Barcenilla-Wong, A L; Chen, J S; March, L M
The purpose of this study is to identify factors associated with concern and perception of risks of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures and determine whether bone mineral density (BMD) testing influenced concern and risk perception. Study subjects (n = 1,082, age 55-94 years) were female Australian participants of the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW). Self-administered questionnaires were sent annually from 2007 to 2010. Study outcomes included 'concern about osteoporosis', 'perception of getting osteoporosis' and 'perception of fracture risk' compared to similar aged women. The closest post-BMD testing or baseline questionnaires were used for women with and without BMD testing, respectively. Multinomial logistic regression was used for the analysis. BMD testing, prior fracture after age 45, younger age and lower self-reported general health were significantly associated with being 'very' or 'somewhat concerned' about osteoporosis and having a 'much higher' or 'little higher' risk perception of osteoporosis and fractures. A poorer BMD result was associated with higher concern and higher risk perceptions. The presence of comorbidities, having ≥2 falls in the preceding year and maternal osteoporosis were associated with higher concern. Maternal osteoporosis, presence of comorbidities, weight loss of ≥5 kg in the preceding year and low body mass index were associated with higher perceptions of osteoporosis risk. Women's concern and risk perception of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures were reasonably well founded. However, increasing age, height loss, smoking and drinking were not associated with concern and perception despite being known osteoporosis risk factors. These factors should be considered in planning for education and awareness raising programmes.
Sayakhot, Padaphet; Vincent, Amanda; Teede, Helena
The aim of this study was to investigate and compare symptom experiences, beliefs, attitudes, and understanding of menopause and menopausal therapies in Australian and Laotian women. This was a cross-cultural, questionnaire-based study involving 108 women (56 Australian women and 52 Laotian women aged 40-65 y) attending outpatient clinics in Australia and Laos. Descriptive statistics and univariate analysis were conducted using Student's t test or Mann-Whitney U test, where appropriate. Psychological symptoms, depression, vasomotor symptoms, and sexual dysfunction were significantly higher in Australian women compared with Laotian women (P menopause as aging (57%), whereas most Laotian women reported not knowing what menopause meant to them (81%). Australian women's fears about menopause included weight gain (43%), aging (41%), and breast cancer (38%), whereas Laotian women reported not knowing about potential menopausal problems (85%). Exercise (55%), education and awareness (46%), and improving lifestyle (41%) were reported by Australian women as being effective in alleviating menopausal symptoms, with only 21% reporting not knowing what was effective compared with 83% of Laotian women. Many women reported not knowing the risks/benefits of hormonal therapies (50% of Australian women and 87% of Laotian women) and herbal therapies (79% of Australian women and 92% of Laotian women). General practitioners were the most common source of menopause information for both Australians (73%) and Laotians (67%). Sociocultural factors influence women's perception of menopause. Psychological symptoms, sexual dysfunction, and vasomotor symptoms are more commonly reported by Australian women than by Laotian women. Women have a limited understanding of the risks/benefits of menopausal therapies, and culturally appropriate education is needed.
Abraham, S; Llewellyn-Jones, D; Perz, J
The symptoms and perceptions of menopause of 60 Australian women were studied, by questionnaire, when they were premenopausal and 10 years later when they were postmenopausal. Menopausal symptoms expected and experienced by the women were compared, fewer women experiencing hot flushes, headache, depression and nervousness and more experiencing insomnia, increase in appetite, abdominal fullness, numbness and muscular problems. The symptoms women thought were due to hormonal changes at menopause were compared. In 1993 more women cited osteoporosis, insomnia, loss of libido, obesity and loss of muscle tone as due to hormone change while fewer cited depression. The premenstrual symptoms and their severity experienced by a woman when she was premenopausal significantly predicts the type and severity of the menopausal symptoms experienced by the woman. The expected menopausal symptoms and their severity cited by a woman also significantly predicts the type of severity of the menopausal symptoms experienced. More premenstrual symptoms predict the menopausal symptoms than those menopausal symptoms the women expected. The expectation menopause will be 'a relief' or 'a nuisance' significantly predicted the overall menopause experience described by the women. Their negative attitudes about doctors' understanding and information available about menopause remained unchanged but they forget menstrual cycle problems over the 10 years. The results suggest a possible physiological basis for premenstrual and menopausal symptoms. Assistance for women with their premenstrual and menstrual cycle symptoms may improve their quality of life at menopause.
Kwok, C; Tranberg, R; Lee, F C
The aims of the study were to report breast cancer screening practices among Indian-Australian women and to examine the relationship between demographic characteristics, cultural beliefs and women's breast cancer screening (BCS) behaviors. A descriptive and cross-sectional method was used. Two hundred and forty two Indian-Australian women were recruited from several Indian organizations. English versions of the Breast Cancer Screening Beliefs Questionnaire (BCSBQ) were administered. The main research variables are BCS practices, demographic characteristics and total scores on each of the BCSBQ subscales. The majority of participants (72.7%-81.4%) had heard of breast awareness, clinical breast examination (CBE) and mammograms. Only 28.9% performed a BSE monthly and although 60% had practiced CBE, only 27.3% of women within the targeted age group had annual CBE. Only 23.6% of women within the targeted age group reported they had a mammogram biennial. Marital status and length of stay in Australia were positively associated with women's screening behaviors. In terms of BCSBQ score, women who had the three screening practices regularly as recommended obtained significantly higher scores on the "attitude towards general health check-ups" and "barriers to mammographic screening" subscales. There was a significant difference in the mean score of the "knowledge and perceptions about breast cancer" between women who did and who did not engage in breast awareness. Our study reveals that attitudes toward health check-ups and perceived barriers to mammographic screening were influential in determining compliance with breast cancer screening practices among Indian-Australian women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hure, Alexis; Young, Anne; Smith, Roger; Collins, Clare
To investigate and report the diet quality of young Australian women by pregnancy status. Pregnancy status was defined as pregnant (n 606), trying to conceive (n 454), had a baby in the last 12 months (n 829) and other (n 5597). The Dietary Questionnaire for Epidemiological Studies was used to calculate diet quality using the Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS) methodology. Nutrient intakes were compared with the Nutrient Reference Values for Australia and New Zealand. A population-based cohort participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH). A nationally representative sample of Australian women, aged 25 to 30 years, who completed Survey 3 of the ALSWH. The 7486 women with biologically plausible energy intake estimates, defined as >4.5 but food group accounted for this small difference. Across all pregnancy categories there were important nutrients that did not meet the current nationally recommended levels of intake, including dietary folate and fibre. Women do not appear to consume a wider variety of nutritious foods when planning to become pregnant or during pregnancy. Many young Australian women are failing to meet key nutrient targets as nationally recommended.
Boeckmann, Robert J.; Feather, N. T.
Views of a selection committee's decision to promote a woman over a man on the basis of affirmative action were studied in a random sample of Australians (118 men and 111 women). The relations between perceptions of workplace gender discrimination, feelings of collective responsibility and guilt for discrimination, and judgments of entitlement to…
Full Text Available The study examines the perception of activity based costing (ABC in Australian universities. Using a questionnaire survey, data was collected from twenty-six finance directors and/or chief financial officers in Australian universities. The perception of ABC implementation in Australian universities depends on many variables including the understanding of ABC, consideration of ABC as a strategic cost management system, the role of ABC in reduction of expenses, consideration of ABC as a valuable tool to enhance overhead cost allocation, and consideration of ABC as an effective strategic cost management system designed to incorporate the university’s critical input, output, and process variables resulting in value creation. The result of regression analysis provides significant and positive association between the decision to implement ABC in Australian universities and both the treatment of ABC as a strategic cost management system and the degree of both senior management and internal champion support. The findings indicate substantial differences in the allocation of the overhead costs between ABC and traditional costing systems. The result also reveals that many Australian universities using the ABC method receive benefits in improving cost reduction and better resource allocation with revenue surplus. Furthermore, the study develops a generic model of cost pools and drivers of ABC implementation in Australian universities.
Kwok, Cannas; Sullivan, Gerard; Cant, Rosemary
Exploring how cultural meanings of the breast impact on perceived images of breast cancer and breast health practices. In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 Chinese-Australian women in their native language (Cantonese). The findings revealed that the meanings of the breast are constructed within the women's social and cultural context where breasts are associated with sex; and talking about, being concerned with or expressing curiosity about breasts is considered inappropriate. These views have a significant impact on (1) the way the informants viewed breast cancer; (2) perceptions of breast health practices; and (3) the explanations of breast cancer and associated risk perception. Understanding the nature of culturally-based barriers to utilization of breast cancer screening is the first step to discovering solutions for making screening tests more acceptable to women from other cultures. This study provides insight about obstacles for breast health promotion practices and for developing culturally appropriate health education programs and counselling strategies.
Colin W. Binns
Full Text Available The role of calcium in the prevention of bone loss in later life has been well established but little data exist on the adequacy of calcium intakes in elderly Australian women. The aim of this study was to compare the dietary intake including calcium of elderly Australian women with the Australian dietary recommendation, and to investigate the prevalence of calcium supplement use in this population. Community-dwelling women aged 70–80 years were randomly recruited using the Electoral Roll for a 2-year protein intervention study in Western Australia. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline by a 3-day weighed food record and analysed for energy, calcium and other nutrients. A total of 218 women were included in the analysis. Mean energy intake was 7,140 ± 1,518 kJ/day and protein provided 19 ± 4% of energy. Mean dietary calcium intake was 852 ± 298 mg/day, which is below Australian recommendations. Less than one quarter of women reported taking calcium supplements and only 3% reported taking vitamin D supplements. Calcium supplements by average provided calcium 122 ± 427 mg/day and when this was taken into account, total calcium intake increased to 955 ± 504 mg/day, which remained 13% lower than the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR, 1,100 mg/day for women of this age group. The women taking calcium supplements had a higher calcium intake (1501 ± 573 mg compared with the women on diet alone (813 ± 347 mg. The results of this study indicate that the majority of elderly women were not meeting their calcium requirements from diet alone. In order to achieve the recommended dietary calcium intake, better strategies for promoting increased calcium, from both diet and calcium supplements appears to be needed.
Kwok, Cannas; Fethney, Judith; White, Kate
To report mammographic screening practice among Chinese-Australian women, and to examine the relationship between demographic characteristics, acculturation factors (English proficiency and length of stay in Australia), cultural beliefs, and having a mammogram as recommended. Cross-sectional and descriptive. The study was conducted in 2009 in Sydney, Australia. Of 988 Chinese-Australian women over 18 years of age invited to participate in the study, 785 (79%) completed and returned the questionnaire. Of these women, 320 (40.8%) were in the target age range of 50 to 69 years. The Chinese Breast Cancer Screening Beliefs Questionnaire (CBCSB) was used as a data collection instrument. Analysis included descriptive statistics, bivariate analysis using chi-square and t tests, and logistic regression. Of the 320 women in the targeted age range of 50 to 69 years, 238 (74.4%) had a mammogram as recommended biannually. Being married-de facto, in the 60 to 69 age group, and speaking Cantonese at home were positively associated with women's mammographic screening practice. However, no statistically significant differences in acculturation factors and having a mammogram as recommended were found. In terms of CBCSB score, women who had mammograms as recommended had more positive attitudes toward health checkups and perceived fewer barriers to mammographic screening. Effort should be focused on specific subgroups of Chinese-Australian women in order to fully understand the barriers involved in participating in mammographic screening. Nurses can use the findings from the present study to design culturally sensitive breast cancer screening programs to encourage women's participation in mammography. © 2011 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Vosnacos, Emma; Pinchon, Deborah J
There is limited literature to understand the perceptions of Australian women regarding the information provided by healthcare professionals relating to the prevention and treatment of iron deficiency anaemia in pregnancy. To establish an insight into the key themes and trends within a tertiary obstetric hospital related to the provision of dietary advice and use of iron supplements in pregnancy. A prospective patient survey of pregnant women and women up to 4 weeks postnatal attending hospital. Of the 110 women who participated, 73.6% were provided with information on iron rich foods and 67% made dietary changes. Eighty percent of women were advised to take oral iron and 65.5% of women were taking it at the time of the survey. In women who had independently ceased oral iron, 41.7% failed to inform their healthcare professional. In the women who did inform their healthcare professional 89.5% received advice to help overcome the reason that led to cessation. The main causes included forgetfulness and side effects. Women were less likely to require intravenous iron if oral iron was commenced early. Compliance with recommended oral iron is variable within a population of pregnant women. Women are provided with information on a range of issues relating to the prevention and treatment of iron deficiency anaemia; yet there is a disparity between the information provided and the resulting action. Further research should focus on targeted measures to improve understanding and compliance with treatment from the both women's and health professionals perspective. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wilks, Jeffrey; Callan, Victor J.
Compared the perceptions of 281 Papua New Guinean students and 329 Australian students of the economic and psychological costs of having children. Australians gave high ratings to the importance of financial and emotional costs, while New Guinea students were more aware of overpopulation and restrictions on parents. (JAC)
Full Text Available One of the most common Aboriginalist representations of Indigenous Australian people is, as Indigenous female performer Lou Bennett points out, ‘basically a man, out in the desert, black skin, flat nose with a lap-lap on, standing on one leg, resting against a spear’. Her comment raises many issues. In what ways are discourses of Aboriginalism gendered? How does Aboriginalism affect performance and specifically Aboriginal women performers? In exploring these questions, I examine Aboriginalist representations of Aboriginal women performers by white male scholars and the role of women anthropologists in the production of Aboriginalist discourse about Aboriginal women. Drawing on interviews with Indigenous women performers and musical examples of their songs, I explore the impact of Aboriginalism on non-Indigenous expectations of Indigenous Australian women performing in contemporary music contexts, the strategies performers use to work within and against these constructions and my own relationship to Aboriginalism.
Full Text Available One of the most common Aboriginalist representations of Indigenous Australian people is, as Indigenous female performer Lou Bennett points out, ‘basically a man, out in the desert, black skin, flat nose with a lap-lap on, standing on one leg, resting against a spear’. Her comment raises many issues. In what ways are discourses of Aboriginalism gendered? How does Aboriginalism affect performance and specifically Aboriginal women performers? In exploring these questions, I examine Aboriginalist representations of Aboriginal women performers by white male scholars and the role of women anthropologists in the production of Aboriginalist discourse about Aboriginal women. Drawing on interviews with Indigenous women performers and musical examples of their songs, I explore the impact of Aboriginalism on non-Indigenous expectations of Indigenous Australian women performing in contemporary music contexts, the strategies performers use to work within and against these constructions and my own relationship to Aboriginalism.
McGuire, Amanda; Seib, Charrlotte; Anderson, Debra
Chronic diseases are the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. They are, though, largely attributable to modifiable lifestyle risk factors, including lack of exercise. This study aims to investigate what factors predict perceptions of barriers to exercise in midlife women. This cross-sectional descriptive study collected data from midlife Australian women by online questionnaire. Volunteers aged between 40 and 65 years were recruited following media publicity about the study. The primary outcome measure was perceived exercise barriers (EBBS Barriers sub-scale). Other self-report data included: exercise, smoking, alcohol, fruit and vegetable consumption, body mass index, physical and mental health and well-being (MOS SF-12v2) and exercise self-efficacy. On average, the 225 participants were aged 50.9 years (SD=5.9). The significant predictors of perceived barriers to exercise were perceived benefits of exercise, exercise self-efficacy, physical well-being and mental well-being. These variables explained 41% of the variance in the final model (F (8219)=20.1, pexercise correlate with beliefs about the health benefits of exercise, exercise self-efficacy, physical and mental well-being. These findings have application to health promotion interventions targeting exercise behaviour change in midlife women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yvonne L. Hauck
Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding initiation rates in some developed countries are high (98 % in Sweden and 96 % in Australia whereas in others, they are not as favourable (46 % to 55 % in Ireland. Although the World Health Organization recommends exclusively breastfeeding for six months, 15 % of Australian women, 11 % of Swedish women and less than 7 % of Irish women achieve this goal. Awareness of what women in different countries perceive as essential breastfeeding support is a gap in our knowledge. Methods Our aim was to explore Australian, Irish and Swedish women’s perceptions of what assisted them to continue breastfeeding for six months. An exploratory design using critical incident techniques was used. Recruitment occurred through advertisements in local newspapers and on social networking platforms. Initial sampling was purposive, followed by snowball sampling. Telephone interviews were conducted with 64 Irish, 139 Swedish and 153 Australian women who responded to one question “what has assisted you to continue breastfeeding for at least six months?” Content analysis was conducted and common categories determined to allow comparison of frequencies and priority ranking. Results Categories reflected the individual mother, her inner social network, her outer social network (informal support either face to face or online, and societal support (health professionals, work environment and breastfeeding being regarded as the cultural norm. Categories ranked in the top five across the three countries were ‘informal face to face support’ and ‘maternal determination’. Swedish and Australian women ranked “health professional support” higher (first and third respectively than Irish women who ranked ‘informal online support’ as second compared to ninth and tenth for Swedish and Australian women. Conclusions The support required to assist breastfeeding women is complex and multi-faceted. Although common international
Dahlen, Hannah Grace; Barnett, Bryanne; Kohlhoff, Jane; Drum, Maya Elizabeth; Munoz, Ana Maria; Thornton, Charlene
One in four Australians is born overseas and 47% are either born overseas or have a parent who was. Obstetric and psychosocial risk factors for these women may differ. Data from one Sydney hospital (2012-2013) of all births recorded in the ObstetriX database were analysed (n = 3,092). Demographics, obstetric and psychosocial risk profile, obstetric interventions and complications and selected maternal and neonatal outcomes were examined for women born in Australia and overseas. Women born in Australia were younger, more likely to be primiparous (28.6 v 27.5%), be obese (32.0% v 21.4%), smoke (19.7 % v 3.0%), have an epidural (26.2% v 20.2%) and were less likely to have gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) (6.8% v 13.7% when compared to non-Australian born women. The highest rates of GDM, Gestational Hypertension (GH) and maternal anaemia were seen in women born in China, the Philippines and Pakistan respectively. Differences were also seen in psychosocial screening between Australian and non-Australian women with Australian-born women more likely to smoke and report a mental health disorder. There was an association between having an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) ≥ 13 and other psychosocial issues, such as thoughts of self-harm, domestic violence, childhood abuse etc. These women were also less likely to breastfeed. Women with an EPDS ≥ 13 at booking compared to women with EPDS ≤12 had a higher chance of being diagnosed with GDM (AOR 1.85 95% CI 1.14-3.0). There are significant differences in obstetric and psychosocial risk profiles and maternal and neonatal outcomes between Australian-born and non-Australian born women. In particular there appears to be an association between an EPDS of ≥13 and developing GDM, which warrants further investigation.
Pringle, Kirsty G; de Meaultsart, Celine Corbisier; Sykes, Shane D; Weatherall, Loretta J; Keogh, Lyniece; Clausen, Don C; Dekker, Gus A; Smith, Roger; Roberts, Claire T; Rae, Kym M; Lumbers, Eugenie R
The intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (iRAS) is implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension, chronic kidney disease and diabetic nephropathy. Urinary angiotensinogen (uAGT) levels reflect the activity of the iRAS and are altered in women with preeclampsia. Since Indigenous Australians suffer high rates and early onset of renal disease, we hypothesised that Indigenous Australian pregnant women, like non-Indigenous women with pregnancy complications, would have altered uAGT levels. The excretion of RAS proteins was measured in non-Indigenous and Indigenous Australian women with uncomplicated or complicated pregnancies (preeclampsia, diabetes/gestational diabetes, proteinuria/albuminuria, hypertension, small/large for gestational age, preterm birth), and in non-pregnant non-Indigenous women. Non-Indigenous pregnant women with uncomplicated pregnancies, had higher uAGT/creatinine levels than non-Indigenous non-pregnant women (P pregnant women with pregnancy complications, uAGT/creatinine was suppressed in the third trimester (P pregnant women with uncomplicated pregnancies, there was no change in uAGT/creatinine with gestational age and uAGT/creatinine was lower in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters than in non-Indigenous pregnant women with uncomplicated pregnancies (P pregnant women may reflect subclinical renal dysfunction which limits the ability of the kidney to maintain sodium balance and could indicate an increased risk of pregnancy complications and/or future renal disease. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Whitehead, Kay; Andretzke, Elaine; Binali, Valesi
This article explores commonalities in the lives and work of women head teachers in Malawian secondary schools and women principals in Australian Lutheran schools. In both Australia and Malawi women are under-represented in school leadership and often appointed to complex schools and communities. We commence with a brief discussion of Malawi and…
Schumacher, Tracy L; Weatherall, Loretta; Keogh, Lyniece; Sutherland, Kathryn; Collins, Clare E; Pringle, Kirsty G; Rae, Kym M
to determine the adequacy of gestational weight gain for a cohort of Indigenous Australian women and investigate whether it is associated with pre-pregnancy body mass index. analysis of observational data collected from a longitudinal cohort study that follows Indigenous Australian women through pregnancy. women recruited through antenatal clinics in regional and remote towns in NSW, Australia to the Gomeroi gaaynggal program. 110 pregnant women who either identified as being an Indigenous Australian or as carrying an Indigenous child. measurements included weight and height, self-reported pre-pregnancy weight and smoking status, parity and health conditions that may contribute to gestational weight gain, such as hypertensive or diabetic disorders. Compared to the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations for gestational weight gain and based on prepregnancy body mass index, the rate of adequate gestational weight gain in this cohort was very low (15%). 32% of women had inadequate weight gain and 54% had excessive weight gain. The highest rate of excessive gestational weight gain was found in overweight women (74%), with rates of 48% and 50% found in healthy and obese (all classes) categories, respectively. Parity (coefficient 4.5, p<0.01) and hypertension (coefficient 4.8, p = 0.04) were found to be significantly associated with gestational weight gain in mixed model linear regression. few women gained adequate gestational weight gain in this study. Culturally acceptable ways of addressing this issue are needed for this group of women, as inadequate and excessive rates of gestational weight gain have health implications for women and their offspring. a systematic approach to addressing gestational weight gain within antenatal care is required, including asking about diet and exercise, for all women identifying as Indigenous Australian. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Passey, Megan E; Gale, Jennifer T; Sanson-Fisher, Robert W
Despite declining smoking rates among the general Australian population, rates among Indigenous Australians remain high, with 47% of the Indigenous population reporting daily smoking - twice that of other Australians. Among women, smoking rates are highest in younger age groups, with more than half of Aboriginal women smoking during pregnancy. A lack of research focused on understanding the social context of smoking by Aboriginal women in rural Australia limits our ability to reduce these rates. This study aimed to explore the factors contributing to smoking initiation among rural Aboriginal women and girls and the social context within which smoking behaviour occurs. We conducted three focus groups with 14 Aboriginal women and service providers and 22 individual interviews with Aboriginal women from four rural communities to explore their perceptions of the factors contributing to smoking initiation among Aboriginal girls. Four inter-related factors were considered important to understanding the social context in which girls start smoking: colonisation and the introduction of tobacco; normalization of smoking within separate Aboriginal social networks; disadvantage and stressful lives; and the importance of maintaining relationships within extended family and community networks. Within this context, young girls use smoking to attain status and as a way of asserting Aboriginal identity and group membership, a way of belonging, not of rebelling. Family and social structures were seen as providing strong support, but limited the capacity of parents to influence children not to smoke. Marginalization was perceived to contribute to limited aspirations and opportunities, leading to pleasure-seeking in the present rather than having goals for the future. The results support the importance of addressing contextual factors in any strategies aimed at preventing smoking initiation or supporting cessation among Aboriginal girls and women. It is critical to acknowledge
Passey Megan E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite declining smoking rates among the general Australian population, rates among Indigenous Australians remain high, with 47% of the Indigenous population reporting daily smoking - twice that of other Australians. Among women, smoking rates are highest in younger age groups, with more than half of Aboriginal women smoking during pregnancy. A lack of research focused on understanding the social context of smoking by Aboriginal women in rural Australia limits our ability to reduce these rates. This study aimed to explore the factors contributing to smoking initiation among rural Aboriginal women and girls and the social context within which smoking behaviour occurs. Methods We conducted three focus groups with 14 Aboriginal women and service providers and 22 individual interviews with Aboriginal women from four rural communities to explore their perceptions of the factors contributing to smoking initiation among Aboriginal girls. Results Four inter-related factors were considered important to understanding the social context in which girls start smoking: colonisation and the introduction of tobacco; normalization of smoking within separate Aboriginal social networks; disadvantage and stressful lives; and the importance of maintaining relationships within extended family and community networks. Within this context, young girls use smoking to attain status and as a way of asserting Aboriginal identity and group membership, a way of belonging, not of rebelling. Family and social structures were seen as providing strong support, but limited the capacity of parents to influence children not to smoke. Marginalization was perceived to contribute to limited aspirations and opportunities, leading to pleasure-seeking in the present rather than having goals for the future. Conclusions The results support the importance of addressing contextual factors in any strategies aimed at preventing smoking initiation or supporting cessation
The breastfeeding behaviors among Australian Defence Force women have not previously been examined. Studies have shown that breastfeeding prevalence and duration are affected by maternity leave entitlements and returning to work. This study aimed to benchmark breastfeeding initiation, prevalence, and duration among a cohort of Australian Defence Force women and to compare these findings against Australian population norms. A cross-sectional survey was conducted via email in 2008 for Australian Defence Force women who had taken maternity leave in the Australian financial year of 2006/2007. Analysis of breastfeeding indicators was undertaken. Ninety-eight percent of Australian Defence Force women in this cohort initiated breastfeeding and breastfed for a median duration of 8 months, returning to work when the mean age of the child was 8.4 months. Breastfeeding prevalence did not meet 2003 Australian National Health and Medical Research Council targets by 6 months postpartum but compared favorably to the Australian population norms. Sixty-six percent of the respondents returned to work full-time, with a median breastfeeding duration of 7 months. Women who returned to work part-time had a longer median duration of 10 months. Breastfeeding rates among this cohort of Australian Defence Force women compare favorably with the general Australian population until 9 months, coinciding with returning to work after a period of maternity leave. The results support recent Australian population studies on breastfeeding and employment. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to assess the status of women in the IT industry in 2001 relative to their position in 1996 and in comparison to their status in other industry sectors. To achieve this a special tabulation of 2001 and 1996 Australian census data relating to women’s position within the Australian IT industry is analysed. The issues of participation, pay equity and representation at senior management levels are examined. This reveals a fairly negative picture and indicates the need for an intensified effort to rectify the situation. It is shown that women participate in the IT industry at much lower rates than women in many other industries and that they have not achieved pay equity with men. Also, women are not well represented in senior management roles.
