in asserting more control over their sun protection behavior and perhaps improve the effectiveness of the sunscreen or other skin protection methods they do employ.

  9. Young Adults' Perceived Purposes of Emerging Adulthood: Implications for Cohabitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Adam A; Willoughby, Brian J; Nelson, Larry J

    2016-05-18

    The authors investigated associations between young adults' perceived purposes of emerging adulthood and their attitudes toward and participation in cohabitation. In a sample of 775 never married individuals, ages 18-29 (69% female, 69% white) from the United States, young people's perceptions of this period of life were associated with their acceptance of cohabitation, their reasoning for accepting cohabitation, and the likelihood of cohabiting. Results showed that the perception that emerging adulthood is a time to prepare for future family roles was negatively associated with acceptance of cohabitation whereas the perception that emerging adulthood is a time to take risks was positively associated with acceptance of cohabitation. The perception that emerging adulthood is a time to prepare for future family roles was associated with an increased likelihood of having cohabited while the perception that emerging adulthood is a time of possibilities was associated with a decreased likelihood of having cohabited. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:26645897

  10. The importance of taste on dietary choice, behaviour and intake in a group of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourouniotis, S; Keast, R S J; Riddell, L J; Lacy, K; Thorpe, M G; Cicerale, S

    2016-08-01

    The 'taste of food' plays an important role in food choice. Furthermore, foods high in fat, sugar and salt are highly palatable and associated with increased food consumption. Research exploring taste importance on dietary choice, behaviour and intake is limited, particularly in young adults. Therefore, in this study a total of 1306 Australian university students completed questionnaires assessing dietary behaviors (such as how important taste was on food choice) and frequency of food consumption over the prior month. Diet quality was also assessed using a dietary guideline index. Participants had a mean age of 20 ± 5 years, Body Mass Index (BMI) of 22 ± 3 kg/m(2), 79% were female and 84% Australian. Taste was rated as being a very or extremely important factor for food choice by 82% of participants. Participants who rated taste as highly important, had a poorer diet quality (p = 0.001) and were more likely to consume less fruit (p = 0.03) and vegetables (p = 0.05). Furthermore, they were significantly more likely to consume foods high in fat, sugar and salt, including chocolate and confectionary, cakes and puddings, sweet pastries, biscuits, meat pies, pizza, hot chips, potato chips, takeaway meals, soft drink, cordial and fruit juice (p = 0.001-0.02). They were also more likely to consider avoiding adding salt to cooking (p = 0.02) and adding sugar to tea or coffee (p = 0.01) as less important for health. These findings suggest that the importance individuals place on taste plays an important role in influencing food choice, dietary behaviors and intake. PMID:26972352

  11. Perception of young adults toward hookah use in Mumbai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K K Dani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The use of tobacco has been on the rise globally including in India, posing a grave public health problem. Recently, tobacco use through hookah smoking has increased among young adults in India, Middle East, Southwest Asia, Africa, Europe and North America. Hookah prevalence of 0.4-15% has been reported in India. AIM: The aim of the study was to understand perception of hookah use among young adults in Mumbai. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 500 college students, with/without hookah habit, were given a self-administered questionnaire to indicate their perception of hookah use, using yes/no responses. The responses were analyzed in the users/non-users and considered significantly different at P < 0.05. RESULTS: Responses were received from 122 hookah users and 325 non-users. The perception of hookah use between users and non-users and males and females, showed significant differences (P < 0.05, with respect to hookah being injurious to health, causes cancer, is addictive, influence of a close friend, flavors, curiosity toward hookah use and willingness to prepare hookah at home. Whereas, differences in the groups perception of hookah as safer than cigarettes, harmful air quality, ambience, cool look and means of socializing, was not observed. CONCLUSION: The perception of young adults in Mumbai, toward hookah use, indicates an increased trend to use hookah. We recommend deterrents for hookah use by display of health warnings on hookah assembly and the tobacco products, implementation of government policies on hookah and tobacco use and punitive measures for offenders.

  12. Prevention of alcohol misuse among children, youths and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korczak, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite many activities to prevent risky alcohol consumption among adolescents and young adults there is an increase of alcohol intoxications in the group of ten to twenty year old juveniles. Objectives: This report gives an overview about the recent literature as well as the German federal prevention system regarding activities concerning behavioral and policy prevention of risky alcohol consumption among children, adolescents and young adults. Furthermore, effective components of prevention activities are identified and the efficiency and efficacy of ongoing prevention programs is evaluated. Methods: A systematic literature review is done in 34 databases using Bool’sche combinations of the key words alcohol, prevention, treatment, children, adolescents and young adults. Results: 401 studies were found and 59 studies were selected for the health technology assessment (HTA. Most of the studies are done in USA, nine in Germany. A family strengthening program, personalized computer based intervention at schools, colleges and universities, brief motivational interventions and policy elements like increase of prices and taxes proved effective. Discussion: Among the 59 studies there are three meta-analyses, 15 reviews, 17 randomized controlled trials (RCT and 18 cohort studies. Despite the overall high quality of the study design, many of them have methodological weaknesses (missing randomization, missing or too short follow-ups, not clearly defined measurement parameters. The transferability of US-results to the German context is problematic. Only a few prevention activities reach a sustainable reduction of frequency and/or amount of alcohol consumption. Conclusion: The HTA-report shows the need to develop specific and target group focused prevention activities for the German situation. Essential for that is the definition of target goals (reduction of consumption, change of behaviour as well as the definition and empirical validation

  13. Bone scanning in the child and young adult. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensitivity of the radionuclide bone scan in identifying osteoblastic reaction in bone and in detecting local alterations in blood flow is valuable in many benign diseases involving bone, particularly those which are more common in children and young adults, and in which early detection may be critical to future health. Bone scanning offers a simple yet reliable means for establishing an early diagnosis, evaluating the extent of the disease, and assessing the therapeutic response in disorders resulting from infection, trauma, or vascular insult. Useful information may also be obtained in disturbances of growth and development, and in congenital lesions. (orig.)

  14. Posture and Texting: Effect on Balance in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurwulan, Nurul Retno; Jiang, Bernard C; Iridiastadi, Hardianto

    2015-01-01

    Using a mobile phone while doing another activity is a common dual-task activity in our daily lives. This study examined the effect of texting on the postural stability of young adults. Twenty college students were asked to perform static and dynamic postural stability tasks. Traditional COP and multivariate multiscale entropy (MMSE) were used to assess the static postural stability and the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) was used to assess the dynamic postural stability. Results showed that (1) texting impaired postural stability, (2) the complexity index did not change much although the task conditions changed, and (3) performing texting is perceived to be more difficult. PMID:26230323

  15. Comorbidity patterns in adolescents and young adults with suicide attempts

    OpenAIRE

    Wunderlich, Ursula; Bronisch, Thomas; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    The role of comorbidity as a risk for suicide attempts is investigated in a random sample of 3021 young adults aged 14–24 years. The M-CIDI, a fully standardized and modified version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, was used for the assessment of various DSM-IV lifetime and 12-month diagnoses as well as suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Of all suicide attempters, 91% had at least one mental disorder, 79% were comorbid or multimorbid respectively and 45% had four or m...

  16. "Coming out" stories of gay and lesbian young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Nicole E

    2010-01-01

    Gay and lesbian young adults (N = 53) were interviewed about coming out to their parents. Analyses of memory content were conducted. Hypotheses related to disclosure were largely supported. Participants typically first disclosed their sexual orientation to a friend. More participants came out to their mother than their father. When disclosure was made to both parents, mothers were told prior to fathers. Mothers were often told using direct methods, whereas fathers were typically informed using indirect methods. Mothers tended to inquire about their sons' sexuality; mothers inquired less with daughters. Findings are discussed in relation to autobiographical memory, sexuality, and clinical literatures. PMID:20924929

  17. Posture and Texting: Effect on Balance in Young Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Retno Nurwulan

    Full Text Available Using a mobile phone while doing another activity is a common dual-task activity in our daily lives. This study examined the effect of texting on the postural stability of young adults. Twenty college students were asked to perform static and dynamic postural stability tasks. Traditional COP and multivariate multiscale entropy (MMSE were used to assess the static postural stability and the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT was used to assess the dynamic postural stability. Results showed that (1 texting impaired postural stability, (2 the complexity index did not change much although the task conditions changed, and (3 performing texting is perceived to be more difficult.

  18. Whole Body Vibration Improves Cognition in Healthy Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    G Ruben H Regterschot; van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; Zeinstra, Edzard B.; Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Lara Tucha; Janneke Koerts; Oliver Tucha; Van der Zee, Eddy A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV) on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5±2.2 years) underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm) and six non-vibration control sessions of two minutes each while sitting on a chair mounted on a vibrating platform. A passive WBV session was alternated with a control session. Directly after each session, performance on the ...

  19. Bone scanning in the child and young adult. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensitivity of the radionuclide bone scan in identifying osteoblastic reaction in bone and in detecting local alterations in blood flow is valuable in many benign diseases involving bone, particularly those which are more common in children and young adults, and in which early detection may be critical to future health. Bone scanning offers a simple, yet reliable means for establishing an early diagnosis, evaluating the extent of the disease, and assessing the therapeutic response in disorders resulting from infection, trauma or vascular insult. Useful information may also be obtained in disturbances of growth and development, and in congenital lesions. (orig.)

  20. Self-objectification, body image disturbance, and eating disorder symptoms in young Australian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongenelis, Michelle I; Byrne, Susan M; Pettigrew, Simone

    2014-06-01

    Self-objectification has been examined extensively in adult populations. Despite theoretical evidence suggesting that children may also be vulnerable to experiencing self-objectification, whether children do self-objectify has not been determined. Accordingly, the present study examined the degree to which children self-objectify. The prevalence of body image and eating disturbances in this population, and the relationship between self-objectification and these disturbances, were also investigated. Results from over 250 boys and girls aged 6-11 years revealed that young girls report levels of self-objectification that are similar to those observed among older girls and women. Self-objectification was also found to be meaningfully related to body image and eating disturbances in children. A significant proportion of children reported body dissatisfaction and a minority engaged in disordered eating behaviours in the four weeks prior to the assessment. These results suggest that children may be at risk of experiencing the negative psychological outcomes associated with self-objectification. PMID:24958665

  1. Feasibility of implementing routine nutritional screening for older adults in Australian general practices: a mixed-methods study

    OpenAIRE

    Hamirudin, Aliza Haslinda; Charlton, Karen; Walton, Karen; Bonney, Andrew; Potter, Jan; Milosavljevic, Marianna; Hodgkins, Adam; Albert, George; Ghosh, Abhijeet; Dalley, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background Nutrition screening in older adults is not routinely performed in Australian primary care settings. Low awareness of the extent of malnutrition in this patient group, lack of training and time constraints are major barriers that practice staff face. This study aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of including a validated nutrition screening tool and accompanying nutrition resource kit for use with older patients attending general practice. Secondary aims were to assess nutrition-re...

  2. Regional Differences in Correlates of Daily Walking among Middle Age and Older Australian Rural Adults: Implications for Health Promotion

    OpenAIRE

    James Dollman; Melissa Hull; Nicole Lewis; Suzanne Carroll; Dorota Zarnowiecki

    2016-01-01

    Rural Australians are less physically active than their metropolitan counterparts, and yet very little is known of the candidate intervention targets for promoting physical activity in rural populations. As rural regions are economically, socially and environmentally diverse, drivers of regular physical activity are likely to vary between regions. This study explored the region-specific correlates of daily walking among middle age and older adults in rural regions with contrasting dominant pr...

  3. Gender differences in pornography consumption among young heterosexual Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Gert Martin

    2006-01-01

    The aims of the study were (1) to investigate gender differences in pornography consumption among Danish adults aged 18-30 and (2) to examine gender differences in situational, interpersonal, and behavioral characteristics of pornography consumption. A national survey study was conducted using a...... representative sample of 688 young heterosexual Danish adult men and women. The study found large gender differences in prevalence rates of pornography consumption and consumption patterns. Compared to women, men were exposed to pornography at a younger age, consumed more pornography as measured by time and...... frequency, and used pornography more often during sexual activity on their own. Gender differences in the interpersonal context of use were also evident, with women using pornography more often with a regular sexual partner than men. In turn, men were found to use pornography more often on their own or with...

  4. Social cognition and communication skills in Asperger syndrome young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Figueira

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to compare patients with Asperger syndrome (AS and control participants on social cognition tasks and communication skills. Twenty young adults were assessed in three social cognition domains; recognition of basic emotions, recognition of complex emotions and Theory of Mind (ToM. In addition participants completed a self-report questionnaire as a measure of social communication skills. The results indicate that adults with AS perform below neurotypical control participants in emotion processing, ToM and communication skills. There were no significant correlations between the variables of social cognition and communication skills in the group of AS. Taken together, results suggest that people with a diagnosis of AS present a deficit in ToM and emotional processing as well as in communication skills. However, it was not possible to identify a significant association between the variables of social cognition and communication skills.

  5. Combinations of Types of Mental Health Services Received in the Past Year Among Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spotlight December 08, 2015* Combinations of types of mental health services received in the past year among young adults Combinations of types of mental health services received in the past year among young ...

  6. Clinical Feature And Pathogeny Analysis Of Brain Hemorrhage In Young Adult Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jianming; Zeng Xiaoyun

    2000-01-01

    Objection: The trend of brain hemorrhage cases of young adults have increased recently. In this article, We studied brain hemorrhage clinical feature and pathogenic causes of 72 young adults, Whose ages are all beneath 45Y. We found That the major pathogen reasons of young adult brain hemorrhage are blood system diseases、 arteriovenous malformation of cerebral blood vessel、 hypertension arteriosclerosis、 arteritis and rheumatic heart disease et. We also found that the trend can be related to hard work、 tense life、 drinking too much alcohol and eating high lipid food, and cercbral vascular disease family history. So in order to reduce the incidence of young adult brain hemorrhage, Young adults should not drink and smoke heavily, should not eat too much high lipid food. Young adults who have hypertension and brain vessel disease family history should be regularly measured blood pressure and blood lipid. If they had hypertension, should be treated regularly.

  7. The Effects of Special Education Support on Young Australian School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Ian; Valentine, Megan; Colyvas, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Determining the effectiveness of many special education interventions is most difficult because of the practical and ethical limitations associated with assigning participants to a control or non-treated group. Using Longitudinal Study of Australian Children data, this article utilised eight different propensity score analysis methods to determine…

  8. Australian adult smokers’ responses to plain packaging with larger graphic health warnings 1 year after implementation: results from a national cross-sectional tracking survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Melanie; Coomber, Kerri; Zacher, Meghan; Durkin, Sarah; Brennan, Emily; Scollo, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Background We assessed whether the Australian plain packs with larger graphic health warnings (GHWs) achieved three specific objectives of reducing the appeal of tobacco, increasing health warning effectiveness and reducing the ability of packaging to mislead about smoking harms. Methods We compared responses from continuous cross-sectional telephone surveys of n=2176 cigarette smokers during pre-plain packaging (April–September 2012, pre-PP) with n=759 surveyed in the transition period (October–November 2012) and n=4240 during the first year of implementation (December 2012–November 2013, PP year 1), using multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results From pre-PP to PP year 1, more smokers disliked their pack (ppack appeal (pcigarette quality (ppacks (pcigarettes compared with a year ago. Interactions signified greater change for four outcomes assessing aspects of appeal among young adults and two appeal outcomes among mid-aged adults. Conclusions The specific objectives of plain packaging were achieved and generally sustained among adult smokers up to 12 months after implementation.

  9. Neural Mechanisms of Reading Facial Emotions in Young and Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Natalie C Ebner; Johnson, Marcia K.; Fischer, Håkan

    2012-01-01

    The ability to read and appropriately respond to emotions in others is central for successful social interaction. Young and older adults are better at identifying positive than negative facial expressions and also expressions of young than older faces. Little, however, is known about the neural processes associated with reading different emotions, particularly in faces of different ages, in samples of young and older adults. During fMRI, young and older participants identified expressions in ...

  10. Neural mechanisms of reading facial emotions in young and older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Natalie Christina Ebner; Johnson, Marcia K.; Håkan eFischer

    2012-01-01

    The ability to read and appropriately respond to emotions in others is central for successful social interaction. Young and older adults are better at identifying positive than negative facial expressions and expressions of young than older faces. Little, however, is known about the neural processes associated with reading different emotions, particularly in faces of different ages, in samples of young and older adults. During fMRI, young and older participants identified expressions in ha...

  11. Young Children as Active Citizens in Local Government: Possibilities and Challenges from an Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomaeus, Clare; Gregoric, Carolyn; Krieg, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Despite considerable research and discussion regarding children and young people's rights and citizenship, the participation of young children in community decision-making is still limited. In this exploratory research, a case study is reported on how ideas about young children as active citizens are interpreted within one local government…

  12. Being Close and Being Social: Peer Ratings of Distinct Aspects of Young Adult Social Competence

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, Justine J.; Whitton, Sarah W.; HAUSER, STUART T.; Allen, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    The present study had three main objectives: (1) to develop and validate scales of young adult social competence in two domains, close relationships and social groups, using peer ratings of California Q-sort (Block, 1974; Kremen & Block, 2002) items; (2) to test the hypothesis that social competence is associated with young adult well-being and ego development; (3) to test the hypothesis that close relationship competence aligns more closely than social group competence with young adult funct...

  13. The changing determinants of UK young adults' living arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Juliet Stone; Ann Berrington; Jane Falkingham

    2011-01-01

    The postponement of partnership formation and parenthood in the context of an early average age at leaving home has resulted in increased heterogeneity in the living arrangements of young adults in the UK. More young adults now remain in the parental home, or live independently of the parental home but outside of a family. The extent to which these trends are explained by the increased immigration of foreign-born young adults, the expansion in higher education, and the increased economic inse...

  14. Change and continuity in family formation among young adults in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Berrington, Ann

    2003-01-01

    Data from the 1958 and 1970 British birth cohorts permit comparison of family formation patterns among young adults. We present evidence of changes in the speed and extent to which young adults enter first partnership, marry and become parents, and the relationships between these events. There remain remarkable continuities in social class differences. The intergenerational perspective demonstrates how persistent class differences in the family formation trajectories of young adults are in pa...

  15. Wii balance board exercise improves balance and lower limb muscle strength of overweight young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Siriphorn, Akkradate; Chamonchant, Dannaovarat

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The potential health benefits of the Nintendo Wii balance board exercise have been widely investigated. However, no study has been conducted to examine the benefits of Wii exercise for overweight young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise performed on a Nintendo Wii balance board on the balance and lower limb muscle strength in overweight young adults. [Subjects and Methods] Within-subject repeated measures analysis was used. Sixteen young adults (...

  16. How effective are tobacco industry bar and club marketing efforts in reaching young adults?

    OpenAIRE

    Gilpin, E. A.; White, V M; Pierce, J. P.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Recently, the tobacco industry has focused marketing efforts on young adults through bar and club promotions, such as advertising and distribution of free cigarettes in these settings. This study estimates the fraction of the California young adult population that might be exposed and potentially influenced by these efforts. Design and participants: Data were from 9364 young adult ( 18-29 years) respondents to the cross sectional population based 2002 California Tobacco Survey. As ...

  17. Young Adult Gambling Behaviors and their Relationship with the Persistence of ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Breyer, Jessie L.; Botzet, Andria M.; Winters, Ken C.; Stinchfield, Randy D.; August, Gerald; Realmuto, George

    2009-01-01

    Young adulthood is a period renowned for engagement in impulsive and risky behaviors, including gambling. There are some indications that young adults exhibit higher gambling rates in comparison to older adults. Problem gambling has also been linked to ADHD. This longitudinal study examines the relationship between gambling and ADHD among an epidemiological sample of young adults (n = 235; males = 179, females = 56) aged 18–24. Results indicate that individuals who report childhood ADHD sympt...

  18. Leisure time computer use and overweight development in young adults – a prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Thomée, Sara; Lissner, Lauren; Hagberg, Mats; Grimby-Ekman, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence of overweight among Swedish young adults has nearly doubled since the 1980s. The weight increase has been paralleled by the increased use of computers at work, at school, and at leisure time. The aim was to examine leisure time computer use for gaming, and for emailing/chatting, in relation to overweight development in young adults. Methods A prospective cohort study with Swedish young adults (20–24 years at baseline) who responded to a questionnaire at baseline (n =...

  19. Depressive symptoms and serum lipid levels in young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Carolyn Y; Egleston, Brian L; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Stevens, Victor J; Kwiterovich, Peter O; Snetselaar, Linda G; Longacre, Margaret L; Dorgan, Joanne F

    2013-04-01

    Accumulating data suggest that depression is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but few studies have investigated potential behavioral mediators of such associations, particularly among women. In this study of healthy young adult women (n = 225), we examined associations among depressive symptoms, health behaviors, and serum lipid levels. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale, and a fasting blood sample was obtained for serum lipid levels, including total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C). Diet was measured using 24-h recalls, and other health behaviors (physical activity, smoking) were assessed via self-report questionnaire. Results indicated a modest negative association between depressive symptoms and LDL-C levels. Higher levels of depressive symptoms were also associated with lower total and insoluble dietary fiber intake, both of which were associated with HDL-C and LDL-C. Mediational analyses indicated a significant indirect effect of depressive symptoms on LDL-C via total and insoluble dietary fiber in unadjusted analyses, but not in adjusted analyses. The present findings suggest that depressive symptoms are inversely associated with serum LDL-C levels in young adult women, but that these associations are not likely mediated by adverse lifestyle behaviors. PMID:22382824

  20. Clues of subjective social status among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, François; Roos, J Micah; Combs, R M

    2015-07-01

    We investigate determinants of subjective social status (SSS) as measured by respondents placing themselves on a ten-rung ladder from least to most "money", "education" and "respected job", in a large sample of young adults. The most potent clues of SSS are proximate in the life course, reflecting educational attainment and current socioeconomic and job situation, rather than distal characteristics such as family background, although relatively distal High school GPA has a lingering effect. Additional analyses reveal that College selectivity has a substantial impact on SSS, net of other variables in the model; Currently married does not significantly contribute to SSS, but contrary to some expectations Number of children significantly lowers SSS. We find no evidence of greater "status borrowing" by women as associations of SSS with shared household characteristics (Household income, Household assets, Home ownership) do not differ by gender. Our findings for these young adults support the conclusion of earlier research that SSS reflects a "cognitive averaging" of standard dimensions of socioeconomic status. PMID:26004468

  1. Prediction Equation for Calculating Fat Mass in Young Indian Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Accurate measurement or prediction of fat mass is useful in physiology, nutrition and clinical medicine. Most predictive equations currently used to assess percentage of body fat or fat mass, using simple anthropometric measurements were derived from people in western societies and they may not be appropriate for individuals with other genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. We developed equations to predict fat mass from anthropometric measurements in young Indian adults. Methods Fat mass was measured in 60 females and 58 males, aged 20 to 29 yrs by using hydrostatic weighing and by simultaneous measurement of residual lung volume. Anthropometric measure included weight (kg, height (m and 4 skinfold thickness [STs (mm]. Sex specific linear regression model was developed with fat mass as the dependent variable and all anthropometric measures as independent variables. Results The prediction equation obtained for fat mass (kg for males was 8.46+0.32 (weight − 15.16 (height + 9.54 (log of sum of 4 STs (R2= 0. 53, SEE=3.42 kg and − 20.22 + 0.33 (weight + 3.44 (height + 7.66 (log of sum of 4 STs (R2=0.72, SEE=3.01kg for females. Conclusion A new prediction equation for the measurement of fat mass was derived and internally validated in young Indian adults using simple anthropometric measurements.