Bledsoe, Sarah E; Rizo, Cynthia F; Wike, Traci L; Killian-Farrell, Candace; Wessel, Julia; Bellows, Anne-Marie O; Doernberg, Alison
Adolescent mothers and their children are at high-risk for depression and the associated negative educational, social, health, and economic outcomes. However, few pregnant adolescent women with depression receive psychiatric services, especially low-income or racial/ethnic minority adolescent women. This qualitative study explores perceptions of depression, psychiatric services, and barriers to accessing services in a sample of low-income, pregnant racial/ethnic minority adolescent women. Our goal was to better understand the experiences of depression during pregnancy for these vulnerable adolescent women, and thereby improve their engagement and retention in services for perinatal depression. We recruited 20 pregnant adolescent women who screened positive for depression from 2 public health prenatal clinics in the southeastern United States. Participants were low-income and primarily racial/ethnic minority women between 14 and 20 years old. Data were collected through individual in-depth, ethnographically informed interviews. Generally, participants lacked experience with psychiatric services and did not recognize their symptoms as depression. However, participants perceived a need for mood improvement and were interested in engaging in services that incorporated their perspective and openly addressed stigma. Participants reported practical and psychological barriers to service engagement, but identified few cultural barriers. Family perceptions of psychiatric services served as both a barrier and support. Adolescent women are more likely to engage in psychiatric services if those services reduce practical and psychological barriers, promise relief from the symptoms perceived as most meaningful, and address underlying causes of depression. Culture may affect Latina adolescent women's perceptions of depression and services. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fink, Dieter; Laupase, Ricky
Compares the perceptions of Malaysians and Australians for four Web site design characteristics--atmospherics, news stories, signs, and products and services--as part of the integrated Internet marketing model. Hypothesizes that the predominant culture is not generalized to another culture, discusses validity and reliability, and suggest further…
Hogan, Anna; Thompson, Greg; Sellar, Sam; Lingard, Bob
This paper explores teachers' and school leaders' perceptions of commercialisation in Australian public schools, reporting on findings from an open-ended survey question from an exploratory study that sought to investigate teacher and school leader perceptions and experiences of commercialisation. Commercialisation, for the purposes of this paper,…
Evans, Anna M.; Evans, Virden; Evans, Adeline L.
This survey of the perceptions of Australian high school students toward racism in America indicates that a majority knew little about cultural diversity; had various cultural backgrounds; were influenced more by television than other forms of media; and believed African Americans do not have equal access to education, equal opportunity to…
Full Text Available The underrepresentation of women in senior positions continues to be a major challenge in higher education and most other industries. In Australia, the career trajectory for academic women stalls at a lower level than that of their male counterparts. Concern about this situation in one Australian university led to the design and delivery of a career progression program to support women’s advancement from senior lecturer to associate professor. This study details the main features of the program, designed to facilitate women’s transition from being leading academics to academic leaders through a focus on leadership and career progression. We report the participants’ perceptions of its value based on survey data. We conclude that leadership development is difficult work and requires a supportive environment where risk-taking is encouraged, where frank and fearless feedback is provided, and where the individual is required to examine assumptions and biases and to assume a leadership identity.
Ragusa, Angela T
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a widespread, ongoing, and complex global social problem, whose victims continue to be largely women. Women often prefer to rely on friends and family for IPV help, yet when informal support is unavailable they remain hesitant to contact formal services, particularly legal support for many reasons. This study applies a sociological lens by framing the IPV and legal help-seeking experiences of rural Australian women gained from 36 in-depth face-to-face interviews as socially contextualized interactions. Findings reveal police and court responses reflect broader social inequalities and rurality exacerbates concerns such as anonymity and lack of service. Cultural differences and power imbalances between survivors and formal support providers are manifested to inform future research seeking to improve survivors' willingness to engage and satisfaction with formal services. Finally, the important role police and the criminal justice system play in de-stigmatizing IPV and legitimating its unacceptability is argued a crucial, yet unrecognized, key to social change.
Guelfi, Kym J; Wang, Chen; Dimmock, James A; Jackson, Ben; Newnham, John P; Yang, Huixia
Despite the well-established benefits of exercise during pregnancy, many women remain inactive. This may be related, in part, to women's beliefs about exercise in pregnancy, which are likely influenced by cultural background. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to compare attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control toward exercise, together with current levels of exercise participation between Chinese and Australian women during pregnancy. A second aim was to determine the extent to which these factors predict intention to exercise within a Theory of Planned Behaviour framework. Pregnant women (22 ± 2 weeks of gestation) living in China (n = 240) and Australia (n = 215) completed a questionnaire designed to assess a) maternal beliefs regarding the importance of exercise in relation to other health behaviours, b) attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and intentions toward exercise, and c) current levels of physical activity. One-way analyses of variance were used to compare the demographics, maternal beliefs, attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, intentions to exercise, and current physical activity levels between the Chinese and Australian samples. Structural equation modelling was used to determine which factors predicted intention to exercise in the two samples. Australian women reported higher levels of current exercise and intentions to exercise in the next four weeks of pregnancy compared with Chinese women. These observations were associated with higher instrumental attitudes, ratings of subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control toward exercise in the Australian women. Instrumental attitudes and perceived behavioural control predicted intention to exercise in the Australian women, while perceived behavioural control was the only predictor of intentions to exercise in the Chinese sample. Beliefs, attitudes, barriers and intentions towards exercise during pregnancy differ
Warren-Forward, H.M.; Mackie, B.; Alchin, M.; Mooney, T.; Fitzpatrick, P.
Aim: Breast cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death in Australian women, therefore early breast cancer detection is essential. Female radiographers currently conduct breast screening in Australia; however there is a projected shortage. With many women already feeling apprehensive about attending a breast examination, possible proposals to fill this shortage must be carefully considered. Training male radiographers is one proposal however, this raises some gender concerns. This study aimed to pilot an investigation into whether it would change women's willingness to attend breast screening if conducted by a male radiographer. Method: A questionnaire completed by 146 women aged over 40 asked questions on attitude, initial reaction and how they would proceed if attended to by a male in three clinical situations (Mammography; Ultrasound and Breast Surgery). Results: The results revealed that women would have had their mammogram (90%), ultrasound (95%) and surgery (100%) conducted by a male, though some would have preferred a female for mammography (25%), ultrasound (24%) and surgery (12%). A total of 9% of women agreed to the statement ‘If there were male radiographers I would not return for another screening appointment’ and 9% agreed to the statement ‘if I heard there could be male radiographers it would change my opinion of Breast Screening for the worse'. Conclusions: This first Australian study investigating the perceptions of women to male radiographers in the breast screening arena suggest that a mix of male and female radiographers could be accommodated and indicates the need for a larger national survey. - Highlights: • Over 90% would have proceeded with the examination conducted by a male radiographer. • Most women were more likely to be surprised or have no reaction if examined by a male radiographer. • Majority of women would “feel equally comfortable with a male practitioner as with a female”. • 80
Keogh Louise A
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Effective chemoprevention strategies exist for women at high risk for breast cancer, yet uptake is low. Physician recommendation is an important determinant of uptake, but little is known about clinicians' attitudes to chemoprevention. Methods Focus groups were conducted with clinicians at five Family Cancer Centers in three Australian states. Discussions were recorded, transcribed and analyzed thematically. Results Twenty three clinicians, including genetic counselors, clinical geneticists, medical oncologists, breast surgeons and gynaecologic oncologists, participated in six focus groups in 2007. The identified barriers to the discussion of the use of tamoxifen and raloxifene for chemoprevention pertained to issues of evidence (evidence for efficacy not strong enough, side-effects outweigh benefits, oophorectomy superior for mutation carriers, practice (drugs not approved for chemoprevention by regulatory authorities and not government subsidized, chemoprevention not endorsed in national guidelines and not many women ask about it, and perception (clinicians not knowledgeable about chemoprevention and women thought to be opposed to hormonal treatments. Conclusion The study demonstrated limited enthusiasm for discussing breast cancer chemoprevention as a management option for women at high familial risk. Several options for increasing the likelihood of clinicians discussing chemoprevention were identified; maintaining up to date national guidelines on management of these women and education of clinicians about the drugs themselves, the legality of "off-label" prescribing, and the actual costs of chemopreventive medications.
Håkansson, Carita; Björkelund, Cecilia; Eklund, Mona
More knowledge is needed about the role of perceived control in the associations between different perceptions of daily occupations and positive health outcomes. The aim was to explore the associations between different subjective perceptions of daily occupations, in terms of occupational balance, occupational meaning, occupational value and satisfaction with occupations, and life satisfaction, and the role of perceived control in those associations. A questionnaire including questions about perceptions of daily occupations, perceived control and life satisfaction were answered by a random sample of 488 middle-aged Swedish women. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to test the associations between perceptions of daily occupations and life satisfaction, and the role of perceived control. After adjustments for perceived control women who perceived a high level of satisfaction with work and leisure, occupational balance, occupational meaning and occupational value perceived greater life satisfaction than the other women. Perceived control was not significant in the model. It seems that occupational balance and occupational meaning were pivotal for the women's life satisfaction, but satisfaction with work and leisure, as well as perceived occupational value, was also of importance. The assumption that perceived control would have a role in the association between perceptions of occupations and life satisfaction was not confirmed. The results indicate that occupational therapists need to focus on occupational balance, occupational meaning, occupational value and satisfaction with work and leisure to promote positive health outcomes, in terms of life satisfaction, when working with middle-aged female clients. © 2011 The Authors. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal © 2011 Occupational Therapy Australia.
Soh, Sze-Ee; Morello, Renata; Rifat, Sheral; Brand, Caroline; Barker, Anna
Objectives The aim of the present study was to explore nurse perceptions of safety climate in acute Australian hospitals. Methods Participants included 420 nurses who have worked on 24 acute wards from six Australian hospitals. The Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) Short Form was used to quantify nurse perceptions of safety climate and benchmarked against international data. Generalised linear mixed models were used to explore factors that may influence safety climate. Results On average, 53.5% of nurses held positive attitudes towards job satisfaction followed by teamwork climate (50.5%). There was variability in SAQ domain scores across hospitals. The safety climate and perceptions of hospital management domains also varied across wards within a hospital. Nurses who had worked longer at a hospital were more likely to have poorer perceptions of hospital management (β=-5.2; P=0.014). Overall, nurse perceptions of safety climate appeared higher than international data. Conclusions The perceptions of nurses working in acute Victorian and New South Wales hospitals varied between hospitals as well as across wards within each hospital. This highlights the importance of surveying all hospital wards and examining the results at the ward level when implementing strategies to improve patient safety and the culture of safety in organisations. What is known about the topic? Prior studies in American nursing samples have shown that hospitals with higher levels of safety climate have a lower relative incidence of preventable patient complications and adverse events. Developing a culture of safety in hospitals may be useful in targeting efforts to improve patient safety. What does this paper add? This paper has shown that the perceptions of safety climate among nurses working in acute Australian hospitals varied between hospitals and across wards within a hospital. Only half the nurses also reported positive attitudes towards job satisfaction and teamwork climate. What are
Students' perceptions of the nature and prevalence of bullying and how the problem was being addressed were investigated in a convenience sample of 1688 students in years 5-10 attending Australian government schools. Comparisons were made between students who reported that they had been bullied during the previous 12 months and others. Rankings of…
Majeed, Tazeen; Forder, Peta M; Tavener, Meredith; Vo, Kha; Byles, Julie
This study describes hours in paid work for Australian men and women aged over 65, focusing on associations between work and education. Data were analysed separately for men and women, from baseline and first follow-up surveys of the 45 and Up Study. Generalised estimating equation models were used to identify associations between work, education and other factors over time. The odds of doing paid work increased with higher education level and decreased with time, age, poorer physical function and having health conditions (high blood pressure, diabetes, stroke and breast cancer). Un-partnered women were more likely to work in later life than partnered women. This study quantifies the importance of education and health factors in determining continued participation of Australian men and women in paid work in later life. These factors need to be considered for policies aiming to increase workforce participation beyond 65 years of age. © 2017 AJA Inc.
This article describes the health perceptions of a sample of moderately to highly acculturated Mexican American women. Using an ethnographic design, the author interviewed 13 women to determine their health perceptions. The interviews were guided by the domains of health described in the World Health Organization (WHO) definition of health. Three broad categories of health perceptions were identified: the physical body, the emotional component, and finding balance. With the addition of a spiritual component, the WHO definition was a useful tool for uncovering health perceptions. The process of in-depth ethnographic interviewing provided a contextual view of health in which the complexity of intrafamilial relationships was revealed, as were the importance of spirituality as a coping mechanism and the perception of health as an integrated, holistic experience.
Read, Christine; Bateson, Deborah; Weisberg, Edith; Estoesta, Jane
More than 50% of women who have an unplanned pregnancy report using a contraceptive method. Since the launch of the pill 50 years ago, a number of cross-sectional surveys have examined contraceptive use in the Australian context. There is, however, little data on contraceptive use and efficacy over a woman's reproductive years. To determine the pattern of contraceptive use of Australian women over their reproductive lifespan, with particular emphasis on the relationship between contraceptive use and pregnancy. One thousand women from the mid-age cohort of the Australian Women's Longitudinal Study were invited to participate in the Family Planning survey by completing a questionnaire about their reproductive histories. Completed questionnaires were received for 812 women. The contraceptive pill was the most commonly ever used contraceptive method at 94% and also the most commonly used method prior to all pregnancies. Contraceptive failure increased with increasing gravidity; 11.4% with the first pregnancy to 23.0% with the fourth pregnancy, while 28.8% of the respondents reported an 'accidental' pregnancy due to stopping contraception for reasons such as concern about long-term effects and media stories. While surveys indicate that 66-70% of Australian women use a contraceptive method, more than half of unplanned pregnancies apparently occur in women using contraception. The modern Australian woman, in common with her predecessors, still faces significant challenges in her fertility management. This survey provides a longitudinal perspective on contraceptive use in relation to pregnancy and highlights the issue of efficacy of contraceptives in real-life situations.
Bookari, Khlood; Yeatman, Heather; Williamson, Moira
The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) for pregnancy provides a number of food- and nutrition-related recommendations to assist pregnant women in optimizing their dietary behavior. However, there are limited data demonstrating pregnant women's knowledge of the AGHE recommendations. This study investigated Australian pregnant women's knowledge of the AGHE and related dietary recommendations for maintaining a healthy pregnancy. The variations in nutrition knowledge were compared with demographic characteristics. A cross-sectional study assessed eight different nutrition knowledge domains and the demographic characteristics of pregnant women. Four hundred women across Australia completed a multidimensional online survey based on validated and existing measures. More than half of the pregnant women surveyed (65%) were not familiar with the AGHE recommendations. The basic recommendations to eat more fruit, vegetables, bread, and cereals but less meat were poorly understood. An in-depth investigation of knowledge of nutrition information revealed misconceptions in a range of areas, including standard serving size, nutrients content of certain foods, energy density of fat, and the importance of key nutrients in pregnancy. Univariate analysis revealed significant demographic variation in nutrition knowledge scores. Multiple regression analysis confirmed the significant independent effects on respondents' nutrition knowledge score (Ppregnancy, language, and having a health/nutrition qualification. The model indicated that independent variables explained 33% (adjusted R (2)) of the variance found between respondents' knowledge scores. Australian pregnant women's knowledge regarding AGHE for pregnancy and other key dietary recommendations is poor and varies significantly with their demographic profile. The setting of dietary guidelines is not sufficient to ensure improvement in their nutrition knowledge. It is essential that women receive support to achieve optimal and
Morrison, M K; Koh, D; Lowe, J M; Miller, Y D; Marshall, A L; Colyvas, K; Collins, C E
To describe the diet quality of a national sample of Australian women with a recent history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and determine factors associated with adherence to national dietary recommendations. A postpartum lifestyle survey with 1499 Australian women diagnosed with GDM ≤3 years previously. Diet quality was measured using the Australian recommended food score (ARFS) and weighted by demographic and diabetes management characteristics. Multinominal logistic regression analysis was used to determine the association between diet quality and demographic characteristics, health seeking behaviours and diabetes-related risk factors. Mean (±s.d.) ARFS was 30.9±8.1 from a possible maximum score of 74. Subscale component scores demonstrated that the nuts/legumes, grains and fruits were the most poorly scored. Factors associated with being in the highest compared with the lowest ARFS quintile included age (odds ratio (OR) 5-year increase=1.40; 95% (confidence interval) CI:1.16-1.68), tertiary education (OR=2.19; 95% CI:1.52-3.17), speaking only English (OR=1.92; 95% CI:1.19-3.08), being sufficiently physically active (OR=2.11; 95% CI:1.46-3.05), returning for postpartum blood glucose testing (OR=1.75; 95% CI:1.23-2.50) and receiving risk reduction advice from a health professional (OR=1.80; 95% CI:1.24-2.60). Despite an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, women in this study had an overall poor diet quality as measured by the ARFS. Women with GDM should be targeted for interventions aimed at achieving a postpartum diet consistent with the guidelines for chronic disease prevention. Encouraging women to return for follow-up and providing risk reduction advice may be positive initial steps to improve diet quality, but additional strategies need to be identified.
Killingsworth, Ben; Kokanovic, Renata; Tran, Huong; Dowrick, Chris
It is often argued that Western medical responses to illness take illness out of the intimate social contexts within which illness becomes meaningful for people and that, as a result, Western medicine can often constitute an ineffective or, at worst, a disempowering response to illness. While not wishing to challenge such arguments, we seek in this article to present material that might serve as a useful caveat to them. Drawn from interviews conducted as part of an Australian study exploring cross-cultural understandings and experiences of mental illness, we present the accounts of three Vietnamese Australian women. In these accounts, the diagnoses of mental illness that these women had received from their Australian doctors were not presented as being meaningless or disempowering. Rather, as the women presented it, being seen and treated as mentally ill had precipitated and continued to precipitate a sense of belonging and self-worth.
Campbell, Sandra; Roux, Nicolette; Preece, Cilla; Rafter, Eileen; Davis, Bronwyn; Mein, Jackie; Boyle, Jacqueline; Fredericks, Bronwyn; Chamberlain, Catherine
Aim To understand enablers and barriers influencing postpartum screening for type 2 diabetes following gestational diabetes in Australian Indigenous women and how screening might be improved. Australian Indigenous women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are less likely than other Australian women to receive postpartum diabetes screening. This is despite a fourfold higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes within eight years postpartum. We conducted interviews with seven Indigenous women with previous GDM, focus groups with 20 Indigenous health workers and workshops with 24 other health professionals. Data collection included brainstorming, visualisation, sorting and prioritising activities. Data were analysed thematically using the Theoretical Domains Framework. Barriers are presented under the headings of 'capability', 'motivation' and 'opportunity'. Enabling strategies are presented under 'intervention' and 'policy' headings. Findings Participants generated 28 enabling environmental, educational and incentive interventions, and service provision, communication, guideline, persuasive and fiscal policies to address barriers to screening and improve postpartum support for women. The highest priorities included providing holistic social support, culturally appropriate resources, improving Indigenous workforce involvement and establishing structured follow-up systems. Understanding Indigenous women's perspectives, developing strategies with health workers and action planning with other health professionals can generate context-relevant feasible strategies to improve postpartum care after GDM. Importantly, we need evidence which can demonstrate whether the strategies are effective.
Behie, A M; O'Donnell, M H
Many industrialized nations are currently experiencing a decline in average secondary sex ratio (SSR) resulting in fewer boys being born relative to girls. While many potential factors may explain the decline in the birth of males relative to females, it seems most studies support the idea that male offspring are produced less often when environmental conditions are poor owing to males being more susceptible to loss in harsh environments. This study investigates the maternal factors that are associated with the sex of offspring in a cohort of the Australian population. It found that greater parental perceptions of wealth were significantly associated with an increase in the number of sons produced. These results suggest that male offspring are born at increased numbers to women with higher available resources, which may reflect the fact that male offspring are more vulnerable in poor environments.
Henderson, Julie; Coveney, John; Ward, Paul
Food scares have diminished trust in public institutions to guarantee food safety. Food governance after the food scare era is concerned with institutional independence and transparency leading to a hybrid of public and private sector management and to mechanisms for consumer involvement in food governance. This paper explores Australian consumers' perceptions of who is, and should be responsible for food safety. Forty-seven participants were interviewed as part of a larger study on trust in the food system. Participants associate food governance with government, industry, and the individual. While few participants can name the national food regulator, there is a strong belief that the government is responsible for regulating the quality and safety of food. Participants are wary of the role of the food industry in food safety, believing that profit motives will undermine effective food regulation. Personal responsibility for food safety practices was also identified. While there are fewer mechanisms for consumer involvement and transparency built into the food governance system, Australian consumers display considerable trust in government to protect food safety. There is little evidence of the politicisation of food, reflecting a level of trust in the Australian food governance system that may arise from a lack of exposure to major food scares.
Tooth, Leigh R; Mishra, Gita D
The educational mobility of mid-age women is rarely studied. We analysed the baseline socio-economic position (SEP) and health factors associated with obtaining further education in 4117 mid-age Australian women between 1996 and 2010 (aged 45-50 at baseline, 62-67 at follow-up) from a population-based study. Women either unemployed or working part-time at baseline had higher odds of a stable low and middle education over time (ORs ranging from 1.61 to 3.86) versus educational mobility. Apart from obesity, characteristics that may signal an unhealthy lifestyle in early mid-life were not useful indicators of women's future educational mobility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Holden, Libby; Ware, Robert S.; Lee, Christina
This article used data from 5,171 young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study, to identify longitudinal trajectory patterns of mental health across 6 surveys over 16 years of early adulthood, from age 18-23 to age 34-39. In addition, we identified both…
Wong, Grace; Cooper, Barry J.; Dellaportas, Steven
This exploratory study is designed to elicit and understand the views of Mainland Chinese students concerning their learning experience in an Australian accounting education programme. The article contributes to the literature by investigating the issues and implications associated with international students' perceptions of teaching, as little…
Abraham, S; Perz, J; Clarkson, R; Llewellyn-Jones, D
The knowledge, beliefs and experience of 60 women with HRT was studied when the women were premenopausal, and 10 years later when they were postmenopausal. Thirty-eight women had taken HRT by 1993. In 1993 women no longer considered clinics and self help groups to be the most useful sources of information about the menopause. They were more likely to think that doctors' knowledge of HRT was not adequate and to favour the use of HRT. Their reservations about all postmenopausal women receiving HRT continued. The women's understanding of long-term use of HRT varied. The women continued to maintain a desire not to experience withdrawal bleeding with HRT. More than 60% of women considered that HRT helped hot flushes, non-specific emotional changes and vaginal dryness. Women in 1993 were more likely to consider that HRT would help the menopausal symptoms of osteoporosis, insomnia and loss of muscle tone while fewer considered anxiety and depression would be relieved by HRT. Only one third believed HRT would reduce the incidence of heart disease. Women were more likely to take or have taken HRT if they were working and had achieved a higher work status (professional), considered reading material as the most useful source of information about menopause, had experienced menopause symptoms as distressing, considered menopause made relationships with husband and children more difficult and supported the universal use of HRT for all women.
Reid, Esther W; McNeill, Jenny A; Holmes, Valerie A; Alderdice, Fiona A
to explore women's perceptions and experiences of pregnancy and childbirth following birth of a macrosomic infant (birth weight ≥4000g). a qualitative design utilising interviews conducted 13-19 weeks post partum in women's homes. The study was conducted in one Health and Social Care Trust in Northern Ireland between January and September 2010. Participants were identified from a larger cohort of women recruited to a prospective study exploring the impact of physical activity and nutrition on macrosomia. Eleven women who delivered macrosomic infants participated in this phase of the study. four overarching themes emerged: preparation for delivery; physical and emotional impact of macrosomia; professional relations and perceptions of macrosomia. Findings highlighted the importance of communication with health professionals in relation to both prediction of macrosomia and decision making about childbirth, and offers further understanding into the physical and emotional impact of having a macrosomic infant on women. Furthermore, there was evidence that beliefs and perceptions relating to macrosomia may influence birth experiences and uptake of health promotion messages. this study provides important insight into women's experiences of macrosomia throughout the perinatal period and how they were influenced by previous birth experiences, professional relations and personal perceptions and beliefs about macrosomia. Pregnant women at risk of having a macrosomic infant may require extra support throughout the antenatal period continuing into the postnatal period. Support needs to be tailored to the woman's information needs, with time allocated to explore previous birth experiences, beliefs about macrosomia and options for childbirth. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ngu, Kylie; Hay, Margaret; Menahem, Samuel
Women even with moderate to severe congenital heart disease (CHD) seek motherhood despite posing significant health risks to themselves and their infant. This study explored their motivations and perceptions and compared them to those of women with low risk CHD who conceived. Twenty women over 18 years with CHD who had a successful pregnancy were recruited, half of whom were identified as having a high risk cardiac abnormality. They completed a questionnaire and a semi-structured interview following which a thematic analysis was employed. Their medical records and clinical status were also reviewed and their current cardiac status graded by their attending cardiologist. Women with high risk (moderate to severe) CHD (n=10) appeared to have similar motivations for conceiving as women with low-risk (mild) CHD (n=10). Their decision to conceive seemed based on their own and at times unrealistic perceptions of the consequences of their CHD. Women with mild or more severe CHD had similar motivations to conceive tending to down play the seriousness of their CHD. Their drive for motherhood appeared to be stronger than the drive for self care. It behoves clinicians, both obstetricians and cardiologists caring for women with high risk CHD to be knowledgeable of the effects of the CHD on the pregnancy and the impact of the pregnancy on the cardiac status. Copyright © 2014 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Reyes, Vicente Chua, Jr.; Rizk, Nadya; Gregory, Sue; Doyle, Helen
Four distinct constructs were identified from a survey of a sample of pre-service science teachers at a regional Australian University. The constructs emerged after employing Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) on respondents' perceptions of pedagogical practices incorporating the use of Information Communication and Technology (ICT). The key…
Hall, Danika V.; Jones, Sandra C.; Iverson, Donald C.
Purpose: In many countries there is emerging concern regarding alliances between the pharmaceutical industry and health non-profit organizations (NPOs), and the increase of co-sponsored marketing activities such as disease awareness advertising. The current study aims to explore Australian women's perceptions of disease awareness advertising with…
Guelfi, Kym J.; Wang, Chen; Dimmock, James A.; Jackson, Ben; Newnham, John P.; Yang, Huixia
Background Despite the well-established benefits of exercise during pregnancy, many women remain inactive. This may be related, in part, to women?s beliefs about exercise in pregnancy, which are likely influenced by cultural background. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to compare attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control toward exercise, together with current levels of exercise participation between Chinese and Australian women during pregnancy. A second aim was to ...
Smith, Jennifer L; Skinner, S Rachel; Fenwick, Jennifer
The findings presented in this paper describe the beliefs and attitudes of three different groups of adolescent females about teen motherhood. These were elicited from a larger analysis that explored and theorized contraceptive pathways in a sample of young Australian women. A purposive sample of females aged 14 to 19 years was recruited from three distinct populations in the city of Perth, Western Australia: (1) never-pregnant; (2) pregnant-terminated; and (3) pregnant-continued. Grounded theory principles were used to analyze data generated from 69 semi-structured interviews conducted over a 21 month period (2006-2008). Two categories that described teenagers' attitudes to pregnancy and motherhood were elicited from the analysis. These explained the level of priority that teenagers placed on using contraception and postponing the transition to parenthood. The category labeled 'life derailment' represented how those who had never had a pregnancy or had terminated a pregnancy constructed teen motherhood as potentially restricting their personal, career and social transition to adulthood. The alternative category, 'life-line', reflected how those who continued with their pregnancy perceived teen motherhood as a positive and transformative experience that fostered personal growth. The findings from this study contribute further insight into the complex nature of adolescent contraceptive use and pregnancy risk. The analysis has strengthened evidence of the critical role of self-perceptions of pregnancy and childbearing on teenagers' fertility outcomes. It has also emphasized the broader life circumstances that shape these attitudes, intentions and related behavior. Strategies directed toward academic support and vocational skill development may broaden teenage girls' perceived future options and achievement capacity, thus influencing key reproductive health outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Howard, J R; O'Neill, S; Travers, C
To investigate the sexual behavior, sexual relationships, sexual satisfaction, sexual dysfunction and sexual distress in a population of older urban Australian women. In 2004, 474 women participating in the Longitudinal Assessment of Ageing in Women (LAW) Study completed a series of questionnaires about sexuality. They included the Short Personal Experiences Questionnaire (SPEQ), Relationship Assessment Scale (RAS), Female Sexual Distress Scale (FSDS), questions concerning past sexual abuse based on the Sex in Australia Study, and questions comparing present and past sexual interest and activity. The percentage of women with partners ranged from 83.3% in the 40 - 49-year age group to 46.4% women in the 70 - 79-year age group. The sexual ability of partners diminished markedly with age, with only 4.8% of the partners using medication to enable erections. Only 2.5% of women reported low relationship satisfaction. The incidence of sexual distress was also low, being reported by only 5.7% of women. Younger women and women with partners had higher levels of distress than older women. Indifference to sexual frequency rose from 26.7% in women aged 40 - 49 years to 72.3% in the 70 - 79-year age group. Past sexual abuse was recalled by 22.7% of women and 11.6% recalled multiple episodes of abuse. Women who recalled abuse had lower scores for satisfaction with sexual frequency. It appears from this study that there is a wide range of sexual experience amongst aging women, from never having had a sexual partner, to having solitary sex, to having a relationship with or without sex into the seventh decade. As women age, they experience a decrease in sexual activity, interest in sex, and distress about sex. This may be associated with the loss of intimate relationships as part of separation, divorce or bereavement. Decreased sexual activity with aging may be interpreted as a biological phenomenon (part of the aging process) or as sexual dysfunction, or it may be the result of
Yuan, Yifeng; Shen, Huizhong; Ewing, Robyn
For a long time, Australian English and culture have not been viewed in China as an equal to its American and British counterpart. This is reflected in teachers' choice of destination when it comes to English teaching and learning resources. This paper examines Chinese English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers' perceptions of the contents and…
Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick P H
The present study examined meta-perceptions of attractiveness among women. More specifically, ratings were collected about how women thought their partner, family and friends, and strangers would view their physical attractiveness. In an online survey, 1287 Dutch women (aged 19-80 years) answered questions concerning meta-perceptions of attractiveness, demographic data, body mass index (BMI), body image (Body Areas Satisfaction Scale, self-rated general physical attractiveness, and actual-ideal weight discrepancy), and self-esteem. Results showed that women's meta-perceptions of attractiveness reflected the level of closeness of the relationship with the other person, with the most positive meta-perceptions reported for the partner, followed by those for family and friends, and the least positive meta-perceptions for strangers. Meta-perceptions were strongly related to body image, self-esteem and BMI. Self-ratings of attractiveness appeared to be lower than all meta-perceptions of attractiveness, suggesting that women are aware of their own negative self-bias and/or other people's positive bias. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bäckström, Caroline A; Mårtensson, Lena B; Golsäter, Marie H; Thorstensson, Stina A
Pregnant women are not always satisfied with the professional support they receive during their midwifery care. More knowledge is needed to understand what professional support pregnant women need for childbirth and parenting. Childbearing and the transition to becoming a parent is a sensitive period in one's life during which one should have the opportunity to receive professional support. Professional support does not always correspond to pregnant women's needs. To understand pregnant women's needs for professional support within midwifery care, it is crucial to further illuminate women's experiences of this support. To explore pregnant women's perceptions of professional support in midwifery care. A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. Fifteen women were interviewed during gestational weeks 36-38. Data was analysed using phenomenography. The women perceived professional support in midwifery care to be reassuring and emotional, to consist of reliable information, and to be mediated with pedagogical creativity. The professional support facilitated new social contacts, partner involvement and contributed to mental preparedness. The findings of the study were presented in six categories and the category Professional support contributes to mental preparedness was influenced by the five other categories. Pregnant women prepare for childbirth and parenting by using several different types of professional support in midwifery care: a strategy that could be described as piecing together a puzzle. When the women put the puzzle together, each type of professional support works as a valuable piece in the whole puzzle. Through this, professional support could contribute to women's mental preparedness for childbirth and parenting. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wheeless, Virginia Eman; Berryman-Fink, Cynthia
Examined employee attitudes toward women in general and women as managers, and perceived communication competencies of women managers. Found that female employees demonstrated a more positive regard for women in general, a less traditional view of women as managers, and a more positive perception of their communication competencies. (PD)
East, C.; Conway, K.; Pollock, W.; Frawley, N.; Brennecke, S.
Introduction. The experience of normal pregnancy is often disrupted for women with preeclampsia (PE). Materials and Methods. Postal survey of the 112 members of the consumer group, Australian Action on Pre-Eclampsia (AAPEC). Results. Surveys were returned by 68 women (61% response rate) and from 64 (57%) partners, close relatives or friends. Respondents reported experiencing pre-eclampsia (n = 53), eclampsia (n = 5), and/or Hemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes, and Low Platelets (HELLP syndrome) (n = 26). Many women had no knowledge of PE prior to diagnosis (77%) and, once diagnosed, did not appreciate how serious or life threatening it was (50%). Women wanted access to information about PE. Their experience contributed substantial anxiety towards future pregnancies. Partners/friends/relatives expressed fear for the woman and/or her baby and had no prior understanding of PE. Conclusions. The PE experience had a substantial effect on women, their confidants, and their babies and affected their approach to future pregnancies. Access to information about PE was viewed as very important. PMID:21547089
The scholarship surrounding women's cycling in Australia during the 1890s is slim. However, a focus on female competitive cycling, just one of many diverse cycling activities that women pursued in this era, reveals a rich seam of information. Accordingly, this paper surveys endurance riding, adventure touring and racing, introducing new historical and biographical detail and highlighting the significance of competitive cycling for women in the late nineteenth century. The discussion shows that women's competitive cycling constituted a significant component of Australian cycling history, and helped to re-define women's identity in an era when feminine roles were in flux and the traditional gender order was being contested.
Koupil, Ilona; Tooth, Leigh; Heshmati, Amy; Mishra, Gita
To study social patterning of overeating and symptoms of disordered eating in a general population. A representative, population-based cohort study. The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH), Survey 1 in 1996 and Survey 2 in 2000. Women (n 12 599) aged 18-23 years completed a questionnaire survey at baseline, of whom 6866 could be studied prospectively. Seventeen per cent of women reported episodes of overeating, 16 % reported binge eating and 10 % reported compensatory behaviours. Almost 4 % of women reported symptoms consistent with bulimia nervosa. Low education, not living with family, perceived financial difficulty (OR=1·8 and 1·3 for women with severe and some financial difficulty, respectively, compared with none) and European language other than English spoken at home (OR=1·5 for European compared with Australian/English) were associated with higher prevalence of binge eating. Furthermore, longitudinal analyses indicated increased risk of persistent binge eating among women with a history of being overweight in childhood, those residing in metropolitan Australia, women with higher BMI, smokers and binge drinkers. Overeating, binge eating and symptoms of bulimia nervosa are common among young Australian women and cluster with binge drinking. Perceived financial stress appears to increase the risk of binge eating and bulimia nervosa. It is unclear whether women of European origin and those with a history of childhood overweight carry higher risk of binge eating because of genetic or cultural reasons.
Rawson, Helen A; Liamputtong, Pranee
This paper explores how a group of Vietnamese Australian young women acquire knowledge of sexual issues, and the impact the traditional Vietnamese culture has on the acquisition of this knowledge. It is based on a qualitative study that examined the factors which shape the sexual behaviour of Vietnamese Australian young women living in Australia. A Grounded Theory methodology was employed in this investigation, and involved in-depth interviews with 15 Vietnamese Australian young women aged 18-25 years, who reside in Victoria, Australia. The findings illustrated three key elements involved in the acquisition of knowledge of sexual issues: 'Accepting parental silence', 'Exploring sources of knowledge' and 'Needing culturally targeted information'. The young women desired discussion about sexual issues but accepted that cultural 'barriers' were formidable. Their desire conflicted with the traditional familial norm of 'silence' regarding sexual matters. Consequently, knowledge was sought outside the home, specifically from peers and the media. The importance of culturally appropriate and adequate sexual discussions for Vietnamese Australian young people was stressed, so that informed decisions could be made about their sexual lives. It is imperative for young people to have adequate and appropriate sexual education so that informed and safe sexual choices can be made. For young people from diverse cultural backgrounds, this education must be culturally appropriate and accessible, taking into consideration cultural mores regarding gender and sexual matters, as well as current beliefs in the 'mainstream' youth culture.
Hollander, M. H.; van Hastenberg, E.; van Dillen, J.; van Pampus, M. G.; de Miranda, E.; Stramrood, C. A. I.
The purpose of this study is to explore and quantify perceptions and experiences of women with a traumatic childbirth experience in order to identify areas for prevention and to help midwives and obstetricians improve woman-centered care. A retrospective survey was conducted online among 2192 women with a self-reported traumatic childbirth experience. Women were recruited in March 2016 through social media, including specific parent support groups. They filled out a 35-item questionnaire of w...
Eze, C.U.; Okaro, A.O.; Nwobi, I.C.
Available studies suggest that pregnant women's views on the desirability of routine ultrasound are Influenced by their perceptions of its potential benefits and concern about possible adverse effects. To assess women's views of transvaginal sonography and to determine any correlation between their perception of the procedure and their prior knowledge and experience of it. We surveyed women presenting with various gynecologic problems or complications of the first trimester. Data collection was by self-administered questionnaires using conveniences sampling technique on women attending the clinic over a period of one year. Only women who had transvaginal sonography were included. A total of 250 women were recruited and interviewed. Transvaginal sonography was considered not embarrassing by 76%, acceptable by 86%, not painful by 87.2% and not stressful by 82% of the women. There were no statistically significant differences in the women's perception of the procedure whether they had prior knowledge and previous experience of the procedure or not (P>0.05). The majority of the women perceived transvaginal sonography favourably. Their perception of the Procedure was favourable whether they had prior knowledge and previous experience of it or not. (author)
Hepner, Marilyn M.; Faaborg, Linda W.
This report presents an analysis and interpretation of responses from women administrators in higher education concerning influences on their careers, professional mobility, and self-perceptions. Issues discussed include the inadequacy of information concerning women administrators, influences on career growth, differences between academic and…
Cecilia A Sánchez
Full Text Available Interactions with flying foxes pose disease transmission risks to volunteer rehabilitators (carers who treat injured, ill, and orphaned bats. In particular, Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV can be transmitted directly from flying foxes to humans in Australia. Personal protective equipment (PPE and rabies vaccination can be used to protect against lyssavirus infection. During May and June 2014, active Australian flying fox carers participated in an online survey (SOAR: Survey Of Australian flying fox Rehabilitators designed to gather demographic data, assess perceptions of disease risk, and explore safety practices. Responses to open-ended questions were analysed thematically. A logistic regression was performed to assess whether rehabilitators' gender, use of PPE, threat perception, and years of experience predicted variation in their odds of being bitten or scratched. Eligible responses were received from 122 rehabilitators located predominantly on the eastern coast of Australia. Eighty-four percent of respondents were female. Years of experience ranged from <1 to 30 years (median 5 years. Respondents were highly educated. All rehabilitators were vaccinated against rabies and 94% received a rabies titre check at least every two years. Sixty-three percent of carers did not perceive viruses in flying foxes as a potential threat to their health, yet 74% of carers reported using PPE when handling flying foxes. Eighty-three percent of rehabilitators had received a flying fox bite or scratch at some point during their career. Carers provide an important community service by rescuing and rehabilitating flying foxes. While rehabilitators in this study have many excellent safety practices, including a 100% vaccination rate against rabies, there is room for improvement in PPE use. We recommend 1 the establishment of an Australia-wide set of guidelines for safety when caring for bats and 2 that the responsible government agencies in Australia support
Olsen, Anna; Banwell, Cathy; Dance, Phyll
In this article we seek to delineate the experiences of contraceptive use by Australian women living with hepatitis C. Using semi-structured, in-depth interviews, 109 women with hepatitis C from two cities in Australia, Melbourne (Victoria) and Canberra (the Australian Capital Territory), were interviewed about their alcohol and other drug use, their contraceptive history, and their experiences of hepatitis C. We aimed to understand why such a high proportion of women living with hepatitis C (66%) had previously reported that they were not currently using contraception. Many women had used contraception at some stage of their lives but were no longer using it because they had experienced contraceptive failure or uncomfortable side effects. Others were concerned about the impact of contraception on their fertility, were planning to get pregnant or considered themselves to be celibate. Hepatitis C appeared to have little impact on their contraceptive practices, but some women's illicit drug use had an important influence. Illicit drug use was, for some, an encouragement to seek long-term forms of contraception that reduced their chances of pregnancy while for others drug taking hampered their contraceptive use. In compliance with health promotion campaigns of the last two decades, women were generally more concerned about preventing sexually transmissible infections than pregnancies, particularly with new or casual partners.
Dorman, Jeffrey P.; Ferguson, Janet M.
Research investigating the relationship between classroom environment and self-handicapping was conducted in Australian and Canadian high schools. A sample of 2,006 students responded to a questionnaire that assessed student perceptions of classroom environment and self-handicapping. Simple and multiple correlational analyses showed that classroom…
Gambetta-Tessini, K; Mariño, R; Ghanim, A; Calache, H; Manton, D J
Molar-Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH) is a prevalent developmental defect of tooth enamel associated with a high burden of disease. The present study aimed to survey Australian and Chilean oral health care practitioners (OHCPs) working in public dental facilities and to compare their knowledge, clinical experience and perceptions about MIH. Findings would give insights about how current knowledge has penetrated into OHCPs working into the public systems. A mixed-mode survey regarding MIH was carried out amongst Australian and Chilean OHCPs from the public sector. The survey required responses to questions regarding sociodemographics, clinical experience, perceptions, clinical management and preferences for further training. The level of knowledge regarding MIH was determined by Delphi methods for consensus. Data analysis utilised Chi-square, linear and logistic regression models using SPSS Ver. 22.0. The majority of respondents had observed MIH in their patients (88.6 %) and the level of knowledge regarding MIH was high in Australian participants (p = 0.03). Australian respondents felt more confident when diagnosing (OR 8.80, 95 % CI 2.49-31.16) and treating MIH-affected children (OR 4.56, 95 % CI 2.16-9.76) compared to Chilean respondents. Oral health therapists reported higher levels of confidence than Australian general dental practitioners when providing treatment to children with MIH (OR 7.53; 95 % CI 1.95-29.07). Continuing to update clinical guidelines may help practitioners increase their understanding when diagnosing and treating MIH-affected children. Dissemination of information and awareness regarding MIH is necessary in public clinics, and in particular Chilean general dental practitioners should be alerted to these factors.
Lauche, Romy; Schumann, Dania; Sibbritt, David; Adams, Jon; Cramer, Holger
Yoga exercises have been associated with joint problems recently, indicating that yoga practice might be potentially dangerous for joint health. This study aimed to analyse whether regular yoga practice is associated with the frequency of joint problems in upper middle-aged Australian women. Women aged 62-67 years from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH) were questioned in 2013 whether they experienced regular joint pain or problems in the past 12 months and whether they regularly practiced yoga. Associations of joint problems with yoga practice were analysed using Chi-squared tests and multiple logistic regression modelling. Of 9151 women, 29.8% reported regular problems with stiff or painful joints, and 15.2, 11.9, 18.1 and 15.9% reported regular problems with shoulders, hips, knees and feet, respectively, in the past 12 months. Yoga was practiced sometimes by 10.1% and often by 8.4% of women. Practicing yoga was not associated with upper or lower limb joint problems. No association between yoga practice and joint problems has been identified. Further studies are warranted for conclusive judgement of benefits and safety of yoga in relation to joint problems.
Hannan, Amanda L; Hing, Wayne; Climstein, Mike; Coombes, Jeff S; Furness, James; Jayasinghe, Rohan; Byrnes, Joshua
Purpose This study explored current demographics, characteristics, costs, evaluation methods, and outcome measures used in Australian cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs. It also determined the actual usage and perceptions of high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Methods A cross-sectional observational web-based survey was distributed to 328 Australian CR programs nationally. Results A total of 261 programs completed the survey (79.6% response rate). Most Australian CR programs were located in a hospital setting (76%), offered exercise sessions once a week (52%) for 6–8 weeks (49%) at moderate intensity (54%) for 46–60 min (62%), and serviced 101–500 clients per annum (38%). HIIT was reported in only 1% of programs, and 27% of respondents believed that it was safe while 42% of respondents were unsure. Lack of staff (25%), monitoring resources (20%), and staff knowledge (18%) were the most commonly reported barriers to the implementation of HIIT. Overall, Australian CR coordinators are unsure of the cost of exercise sessions. Conclusion There is variability in CR delivery across Australia. Only half of programs reassess outcome measures postintervention, and cost of exercise sessions is unknown. Although HIIT is recommended in international CR guidelines, it is essentially not being used in Australia and clinicians are unsure as to the safety of HIIT. Lack of resources and staff knowledge were perceived as the biggest barriers to HIIT implementation, and there are inconsistent perceptions of prescreening and monitoring requirements. This study highlights the need to educate health professionals about the benefits and safety of HIIT to improve its usage and patient outcomes. PMID:29750058
Beliefs, perceptions, and views of pregnant women about Caesarean section and ... decision‑making in a specialist health facility in Enugu, southeast Nigeria. ... was administered to 200 pregnant women, following an oral informed consent.
Polly Parker; Belinda Hewitt; Jennifer Witheriff; Amy Cooper
The underrepresentation of women in senior positions continues to be a major challenge in higher education and most other industries. In Australia, the career trajectory for academic women stalls at a lower level than that of their male counterparts. Concern about this situation in one Australian university led to the design and delivery of a career progression program to support women’s advancement from senior lecturer to associate professor. This study details the main features of the progr...
Bödeker, Birte; Betsch, Cornelia; Wichmann, Ole
Pregnant women and their newborns have an increased risk of developing severe influenza and influenza-related complications. In Germany, seasonal influenza vaccination is recommended for pregnant women since 2010. However, little is known about pregnant women's vaccination-related knowledge and attitudes, as well as their risk perceptions. This study therefore assessed pregnant women's vaccination-related knowledge, risk perceptions related to influenza disease and influenza vaccination during pregnancy, and aimed to identify determinants of influenza vaccination uptake during pregnancy in Germany. Between 2012 and 2014, a nationwide web-based prospective cohort study with follow-up interviews was conducted in initially pregnant women who gave birth over the study period. Control groups were set up in a cross-sectional fashion during the follow-up interviews. Women who participated in both, the baseline interview before giving birth and in the 1st interview after giving birth were included in the analysis. Univariate and multiple logistic regression were used to identify associations between influenza vaccination uptake and sociodemographic characteristics as well as items assessing attitude and knowledge. In total, 838 women were included in the analyses. Pregnant women had a positive attitude towards vaccination in general, but only modest vaccination knowledge. Overall, 10.9 % of women were vaccinated against seasonal influenza during pregnancy. While pregnant women perceived classical childhood diseases to be more risky than the respective vaccinations, this relation reversed for influenza: The risk of vaccination was perceived higher than the risk of the disease. These two types of risk perceptions independently determined influenza vaccination uptake-higher perception of disease risk and lower perceptions of vaccination-related risks increased uptake. Additionally, knowledge about the vaccination recommendation for pregnant women and a positive gynaecologist
Michael, Rinat; Kim, TaeSun; Hutchison, Ashley; Cinamon, Rachel Gali; Gerstein, Lawrence H.; Park, Juno; Choi, Yuri; Bellare, Yamini; Collins, Rachael
The current study investigated the content of future perceptions among 47 U.S. women and 48 Israeli women. Thematic analysis was used to explore participants' qualitative responses. Women's responses covered a wide range of topics, and were categorized into ten key themes: (a) work, (b) family/relationships, (c) property, (d) residence, (e)…
Whitaker, Kara M; Wilcox, Sara; Liu, Jihong; Blair, Steven N; Pate, Russell R
To describe African American and White women's perceptions of weight gain, physical activity, and nutrition during pregnancy and to explore differences in perceptions by race. Qualitative interview study. Two Ob/Gyn clinics in South Carolina, USA. Thirty pregnant women (15 African American, 15 White) between 20 and 30 weeks gestation, equally represented across pre-pregnancy BMI categories (10 normal weight, 10 overweight, and 10 obese). White women more frequently described intentions to meet weight gain, physical activity, and dietary guidelines in pregnancy than African American women. African American women were more concerned with inadequate weight gain while White women more commonly expressed concerns about excessive weight gain. More White women discussed the importance of physical activity for weight management. Regardless of race, few women described risks of excessive weight gain or benefits of physical activity as it relates to the baby's health. The primary cited barrier of healthy eating was the high cost of fresh produce. Several knowledge gaps as well as race differences were identified in women's perceptions and intentions toward weight gain, physical activity, and nutrition during pregnancy. Future interventions should seek to educate women about common misperceptions. It may be necessary to culturally tailor gestational weight gain interventions to optimise health outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lee, Christiana; Gramotnev, Helen
Young adulthood, a time of major life transitions and risk of poor mental health, may affect emotional well-being throughout adult life. This article uses longitudinal survey data to examine young Australian women's transitions across 4 domains: residential independence, relationships, work and study, and motherhood. Changes over 3 years in…
Schumacher, Tracy L; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Clausen, Don; Weatherall, Loretta; Keogh, Lyniece; Pringle, Kirsty G; Rae, Kym M
Indigenous Australians experience high rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The origins of CVD may commence during pregnancy, yet few serum reference values for CVD biomarkers exist specific to the pregnancy period. The Gomeroi gaaynggal research project is a program that undertakes research and provides some health services to pregnant Indigenous women. Three hundred and ninety-nine non-fasting samples provided by the study participants (206 pregnancies and 175 women) have been used to construct reference intervals for CVD biomarkers during this critical time. A pragmatic design was used, in that women were not excluded for the presence of chronic or acute health states. Percentile bands for non-linear relationships were constructed according to the methods of Wright and Royston (2008), using the xriml package in StataIC 13.1. Serum cholesterol, triglycerides, cystatin-C and alkaline phosphatase increased as gestational age progressed, with little change seen in high-sensitivity C-Reactive Protein and γ glutamyl transferase. Values provided in the reference intervals are consistent with findings from other research projects. These reference intervals will form a basis with which future CVD biomarkers for pregnant Indigenous Australian women can be compared.