  2. Perpetuation theory and the racial segregation of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Pat Rubio

    2016-03-01

    Previous research confirms a strong empirical association between the racial composition of young adults' residential areas and the racial compositions of the residential areas and schools of their youth. Perpetuation theory predicts that part of this association is causal. The present study uses data from the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS) and the U.S. Censuses of 1990 and 2000 to test for this effect with regression models, propensity-score-weighted models with robustness tests, and regression models that look at long-distance movers. The findings suggest that the association declines rapidly as the distance moved increases, but it remains robust even at long distances. It is also stronger for African Americans and more assimilated Latinos than for whites and less assimilated Latinos. These findings suggests that to some extent, young white, African American, and Latino adults are residentially segregated from each other because they grew up that way. Policies that promote integrating youth residentially and/or desegregating schools may contribute to residential integration over time. PMID:26857168

  3. Young Adult Dystopias: Bildungsroman for the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Gavrilović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines young adult dystopian novels written in the first decade of the 21st century, as heirs to the tradition of the bildungsroman, and the great dystopias. The focus of this new genre has shifted from maintaining "the best of all worlds" – where the young person adjusts and fits into the existing world, to the shaping of the hero’s critical spirit which is supposed to result in the hero/heroine growing up, but also in changes in the world which they inhabit. Two other important characteristics of these novels are the critical relationship toward ancestors and tradition on the one hand, and on the other the positive assessment of non-rational decisions which are made impulsively and are based on emotions, which points to the abandonment of different aspects of the heritage of modernity (the traditions of rationalism and romanticism. Thus they set the stage for a new, different view of the world and the role which the individual is to fulfill by growing from a child into an adult in such a world.

  4. Whole body vibration improves cognition in healthy young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Ruben H Regterschot

    Full Text Available This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5±2.2 years underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm and six non-vibration control sessions of two minutes each while sitting on a chair mounted on a vibrating platform. A passive WBV session was alternated with a control session. Directly after each session, performance on the Stroop Color-Block Test (CBT, Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT, Stroop Difference Score (SDS and Digit Span Backward task (DSBT was measured. In half of the passive WBV and control sessions the test order was CBT-CWIT-DSBT, and DSBT-CBT-CWIT in the other half. Passive WBV improved CWIT (p = 0.009; effect size r = 0.20 and SDS (p = 0.034; r = 0.16 performance, but only when the CBT and CWIT preceded the DSBT. CBT and DSBT performance did not change. This study shows that two minutes passive WBV has positive acute effects on attention and inhibition in young adults, notwithstanding their high cognitive functioning which could have hampered improvement. This finding indicates the potential of passive WBV as a cognition-enhancing therapy worth further evaluation, especially in persons unable to perform active forms of exercise.

  5. Whole body vibration improves cognition in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regterschot, G Ruben H; Van Heuvelen, Marieke J G; Zeinstra, Edzard B; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Oliver; Van Der Zee, Eddy A

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV) on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5±2.2 years) underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm) and six non-vibration control sessions of two minutes each while sitting on a chair mounted on a vibrating platform. A passive WBV session was alternated with a control session. Directly after each session, performance on the Stroop Color-Block Test (CBT), Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT), Stroop Difference Score (SDS) and Digit Span Backward task (DSBT) was measured. In half of the passive WBV and control sessions the test order was CBT-CWIT-DSBT, and DSBT-CBT-CWIT in the other half. Passive WBV improved CWIT (p = 0.009; effect size r = 0.20) and SDS (p = 0.034; r = 0.16) performance, but only when the CBT and CWIT preceded the DSBT. CBT and DSBT performance did not change. This study shows that two minutes passive WBV has positive acute effects on attention and inhibition in young adults, notwithstanding their high cognitive functioning which could have hampered improvement. This finding indicates the potential of passive WBV as a cognition-enhancing therapy worth further evaluation, especially in persons unable to perform active forms of exercise. PMID:24949870

  6. Physical activity, body composition and metabolic syndrome in young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna K Salonen

    Full Text Available Low physical activity (PA is a major risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in all age groups. We measured intensity and volume of PA and examined the associations between PA and the metabolic syndrome (MS, its components and body composition among young Finnish adults.The study comprises 991 men and women born 1985-86, who participated in a clinical study during the years 2009-11 which included assessments of metabolism, body composition and PA. Objectively measured (SenseWear Armband five-day PA data was available from 737 participants and was expressed in metabolic equivalents of task (MET.The prevalence of MS ranged between 8-10%. Higher total mean volume (MET-hours or intensity (MET were negatively associated with the risk of MS and separate components of MS, while the time spent at sedentary level of PA was positively associated with MS.MS was prevalent in approximately every tenth of the young adults at the age of 24 years. Higher total mean intensity and volume rates as well as longer duration spent at moderate and vigorous PA level had a beneficial impact on the risk of MS. Longer time spent at the sedentary level of PA increased the risk of MS.

  7. The Role of Cultural and Spiritual Expressions in Affirming a Sense of Self, Place, and Purpose among Young Urban, Indigenous Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Marian; Rymarz, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This article sets out to discuss the impact that urban living has had on the lives of young Indigenous people. It will seek to discover some of the problems that occur when there is a meeting of two cultures, in this case the Indigenous culture of Australian Aboriginal people and the mainstream culture that has been derived largely from west…

  8. Young People outside the Labour Force and Full-Time Education: Activities and Profiles. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth. Research Report 45

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Kylie

    2005-01-01

    This report focuses on a group of young people who are not involved in full-time education or the labour force, that is, they are not studying full-time, nor are they working or looking for work. The data used in this report are drawn from the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY), which studies the progress of cohorts of young…

  9. Psychological predictors of young adults' use of social networking sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kathryn; Fornasier, Stephanie; White, Katherine M

    2010-04-01

    Young people are increasingly using social networking sites (SNSs) like MySpace and Facebook to engage with others. The use of SNSs can have both positive and negative effects on the individual; however, few studies identify the types of people who frequent these Internet sites. This study sought to predict young adults' use of SNSs and addictive tendency toward the use of SNSs from their personality characteristics and levels of self-esteem. University students (N = 201), aged 17 to 24 years, reported their use of SNSs and addictive tendencies for SNSs use and completed the NEO Five-Factor Personality Inventory and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Multiple regression analyses revealed that, as a group, the personality and self-esteem factors significantly predicted both level of SNS use and addictive tendency but did not explain a large amount of variance in either outcome measure. The findings indicated that extroverted and unconscientious individuals reported higher levels of both SNS use and addictive tendencies. Future research should attempt to identify which other psychosocial characteristics explain young people's level of use and propensity for addictive tendencies for these popular Internet sites. PMID:20528274

  10. Somatosensory mismatch response in young and elderly adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juho M. Strömmer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with cognitive decline and alterations in early perceptual processes. Studies in the auditory and visual modalities have shown that the mismatch negativity (or the mismatch response, MMR, an event-related potential (ERP elicited by a deviant stimulus in a background of homogenous events, diminishes with aging and cognitive decline. However, the effects of aging on the somatosensory MMR are not known. In the current study, we recorded ERPs to electrical pulses to different fingers of the left hand in a passive oddball experiment in young (22–36 years and elderly (66–95 years adults engaged in a visual task. The MMR was found to deviants as compared to standards at two latency ranges: 180–220 ms and 250–290 ms post-stimulus onset. At 180–220 ms, within the young, the MMR was found at medial electrode sites, whereas aged did not show any amplitude difference between the stimulus types at the same latency range. At 250–290 ms, the MMR was evident with attenuated amplitude and narrowed scalp distribution among aged (Fz compared to young (fronto-centrally and lateral parietal sites. Hence, the results reveal that the somatosensory change detection mechanism is altered in aging. The somatosensory MMR can be used as a reliable measure of age-related changes in sensory-cognitive functions.

  11. Serum Predictors of Percent Lean Mass in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustgarten, Michael S; Price, Lori L; Phillips, Edward M; Kirn, Dylan R; Mills, John; Fielding, Roger A

    2016-08-01

    Lustgarten, MS, Price, LL, Phillips, EM, Kirn, DR, Mills, J, and Fielding, RA. Serum predictors of percent lean mass in young adults. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2194-2201, 2016-Elevated lean (skeletal muscle) mass is associated with increased muscle strength and anaerobic exercise performance, whereas low levels of lean mass are associated with insulin resistance and sarcopenia. Therefore, studies aimed at obtaining an improved understanding of mechanisms related to the quantity of lean mass are of interest. Percent lean mass (total lean mass/body weight × 100) in 77 young subjects (18-35 years) was measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Twenty analytes and 296 metabolites were evaluated with the use of the standard chemistry screen and mass spectrometry-based metabolomic profiling, respectively. Sex-adjusted multivariable linear regression was used to determine serum analytes and metabolites significantly (p ≤ 0.05 and q ≤ 0.30) associated with the percent lean mass. Two enzymes (alkaline phosphatase and serum glutamate oxaloacetate aminotransferase) and 29 metabolites were found to be significantly associated with the percent lean mass, including metabolites related to microbial metabolism, uremia, inflammation, oxidative stress, branched-chain amino acid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, glycerolipid metabolism, and xenobiotics. Use of sex-adjusted stepwise regression to obtain a final covariate predictor model identified the combination of 5 analytes and metabolites as overall predictors of the percent lean mass (model R = 82.5%). Collectively, these data suggest that a complex interplay of various metabolic processes underlies the maintenance of lean mass in young healthy adults. PMID:23774283

  12. Older maternal age is associated with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in young adult female offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tearne, Jessica E; Robinson, Monique; Jacoby, Peter; Allen, Karina L; Cunningham, Nadia K; Li, Jianghong; McLean, Neil J

    2016-01-01

    The evidence regarding older parental age and incidence of mood disorder symptoms in offspring is limited, and that which exists is mixed. We sought to clarify these relationships by using data from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. The Raine Study provided comprehensive data from 2,900 pregnancies, resulting in 2,868 live born children. A total of 1,220 participants completed the short form of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21) at the 20-year cohort follow-up. We used negative binomial regression analyses with log link and with adjustment for known perinatal risk factors to examine the extent to which maternal and paternal age at childbirth predicted continuous DASS-21 index scores. In the final multivariate models, a maternal age of 30-34 years was associated with significant increases in stress DASS-21 scores in female offspring relative to female offspring of 25- to 29-year-old mothers. A maternal age of 35 years and over was associated with increased scores on all DASS-21 scales in female offspring. Our results indicate that older maternal age is associated with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in young adult females. Further research into the mechanisms underpinning this relationship is needed. PMID:26569038

  13. The Experiences of Mothers of Young Adults with an Intellectual Disability Transitioning from Secondary School to Adult Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyke, Paula; Bourke, Jenny; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; Leonard, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Background: The transition from school to adulthood for young adults with an intellectual disability involves movement from a generally secure and supported school environment to an emerging adult life that may be characterised by a wide variation in adoption of adult roles related to employment, independent living, friendships, and day…

  14. Patterns of Tobacco Use and Dual Use in US Young Adults: The Missing Link between Youth Prevention and Adult Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M. Rath

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Few studies address the developmental transition from youth tobacco use uptake to regular adulthood use, especially for noncigarette tobacco products. The current study uses online panel data from the Legacy Young Adult Cohort Study to describe the prevalence of cigarette, other tobacco product, and dual use in a nationally representative sample of young adults aged 18–34 (=4,201. Of the 23% of young adults who were current tobacco users, 30% reported dual use. Ever use, first product used, and current use were highest for cigarettes, cigars, little cigars, and hookah. Thirty-two percent of ever tobacco users reported tobacco product initiation after the age of 18 and 39% of regular users reported progressing to regular use during young adulthood. This study highlights the need for improved monitoring of polytobacco use across the life course and developing tailored efforts for young adults to prevent progression and further reduce overall population prevalence.

  15. Germ Cell Tumors in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaminus, Gabriele; Joffe, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Germ cell tumors (GCTs) represent a group of biologically complex malignancies that affect patients at different sites within the body and at different ages. The varying nature of these tumors reflects their cell of origin which is the primordial germ cell, which normally gives rise to ovarian and testicular egg and sperm producing cells. These cells retain an ability to give rise to all types of human tissues, and this is illustrated by the different kinds of GCTs that occur. In adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients, GCTs predominantly present as testicular, ovarian or mediastinal primary GCTs, and represent some of the most complex therapeutic challenges within any AYA practice. The varying types of GCTs, defined by primary site and/or age at presentation, can look very similar microscopically. However, there is growing evidence that they may have different molecular characteristics, different biology and different requirements for curative treatments. Whilst in adult testicular GCTs there is evidence for an environmental cause during fetal development and a genetic component, these causative factors are much less well understood in other GCTs. GCTs are some of the most curable cancers in adults, but some patients exhibit resistance to standard treatments. Because of this, today's clinical research is directed at understanding how to best utilize toxic therapies and promote healthy survivorship. This chapter explores the biology, behavior and treatment of GCTs and discusses how the AYA group of GCTs may hold some of the keys to understanding fundamental unanswered questions of biological variance and curability in GCTs. PMID:27595361

  16. Religious Background and Gambling Among Young Adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uecker, Jeremy E; Stokes, Charles E

    2016-03-01

    Despite the rapid growth of the gambling industry over the last 40 years, there have been few large-scale, nationally representative longitudinal studies of gambling among young adults. We use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health to investigate whether and how the gambling behavior of young adults is associated with their religious beliefs and practices during adolescence. We find that young adults who grew up as conservative Protestants, mainline Protestants, Mormons, and Jehovah's Witnesses; those were raised in a community with a higher percentage of conservative Protestants; and those who attended religious services weekly are less likely to have ever gambled. Among gamblers, young adults who attended religious services up to three times per month as adolescents are more likely to experience gambling problems than those who never attend. Notably, accounting for a young adult's propensity for risk-taking behavior does not explain the associations between religion and gambling. PMID:25722077

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  11. Andragogy for Teen and Young Adult Learners with Intellectual Disabilities: Learning, Independence, and Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Stephanie L.; Plourde, Lee A.

    2012-01-01

    Teens and young adults with Intellectual Disabilities (ID) meet the criteria of teen and adult learners chronologically, but may be deficient in many other areas of teen and adult learning. The spectrum of intellectual and adaptive capabilities among teens and adults with ID is vast, with each individual being unique. There are specific teaching…

  12. Shared decision-making: the perspectives of young adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiley J

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Janice Wiley,1 Mary Westbrook,1 Jerry R Greenfield,2,3 Richard O Day,4 Jeffrey Braithwaite11Centre for Clinical Governance Research in Health, Australian Institute of Health Innovation, University of New South Wales, 2Diabetes and Obesity Program, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, 3Department of Endocrinology, St Vincent's Hospital, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 4Department of Clinical Pharmacology, St Vincent's Hospital, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, AustraliaBackground: Shared decision-making (SDM is at the core of patient-centered care. We examined whether young adults with type 1 diabetes perceived the clinician groups they consulted as practicing SDM.Methods: In a web-based survey, 150 Australians aged 18–35 years and with type 1 diabetes rated seven aspects of SDM in their interactions with endocrinologists, diabetes educators, dieticians, and general practitioners. Additionally, 33 participants in seven focus groups discussed these aspects of SDM.Results: Of the 150 respondents, 90% consulted endocrinologists, 60% diabetes educators, 33% dieticians, and 37% general practitioners. The majority of participants rated all professions as oriented toward all aspects of SDM, but there were professional differences. These ranged from 94.4% to 82.2% for "My clinician enquires about how I manage my diabetes"; 93.4% to 82.2% for "My clinician listens to my opinion about my diabetes management"; 89.9% to 74.1% for "My clinician is supportive of my diabetes management"; 93.2% to 66.1% for "My clinician suggests ways in which I can improve my self-management”; 96.6% to 85.7% for “The advice of my clinician can be understood”; 98.9% to 82.2% for “The advice of my clinician can be trusted”; and 86.5% to 67.9% for “The advice of my clinician is consistent with other members of the diabetes team". Diabetes educators received the highest ratings on all aspects of SDM. The mean weighted average of

  13. Life Satisfaction of Young Australians: Relationships between Further Education, Training and Employment and General and Career Satisfaction. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth Research Report 43

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Kylie; McMillan, Julie

    2005-01-01

    Prepared by the Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER) under an agreement with the Australian Government Department of Education, Science and Training (DEST), this report has three broad aims: (1) To describe the relationship between life satisfaction and participation in a range of post-school education, training and labour market…

  14. Covering young adults under the Affordable Care Act: the importance of outreach and Medicaid expansion: findings from the Commonwealth Fund Health Insurance Tracking Survey of Young Adults, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sara R; Rasmussen, Petra W; Garber, Tracy; Doty, Michelle M

    2013-08-01

    There is concern that many young adults (ages 19--29) will remain without health insurance in 2014 despite the Affordable Care Act's reforms, including subsidized private coverage offered in new state marketplaces and expanded Medicaid eligibility. How things turn out will likely depend on outreach efforts and states' decisions on expanding Medicaid. Commonwealth Fund Health Insurance Tracking Survey data from 2011 and 2013 show increasing awareness among young adults of the 2010 requirement that health plans cover children under age 26. Of the estimated 15 million young adults enrolled in a parent's plan in the prior 12 months, 7.8 million would not likely have been eligible to enroll prior to the law. Still, only 27 percent of 19-to-29-year-olds are aware of the marketplaces. Meanwhile, most uninsured young adults living below poverty will not have access to subsidized public or private insurance in states opting out of the Medicaid expansion. PMID:24044138

  15. Relationships Between Weight, Physical Activity, and Back Pain in Young Adult Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Sharmayne R E; Hussain, Sultana Monira; Brown, Wendy J; Heritier, Stephane; Billah, Baki; Wang, Yuanyuan; Teede, Helena; Urquhart, Donna M; Cicuttini, Flavia M

    2016-05-01

    Back pain causes enormous financial and disability burden worldwide, which could potentially be reduced by understanding its determinants to develop effective prevention strategies. Our aim was to identify whether modifiable risk factors, weight and physical activity, are predictive of back pain in young adult women.Women born between 1973 and 1978 were randomly selected from the national health insurance scheme database to participate in The Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health. Self-reported data on back pain in the last 12 months, weight, height, age, education status, physical activity, and depression were collected in 2000, 2003, 2006, 2009, and 2012. In 2000, 9688 women completed the questionnaire and 83% completed follow-up 12 years later.At baseline, median age was 24.6 years and 41% had self-reported back pain. For every 5 kg higher weight at baseline, there was a 5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 4%-6%) increased risk of back pain over the next 12 years. Higher weight at each survey also predicted back pain risk 3 years later (P depression were independent predictors of back pain over the following 12 years (both P women. Higher weight, inadequate levels of physical activity, and depression were all independent predictors of back pain over the following decade. Furthermore, the adverse effects of weight on back pain were not mitigated by physical activity. Our findings highlight the role of both higher weight and physical inactivity in back pain among young women and suggest potential opportunities for future prevention. PMID:27175634

  16. Time series analysis of the impact of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence among Australian adults, 2001?2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie A Wakefield

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To determine the impact of tobacco control policies and mass media campaigns on smoking prevalence in Australian adults. Methods Data for calculating the average monthly prevalence of smoking between January 2001 and June 2011 were obtained via structured interviews of randomly sampled adults aged 18 years or older from Australia’s five largest capital cities (monthly mean number of adults interviewed: 2375. The influence on smoking prevalence was estimated for increased tobacco taxes; strengthened smoke-free laws; increased monthly population exposure to televised tobacco control mass media campaigns and pharmaceutical company advertising for nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, using gross ratings points; monthly sales of NRT, bupropion and varenicline; and introduction of graphic health warnings on cigarette packs. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA models were used to examine the influence of these interventions on smoking prevalence. Findings The mean smoking prevalence for the study period was 19.9% (standard deviation: 2.0%, with a drop from 23.6% (in January 2001 to 17.3% (in June 2011. The best-fitting model showed that stronger smoke-free laws, tobacco price increases and greater exposure to mass media campaigns independently explained 76% of the decrease in smoking prevalence from February 2002 to June 2011. Conclusion Increased tobacco taxation, more comprehensive smoke-free laws and increased investment in mass media campaigns played a substantial role in reducing smoking prevalence among Australian adults between 2001 and 2011.

  17. Time series analysis of the impact of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence among Australian adults, 2001–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coomber, Kerri; Durkin, Sarah J; Scollo, Michelle; Bayly, Megan; Spittal, Matthew J; Simpson, Julie A; Hill, David

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the impact of tobacco control policies and mass media campaigns on smoking prevalence in Australian adults. Methods Data for calculating the average monthly prevalence of smoking between January 2001 and June 2011 were obtained via structured interviews of randomly sampled adults aged 18 years or older from Australia’s five largest capital cities (monthly mean number of adults interviewed: 2375). The influence on smoking prevalence was estimated for increased tobacco taxes; strengthened smoke-free laws; increased monthly population exposure to televised tobacco control mass media campaigns and pharmaceutical company advertising for nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), using gross ratings points; monthly sales of NRT, bupropion and varenicline; and introduction of graphic health warnings on cigarette packs. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models were used to examine the influence of these interventions on smoking prevalence. Findings The mean smoking prevalence for the study period was 19.9% (standard deviation: 2.0%), with a drop from 23.6% (in January 2001) to 17.3% (in June 2011). The best-fitting model showed that stronger smoke-free laws, tobacco price increases and greater exposure to mass media campaigns independently explained 76% of the decrease in smoking prevalence from February 2002 to June 2011. Conclusion Increased tobacco taxation, more comprehensive smoke-free laws and increased investment in mass media campaigns played a substantial role in reducing smoking prevalence among Australian adults between 2001 and 2011. PMID:24940015

  18. Support of young adults with dyslexia: what is (in)effective support according to the young adult, their parent(s), tutor and therapist?

    OpenAIRE

    De Brauwer, Jolien; Meersschaert, Ellen; Aerts, Annelies; Loncke, Maaike; Geudens, Astrid

    2011-01-01

    Young adults with dyslexia face specific problems related to their studies and/or internship. This poses specific demands to the support of this target group. In the present study we aimed to gather as much effective aspects of support as possible, from the viewpoints of different parties involved, by means of semi-structured interviews. In a follow-up study questionnaires will be developed to quantify the findings of the interviews. Four different roles were considered: young adults with dys...

  19. Australian Qualifications Framework Lower-Level Qualifications: Pathways to Where for Young People?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanwick, John

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates where certificate I and II qualifications lead young people aged 15-24 years in terms of employment and further study. A prime motivation for young people undertaking these qualifications is to facilitate transition into the labour market. These qualifications are aimed at developing basic vocational skills or preparatory…

  20. Effect of Obesity on Arch Index in Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneha Sameer Ganu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Excessive increases in weight bearing forces caused by obesity may negatively affect the lower limbs and feet but minimal research has examined the long-term loading effects of obesity on the musculoskeletal system, particularly in reference to the feet. Objectives: The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of obesity on medial longitudinal arch of foot in young adults. Method: 60 subjects, 30 obese & 30 non obese were assessed for height & weight using standard technique. Radiographic images under static condition were used for calculating the arch index. Result: The arch index of obese subjects was significantly lower than the non obese subjects & there is a negative correlation between the BMI & the arch index. Conclusion: These results suggests that obesity lowers the medial longitudinal arch of foot.

  1. Topical spironolactone reduces sebum secretion rates in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, A; Ito, M

    1996-04-01

    The effects of topically applied spironolactone on the sebum secretion rates (SSR) of young adults were investigated. SSR was expressed as the ratio of wax esters/[cholesterol+cholesterol esters] (WE/[C+CE]) and the amount of sebaceous lipids (squalene, triacylglycerol and wax esters). Topical spironolactone 5% gel applied to the right cheeks of the subjects produced a significant reduction in the SSR at 12 weeks (4 weeks after termination of application), but not at 8 weeks (the end of treatment). Untreated "control" areas (the left cheeks of the subjects) showed no significant change during the study. None of the subjects experienced skin rash or signs of local irritation. This results suggests that topical spironolactone may be effective in the treatment of acne patients with high SSR. PMID:8935338

  2. Breast cancer in adolescent and young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewefel, Hanan; Salhia, Bodour

    2014-12-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed malignancy among adolescent and young adult (AYA) women, accounting for approximately 14% of all AYA cancer diagnoses and 7% of all breast cancer. Breast cancer in AYA women is believed to represent a more biologically aggressive disease, but aside from commonly known hereditary predispositions, little is still known about the underlying molecular genetic causes. This review examines the current trends of breast cancer in AYA women as they relate to clinical, social, genetic, and molecular pathologic characteristics. We highlight existing trends, treatment and imaging approaches, and health burdens as they relate to breast cancer in AYA women and provide a discussion on ways to help improve the overall management of this breast cancer cohort. PMID:25034440

  3. The Effectiveness of Aftercare for Juvenile and Young Adult Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Chrissy; Asscher, Jessica J; Stams, Geert Jan J M; van der Laan, Peter H

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the New Perspectives Aftercare Program (NPAP) for serious juvenile and young adult offenders in The Netherlands. Participants (n = 127) were randomly assigned to NPAP (n = 66) or existing aftercare services ("treatment as usual" [TAU], n = 61). The aim was to determine whether NPAP was effective in decreasing cognitive distortions and criminal thinking patterns and increasing prosocial skills of the juveniles compared with TAU. No direct intervention effects were found on any of the outcome measures. Moderator analyses, however, showed several interaction effects of ethnicity and coping skills for both NPAP and TAU youths. Furthermore, NPAP dropouts displayed significantly more indirect aggression at posttest compared with youths dropping out from TAU. Possible explanations for the mostly null effects are discussed, including implications for further research, policy, and practice. PMID:25829455

  4. Cardiovascular Disease in Survivors of Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugbjerg, Kathrine; Mellemkjaer, Lene; Boice, John D;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease has emerged as a serious late effect in survivors of adolescent and young adult cancer, but risk has not been quantified comprehensively in a population-based setting. METHODS: In the Danish Cancer Registry, we identified 43153 1-year survivors of cancer diagnosed...... at ages 15 to 39 years (1943-2009) and alive in 1977; from the Danish Civil Registration System, we randomly selected a comparison cohort of the same age and sex. Subjects were linked to the Danish Patient Register, and observed numbers of first hospitalizations for cardiovascular disease (International...... Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision codes I10-I79) were compared with the expected numbers derived from the comparison cohort. We calculated the absolute excess risks attributable to status as a survivor of cancer and standardized hospitalization rate ratios (RRs). All statistical tests were two...

  5. Primary care for young adult cancer survivors: an international perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi; Blake-Gumbs, Lyla; Miedema, Baujke;

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: Internationally, family physicians (FP) are not routinely involved in young adult cancer (YAC) care. In this short report, we would like to make a compelling argument for primary care involvement. METHODS: Comparative descriptions and literature review. RESULTS: Cancer among YAs is rare...... psychosocial issues the YA cancer patient may present with. The role of the FP in follow-up care seems to be very limited. CONCLUSIONS: YACs in the western world seem to have comparable medical and psychosocial problems. However, the nature of health insurance is such that it impacts differently on the care of...... this group of cancer patients. Primary care features such as patient-centered, integrated, and comprehensive care over extended periods of time bring the FP into the unique position to provide follow-up for YAC. However, this will require integrating patient's perspectives on their care, professional...

  6. Marital arrangements in Baja California and its young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Ojeda

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Uniones libres or consensual union formation has increased in Mexico and this is not an exception in its Northern region. Information from the Mexican Population and Household Census of 2010 and the Survey on Reproductive Health of Adolescents in Baja California, 2006 show that unión libre as an preferential type of conjugal arrangement is more clearly manifested among the Baja California’s youth of both sexes in general and particularly among those residing in Tijuana and Rosarito. Also, union libre formation among the Baja California’s youth is extensively associated with childbearing what seems to indicate continuity in its traditional role in the Mexican family formation process, but this is happening in higher proportions among the young adults of the new generations.

  7. Orphanhood and fertility in young adults: Evidence from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzoli, Carlos G

    2016-09-01

    I study the relation between orphanhood and fertility patterns in young adults using a longitudinal survey from the city of Cape Town, South Africa. The data set combines two survey waves with a year-by-year life history calendar that records key outcomes (e.g., schooling, work, fertility). It also provides information on so-called 'parental investments' (time and material support), family background, and literacy and numeracy test scores. I find that orphans exhibit significantly higher rates of teenage pregnancy. In particular, teenage motherhood is 19% points more likely among (female) orphans. These results suggest that orphanhood may leave a long-lasting 'imprint' in terms of premature fertility, especially in teenage females. PMID:27239730

  8. Sweet and sour preferences in young children and adults: role of repeated exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, D.G.; Graaf, de C.

    2004-01-01

    The authors investigated the influence of repeated exposure to orangeades with added sucrose and different concentrations of citric acid, on the taste preferences of 6- to-11-year-old children and young adults. During an intervention study of 8 days, 59 children (9.2±0.9 years) and 46 young adults (

  9. Education, Employment, and Independent Living of Young Adults Who Are Deaf and Hard of Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelman, Karen I.; Callahan, Judy Ottren; Mayer, Margaret H.; Luetke, Barbara S.; Stryker, Deborah S.

    2012-01-01

    Little information is available on the education, employment, and independent living status of young deaf and hard of hearing adults who have transitioned from high school. The present article reports post-secondary outcomes of 46 young adults who had attended for at least 4 years a non-public agency school in the northwestern United States…

  10. Meanings of Good Nonresidential Fathering: The Recollections of Young Adults with a Childhood Experience of Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wages, Alan, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the meanings of good nonresidential fathering from the recollections of young adults with a childhood experience of divorce. An additional purpose was to identify barriers and contributions to good nonresidential fathering from the viewpoint of young adults. A phenomenological perspective was used to…

  11. Reading for a Better World: Teaching for Social Responsibility with Young Adult Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolk, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Teaching for social responsibility should be one of the vital aims of our schools. Young adult literature offers an authentic, meaningful, and critical way to teach for social responsibility. This article offers an overview of the different elements of social responsibility and some young adult novels and graphic novels that could be used to teach…

  12. Understanding Tobacco-Related Attitudes among College and Noncollege Young Adult Hookah and Cigarette Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youn Ok; Bahreinifar, Sareh; Ling, Pamela M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine differences in tobacco-related attitudes and hookah and cigarette use among college and noncollege young adults. Participants: Time-location samples of young adult bar patrons in San Diego, California ("N" = 2,243), Tulsa ("N" = 2,095) and Oklahoma City ("N" = 2,200), Oklahoma, Albuquerque…

  13. Parent Perceptions of Time Spent Meaningfully by Young Adults with Pervasive Support Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Zachary; Lehr, Donna; Lederer, Leslie; Pelerin, Dana; Huang, Shuoxi

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative study that examined how 23 young adults with pervasive support needs and limited functional communication spent their time and how their parents (n = 23) and direct support professionals (DSPs; n = 2) defined meaningfulness in relation to the young adults' experiences. Data were collected through…

  14. Young Adults' Linguistic Manipulation of English in Bangla in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Shaila

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed in the print media that bilingual young adults in Bangladesh are subjugated by the colonial legacy of English and they are "polluting" Bangla, the national language of Bangladesh, by their indiscriminate insertion of English in it. However, this ethnographic study on a group of young adults in a university in…

  15. How effective are tobacco industry bar and club marketing efforts in reaching young adults?

    OpenAIRE

    Gilpin, E.; White, V; Pierce, J.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Recently, the tobacco industry has focused marketing efforts on young adults through bar and club promotions, such as advertising and distribution of free cigarettes in these settings. This study estimates the fraction of the California young adult population that might be exposed and potentially influenced by these efforts.

  16. Exploring the Psychosocial and Behavioral Adjustment Outcomes of Multi-Type Abuse among Homeless Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Kristin M.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the psychosocial and behavioral adjustment outcomes associated with verbal, emotional, physical, and sexual abuse among homeless young adults as well as the associations among abuse types. Convenience sampling was used to select 28 homeless young adults (ages 18 to 24) from one drop-in center. Overall, subjects experienced…

  17. The Experience of Anxiety in Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trembath, David; Germano, Carmela; Johanson, Graeme; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety is known to be common among young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), yet little is known about the nature of their experiences or the strategies they use to live and cope with their reported anxiety. In this qualitative study, we began to address this issue through two focus groups involving 11 young adults with ASD, and 10…

  18. Demographic differences and food patterns associated with metabolic syndrome in young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MS) in young adults. Intake was collected on 1,012 young adults (20-38 years) (61% female; 26% black) using a food-frequency questionnaire. Demographics, anthropometrics, blood pressure, insulin sensitivity, and lipid profiles were quantifi...

  19. A Cyber-Room of Their Own: How Libraries Use Web Pages To Attract Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Patrick

    1997-01-01

    Examines Web sites on the Internet that were created especially for teenagers by various public libraries. Highlights include young adult areas and services in actual library buildings; a list of outstanding teen Web sites; and a list of factors to consider when creating a young adult Web page. (LRW)

  20. Foster Care Experiences and Educational Outcomes of Young Adults Formerly Placed in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havalchak, Anne; White, Catherine Roller; O'Brien, Kirk; Pecora, Peter J.; Sepulveda, Martin

    2009-01-01

    This study contributes to the body of research on the educational outcomes of young adults who were formerly placed in foster care. Telephone interviews were conducted with 359 young adults (a 54.6% response rate). Participants must have been served for at least one year by one private foster care agency in one of its twenty-two offices. Results…

  1. Respectfully Treating the Elderly: Affective and Behavioral Ways of American Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Kyu-Taik; Kim, Bum Jung; Torres-Gil, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    There has been little research on how young people respect, or disrespect, older adults. This study explored the ways in which young adults connote elder respect by utilizing two different forms of data. Based on quantitative data from a survey of 521 college students, a set of 11 behavioral forms of elder respect was obtained. Out of these forms,…

  2. Adolescent Dating Violence Prevention and Intervention in a Community Setting: Perspectives of Young Adults and Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martsolf, Donna S.; Colbert, Crystal; Draucker, Claire B.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent dating violence (ADV) is a significant community problem. In this study, we examine the perspectives of two groups (young adults who experienced ADV as teens and professionals who work with teens) on ADV prevention/intervention in a community context. We interviewed 88 young adults and 20 professionals. Our research team used Thorne's…

  3. Syndrome Specificity and Behavioural Disorders in Young Adults with Intellectual Disability: Cultural Differences in Family Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacher, J.; McIntyre, L. L.

    2006-01-01

    Background: This study examined whether behaviour problems and adaptive behaviour of low functioning young adults, and well-being of their families, varied by diagnostic syndrome intellectual disability (ID) only, cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, autism, as well as by cultural group. Methods: Behaviour disorders in young adults with moderate to…

  4. Mental Health Problems and Barriers to Service Use in Dutch Young Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Vanheusden (Kathleen)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractOnly up to one-third of young adults with a mental disorder seek professional help. The reasons for this low help-seeking rate are largely unclear. The first aim of this thesis is to explain why young adults are unlikely to seek professional help when facing mental health problems. The s

  5. Career Interests and Self-Estimated Abilities of Young Adults with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Sherri; Unkefer, Lesley Craig; Cichy, Bryan Ervin; Peper, Christine; Juang, Ju-Ping

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain vocational interests and self-estimated work-relevant abilities of young adults with disabilities. Results showed that young adults with both low incidence and high incidence disabilities have a wide range of interests and self-estimated work-relevant abilities that are comparable to those in the general…

  6. Macrostructural Narrative Language of Adolescents and Young Adults with Down Syndrome or Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finestack, Lizbeth H.; Palmer, Meghan; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To gain a better understanding of language abilities, the expressive macrostructural narrative language abilities of verbally expressive adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome (DS) and those with fragile X syndrome (FXS) were examined. Method: The authors evaluated 24 adolescents and young adults with DS, 12 male adolescents and…

  7. The Cultural Work of Magical Realism in Three Young Adult Novels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Don

    2007-01-01

    Magical realism as a literary mode is often subversive and transgressive, questioning the values and assumptions of the dominant society that it depicts. Young adult literature, by contrast, is typically thought to serve a socializing function, helping to integrate young readers into adult society. What then is the cultural work of magical realism…

  8. Reactive and Proactive Control in Incarcerated and Community Adolescents and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iselin, Anne-Marie R.; DeCoster, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the cognitive control skills of male incarcerated adolescents (n = 44), male control adolescents (n = 33), male incarcerated young adults (n = 41), and male control young adults (n = 35) using the AX-continuous performance test (AX-CPT). This test measures proactive control (the ability to maintain a mental representation of…

  9. Psychosocial problems in thalassemic adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the availability of better treatment regimen, life span of thalassemic patients is increasing. Chronic nature of thalassemia and its intensive and demanding treatment result in significant psychologic burden on the patients and their families. A lot has been studied about beta-thalassemia major but little attention has been paid to the psychological aspect of this disease. Hence, the study was planned to analyse the psychosocial problems in thalassemic adolescents and young adults. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, conducted from January 2007 to March 2008 in thalassemic day-care centre of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Fifty four thalassemic children and controls above 9 years of age were enrolled. Psychosocial assessment done with assessment of Finer Psychopathology using ICMR Symptom checklist (ICMR task force, 1983. The prevalence of various problems was calculated and compared with controls. Student′s t-test and Chi-square test were used for testing differences in variables. Results: Patients were divided into three groups - Group A (10-15 years, 30 patients; Group B (15-20 years, 18 patients, and Group C (20-25 years, 6 patients. In group A, behavior problems were common (12 patients -40% (P< 0.001, significant. In group B, mood disorders were common (8 patients, 44% (P< 0.001, significant. In group C, psychotic symptoms were common (3 patients, 50% (P< 0.05, significant. Conclusion: Our findings support the hypothesis that psychosocial problems are more in thalassemic adolescents and young adults. Psychosocial aspects need to be addressed in the overall treatment of children with thalassemia.

  10. Disgust and Sexual Arousal in Young Adult Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauvogl, Andrea; de Jong, Peter; Peters, Madelon; Evers, Silvia; van Overveld, Mark; van Lankveld, Jacques

    2015-08-01

    Previous research suggested that disgust may interfere with healthy sexual functioning by demonstrating that women with sexual pain disorders are characterized by heightened disgust propensity, relatively strong (physiological and subjective) disgust responses when exposed to sexual stimuli, and relatively strong automatic sex-disgust memory associations. To broaden the understanding of the relationship between sex and disgust, Study 1 tested the relationship between trait disgust and sexual functioning in both men (N = 109) and women (N = 187), and showed that specifically for women both relatively high disgust propensity and high sensitivity were related to lower sexual functioning. Study 2 focused on healthy young adults (N = 19 men and N = 24 women), and tested the relationship between trait disgust and automatic sex-disgust associations as well as the predictive value of trait disgust propensity for participants' level of sexual arousal while watching an erotic video. Participants completed a single-target Implicit Association Task and self-report measures of trait disgust propensity, disgust sensitivity, and sexual functioning. Furthermore, genital and subjective sexual arousal was measured, while participants were watching neutral and erotic video clips. Women showed stronger sex-disgust associations and reported higher disgust propensity than men. Overall, indices of trait disgust and sex-disgust associations were not strongly associated with sexual functioning or sexual arousability. Unexpectedly, specifically in men, high levels of trait disgust sensitivity predicted higher levels of genital and subjective sexual arousal. Overall, no strong evidence was found to support the view that, among young adults without sexual difficulties, high trait disgust or relatively strong automatic sex-disgust associations are associated with low sexual functioning and low sexual arousal. PMID:25231820

  11. Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs among young adult in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Salfa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections (STIs include a large group of widespread infectious diseases, which may cause acute symptoms, chronic infections and severe long term complications.The control and prevention of these infections are public health priorities for several reasons: • the large number of people that acquire an STI per year; • the major proportion of asymptomatic infected individuals; • the high circulation in patients with sexual risk behavior (young adults, pluripartner, men who have sex with men, foreigners, commercial sex workers; • increased biological susceptibility of some subjects, such as young adults (immature genital tissues and more receptive to pathogens, women (genital apparatus more complex and extended in which pathogens are more likely to settle, or individuals carrying states of severe immunodeficiency; • the serious complications in the event of failure or incorrect diagnosis and treatment (chronic disease, infertility, oncogenic transformation, synergy with HIV infection; • the possibility of preventing and treating many of these infections. Therefore, recent guidelines from international agencies have recommended countries from the European Union to improve epidemiological STI surveillance systems in order to standardize data collection to facilitate their comparability between different geographical areas and to improve the information flow for faster tracking of the impact; furthermore, to extend surveillance to widespread, but often asymptomatic, disease (e.g. Chlamydia trachomatis, to conduct behavioural surveillance in patients with STIs, to increase public awareness of the role of STIs in the transmission/acquisition of HIV, and to increase the commitment of institutions in the prevention and control of STIs.

  12. Cerebellar contributions to neurological soft signs in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirjak, Dusan; Thomann, Philipp A; Kubera, Katharina M; Stieltjes, Bram; Wolf, Robert C

    2016-02-01

    Neurological soft signs (NSS) are frequently found in psychiatric disorders of significant neurodevelopmental origin, e.g., in patients with schizophrenia and autism. Yet NSS are also present in healthy individuals suggesting a neurodevelopmental signature of motor function, probably as a continuum between health and disease. So far, little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying these motor phenomena in healthy persons, and it is even less known whether the cerebellum contributes to NSS expression. Thirty-seven healthy young adults (mean age = 23 years) were studied using high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and "resting-state" functional MRI at three Tesla. NSS levels were measured using the "Heidelberg Scale." Cerebellar gray matter volume was investigated using cerebellum-optimized voxel-based analysis methods. Cerebellar function was assessed using regional homogeneity (ReHo), a measure of local network strength. The relationship between cerebellar structure and function and NSS was analyzed using regression models. There was no significant relationship between cerebellar volume and NSS (p < 0.005, uncorrected for height, p < 0.05 corrected for spatial extent). Positive associations with cerebellar lobule VI activity were found for the "motor coordination" and "hard signs" NSS domains. A negative relationship was found between lobule VI activity and "complex motor task" domain (p < 0.005, uncorrected for height, p < 0.05 corrected for spatial extent). The data indicate that in healthy young adults, distinct NSS domains are related to cerebellar activity, specifically with activity of cerebellar subregions with known cortical somatomotor projections. In contrast, cerebellar volume is not predictive of NSS in healthy persons. PMID:25708455

  13. Young adults' trajectories of Ecstasy use: a population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Andrew; Najman, Jake M; Hayatbakhsh, Reza; Plotnikova, Maria; Wells, Helene; Legosz, Margot; Kemp, Robert

    2013-11-01

    Young adults' Ecstasy use trajectories have important implications for individual and population-level consequences of Ecstasy use, but little relevant research has been conducted. This study prospectively examines Ecstasy trajectories in a population-based sample. Data are from the Natural History Study of Drug Use, a retrospective/prospective cohort study conducted in Australia. Population screening identified a probability sample of Ecstasy users aged 19-23 years. Complete data for 30 months of follow-up, comprising 4 time intervals, were available for 297 participants (88.4% of sample). Trajectories were derived using cluster analysis based on recent Ecstasy use at each interval. Trajectory predictors were examined using a generalized ordered logit model and included Ecstasy dependence (World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Instrument), psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale), aggression (Young Adult Self Report) and contextual factors (e.g. attendance at electronic/dance music events). Three Ecstasy trajectories were identified (low, intermediate and high use). At its peak, the high-use trajectory involved 1-2 days Ecstasy use per week. Decreasing frequency of use was observed for intermediate and high-use trajectories from 12 months, independently of market factors. Intermediate and high-use trajectory membership was predicted by past Ecstasy consumption (>70 pills) and attendance at electronic/dance music events. High-use trajectory members were unlikely to have used Ecstasy for more than 3 years and tended to report consistently positive subjective effects at baseline. Given the social context and temporal course of Ecstasy use, Ecstasy trajectories might be better understood in terms of instrumental rather than addictive drug use patterns. PMID:23899430

  14. Stories of management in the future by young adults and young nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmoinen, Merja; Niiranen, Kaisa; Niiranen, Vuokko; Astedt-Kurki, Päivi; Suominen, Tarja

    2014-04-11

    Abstract Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the phenomenon of management by way of the ideas by secondary school students and young nurses. Background: Young adults are changing workplaces more than ever before, yet their work expectations and perspectives of management differ to those of previous generations. Methods: The data was collected from upper secondary school students and professionally educated nurses (n = 68), some of whom were immigrants (n = 41). Framed essays were used as a research method and emergent data was analysed using content analysis. Results: According to the results, good management involves systematic management, equality, appreciation of know-how, and the promotion of wellbeing at work. Conclusion: New perspectives on management were drawn from the study, in particular the multiple dimensions of equality in workplace organization and the manager's role in an employee's professional development process. Implication for nursing management: The interactive skills of the manager are emphasized in promoting wellbeing at work. This is especially so in multi-cultural teams, where the manager is expected to be adept at understanding intercultural communication and the values of young employees. PMID:24720464

  15. Pramipexole Impairs Stimulus-Response Learning in Healthy Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallant, Haley; Vo, Andrew; Seergobin, Ken N.; MacDonald, Penny A.

    2016-01-01

    Dopaminergic therapy has paradoxical effects on cognition in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, with some functions worsened and others improved. The dopamine overdose hypothesis is proposed as an explanation for these opposing effects of medication taking into account the varying levels of dopamine within different brain regions in PD. The detrimental effects of medication on cognition have been attributed to exogenous dopamine overdose in brain regions with spared dopamine levels in PD. It has been demonstrated that learning is most commonly worsened by dopaminergic medication. The current study aimed to investigate whether the medication-related learning impairment exhibited in PD patients is due to a main effect of medication by evaluating the dopamine overdose hypothesis in healthy young adults. Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 40 healthy young undergraduate students completed a stimulus-response learning task. Half of the participants were treated with 0.5 mg of pramipexole, a dopamine agonist, whereas the other half were treated with a placebo. We found that stimulus-response learning was significantly impaired in participants on pramipexole relative to placebo controls. These findings are consistent with the dopamine overdose hypothesis and suggest that dopaminergic medication impairs learning independent of PD pathology. Our results have important clinical implications for conditions treated with pramipexole, particularly PD, restless leg syndrome, some forms of dystonia, and potentially depression.

  16. Pramipexole Impairs Stimulus-Response Learning in Healthy Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallant, Haley; Vo, Andrew; Seergobin, Ken N; MacDonald, Penny A

    2016-01-01

    Dopaminergic therapy has paradoxical effects on cognition in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, with some functions worsened and others improved. The dopamine overdose hypothesis is proposed as an explanation for these opposing effects of medication taking into account the varying levels of dopamine within different brain regions in PD. The detrimental effects of medication on cognition have been attributed to exogenous dopamine overdose in brain regions with spared dopamine levels in PD. It has been demonstrated that learning is most commonly worsened by dopaminergic medication. The current study aimed to investigate whether the medication-related learning impairment exhibited in PD patients is due to a main effect of medication by evaluating the dopamine overdose hypothesis in healthy young adults. Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 40 healthy young undergraduate students completed a stimulus-response learning task. Half of the participants were treated with 0.5 mg of pramipexole, a dopamine agonist, whereas the other half were treated with a placebo. We found that stimulus-response learning was significantly impaired in participants on pramipexole relative to placebo controls. These findings are consistent with the dopamine overdose hypothesis and suggest that dopaminergic medication impairs learning independent of PD pathology. Our results have important clinical implications for conditions treated with pramipexole, particularly PD, restless leg syndrome, some forms of dystonia, and potentially depression. PMID:27594823

  17. Medical Acute Complications of Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riku-Jaakko Koivunen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Frequency and impact of medical complications on short-term mortality in young patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH have gone unstudied. Methods. We reviewed data of all first-ever nontraumatic ICH patients between 16 and 49 years of age treated in our hospital between January 2000 and March 2010 to identify medical complications suffered. Logistic regression adjusted for known ICH prognosticators was used to identify medical complications associated with mortality. Results. Among the 325 eligible patients (59% males, median age 42 [interquartile range 34–47] years, infections were discovered in 90 (28%, venous thrombotic events in 13 (4%, cardiac complications in 4 (1%, renal failure in 59 (18%, hypoglycemia in 15 (5%, hyperglycemia in 165 (51%, hyponatremia in 146 (45%, hypernatremia in 91 (28%, hypopotassemia in 104 (32%, and hyperpotassemia in 27 (8%. Adjusted for known ICH prognosticators and diabetes, the only independent complication associated with 3-month mortality was hyperglycemia (plasma glucose >8.0 mmol/L (odds ratio: 5.90, 95% confidence interval: 2.25–15.48, P<0.001. Three or more separate complications suffered also associated with increased mortality (7.76, 1.42–42.49, P=0.018. Conclusions. Hyperglycemia is a frequent complication of ICH in young adults and is independently associated with increased mortality. However, multiple separate complications increase mortality even further.