Grunert, Megan L.
Statistics showing the under-representation of women at all levels within the physical sciences abound, particularly at the graduate and faculty levels. Women chemists choosing an academic career tend to select teaching institutions over research institutions. This study examined women at the graduate and faculty levels through interviews and the construction of participant narratives to better understand why many women opt out of a career in academic research. Specific attention was paid to women's decision-making processes and what motivates women to choose careers, the rewards and challenges associated with different careers, and the perception of different careers contribute to their decisions. The participant narratives were analyzed on a cross-case basis and constructivist grounded theory was used to develop a model about women's decision-making regarding their careers. Additionally, preliminary work has suggested that graduate students have inaccurate perceptions of careers in academia. Interviews with faculty at teaching and research institutions provided a clearer picture of what each type of career entails. Career-choice motivators, rewards, and challenges were identified for each of the faculty groups. It was found that graduate student women have inaccurate perceptions of academic research careers, which affects how they make career decisions. A model of career choice shows interactions between motivation and perception that guide the career decision-making process. By better understanding these women and their motivations, changes can be made to foster inclusion and accommodation for women and other underrepresented groups in academic chemistry.
Emma R Kirby
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Back pain impacts on a significant proportion of the Australian population over the life course and has high prevalence rates among women, particularly in older age. Back pain care is characterised by multiple practitioner and self-prescribed treatment options, and the out-of-pocket costs associated with consultations and self-prescribed treatments have not been examined to date. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the extent of health care practitioner consultations and self-prescribed treatment for back pain care among Australian women, and to assess the self-reported costs associated with such usage. METHODS: Survey of 1,310 women (response rate 80.9% who reported seeking help for back pain from the '1946-51 cohort' of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. Women were asked about their use of health care practitioners and self-prescribed treatments for back pain and the costs associated with such usage. RESULTS: In the past year 76.4% consulted a complementary and alternative practitioner, 56% an allied health practitioner and 59.2% a GP/medical specialist. Overall, women consulted with, on average, 3.0 (SD = 2.0 different health care practitioners, and had, on average, 12.2 (SD = 9.7 discrete health care practitioner consultations for back pain. Average self-reported out-of-pocket expenditure on practitioners and self-prescribed treatments for back pain care per annum was AU$873.10. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple provider usage for various but distinct purposes (i.e. pain/mobility versus anxiety/stress points to the need for further research into patient motivations and experiences of back pain care in order to improve and enhance access to and continuity of care. Our results suggest that the cost of back pain care represents a significant burden, and may ultimately limit women's access to multiple providers. We extrapolate that for Australian working-age women, total out-of-pocket expenditure on back pain care per annum is in
Shelton, J. Nicole; Chavous, Tabbye M.
Examined how racial factors influence college women's perceptions of sexual harassment with samples of 46 black and 89 white women. Data suggest that sexual harassment between black women and black men is trivialized compared to sexual behavior between black women and white men. Discusses implications for the study of sexual harassment. (SLD)
Hansen, Dana Lee; Holstein, Bjørn E; Hansen, Ebba Holme
Little is known about healthy young women's everyday experiences with medicine use and their general perceptions of medicines. In this article, we describe a user-perspective study involving in-depth qualitative interviews with 20 young women between the ages of 16 and 20 in Copenhagen, Denmark. ...... for their use of medicine, often based on perceptions of need and reduced personal risk.......Little is known about healthy young women's everyday experiences with medicine use and their general perceptions of medicines. In this article, we describe a user-perspective study involving in-depth qualitative interviews with 20 young women between the ages of 16 and 20 in Copenhagen, Denmark....... Inspired by Schutz's phenomenology, informants' medicine-taking experiences were considered within the context of their life-worlds. Analysis revealed that the young women possessed predominantly negative perceptions of medicines, which were linked to a preference for complete avoidance of medicines...
Stephens, Dionne P.; Fernandez, Paula
This study relies on qualitative methods to investigate Hispanic women's skin color perceptions. The primary goal is to identify the relevance of these perceptions on their beliefs about their own physical attractiveness. Thirty-four self-identified White-Hispanic women attending a large Hispanic Serving Institution in the southeastern United…
Steel, A; Frawley, J; Sibbritt, D; Broom, A; Adams, J
This manuscript presents a preliminary examination of the characteristics of women who choose intrapartum hypnosis for pain management. Cross-sectional analysis of 2445 women (31-36 years) from a sub-study of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH), employing Fisher exact tests. Australia. Use of intrapartum hypnosis, or hypnobirthing, for pain management during labour and birth. Women using hypnobirthing were more likely to have consulted with an acupuncturist or naturopath, or attended yoga/meditation classes during pregnancy (phypnotherapy for intrapartum pain management less commonly identified as feeling safer knowing that an obstetrician is providing their care (phypnotherapy for intrapartum pain management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Skinner, S Rachel; Smith, Jennifer; Fenwick, Jennifer; Hendriks, Jacqueline; Fyfe, Sue; Kendall, Garth
Despite decades of research, development and evaluation of educational and promotional strategies to prevent teenage pregnancy, we have only a limited understanding of the strategies that are effective and why. This study sought to explore female teenagers' attitudes, perceptions and experiences of contraceptive use, and describe the influence of this on pregnancy risk. A qualitative approach was used to explore the contraceptive behaviour in a purposive sample of sexually active Australian females aged 14-19 years. Teenagers were drawn from three sub-groups: antenatal and postnatal services (pregnant-continuing); termination services (pregnant-terminating); and sexual health clinics (never-pregnant). Sixty-eight individual, semi-structured interviews were conducted. Thematic analysis was employed to analyse the data and generate a rich, description of contraceptive behaviour. Whilst participants were familiar with contraception, many used it inconsistently. Commitment to pregnancy prevention was firmly located within participants' attitudes toward teenage pregnancy and parenthood, perceptions of pregnancy risk and perceptions of the costs and benefits of using contraception. Further, motivation to use contraception fluctuated in different contexts, such as romantic relationships. Our research highlights the importance of attitudes toward contraception, pregnancy and parenthood in shaping teenagers' motivation to use contraception. Educational and prevention programs must address the spectrum of attitudes underlying teenagers' contraceptive and reproductive decisions in order to alter pathways to teenage pregnancy and early parenting.
McNair, Ruth; Szalacha, Laura A; Hughes, Tonda L
we sought to compare physical and mental health status, health service use, and satisfaction among young Australian women of varying sexual identity; and to explore associations of all of these variables with satisfaction with their general practitioner (GP). data are from the youngest cohort of women in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health surveyed in 2003. The sample included women aged 25 to 30 who identified as exclusively heterosexual (n = 8,083; 91.3%), mainly heterosexual (n = 568; 6.4%), bisexual (n = 100; 1.1%), or lesbian (n = 99; 1.1%). Univariate analyses compared self-reported mental health, physical health, access to GP services, and satisfaction across the four sexual identity groups. Linear regression, controlling for education, income, and residence, was used to identify factors associated with GP satisfaction. sexual minority women (lesbian, bisexual, and mainly heterosexual) were significantly more likely than were heterosexual women to report poorer mental health and to have more frequently used health services; depression was strongly associated with mental health services use. Bisexual and mainly heterosexual women were most likely to report poorer general health, abnormal Pap tests, sexually transmissible infections, urinary tract infections, hepatitis B or C virus infection, and asthma. Lesbians were most likely to have never had a Pap test or be underscreened. All sexual minority women had lower continuity of GP care and lower satisfaction with that care than heterosexual women. underlying social determinants of physical and mental health disparities experienced by sexual minority women require exploration, including the possible effects of discrimination and marginalization on higher levels of risk taking. Lower continuity of care and lower satisfaction with GP services also need further investigation. 2011 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Lee, Suzanne; Ayers, Susan; Holden, Des
risk perception in women with high risk pregnancies affects their decisions about perinatal care and is of interest to anyone involved in the care of pregnant women. This paper provides a metasynthesis of qualitative studies of risk perception in women with high risk pregnancies. a systematic search of eight electronic databases was conducted. Additional papers were obtained through searching references of identified articles. Six studies were identified that reported qualitative research into risk perception in relation to high risk pregnancy. A metasynthesis was developed to describe and interpret the studies. the synthesis resulted in the identification of five themes: determinants of risk perception; not seeing it the way others do; normality versus risk; if the infant is ok, I׳m ok; managing risk. this metasynthesis suggests women at high risk during pregnancy use multiple sources of information to determine their risk status. It shows women are aware of the risks posed by their pregnancies but do not perceive risk in the same way as healthcare professionals. They will take steps to ensure the health of themselves and their infants but these may not include following all medical recommendations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nanou, Evangelia; Brandt, Sarah Østergaard; Weenen, Hugo
and bitterness, respectively. Pregnant women completed also a self-administered questionnaire on changes in sweet and bitter taste perception due to pregnancy. Results: Perceived intensity of sweetness and bitterness was not different between pregnant and nonpregnant women for any of the products. However......Introduction: Changes in sweet and bitter taste perception during pregnancy have been reported in a limited number of studies leading, however, to inconclusive results. The current study aimed to investigate possible differences in perceived intensity and liking of sweetness and bitterness between......, the liking of the least sweet apple + berry juice was significantly higher, and the optimal preferred sugar content was significantly lower in pregnant compared to nonpregnant women. With regards to self-report, pregnant women who reported higher sensitivity in sweet or bitter taste did not have...
Lee, S.; Ayers, S.; Holden, D.
Introduction: Risk perception in women with high risk pregnancies affects their decisions about perinatal care and is of interest to anyone involved in the care of pregnant women. This paper provides a metasynthesis of qualitative studies of risk perception in women with high risk pregnancies.\\ud \\ud Methods: A systematic search of eight electronic databases was conducted. Additional papers were obtained through searching references of identified articles. Six studies were identified that rep...
Fakih, Souhiela; Batra, Peter; Gatny, Heather H; Kusunoki, Yasamin; Barber, Jennifer S; Farris, Karen B
Unintended pregnancy is a major public health problem in the United States.Correct contraceptive use can reduce the rate of unintended pregnancy. Community pharmacies are well positioned to provide contraceptives and advice about contraception. To determine young women's perceptions and experiences with contraception supply in community pharmacies and to identify whether pharmacy characteristics predicted very positive experiences. This study comprised two cross-sectional surveys including an online women's pharmacy perceptions and experiences (PPE) survey and a faxed/observed survey of community pharmacies. One county in Michigan. Young women and community pharmacies. The two surveys were merged to explore pharmacy characteristics that may impact women's perceptions and experiences with community pharmacies. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to explore relationships between pharmacy characteristics and positive outcomes. The response rate for the PPE survey was 54% (n = 343/637). Data from all community pharmacies in the county was retrieved via fax (n = 41/94, 43.6%) or observation (n = 53/94, 56.4%). Women were included in this analysis if they indicated a regular pharmacy (one they go to most often) in the county of interest (n = 210). More than 50% of women (n = 125/210) visited a pharmacy more than once per month. Sixty percent of women were currently using something to prevent pregnancy (n = 124/210, 60.8%). Thirty-five percent of women had a positive experience (n = 73/210, 34.8%). In the multiple logistic regression, women who visited a chain pharmacy had almost 65% lower odds of an overall positive experience with their regular pharmacy compared with women who visited a grocery or mass merchandise pharmacy (odds ratio 0.35 [95% CI 0.16], P = 0.75). Young women visit community pharmacies and use contraceptives frequently. Interventions need to be developed and implemented to improve young women's perceptions and experiences with
Parsons, Judith; Ismail, Khalida; Amiel, Stephanie; Forbes, Angus
Women with gestational diabetes are at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes, which could be prevented or delayed by lifestyle modification. Lifestyle interventions need to take into account the specific situation of women with gestational diabetes. We aimed to gain a deeper understanding of women's experiences of gestational diabetes, their diabetes risk perceptions, and their views on type 2 diabetes prevention, to inform future lifestyle interventions. We conducted a metasynthesis that included 16 qualitative studies and identified 11 themes. Factors that require consideration when developing a type 2 diabetes prevention intervention in this population include addressing the emotional impact of gestational diabetes; providing women with clear and timely information about future diabetes risk; and offering an intervention that fits with women's multiple roles as caregivers, workers, and patients, and focuses on the health of the whole family.
Hayer, Manvir Kaur
This paper sets out to explore Ugandan young women's definitions and perceptions of sexual coercion. A qualitative study was conducted with seven young women in rural Uganda. Participants filmed videos, wrote stories, made drawings and participated in transect walks before analysing their data through formal and informal discussions. Forced sex is defined narrowly to mean only rape. Verbal forms of sexual coercion were recognised, but only after some discussion. Verbal coercion is referred to as "abusing" or "convincing". Young women are commonly pressured into consenting to have sex, despite what they really want, owing to the socio-cultural circumstances. Young women in Uganda are significantly tolerant of sexual coercion. This tolerance appears to arise from power differentials between genders, and the socio-cultural environment shaping their lives. The paper improves understanding of young women's definitions and perceptions of sexual coercion, which is essential to provide effective violence prevention programmes. It also suggests that further research is warranted in this field.
Gamage, Prasanna J; Fortington, Lauren V; Finch, Caroline F
Cricket is a very popular sport in Sri Lanka. In this setting there has been limited research; specifically, there is little knowledge of cricket injuries. To support future research possibilities, the aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt, translate and test the reliability of an Australian-developed questionnaire for the Sri Lankan context. The Australian 'Juniors Enjoying Cricket Safely' (JECS-Aus) injury risk perception questionnaire was cross-culturally adapted to suit the Sri Lankan context and subsequently translated into the two main languages (Sinhala and Tamil) based on standard forward-back translation. The translated questionnaires were examined for content validity by two language schoolteachers. The questionnaires were completed twice, 2 weeks apart, by two groups of school cricketers (males) aged 11-15 years (Sinhala (n=24), Tamil (n=30)) to assess reliability. Test-retest scores were evaluated for agreement. Where responses were statistics were calculated. Questions with moderate-to-poor test-retest reliability (κAus questionnaire for use in a different population, providing an outcome measure for assessing injury risk perceptions in Sri Lankan junior cricketers.
Mah, Beth; Weatherall, Loretta; Burrows, Julie; Blackwell, Caroline C; Gwynn, Josephine; Wadhwa, Pathik; Lumbers, Eugenie R; Smith, Roger; Rae, Kym M
Pregnancy can be a stressful time for many women. There is ample evidence of numerous physical and mental health inequities for Indigenous Australians. For those Indigenous women who are pregnant, it is established that there is a higher incidence of poor physical perinatal outcomes when compared with non-Indigenous Australians. However, little evidence exists that examines stressful events and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in pregnant women who are members of this community. To quantify the rates of stressful events and PTSD symptoms in pregnant Indigenous women. One hundred and fifty rural and remote Indigenous women were invited to complete a survey during each trimester of their pregnancy. The survey measures were the stressful life events and the Impact of Events Scale. Extremely high rates of PTSD symptoms were reported by participants. Approximately 40% of this group exhibited PTSD symptoms during their pregnancy with mean score 33.38 (SD = 14.37) significantly higher than a study of European victims of crisis, including terrorism attacks (20.6, SD = 18.5). The extreme levels of PTSD symptoms found in the women participating in this study are likely to result in negative implications for both mother and infant. An urgent response must be mounted at government, health, community development and research levels to address these findings. Immediate attention needs to focus on the development of interventions to address the high levels of PTSD symptoms that pregnant Australian Indigenous women experience. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
Dillon, Gina; Hussain, Rafat; Kibele, Eva; Rahman, Saifur; Loxton, Deborah
Data from a national, population-based longitudinal study of Australian women (26-34 years) were analyzed to investigate the association between domestic relocation and multiple explanatory factors, namely intimate partner violence (IPV), metropolitan versus non-metropolitan residence, education,
Risk perception in women with high risk pregnancies affects the decisions they make about antenatal care and so may therefore influence the wellbeing of mother and baby. This article addresses the factors which influence women when making risk assessments and how these assessments may differ from those of healthcare professionals.\\ud \\ud Women use multiple sources of information to determine their risk status including advice from professionals, from other trusted sources, and their own intui...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Breast Health Surveys, conducted by the National Breast Cancer Centre (NBCC in 1996 and 2003, are designed to gain insight into the knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of a nationally representative sample of Australian women on issues relevant to breast cancer. In this article, we focus on major aspects of the design and present results on respondents' knowledge about mammographic screening. Methods The 2003 BHS surveyed English-speaking Australian women aged 30–69 without a history of breast cancer using computer-assisted telephone interviewing. Questions covered the following themes: knowledge and perceptions about incidence, mortality and risk; knowledge and behaviour regarding early detection, symptoms and diagnosis; mammographic screening; treatment; and accessibility and availability of information and services. Respondents were selected using a complex sample design involving stratification. Sample weights against Australian population benchmarks were used in all statistical analyses. Means and proportions for the entire population and by age group and area of residence were calculated. Statistical tests were conducted using a level of significance of 0.01. Results Of the 3,144 respondents who consented to being interviewed, 138 (4.4% had a previous diagnosis of breast cancer and were excluded leaving 3,006 completed interviews eligible for analysis. A majority of respondents (61.1% reported ever having had a mammogram and 29.1% identified mammography as being the best way of finding breast cancer. A majority of women (85.9% had heard of the BreastScreen Australia (BSA program, the national mammographic screening program providing free biennial screening mammograms, with 94.5% believing that BSA attendance was available regardless of the presence or absence of symptoms. There have been substantial gains in women's knowledge about mammographic screening over the seven years between the two surveys. Conclusion The
Villanueva, Elmer V; Jones, Sandra; Nehill, Caroline; Favelle, Simone; Steel, David; Iverson, Donald; Zorbas, Helen
The Breast Health Surveys, conducted by the National Breast Cancer Centre (NBCC) in 1996 and 2003, are designed to gain insight into the knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of a nationally representative sample of Australian women on issues relevant to breast cancer. In this article, we focus on major aspects of the design and present results on respondents' knowledge about mammographic screening. The 2003 BHS surveyed English-speaking Australian women aged 30-69 without a history of breast cancer using computer-assisted telephone interviewing. Questions covered the following themes: knowledge and perceptions about incidence, mortality and risk; knowledge and behaviour regarding early detection, symptoms and diagnosis; mammographic screening; treatment; and accessibility and availability of information and services. Respondents were selected using a complex sample design involving stratification. Sample weights against Australian population benchmarks were used in all statistical analyses. Means and proportions for the entire population and by age group and area of residence were calculated. Statistical tests were conducted using a level of significance of 0.01. Of the 3,144 respondents who consented to being interviewed, 138 (4.4%) had a previous diagnosis of breast cancer and were excluded leaving 3,006 completed interviews eligible for analysis. A majority of respondents (61.1%) reported ever having had a mammogram and 29.1% identified mammography as being the best way of finding breast cancer. A majority of women (85.9%) had heard of the BreastScreen Australia (BSA) program, the national mammographic screening program providing free biennial screening mammograms, with 94.5% believing that BSA attendance was available regardless of the presence or absence of symptoms. There have been substantial gains in women's knowledge about mammographic screening over the seven years between the two surveys. The NBCC Breast Health Surveys provide a valuable picture of the
Kwok, Cannas; Koo, Fung Kuen
Using Confucian philosophy as a conceptual framework, this article examines the extent to which cultural values and language affect the participation preferences and experiences of the breast cancer treatment decision-making (TDM) process among Chinese women with breast cancer in Australia. Three focus groups were conducted with 23 Chinese-Australian women diagnosed with breast cancer in their native language (Mandarin and Cantonese). Each interview was translated and transcribed. Content analysis was used to uncover the major themes. Four typologies emerged: the patient as an active decision maker, the patient as a passive decision maker, the patient as a reluctant decision maker and the patient as a reluctant passive decision maker. Language barriers, cultural expectation of doctor's role and family role in Chinese culture appear as influential factors in TDM process among this group of women. Intervention to improve doctors' cultural sensitivities in order to help them assess women's role preferences in TDM and the ability of doctors to communicate in a culturally appropriate manner, may improve the process of breast cancer TDM among women from Chinese background.
Gould, Gillian S; Bovill, Michelle; Clarke, Marilyn J; Gruppetta, Maree; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Bonevski, Billie
One in two Indigenous Australian pregnant women smoke, yet little is known about their trajectory of smoking. This study aimed to explore Aboriginal women's narratives from starting smoking through to pregnancy. A female Aboriginal Researcher conducted individual face-to-face interviews with 20 Aboriginal women from New South Wales, Australia. Recruitment, through Aboriginal services and community networks, continued until saturation was reached. Audio-recorded transcripts were independently open coded by two researchers, inductively analysed and reported using a three-dimensional structure of looking backwards, forwards, inwards, outwards and a sense of place, to elucidate the chronology of events, life stages, characters, environments, and turning points of the stories. A chronology emerged from smoking initiation in childhood, coming of age, becoming pregnant, through to attempts at quitting, and relapse post-partum. Several new themes emerged: the role mothers play in women's smoking and quitting; the contribution of nausea to spontaneous quitting; depression as a barrier to quitting; and the hopes of women for their own and their children's future. The epiphany of pregnancy was a key turning point for many - including the interplay of successive pregnancies; and the intensity of expressed regret. Aboriginal women report multiple influences in the progression of early smoking to pregnancy and beyond. Potential opportunities to intervene include: a) childhood, coming of age, pregnancy, post-natal, in-between births; b) key influencers; c) environments, and d) targeting concurrent substance use. Morning sickness appears to be a natural deterrent to continued smoking. Depression, and its relationship to smoking and quitting in Australian Indigenous pregnant women, requires further research. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Latifnejad-Roudsari, Robab; Zakerihamidi, Maryam; Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan
Background: Data was reported in Iran in 2013 has shown that almost 42 percent of deliveries in public hospitals and 90 percent in private hospitals were carried out with cesarean section. This high rate of cesarean requires careful consideration. It seems that making decision for cesarean is done under the influence of cultural perceptions and beliefs. So, this study was conducted to explore pregnant women's preferences and perceptions regarding cesarean delivery. Materials and Methods: A focused ethnographic study was used. 12 pregnant women and 10 delivered women, seven midwives, seven gynecologist and nine non-pregnant women referred to the health clinics of Tonekabon, who selected purposively, were included in the study. To collect data semi-structured in-depth interviews and participant observation were used. Study rigor was confirmed through prolonged engagement, member check, expert debriefing, and thick description of the data. Data were analysed using thematic analysis and MAXQDA software. Results: Four themes emerged from the data including personal beliefs, fear of vaginal delivery, cultural norms and values and also social network. These concepts played main roles in how women develop meanings toward caesarean, which affected their perceptions and preferences in relation to caesarean delivery. Conclusion: Most of pregnant women believed that fear of vaginal delivery is a major factor to choose caesarean delivery. Hence, midwives and physicians could help them through improving the quality of prenatal care and giving them positive perception towards vaginal delivery through presenting useful information about the nature of different modes of delivery, and their advantages and disadvantages, as well as the alternative ways to control labor pain. PMID:25949249
Ohagwu, Cc; Eze, Cu; Eze, Jc; Odo, Mc; Abu, Po; Ohagwu, Ci
Male gender preference is a dominant feature of Igbo culture and could be the reason behind women seeking fetal gender at ultrasound. The aim of this study is to investigate the perception of prenatal ultrasound patients of male gender preference in a patriarchal and gender sensitive society. The study was a cross-sectional survey, which targeted pregnant women who presented for prenatal ultrasound at four selected hospitals in Anambra State. A convenience sample size of 790 pregnant women constituted the respondents. The data collection instrument was a 13-item semi-structured self-completion questionnaire designed in line with the purpose of the study. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were carried out with statistical significance being considered at P < 0.05. Most of the women (88.4%, 698/790) were aware that fetal gender can be determined during the prenatal ultrasound while just over half of them (61.0%, 482/790) wanted fetal gender disclosed to them during prenatal ultrasound. More than half (58.6%, 463/790) of the women desired to have male babies in their present pregnancies while 20.1% (159/790) desired female babies and 21.3% (168/790) did not care if the baby was male or female. Some of the women (22.2%, 175/790) wanted to have male babies in their present pregnancies for various reasons predominant of which was protecting their marriages and cementing their places in their husbands' hearts. Male gender preference was strongly perceived. There was considerable anxiety associated with prenatal gender determination and moderate loss of interest in the pregnancy associated with disclosure of undesired fetal gender. Socio-demographic factors had significant influence on perception of male gender preference. Male gender preference is strongly perceived among Igbo women and its perception is significantly influenced by socio-demographic factors. Male gender preference may be responsible for Igbo women seeking fetal gender at ultrasound.
Mikkelsen, Ellen M; Sunde, Lone; Johansen, Christoffer
-up study of 213 women who received genetic counseling for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer, 319 women who underwent mammography (Reference Group I), and a random sample of 1070 women from the general population (Reference Group II). RESULTS: Women who received genetic counseling decreased...... counseling, compared to a reduction of 5% (p=0.03) and 2% (p=0.01) in Reference Groups I and II, respectively. Risk communicated only in words, inaccurate risk perception at baseline, and presence of a familial mutation appeared to be predictors of inaccurate risk perception 12 months after counseling......BACKGROUND: We aimed to explore the impact of genetic counseling on perceived personal lifetime risk of breast cancer, the accuracy of risk perception, and possible predictors of inaccurate risk perception 1 year following counseling. METHODS: We conducted a population-based prospective follow...