  18. Comparison of survival of adolescents and young adults with hematologic malignancies in Osaka, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata-Yamada, Kayo; Inoue, Masami; Ioka, Akiko; Ito, Yuri; Tabuchi, Takahiro; Miyashiro, Isao; Masaie, Hiroaki; Ishikawa, Jun; Hino, Masayuki; Tsukuma, Hideaki

    2016-06-01

    The survival gap between adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with hematological malignancies persists in many countries. To determine to what extent it does in Japan, we investigated survival and treatment regimens in 211 Japanese AYAs (15-29 years) in the Osaka Cancer Registry diagnosed during 2001-2005 with hematological malignancies, and compared adolescents (15-19 years) with young adults (20-29 years). AYAs with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) had a poor 5-year survival (44%), particularly young adults (29% vs. 64% in adolescents, p = 0.01). Additional investigation for patients with ALL revealed that only 19% of young adults were treated with pediatric treatment regimens compared with 45% of adolescents (p = 0.05). Our data indicate that we need to focus on young adults with ALL and to consider establishing appropriate cancer care system and guidelines for them in Japan. PMID:26695739

  19. Perceived history of anaphylaxis and parental overprotection, autonomy, anxiety, and depression in food allergic young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Linda J; Dahlquist, Lynnda M

    2008-12-01

    This study examined autonomy, anxiety, depression, and perceptions of parental behavior in 86 food allergic young adults and 344 healthy young adults between the ages of 18 and 22. Participants completed an online survey measuring self-reported autonomy, anxiety, depression, and perceptions of parental behavior. Results indicated that, as a group, food allergic young adults did not differ from healthy peers. However, food allergic young adults who reported having experienced an anaphylactic reaction described their disease as more severe, reported more worry about their disease, and rated their parents as more overprotective than food allergic young adults who reported never having experienced anaphylaxis. The experience of anaphylaxis may be a reliable indicator of food allergic individuals who are at risk for psychological distress. PMID:19104982

  20. A factor analytic investigation of the Tripartite model of affect in a clinical sample of young Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosgrave Elizabeth M

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (MASQ was designed to specifically measure the Tripartite model of affect and is proposed to offer a delineation between the core components of anxiety and depression. Factor analytic data from adult clinical samples has shown mixed results; however no studies employing confirmatory factor analysis (CFA have supported the predicted structure of distinct Depression, Anxiety and General Distress factors. The Tripartite model has not been validated in a clinical sample of older adolescents and young adults. The aim of the present study was to examine the validity of the Tripartite model using scale-level data from the MASQ and correlational and confirmatory factor analysis techniques. Methods 137 young people (M = 17.78, SD = 2.63 referred to a specialist mental health service for adolescents and young adults completed the MASQ and diagnostic interview. Results All MASQ scales were highly inter-correlated, with the lowest correlation between the depression- and anxiety-specific scales (r = .59. This pattern of correlations was observed for all participants rating for an Axis-I disorder but not for participants without a current disorder (r = .18. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to evaluate the model fit of a number of solutions. The predicted Tripartite structure was not supported. A 2-factor model demonstrated superior model fit and parsimony compared to 1- or 3-factor models. These broad factors represented Depression and Anxiety and were highly correlated (r = .88. Conclusion The present data lend support to the notion that the Tripartite model does not adequately explain the relationship between anxiety and depression in all clinical populations. Indeed, in the present study this model was found to be inappropriate for a help-seeking community sample of older adolescents and young adults.

  1. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of internet addiction in young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepede, Gianna; Tavino, Margherita; Santacroce, Rita; Fiori, Federica; Salerno, Rosa Maria; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To report the results of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies pertaining internet addiction disorder (IAD) in young adults. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review on PubMed, focusing our attention on fMRI studies involving adult IAD patients, free from any comorbid psychiatric condition. The following search words were used, both alone and in combination: fMRI, internet addiction, internet dependence, functional neuroimaging. The search was conducted on April 20th, 2015 and yielded 58 records. Inclusion criteria were the following: Articles written in English, patients’ age ≥ 18 years, patients affected by IAD, studies providing fMRI results during resting state or cognitive/emotional paradigms. Structural MRI studies, functional imaging techniques other than fMRI, studies involving adolescents, patients with comorbid psychiatric, neurological or medical conditions were excluded. By reading titles and abstracts, we excluded 30 records. By reading the full texts of the 28 remaining articles, we identified 18 papers meeting our inclusion criteria and therefore included in the qualitative synthesis. RESULTS: We found 18 studies fulfilling our inclusion criteria, 17 of them conducted in Asia, and including a total number of 666 tested subjects. The included studies reported data acquired during resting state or different paradigms, such as cue-reactivity, guessing or cognitive control tasks. The enrolled patients were usually males (95.4%) and very young (21-25 years). The most represented IAD subtype, reported in more than 85% of patients, was the internet gaming disorder, or videogame addiction. In the resting state studies, the more relevant abnormalities were localized in the superior temporal gyrus, limbic, medial frontal and parietal regions. When analyzing the task related fmri studies, we found that less than half of the papers reported behavioral differences between patients and normal controls, but all of them found significant

  2. Effective strategies to recruit young adults into an online wellbeing intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Gaston Antezana

    2015-01-01

    Background Implementing online interventions may be an effective way to support young people to improve their wellbeing. There is a need to identify effective and cost efficient strategies to successfully recruit young adults into such interventions. Objectives This paper will describe the outcomes of different methods for recruiting young adults (16-25) to the ‘Online Wellbeing Centre’, an online resource to assess wellbeing and access apps for mental health and general wellbeing....

  3. Internet-Based Physical Activity Intervention Targeting Young Adult Cancer Survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Rabin, Carolyn; Dunsiger, Shira; Ness, Kirsten K.; Marcus, Bess H

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Young adults who have been treated for cancer face several health and psychosocial risks. To minimize these risks, is it imperative that they address any modifiable risk factors, such as sedentary lifestyle. Unfortunately, more than half of young adult cancer survivors remain sedentary. To facilitate the adoption of physical activity (PA) in this population—potentially reducing health and psychosocial risks—we developed and pilot tested an internet-based PA intervention for young sur...

  4. Adolescence in тhe literature for young adult of Tome Arsovski

    OpenAIRE

    Denkova, Jovanka

    2015-01-01

    This paper first examines the issue of adolescent literature, some of its main features, the meaning and functions. Then, by analyzing the work for young adult by Tome Arsovski (novels "Young and Wild", "Spring behind my window", etc.) we will elaborate the aforementioned theoretical settings of adolescent literature. "Spring behind my window" is a novel that captures the problems of young adult in the urban area and has a story that is told interesting, with a sovereign language whomarks are...

  5. Financial Literacy and Financial Behavior among Young Adults: Evidence and Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Carlo de Bassa Scheresberg

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses data from the 2009 National Financial Capability Study to examine financial literacy and financial behavior in a sample of approximately 4,500 young adults age 25 to 34. The paper finds that most young adults lack basic financial knowledge. Financial literacy is especially low among certain demographic groups, such as women, minorities, and lower-income or less-educated people. A high level of education, however, is not a guarantee of financial literacy. Only 49% of young resp...

  6. Translating Personality Psychology to Help Personalize Preventive Medicine for Young-Adult Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Israel, Salomon; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Belsky, Daniel W.; Hancox, Robert J; Poulton, Richie; Roberts, Brent; Thomson, W Murray; Caspi, Avshalom

    2014-01-01

    The rising number of newly insured young adults brought on by healthcare reform will soon increase demands on primary-care physicians. Physicians will face more young-adult patients which presents an opportunity for more prevention-oriented care. In the current study, we evaluated whether brief observer reports of young adults’ personality traits could predict which individuals would be at greater risk for poor health as they entered midlife. Following the Dunedin Study cohort of 1,000 indivi...

  7. Health-Related Stigma as a Determinant of Functioning in Young Adults with Narcolepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Kapella, Mary C.; Berger, Barbara E.; Vern, Boris A.; Vispute, Sachin; Prasad, Bharati; Carley, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Symptoms of narcolepsy tend to arise during adolescence or young adulthood, a formative time in human development during which people are usually completing their education and launching a career. Little is known about the impact of narcolepsy on the social aspects of health-related quality of life in young adults. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between health-related stigma, mood (anxiety and depression) and daytime functioning in young adults with narcolepsy compared...

  8. Post-stroke epilepsy in young adults: a long-term follow-up study

    OpenAIRE

    Arntz, R.M.; Rutten-Jacobs, L.C.A.; Maaijwee, N.A.M.M.; Schoonderwaldt, H.C.; Dorresteijn, L.D.A.; Dijk, E.J. van; de Leeuw, F E

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the incidence and risk of seizures after stroke in young adults. Especially in the young seizures might dramatically influence prognosis and quality of life. We therefore investigated the long-term incidence and risk of post-stroke epilepsy in young adults with a transient ischemic attack (TIA), ischemic stroke (IS) or intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a prospective cohort study among 697 consecutive patients with a first-ever...

  9. The relationships between body composition and cardiovascular risk factors in young Australian men

    OpenAIRE

    Selma C Liberato; Maple-Brown, Louise; Bressan, Josefina; Hills, Andrew P

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular (CV) disease is a leading cause of global mortality. Despite clear evidence of the coexistence of several risk factors in young people as children and an understanding of the importance of the health behaviors in controlling CV disease, there are limited data on the relationships between risk factors and CV disease in young people. Therefore further study is required. Objective This study aimed to investigate associations among body composition, health behaviors an...

  10. Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Young Adults Who Were Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipola-Leppänen, Marika; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Tikanmäki, Marjaana; Matinolli, Hanna-Maria; Miettola, Satu; Hovi, Petteri; Wehkalampi, Karoliina; Ruokonen, Aimo; Sundvall, Jouko; Pouta, Anneli; Eriksson, Johan G.; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kajantie, Eero

    2015-01-01

    Adults who were born preterm with a very low birth weight have higher blood pressure and impaired glucose regulation later in life compared with those born at term. We investigated cardiometabolic risk factors in young adults who were born at any degree of prematurity in the Preterm Birth and Early Life Programming of Adult Health and Disease (ESTER) Study, a population-based cohort study of individuals born in 1985–1989 in Northern Finland. In 2009–2011, 3 groups underwent clinical examination: 134 participants born at less than 34 gestational weeks (early preterm), 242 born at 34–36 weeks (late preterm), and 344 born at 37 weeks or later (controls). Compared with controls, adults who were born preterm had higher body fat percentages (after adjustment for sex, age, and cohort (1985–1986 or 1987–1989), for those born early preterm, difference = 6.2%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.4, 13.2; for those born late preterm, difference = 8.0%, 95% CI: 2.4, 13.8), waist circumferences, blood pressure (for those born early preterm, difference = 3.0 mm Hg, 95% CI: 0.9, 5.1; for those born late preterm, difference = 1.7, 95% CI: −0.1, 3.4), plasma uric acid levels (for those born early preterm, difference = 20.1%, 95% CI: 7.9, 32.3; for those born late preterm, difference = 20.2%, 95% CI: 10.7, 30.5), alanine aminotransferase levels, and aspartate transaminase levels. They were also more likely to have metabolic syndrome (for those born early preterm, odds ratio = 3.7, 95% CI: 1.6, 8.2; for those born late preterm, odds ratio = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.2, 5.3). Elevated levels of conventional and emerging risk factors suggest a higher risk of cardiometabolic disease later in life. These risk factors are also present in the large group of adults born late preterm. PMID:25947956

  11. Study protocol: a randomised controlled trial of a theory-based online intervention to improve sun safety among Australian adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of exposure to ultraviolet radiation are a significant concern in Australia which has one of the highest incidences of skin cancer in the world. Despite most skin cancers being preventable by encouraging consistent adoption of sun-protective behaviours, incidence rates are not decreasing. There is a dearth of research examining the factors involved in engaging in sun-protective behaviours. Further, online multi-behavioural theory-based interventions have yet to be explored fully as a medium for improving sun-protective behaviour in adults. This paper presents the study protocol of a randomised controlled trial of an online intervention based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) that aims to improve sun safety among Australian adults. Approximately 420 adults aged 18 and over and predominantly from Queensland, Australia, will be recruited and randomised to the intervention (n = 200), information only (n = 200) or the control group (n = 20). The intervention focuses on encouraging supportive attitudes and beliefs toward sun-protective behaviour, fostering perceptions of normative support for sun protection, and increasing perceptions of control/self-efficacy over sun protection. The intervention will be delivered online over a single session. Data will be collected immediately prior to the intervention (Time 1), immediately following the intervention (Time 1b), and one week (Time 2) and one month (Time 3) post-intervention. Primary outcomes are intentions to sun protect and sun-protective behaviour. Secondary outcomes are the participants’ attitudes toward sun protection, perceptions of normative support for sun protection (i.e. subjective norms, group norms, personal norms and image norms) and perceptions of control/self-efficacy toward sun protection. The study will contribute to an understanding of the effectiveness of a TPB-based online intervention to improve Australian adults’ sun-protective behaviour. Australian and New Zealand Trials

  12. Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) mothers huddle with their young offspring instead of adult females for thermoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Masataka; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2016-08-01

    It is unclear whom animals select to huddle with for thermoregulation. In this study, we investigated whom Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) mothers huddled with-their young offspring or other adult group members-when there is need for thermoregulation. We used a focal-animal sampling method, targeting 17 females at Katsuyama, Okayama Prefecture, Japan. A majority of huddling among adult females was recorded during winter season (December, January, and February). Females who had young (0- or 1-year-old) offspring huddled less frequently with other adult females compared to females who did not have young offspring in winter. However, including young offspring, the frequency of huddling with any other individuals did not differ by whether females had young offspring. Moreover, the females who did not have young offspring huddled with other adult females more often in cloudy than in sunny weather during winter season. In contrast, females who had young offspring increased huddling with their young offspring in cloudy than in sunny weather, but did not do so with other adult females. This study indicates that Japanese macaque mothers huddle with their young offspring instead of other adult females when there is need for thermoregulation. PMID:27262980

  13. Using Virtual Reality to Assess Young Adult Smokers’ Attention to Cues

    OpenAIRE

    Traylor, Amy C.; Bordnick, Patrick S.; Carter, Brian L.

    2009-01-01

    Cigarette smokers, when confronted with cues associated with smoking, evidence strong reactions, including increased attentional bias toward those smoking-related cues. These reactions have not been extensively studied in young adult smokers, a group that research suggests may respond differently than adults or adolescent smokers. Furthermore, the impact of olfactory cues, such as cigarette smoke, on attentional bias has not been explored in young adult smokers. In this pilot study, 20 nicoti...

  14. Similar Representations of Sequence Knowledge in Young and Older Adults: A Study of Effector Independent Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhoorn, Jonathan S; Döhring, Falko R; Van Asseldonk, Edwin H F; Verwey, Willem B

    2016-01-01

    Older adults show reduced motor performance and changes in motor skill development. To better understand these changes, we studied differences in sequence knowledge representations between young and older adults using a transfer task. Transfer, or the ability to apply motor skills flexibly, is highly relevant in day-to-day motor activity and facilitates generalization of learning to new contexts. By using movement types that are completely unrelated in terms of muscle activation and response location, we focused on transfer facilitated by the early, visuospatial system. We tested 32 right-handed older adults (65-75) and 32 young adults (18-30). During practice of a discrete sequence production task, participants learned two six-element sequences using either unimanual key-presses (KPs) or by moving a lever with lower arm flexion-extension (FE) movements. Each sequence was performed 144 times. They then performed a test phase consisting of familiar and random sequences performed with the type of movements not used during practice. Both age groups displayed transfer from FE to KP movements as indicated by faster performance on the familiar sequences in the test phase. Only young adults transferred their sequence knowledge from KP to FE movements. In both directions, the young showed higher transfer than older adults. These results suggest that the older participants, like the young, represented their sequences in an abstract visuospatial manner. Transfer was asymmetric in both age groups: there was more transfer from FE to KP movements than vice versa. This similar asymmetry is a further indication that the types of representations that older adults develop are comparable to those that young adults develop. We furthermore found that older adults improved less during FE practice, gained less explicit knowledge, displayed a smaller visuospatial working memory capacity and had lower processing speed than young adults. Despite the many differences between young and older

  15. TV Time but Not Computer Time Is Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk in Dutch Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Altenburg, Teatske M; De Kroon, Marlou L. A.; Renders, Carry M.; Remy Hirasing; Mai J M Chinapaw

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: TV time and total sedentary time have been positively related to biomarkers of cardiometabolic risk in adults. We aim to examine the association of TV time and computer time separately with cardiometabolic biomarkers in young adults. Additionally, the mediating role of waist circumference (WC) is studied. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data of 634 Dutch young adults (18-28 years; 39% male) were used. Cardiometabolic biomarkers included indicators of overweight, blood pressure, blood levels...

  16. Universal family-focused intervention with young adolescents: effects on health-risking sexual behaviors and STDs among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoth, Richard; Clair, Scott; Trudeau, Linda

    2014-02-01

    Considering the prevalence and consequences of health-risking sexual behaviors (HRSBs) and STDs among young adults, their prevention is a public health priority. Emerging etiological and prevention outcome literatures suggested study of the long-term effects of universal family-focused interventions on young adult HRSBs and STDs. Although earlier studies have demonstrated intervention impact on adolescent substance misuse, no study has examined universal family-focused intervention effects on young adult HRSBs and STDs via reductions in adolescent misuse. Sixth grade students and their families enrolled in 33 rural Midwestern schools were randomly assigned to experimental conditions. Self-report questionnaires provided data at pretest (Ns = 238, 221, and 208 for the Iowa Strengthening Families Program [ISFP], Preparing for the Drug Free Years [PDFY], and control groups, respectively), with seven data points through young adulthood (age 21). In latent growth modeling, three young adult HRSB measures (number of sexual partners, condom use, substance use with sex) and lifetime STDs were specified as distal outcomes mediated by adolescent substance initiation growth factors (average level and rate of change). Results showed that the models fit the data and, except for condom use, there were significant indirect effects, with a higher frequency of significant findings for ISFP. The model additions of direct intervention effects on young adult outcomes generally were not supported, consistent with a model positing that long-term intervention effects on young adult HRSBs and STDs outcomes are indirect. As an indication of the practical significance of long-term effects, analyses revealed relative reduction rates ranging from 6% to 46% for significant outcomes. PMID:23408278

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  11. Predicting the sun-protective decisions of young female Australian beachgoers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Natalie G; White, Katherine M; Hamilton, Kyra; Starfelt, Louise C

    2016-08-01

    We tested the theory of planned behaviour with additional norms to predict the sun-protective decisions of young female beachgoers in Australia. Participants (N = 336) completed standard theory of planned behaviour measures and additional normative factors (group, image and personal norms). Attitude, subjective norm, and both personal and group norms predicted intention. Intention and group norm predicted follow-up behaviour. These findings provide further evidence that it is the more proximal sources of norms reflecting one's personal and referent group influences, rather than perceptions of broader societal norms about the attractiveness of tanned images, that are important in determining young women's sun-protective decisions. PMID:25549658

  12. Turkish and Moroccan Young Adults in the Netherlands: The Relationship Between Acculturation and Psychological Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbek, Emel; Bongers, Ilja L; Lobbestael, Jill; van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the relationship between acculturation and psychological problems in Turkish and Moroccan young adults living in the Netherlands. A sample of 131 healthy young adults aged between 18 and 24 years old, with a Turkish or Moroccan background was recruited using snowball sampling. Data on acculturation, internalizing and externalizing problems, beliefs about psychological problems, attributions of psychological problems and barriers to care were collected and analyzed using Latent Class Analysis and multinomial logistic regression. Three acculturation classes were identified in moderately to highly educated, healthy Turkish or Moroccan young adults: integration, separation and diffusion. None of the participants in the sample were marginalized or assimilated. Young adults reporting diffuse acculturation reported more internalizing and externalizing problems than those who were integrated or separated. Separated young adults reported experiencing more practical barriers to care than integrated young adults. Further research with a larger sample, including young adult migrants using mental health services, is required to improve our understanding of acculturation, psychological problems and barriers to care in this population. Including experiences of discrimination in the model might improve our understanding of the relationship between different forms of acculturation and psychological problems. PMID:25845438

  13. Young People in an Economic Downturn. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth. Briefing Paper 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anlezark, Alison

    2011-01-01

    Following the collapse of the US investment bank Lehmann Brothers in September 2008, the world economy began a downward spiral, with many countries falling into recession. Australia experienced significant stock market losses and unemployment rates began to climb. This briefing paper considers how young people fared in previous downturns and…

  14. Young People and Spirituality: The Need for a Spiritual Foundation for Australian Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodder, Jacqueline

    2007-01-01

    The "Adelaide Declaration on National Goals for Schooling in the Twenty-First Century" provides a mandate for discussion of the spiritual within secular state schooling, but this discussion has never occurred. This is a serious omission given what could be called an "undercurrent of concern" for the ways in which young people today frame and make…

  15. Different risk factors for advanced colorectal neoplasm in young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Yeon; Jung, Yoon Suk; Park, Jung Ho; Kim, Hong Joo; Cho, Yong Kyun; Sohn, Chong Il; Jeon, Woo Kyu; Kim, Byung Ik; Choi, Kyu Yong; Park, Dong Il

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To compare the risk of developing advanced colorectal neoplasm (ACRN) according to age in Koreans. METHODS: A total of 70428 Koreans from an occupational cohort who underwent a colonoscopy between 2003 and 2012 at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital were retrospectively selected. We evaluated and compared odds ratios (OR) for ACRN between the young-adults (YA < 50 years) and in the older-adults (OA ≥ 50 years). ACRN was defined as an adenoma ≥ 10 mm in diameter, adenoma with any component of villous histology, high-grade dysplasia, or invasive cancer. RESULTS: In the YA group, age (OR = 1.08, 95%CI: 1.06-1.09), male sex (OR = 1.26, 95%CI: 1.02-1.55), current smoking (OR = 1.37, 95%CI: 1.15-1.63), family history of colorectal cancer (OR = 1.46, 95%CI: 1.01-2.10), diabetes mellitus related factors (OR = 1.27, 95%CI: 1.06-1.54), obesity (OR = 1.23, 95%CI: 1.03-1.47), CEA (OR = 1.04, 95%CI: 1.01-1.09) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (OR = 1.01, 95%CI: 1.01-1.02) were related with an increased risk of ACRN. However, age (OR = 1.08, 95%CI: 1.06-1.09), male sex (OR = 2.12, 95%CI: 1.68-2.68), current smoking (OR = 1.38, 95%CI: 1.12-1.71), obesity (OR = 1.34, 95%CI: 1.09-1.65) and CEA (OR = 1.05, 95%CI: 1.01-1.09) also increased the risk of ACRN in the OA group. CONCLUSION: The risks of ACRN differed based on age group. Different colonoscopic screening strategies are appropriate for particular subjects with risk factors for ACRN, even in subjects younger than 50 years. PMID:27053853

  16. Body mass index and regular smoking in young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Alexis E; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N; Nelson, Elliot C; Pergadia, Michele L; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C

    2010-11-01

    Little is known about the relationship between relative body weight and transition from experimentation to regular smoking in young adult women. In the current study, data from 2494 participants in wave 4 of the Missouri Adolescent Female Twin Study (aged 18-29years) who reported ever smoking a cigarette were analyzed using logistic regression. Body mass index (BMI) at time of interview was categorized according to CDC adult guidelines, and regular smoking was defined as having ever smoked 100 or more cigarettes and having smoked at least once a week for two months in a row. Since the OR's for the overweight and obese groups did not differ significantly from one another in any model tested, these groups were combined. Forty-five percent of women who had ever smoked had become regular smokers. Testing of interactions between potential covariates and levels of the categorical BMI variable revealed a significant interaction between overweight/obesity and childhood sexual abuse (CSA; p<0.001) associated with regular smoking. Among women reporting CSA, the association between overweight/obesity and having become a regular smoker was negative (n=374; OR=0.48, 95% CI: 0.28-0.81). Both underweight and overweight/obesity were positively associated with transition to regular smoking among women who did not report CSA (n=2076; OR=1.57, 95% CI: 1.05-2.35 and OR=1.73, 95% CI: 1.35-2.20, respectively). These results suggest that experiencing CSA alters the association between BMI and regular smoking in women who have experimented with cigarettes. PMID:20634004

  17. Depression and termination of pregnancy (induced abortion) in a national cohort of young Australian women: the confounding effect of women's experience of violence

    OpenAIRE

    Watson Lyndsey F; Taft Angela J

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Termination of pregnancy is a common and safe medical procedure in countries where it is legal. One in four Australian women terminates a pregnancy, most often when young. There is inconclusive evidence about whether pregnancy termination affects women's rates of depression. There is evidence of a strong association between partner violence and depression. Our objective was to examine the associations with depression of women's experience of violence, pregnancy termination...

  18. Tobacco and health:a study of young adults in Northern Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Tuisku, A. (Anna)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although smoking in adolescents and young adults has been declining in the 21st century in Finland, about 17% of 18-year-olds still smoke on a daily basis. Young adults are in fact one of the age groups that are most likely to smoke in several countries. Nevertheless, a large proportion of them are known to want to quit smoking. Relatively little is known about the smoking habits of young adults. There are no evidence-based guidelines for smoking cessation in this age group. I...

  19. Perception of asthma as a factor in career choice among young adults with asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Sacha Bhinder; Lisa Cicutto; Husam M. Abdel-Qadir; Tarlo, Susan M

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM: Asthma is a common chronic condition that can be aggravated by workplace exposures. Young adults with asthma should know how their future occupation might affect their asthma, and potentially, their quality of life. The aim of the present study was to assess the awareness of young adults to occupational risks for asthma and high-risk occupations, as well as their perception of the role of asthma in career choice.METHODS: Young adults 16 to 22 years of age with reported physici...

  20. Awareness of and attitudes toward direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperstein, Neil M

    2014-01-01

    This study examines awareness and knowledge of and attitudes toward direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug advertising among young adults between 18 and 24 years of age. The study finds that young adults are not as aware of prescription drug advertising as older consumers, however, they are aware of specific heavily advertised drugs, especially those for allergy medications, birth control, and sleep aids. Young adults hold mixed to negative views about advertising in general, and they do not view DTC prescription drug advertising as a beneficial source of information, nor do they believe such advertising serves to educate consumers. PMID:25120044

  1. Lifestyle and Dietary Factors Associated with Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels in Korean Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Joh, Hee-Kyung; Lim, Chun Soo; Cho, BeLong

    2015-01-01

    Inadequate vitamin D status is highly prevalent in the Korean population, especially among young adults. Nonetheless, correlates of suboptimal vitamin D levels in young adults are not well defined. This study aimed to investigate potentially modifiable determinants of vitamin D levels in young adults in Korea. This cross-sectional study was based on health check-up data from 3,450 healthy male and female university students aged 18-29 yr in Seoul between April and May 2013. Serum 25-hydroxyvi...

  2. Influence of Forest Therapy on Cardiovascular Relaxation in Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juyoung Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Despite increasing attention toward forest therapy as an alternative medicine, very little evidence continues to be available on its therapeutic effects. Therefore, this study was focused on elucidating the health benefits of forest walking on cardiovascular reactivity. Methods. Within-group comparisons were used to examine the cardiovascular responses to walking in forest and urban environments. Forty-eight young adult males participated in the two-day field research. Changes in heart rate variability, heart rate, and blood pressure were measured to understand cardiovascular reactivity. Four different questionnaires were used to investigate the changes in psychological states after walking activities. Results. Forest walking significantly increased the values of ln(HF and significantly decreased the values of ln(LF/HF compared with the urban walking. Heart rate during forest walking was significantly lower than that in the control. Questionnaire results showed that negative mood states and anxiety levels decreased significantly by forest walking compared with urban walking. Conclusion. Walking in the forest environment may promote cardiovascular relaxation by facilitating the parasympathetic nervous system and by suppressing the sympathetic nervous system. In addition, forest therapy may be effective for reducing negative psychological symptoms.

  3. Condylar volume and surface in Caucasian young adult subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordasco Giancarlo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been no quantitative standards for volumetric and surface measurements of the mandibular condyle in Caucasian population. However, the recently developed cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT system allows measurement of these parameters with high accuracy. Methods CBCT was used to measure the condylar volume, surface and the volume to surface ratio, called the Morphometric Index (MI, of 300 temporo-mandibular joints (TMJ in 150 Caucasian young adult subjects, with varied malocclusions, without pain or dysfunction of TMJs. Results The condylar volume was 691.26 ± 54.52 mm3 in males and 669.65 ± 58.80 mm3 in, and was significantly higher (p2 in males and 394.77 ± 60.73 mm2 in females. Furthermore, the condylar volume (693.61 ± 62.82 mm3 in the right TMJ was significantly higher than in the left (666.99 ± 48.67 mm3, p 2 in the right TMJ and 389.41 ± 56.63 mm2 in the left TMJ; t = 3.29; p Conclusion These data from temporomandibular joints of patients without pain or clinical dysfunction might serve as examples of normal TMJ's in the general population not seeking orthodontic care.

  4. Nutritional assessment and eating habits analysis in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieradko-Iwanicka, Barbara; Borzecki, Andrzej

    2004-01-01

    Good eating habit is an essential part of a healthy lifestyle. It helps prevent civilisation diseases. The BMI and eating plan analysis are useful in individual's nutritional assessment. The aim of the study was to assess nutritional status and eating habits in young adults. An average BMI was 23.63 kg/ m2 in the interviewed men, and 20.6 kg/m2 in women. Caloric value of the daily eating plans was average: in men 2943 kcal, in women 2272 kcal. Four people were on diets, but none of BMI over 25 kg/m2. There were no people suffering from food allergies nor gastrointestinal diseases. Only one male did sports (weight-lifting) regularly. The majority of the students ate at lunchtime at the university cafeteria or prepared meals themselves. The eating plans varied very much: the majority was based on the Eating Guide Pyramid and consisted of three balanced meals during the day-time; there were also single cases where students stuck to eating high-calorie meals at night-time mostly. PMID:16146124

  5. Pediatric Cancers and Brain Tumors in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Martin G; Valteau-Couanet, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Embryonal tumors classically occur in young children, some principally within the first year of life. Prospective national and international clinical trials during recent decades have brought about progressive improvements in survival, and associated biological studies have advanced our understanding of tumor biology, in some cases allowing biological tumor characteristics to be harnessed for therapeutic benefit. Embryonal tumors continue to occur, albeit less commonly, during childhood, adolescence and throughout adulthood. These tumors are less well understood, usually not managed according to standardized protocols and rarely included in clinical trials. Survival outcomes are generally poorer than their childhood equivalents. We present here a summary of the published literature on embryonal tumors that present ectopically during adolescence and adulthood. We show that for some tumors protocol-driven treatment, supported by accurate and complete diagnostics and staging, can result in equivalent outcomes to those seen during childhood. We make the case that clinical trial eligibility criteria should be disease-based rather than age-based, and support improvements in dialogue between children's and adults' cancer clinicians to improve outcomes for these rare tumors. PMID:27595358

  6. Epidemiology of Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desandes, Emmanuel; Stark, Daniel P

    2016-01-01

    To design the services for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer, we need to understand the patterns of disease and the other clinical and managerial challenges of the patient group. Cancer occurring between the ages of 15 and 39 years is 4 times less rare than cancer occurring during the first 15 years of life and consists of 2% of all invasive cancer in Europe, about 66,000 patients in Europe each year. AYAs have a unique distribution of cancer types, including the peak in incidence of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) or germ cell tumors. The relative improvement in the survival rate in AYAs has not kept pace with that achieved in younger children, especially for acute leukemia, non-HLs, Ewing tumors and rhabdomyosarcoma. Etiological factors are under-researched and remain largely hypothetical. In this unique group of illnesses, improving AYA cancer management involves bridging interfaces. Since this has begun, outcomes have also begun to improve. The local nature of these interfaces determines the age group considered as AYA. Specific skills are necessary in the clinical, biological and psychosocial domains. Services need support from policy, clinical and administrative professionals. National policy and supranational groups such as SIOPE and ESMO are in constructive collaboration to develop this further. PMID:27595352

  7. Amplified music and young people's hearing. Review and report of Australian findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, N.L.; Waugh, R.L.; Keen, K.; Murray, N.; Bulteau, V.G.

    1982-08-07

    We gave 944 young people (aged 16 to 20 years) pure-tone audiometry, electroacoustic impedance tests, and ear, nose and throat examination. We questioned them about their histories of exposure to occupational and recreational noise. The data do not support the view that there is wide-spread hearing loss caused by exposure to amplified music in young people under the age of 21 years. However, the accumulated exposure of some of them to noise is such that, if their recreational patterns remain the same, they are at risk of some noise-induced hearing loss by their mid-twenties. Further empirical studies are necessary to determine whether these hearing losses will eventuate.

  8. Determinants of resilience to cigarette smoking among young Australians at risk: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikocka-Walus Antonina A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous researchers studied risk factors associated with smoking uptake, however, few examined protective factors associated with smoking resilience. This study therefore aims to explore determinants of smoking resilience among young people from lower socioeconomic backgrounds who are at risk of smoking. Methods Overall, 92 out of 92 vocational education students accepted invitation to participate in this exploratory study. The Adelaide Technical and Further Education (TAFE Arts campus was chosen for the study given the focus on studying resilience in young people of lower socioeconomic status i.e. resilient despite the odds. A self-report questionnaire comprising a measure of resilience: sense of coherence, sense of humour, coping styles, depression, anxiety and stress, and family, peers and community support, was distributed among participants aged 15 to 29. Additional factors researched are parental approval and disapproval, course type, and reasons for not smoking. Using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, version 13.0, analyses were undertaken using frequencies, means, standard deviations, independent sample t-tests, correlations, analysis of variance, logistic regression, and chi-square test. Results Twenty five (27% out of 92 students smoked. Young people with peer support tended to smoke (p Conclusions The current study showed that most students chose 'health and fitness' as the reason for not smoking. Single anti-smoking messages cannot be generalised to all young people, but should recognise that people within different contexts, groups and subcultures will have different reasons for choosing whether or not to smoke. Future studies should use larger samples with a mixed methods design (quantitative and qualitative.

  9. Health-related stigma as a determinant of functioning in young adults with narcolepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary C Kapella

    Full Text Available Symptoms of narcolepsy tend to arise during adolescence or young adulthood, a formative time in human development during which people are usually completing their education and launching a career. Little is known about the impact of narcolepsy on the social aspects of health-related quality of life in young adults. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between health-related stigma, mood (anxiety and depression and daytime functioning in young adults with narcolepsy compared to those without narcolepsy. Young adults (age 18-35 with narcolepsy (N = 122 and without narcolepsy (N = 93 were mailed a packet that included questionnaires and a self-addressed postage paid envelope. The questionnaire included demographic information and a composite of instruments including the SF 36, Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ, Fife Stigma Scale (FSS, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Variable associations were assessed using descriptive statistics, ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U Test, correlations, stepwise multiple regression and path analysis. Young adults with narcolepsy perceived significantly more stigma and lower mood and health-related quality of life than young adults without narcolepsy (p<0.01. Health-related stigma was directly and indirectly associated with lower functioning through depressed mood. Fifty-two percent of the variance in functioning was explained by the final model in the young adults with narcolepsy. Health-related stigma in young adults with narcolepsy is at a level consistent with other chronic medical illnesses. Health-related stigma may be an important determinant of functioning in young adults with narcolepsy. Future work is indicated toward further characterizing stigma and developing interventions that address various domains of stigma in people with narcolepsy.

  10. Up against the System: A Case Study of Young Adult Perspectives Transitioning from Pediatric Palliative Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Cook

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in pediatric care have not provided the interdisciplinary support services required by those young adults with pediatric life-threatening conditions (pedLTCs who live beyond childhood but have limited expectations to live past early adulthood. These young adults, the first generation to live into adulthood, face multiple challenges transitioning from a plethora of pediatric palliative services to scant adult health services. In a case study, using an innovative bulletin board focus group, we describe the complex interplay of the health, education, and social service sectors in this transition. Our descriptions include system deficits and strengths and the young adults’ resilience and coping strategies to overcome those deficits and move forward with their lives. Young adults with pedLTC need knowledgeable providers, coordinated and accessible services, being respected and valued, and services and supports that promote independence. We recommend implementation of multidisciplinary solutions that are focused on young adult priorities to ensure seamless access to resources to support these young adults’ health, educational, vocational, and social goals. The input and voice of young adults in the development of these services are imperative to ensure that multisystem services support their needs and life goals.

  11. Substance use in young adults with ADHD: Comorbidity and symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity

    OpenAIRE

    Colomer Diago, Carla; Miranda Casas, Ana; Berenguer Forner, Carmen; Roselló Miranda, Belén; Roselló, Rocío

    2016-01-01

    Young adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at high risk of substance use (SU). The aims of the current study were: 1) to examine the use of alcohol, tobacco, marijuana and other illegal drugs by adults with and without ADHD; 2) to compare the oppositional, conduct, anxiety, depression, sleep and antisocial personality symptoms of ADHD adults with SU and ADHD adults without SU; 3) to examine the ability of ADHD symptoms and conduct problems to predict SU. A total of ...

  12. Original article Unfulfilled parenthood in the eyes of young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Kalus

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The goal of the study was to present young adults’ perceptions of the experience of loss of a child at different stages of its prenatal development, as well as the level of declared support for couples after the loss. Participants and procedure The study used a scenario method based on the method by Claudia Lapman and Seana Dowling-Guyer (1995, translated into Polish by Joanna Szymańska (2013. One of the Berlin Social Support Scales (BSSS, Łyszczyńska, Kowalska, Mazurkiewicz, & Schwarzer, 2006 was also used. One hundred ninety two young adults (mean age = 26.76, SD = 4.64 took part in the research, mainly university students of technical subjects and humanities. Results The study showed that couples who lost their child, regardless of the stage at which it occurred (miscarriage or fetal death, were assessed more frequently as caring, loving, tender and sensitive, in comparison to couples for whom there was no mention of a child at all. Women who lost their child at a later stage (after the 22nd week of pregnancy were assessed significantly more frequently as relaxed, less lonely, calm and more self-confident than women who miscarried. The results were similar to those for women from the control scenario, where there was no mention of a child at all. In terms of declared support, the subjects declared significantly higher emotional support (expressing empathy, care, trust, intimacy, allowing for self-expression, etc. for couples who experienced the loss at a later stage of pregnancy than in the control scenario, as well as a higher level of instrumental support (providing material goods, solving difficult tasks together for couples who experienced miscarriage than the controls. Conclusions The experience of miscarriage and dealing with the loss is met with lower levels of empathy from the social environment, and, presumably, lower acceptance for grief. It seems important to sensitize people to the experiences of couples who

  13. The characteristics and experiences of anticipatory mourning in caregivers of teenagers and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Rachel; Davies, Kerry; Lavender, Verna

    2015-11-01

    This article reports a systematic review of literature undertaken to identify characteristics and experiences of anticipatory mourning in caregivers of teenagers and young adults with life-limiting or life-threatening conditions. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using the key words 'anticipatory', 'mourning', 'grief', and synonyms. This review focused on six studies that met inclusion criteria and reported characteristics of anticipatory mourning in caregivers of teenagers and young adults. Characteristics and experiences were sorted into four main themes: symptoms; a sense of loss; caregiver behaviour; and the unique experience of caring for, or losing, a teenager or young adult. The review suggests that there are characteristics and experiences of anticipatory mourning that are unique to caregivers of this age group. The review also suggests that consideration of anticipatory mourning is important in offering holistic care to young adults and their caregivers, and points to the need for further research in this area. PMID:26619236

  14. Some of My Favorite Books Are by Young Adult Authors and Some Are by Jane Austen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Robert C., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of reading young adult novels. Remarks on their serious intent, careful craftmanship, effective expression, as well as their ability to illuminate the human condition and provide insights. (EL)

  15. The changing determinants of UK young adults' living arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliet Stone

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The postponement of partnership formation and parenthood in the context of an early average age at leaving home has resulted in increased heterogeneity in the living arrangements of young adults in the UK. More young adults now remain in the parental home, or live independently of the parental home but outside of a family. The extent to which these trends are explained by the increased immigration of foreign-born young adults, the expansion in higher education, and the increased economic insecurity faced by young adults are examined. Shared non-family living is particularly prominent among those with experience of higher education, whilst labour market uncertainty is associated with an extended period of co-residence with parents.

  16. A Longitudinal Study of Objectively Measured Built Environment as Determinant of Physical Activity in Young Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schipperijn, Jasper; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Nielsen, Merete S;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This longitudinal study aimed to examine if a Moveability Index (MI), based on objectively measured built environment characteristics, was a determinant for objectively measured physical activity (PA) among young adults. METHOD: Data collected from 177 persons participating in the...

  17. 1 in 13 Young Adults in U.S. Considered Suicide in Past Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emanuele, a psychologist with the Child Mind Institute's Anxiety & Mood Disorders Center in New York City. "Effective mental health treatment and emergency services are available to young adults in need, as well as the population at ...

  18. Bisphenol A in Urine of Chinese Young Adults: Concentrations and Sources of Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chongjing; Liu, Liyan; Ma, Wanli; Zhu, Ningzheng; Jiang, Ling; Ren, Nanqi; Li, Yi-Fan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2016-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting environmental chemical. Urinary concentrations of BPA were measured in samples collected nationwide from Chinese young adults. The geometric mean urinary concentration of BPA in Chinese young adults was 2.23 ng/mL. The estimated daily exposure dose for BPA was 64.8 ng/kg bw/day. Contributions of various BPA sources to exposure in Chinese young adults were estimated. Dietary intake was the primary exposure pathway. The contribution of dietary intake, indoor dust, paper products and personal care products to BPA intake was 72.5 %, 0.74 %, 0.98 %, 0.22 % of the total exposure dose, respectively. This is the first study on the occurrence of BPA in young adults from most provinces and autonomous regions of China. The results can be used to establish a database for BPA exposure assessment for Chinese general population. PMID:26679324

  19. Into the Woods Again: Three Recent Young Adult Novels of Parental Abandonment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munde, Gail

    1997-01-01

    Takes a look at three recent young adult novels that are stories of children abandoned by their parents, and shows how each retains the essential features of the Hansel and Gretel folktale, a prototype of abandonment stories. (SR)

  20. Literacy through Literature: A Reading Club with Imprisoned Youth and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budweg, Peter; Schins, Marie-Therese

    1991-01-01

    A prison reading club can provide motivation to learn to read and write, reinforce conventional learning, and support individual development. The literate environment created is a tool for resocialization of incarcerated youth and young adults. (SK)

  1. Attitude of Young Adults towards New Luxury Brand Positioning in Chinese Coffee Market

    OpenAIRE

    Gan, Lu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation is to investigate the perception of young adults – age between 18 and 25 – towards new luxury brand positioning in the coffee market, in order to know how new luxury brand positioning influences young adults and what elements lead them to new luxury brands. Similar phrases to new luxury brand positioning are Masstige positioning and affordable luxury. The wants of luxury products and relatively low price makes the need for this research. This dissertation was base...

  2. Negative and positive impact of internet addiction on young adults: empericial study in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Shah Alam; Nik Mohd Hazrul Nik Hashim; Maisarah Ahmad; Che Aniza Che Wel; Sallehuddin Mohd Nor; Nor Asiah Omar

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore and identify the impact of Internet addictions on young adults in Malaysia. There are six impacts identified, of which five are negative impacts and one is a positive impact. Design/methodology/approach: This study comprised a sample of 200 young adults in Malaysia. A cross-sectional research design was used to examine the impact of Internet addiction. Data were gathered based on personal administered questionnaires. Findings: Mann-Whitney U te...

  3. Re-writing the Script: Representations of Transgender Creativity in Contemporary Young Adult Fiction and Television

    OpenAIRE

    Norbury, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The transgender, gender-atypical or intersex protagonist challenges normative assumptions and expectations about gender, identity and sexuality. This article argues that contemporary transgender-themed young adult fiction and television uses the theme of creativity or the creative achievement script to override previously negative representations of adolescent transgender subjectivities. I consider three English-language novels and one television series for young adults and use script theory ...

  4. Comparison of five equations for estimating resting energy expenditure in Chinese young, normal weight healthy adults

    OpenAIRE

    Rao Zhi-yong; Wu Xiao-ting; Liang Bin-miao; Wang Mao-yun; Hu Wen

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Most resting energy expenditure (REE) predictive equations for adults were derived from research conducted in western populations; whether they can also be used in Chinese young people is still unclear. Therefore, we conducted this study to determine the best REE predictive equation in Chinese normal weight young adults. Methods Forty-three (21 male, 22 female) healthy college students between the age of 18 and 25 years were recruited. REE was measured by the indirect calo...

  5. Young Adult Ecstasy Users and Multiple Sexual Partners: Understanding the Factors Underlying this HIV Risk Practice†

    OpenAIRE

    Sterk, Claire E.; Klein, Hugh; Elifson, Kirk W.

    2008-01-01

    The purposes of this study are to (1) examine the extent to which young adult Ecstasy users recently reported having had multiple sex partners and (2) identify the factors predictive of engaging in this behavior. Potential predictors included demographic characteristics, background and experiences measures, childhood maltreatment experiences, substance use variables, and measures assessing psychological/psychosocial functioning. This research is based on a sample of 283 young adult recurrent ...

  6. The prevalence of disorders causing disability in young adult males in Turkey between 2009-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Kocak, Necmettin; Turker TURKER; Aydin, Ibrahim; Istanbulluoglu, Hakan; Akyildiz, Ramazan; Kilic, Selim

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Disability is one of the significant problems that the public faces as regards social aspects, economics, public health and politics. Our aim was to review the prevalence of diseases causing disabilities in young adult men who are declared “unfit for military service” in Turkey after medical examination. Methods: We reviewed the prevalence of diseases among 113,175 young adult men who were referred for medical examination between 2009 and 2011. Results: Prevalence of unfitness for ...

  7. Hearing in young adults, part II: the effects of recreational noise exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Hannah Keppler; Ingeborg Dhooge; Bart Vinck

    2015-01-01

    Great concern arises from recreational noise exposure, which might lead to noise-induced hearing loss in young adults. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of recreational noise exposure on hearing function in young adults. A questionnaire concerning recreational noise exposures and an audiological test battery were completed by 163 subjects (aged 18-30 years). Based on the duration of exposure and self-estimated loudness of various leisure-time activities, the weekl...

  8. Asthma and Panic in Young Adults: A 20-Year Prospective Community Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hasler, Gregor; Gergen, Peter J; Kleinbaum, David G.; Ajdacic, Vladeta; Gamma, Alex; Eich, Dominique; Rössler, Wulf; Angst, Jules

    2005-01-01

    Rationale: Psychologic factors are increasingly recognized to influence the onset and course of asthma. Previous cross-sectional community-based studies have provided evidence for a relatively specific association between asthma and panic. Objectives: To examine concurrent and longitudinal associations between asthma and panic in young adults. Measurements and Main Results: Prospective community-based cohort study of young adults (n = 591) followed between ages 19 and 40. Information was deri...

  9. Correlates and Consequences of Opioid Misuse among High-Risk Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Schrager, Sheree M.; Aleksandar Kecojevic; Karol Silva; Jennifer Jackson Bloom; Ellen Iverson; Lankenau, Stephen E.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Prescription opioids are the most frequently misused class of prescription drug among young adults aged 18–25, yet trajectories of opioid misuse and escalation are understudied. We sought to model opioid misuse patterns and relationships between opioid misuse, sociodemographic factors, and other substance uses. Methods. Participants were 575 young adults age 16–25 who had misused opioids in the last 90 days. Latent class analysis was performed with models based on years of misuse,...