Dawson, Angela J; Stasa, Helen; Roche, Michael A; Homer, Caroline S E; Duffield, Christine
This study aimed to reveal nurses' experiences and perceptions of turnover in Australian hospitals and identify strategies to improve retention, performance and job satisfaction. Nursing turnover is a serious issue that can compromise patient safety, increase health care costs and impact on staff morale. A qualitative design was used to analyze responses from 362 nurses collected from a national survey of nurses from medical and surgical nursing units across 3 Australian States/Territories. A qualitative design was used to analyze responses from 362 nurses collected from a national survey of nurses from medical and surgical nursing units across 3 Australian States/Territories. Key factors affecting nursing turnover were limited career opportunities; poor support; a lack of recognition; and negative staff attitudes. The nursing working environment is characterised by inappropriate skill-mix and inadequate patient-staff ratios; a lack of overseas qualified nurses with appropriate skills; low involvement in decision-making processes; and increased patient demands. These issues impacted upon heavy workloads and stress levels with nurses feeling undervalued and disempowered. Nurses described supportive strategies: improving performance appraisals, responsive preceptorship and flexible employment options. Nursing turnover is influenced by the experiences of nurses. Positive steps can be made towards improving workplace conditions and ensuring nurse retention. Improving performance management and work design are strategies that nurse managers could harness to reduce turnover.
Clark, Bronwyn Kay; Sugiyama, Takemi; Healy, Genevieve N; Salmon, Jo; Dunstan, David W; Shaw, Jonathan E; Zimmet, Paul Z; Owen, Neville
Sedentary behaviors, particularly television viewing (TV) time, are associated with adverse health outcomes in adults, independent of physical activity levels. These associations are stronger and more consistent for women than for men. Multivariate regression models examined the sociodemographic correlates of 2 categories of TV time (≥ 2 hours/day and ≥ 4 hours/day); in a large, population-based sample of Australian adults (4950 men, 6001 women; mean age 48.1 years, range 25-91) who participated in the 1999/2000 Australian Diabetes, Obesity, and Lifestyle (AusDiab) study. Some 46% of men and 40% of women watched ≥ 2 hours TV/day; 9% and 6% respectively watched ≥ 4 hours/day. For both men and women, ≥ 2 hours TV/day was associated with less than tertiary education, living outside of state capital cities, and having no paid employment. For women, mid and older age (45-64 and 65+) were also significant correlates of ≥ 2 hours TV/day. Similar patterns of association were observed in those viewing ≥ 4 hours/day. Prolonged TV time is associated with indices of social disadvantage and older age. These findings can inform the understanding of potential contextual influences and guide preventive initiatives.
Hollander, M.H.; Hastenberg, E. van; Dillen, J. van; Pampus, M.G. van; Miranda, E. de; Stramrood, C.A.I.
The purpose of this study is to explore and quantify perceptions and experiences of women with a traumatic childbirth experience in order to identify areas for prevention and to help midwives and obstetricians improve woman-centered care. A retrospective survey was conducted online among 2192 women
Abraham, S; Fraser, I; Gebski, V; Knight, C; Llewellyn-Jones, D; Mira, M; McNeil, D
The results of a survey of 1377 young Australian women aged 14 to 19 years, conducted to determine their attitudes, state of knowledge and practices with regard to menstruation, are presented. The young women, as a group, lacked sufficient information about menstruation, about the time of ovulation, about menstrual discharge, and about the use of tampons. A high proportion (80%) considered menstruation to be inconvenient or embarrassing. Certain measures aimed at remedial action are suggested.
Mirzaei, Ardalan; Carter, Stephen R; Chen, Jenny Yimin; Rittsteuer, Claudia; Schneider, Carl R
Recent changes within community pharmacy have seen a shift towards some pharmacies providing "value-added" services. However, providing high levels of service is resource intensive yet revenues from dispensing are declining. Of significance therefore, is how consumers perceive service quality (SQ). However, at present there are no validated and reliable instruments to measure consumers' perceptions of SQ in Australian community pharmacies. The aim of this study was to build a theory-grounded model of service quality (SQ) in community pharmacies and to create a valid survey instrument to measure consumers' perceptions of service quality. Stage 1 dealt with item generation using theory, prior research and qualitative interviews with pharmacy consumers. Selected items were then subjected to content validity and face validity. Stages 2 and 3 included psychometric testing among English-speaking adult consumers of Australian pharmacies. Exploratory factor analysis was used for item reduction and to explain the domains of SQ. In stage 1, item generation for SQ initially generated 113 items which were then refined, through content and face validity, down to 61 items. In stage 2, after subjecting the questionnaire to psychometric testing on the data from the first pharmacy (n = 374), the use of the primary dimensions of SQ was abandoned leaving 32 items representing 5 domains of SQ. In stage 3, the questionnaire was subject to further testing and item reduction in 3 other pharmacies (n = 320). SQ was best described using 23 items representing 6 domains: 'health and medicines advice', 'relationship quality', 'technical quality', 'environmental quality', 'non-prescription service', and 'health outcomes'. This research presents a theoretically-grounded and robust measurement scale developed for consumer perceptions of SQ in a community pharmacy. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Brownlow, Sheila; Smith, Tonya J.; Ellis, BeLinda R.
Examines whether women who pursue scientific training are viewed negatively by college students. Investigates n=114 (56 women, 58 men) participants judgments about a woman describing her major; speaker's traits, social behaviors, and her future potential. Indicates that both major and commitment level influenced perceptions of the speaker.…
Jan 30, 2012 ... The study examines the perception of rural women on bushmeat trade around Kainji Lake National Park ... eating the meat as a way of linking up with their ..... Religion. Christianity. 68. 56.7. Islam. 51. 42.5. Traditional. 1. 0.8.
Diaz, Abbey; Baade, Peter D; Valery, Patricia C; Whop, Lisa J; Moore, Suzanne P; Cunningham, Joan; Garvey, Gail; Brotherton, Julia M L; O'Connell, Dianne L; Canfell, Karen; Sarfati, Diana; Roder, David; Buckley, Elizabeth; Condon, John R
Little is known about the impact of comorbidity on cervical cancer survival in Australian women, including whether Indigenous women's higher prevalence of comorbidity contributes to their lower survival compared to non-Indigenous women. Data for cervical cancers diagnosed in 2003-2012 were extracted from six Australian state-based cancer registries and linked to hospital inpatient records to identify comorbidity diagnoses. Five-year cause-specific and all-cause survival probabilities were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Flexible parametric models were used to estimate excess cause-specific mortality by Charlson comorbidity index score (0,1,2+), for Indigenous women compared to non-Indigenous women. Of 4,467 women, Indigenous women (4.4%) compared to non-Indigenous women had more comorbidity at diagnosis (score ≥1: 24.2% vs. 10.0%) and lower five-year cause-specific survival (60.2% vs. 76.6%). Comorbidity was associated with increased cervical cancer mortality for non-Indigenous women, but there was no evidence of such a relationship for Indigenous women. There was an 18% reduction in the Indigenous: non-Indigenous hazard ratio (excess mortality) when comorbidity was included in the model, yet this reduction was not statistically significant. The excess mortality for Indigenous women was only evident among those without comorbidity (Indigenous: non-Indigenous HR 2.5, 95%CI 1.9-3.4), indicating that factors other than those measured in this study are contributing to the differential. In a subgroup of New South Wales women, comorbidity was associated with advanced-stage cancer, which in turn was associated with elevated cervical cancer mortality. Survival was lowest for women with comorbidity. However, there wasn't a clear comorbidity-survival gradient for Indigenous women. Further investigation of potential drivers of the cervical cancer survival differentials is warranted. The results highlight the need for cancer care guidelines and multidisciplinary
Full Text Available Little is known about the impact of comorbidity on cervical cancer survival in Australian women, including whether Indigenous women's higher prevalence of comorbidity contributes to their lower survival compared to non-Indigenous women.Data for cervical cancers diagnosed in 2003-2012 were extracted from six Australian state-based cancer registries and linked to hospital inpatient records to identify comorbidity diagnoses. Five-year cause-specific and all-cause survival probabilities were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Flexible parametric models were used to estimate excess cause-specific mortality by Charlson comorbidity index score (0,1,2+, for Indigenous women compared to non-Indigenous women.Of 4,467 women, Indigenous women (4.4% compared to non-Indigenous women had more comorbidity at diagnosis (score ≥1: 24.2% vs. 10.0% and lower five-year cause-specific survival (60.2% vs. 76.6%. Comorbidity was associated with increased cervical cancer mortality for non-Indigenous women, but there was no evidence of such a relationship for Indigenous women. There was an 18% reduction in the Indigenous: non-Indigenous hazard ratio (excess mortality when comorbidity was included in the model, yet this reduction was not statistically significant. The excess mortality for Indigenous women was only evident among those without comorbidity (Indigenous: non-Indigenous HR 2.5, 95%CI 1.9-3.4, indicating that factors other than those measured in this study are contributing to the differential. In a subgroup of New South Wales women, comorbidity was associated with advanced-stage cancer, which in turn was associated with elevated cervical cancer mortality.Survival was lowest for women with comorbidity. However, there wasn't a clear comorbidity-survival gradient for Indigenous women. Further investigation of potential drivers of the cervical cancer survival differentials is warranted.The results highlight the need for cancer care guidelines and
De Santis, Joseph P; Hauglum, Shayne D; Deleon, Diego A; Provencio-Vasquez, Elias; Rodriguez, Allan E
Transgender women experience a variety of factors that may contribute to HIV risk. The purpose of this study was to explore links among HIV risk perception, knowledge, and sexual risk behaviors of transgender women. A descriptive, correlational study design was used. Fifty transgender women from the South Florida area were enrolled in the study. Transgender women completed a demographic questionnaire and standardized instruments measuring HIV risk perception, knowledge, and sexual risk behaviors. Transgender women reported low levels of HIV risk perception, and had knowledge deficits regarding HIV risk/transmission. Some participants engaged in high-risk sexual behaviors. Predictors of sexual risk behaviors among transgender women were identified. More research is needed with a larger sample size to continue studying factors that contribute to sexual risk behaviors in the understudied population of transgender women. Evidence-based guidelines are available to assist public health nurses in providing care for transgender women. Nurses must assess HIV perception risk and HIV knowledge and provide relevant education to transgender women on ways to minimize sexual risk. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
In a study designed to document empirically perceptions about women managers' communication skills and training needs, 101 managers (53 females and 48 males) responded to two open-ended questions: (1) From your observation and experience, what specific communication skills do women possess that might help promote their managerial effectiveness?…
Bookari, Khlood; Yeatman, Heather; Williamson, Moira
Maternal diets are not consistent with dietary guidance and this may affect the health of mothers and their infants. Nutrition knowledge and motivation may be important factors. To assess pregnant women's diets in relation to consistency with the Australian Guidelines for Healthy Eating (AGHE); factors influencing women's adherence to the recommendations; and women's attitudes towards pregnancy-specific nutrition information. A cross-sectional study using convenience sampling was undertaken at five hospitals in New South Wales (Australia) and through an online link (October 2012 to July 2013). N=388 pregnant women completed the survey. Categorical data were analysed using Chi square and logistic regression with significance set at Ptrying to do so and that knowing about nutrition in pregnancy was highly important. Reported dietary intakes were poor. No pregnant women met the recommended intakes for all five food groups. Poor knowledge of these recommendations was evident. Knowledge of selected recommendations (for Fruit, Vegetables, and Breads and Cereals) increased the likelihood of those foods' consumption 8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.3-27.7), 9.1 (95% CI, 2.6-31.3) and 6.8 (95% CI, 3.4-13.7) times respectively. Pregnant women had high levels of motivation and confidence in their ability to achieve a healthy diet and understand dietary recommendations, but actually demonstrated poor knowledge and poor adherence to guidelines. Mistaken or false beliefs may be a barrier to effective nutrition education strategies. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fallon, K M
In exploring the status of women in the developing world, most research emphasizes the impact of development indicators, like income or health, on women. This article goes beyond development indicators by discussing women's own perceptions of social status and power in rural Larteh, Ghana. It focuses primarily on the effects of gender and education on perception of social status and power. Section 1 offers a brief overview of the history of Ghana, reflecting the current position of women in the country. Definitions of social status and power within an African context are presented in section 2. Section 3 examines 24 interviews collected in Ghana, which asks respondents to discuss their own social status and power in relation to their community. In general, the results indicate that a woman's perception of increased social status and power is dependent on education and occupation. Other factors affecting perceptions of social status and power are wealth and culturally embedded positions held within the community, including elder, chief, and priestess.
Thorup, Charlotte Brun; Laursen, Birgitte Schantz
affect women's perception of quality of life and psychosocial state.In Denmark, no previous studies have focused on perception of body image and sexuality in the acute phase after mastectomy. Furthermore, no study addresses the influence of perceived body image and sexuality on the decision to have...... to provide better quality nursing care to women treated with mastectomy and reconstruction. Results: It is expected that interviews, analysis and interpretation will be conducted in 2010.The results are expected to be edited and published in the beginning of 2011....
Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick P. H.
The present study examined meta-perceptions of attractiveness among women. More specifically, ratings were collected about how women thought their partner, family and friends, and strangers would view their physical attractiveness. In an online survey, 1287 Dutch women (aged 19-80 years) answered
Khajehei, Marjan; Doherty, Maryanne; Tilley, P J Matt; Sauer, Kay
Female sexual dysfunction is highly prevalent and reportedly has adverse impacts on quality of life. Although it is prevalent after childbirth, women rarely seek advice or treatment from health care professionals. The aim of this study was to assess the sexual functioning of Australian women during the first year after childbirth. Postpartum women who had given birth during the previous 12 months were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study. A multidimensional online questionnaire was designed for this study. This questionnaire included a background section, the Female Sexual Function Index, the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8), and the Relationship Assessment Scale. Responses from 325 women were analyzed. Almost two-thirds of women (64.3%) reported that they had experienced sexual dysfunction during the first year after childbirth, and almost three-quarters reported they experienced sexual dissatisfaction (70.5 %). The most prevalent types of sexual dysfunction reported by the affected women were sexual desire disorder (81.2%), orgasmic problems (53.5%), and sexual arousal disorder (52.3%). The following were significant risk factors for sexual dysfunction: fortnightly or less frequent sexual activity, not being the initiator of sexual activity with a partner, late resumption of postnatal sexual activity (at 9 or more weeks), the first 5 months after childbirth, primiparity, depression, and relationship dissatisfaction. Sexual satisfaction is important for maintaining quality of life for postpartum women. Health care providers and postpartum women need to be encouraged to include sexual problems in their discussions. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Powers, Jennifer R; Dobson, Annette J; Berry, Helen L; Graves, Anna M; Hanigan, Ivan C; Loxton, Deborah
To evaluate the impact of drought on the mental health of rural Australian women and those in vulnerable sub-populations: women who were more isolated, poorer and less educated; and women who had histories of chronic disease or poor mental health. Surveys were mailed in 1996, 1998, 2001, 2004 and 2008 to 6,664 women born between 1946 and1951 who were participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. The surveys included the Mental Health Index of the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 (MHI). Drought was assessed by linking the latitude and longitude of women's place of residence at each survey to the Hutchinson Drought Index. Associations between MHI and drought were assessed using linear mixed-models. While 31% of the women experienced drought in 1998 and 50% experienced drought in 2007; experience of droughts was less common in the other years. Although drought varied from survey year to survey year, mental health did not vary with drought conditions for rural women or vulnerable sub-populations. These findings are contrary to the long-held assumption that droughts increase mental health problems in Australia. While similar results may not be true for men, empirical evidence (rather than assumptions) is required on associations between drought and mental health. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.
Mishra, Gita Devi; Hockey, Richard; Powers, Jennifer; Loxton, Deborah; Tooth, Leigh; Rowlands, Ingrid; Byles, Julie; Dobson, Annette
Faced with the challenge of recruiting young adults for health studies, researchers have increasingly turned to the Internet and social networking sites, such as Facebook, as part of their recruitment strategy. As yet, few large-scale studies are available that report on the characteristics and representativeness of the sample obtained from such recruitment methods. The intent of the study was to describe the sociodemographic and health characteristics of a national sample of young Australian women recruited mainly through the Internet and social networking sites and to discuss the representativeness of their sociodemographic, health, and lifestyle characteristics relative to the population. A cohort of 17,069 women (born between 1989 and 1995) was recruited in 2012-13 for the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. Sociodemographic characteristics (percentages, means, and 95% confidence intervals) from the online survey data were compared with women aged 18-23 years from the 2011 Australian Census. Sample data were compared by age and education level with data from the 2011-13 Australian Health Survey (AHS). Compared to the Australian Census data, study participants were broadly representative in terms of geographical distribution across Australia, marital status (95.62%, 16,321/17,069) were never married), and age distribution. A higher percentage had attained university (22.52%, 3844/17,069) and trade/certificate/diploma qualifications (25.94%, 4428/17,069) compared with this age group of women in the national population (9.4% and 21.7% respectively). Among study participants, 22.05% (3721/16,877) were not in paid employment with 35.18% (5931/16,857) studying 16 or more hours a week. A higher percentage of study participants rated their health in the online survey as fair or poor (rather than good, very good, or excellent) compared with those participating in face-to-face interviews in the AHS (18.77%, 3203/17,069 vs 10.1%). A higher percentage of study
Khodayarian, Mahsa; Mazloomi-Mahmoodabad, Seyed Saied; Lamyian, Minoor; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Tavangar, Hossein
Mammography as the most common secondary prevention method has known to be helpful in detecting breast cancer at the early stages. Low level of participation among women toward mammography uptake due to cultural beliefs is a great concern. This study aimed at exploring the perceptions of women about response costs of mammography adherence (MA) in Yazd, Iran. A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was performed. Fourteen women,one oncology nurse, and a breast cancer survivor were purposefully interviewed. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed by directed content analysis method based on protection motivation theory (PMT). One main theme was emerged from the analysis namely called "response costs".Two main categories were also emerged from the data; (1) psychological barriers with six subcategories including "embarrassment," "worry about being diagnosed with cancer," "preoccupation with underlying disease," "misconception about mammography," "need for an accompanying person," and "internalizing the experiences of the others," and (2) maladaptive coping modes which encompassed three subcategories: "religious faith," "fatalism," and"avoidance and denial." Useful information was provided about the response costs of mammography utilization based on the perceptions of women. Cognitive barriers may be decreased by conducting modifications in women's awareness and attitude toward MA as well as changing the national health system infrastructures. Incorporating religious and cultural belief systems into MA educational programs through motivational messages is recommended.
Harvey, Desley J
Although Australian rural women appear to be coping well despite a lack of services, harsh environmental conditions and overall rural health disadvantage, there is little research into the factors which promote good health among them. The aim of this article is to document and analyse current understandings about how rural Australian women maintain health and wellbeing, by conducting a metasynthesis of peer reviewed empirical qualitative research. Searches were conducted of CINAHL, MEDLINE, Proquest, Blackwell Synergy, Informit, Infotrac, National Rural Health Alliance and Indigenous Health Infonet data bases. A definition of health and wellbeing as a positive concept emphasising social and personal resources as well as physical capacities, provided a framework for the review. Six studies published in rural health, nursing and sociology journals between 2001 and 2006 were selected. Common and recurring themes from the original studies were identified. Reciprocal translation was used to synthesise the findings among the studies, leading to interpretations beyond those identified in the original studies. Four themes emerged from the metasynthesis: isolation, belonging, coping with adversity, and rural identity. The findings of this study exhibit a tension between a sense of belonging and the experience of social and geographical isolation. The study findings also reveal tension between adherence to a strong gendered rural identity which fosters a culture of stoicism and self reliance and feelings of resistance to societal expectations of coping with adversity. Metasynthesis enabled a deeper understanding of the health and wellbeing of rural women in Australia. The social experiences of rural women influence the way they construe their health and wellbeing. Understanding how women maintain health and wellbeing is critical in ensuring that policies and services meet the needs of rural women and do not entrench existing inequalities.
Mendias, E P; Clark, M C; Guevara, E B
Mexican American women experience unique health care needs related to integration of Mexican and American cultures. To learn how to better promote self-care practices and service utilization in women of Mexican origin living in Texas, researchers used a qualitative approach to interview a convenience sample of 11 low-income women attending a health clinic. Researchers collected narrative data about the women's perceptions of health, wellness, and self-care. Using the matrix approach described by Miles and Huberman, we organized findings around women's roles, including participants' descriptions of themselves, their health and wellness awareness, self-care practices for health/illness and wellness/nonwellness, barriers to self-care, origin of self-care practices, and perceptions of life control. Implications for health planning and service delivery are presented.
Chopra, Ishveen; Chopra, Avijeet
The social and economic burden of diabetes is large and growing. Diabetes is a significant public health issue in the Appalachian region; women constitute approximately 50% of those diagnosed with diabetes. This cross-sectional study examined the relationship among sociodemographic, anthropometric, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors (cognitive and affective representations) and perceived risk of diabetes in non-diabetic, non-elderly (21-50 years) Appalachian women residing in West Virginia (N = 202). Participants were recruited through social media, flyers, and a newsletter from the West Virginia University Extension. The final survey was conducted from March 2015 to June 2015. Bivariate analyses were used to examine unadjusted relations among sociodemographic, anthropometric, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors and comparative perceived risk of diabetes. In a multivariable logistic regression model, we found that younger age, higher body mass index, non-White race, greater diabetes knowledge, personal control, and moderate amounts of physical activity were significantly, positively associated with higher diabetes risk perception (p related to diabetes risk perception among Appalachian women. Understanding perceived diabetes-related risk may aid in the development of effective intervention strategies to reduce the burden of diabetes among Appalachian and other populations. These cross-sectional findings need further evaluation in longitudinal studies.
Quirk, Shae E; Berk, Michael; Pasco, Julie A; Brennan-Olsen, Sharon L; Chanen, Andrew M; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Burke, Lisa M; Jackson, Henry J; Hulbert, Carol; A Olsson, Craig; Moran, Paul; Stuart, Amanda L; Williams, Lana J
We aimed to describe the prevalence and age distribution of personality disorders and their comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders in an age-stratified sample of Australian women aged ⩾25 years. Individual personality disorders (paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal, histrionic, narcissistic, borderline, antisocial, avoidant, dependent, obsessive-compulsive), lifetime mood, anxiety, eating and substance misuse disorders were diagnosed utilising validated semi-structured clinical interviews (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders, Research Version, Non-patient Edition and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders). The prevalence of personality disorders and Clusters were determined from the study population ( n = 768), and standardised to the Australian population using the 2011 Australian Bureau of Statistics census data. Prevalence by age and the association with mood, anxiety, eating and substance misuse disorders was also examined. The overall prevalence of personality disorders in women was 21.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 18.7, 24.9). Cluster C personality disorders (17.5%, 95% CI: 16.0, 18.9) were more common than Cluster A (5.3%, 95% CI: 3.5, 7.0) and Cluster B personality disorders (3.2%, 95% CI: 1.8, 4.6). Of the individual personality disorders, obsessive-compulsive (10.3%, 95% CI: 8.0, 12.6), avoidant (9.3%, 95% CI: 7.1, 11.5), paranoid (3.9%, 95% CI: 3.1, 4.7) and borderline (2.7%, 95% CI: 1.4, 4.0) were among the most prevalent. The prevalence of other personality disorders was low (⩽1.7%). Being younger (25-34 years) was predictive of having any personality disorder (odds ratio: 2.36, 95% CI: 1.18, 4.74), as was being middle-aged (odds ratio: 2.41, 95% CI: 1.23, 4.72). Among the strongest predictors of having any personality disorder was having a lifetime history of psychiatric disorders (odds ratio: 4.29, 95% CI: 2.90, 6.33). Mood and anxiety disorders were the most common comorbid
Endarti, Dwi; Satibi, Satibi; Kristina, Susi Ari; Farida, Muhaya Almira; Rahmawanti, Yuni; Andriani, Tika
Objective: To determine knowledge, perception, and acceptance related to cervical cancer, HPV vaccination and screening for cervical cancer among Indonesian women, particularly in Yogyakarta province. Methods: A convenience sample of 392 women consists of 192 young women, 100 mothers of girls aged 12 – 15 years, and 100 adult women in Yogyakarta province, Indonesia was participated in this study. A self-administered paper-based questionnaire was used to determine demographics characteristics of respondents, as well as their knowledge – perception – acceptance related to cervical cancer, HPV vaccination, and screening for cervical cancer. Data collection were conducted during December 2013 to March 2014. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze description of demographics characteristics, knowledge, perception, and acceptance; while crosstab analysis using Chi-Square was used to analyze the relationship between demographics characteristics versus knowledge, perception, and acceptance. Results: This study found that knowledge and perception regarding cervical cancer, HPV vaccination, and screening for cervical cancer among women in Indonesia, particularly in Yogyakarta Province were still insufficient, however the acceptance was good. Among female young women, 64% had good knowledge, 62% had positive perception of cervical cancer and HPV vaccination, and 92% tended to accept HPV vaccination. Among mothers of girls aged 12 – 15 years, 44% had good knowledge, 46% had positive perception of cervical cancer and HPV vaccination, and 91% tended to accept HPV vaccination for their daughters. Among adult women, 68% had good knowledge, 57% had positive perception of cervical cancer and screening for cervical cancer, and 90% tended to accept cervical cancer screening. In general, demographics characteristics of having experience and exposure to information had significant relationship with knowledge, perception, and acceptance of HPV vaccination and screening for
This paper examines the reworking of gender in the measured university and the impact this has on gender equality in academia. Neoliberal market rationalities and measurements embedded in academic publishing, funding and promotion have transformed Australian higher education and impacts upon the careers of academic women in ways that are gendered.…
Dowd, Karen; Taylor, Melanie; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L; Hooker, Claire; Dhand, Navneet K
This study was conducted to determine the perceptions of zoonotic disease risk among Australian veterinarians, the infection control practices they use to protect themselves from zoonotic diseases, and the factors influencing their use of these protective practices. A questionnaire was designed and piloted prior to its administration to veterinarians at the annual Australian Veterinary Association Conference in May 2011. The questionnaire comprised 21 closed, semi-closed and open questions. Data from the questionnaire were analyzed using ordinal logistic regression analyses to determine significant factors for veterinarians' use of personal protective equipment (PPE). A total of 344 veterinarians completed the questionnaire of which 63.7% were women, 63.2% worked in small/companion animal practice, and 79.9% worked in private veterinary practice. Of the respondents, 44.9% reported contracting a zoonosis during their careers with 19.7% reporting a suspected case and 25.2% reporting a confirmed incidence. Around 40-60% of veterinarians perceived exposure to zoonosis likely or very likely in a variety of situations. With reference to current national industry guidelines, the reported use of PPE was less than "adequate" for most scenarios except for performing postmortems, surgery or dental procedures. No PPE was used by 60-70% of veterinarians for treating respiratory and neurological cases and by 40-50% when treating gastrointestinal and dermatological cases. Workplace conditions need improvement as 34.8% of workplaces did not have isolation units for infected animals, 21.1% did not have separate eating areas for staff, and 57.1% did not have complete PPE kits for use. Veterinarians were more likely to use PPE if they had undertaken postgraduate education, perceived that zoonosis exposure from animals and procedures was likely, consciously considered PPE use for every case they dealt with and believed that liability issues and risks encouraged use of PPE. In contrast
Objective: This study assessed the perception of risk of cervical cancer and existence of risk factors for cervical cancer based on five known risk factors among women attending the Tamale Teaching Hospital in Tamale, Ghana. Methods: A consecutive sample of 300 women was interviewed using a semi structured ...
Marie, Cécile; Cabut, Sophie; Vendittelli, Françoise; Sauvant-Rochat, Marie-Pierre
Cosmetic products contain various chemical substances that may be potential carcinogen and endocrine disruptors. Women's changes in cosmetics use during pregnancy and their risk perception of these products have not been extensively investigated. The main objective of this study was to describe the proportion of pregnant women changing cosmetics use and the proportion of non-pregnant women intending to do so if they became pregnant. The secondary objectives were to compare, among the pregnant women, the proportions of those using cosmetics before and during pregnancy, and to describe among pregnant and non-pregnant women, the risk perception of these products. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a gynaecology clinic and four community pharmacies. One hundred and twenty-eight women (60 non-pregnant and 68 pregnant women) replied to a self-administered questionnaire. Cosmetics use was identified for 28 products. The results showed that few women intended to change or had changed cosmetics use during pregnancy. Nail polish was used by fewer pregnant women compared to the period before pregnancy (p risk during pregnancy and 65% would have appreciated advice about these products. Our findings indicate that all perinatal health professionals should be ready to advise women about the benefits and risks of using cosmetics during pregnancy.
Harris, Melissa L; Loxton, Deborah; Wigginton, Britta; Lucke, Jayne C
Recruitment of young people for epidemiologic research remains challenging, with marked decreases in the effectiveness of face-to-face, mail, and telephone recruitment methods. We report on the implementation and feasibility of an innovative and flexible approach used to recruit participants for a longitudinal cohort study about contraceptive use and pregnancy (the Contraceptive Use, Pregnancy Intention, and Decisions (CUPID) Study). Australian women aged 18-23 years were recruited using a range of online, networking, and offline methods, including social media (primarily Facebook (Facebook Inc., Menlo Park, California; http://www.facebook.com)), face-to-face events, distribution of promotional material, and media releases. Over the course of the 1-year recruitment period (beginning in September 2012), a total of 3,795 eligible women were recruited to complete the online survey, at a cost of approximately A$11 per participant. This sample was found to be broadly representative of the Australian population of women aged 18-23 years in terms of demographic characteristics, with the exception of an overrepresentation of tertiary-educated women (88.7% compared with 72.6%). This study demonstrated that although current recruitment strategies are required to be innovative and flexible in order to engage young people in epidemiologic research, representative samples can be achieved online at reasonable cost. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Hammond, Matthew D; Overall, Nickola C; Cross, Emily J
The current research demonstrated that women's adoption of benevolent sexism is influenced by their perceptions of their intimate partners' agreement with benevolent sexism. In 2 dyadic longitudinal studies, committed heterosexual couples reported on their own sexism and perceptions of their partner's sexism twice across 9 months (Study 1) and 5 times across 1 year (Study 2). Women who perceived that their male partner more strongly endorsed benevolent sexism held greater and more stable benevolent sexism across time, whereas lower perceptions of partners' benevolent sexism predicted declines in women's benevolent sexism across time. Changes in men's endorsement of sexism were unrelated to perceptions of their partner's sexist attitudes. The naturalistic change in sexist attitudes shown in Studies 1 and 2 was supported by experimental evidence in Studies 3 and 4: Manipulations designed to increase perceptions of partner's benevolent sexism led women (but not men) to report greater benevolent sexism. Studies 3 and 4 also provided evidence that perceptions of partner's benevolent sexism fosters perceived regard and relationship security in women, but not men, and these relationship factors enhance attitude alignment. Discriminant analyses demonstrated that these effects were specific to women's perceptions of partner's, rather than societal, levels of sexism. In sum, these studies illustrate that women endorse benevolent sexism when they perceive that the reverence and security that benevolent sexism promises women are accessible in their relationships. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Clark, Kim; Beatty, Shelley; Reibel, Tracy
Achieving maternity-care outcomes that align with women's needs, preferences and expectations is important but theoretically driven measures of women's satisfaction with their entire maternity-care experience do not appear to exist. The purpose of this paper is to outline the development of an instrument to assess women's perception of their entire maternity-care experience. A questionnaire was developed on the basis of previous research and informed by a framework of standard service quality categories covering the spectrum of typical consumer concerns. A pilot survey with a sample of 195 women who had recent experience of birth was undertaken to establish valid and reliable scales pertaining to different stages of maternity care. Exploratory factor analysis was used to interpret scales and convergent validity was assessed using a modified version of the Client Satisfaction Questionnaire. Nine theoretically informed, reliable and valid stand-alone scales measuring the achievement of different dimensions of women's expectancies of public maternity care were developed. The study scales are intended for use in identifying some potential areas of focus for quality improvement in the delivery of maternity care. Reliable and valid tools for monitoring the extent to which services respond to women's expectations of their entire maternity care form part of the broader toolkit required to adequately manage health-care quality. This study offers guidance on the make-up of such tools. The scales produced from this research offer a means to assess maternity care across the full continuum of care and are brief and easy to use.
Audience Perception of the Portrayal of Women in Television Advertising. ... AFRREV LALIGENS: An International Journal of Language, Literature and Gender ... The survey research design was adopted, employing the questionnaire as an ...
Akin-Little, K. Angeleque; Bray, Melissa A.; Eckert, Tanya L.; Kehle, Thomas J.
There is a paucity of research examining the experiences and perceptions of women employed as school psychology academicians. The purpose of this investigation was to ascertain female school psychology academicians' perceptions of their respective academic climates, levels of support, incidences of harassment, and levels of stress. Comparisons…
Dixon, Suzanne C; Herbert, Danielle L; Loxton, Deborah; Lucke, Jayne C
A comprehensive life course perspective of women's experiences in obtaining and using contraception in Australia is lacking. This paper explores free-text comments about contraception provided by women born between 1973 and 1978 who participated in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH). The ALSWH is a national population-based cohort study involving over 40,000 women from three age groups, who are surveyed every three years. An initial search identified 1600 comments from 690 women across five surveys from 1996 (when they were aged 18-23 years) to 2009 (31-36 years). The analysis included 305 comments from 289 participants. Factors relating to experiences of barriers to access and optimal contraceptive use were identified and explored using thematic analysis. Five themes recurred across the five surveys as women aged: (i) side effects affecting physical and mental health; (ii) lack of information about contraception; (iii) negative experiences with health services; (iv) contraceptive failure; and (v) difficulty with accessing contraception. Side effects of hormonal contraception and concerns about contraceptive failure influence women's mental and physical health. Many barriers to effective contraception persist throughout women's reproductive lives. Further research is needed into reducing barriers and minimising negative experiences, to ensure optimal contraceptive access for Australian women.
Seib, Charrlotte; Whiteside, Eliza; Humphreys, Janice; Lee, Kathryn; Thomas, Patrick; Chopin, Lisa; Crisp, Gabrielle; O'Keeffe, Angela; Kimlin, Michael; Stacey, Andrew; Anderson, Debra
Despite advancements in our understanding of the importance of stress reduction in achieving good health, we still only have limited insight into the impact of stress on cellular function. Recent studies have suggested that exposure to prolonged psychological stress may alter an individual's physiological responses, and contribute to morbidity and mortality. This paper presents an overview of the study protocol we are using to examine the impact of life stressors on lifestyle factors, health-related quality of life and novel and established biomarkers of stress in midlife and older Australian women.The primary aim of this study is to explore the links between chronic psychological stress on both subjective and objective health markers in midlife and older Australian women. The study examines the extent to which exposure frightening, upsetting or stressful events such as natural disasters, illness or death of a relative, miscarriage and relationship conflict is correlated with a variety of objective and subjective health markers. This study is embedded within the longitudinal Healthy Aging of Women's study which has collected data from midlife and older Australian women at 5 yearly intervals since 2001, and uses the Allostastic model of women's health by Groër and colleagues in 2010. The current study expands the focus of the HOW study and will assess the impact of life stressors on quality of life and clinical biomarkers in midlife and older Australian women to explain the impact of chronic psychological stress in women. The proposed study hypothesizes that women are at increased risk of exposure to multiple or repeated stressors, some being unique to women, and the frequency and chronicity of stressors increases women's risk of adverse health outcomes. This study aims to further our understanding of the relationships between stressful life experiences, perceived quality of life, stress biomarkers, chronic illness, and health status in women.
Assessment of working women's perception and pursuit of recreation. ... Africa, to participate in two focus group interviews at the workplace of the respondents. ... Three underlying themes, namely barriers, benefits, and attitude and pursuits ...
Hauck, Yvonne L; Summers, Lisa; White, Ellie; Jones, Cheryl
There is limited evidence on the use of the Snoezelen concept for maternity clients. Snoezelen, a Dutch concept, initiated in the 1970s as a leisure activity for severely disabled people, involves creating an indoor environment using controllable stimuli to enhance comfort and relaxation. These specially designed rooms expose the user to multiple sensory stimulations combining vision, touch, sounds and aromas. The aim of this study was to provide insight into breastfeeding women's experience of using a Snoezelen room during hospitalisation. A qualitative exploratory design was chosen to reveal women's perceptions of using the Snoezelen room. Osborne Park Hospital, the study setting is the second largest public provider of obstetric services in Western Australia. A purposive sample was drawn from breastfeeding women who used the Snoezelen room during their postpartum stay from March 2006 to March 2007. Saturation was achieved after eleven breastfeeding women were interviewed six weeks post discharge. Data analysis involved the constant comparison method. Participants entered the room feeling tired and emotional with an unsettled baby and breastfeeding issues aggravated by maternal stress and anxiety. All women indicated they were able to achieve relaxation while in the room and would recommend its use to other breastfeeding mothers. Two key themes revealed how the Snoezelen room facilitated maternal relaxation, which ultimately enhanced the breastfeeding experience. The first theme, "Finding Relaxation for the Breastfeeding Mother" incorporates three subthemes: 'Time out' for mother; Control in own personal space; and a Quiet/calm environment with homelike atmosphere. The second theme, "Enabling Focus on Breastfeeding", occurred after relaxation was achieved and involved four subthemes: Able to get one-on-one attention; Not physically exposed to others; Away from prying, judgemental eyes and Able to safely attempt breastfeeding alone knowing help is nearby. Insight
Marie, Cécile; Cabut, Sophie; Vendittelli, Françoise; Sauvant-Rochat, Marie-Pierre
Cosmetic products contain various chemical substances that may be potential carcinogen and endocrine disruptors. Women’s changes in cosmetics use during pregnancy and their risk perception of these products have not been extensively investigated. The main objective of this study was to describe the proportion of pregnant women changing cosmetics use and the proportion of non-pregnant women intending to do so if they became pregnant. The secondary objectives were to compare, among the pregnant women, the proportions of those using cosmetics before and during pregnancy, and to describe among pregnant and non-pregnant women, the risk perception of these products. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a gynaecology clinic and four community pharmacies. One hundred and twenty-eight women (60 non-pregnant and 68 pregnant women) replied to a self-administered questionnaire. Cosmetics use was identified for 28 products. The results showed that few women intended to change or had changed cosmetics use during pregnancy. Nail polish was used by fewer pregnant women compared to the period before pregnancy (p women considered cosmetics use as a risk during pregnancy and 65% would have appreciated advice about these products. Our findings indicate that all perinatal health professionals should be ready to advise women about the benefits and risks of using cosmetics during pregnancy. PMID:27043593
Milton, Marion J.
Investigates various influences and reasons why non-English-speaking women working in a small goods factory in Australia chose not to participate in workplace literacy courses. Presents perceptions of the nonparticipants, the course provider, the teacher, the personnel manager, and the researcher. Discusses barriers, motivation, networks and power…
Full Text Available Background: There is a growing concern that medical education does not prepare the future health professional to effectively deal with violence against women. Against this background, the present study was undertaken. Aims: To elicit perception of violence against women among medical and nursing students, and study the association of these perceptions with certain demographic and social variables. Settings and Design: The study was conducted among students of a Medical College and a Nursing College both located at Pune, India. A cross-sectional descriptive study design was used to elicit the perceptions of the study subjects toward violence against women. Materials and Methods: A random sample of 125 medical and 125 nursing students was selected. Both quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection were employed. Qualitative data collection was done by focus group discussions with key persons such as dean and faculty of medical and nursing colleges. The syllabi of medical and nursing colleges were also reviewed for any topic related to domestic violence. Statistical analysis: The WHO/CDC Statistical and Epidemiology Software Package was used for data entry and statistical analysis. Various associations were explored by nonparametric tests (Mann-Whitney for ordinal data and by Chi-square and ODDS ratio (with 95% confidence intervals, for categorical data. Results: Overall 35.6% (95% CI 29.1%-42.6% of the study participants had witnessed/were aware of violence against women among their family/acquaintances. This awareness was significantly more among female respondents (OR=2.65, 95% CI 1.37-5.16, Chi Sq=9.81, df=1, P=0.001. Other socioeconomic variables such as urban/rural background, education, and income were not associated with perception about family violence. Majority (>80% agreed/strongly agreed that social agencies should do more to help battered women. Course content on violence against women was lacking in both medical and nursing
Hadjigeorgiou, Eleni; Kouta, Christiana; Papastavrou, Evridiki; Papadopoulos, Irena; Mårtensson, Lena B
to provide a critical synthesis of published research concerning women's experiences in choosing where to give birth. an integrative literature review was conducted using three databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL and Ovid) for 1997-2009. Inclusion criteria were: (1) publication in the English language; (2) research article; (3) focus on women's perceptions for their birthplace choices; and (4) data collected during pregnancy, at birth and post partum. twenty-one research-based papers met the inclusion criteria, and these used a range of approaches and methods. Four themes were derived from the data: choice of birthplace and medicalisation of childbirth; the midwifery model of care and the rhetoric of birthplace choices; perceptions of safety shaped women's preferences; and choice is related to women's autonomy. there is considerable evidence that women worldwide wish to be able to exercise their rights and make informed choices about where to give birth. The medical model remains a strong and powerful influence on women's decisions in many countries. The midwifery model offers birthplace choices to women, while policies and culture in some countries affect midwifery practise. Perceptions of safety shaped women's preferences, and women's autonomy facilitated birthplace choices. these findings can be seen as a challenge for health professionals and policy makers to improve perinatal care based on women's needs. Local research is advisable due to cultural and health system differences. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wallace, Michelle; Marchant, Teresa
Women make up 65 per cent of the staff in Australian universities who do not perform academic work. While there is a growing body of research on women in senior management and the experiences of female academics in Australian universities, there is less literature on women working in the administrative stream, especially those in middle…
Zhu, Jiemin; Ebert, Lyn; Guo, Dongmei; Yang, Sumei; Han, Qiuying; Chan, Sally Wai-Chi
Women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy experience difficulty in accessing adequate cancer care in China. Mobile apps have the potential to provide easily accessible support for these women. However, there remains a paucity of randomized controlled trials to evaluate the effectiveness of app-based programs targeting specifically women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy. Moreover, women's perceptions and experiences related to using and interacting within the app-based program have rarely been reported. Therefore, an app-based Breast Cancer e-Support program was developed and evaluated using a randomized controlled trial. Based on the incorporation of Bandura's self-efficacy and social exchange theory, Breast Cancer e-Support program lasted for 12 weeks covering 4 cycles of chemotherapy and had 4 components: (1) a Learning forum, (2) a Discussion forum, (3) an Ask-the-Expert forum, and (4) a Personal Stories forum. As a part of the randomized controlled trial, the aim of this study was to explore the participants' perception of Breast Cancer e-Support program, its strengths and weaknesses, and suggestions to improve the program. A descriptive qualitative study was employed. Thirteen women with breast cancer from 2 university-affiliated hospitals in China, who were randomly allocated to the Breast Cancer e-Support program in the randomized controlled trial, were interviewed from November 2016 to February 2017. Purposive sampling was used based on women's scores of self-efficacy after the completion of the intervention. Inductive content analysis was used to analyze the transcripts, allowing the categories and subcategories to flow from the data. The qualitative interviews revealed that participants perceived the Breast Cancer e-Support program to be helpful in enhancing knowledge, improving confidence level, and promoting emotional well-being. Women also identified access to tailored advice from experts and convenience as the benefits of this program
Jalana N. Lazar
Full Text Available Background. This pilot study explored health care providers’ perceptions of barriers to providing health care services to Somali refugee women. The specific aim was to obtain information about providers’ experiences, training, practices and attitudes surrounding the prenatal care, delivery, and management of women with Female Genital Cutting (FGC. Methods. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 obstetricians/gynecologists and nurse midwives in Columbus, Ohio. Results. While providers did not perceive FGC as a significant barrier in itself, they noted considerable challenges in communicating with their Somali patients and the lack of formal training or protocols guiding the management of circumcised women. Providers expressed frustration with what they perceived as Somali patients' resistance to obstetrical interventions and disappointment with a perception of mistrust from patients and their families. Conclusion. Improving the clinical encounter for both patients and providers entails establishing effective dialogue, enhancing clinical and cultural training of providers, improving health literacy, and developing trust through community engagement.
Chung, ChaeWeon; Lee, Suk Jeong
To determine women's perceived personal and comparative risks of breast cancer, and to examine the relationships with risk factors. Despite the increasing incidence of breast cancer in younger women and the availability of screening, women's health behaviors have not advanced accordingly. A cross-sectional survey design utilized a convenience sample of 222 women in their 30s and 40s recruited from community settings in Seoul. Self-administered questionnaire data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, the chi-squared test, and ANOVA. Risk perception levels differed significantly by breast cancer risk factors. Half of the women were optimistic about their breast cancer risk, while perceived personal risk did not reflect women's own risk factors and comparative risk differed only by the practice of clinical breast exam. Women's knowledge and awareness of their breast cancer risk factors need to be improved for appropriate risk perception and health behaviors, and accurate risk estimation could be utilized to educate them in clinical settings. © 2013.
Wilkes, L; Withnall, J; Harris, R; White, K; Beale, B; Hobson, J; Durham, M; Kristjanson, L
Sixty articles in five Australian women's magazines were analyzed for journalistic qualities, metaphors, narrative features and accuracy of clinical facts related to risk, early detection and treatment of breast cancer. The stories were features, news features or soft news stories. The stories reflected the 'good news' editorial style of women's magazines. A dominant theme in the stories was that early detection of breast cancer is crucial and equals survival. While there were few inaccuracies in the stories, there was little detail of treatment modalities, an emphasis on lifestyle as a risk factor and a prevailing message that a genetic history of breast cancer means you will get it. A major implication of the findings is that nurses, who provide information to women, must be aware of the goals of journalists and the educational power of narrative logic of stories in women's magazines.
Alyaemni, Asmaa; Theobald, Sally; Faragher, Brian; Jehan, Kate; Tolhurst, Rachel
This study aimed to explore Saudi Arabian women's perceptions of how gendered social structures affect their health by understanding their perceptions of these influences on their health relative to those on men's health. Qualitative methods, including focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth individual interviews (IDIs) were conducted with 66 married women in Riyadh, the capital city. Participants were purposively sampled for maximum variation, including consideration of socio-economic status, age, educational level, health status and the use of healthcare. The majority of women perceived their health to be worse than men's and attributed this to their childbearing, domestic and care-giving roles, restrictions on their mobility, poverty and psychological stress related to their responsibilities for children, and marital conflict. A minority of participants felt that men's health was worse than women's and related this to their gendered roles as "breadwinners," greater mobility and masculine norms and identities. Gender equity should be a health policy priority to improve women's health.
Tarzia, Laura; Maxwell, Sarah; Valpied, Jodie; Novy, Kitty; Quake, Rebecca; Hegarty, Kelsey
Sexual violence (SV) against adult women is prevalent and associated with a range of mental health issues. General practitioners could potentially have a role in responding, however, there is little information to help guide them. Data around prevalence of all forms of adult SV (not just rape) is inconsistent, particularly in clinical samples, and the links between other forms of SV and mental health issues are not well supported. This study aimed to address these gaps in the knowledge base. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in Australian general practice clinics. Two hundred and thirty adult women completed an anonymous iPad survey while waiting to see the doctor. More than half the sample had experienced at least one incident of adult SV. Most commonly, women reported public harassment or flashing, unwanted groping and being coerced into sex. Women who had experienced adult SV were more likely to experience anxiety than women who had not, even after controlling for other factors. Women who had experienced adult SV were more likely to feel down, depressed or hopeless than women who had not; however, this association disappeared after controlling for childhood sexual abuse. The findings support the association between SV and poor mental health, even when 'lesser' incidents have occurred. Implications for public health: General practitioners should consider an experience of SV as a possible factor in otherwise unexplained anxiety and depressive symptoms in female patients. © 2017 The Authors.
Lockhart, Barbara D; Black, Nate; Vincent, William J
Historically, especially prior to the increased interest in women's athletics with the passage of Title IX in 1972, there have been negative perceptions of women as athletes. If these social perceptions still hold in part today, as is indirectly suggested by unequal press coverage and less basic support for women athletes, one might predict that collegiate female athletes would rate themselves lower on self-esteem and worth than collegiate male athletes. 176 Division I male (n = 90) and female (n = 86) athletes rated their perceptions of self on the Worth Index which measures basic human worth, personal security, performance, and physical self; these are divided into intrinsic (unconditional worth) measures and behavior or performance (conditional worth) measures. There were no significant sex differences in the ratings of any aspect of perceived worth, in contrast to prior results among non-athletes. In spite of less support given to women athletes, perhaps the long-term high-intensity competition that is required to reach Division I status tends to eliminate sex differences in self-worth.
Ibraz, T S
The roles of rural Pakistani women in agricultural production are described with numerous examples from a village study by Anwar and Bilquees, and the author's research in a Punjabi village (Rajpur) to show cultural perceptions of women and their work, and the nature of productive activities inside the house and outside on the farm. The cultural perceptions are related to the image of women as dependent/private wives and mothers. A broad definition of production is used to include activities, such as churning milk which generates income and saves expenditures and making butter which fulfills household needs and is sold in the market for cash. Rajpur is a village engaged in social change. Men seek work outside the villages, and women take on work previously assumed by men. Women contribute considerably to the year-round production and processing of major crops. The productive labor of women by major crop type and activity type are described and charted. Tending livestock is performed exclusively by men. Handicraft activity at home reduces expenditure for buying these items in the local markets. Most women were unaware of the savings and "indirect" income their work contributed to the household. Work for wages is viewed as men's work. Women's mobility beyond the fields and home is still limited; market activity must be conducted with a male present and women do not earn cash. The division of labor is conceived by men for women because of women's cultural identity. Women are perceived as "chase daughters/sisters, fertile wives, and nurturing mothers." There are punishments or social rewards for proper behavior. Women in their private domain are expected to "look good within the house," which is viewed as a feminine world. The outside world is masculine. Women are also seen as lacking reasoning ability and their motherhood roles limit their capability to cope with external affairs. There is great value attached to the invisibility of women physically, socially, and
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited evidence on the use of the Snoezelen concept for maternity clients. Snoezelen, a Dutch concept, initiated in the 1970s as a leisure activity for severely disabled people, involves creating an indoor environment using controllable stimuli to enhance comfort and relaxation. These specially designed rooms expose the user to multiple sensory stimulations combining vision, touch, sounds and aromas. The aim of this study was to provide insight into breastfeeding women's experience of using a Snoezelen room during hospitalisation. Methods A qualitative exploratory design was chosen to reveal women's perceptions of using the Snoezelen room. Osborne Park Hospital, the study setting is the second largest public provider of obstetric services in Western Australia. A purposive sample was drawn from breastfeeding women who used the Snoezelen room during their postpartum stay from March 2006 to March 2007. Saturation was achieved after eleven breastfeeding women were interviewed six weeks post discharge. Data analysis involved the constant comparison method. Results Participants entered the room feeling tired and emotional with an unsettled baby and breastfeeding issues aggravated by maternal stress and anxiety. All women indicated they were able to achieve relaxation while in the room and would recommend its use to other breastfeeding mothers. Two key themes revealed how the Snoezelen room facilitated maternal relaxation, which ultimately enhanced the breastfeeding experience. The first theme, "Finding Relaxation for the Breastfeeding Mother" incorporates three subthemes: 'Time out' for mother; Control in own personal space; and a Quiet/calm environment with homelike atmosphere. The second theme, "Enabling Focus on Breastfeeding", occurred after relaxation was achieved and involved four subthemes: Able to get one-on-one attention; Not physically exposed to others; Away from prying, judgemental eyes and Able to safely
Kwok, C; White, K
Both informational and social support are vital components in achieving a high quality of life as a cancer survivor. The study aims to explore the perceptions of information needs and social support among Chinese-Australian breast cancer survivors and how these resources impacted their cancer experience. Three focus groups were conducted with 23 Chinese-Australian women diagnosed with breast cancer in their native language (Mandarin and Cantonese). Each interview was translated and transcribed. Content analysis was used to uncover the major themes. Themes for information needs were identified as (1) using linguistically appropriate information, (2) the need for culturally sensitive information for the management of expected side effect and promotion of recovery and (3) the need for information on signs and symptoms of recurrence. Families were described as a primary source of multifaceted social support, although it was challenging to obtain. Support groups were also an important support source, but health care professionals were not identified as a source of support. Our study has provided practical insight into the information needs and social support of Chinese women with breast cancer. These findings can be used to inform the development of linguistically and culturally tailored support and survivorship interventions for this vulnerable population.