  10. Young Adult Insurance Coverage And Out-Of-Pocket Spending: Long-Term Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Marc L; Fang, Zhengyi

    2016-04-01

    The Affordable Care Act appears to have improved health insurance coverage for young adults (ages 18-30). But data from twenty national surveys conducted between 1977 and 2013 paint a more complex picture, showing coverage rates lower in 2013 than they were thirty-six years earlier. Racial and ethnic disparities in coverage have declined recently, while out-of-pocket expenditures remain low for most young adults. PMID:27008855

  11. Trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh

    OpenAIRE

    ALFaris, Nora A.; Jozaa Z. Al-Tamimi; Al-Jobair, Moneera O.; AL-SHWAIYAT, Naseem M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors.Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them.Design: In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girl...

  12. An Investigation of Consumer Decision-Making Styles of Young-Adults in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Safiek Mokhlis

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate the consumer decision-making styles of young-adults in Malaysia. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to determine the dimensions considered by young-adults in their transactions in the market. Seven reliable factors and their corresponding decision-making styles were identified: Novelty, Brand Conscious Consumer; Perfectionistic, High-Quality Conscious Consumer; Confused by Overchoice; Recreational, Hedonistic Consumer; Impulsive,...

  13. Prevalence and correlates of postsecondary residential status among young adults with an autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Kristy A.; Shattuck, Paul T.; Cooper, Benjamin P.; Roux, Anne M.; Wagner, Mary

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence and correlates of three living arrangements (with a parent or guardian, independently or with a roommate, or in a supervised setting) among a nationally representative sample of postsecondary young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We assessed living arrangements since leaving high school. Compared with young adults with other disability types (learning disabilities, intellectual disabilities, or emotional disturbances), those with an ASD were m...

  14. Vegetable and fruit consumption and its determinants in young Finnish adults

    OpenAIRE

    Lallukka, Tea; Lahti-Koski, Marjaana; Ovaskainen, Marja-Leena

    2001-01-01

    Background: The low consumption of vegetables and fruit among young adults is a growing universal concern. Objective: To examine determinants of vegetable consumption among young Finnish adults aged 25 to 34 years. Design: A questionnaire covering health behaviour, socio-economic status and food frequencies was sent to subjects in 1997 (participation rate 64%, n=1589). A 24-h recall was collected for a subsample of these participants. Results: Education, parental status, place of midday meal,...

  15. Studying the Effects of an EFL Curriculum for Young Adults in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Nancy E. Dubetz

    2013-01-01

    The ability to speak English offers young adults in Brazil opportunities to prepare for the global job market and promotes cross cultural understanding, which are national curriculum goals for public education. The study reported in this article documents the implementation of the Empregabilidade, Tecnologia e Inglescurriculum, which was designed to expand educational and economic opportunity for young adults attending public schoolsin Salvador, Brazil by providing them with basic communicati...

  16. Model Minority at Risk: Expressed Needs of Mental Health by Asian American Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sunmin; Juon, Hee-Soon; Martinez, Genevieve; Hsu, Chiehwen E.; Robinson, E. Stephanie; Bawa, Julie; Ma, Grace X.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to obtain and discuss in-depth information on mental health problems, including the status, barriers, and potential solutions in 1.5 and 2nd generation Asian American young adults. As a part of the Health Needs Assessment project, the researchers conducted two focus groups with 17 young adults (mainly 1.5 or 2nd generation) from eight Asian American communities (Asian Indian, Cambodian, Chinese, Indonesian, Korean, Taiwanese, Thai, and Vietnamese) in Montgomery ...

  17. Effects of Abusive Parenting, Caretaker Arrests, and Deviant Behavior on Dating Violence among Homeless Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Schmitz, Rachel M.

    2015-01-01

    Though dating violence is widespread among young adult homeless populations, its risk factors are poorly understood by scholars. To address this gap, the current study uses a social learning theory to examine the effects of abusive parenting and caretaker arrests on dating violence among 172 homeless young adults. Results from path analyses revealed that child physical abuse and caretaker arrests were positively associated with engaging in a greater number of school fights, which, in turn, wa...

  18. Attitudes of Family Planning Workers toward Setting Up Special Counseling Stations for Unmarried Young Adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂晓雯; 刘英惠; 楼超华; 高尔生

    2001-01-01

    Objective To understand attitudes of family planning workers to setting up special counseling stations for unmarried young adults and to identify the acceptable and feasible ways to provide the services for unmarried young adults in eight provinces/cities in ChinaMethods From May 1998to December 1998, 1 927family planning workers including 965 contraceptive providers and 962 contraceptive distributors were recruited for questionnaire survey in eight provinces/cities in China.Results Except the subjects from Hebei Province, over 70% of all the subjects from other provinces/cities thought it was necessary to have a special counseling station set up for unmarried young adults, while 10~ 20% of them opposed to it. Result of Multivariable Logistic regression analysis showed that where the subjects came from, were contraceptive distributors, have higher education level, younger than 50, expressed tolerance for premarital sex, perceived that unmarried young adults had no or inadequate knowledge about sexuality and considered it was difficult for unmarried young adults to obtain contraceptive methods, were more likely to support the establishment of special counseling stations for unmarried youth. The acceptable and feasible ways to provide contraceptive services varied from one province/city to another. Generally,family planning counseling stations and hospital were the most acceptable place to provide counseling services for unmarried young adults in eight provinces/cities. Specially trained persons were recommended as the suitable persons for providing the services for unmarried young adults. Conclusion It is acceptable and feasible to set up special counseling stations for unmarried young adults.

  19. Family Histories and Multiple Transitions Among Homeless Young Adults: Pathways to Homelessness

    OpenAIRE

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Schmitz, Rachel M.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the early family histories of homeless young adults, the types and number of transitions they experienced, and their pathways to the street. Intensive qualitative interviews were audio taped and transcribed with 40 homeless young adults 19 to 21 years of age in the Midwest. Findings show that family backgrounds were generally characterized by substance use, child maltreatment, and witnessing violence, all of which provide social context for understanding why so many of the...

  20. Influence of moderate energy restriction and seafood consumption on bone turnover in overweight young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Lucey, A.J. (Alice J.); Paschos, G.K. (George K.); Cashman, K. D.; J. A. Martinez; Thorsdottir, I; Kiely, M

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity are increasing in young adults. However, moderate energy restriction aimed at lowering body weight may promote bone turnover and bone loss. Inclusion of fish or fish oils in a weight-loss diet may attenuate these adverse skeletal effects. OBJECTIVE: We examined the effects of incorporating fish or fish oil into an energy-restricted diet on bone turnover markers in young overweight adults. DESIGN: While following a strict hypoenergetic (-30%...

  1. Celebrity worship and incidence of elective cosmetic surgery: evidence of a link among young adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Maltby, J.; Day, Liza

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the current study was to explore among young adults whether celebrity worship predicted the incidence of elective cosmetic surgery within the period of 8 months after controlling for several known predictors of elective cosmetic surgery. Methods: A total of 137 young adults completed questionnaire measures of attitudes toward a celebrity whose body image they admired, previous and vicarious experience of elective cosmetic surgery, attitudes toward cosmet...

  2. Using social media to engage adolescents and young adults with their health

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Charlene A.; Merchant, Raina M.; Moreno, Megan A.

    2014-01-01

    We focus on the potential of social media related to the health of adolescent and young adults, who are nearly ubiquitous social media users but difficult to engage with their health and relatively low healthcare utilizers. Opportunities to better engage adolescents and young adults through social media exist in healthcare delivery, health education and health policy. However, challenges remain for harnessing social media, including making a clear value proposition and developing evidence-bas...

  3. Trajectories of metabolic syndrome development in young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian T W Poon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS is a constellation of metabolic aberrations that collectively increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Greater understanding of MetS developments may provide insight into targeted prevention strategies for individuals at greatest risk. The purpose of this study was to i identify distinct patterns of longitudinal MetS development and; ii develop a character profile that differentiates groups by level of MetS risk. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA study (n = 3 804; 18-30 y was obtained by limited access application from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and used for this analysis. MetS, as defined by the Harmonized criteria, was assessed over a 20 year follow-up period. Group-level trajectory analysis identified 4 distinct groups with varying rates of component development [No (23.8% of sample; Low (33.5%; Moderate (35.3%; and High MetS (7.4%]. After adjusting for covariates, individuals in the At-Risk groups (Low, Moderate and High MetS were more likely to be of black ethnicity (1.37, 1.14-1.66, have a family history of cardiovascular disease (1.61, 1.31-1.97 and history of dieting (1.69, 1.20-2.39 when compared to the No Risk trajectory group (No MetS. Conversely, increasing baseline education (0.76, 0.65-0.89 and aerobic fitness (0.55, 0.47-0.64 was inversely associated with At-Risk group membership. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest distinct profiles of MetS development that can be identified by baseline risk factors. Further research is necessary to understand the clinical implication of intermediate MetS development groups with respect to overall cardiometabolic risk.

  4. Condylar volume and surface in Caucasian young adult subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There have been no quantitative standards for volumetric and surface measurements of the mandibular condyle in Caucasian population. However, the recently developed cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) system allows measurement of these parameters with high accuracy. CBCT was used to measure the condylar volume, surface and the volume to surface ratio, called the Morphometric Index (MI), of 300 temporo-mandibular joints (TMJ) in 150 Caucasian young adult subjects, with varied malocclusions, without pain or dysfunction of TMJs. The condylar volume was 691.26 ± 54.52 mm3 in males and 669.65 ± 58.80 mm3 in, and was significantly higher (p< 0.001) in the males. The same was observed for the condylar surface, although without statistical significance (406.02 ± 55.22 mm2 in males and 394.77 ± 60.73 mm2 in females). Furthermore, the condylar volume (693.61 ± 62.82 mm3 ) in the right TMJ was significantly higher than in the left (666.99 ± 48.67 mm3, p < 0.001) as was the condylar surface (411.24 ± 57.99 mm2 in the right TMJ and 389.41 ± 56.63 mm2 in the left TMJ; t = 3.29; p < 0.01). The MI is 1.72 ± 0.17 for the whole sample, with no significant difference between males and females or the right and left sides. These data from temporomandibular joints of patients without pain or clinical dysfunction might serve as examples of normal TMJ's in the general population not seeking orthodontic care

  5. Palliative care for adolescents and young adults with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenberg AR

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abby R Rosenberg,1–3 Joanne Wolfe4–61Division of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Seattle Children’s Hospital, Seattle, WA; 2Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA; 3Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA; 4Department of Psychosocial Oncology and Palliative Care/Division of Pediatric Palliative Care, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA; 5Department of Medicine/Division of Hematology/Oncology, Boston Children’s Hospital, Boston, MA; 6Department of Pediatrics, Harvard University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: Adolescents and young adults (AYAs with cancer represent a unique and challenging group of patients with distinct developmental and psychosocial needs that may be unrecognized or unmet during their cancer experience. Palliative care refers to the total care of a patient, regardless of his or her disease status, and aims to improve quality of life by controlling symptoms and alleviating physical, social, psychological, and spiritual suffering. Integrating palliative care into standard oncology practice for AYAs is therefore valuable, if not imperative, in improving their overall cancer experience. In this review, we aimed to describe the scope, benefits, and challenges of palliative care for AYA oncology patients. We provide a broad impression of the existing literature describing or investigating palliative care in this population. Put together, the evidence suggests that palliative care is not only needed, but can also be critically beneficial to patients, families, and health care professionals alike. As we increase public and professional awareness of the needs and applications of palliative care for AYA patients with cancer, we will ultimately enable better psychosocial outcomes of the AYA patients and their larger communities.Keywords: supportive care, end of life, psychosocial outcomes, psychosocial oncology, psychosocial needs, quality of life

  6. Pinch Strengths in Healthy Iranian Children and Young Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Dianat

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data on the physical strength capabilities are essential for design-ing safe and usable products and are useful in a wide range of clinical settings especially during treatment of disease affecting the function of the hand. The purpose of this study was to determine peak lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions in a healthy Iranian children and young adult population.Methods: The study was conducted among 511 participants (242 males and 269 females aged 7-30 years. Measurements were carried out with both dominant and non-dominant hands in standard sitting posture using a B&L pinch gauge. Two repetitions of each strength measurement were recorded for each condition and the average value of the two trials was used in the subsequent analysis.Results: The results showed significant differences in the pinch strength data in terms of the age, gender and hand dominance. The lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions by females were 68.4%, 68.8%, 78.8% and 81.8% of those exerted by males, respectively. Strength exertions with the non-dominant hand were 6.4%, 5.2%, 6.6% and 5.1% lower than strength exertions of the dominant hand for the lat-eral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions, respectively.Conclusion: These findings can be used to fill the gaps in strength data for Iranian population.

  7. Injuries among Children and Young Adults in Uganda : Epidemiology and Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Mutto, Milton

    2011-01-01

    Background Injuries are a major morbidity and mortality cause among children and young adults worldwide. Previous Ugandan studies were limited in scope and biased towards severe adulthood injuries in referral care. Aims and Objectives This study explored the epidemiology of childhood and young adulthood injuries in Uganda: specifically their extent, pattern, distribution, risk and determinants, and stakeholder perceptions their regarding prevention and control. Methods ...

  8. Literacy, Sexuality, and the Value(s) of Queer Young Adult Literatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, William P.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses that there is an abundance of quality LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender) literature for young adults, filled with complexly rendered and experiences that mirror the often difficult and often exciting lives that young LGBT people live today. English language arts teachers work in a genuinely new and…

  9. Recycling and Ambivalence: Quantitative and Qualitative Analyses of Household Recycling among Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojala, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Theories about ambivalence, as well as quantitative and qualitative empirical approaches, are applied to obtain an understanding of recycling among young adults. A questionnaire was mailed to 422 Swedish young people. Regression analyses showed that a mix of negative emotions (worry) and positive emotions (hope and joy) about the environmental…

  10. Perceived Racism, Discrimination, and Acculturation in Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempts among Black Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Kathryn; Conner, Kenneth; Kaukeinen, Kimberly; Tu, Xin

    2011-01-01

    During young adulthood the suicide rate among Blacks rises dramatically and approaches that of the U.S. general population, requiring that prevention efforts include a focus on Black young adults. Although most research on suicidality among Blacks has focused on risk factors observed in the dominant culture, in this study the authors examined…

  11. "Murder Me…become a Man": Establishing the Masculine Care Circle in Young Adult Dystopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Young adult (YA) dystopia, a genre which is led almost exclusively by young female protagonists, has gained much scholarly attention in recent years. While most of the academic discussions focus, rightly, on portrayals of female characters and gender performance, portrayals of masculinity have failed to elicit the same scholarly response. This…

  12. "Spinning Themselves into Poetry": Images of Urban Adolescent Writers in Two Novels for Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissman, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    In contrast to the educational research and policy literature depicting urban adolescents as reluctant and struggling readers and writers, young people in recent young adult novels claim writing as an efficacious practice for self-discovery and social understanding. Analysis of the images of writers and writing in "Locomotion" and "Call Me Maria"…

  13. A Review of the Approaches Investigating the Post-16 Transition of Young Adults with Learning Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Investigations into the lives and transition from compulsory schooling of young adults with a disability, including a learning difficulty (LD), are increasing. The emerging consensus is one which points to this group of young people experiencing greater difficulties and poorer outcomes compared to the general population. How these investigations…

  14. Unemployment and substance use problems among young adults: Does childhood low socioeconomic status exacerbate the effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Hill, Karl G; Hartigan, Lacey A; Boden, Joseph M; Guttmannova, Katarina; Kosterman, Rick; Bailey, Jennifer A; Catalano, Richard F

    2015-10-01

    The current study tested whether unemployment predicted young adults' heavy episodic drinking, cigarette smoking, and cannabis use after taking into account individual development in substance use. Furthermore, building on the life course perspective, this study examined whether the link between unemployment and substance use among young adults differed for those who experienced low childhood SES compared to those who did not. Data for the present study came from the Seattle Social Development Project (SSDP), a panel study examining a broad range of developmental outcomes from ages 10 to 33. A life history calendar (LHC) was administered to assess substance use and unemployment status during young adulthood. Covariates included baseline symptoms of psychopathology, baseline substance use, gender, ethnicity, and adult educational attainment. Results suggest that unemployment is associated with young adults' heavy episodic drinking and possibly cigarette use, but not cannabis use. Moreover, for all three substances, the detrimental impact of unemployment on substance use seems to be exacerbated among young adults who spent their childhood and adolescence in a lower SES household. Public health efforts that provide other viable and affordable options to cope with unemployment among young adults from low SES backgrounds are needed to address this disproportionate concentration of adverse impacts of unemployment on behavioral health. PMID:26342911

  15. Oral health-related quality of life in Swedish young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunvi Johansson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The living conditions of young adults in Sweden have changed during the last decades due to the economic and employment situation in society. Although oral health is mainly considered to be good in this age group, their use of dental care has decreased and their priorities and opportunities regarding oral health are little known. The purpose of this study was to describe the views of Swedish young adults on their oral health and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL. The design of the study was qualitative, using content analysis. Sixteen young adults, aged 21–29 years, were interviewed. The findings from the interviews were summarized under the theme “Young adults reflected on their OHRQoL in a time perspective” consisting of three categories: “Past experiences, Present situation, and Future prospects.” The OHRQoL of young adults is dependent not only on their own experiences of oral health during childhood and their received dental care but also on their present self-perceived oral health, oral health habits, and social life; together with their expectations of future oral health. The findings in this study indicate that the oral health awareness and needs of young adults, as well as their expectations of oral care, merit further follow-up.

  16. Effects of Regulating Emotions on Cognitive Performance: What Is Costly for Young Adults Is not so Costly for Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Scheibe, Susanne; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda

    2009-01-01

    We examined whether instructions to regulate emotions after a disgust-inducing film clip create an equally costly cognitive load across adulthood. Young and older adults across all instructional conditions initially demonstrated increased working memory performance after mood induction, typical of practice effects. Age-group differences emerged at the second post-induction trial. When instructed to down-regulate disgust feelings, older adults’ performance continually increased, whereas young ...

  17. Percutaneous absorption of triadimefon in the adult and young male and female rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The percutaneous absorption of 14C-phenoxy ring labeled triadimefon was studied in adult and young male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Triadimefon was applied (41.1 to 46.4 micrograms/cm2) in 0.2 ml of acetone to areas comprising 3% of the body surface (7.0 to 14.5 cm2). Thirty-six animals were treated at the initiation of each study. Groups of three animals were subsequently killed at 1, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, and 192 hr after treatment. Skin from the treated area as well as blood, heart, liver, kidneys, remaining carcass, urine, and feces were analyzed for 14C by scintillation counting techniques. Based on 14C counts, triadimefon was lost more rapidly from the skin of young animals (t 1/2, 20 to 25 hr) than from the skin of adult animals (t 1/2, 29 to 53 hr). Recovery studies indicated that adult males, adult females, young males, and young females, respectively, absorbed 53, 82, 57, and 52% of the dose. The rest of the dose based on material balance was presumably lost by evaporation. Approximately 2.5 to 3.9% of the dose penetrated the skin in one hour and was available for absorption. The rate of entry triadimefon into blood was 2 to 2.5 times faster for young than that observed in adult animals. Elimination of it from blood was faster in the case of the young animals. Triadimefon was absorbed through the skins of the adult male, adult female, young male, and young female rats, respectively, at rates of 0.20, 0.50, 0.58, and 0.48 micrograms/hr/cm2 of skin

  18. Mandibular fractures: a comparative analysis between young and adult patients in the southeast region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat Atilgan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to review and compare the differences between mandibular fractures in young and adult patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients treated at the Oral and Maxillofacial Department of Dicle University during a five-year period between 2000 and 2005 were retrospectively evaluated with respect to age groups, gender, etiology, localization and type of fractures, treatment methods and complications. RESULTS: 532 patients were included in the study, 370 (70% males and 162 (30% females, with a total of 744 mandibular fractures. The mean age of young patients was 10, with a male-female ratio of 2:1. The mean age of adult patients was 28, with a male-female ratio of 3:1. The most common causes of injury were falls (65% in young patients and traffic accidents (38% in adults. The most common fracture sites were the symphysis (35% and condyle (36% in young patients, and the symphysis in adults (36%. Mandibular fractures were generally treated by arch bar and maxillomandibular fixation in both young (67% and adult (39% patients, and 43% of the adult patients were treated by open reduction and internal fixation. CONCLUSION: There was a similar gender, monthly and type of treatment distribution in both young and adult patients in the southeast region of Turkey. However, there were differences regarding age, etiology and fracture site. These findings between young and adult patients are broadly similar to those from other studies. Analysis of small differences may be an important factor in assessing educational and socioeconomic environments.

  19. Higher perceived stress but lower cortisol levels found among young Greek adults living in a stressful social environment in comparison with Swedish young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faresjö, Åshild; Theodorsson, Elvar; Chatziarzenis, Marios; Sapouna, Vasiliki; Claesson, Hans-Peter; Koppner, Jenny; Faresjö, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    The worldwide financial crisis during recent years has raised concerns of negative public health effects. This is notably evident in southern Europe. In Greece, where the financial austerity has been especially pronounced, the prevalence of mental health problems including depression and suicide has increased, and outbreaks of infectious diseases have risen. The main objective in this study was to investigate whether different indicators of health and stress levels measured by a new biomarker based on cortisol in human hair were different amongst comparable Greek and Swedish young adults, considering that Sweden has been much less affected by the recent economic crises. In this cross-sectional comparative study, young adults from the city of Athens in Greece (n = 124) and from the city of Linkoping in Sweden (n = 112) participated. The data collection comprised answering a questionnaire with different health indicators and hair samples being analyzed for the stress hormone cortisol, a biomarker with the ability to retrospectively measure long-term cortisol exposure. The Greek young adults reported significantly higher perceived stress (pGreeks were found to have significantly lower cortisol levels (pGreek young adults might have been suppressed and their HPA-axis down-regulated after living in a stressful environment with economic and social pressure. PMID:24066077

  20. HIV/AIDS-Related Knowledge Among Malaysian Young Adults: Findings From a Nationwide Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Wong Li-Ping; Chin Caroline-Kwong; Low Wah-Yun; Jaafar Nasruddin

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Purpose HIV/AIDS poses a serious threat to young people, both in Malaysia and throughout the world. A nationwide cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about HIV/AIDS among the Malaysian public. This article reports the findings of knowledge about HIV/AIDS among young adults. Methods A total of 1075 young adult respondents aged 15–24 years participated in this survey. The response rate was 82.2%. Results The data indicated that HIV/AIDS k...

  1. Algodystrophy in children and young adults with isotopic bony hypofixation. A propos of 5 observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report 5 observations of young adults 3 teen-agers and 2 children suffering from algodystrophy, and in whom isotopic exploration of the skeleton disclosed a clear bony hypofixation during the entire evolution. These observations confirm their 1981 work concerning a young adult suffering from algodystrophy with isotopic bony hypofixation. Recent Canadian and American studies emphasize also the frequency of isotopic hypofixation in children algodystrophy. It seems, therefore, that isotopic bony hypofixation (linked perhaps to a decreased blood flow), is rather specific of algodystrophy in young subjects

  2. Social Media & Mobile Internet Use among Teens and Young Adults. Millennials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhart, Amanda; Purcell, Kristen; Smith, Aaron; Zickuhr, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Since 2006, blogging has dropped among teens and young adults while simultaneously rising among older adults. As the tools and technology embedded in social networking sites change, and use of the sites continues to grow, youth may be exchanging "macro blogging" for microblogging with status updates. Blogging has declined in popularity among both…

  3. Better oral health, more inequality--empirical analysis among young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuller, A A

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to examine the development of the distribution of oral health according to socio-economic status in young adults from 1983 to 1994. PARTICIPANTS: Study material consisted of 23-24 year old adults randomly selected from municipalities in Trøndelag in 1983 and 1

  4. Explaining Differentials in Employment and Wages Between Young Adults with and Without Disabilities.

    OpenAIRE

    David R. Mann; David C. Wittenburg

    2014-01-01

    This working paper estimated employment and offered wages of young adults with and without disabilities and found new evidence that employment and wage offer gaps between adults with and without disabilities emerge early and are especially large for those with severe or mental limitations. The analysis used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997.

  5. The Development of Research Skills in Young Adults with Intellectual Disability in Participatory Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Michelle F.; Moni, Karen B.; Cuskelly, Monica

    2015-01-01

    There is limited information about specific research constructs developed by adults with intellectual disability in undertaking research despite increasing involvement in research "with" rather than "on" these individuals. Participatory research was used with three young adults with intellectual disability to collaboratively…

  6. Selection, Inclusion, Evaluation and Defense of Transgender-Inclusive Fiction for Young Adults: A Resource Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockefeller, Elsworth I.

    2009-01-01

    An increasingly visible youth transgender population is emerging and the number of transgender-inclusive fiction texts for young adults is growing. Adults serving teens in schools, libraries, and community agencies must begin actively pursuing, utilizing, and incorporating these texts into resource collections. This article provides an overview of…

  7. Attachment States of Mind and the Quality of Young Adults' Sibling Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuna, Keren; Roisman, Glenn I.; Haydon, Katherine C.; Groh, Ashley M.; Holland, Ashley S.

    2011-01-01

    This report examines young adults' states of mind regarding their early attachment experiences in relation to the observed and perceived quality of their sibling relationships. Sixty sibling pairs (18-25 years of age) were (a) administered the Adult Attachment Interview (George, Kaplan, & Main, 1985), (b) videotaped during a conflict resolution…

  8. Early Entries into Adult Roles: Associations with Aggressive Behavior from Early Adolescence into Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Kathleen M.; Ensminger, Margaret E.; Ialongo, Nicholas; Poduska, Jeanne M.; Kellam, Sheppard G.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines how early entries into adult roles are associated with aggressive and violent behavior occurring from early adolescence to young adulthood among 499 males and 578 females living in low-income, central-city neighborhoods. Among males, engagement in adult roles accounted for the relationship between higher levels of aggressive…

  9. The Relationship Between Childhood Bullying and Young Adult Self-Esteem and Loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tritt, Carol; Duncan, Renae D.

    1997-01-01

    This study finds similar levels of self-esteem in young adults who were childhood bullies, bully victims, and children not involved with bullies. However results show that as adults, bullies and their victims report significantly more loneliness than those not involved in bully situations. Examines implications for intervention and future…

  10. Comprehension and Use of Anaphoric Devices in Young and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Leah L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that the increase in older adults (as compared to young adults) of uses of ambiguous reference is not caused by age- or cohort-related differences in knowledge structures needed to determine coreference based on plausibility; availability or weighing of strategies for using anaphoric devices; or assumptions about the degree of specificity…

  11. Connecting Health and Technology (CHAT: protocol of a randomized controlled trial to improve nutrition behaviours using mobile devices and tailored text messaging in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerr Deborah A

    2012-06-01

    project will assess the impact of the intervention on behavioural intention to eat a more healthful diet. This innovative approach if successful may provide a means to deliver a low cost health promotion program that has the potential to reach large groups, particularly young adults. Trial registration Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612000250831

  12. Regional Differences in Correlates of Daily Walking among Middle Age and Older Australian Rural Adults: Implications for Health Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Dollman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rural Australians are less physically active than their metropolitan counterparts, and yet very little is known of the candidate intervention targets for promoting physical activity in rural populations. As rural regions are economically, socially and environmentally diverse, drivers of regular physical activity are likely to vary between regions. This study explored the region-specific correlates of daily walking among middle age and older adults in rural regions with contrasting dominant primary industries. Participants were recruited through print and electronic media, primary care settings and community organisations. Pedometers were worn by 153 adults for at least four days, including a weekend day. A questionnaire identified potential intra-personal, social and environmental correlates of physical activity, according to a social ecological framework. Regression modelling identified independent correlates of daily walking separately in the two study regions. In one region, there were independent correlates of walking from all levels of the social ecological framework. In the other region, significant correlates of daily walking were almost all demographic (age, education and marital status. Participants living alone were less likely to be physically active regardless of region. This study highlights the importance of considering region-specific factors when designing strategies for promoting regular walking among rural adults.

  13. The global financial crisis and psychological health in a sample of Australian older adults: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent-Cox, Kerry; Butterworth, Peter; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2011-10-01

    Economic stress and uncertainty is argued to increase older adults' vulnerability to physical health decline and mental distress. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of research that examines the relationship between a large historical economic event, such as the recent global financial crisis (GFC), and health outcomes for older adults. This study provides a unique opportunity to compare self-reported health status and psychological functioning (number of depression and anxiety symptoms) in 1973 older Australian adults (mean age of 66.58 years (SD = 1.5)) prior to the GFC (2005-2006), with their status four years later during the GFC period (2009-2010). Latent difference score models revealed a significant difference in depression and anxiety symptoms over the two measurement occasions, indicating poorer psychological functioning for those who reported an impact as a result of the economic slowdown. These effects were not explained by demographic or socio-economic factors. Interaction effects showed that those participants who were surveyed within the acute salience period of the GFC (April to September 2009) were significantly less likely to report poorer psychological health over time compared to those who were surveyed after September 2009. This interesting timing effect is discussed in terms of potential time-lags in the negative effects of economic stress on health outcomes, as well as the possible protective effects of social norms that may be created by a large scale economic crisis. PMID:21831493

  14. Survival Outside Home: Sexual Behaviour of Homeless and Runaway Young Adults in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Wilberforce Amoah

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Although homeless young adults are often seen on the streets of Ghana, little research had examined the nature of sexual behaviour among these homeless and runaway young adults. Due to the culturally sensitive nature of such studies in the Ghanaian setting, only fifty (50 respondents agreed to participate in the study. A thirty–five (35 item questionnaire, comprising of twenty-eight (28 closed-ended and seven (7 open-ended questions was used for data collection. The findings indicated poverty, inability of parents to cater for the young adult’s needs, peer pressure and lack of parental acceptance as the main causes of homelessness. Consequently, the findings also showed a trend of school dropout, teenage pregnancy and use of illicit drugs as effects of homelessness. These findings have implications for future studies, policy reform and care for homeless young adult.

  15. The impact of psychosocial factors on subjective well-being among homeless young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barczyk, Amanda N; Thompson, Sanna J; Rew, Lynn

    2014-08-01

    Homeless young adults are one of this country's most vulnerable populations, and information surrounding issues of subjective well-being among this particularly diverse population is scarce. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact social support, future expectations, and homeless cultural factors have on subjective well-being among homeless young adults. A purposive sample of 185 homeless young people, ages 18 to 23, and known to use alcohol or drugs, participated in the study. Multiple regression analyses showed that participants who had a higher level of subjective well-being reported significantly higher levels of social support, more optimistic expectations of the future, and a better perception of the flow of time. More fatalistic views of the future significantly predicted lower levels of subjective well-being. Findings suggest that service providers should focus on understanding the strengths of individuals and, specifically, gain a deeper understanding of homeless young adults' support networks and views of the future. PMID:25095630

  16. Recruiting young adults into a weight loss trial: Report of protocol development and recruitment results

    OpenAIRE

    Corsino, Leonor; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Batch, Bryan C.; Intille, Stephen; Grambow, Steven C.; Bosworth, Hayden B; Bennett, Gary G.; Tyson, Crystal; Svetkey, Laura P.; Voils, Corrine I.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity has spread to all segments of the U.S. population. Young adults, aged 18-35, are rarely represented in clinical weight loss trials. We conducted a qualitative study to identify factors that may facilitate recruitment of young adults into a weight loss intervention trial. Participants were 33 adults aged 18-35 yrs with BMI > 25 kg/m2. Six group discussions were conducted using the nominal group technique. Health, social image, and “self”factors such as emotions, self-esteem, and confid...

  17. Oral cavity and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in young adults: a review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a disease of middle-aged to elderly adults. However, an increased incidence of HNSCC in young people under 45 years of age has been reported recently. In the present review, we focused on the epidemiology and aetiology of HNSCC in adults under 45 years of age. We reviewed literature related to HNSCC in adult patients less than 45 years of age and discussed current treatment options and prognosis. HNSCC in young adults is associated with a higher incidence rate in nonsmokers, lower female-to-male ratio, a higher percentage of oral cavity and oropharynx tumours, and fewer second primary tumours. However, aside from traditional risk factors of tobacco and alcohol exposure, the causes of these cancers in young adults remain unclear. Agents that might contribute to risk include infection with high-risk human papillomavirus subtypes as well as genetic factors or immunodeficiency status. The expected increase in incidence and mortality of the young with HNSCC may become a major public health concern if current trends persist, particularly lifestyle habits that may contribute to this disease. Given the younger age and potential long-term adverse sequelae of traditional HNSCC treatments, young adults should be treated on a case-by-case basis and post-therapy quality of life must be considered in any treatment-decision making process

  18. Neural mechanisms of reading facial emotions in young and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Christina Ebner

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The ability to read and appropriately respond to emotions in others is central for successful social interaction. Young and older adults are better at identifying positive than negative facial expressions and expressions of young than older faces. Little, however, is known about the neural processes associated with reading different emotions, particularly in faces of different ages, in samples of young and older adults. During fMRI, young and older participants identified expressions in happy, neutral, and angry young and older faces. The results suggest a functional dissociation of ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC in reading facial emotions that is largely comparable in young and older adults: Both age groups showed greater vmPFC activity to happy compared to angry or neutral faces, which was positively correlated with expression identification for happy compared to angry faces. In contrast, both age groups showed greater activity in dmPFC to neutral or angry than happy faces which was negatively correlated with expression identification for neutral compared to happy faces. A similar region of dmPFC showed greater activity for older than young faces, but no brain-behavior correlations. Greater vmPFC activity in the present study may reflect greater affective processing, involved in reading happy compared to neutral or angry faces. Greater dmPFC activity may reflect more cognitive control involved in decoding and/or regulating negative emotions associated with neutral or angry than happy, and older than young, faces.

  19. Prospective Memory in Young and Older Adults: The Effects of Ongoing-Task Load

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Rebekah E.; Horn, Sebastian S.; Bayen, Ute J.

    2011-01-01

    Prospective memory involves remembering to perform intended actions in the future. Previous work with the multinomial model of event-based prospective memory indicated that adult age-related differences in prospective-memory performance were due to the prospective (not the retrospective) component of the task (Smith & Bayen, 2006). However, ongoing-task performance was also lower in older adults in that study. In the current study with young and older adults, the difficulty of the ongoing tas...

  20. Effects of Timing of Adversity on Adolescent and Young Adult Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiff, Cara J; Cortes, Rebecca; Lengua, Lilana; Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J David; Mason, W Alex

    2012-06-01

    Effects of Timing of Adversity on Adolescent and Young Adult Adjustment Abstract Exposure to adversity during childhood and adolescence predicts adjustment across development. Further, adolescent adjustment problems persist into young adulthood. This study examined relations of contextual adversity with concurrent adolescent adjustment and prospective mental health and health outcomes in young adulthood. A longitudinal sample (N = 808) was followed from age 10 through 27. Perceptions of neighborhood in childhood predicted depression, alcohol use disorders, and HIV risk in young adulthood. Further, the timing of adversity was important in determining the type of problem experienced in adulthood. Youth adjustment predicted adult outcomes, and in some cases, mediated the relation between adversity and outcomes. These findings support the importance of adversity in predicting adjustment and elucidate factors that affect outcomes into young adulthood. PMID:22754271

  1. Development and Measurement through Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Young Adult Social Behavior Scale (YASB): An Assessment of Relational Aggression in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crothers, Laura M.; Schreiber, James B.; Field, Julaine E.; Kolbert, Jered B.

    2009-01-01

    The Young Adult Social Behavior Scale was developed for the purpose of measuring self-reported relational and social aggression and behaviors of interpersonal maturity in adolescents and young adults (the sample included 629 university students; 66% female; 91.6% White). Despite previous research suggesting that relational and social aggression…

  2. An exploration of young adults' progress in treatment for dissociative disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrick, Amie C; Brand, Bethany L; McNary, Scot W; Classen, Catherine C; Lanius, Ruth; Loewenstein, Richard J; Pain, Clare; Putnam, Frank W

    2012-01-01

    Although treatment outcome research on dissociative disorders (DD) is increasing, an examination of treatment progress in young adults with these disorders remains noticeably absent from the literature. Many studies of DD patients report mean ages over 35. The present study examined the response to treatment of a subsample of young adults ages 18-30 with dissociative identity disorder and dissociative disorder not otherwise specified who participated in a naturalistic, longitudinal study of DD treatment outcome. Over 30 months, these patients demonstrated decreases in destructive behaviors and symptomatology as well as improved adaptive capacities. Compared to the older adult participants in the study, the young adults were more impaired initially. However, these younger patients improved at a rapid pace, such that their clinical presentations were similar to or more improved than those of the older adults at the 30-month follow-up. This brief report suggests not only that young adult DD patients can benefit from a trauma-focused, phasic treatment approach but that their treatment may progress at a faster pace than that of older adults with DD. PMID:22989245

  3. Vitamin D Status, Bone Mineral Density and Mental Health in Young Australian Women: The Safe-D Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reavley, Nicola; Garland, Suzanne M.; Gorelik, Alexandra; Wark, John D.

    2015-01-01

    to healthy controls. Early adulthood is a critical time in young woman’s lives as their independence, behaviours and lifestyle choices are established. These choices made as a young adult lay down the foundation for future health trajectories for not only for themselves but also for their potential partners and families. Addressing vitamin D deficiency, poor bone health and mental ill-health at a younger age may ultimately improve their wellbeing, productivity and long-term health outcomes. This study is of particular significance as the interplay between vitamin D, depression and bone health is currently uncertain and such knowledge is crucial for understanding, prevention and treatment of these conditions. PMID:26753163

  4. Evaluation of smoking genotoxicity in Turkish young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse G Zamani

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Our data showed that cigarette smoke is a DNA damage causitive agent on exfoliative buccal mucosa and urothelial cells and peripheric blood lymphocytes of young smokers, but it has most destructive effect on urothelial cells.

  5. [Importance of halitosis. A survey of adolescents and young adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Thomas; Filippi, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few years, halitosis has become an increasingly important issue for dentists and their patients. For this study, a questionnaire was distributed in four different vocational/vocational-technical schools in Zurich to find out more about the personal oral hygiene and general knowledge of halitosis of 888 young women and 921 young men between the ages of 15 and 25. The factors of gender, education, professional customer contact, age and size of the residential community were taken into account. Findings were presented on the basis of a visual analogue scale. The survey results showed women to have a more intensive oral hygiene regimen and more frequent check-ups than their male counterparts (p 0.05). The analysis showed that halitosis is an important issue for young people, and that a large part of the young population sees tongue cleaning as a part of oral hygiene and intraoral change as a cause of halitosis. PMID:27142236

  6. Young Adults Seeking Medical Care: Do Race and Ethnicity Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reports from the National Medical Care Utilization and Expenditure Survey Clearinghouse on Health Indexes Statistical Notes for Health Planners ... Adults Seeking Medical Care: Do Race and Ethnicity ...

  7. Ultimate erythropoietic repopulating abilities of fetal, young adult, and old adult cells compared using repeated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erythropoietic repopulating abilities of fetal liver cells and young and old adult marrow cells were compared as follows: Equal numbers of cells from a donor of each age were mixed with a constant portion of cells pooled from genetically distinguishable competitors. These mixtures were transplanted into stem cell-depleted recipients, and the proportions of recipient hemoglobin that were donor type measured the relative effectiveness of early erythropoietic precursor cells from the various donors. At intervals of 3-6 mo, recipients were sublethally irradiated, requiring a new round of competitive repopulation. When B6 mice were used as donors, with WBB6F1 competitors and recipients, the highest levels of stem cell activity were found using old donors. This was true even with unirradiated, immune-competent W/Wv recipients. When donors and recipients were WBB6F1 hybrids, with B6 competitors, fetal cells initially gave higher levels of repopulating ability, and they were similar to the adult and old marrow cells after 400 d and after recovery from two sublethal irradiations. These effects were mostly insignificant and probably reflect small differences in initial stem cell concentrations that are brought out by the sensitivity of the competitive repopulation assay. Repopulating abilities of 12-d fetal liver cells were not detectable. We also showed that the proportions of newly synthesized hemoglobins made by the two types of stem cells in tetraparental mice remained nearly constant when tested at 3-d intervals over 30 d. Minimum numbers of stem cells producing erythrocytes over a single 3-d period were calculated as 62 and 128, but these are too low, since variances were similar in the tetraparental mice and in the F1 hybrid control. We suggest that erythropoietic stem cells have essentially unlimited proliferative capacities and are found in approximately equal concentrations in the primary erythropoietic organs after 15 or 16 d of fetal life

  8. A qualitative study of the determinants of dieting and non-dieting approaches in overweight/obese Australian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leske Stuart

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dieting has historically been the main behavioural treatment paradigm for overweight/obesity, although a non-dieting paradigm has more recently emerged based on the criticisms of the original dieting approach. There is a dearth of research contrasting why these approaches are adopted. To address this, we conducted a qualitative investigation into the determinants of dieting and non-dieting approaches based on the perspectives and experiences of overweight/obese Australian adults. Methods Grounded theory was used inductively to generate a model of themes contrasting the determinants of dieting and non-dieting approaches based on the perspectives of 21 overweight/obese adults. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews to elicit in-depth individual experiences and perspectives. Results Several categories emerged which distinguished between the adoption of a dieting or non-dieting approach. These categories included the focus of each approach (weight/image or lifestyle/health behaviours; internal or external attributions about dieting failure; attitudes towards established diets, and personal autonomy. Personal autonomy was also influenced by another category; the perceived knowledge and self-efficacy about each approach, with adults more likely to choose an approach they knew more about and were confident in implementing. The time perspective of change (short or long-term and the perceived identity of the person (fat/dieter or healthy person also emerged as determinants of dieting or non-dieting approaches respectively. Conclusions The model of determinants elicited from this study assists in understanding why dieting and non-dieting approaches are adopted, from the perspectives and experiences of overweight/obese adults. Understanding this decision-making process can assist clinicians and public health researchers to design and tailor dieting and non-dieting interventions to population subgroups that have preferences

  9. Exposure to Celebrity-Endorsed Small Cigar Promotions and Susceptibility to Use among Young Adult Cigarette Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Sterling, Kymberle L.; Moore, Roland S.; Nicole Pitts; Melissa Duong; Ford, Kentya H.; Eriksen, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Small cigar smoking among young adult cigarette smokers may be attributed to their exposure to its advertisements and promotions. We examined the association between exposure to a celebrity music artist’s endorsement of a specific brand of small cigars and young adult cigarette smokers’ susceptibility to smoking that brand. Venue-based sampling procedures were used to select and survey a random sample of 121 young adult cigarette smokers, aged 18–35. Fourteen percent reported exposure to the ...

  10. Adolescent and Young Adult Perceptions of Hookah and Little Cigars/Cigarillos: Implications for Risk Messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornacchione, Jennifer; Wagoner, Kimberly G; Wiseman, Kimberly D; Kelley, Dannielle; Noar, Seth M; Smith, Margaret H; Sutfin, Erin L

    2016-07-01

    Use of hookah and little cigars/cigarillos (LCCs) is high among adolescents and young adults. Although these products have health effects similar to cigarettes, adolescents and young adults believe them to be safer. This study examined adolescent and young adult perceptions of hookah and LCCs to develop risk messages aimed at discouraging use among users and at-risk nonusers. Ten focus groups with 77 adolescents and young adults were conducted to explore their perceptions about the perceived risks and benefits of hookah and LCC use. Participants were users of other (non-cigarette) tobacco products (n = 47) and susceptible nonusers (n = 30). Transcripts were coded for emergent themes on participants' perceptions of hookah and LCCs. Participants did not perceive health effects associated with hookah and LCC use to be serious or likely to happen given their infrequency of use and perceptions that they are less harmful than cigarettes. Participants generally had positive associations with smoking hookah and LCCs for several reasons, including that they are used in social gatherings, come in various flavors, and can be used to perform smoke tricks. Because adolescents and young adults underestimate and discount the long-term risks associated with hookah and LCC use, effective messages may be those that focus on the acute/immediate health and cosmetic effects. PMID:27337629

  11. African American parents' racial and emotion socialization profiles and young adults' emotional adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Angel S; Perry, Nicole B; Cavanaugh, Alyson M; Leerkes, Esther M

    2015-07-01

    The current study aimed to identify parents' profiles of racial and emotion socialization practices, to determine if these profiles vary as a function of family income and young adult child gender, and to examine their links with young adults' emotional adaptation. Participants included 192 African American young adults (70% women) who ranged in age from 18 to 24 years (M = 19.44 years). Four maternal profiles emerged: cultural-supportive (high cultural socialization and supportive responses to children's negative emotions), moderate bias preparation (moderate preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, and nonsupportive responses to negative emotions), high bias preparation (high preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, and nonsupportive responses), and low engaged (low across racial and socialization constructs). Three paternal profiles emerged: multifaceted (moderate across racial and emotion socialization constructs), high bias preparation, and low engaged. Men were more likely to have mothers in the high bias preparation and to have fathers in the multifaceted or high bias preparation profiles. Individuals with higher income were more likely to have mothers in the cultural-supportive profile and to have fathers in the multifaceted profile. Young adults whose mothers fit the cultural-supportive profile or the moderate bias preparation profile had lower levels of depressive symptoms than young adults whose mothers fit the high bias preparation profile. PMID:25090149

  12. National Cholesterol Education Panel III performance in preventing myocardial infarction in young adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Only one published has directly evaluated the utility of National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) guidelines in young adults that study population consisted of young Americans. We examined the utility of the latest NCEP Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII) guidelines in a group of young Lebanese adults. A group of 234 young adults admitted for myocardial infarction at a Lebanese teaching hospital over a 2-year period were evaluated retrospectively. The Framingham risk predictor model was used to calculate the 10-year risk for coronary events in all subjects. Two hundred young Lebanese adults with a mean age of 49+-7.6 years were included in the analysis. The majority of the study population had a history of smoking (67%) and LDL cholesterol <130 mg/dL (70.5%) and were considered overweight and obese (80.5%). As a group, 80% did not meat the criteria to qualify for antilipiemic pharmacotherapy prior to their presentation. The predictive model did not detect the majority of these patients. Clinicians should treat modifiable risk factors with the same intensity given to cholesterol even if the patient has a normal lipid profile. (author)

  13. Effect of treadmill training on peak expiratory flow rate and resting pulse rate among young adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUKANYA BARDHAN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present was designed to find out the effect of treadmill training on peak expiratory flow rate and resting pulse rate among young adult boys. The random group design was adopted for this study. Participants were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. For this purpose, Ten (N = 10 male students of B.A., B.C.A and B.Com from Post Graduate Government College, Sector-11, Chandigarh aged 19-25 years participate in the study. The subjects were being randomly divided into two groups: A (N = 05; Experimental and B (N = 05; Control. Paired "t" test was employed to identify significant differences between the pretest and post-test mean of the two groups through Medical Calculation Version 12.5. To test the hypotheses, the level of significance was set at 0.05. It is concluded that insignificant difference has been found between pre-test and post test (Experimental Group scores of Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR among young adult boys. No significant difference has been found between the pre-test and post-test(Control Group scores of Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR among young adult boys. No significant difference has been found between the pre-test and post-test (Experimental Group scores of Resting Pulse Rate among young adult boys. No significant difference has been found between the pre-test and post-test (Control Group scores of Resting Pulse Rate among young adult boys.