Truijens, Sophie E M; van der Zalm, Marieke; Pop, Victor J M; Kuppens, Simone M I
A considerable proportion of pregnant women with a fetus in breech position refuses external cephalic version (ECV), with fear of pain as important barrier. As a consequence, they are at high risk for caesarean section at term. The current study investigated determinants of pain perception during ECV, with special attention to maternal mental state such as depression and fear of ECV. Prospective study of 249 third-trimester pregnant women with breech position with a request for an ECV attempt. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in a large teaching hospital in the Netherlands. Prior to the ECV attempts, obstetric factors were registered, participants fulfilled the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS) and reported fear of ECV on a 10-point visual analog scale. Perception of pain intensity was measured with a 10-point visual analog scale, immediately after ECV. Multivariate linear regression analyses showed success of ECV to be the strongest predictor of pain perception. Furthermore, scores on the depression questionnaire and degree of fear of ECV independently explained pain perception, which was not the case for obstetrical or ECV related factors. Apart from ECV outcome, psychological factors like depression and fear of ECV were independently related to pain perception of an ECV attempt. Maternal mood state should be taken into account when offering an ECV attempt to women with a fetus in breech position. Due to the painful experience and the importance of successful outcome, ECV should only be attempted in institutions with experienced practitioners and with careful attention to maternal mood and the way a woman is coping with the ECV attempt. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Many Italo-Australians however, have tended to reflect, often from a victimological viewpoint, on the internment experience in their memoirs and reminiscences. This paper provides an additional dimension to the topic by examining oral and written accounts produced by some Italo-Australian protagonists of the internment ...
Hosek, Claire; Faucher, Mary Ann; Lankford, Janice; Alexander, James
To assess perceptions of care from woman discharged from an obstetrical (OB) triage unit or a labor and delivery unit with a diagnosis of false or latent labor in order to determine factors that may increase or decrease the woman's satisfaction with care. Descriptive, convenience sample. One hundred low-income pregnant women at term presenting for care in latent labor consented to participate in a telephone survey. The survey was based on the relevant research about care of women in early labor and the Donabedian quality improvement framework assessing structure, process, and outcomes of care. Forty-one percent of women did not want to be discharged home in latent labor. Common reasons included women stating they were in too much pain or they were living too far from the birth setting. Eating, drinking, and comfort measures were the most common measures women cited that would have made them feel better when in the hospital. A reoccurring response from women was their desire for very clear and specific written instructions about how to stay comfortable at home and when to return to the hospital. Comfort measures in the birth setting, including in triage, should include a variety of options including ambulation and oral nutrition. Detailed and specific written instructions about early labor and staying comfortable while at home have value for women in this survey regarding their perceptions of care. Results from this survey of low-income women suggest that a subset of women in latent labor just do not want to go home and this may be related to having too much pain and/or travel distance to the hospital. Hospital birth settings also have an opportunity to create a care environment that provides services and embodies attributes that women report as important for their satisfaction with care in latent labor.
The Australian healthcare system underwent radical reform in the 1990s as economic rationalist policies were embraced. As a result, there was significant organisational restructuring within hospitals. Traditional indicators, such as nursing absenteeism and attrition, increase during times of organisational change. Despite this, nurses' views of healthcare reform are under-represented in the literature and little is known about the impact of organisational restructuring on perceived performance. This study investigated the perceived impact of organisational restructuring on a group of intensive care unit (ICU) nurses' workplace performance. It employed a qualitative approach to collect data from a purposive sample of clinical nurses. The primary method of data collection was semi-structured interviews. Content analysis generated three categories of data. Participants identified constant pressure, inadequate communication and organisational components of restructuring within the hospital as issues that had a significant impact on their workplace performance. They perceived organisational restructuring was poorly communicated, and this resulted in an environment of constant pressure. Organisational components of restructuring included the subcategories of specialised service provision and an alternative administrative structure that had both positive and negative ramifications for performance. To date, there has been little investigation of nurses' perceptions of organisational restructure or the impact this type of change has in the clinical domain. Participants in this study believed reorganisation was detrimental to quality care delivery in intensive care, as a result of fiscal constraint, inadequate communication and pressure that influenced their workplace performance.
Welch, Nicky; McNaughton, Sarah A; Hunter, Wendy; Hume, Clare; Crawford, David
To describe the proportion of women reporting time is a barrier to healthy eating and physical activity, the characteristics of these women and the perceived causes of time pressure, and to examine associations between perceptions of time as a barrier and consumption of fruit, vegetables and fast food, and physical activity. A cross-sectional survey of food intake, physical activity and perceived causes of time pressure. A randomly selected community sample. A sample of 1580 women self-reported their food intake and their perceptions of the causes of time pressure in relation to healthy eating. An additional 1521 women self-reported their leisure-time physical activity and their perceptions of the causes of time pressure in relation to physical activity. Time pressure was reported as a barrier to healthy eating by 41% of the women and as a barrier to physical activity by 73%. Those who reported time pressure as a barrier to healthy eating were significantly less likely to meet fruit, vegetable and physical activity recommendations, and more likely to eat fast food more frequently. Women reporting time pressure as a barrier to healthy eating and physical activity are less likely to meet recommendations than are women who do not see time pressure as a barrier. Further research is required to understand the perception of time pressure issues among women and devise strategies to improve women's food and physical activity behaviours.
Some use their leisure time to rest and sleep while some use it to do home chores and some do not have leisure time at all. They see leisure as unimportant and as activities of men. In conclusion, women's perception and attitudes to leisure and inability to have leisure are products of socialization that stems from patriarchy, ...
Mohammadi, Easa; Nourizadeh, Roghaiyeh; Simbar, Masoumeh
Many women, throughout their life cycle, experience unintended pregnancy and its subsequent induced abortion. Nonetheless, women's perceptions of this phenomenon - particularly in countries prohibiting elective abortion - are poorly known. The aim of this study was to explore Iranian Azeri women's perceptions of unintended pregnancy. This was a conventional content analysis study conducted in Tabriz, Iran. The data were collected through 31 semi-structured interviews with 23 women who had recently experienced an unintended pregnancy. The study participants were recruited using the purposive sampling method. Sampling started in March 2013 and continued until reaching data saturation, i.e. till August 2013. Data analysis was carried out concurrently with data collection. MAXQDA 10.0 software was employed for managing the study data. The study data analysis process yielded the formation of three main themes including negative effects of unintended pregnancy on daily life, fear of being stigmatized with violating social norms, and abortion panic, which in turn constituted the broader overarching theme of "threat supposition." In other words, following an unintended pregnancy, the study participants had experienced different levels of fear and threat depending on their personal, family, and socio-cultural backgrounds. Women perceive unintended pregnancy as a challenging and threatening situation. An unintended pregnancy can threaten women's lives through social deprivations, growing instability, and putting both mother and baby at risk for physical and psychosocial problems. On the other hand, an unsafe illegal abortion could have potentially life-threatening complications. To cope with such a situation, women need strong social support. Healthcare providers can fulfill such women's need for support by developing pre-abortion counseling services and providing them with professional counseling. Also, strengthening women's support system by policy-makers is recommended.
Bingener, Juliane; Sloan, Jeff A; Ghosh, Karthik; McConico, Andrea; Mariani, Andrea
Prior surveys evaluating women's perceptions of transvaginal surgery both support and refute the acceptability of transvaginal access. Most surveys employed mainly quantitative analysis, limiting the insight into the women's perspective. In this mixed-methods study, we include qualitative and quantitative methodology to assess women's perceptions of transvaginal procedures. Women seen at the outpatient clinics of a tertiary-care center were asked to complete a survey. Demographics and preferences for appendectomy, cholecystectomy, and tubal ligation were elicited, along with open-ended questions about concerns or benefits of transvaginal access. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed to examine the impact of age, education, parity, and prior transvaginal procedures on preferences. For the qualitative evaluation, content analysis by independent investigators identified themes, issues, and concerns raised in the comments. The completed survey tool was returned by 409 women (grouped mean age 53 years, mean number of 2 children, 82% ≥ some college education, and 56% with previous transvaginal procedure). The transvaginal approach was acceptable for tubal ligation to 59%, for appendectomy to 43%, and for cholecystectomy to 41% of the women. The most frequently mentioned factors that would make women prefer a vaginal approach were decreased invasiveness (14.4%), recovery time (13.9%), scarring (13.7%), pain (6%), and surgical entry location relative to organ removed (4.4%). The most frequently mentioned concerns about the vaginal approach were the possibility of complications/safety (14.7%), pain (9%), infection (5.6%), and recovery time (4.9%). A number of women voiced technical concerns about the vaginal approach. As in prior studies, scarring and pain were important issues to be considered, but recovery time and increased invasiveness were also in the "top five" list. The surveyed women appeared to actively participate in evaluating the technical
Traylor, Jessica; Chandrasekaran, Suchitra; Limaye, Meghana; Srinivas, Sindhu; Durnwald, Celeste P
The objective of this study is to evaluate a woman's risk perception for future cardiovascular disease (CVD) after being diagnosed with a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. A prospective cohort of women diagnosed with a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy (HDP) was studied. Each woman completed two surveys, one prior to hospital discharge and one 2 weeks later, designed to assess knowledge of and risk perception for future CVD based on their recent diagnosis of a HDP. Rates of postpartum depression were also assessed. Of the 146 subjects included, 28% were diagnosed with preeclampsia with severe features, 52.1% with preeclampsia with mild features, and 19.9% had chronic hypertension. Women with severe features and those delivering preterm were more likely to report a perception of increased risk of both recurrent HDP in a future pregnancy (p = 0.004 and 0.005, respectively) and hypertension later in life (p = 0.01 and 0.03, respectively). Women delivering preterm were more likely to report an accurate perception of increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke compared to those delivering at term (p = 0.006 and 0.002, respectively). Disease severity and preterm delivery were associated with a higher likelihood of the perception of an increased risk for both recurrent HDP and hypertension in the future. Only preterm delivery was associated with a higher risk perception for stroke and myocardial infarction. Interventions targeted at improved health awareness in women diagnosed with HDP are warranted.
White, Kate; Ozkanli, Ozlem
This paper analyses differences in perceptions of gender and leadership though qualitative interviews with 45 senior managers in Australia and Turkey. The literature suggests that masculine models of leadership are changing with both women and many men preferring transformational leadership styles. The research found that there were different…
Ruiz-Sternberg, Angela M; Pinzón-Rondón, Ángela M
To compare sexual behaviors and risk perception between young women vaccinated for HPV and unvaccinated Colombian women. In a cross-sectional design study, 1436 women (231 adolescents, Sexual risk behaviors were not associated with vaccination after adjustment for risk perception, age, educational level, and HPV knowledge. By contrast, vaccination was associated with higher routine Pap smear screening (odds ratio [OR], 2.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.69-3.28), use of modern contraceptives (OR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.26-3.22), and consistent use of condoms (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.11-2.01). Vaccinated young women were more likely to have had sex (OR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.56-2.78), but sexual debut among adolescents was not associated with vaccination. In bivariate and multivariate analyses, vaccination status was negatively associated with perceived risk of HPV infection, warts, and cervical cancer. There was no association between vaccination and perceived risk of sexually transmitted infections in any model. No association was found between changes in risk perception after HPV vaccination and sexual risk behaviors. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; D'Souza, Reshma; Al-Roomi, Khaldoon
The objective of this study was to find out the perceptions of age and aging among women in Qatar. Respondents consisted of 250 women aged between 20 and 70 years, selected from those attending the health centers in Doha city, the capital of Qatar. They were interviewed using a pretested validated questionnaire, and data were collected through direct face-to-face interviews using the incidental sampling method. It was found that physical appearance and mental alertness were the most important criteria for defining aging in men and women. A statistically significant association was found between age of respondents and physical criteria for aging such as hair color (p age of women studied. Both positive (socializing factors, independence, housework, retirement, and geriatric care) and negative stereotyping (care for self, learning capabilities, irritability, and worries) with regard to aging were evident among the Qatari women. In general, Qatari women had several positive attitudes toward aging. Such attitudes could be utilized in any health promotion for elderly people.
Kopanidis, Foula Z; Robinson, Linda J; Reid, Mike
The transition into retirement is an important life phase that presents significant challenges in respect to well-being, lifestyle, and consumption choices. This article examines the consumption context of housing after retirement, in particular for the low-resourced cohort of single baby boomer women. Utilizing an extended Theory of Planned Behavior model, we examine the relationship between intention and actual behavior, in this case financial advice seeking, as an important component of the psychological preparedness of single female baby boomer women. Our analysis showed both Australian and UK single baby boomer women display different behaviors in terms of seeking advice and their mental preparedness to adjust to a change in their living arrangements. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for policy and further research.
Bissonnette-Maheux, Véronique; Dumas, Audrée-Anne; Provencher, Véronique; Lapointe, Annie; Dugrenier, Marilyn; Straus, Sharon; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Desroches, Sophie
Healthy eating blogs are knowledge translation tools used by nutrition and dietetics practitioners for helping people improve their health behaviors and food choices. Our aim was to explore women's perceptions of the usefulness and ease of use of healthy eating blog (HEB) characteristics that might increase potential users' intention to use them as tools to improve their dietary habits. We conducted qualitative research using semi-structured individual interviews. Thirty-three women (mean age of 44 years; range=27 to 61 years) living in the Quebec City, Canada, metropolitan area were studied. Four existing HEBs, written by French-Canadian registered dietitians (RDs) whose main objective was the promotion of a healthy diet, were explored by women during individual interviews. A standardized open-ended interview questionnaire based on the Technology Acceptance Model was used to identify women's perceptions about characteristics of type of blog content delivery, RD blogger's delivery of information, blog layout, and blog design. Women's perceptions toward the contribution of HEB characteristics to the usefulness and ease of use of those tools to improve their dietary habits were measured. Interviews were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, coded, and analyzed through an inductive content analysis using NVivo software. The most useful characteristics of type of blog content delivery identified by women were recipes, hyperlinks, and references. Among characteristics of RD blogger's delivery of information, most women reported that interaction between blog readers and the RD blogger created a sense of proximity and of connection that was helpful for improving their dietary behaviors. Women's perceptions toward various characteristics of blog layout and design were also discussed. Incorporating specific characteristics when designing HEBs should be considered by RDs and future research to promote the use of those tools to support dietary behavior change efforts of
Gupta, Sabrina S; Aroni, Rosalie; Teede, Helena
Research indicates that there are worryingly low levels of physical activity among South Asians compared with Anglo-Australians with type 2 diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease (CVD). We compared perceptions, barriers, and enablers of physical activity in these groups. We used a qualitative design, conducting in-depth, semistructured iterative interviews in Victoria with 57 South Asian and Anglo-Australian participants with either type 2 diabetes or CVD. While both groups exhibited knowledge of the value of physical activity in health maintenance and disease management, they wished for more specific and culturally tailored advice from clinicians about the type, duration, and intensity of physical activity required. Physical activity identities were tied to ethnic identities, with members of each group aspiring to meet the norms of their culture regarding engagement with physical activity as specific exercise or as incidental exercise. Individual personal exercise was deemed important by Anglo-Australians whereas South Asians preferred family-based physical activity.
Råberg Kjøllesdal, Marte Karoline; Hjellset, Victoria Telle; Bjørge, Benedikte; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd; Wandel, Margareta
To explore food perceptions in terms of health among Pakistani immigrant women, and if such perceptions could be altered through a culturally adapted intervention. The study is a culturally adapted lifestyle intervention aiming at reducing diabetes risk among Pakistani women, Oslo, Norway. There were 198 participants (25-62 years) recruited through a multi-recruitment strategy and randomly assigned into intervention and control groups. Data were collected through interviews with the help of a structured questionnaire with open-ended questions. Baseline data showed that many women emphasised vegetables (87%) and fish (52%) as important in a healthy diet, and perceived that the consumption of sugar (66%), oil (60%) and hard fat (39%) should be limited. After intervention, there was an increased proportion of women in the intervention group who perceived that consumption of sugar (p = 0.021) and white flour (p = 0.010) should be limited, in line with the emphasis of the intervention. Food perceptions in terms of health were generally in line with public dietary advice, however, with large variation among the women. A culturally adapted intervention had the potential to alter such perceptions.
Aljadani, Haya M; Patterson, Amanda J; Sibbritt, David; Collins, Clare E
Issue addressed The present study investigated the association between diet quality, measured using the Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS), and 6-year risk of becoming overweight or obese in mid-age women from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health (ALSWH). Methods Women (n=1107) aged 47.6-55.8 years who were a healthy weight (body mass index (BMI) between ≤18.5 and healthy weight range and those who became overweight or obese at follow-up was 35.3±8.1 and 34.3±8.8, respectively. There was no relationship between baseline ARFS and risk of becoming overweight or obese over 6 years. Women who were smokers were more likely to become overweight or obese (odds ratio 1.5; 95% confidence interval 1.11-2.09; P=0.008). Conclusions Poor diet quality was common among mid-age women of a healthy weight in the ALSWH. Higher diet quality was not associated with the risk of overweight or obesity after 6 years, yet smoking status was. So what? Better diet quality alone will not achieve maintenance of a healthy weight, but should be encouraged to improve other health outcomes.
Evelyn Muberekwa; Thobeka Nkomo
Issues of women’s empowerment and gender inequality have been of paramount importance, particularly in the two decades since the Fourth World Conference on Women, Beijing, 1995. At that conference, the campaign for women’s empowerment was initiated to implement laws promoting gender equality. This research explored the perceptions of nine academic women at the University of the Witwatersrand with regard to women’s empowerment and the changing roles of women in a South African context in the 2...
Background: Recruitment and retention of medical staff are important issues in rural ... was to describe and understand the perceptions of women doctors working in ... the environment and security, and that the proximity of home and work gives a .... Black. White. Indian. White. White. White. White. Black. Indian. White. White.
Participation in physical activity helps one to address and reduce health risk behaviours thereby improving the quality of one's life. The current study explored the relationship between satisfaction with life and working women's perception of their participation in physical activity in the Gauteng Province, South Africa. Using a ...
Tannenbaum, Cara; Mayo, Nancy; Ducharme, Francine
As women get older, their health priorities change. We surveyed a sample of older Canadian women to investigate what health priorities are of concern to them, their perceptions about the care delivered to address these priorities and the extent to which priorities and perceptions of care differ across age groups and provinces. The WOW (What Older women Want) cross-sectional health survey was mailed in October 2003 to 5000 community-dwelling women aged 55-95 years from 10 Canadian provinces. Women were asked questions on 26 health priorities according to the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, and their perceptions of whether these priorities were being addressed by health care providers through screening or counselling. Differences in priorities and perceptions of care delivery were examined across age groups and provinces. The response rate was 52%. The mean age of the respondents was 71 (standard deviation 7) years. The health priorities identified most frequently by the respondents were preventing memory loss (88% of the respondents), learning about the side effects of medications (88%) and correcting vision impairment (86%). Items least frequently selected were counselling about community programs (28%), counselling about exercise (33%) and pneumonia vaccination (33%). Up to 97% of the women recalled being adequately screened for heart disease and stroke risk factors, but as little as 11% reported receiving counselling regarding concerns about memory loss or end-of-life issues. Women who stated that specific priorities were of great concern or importance to them were more than twice as likely as those who stated that they were not of great concern or importance to perceive that these priorities were being addressed: osteoporosis (odds ratio [OR] 2.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.1- 3.2), end-of-life care (OR 2.6, 95% CI 2.0-3.4), anxiety reduction (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.8-2.6), fall prevention (OR 2.1, 95
Wurz Douglas André
Full Text Available The objective of this work was to verify the influence of the gender on the olfactory perception of aromas found in the wines, as well as to identify the aromatic groups most perceived by men and women. Twenty different aromas of different aromatic classes described in the wines were used: fruity, spices, wood, herbaceous, floral, buttery, defects. The different aromatic groups were packed in Erlenmeyer glasses wrapped with aluminum paper in order to avoid the visualization of the aromas by the participants. Fifty people, 25 men and 25 women, aged between 21 and 65 years, were ramdomly separated in groups of 10 people to participate of the evaluation. The influence of the gender on the ability to identify aromas was verified. Women matched 56.8% of the aromas, while men matched 44.6%. In relation to the aromatic class, a greater index of the feminine gender in all the aromatic classes was verified, being spices the group of aromas that women most perceived, with 80.6% of hits, followed by the floral aromas with 50% accuracy. For men, the aromatic class with the highest index of accuracy was also the spices, however, with a success rate of 58.4%, followed by the herbaceous group with 38.2% of correct answers. Both females and males obtained high scores for the group of wine defects (acetic acid and ethyl acetate, 85.2% and 81.0%, respectively, overcoming the other aromatic classes. Buttery aromas were the ones least recognized by women, with 30.8% of hits, whereas the least perceived aroma for men were the floral ones, with no hits observed in any group of participants. The results found in this study show that there are differences in olfactory perception between men and women, and this factor, in addition to the wine service temperature, wine glass type, olfactory memory, must also be considered in sensory analysis. Female gender has a greater ability to identify aromas in relation to the male gender, since women have a greater number of cells
Calabria, Bianca; Clifford, Anton; Rose, Miranda; Shakeshaft, Anthony P
Aboriginal Australians experience a disproportionately high burden of alcohol-related harm compared to the general Australian population. Alcohol treatment approaches that simultaneously target individuals and families offer considerable potential to reduce these harms if they can be successfully tailored for routine delivery to Aboriginal Australians. The Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA) and Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) are two related interventions that are consistent with Aboriginal Australians' notions of health and wellbeing. This paper aims to describe the process of tailoring CRA and CRAFT for delivery to Aboriginal Australians, explore the perceptions of health care providers participating in the tailoring process, and their experiences of participating in CRA and CRAFT counsellor certification. Data sources included notes recorded from eight working group meetings with 22 health care providers of a drug and alcohol treatment agency and Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service (November 2009-February 2013), and transcripts of semi-structured interviews with seven health care providers participating in CRA and CRAFT counsellor certification (May 2012). Qualitative content analysis was used to categorise working group meeting notes and interview transcripts were into key themes. Modifying technical language, reducing the number of treatment sessions, and including an option for treatment of clients in groups, were key recommendations by health care providers for improving the feasibility and applicability of delivering CRA and CRAFT to Aboriginal Australians. Health care providers perceived counsellor certification to be beneficial for developing their skills and confidence in delivering CRA and CRAFT, but identified time constraints and competing tasks as key challenges. The tailoring process resulted in Aboriginal Australian-specific CRA and CRAFT resources. The process also resulted in the training and certification of
Hockett, Jericho M; Saucier, Donald A; Badke, Caitlyn
Rape is prevalent at colleges. Although research suggests commonalities across many college women's rape experiences (e.g., perpetrators using multiple coercive strategies), vignettes used to assess rape perceptions often reflect false beliefs. Two studies varying a perpetrator's coercive tactics examine rape perceptions using vignettes reflecting rape myths, rape scripts, or many college women's common rape experiences. Participants perceive a woman who was raped more positively in vignettes reflecting common rape experiences versus those reflecting rape myths or scripts. Theoretical, educational, and research implications are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2014v16n1p58 The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of body image perception and its association with anthropometric indicators (body mass index, waist circumference, waist-height ratio, and conicity index in women undergoing cervical cancer screening at an institution in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina. The study included 736 women (≥ 18 years. Anthropometric variables (weight, height, waist circumference were collected for the determination of body mass index, waist-height ratio, and conicity index. Body image perception was evaluated using a nine-body silhouette scale. The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction was 73% (dissatisfaction due to excess weight = 67.4%; dissatisfaction due to thinness = 5.6%. Overweight women (PR=1.34; 95%CI=1.23-2.49, p<0.001 and women with an inadequate conicity index (PR=1.12; 95%CI =1.02-1.24, p=0.016 presented a higher prevalence of body image dissatisfaction. The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction is high and the proportion of inadequate anthropometric indicators requires attention. Moreover, body dissatisfaction was more prevalent among overweight women and women with an inadequate conicity index. These results indicate the need for interventions and for the implementation of programs designed to control body weight and to reduce cardiovascular risk factors and body image dissatisfaction in women attending primary health care centers, such as cancer screening services.