  14. Working memory capacity and overgeneral autobiographical memory in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Laura; Latorre, José Miguel; Serrano, Juan Pedro

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to compare the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) performance of two healthy samples of younger and older adults and to analyse the relationship between overgeneral memory (OGM) and working memory executive processes (WMEP) using a structural equation modelling with latent variables. The AMT and sustained attention, short-term memory and working memory tasks were administered to a group of young adults (N = 50) and a group of older adults (N = 46). On the AMT, the older adults recalled a greater number of categorical memories (p = .000) and fewer specific memories (p = .000) than the young adults, confirming that OGM occurs in the normal population and increases with age. WMEP was measured by reading span and a working memory with sustained attention load task. Structural equation modelling reflects that WMEP shows a strong relationship with OGM: lower scores on WMEP reflect an OGM phenomenon characterized by higher categorical and lower specific memories. PMID:19626477

  15. Negative and positive impact of internet addiction on young adults: Empericial study in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Shah Alam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore and identify the impact of internet addictions of young adults in Malaysia. There are six impacts identified, of which five are negative impacts and one is positive impact.Design/methodology/approach: This study comprised sample of 200 young adults in Malaysia. A cross-sectional research design was used to examine the impact of Internet addiction. Data were gathered based on personal administered questionnaire.Findings and Originality/value: This study results show that five negative impacts of excessive internet usages such as interpersonal problem, behavioural problem, physical problem, psychological problem, and work problem of young adults.The young adults believed that the internet usage can help them to improve their skills for doing their work better. This study also reveals that males have a great impact on working problems, psychological problems, behavioural problems and interpersonal problems than female adults. On the other hand, females are leading with their physical problems by getting Internet addiction.Research limitations/implications: The data for this study are collected by self-administered questionnaire, a method with well-known shortcomings. Secondly, this study done only on young adults from only two universities in Malaysia.Practical implications: An important implication of this research is that the interesting findings give some insight to the Internet users to focus on improving Internet usage habits. Originality/value: The findings are original and unique and are based on the literature from different western researches. The results are based on a sample of young adults in Malaysia. The research findings are useful to academics and heavy Internet users those are hooked with Internet to their everyday life.

  16. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Lucinda J; Burrows, Sally; Lucas, Robyn M; Marshall, Carina E; Huang, Rae-Chi; Chan She Ping-Delfos, Wendy; Beilin, Lawrence J; Holt, Patrick G; Hart, Prue H; Oddy, Wendy H; Mori, Trevor A

    2016-06-01

    Evidence associating serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations and cardiometabolic risk factors is inconsistent and studies have largely been conducted in adult populations. We examined the prospective associations between serum 25(OH)D concentrations and cardiometabolic risk factors from adolescence to young adulthood in the West Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations, BMI, homoeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), TAG, HDL-cholesterol and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were measured at the 17-year (n 1015) and 20-year (n 1117) follow-ups. Hierarchical linear mixed models with maximum likelihood estimation were used to investigate associations between serum 25(OH)D concentrations and cardiometabolic risk factors, accounting for potential confounders. In males and females, respectively, mean serum 25(OH)D concentrations were 73·6 (sd 28·2) and 75·4 (sd 25·9) nmol/l at 17 years and 70·0 (sd 24·2) and 74·3 (sd 26·2) nmol/l at 20 years. Deseasonalised serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations were inversely associated with BMI (coefficient -0·01; 95 % CI -0·03, -0·003; P=0·014). No change over time was detected in the association for males; for females, the inverse association was stronger at 20 years compared with 17 years. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were inversely associated with log-HOMA-IR (coefficient -0·002; 95 % CI -0·003, -0·001; P<0·001) and positively associated with log-TAG in females (coefficient 0·002; 95 % CI 0·0008, 0·004; P=0·003). These associations did not vary over time. There were no significant associations between serum 25(OH)D concentrations and HDL-cholesterol or SBP. Clinical trials in those with insufficient vitamin D status may be warranted to determine any beneficial effect of vitamin D supplementation on insulin resistance, while monitoring for any deleterious effect on TAG. PMID:27153206

  17. Is a history of school bullying victimization associated with adult suicidal ideation?: a South Australian population-based observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeger, Leigh; Allison, Stephen; Korossy-Horwood, Rebecca; Eckert, Kerena A; Goldney, Robert D

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this research was to determine whether a history of school bullying victimization is associated with suicidal ideation in adult life. A random and representative sample of 2907 South Australian adults was surveyed in Autumn, 2008. Respondents were asked "When you were at school, did you experience traumatic bullying by peers that was particularly severe, for example, being frequently targeted or routinely harassed in any way by 'bullies'?" Depression was determined by the mood module of the PRIME-MD which includes a suicidal ideation question; "In the last 2 weeks, have you had thoughts that you would be better off dead or hurting yourself in some way?" The overall prevalence of suicidal ideation in postschool age respondents was 3.4% (95% confidence interval: 2.8%-4.2%) in 2008. Bullying by peers was recalled by 18.7% (17.2%-20.3%). Respondents with a history of being bullied were approximately 3 times (odds ratio: 3.2) more likely to report suicidal ideation compared with those who did not. The association between being bullied and suicidal ideation remained after controlling for both depression and sociodemographic variables (odds ratio: 2.1). The results from the present research suggest that there is a strong association between a history of childhood bullying victimization and current suicidal ideation that persists across all ages. Bullying prevention programs in schools could hold the potential for longer lasting benefits in this important area of public health. PMID:20921863

  18. Characteristics and Outcomes of Young Adult Opiate Users Receiving Residential Substance Abuse Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Siobhan; MacMaster, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Opiate use patterns, user characteristics, and treatment response among young adults are of interest due to current high use prevalence and historical low levels of treatment engagement relative to older populations. Prior research in this population suggests that overall, young adults present at treatment with different issues. In this study the authors investigated potential differences between young adult (18-25 years of age) and older adult (26 and older) opiate users and the impact of differences relative to treatment motivation, length and outcomes. Data for this study was drawn from 760 individuals who entered voluntary, private, residential treatment. Study measures included the Addiction Severity Index (ASI), the Treatment Service Review (TSR), and University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (URICA). Interviews were conducted at program intake and 6-month post-discharge. Results indicate that older adults with a history of opiate use present at treatment with higher levels of severity for alcohol, medical, and psychological problems and young adults present at treatment with greater drug use and more legal issues. Significant improvement for both groups was noted at 6 months post treatment; there were also fewer differences between the two age groups of opiate users. Results suggest different strategies within treatment programs may provide benefit in targeting the disparate needs of younger opiate users. Overall, however, results suggest that individualized treatment within a standard, abstinence-based, residential treatment model can be effective across opiate users at different ages and with different issues, levels of severity, and impairment at intake. PMID:25879396

  19. Environment learning using descriptions or navigation: The involvement of working memory in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghetti, Chiara; Borella, Erika; Carbone, Elena; Martinelli, Massimiliano; De Beni, Rossana

    2016-05-01

    This study examined age-related differences between young and older adults in the involvement of verbal and visuo-spatial components of working memory (WM) when paths are learned from verbal and visuo-spatial inputs. A sample of 60 young adults (20-30 years old) and 58 older adults (60-75 years old) learned two paths from the person's point of view, one displayed in the form of a video showing the path, the other presenting the path in a verbal description. During the learning phase, participants concurrently performed a verbal task (articulatory suppression, AS group), or a visuo-spatial task (spatial tapping, ST group), or no secondary task (control, C group). After learning each path, participants completed tasks that involved the following: (1) recalling the sequential order and the location of landmarks; and (2) judging spatial sentences as true or false (verification test). The results showed that young adults outperformed older adults in all recall tasks. In both age groups performance in all types of task was worse in the AS and ST groups than in the C group, irrespective of the type of input. Overall, these findings suggest that verbal and visuo-spatial components of WM underpin the processing of environmental information in both young and older adults. The results are discussed in terms of age-related differences and according to the spatial cognition framework. PMID:26280566

  20. Vision of the active limb impairs bimanual motor tracking in young and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu P. Boisgontier

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the intensive investigation of bimanual coordination, it remains unclear how directing vision toward either limb influences performance, and whether this influence is affected by age. To examine these questions, we assessed the performance of young and older adults on a bimanual tracking task in which they matched motor-driven movements of their right hand (passive limb with their left hand (active limb according to in-phase and anti-phase patterns. Performance in six visual conditions involving central vision, and/or peripheral vision of the active and/or passive limb was compared to performance in a no vision condition. Results indicated that directing central vision to the active limb consistently impaired performance, with higher impairment in older than young adults. Conversely, directing central vision to the passive limb improved performance in young adults, but less consistently in older adults. In conditions involving central vision of one limb and peripheral vision of the other limb, similar effects were found to those for conditions involving central vision of one limb only. Peripheral vision alone resulted in similar or impaired performance compared to the no vision condition. These results indicate that the locus of visual attention is critical for bimanual motor control in young and older adults, with older adults being either more impaired or less able to benefit from a given visual condition.

  1. Young and Undocumented: The Impacts of Legal Status on the Incorporation of Immigrant Young Adults in California

    OpenAIRE

    Patler, Caitlin Cassidy

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation investigates a critical paradox of contemporary U.S. immigration policy. On one hand, undocumented immigrants are legally excludable from the state, blocked from formal economic integration, and socially stigmatized. Yet they also have rights such as access to K-12 education for undocumented children. How do undocumented young adults experience this incomplete inclusion and what does it mean for their integration? What impacts does legal status have on their educational outc...

  2. A cross-sectional study assessing the self-reported weight loss strategies used by adult Australian general practice patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoong Sze

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a significant public health concern. General practitioners (GPs see a large percentage of the population and are well placed to provide weight management advice. There has been little examination of the types of weight loss strategies used in Australian general practice patients. This cross-sectional study aimed to describe the proportion of normal weight, overweight and obese general practice patients who report trying to lose weight in the past 12 months, the types of weight loss strategies and diets used as well as the proportion consulting their GP prior to trying to lose weight. Methods Adult patients completed a touchscreen computer survey while waiting for their appointment. Responses from 1335 patients in twelve Australian practices are reported. Results A larger proportion of obese patients had tried to lose weight in the past 12 months (73% compared to those who were overweight (55% and normal weight (33%. The most commonly used strategy used was changing diet and increasing exercise in all BMI categories. Less than 10% used strategies such as prescription medication, over the counter supplements and consulted a weight loss specialist. Low calorie and low fat diets were the most frequently reported diets used to lose weight in those who were normal weight, overweight and obese. Overall, the proportion seeking GP advice was low, with 12% of normal weight, 15% of overweight and 43% of obese patients consulting their GP prior to trying to lose weight. Conclusions A large proportion of overweight or obese patients have tried to lose weight and utilized strategies such as changing diet and increasing exercise. Most attempts however were unassisted, with low rates of consultation with GPs and weight loss specialists. Ways to assist overweight and obese general practice patients with their weight loss attempts need to be identified.

  3. Financial Literacy and Financial Behavior among Young Adults: Evidence and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo de Bassa Scheresberg

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses data from the 2009 National Financial Capability Study to examine financial literacy and financial behavior in a sample of approximately 4,500 young adults age 25 to 34. The paper finds that most young adults lack basic financial knowledge. Financial literacy is especially low among certain demographic groups, such as women, minorities, and lower-income or less-educated people. A high level of education, however, is not a guarantee of financial literacy. Only 49% of young respondents with a college education and 60% of young respondents with postgraduate education could correctly answer three simple questions designed to assess financial literacy. Results show that respondents who display higher financial literacy or higher confidence in their math or personal finance knowledge have better financial outcomes: they are less likely to use high-cost borrowing methods, and they are more likely to plan for retirement or have set aside savings for emergencies.

  4. Evidence-Based Family Interventions for Adolescents and Young Adults With Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklowitz, David J

    2016-01-01

    An individual can develop bipolar disorder at any age, but emergence during adolescence and young adulthood can lead to a number of problematic behaviors and outcomes. Several drugs are available as first-line treatments, but even optimal pharmacotherapy rarely leads to complete remission and recovery. When added to pharmacologic treatment, certain targeted psychosocial treatments can improve outcomes for young patients with bipolar disorder. Because bipolar disorder affects family members as well as patients, and because adolescents and young adults often live with and are dependent on their parents, the patient's family should usually be included in treatment. Family-focused treatment and dialectical behavior therapy are promising methods of conducting family intervention. With effective treatment and the support of their families, young patients with bipolar disorder can learn to manage their disorder and become independent and healthy adults. PMID:27570931

  5. Being out at school: the implications for school victimization and young adult adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Stephen T; Toomey, Russell B; Ryan, Caitlin; Diaz, Rafael M

    2014-11-01

    Many lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adolescents disclose their sexual and/or gender identities to peers at school. Disclosure of LGBT status is linked with positive psychosocial adjustment for adults; however, for adolescents, "coming out" has been linked to school victimization, which in turn is associated with negative adjustment. This study investigates the associations among adolescent disclosure of LGBT status to others at school, school victimization, and young adult psychosocial adjustment using a sample of 245 LGBT young adults (aged 21-25 years, living in California). After accounting for the association between school victimization and later adjustment, being out at high school was associated with positive psychosocial adjustment in young adulthood. Results have significant implications for training of school-based health and mental health providers, education and guidance for parents and caregivers, fostering positive development of LGBT youth, and developing informed school policies and educational practices. PMID:25545431

  6. Fibular grafting with cannulated hip screw fixation in late femoral neck fracture in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal R

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We reviewed the operative results of fibular bone graft with cannulated hip screw fixation in femoral neck fracture in young adults. Method: Sixteen young adults with femoral neck fracture were treated by fibular bone graft with cannulated hip screw fixation. All the fractures were more than 3 weeks old. Results: Results were assessed in 15 patients while one patient died due to complications not related to surgery. Union occurred in all 15 patients. One patient had intra-operative complication in the form of screw cut out with graft in the joint space. The average fallow up was 24.4 months. Out of 15 patients assessed clinico-radiologically 11 showed good results, 3 had fair while 1 had poor result. Conclusion: We conclude that this is a simple and cost effective procedure for late femoral fleck fracture in young adults with good results.

  7. Abdominal Obesity, Race and Chronic Kidney Disease in Young Adults: Results from NHANES 1999-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarathy, Harini; Henriquez, Gabriela; Abramowitz, Matthew K.; Kramer, Holly; Rosas, Sylvia E.; Johns, Tanya; Kumar, Juhi; Skversky, Amy; Kaskel, Frederick; Melamed, Michal L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Kidney dysfunction in obesity may be independent of and may precede the development of hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus. We aimed to examine if abdominal obesity is associated with early markers of CKD in a young healthy population and whether these associations differ by race and/or ethnicity. Methods We analyzed data from the NHANES 1999–2010 for 6918 young adults ages 20–40 years. Abdominal obesity was defined by gender criteria of waist circumference. CKD markers included estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria ≥30 mg/g. Race stratified analyses were done overall and in subgroups with normal blood pressures, normoglycemia and normal insulin sensitivity. Awareness of CKD was assessed in participants with albuminuria. Results Abdominal obesity was present in over one-third of all young adults and was more prevalent among non-Hispanic blacks (45.4%) versus Mexican-Americans (40.6%) or non-Hispanic whites (37.4%) (P-value = 0.004). Mexican-American young adults with abdominal obesity had a higher odds of albuminuria even among those with normal blood pressure, normal glucose, and normal insulin sensitivity [adjusted odds ratio 4.5; 95% confidence interval (1.6–12.2), p = 0.004]. Less than 5% of young adults with albuminuria of all races and ethnicities had been told they had kidney disease. Conclusion Abdominal obesity in young adults, especially in Mexican-Americans, is independently associated with albuminuria even with normal blood pressures, normoglycemia and normal insulin levels. Greater awareness of CKD is needed to protect this young population from long-standing exposure to abdominal obesity and early progressive renal disease. PMID:27224643

  8. Intra-regional and inter-regional abnormalities and cognitive control deficits in young adult smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Dan; Yuan, Kai; Li, Yangding; Cai, Chenxi; Yin, Junsen; Bi, Yanzhi; Cheng, Jiadong; Guan, Yanyan; Shi, Sha; Yu, Dahua; Jin, Chenwang; Lu, Xiaoqi; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Tobacco use during later adolescence and young adulthood may cause serious neurophysiological changes; rationally, it is extremely important to study the relationship between brain dysfunction and behavioral performances in young adult smokers. Previous resting state studies investigated the neural mechanisms in smokers. Unfortunately, few studies focused on spontaneous activity differences between young adult smokers and nonsmokers from both intra-regional and inter-regional levels, less is known about the association between resting state abnormalities and behavioral deficits. Therefore, we used fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (fALFF) and resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) to investigate the resting state spontaneous activity differences between young adult smokers and nonsmokers. A correlation analysis was carried out to assess the relationship between neuroimaging findings and clinical information (pack-years, cigarette dependence, age of onset and craving score) as well as cognitive control deficits measured by the Stroop task. Consistent with previous addiction findings, our results revealed the resting state abnormalities within frontostriatal circuits, i.e., enhanced spontaneous activity of the caudate and reduced functional strength between the caudate and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in young adult smokers. Moreover, the fALFF values of the caudate were correlated with craving and RSFC strength between the caudate and ACC was associated with the cognitive control impairments in young adult smokers. Our findings could lead to a better understanding of intrinsic functional architecture of baseline brain activity in young smokers by providing regional and brain circuit spontaneous neuronal activity properties as well as their association with cognitive control impairments. PMID:26164168

  9. Association between tobacco smoking and cognitive functioning in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chamberlain, Samuel R; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Schreiber, Liana R N;

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco smoking represents a considerable public health burden globally. Smoking in older adults is associated with cognitive impairment and more rapid age-associated cognitive decline, but there is a paucity of studies in younger people.......Tobacco smoking represents a considerable public health burden globally. Smoking in older adults is associated with cognitive impairment and more rapid age-associated cognitive decline, but there is a paucity of studies in younger people....

  10. Influence of Social Media on Alcohol Use in Adolescents and Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, Megan A.; Whitehill, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    Participation in online social media Web sites (e.g., Facebook and Twitter) has skyrocketed in recent years and created a new environment in which adolescents and young adults may be exposed to and influenced by alcohol-related content. Thus, young people are exposed to and display pro-alcohol messages and images through online portrayals of drinking on personal pages as well as unregulated alcohol marketing on social media sites that may reach underage people. Such online displays of alcohol...

  11. Psychosocial Factors, Maladaptive Cognitive Schemas, and Depression in Young Adults: An Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Cankaya, Banu

    2002-01-01

    The present study examined a psychosocial-cognitive model that integrates recent findings on the independent effects of early maladaptive cognitive schemas (EMSs; Young, 1994) and psychosocial factors/stressors; viz., social support, expressed emotion, stressful life events and daily hassles, on level of depressive symptoms in young adults. Consistent with Beck's theory of depression, the expectation was that individuals with the EMSs would be more likely to respond to psychosocial stressors...

  12. Risk Factors for Young Adult Substance Use among Women who were Teenage Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    De Genna, Natacha M.; Cornelius, Marie D.; Donovan, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Teenage mothers may not “mature out” of substance use during young adulthood, and this non-normative trajectory of use may contribute to negative outcomes for teenage mothers and their offspring. Pregnant teenagers (age range = 12–18 years; 68% Black) were recruited from a prenatal clinic and interviewed about their substance use, and subsequently re-interviewed six and ten years later (n = 292). Consistent with the literature, early tobacco and marijuana use were risk factors for young adult...

  13. On the outskirts of normality: Young adults with disabilities, their belonging and strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Olin, Elisabeth; Ringsby Jansson, Bibbi

    2010-01-01

    During the last decades, the living conditions for young people with disabilities have changed dramatically in Sweden, as well as in other parts of the Western world. The boundaries between what is considered normal as opposed to different have become less clear as a result of these changes. This has been followed by new problems regarding integration and changing patterns of marginalization. The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the ways in which young adults' social id...

  14. Comparisons of Adopted and Non-Adopted Young Adults' Heterosexual Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Winward, Bryan W.

    2005-01-01

    Adoption has been seen as a good solution for providing each party involved in the traditional adoption (i.e. , young birth parents, infants, and infertile couples) with a positive outcome. Adoptions, however, are generally more complex and diverse than supposed. Variables such as age of placement, levels of abuse and neglect, and foster care have been shown to place adopted children at risk for later struggles and challenges. Research studying outcomes of adopted young adults and their forma...

  15. Change in convergence and accommodation after two weeks of eye exercises in typical young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Horwood, Anna M; Toor, Sonia S; Riddell, Patricia M

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Introduction Although eye exercises appear to help heterophoria, convergence insufficiency and intermittent strabismus, true treatment effects can be confounded by placebo, practice and encouragement factors. This study assessed objective changes in vergence and accommodation responses in typical naïve young adults after two weeks of exercises compared to control conditions to assess the extent of treatment effects occur above other factors. Methods 156 asymptomatic young a...

  16. Explaining Vegetable Consumption among Young Adults: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Davide Menozzi; Giovanni Sogari; Cristina Mora

    2015-01-01

    Although fruit and vegetable consumption is highly recommended for a healthy and balanced daily diet, several European countries do not meet these recommendations. In Italy, only 45% of young people are consuming at least one portion of vegetables per day. Therefore, this paper aims to understand the main determinants of vegetables consumption among young adults to suggest possible intervention strategies. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a samples of Italian students (n = 751), usin...

  17. The History and Timing of Depression Onset as Predictors of Young-Adult Self-Esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Gayman, Mathew D.; Lloyd, Donald A.; Ueno, Koji

    2011-01-01

    Depression often emerges early in the lifecourse and is consistently shown to be associated with poor self-esteem. The three main objectives of the current study are to (1) evaluate the association between a history major depression and self-esteem in young adulthood; (2) assess the relationship between timing of depression onset and young adult self-esteem; and (3) help rule out the alternative interpretation that the relationship between major depression and self-esteem is due to state depe...

  18. Contractile and Elastic Ankle Joint Muscular Properties in Young and Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Hasson, Christopher J.; Miller, Ross H; Caldwell, Graham E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate age-related differences in contractile and elastic properties of both dorsi- (DF) and plantarflexor (PF) muscles controlling the ankle joint in young and older adults. Experimental data were collected while twelve young and twelve older male and female participants performed maximal effort isometric and isovelocity contractions on a dynamometer. Equations were fit to the data to give torque-angle (Tθ) and torque-angular velocity (Tω) relations. Mus...

  19. Transition experiences and health care utilization among young adults with type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garvey KC

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Katharine C Garvey,1 Jonathan A Finkelstein,2,3 Lori M Laffel,1,4 Victoria Ochoa,1 Joseph I Wolfsdorf,1 Erinn T Rhodes1 1Division of Endocrinology, Boston Children's Hospital, 2Division of General Pediatrics, Boston Children's Hospital, 3Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute, 4Pediatric, Adolescent and Young Adult Section, Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, MA, USA Background: The purpose of this study was to describe the current status of adult diabetes care in young adults with type 1 diabetes and examine associations between health care transition experiences and care utilization. Methods: We developed a survey to assess transition characteristics and current care in young adults with type 1 diabetes. We mailed the survey to the last known address of young adults who had previously received diabetes care at a tertiary pediatric center. Results: Of 291 surveys sent, 83 (29% were undeliverable and three (1% were ineligible. Of 205 surveys delivered, 65 were returned (response rate 32%. Respondents (mean age 26.6 ± 3.0 years, 54% male, 91% Caucasian transitioned to adult diabetes care at a mean age of 19.2 ± 2.8 years. Although 71% felt mostly/completely prepared for transition, only half received recommendations for a specific adult provider. Twenty-six percent reported gaps exceeding six months between pediatric and adult diabetes care. Respondents who made fewer than three diabetes visits in the year prior to transition (odds ratio [OR] 4.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2–16.5 or cited moving/relocation as the most important reason for transition (OR 6.3, 95% CI 1.3–31.5 were more likely to report gaps in care exceeding six months. Patients receiving current care from an adult endocrinologist (79% were more likely to report at least two diabetes visits in the past year (OR 6.0, 95% CI 1.5–24.0 compared with those receiving diabetes care from a general internist/adult primary care doctor (17%. Two

  20. Clinical and neurocognitive markers of suicidality in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chamberlain, Samuel R; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Schreiber, Liana R N; Grant, Jon E

    2013-01-01

    Suicide represents a leading cause of death in young people, yet relatively little is known regarding the neurobiological sequelae of preceding suicidal thoughts and behaviours. Although some studies have reported cognitive deficits associated with suicidality, very few studies have been undertaken...