Fenwick, J; Toohill, J; Creedy, D K; Smith, J; Gamble, J
around 20% of women suffer childbirth fear causing them significant distress and often leading to requests for caesarean section. In Sweden, fearful pregnant women are offered counselling; however, in Australia, no dedicated service caters for the specific needs of these women. Indeed scant research has been conducted in Australia and little is known about women's concerns and if these align to those reported in the international literature. to describe the sources, responses and moderators of childbirth fear in a group of pregnant women assessed as having high levels of childbirth fear. comparative analysis was used to identify common concepts and generate themes that represented women's perspectives of childbirth fear. Data consisted of 43 tape recorded telephone conversations with highly fearful pregnant women who were participating in a large randomised controlled trial known as BELIEF (Birth Emotions, Looking to Improve Expectant Fear). women's fears were conceptualised into three themes: fear stimuli; fear responses; and fear moderators. Lack of confidence to birth, fear of the unknown, internalising other women's negative stories, perineal tearing and labour pain were common concerns for first time mothers. For multiparous women, not having had personal feelings resolved following their previous birth and negative experiences of last birth influenced current expectations for their upcoming birth. Themes common to both groups were: unmet information and support needs, feelings of loss of control and lack of input in to decision-making. Some women however, chose to avoid birth planning in order to cope during pregnancy. Australian women had similar childbirth concerns to those reported in the international literature. However unique to this study was finding two opposing discourses; one of preoccupation with negative events and the other; avoidance of planning for labour and birth. Provision of woman centred maternity models that minimise obstetric
Gu, Can; Chan, Carmen W H; Twinn, Sheila; Choi, Kai Chow
Theories of health behavior and empirical research highlight the risk perception as a significant factor for people adopting cancer screening. However, screening uptakes and risk perception of cervical cancer in mainland Chinese women remains unknown. This paper adopted the protection motivation theory (PMT) to examine Chinese women's knowledge and perceptions of cervical cancer risk and factors influencing utilization of cervical screening. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 167 participants in mainland China (79 nonscreened and 88 screened women) in 2007 which consisted of four sections: background information, women's attendance pattern for cervical screening, perceptions related to body health and knowledge about cervical cancer and screening, and PMT measures. All women considered themselves at low risk of cervical cancer. No significant association was observed between previous screening uptake and PMT variables. Using multivariate analysis, having children, a perception that visiting doctors regularly is important to health, average and high levels of knowledge about cervical screening were significantly associated with having been received screening. Chinese women demonstrated an unrealistic optimism about their personal risk of cervical cancer. The findings do not support an association between risk perception and screening uptake. In spite of this, current findings revealed some possible factors influencing women's screening behavior. This study highlights the significance of knowledge and culturally-relevant health behavior and beliefs about cervical screening for Chinese women in determining whether or not they receive screening. The promotion of cervical cancer prevention and early detection should be integrated into public education about women's health. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Malcolm, Janine; Lawson, Margaret L; Gaboury, Isabelle; Keely, Erin
Women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have a high chance of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) following the index pregnancy, however, little is known of women's perception of this risk. The objectives were to (1) determine women's perception of risk of future development of T2DM following a GDM pregnancy and (2) describe the prevalence of undetected dysglycaemia in a Canadian population. The study was designed as a 9-11 year follow-up study of women previously enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of tight versus minimal intervention for GDM. Women's perception of future risk of diabetes was determined by questionnaire. Fasting lipid profile, height and weight were performed on all participants. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed on all women without prior history of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2). The study was conducted at Ottawa Hospital General Campus and Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario, in Ottawa, Canada. Eighty-nine of 299 (30%) of the original cohort were recruited. Eighty-eight women completed the questionnaire and 77 women without known diabetes underwent two hour glucose tolerance testing. Twenty-three (30%) felt their risk was no different than other women or did not know, 27 (35%) felt risk was increased a little and 27 (35%) felt risk was increased a lot. Only 52% (40/77) had normal glucose tolerance. Of all, 25/88 (28%) patients had diabetes (11 previously diagnosed and 14 diagnosed within the study). Of those newly diagnosed with DM2, four (29%) were diagnosed by fasting glucose, six (42%) by two hour glucose tolerance test (GTT) alone and four (29%) by both. Twenty-four of the women (27%) had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Of those with IGT, 12 (57%) had a fasting food glucose DM2, and all had a waist circumference >88 cm. In conclusion the perception of being at high risk for T2DM did not prevent women from having undetected T2DM. Many factors are likely to contribute to this, including the
Full Text Available Rape is a recurrent adaptive problem of female humans and females of a number of non-human animals. Rape has various physiological and reproductive costs to the victim. The costs of rape are furthermore exaggerated by social rejection and blaming of a victim, particularly by men. The negative perception of raped women by men has received little attention from an evolutionary perspective. Across two independent studies, we investigated whether the risk of sexually transmitted diseases (the STD hypothesis, Hypothesis 1 or paternity uncertainty (the cuckoldry hypothesis, Hypothesis 2 influence the negative perception of raped women by men. Raped women received lower attractiveness score than non-raped women, especially in long-term mate attractiveness score. The perceived attractiveness of raped women was not influenced by the presence of experimentally manipulated STD cues on faces of putative rapists. Women raped by three men received lower attractiveness score than women raped by one man. These results provide stronger support for the cuckoldry hypothesis (Hypothesis 2 than for the STD hypothesis (Hypothesis 1. Single men perceived raped women as more attractive than men in a committed relationship (Hypothesis 3, suggesting that the mating opportunities mediate men’s perception of victims of rape. Overall, our results suggest that the risk of cuckoldry underlie the negative perception of victims of rape by men rather than the fear of disease transmission.
Lee, Jackie F. K.; Collins, Peter
This paper examines the nature and extent of gender stereotyping, both linguistic and pictorial, in a set of 10 Australian English-language textbooks for intermediate learners. In order to determine how accurately the books reflect the status of women in contemporary Australian society a content and linguistic analysis was conducted, focusing on,…
Background: Male gender preference is a dominant feature of Igbo culture and could be the reason behind women seeking fetal gender at ultrasound. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the perception of prenatal ultrasound patients of male gender preference in a patriarchal and gender sensitive society. Subjects ...
Blokstra, A.; Burns, C.M.; Seidell, J C
OBJECTIVE: To study the perception of weight status, the accuracy of self-assessment of weight status and weight control practices relative to the degree of adiposity in Dutch men and women. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS: 2155 men and 2446 women, aged 20-65y, of mostly caucasian origin,
Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.
We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities, citing both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of historically bright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great Comets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of comets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with fear, death, omens, malevolent spirits, and evil magic, consistent with many cultures around the world. We also provide a list of words for comets in 16 different Aboriginal languages.
Thibodeau, Michel A; Welch, Patrick G; Katz, Joel; Asmundson, Gordon J G
The sexes differ with respect to perception of experimental pain. Anxiety influences pain perception more in men than in women; however, there lacks research exploring which anxiety constructs influence pain perception differentially between men and women. Furthermore, research examining whether depression is associated with pain perception differently between the sexes remains scant. The present investigation was designed to examine how trait anxiety, pain-related anxiety constructs (ie, fear of pain, pain-related anxiety, anxiety sensitivity), and depression are associated with pain perception between the sexes. A total of 95 nonclinical participants (55% women) completed measures assessing the constructs of interest and participated in quantitative sensory testing using heat and cold stimuli administered by a Medoc Pathway Pain and Sensory Evaluation System. The findings suggest that pain-related anxiety constructs, but not trait anxiety, are associated with pain perception. Furthermore, these constructs are associated with pain intensity ratings in men and pain tolerance levels in women. This contrasts with previous research suggesting that anxiety influences pain perception mostly or uniquely in men. Depression was not systematically associated with pain perception in either sex. Systematic relationships were not identified that allow conclusions regarding how fear of pain, pain-related anxiety, and anxiety sensitivity may contribute to pain perception differentially in men and women; however, anxiety sensitivity was associated with increased pain tolerance, a novel finding needing further examination. The results provide directions for future research and clinical endeavors and support that fear and anxiety are important features associated with hyperalgesia in both men and women. Copyright © 2012 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Liechty, Toni; Coyne, Sarah M; Collier, Kevin M; Sharp, Aubrey D
Although research has documented a connection between media and body image for women, little research has explored this connection among pregnant or postpartum women. The purpose of this study was to explore women's perceptions of media and body image during the perinatal period. Fredrickson's objectification theory provided a theoretical framework for the study. Data collection involved semi-structured in-depth interviews with 50 pregnant or postpartum women in which they were asked to describe their perceptions of media depictions of pregnant or postpartum women and its impact on their body image. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed thematically. Four major themes emerged: (1) participants questioned the realism of media depictions of pregnant and postpartum women, (2) participants described complex reactions to media messages including negative impacts on body image and strategies for mitigating negative impacts, (3) participants desired changes in media messages to be more realistic and to depict a more complex portrayal of the life stage, and (4) participants discussed the unique and complex role of social media including both negative and positive impacts. Implications of the findings for pregnant and postpartum women, communication scholars, and healthcare professionals are discussed.
Full Text Available The diasporic experiences of Japanese partners married to Australians and living in Australia are largely unexamined. This article is based on a study, conducted for an honours thesis, which invited four Japanese wives living in South East Queensland to describe, together with their Australian husbands, their family’s interactions with Japan, its language and culture, and the local Japanese community. It was recognised that the extensive social networks these wives had established and maintained with local Japanese women from other Japanese-Australian intermarriage families were an important part of their migrant experience. This article will firstly review the literature on contemporary Japanese- Australian intermarriage in Australia and Japanese lifestyle migration to Australia. It will then describe and examine the involvement and motivations of the four wives in their social networks. Entry into motherhood was found to be the impetus for developing and participating in informal, autonomous networks. Additionally, regular visits to Japan were focused on engagement with existing family and friendship networks. The contemporary experience of intermarriage for these women is decidedly transnational and fundamentally different from that of the war brides, or sensō hanayome.
Cramer, Holger; Sibbritt, David; Adams, Jon; Lauche, Romy
Falls are the leading cause of injuries in women across all ages. While yoga has been shown to increase balance, it has also been associated with injuries due to falls during practice. This study aimed to analyse whether regular yoga or meditation practice is associated with the frequency of falls and fall-related injuries in upper middle-aged Australian women. Women aged 59-64 years from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH) were queried regarding falls and falls-related injuries; and whether they regularly practiced yoga or meditation. Associations of falls and falls-related injuries with yoga or meditation practice were analysed using chi-squared tests and multiple logistic regression modelling. Of 10,011 women, 4413 (44.1%) had slipped, tripped or stumbled, 2770 (27.7%) had fallen to the ground, 1398 (14.0%) had been injured as a result of falling, and 901 (9.0%) women had sought medical attention for a fall-related injury within the previous 12 months. Yoga or meditation was practiced regularly by 746 (7.5%) women. No associations of falls, fall-related injuries and treatment due to falls-related injury with yoga or meditation practice were found. No association between yoga or meditation practice and falls or fall-related injuries have been found. Further studies are warranted for conclusive judgement of benefits and safety of yoga and meditation in relation to balance, falls and fall-related injuries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lauche, Romy; Sibbritt, David; Ostermann, Thomas; Fuller, Nicholas R; Adams, Jon; Cramer, Holger
To analyze whether yoga or meditation use is associated with body (dis)satisfaction and weight control methods in Australian women. Women ages 34 to 39 y from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health were surveyed regarding body satisfaction, weight control behaviors, and yoga and meditation practice. Associations of body satisfaction and weight control methods with yoga/meditation practice were analyzed using chi-squared tests and multiple logistic regression modelling. Of the 8009 women, 49% were overweight or obese. Sixty-five percent of women with normal body mass index (BMI) and approximately 95% of women with overweight/obesity wanted to lose weight. At least one in four women with normal BMI was dissatisfied with body weight and shape, as were more than two in three women with overweight/obesity. The most common weight control methods included exercising (82.7%), cutting down meal sizes (76.8%), and cutting down sugars or fats (71.9%). Yoga/meditation was practiced frequently by 688 women (8.6%) and occasionally by 1176 women (14.7%). Yoga/meditation users with normal BMI were less likely dissatisfied with body weight and shape. All yoga/meditation users more likely exercised and followed a low glycemic diet or diet books; and women with obesity occasionally using yoga/meditation also more likely used fasting or smoking to lose weight. Yoga/meditation users with normal BMI appear to be more satisfied with their body weight and shape than non-yoga/meditation users. While women with normal BMI or overweight tend to rely on healthy weight control methods, women with obesity occasional using yoga/meditation may more likely utilize unhealthy weight control methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yim, C; Wong, L; Cabalag, C; Wallace, E M; Davies-Tuck, M
To determine if apparently healthy post-term South Asian-born (SA) women were more likely to have abnormal post-term fetal surveillance than Australian- and New Zealand-born (AUS/NZ) women, whether those abnormalities were associated with increased rates of obstetric intervention and adverse perinatal outcomes, and whether SA women and their babies were at higher risk of adverse outcomes in the post-term period irrespective of their post-term surveillance outcomes. Post-term surveillance and perinatal outcomes of 145 SA and 272 AUS/NZ nulliparous women with a singleton post-term pregnancy were compared in a retrospective multicentre cohort analysis. Post-term SA women were not significantly more likely to have a low amniotic fluid index (AFI) than AUS/NZ women. However, they were nearly four times more likely (odds ratio 3.75; 95% CI 1.49-9.44) to have an abnormal CTG (P=0.005). Irrespective of maternal region of birth having an abnormal cardiotocography (CTG) or AFI was not associated with adverse intrapartum or perinatal outcomes. However, post-term SA women were significantly more likely than AUS/NZ women to have intrapartum fetal compromise (P=0.03) and an intrapartum cesarean section (P=0.002). Babies of SA women were more also significantly likely to be admitted to the Special Care Nursery or Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (P=0.02). Post-term SA women experience higher rates of fetal compromise (antenatal and intrapartum) and obstetric intervention than AUS/NZ women. Irrespective of maternal region of birth an abnormal CTG or AFI was not predictive of adverse outcomes.
Bates, Lyndel; Watson, Barry; King, Mark Johann
Though many jurisdictions internationally now require learner drivers to complete a specified number of hours of supervised driving practice before being able to drive unaccompanied, very few require learner drivers to complete a log book to record this practice and then present it to the licensing authority. Learner drivers in most Australian jurisdictions must complete a log book that records their practice, thereby confirming to the licensing authority that they have met the mandated hours of practice requirement. These log books facilitate the management and enforcement of minimum supervised hours of driving requirements. Parents of learner drivers in 2 Australian states, Queensland and New South Wales, completed an online survey assessing a range of factors, including their perceptions of the accuracy of their child's learner log book and the effectiveness of the log book system. The study indicates that the large majority of parents believe that their child's learner log book is accurate. However, they generally report that the log book system is only moderately effective as a system to measure the number of hours of supervised practice a learner driver has completed. The results of this study suggest the presence of a paradox, with many parents possibly believing that others are not as diligent in the use of log books as they are or that the system is too open to misuse. Given that many parents report that their child's log book is accurate, this study has important implications for the development and ongoing monitoring of hours of practice requirements in graduated driver licensing systems.
Matarín Jiménez, Tamara María; Fernández-Sola, Cayetano; Hernández-Padilla, José Manuel; Correa Casado, Matías; Antequera Raynal, Laura Helena; Granero-Molina, José
The aim of this study was to explore and understand the perceptions and experiences of women with fibromyalgia syndrome regarding their sexuality. Fibromyalgia syndrome is a chronic pathology, which compromises a woman's physical, mental and emotional health. Although concerns related to sexuality are commonly reported, research has tended to focus on the physical symptoms. An interpretive qualitative research methodology using Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics was carried out. This qualitative study explores the sexuality of women with fibromyalgia syndrome. A focus group and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 women with fibromyalgia syndrome. Data were collected between April - June 2014. Participants were recruited until findings reached saturation. Three themes define the perception of sexuality for these women: (i) Physical impact: don't touch, don't look; (ii) Sexuality and identity: fighting against their loss; (iii) Impact on the relationship: sexuality as a way of connecting the couple. Despite limitations, sexuality is important for the identity and quality of life of women with fibromyalgia syndrome. Together with the physical symptomology, guilt, fear and a lack of understanding compromise the coping process. Women need the support of their partner, their socio-family environment and health professionals. Nurses can aid the successful adjustment to sexual problems related to fibromyalgia syndrome. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Holowko, Natalie; Jones, Mark; Koupil, Ilona; Tooth, Leigh; Mishra, Gita
To investigate the combined effect of education and reproductive history on weight trajectory. The association of education with weight trajectory (1996-2012) in relation to reproductive history was analyzed among 9,336 women (born 1973-1978) from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health using random effects models. Compared with women with a university degree/higher, lower-educated women were 2 kg heavier at baseline and gained an additional 0.24 kg/year. Giving birth was associated with an increase in weight which was more pronounced among women having their first birth 32 years. While younger first-time mothers had a steeper weight trajectory (∼+0.16 kg/year, 95% CI: 0.1-0.3), this was less steep among lower-educated women. High-educated women with a second birth between 26 and 32 years had 0.9 kg decreased weight after this birth, while low-educated women gained 0.9 kg. While the effect of having children on weight in young adulthood was minimal, women having their first birth women. Educational differences in weight persisted after accounting for reproductive history, suggesting a need to explore alternative mechanisms through which social differences in weight are generated. © 2016 The Obesity Society.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM among older adults is an emerging health issue, however little is known about older people's experiences of using CAM and the cultural, geographical and other determinants of CAM use in this population. This study used qualitative methods to explore older women's views of CAM and reasons for their use of CAM. Participants for the project were drawn from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH 1921-1926 birth cohort. Women who responded positively to a question about CAM use in Survey 5 (2008 of the ALSWH were invited to participate in the study. A total of 13 rural and 12 urban women aged between 83 and 88 years agreed to be interviewed. Results The women expressed a range of views on CAM which fell into three broad themes: "push" factors such as dissatisfaction with conventional health services, "pull" factors which emphasised the positive aspects of choice and self-care in health matters, and barriers to CAM use. Overall, the "push' factors did not play a major role in the decision to use CAM, rather this was driven by "pull" factors related to health care self-responsibility and being able to source positive information about types of CAM. A number of barriers were identified such as access difficulties associated with increased age, limited mobility and restricted transport options, as well as financial constraints. Conclusions CAM use among older women was unlikely to be influenced by aspects of conventional health care ("push factors", but rather was reflective of the personal beliefs of the women and members of their close social networks ("pull factors". While it was also apparent that there were differences between the rural and urban women in their use of CAM, the reasons for this were mainly due to the difficulties inherent in accessing certain types of CAM in rural areas.
Monsuez, Jean-Jacques; Pham, Tai; Karam, Nicole; Amar, Laurence; Chicheportiche-Ayache, Corinne; Menasché, Philippe; Desnos, Michel; Dardel, Paul; Weill, Isabelle
Cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) self-perception by women may be inaccurate. A questionnaire was completed anonymously Online by women who self-reported their personal CVRF levels including age, weight, contraceptive use, menopausal status, smoking, diet and physical activities. Self-perceived risk was matched to actual cardiovascular risk according to the Framingham score. Among 5,240 young and middle-aged women with a high educational level, knowledge of personal CVRFs increased with age, from 51-90% for blood pressure (BP), 22-45% for blood glucose and 15-47% for blood cholesterol levels, between 30 and 65 years, respectively. This knowledge was lower for smoking compared with nonsmoking women: 62.5% vs. 74.5% for BP (P self-perception of individual risk are inaccurate in women. Educational interventions should be emphasized. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Brown, Ann; Knight, Tess
Ageing well and successful ageing have become important themes to describe how older individuals should keep ageing at bay. Products and services aimed at controlling ageing have become associated with ageing well. In this study we aimed to analyse the representation of older women in advertisements specific to appearance and ageing. In particular, we sought to explore how ageing for women was presented in the media over a period 50 years and when advertisements began to use the term 'anti-ageing'. A content analysis of 710 advertisements from two prominent Australian women's magazines, from 1960 to 2010, was conducted. Analyses showed that advertisements provided a narrow range of images representing women's physical appearance. The underlying messages were that ageing is problematic and that it had become unforgivable to show any signs of ageing. Text contained in advertisements for beauty products from the two chosen Australian magazines often gave specific and prescriptive advice to women on ways to avoid losing their youthful appearance. It was concluded that media relay powerful messages to spread and modify cultural beliefs informing individuals of a range of options that propose liberation from the problem of ageing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Aim: Analysis of the way women with borderline personality disorder (BPD perceive their bodies. Methods: The body perception was presented as a psychological model manifested in the attitude to one’s own body, the way of sensing and interpreting the bodily sensations, mental identification with the body, and the feeling of comfort in interpersonal closeness and social exposure situations. Material and methods: Twenty eight women took part in the study: 14 of them met the BPD criteria, 14 constituted a comparative group (selection by pairs. Three instruments were used: The Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90, self-constructed questionnaire examining one’s own body perception (Body Perception Scale – Skala Percepcji Ciała, SPC, and Borderline Scale from Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders (SCID-II to confirm BPD symptoms. Results: Women with BPD perceive their bodies more negatively in all examined aspects, as compared to those without personality disorders. Predominant are negative emotions towards one’s body and lack of confidence in one’s attraction for other people. Less intense become such traits as: the impression of perceptive changes, difficulty in identification with the body appearance, and avoidance of close physical contacts. Comparisons of SCL-90 results show that in women with BPD all psychopathological symptoms are more severe. These patients are characterized by an increased level of depressiveness, obsessive-compulsive traits, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism. The results profile shows a similar pattern of symptoms in both groups and it is not the type but severity of psychopathological symptoms that differentiates them.
Full Text Available Objectification has been found to have negative consequences on how women are perceived by others. However in an even more sexualized world being a sexual object has become a standard of physical attractiveness for women and objectification could foster a positive evaluation increasing attractiveness. Although Objectification Theory was originally grounded in women’s experiences, some research points to the promise of Objectification Theory for understanding men’s experiences as well. The aim of the paper was investigating the effects of objectification on gender stereotypes and perceived attractiveness. Two experimental studies were conducted. Study 1 (N=139 investigated the effects of objectification on female targets. Study 2 (N=146 investigated the effects on male targets. In both studies three dependent variables were considered: communality, agency, and attractiveness. Results of Study 1 revealed that objectified women were considered less communal and more attractive. Moreover, men perceived objectified women less agentic than the non-objectified ones, whereas women showed the opposite perception. Concerning men, objectification has a limited impact, as it interacted with participants’ gender only on communality: men considered objectified males more communal than the non-objectified ones, while women revealed the opposite perception.
Swami, Viren; Furnham, Adrian
This study examined social and physical perceptions of blonde and brunette women with different degrees of tattooing. Eighty-four female and 76 male undergraduates rated a series of 16 female line drawings that varied in 2 levels of hair colour and 8 levels of tattooing. Ratings were made for physical attractiveness and sexual promiscuity, as well as estimates of the number of alcohol units consumed on a typical night out. Results showed that tattooed women were rated as less physically attractive, more sexually promiscuous and heavier drinkers than untattooed women, with more negative ratings with increasing number of tattoos. There were also weak interactions between body art and hair colour, with blonde women in general rated more negatively than brunettes. Results are discussed in terms of stereotypes about women who have tattoos and the effects of such stereotypes on well-being.
Hardin, Kimeron Norman
The research was designed to measure the perceptions of health care professionals toward women with serious illness. Physicians, psychologists and nurses were randomly chosen from lists of licensed practicing professionals and were surveyed. Each respondent read one of four vignettes describing a woman who had received one of four diagnoses: breast cancer, lung cancer, heart attack, or severe burn. The respondents were asked to respond to the Profile of Mood States (POMS) as they perceived the woman had been feeling during the past week. They then answered a series of ten questions about the woman's recovery and about their own anticipated behaviors while interacting with her. Two-way ANOVAs revealed that nurses and psychologists perceived the woman as having more mood disturbance and they saw more need for psychological counseling than physicians, regardless of her diagnosis. Several differences emerged in terms of perceptions of diagnosis. Subjects perceived themselves as being more comfortable around heart attack patients than lung cancer patients, breast cancer patients or burn patients and as having more difficulty talking to a woman with lung cancer than a woman with a heart attack. They also perceived a woman with lung cancer as having poorer chances of survival and they perceived women with more disfiguring disorders, breast cancer and severe burns, as having more sexual adjustment problems than the other diagnostic groups. The results of this survey supports the need for training for health care professionals in recognizing psychological distress in, and appropriately referring, seriously ill women.
This article presents the findings from a phenomenological study that explored the understandings of Australian hospital-based nurse educators' experiences of their role. Purposive sampling resulted in 11 nurse educators from four large metropolitan hospitals within an Australian jurisdiction. The participants were asked how they understand their role and translate that understanding into practice. Thematic analysis identified four themes representative of nurse educators' understanding of their role: Becoming an Educator, Capability Building, Panacea, and Tension. A coherent picture emerged from subthemes highlighting that nurse educators were undervalued and value is added. Being undervalued and value adding are translated into nurse educator practice as resilience, being educationally literate, investing, and having a presence. This article identifies a gap in knowledge related to understanding the nurse educator role and informs recruitment and subsequent retention of nurses into nurse educator roles at a time when the nursing workforce in Australia and internationally is about to experience a major shortfall. Findings are specific to the Australian context and are not necessarily generalizable to other hospital jurisdictions. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2018;49(6):274-281. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.
Chou, Yueh-Ching; Lu, Zxy-Yann Jane; Wang, Frank T. Y.; Lan, Chang-Fu; Lin, Li-Chan
Background: No studies have ever been conducted concerning menstrual experiences among women with an intellectual disability in Taiwan. Materials and Methods: An in-depth interview was conducted at three public institutions and perceptions and experiences regarding menstruation were elicited from 55 women aged 21-65 years. Results: The…
Rumbach, Anna F; Rose, Tanya A; Cheah, Mynn
To explore Australian speech-language pathologists' use of non-speech oral motor exercises, and rationales for using/not using non-speech oral motor exercises in clinical practice. A total of 124 speech-language pathologists practising in Australia, working with paediatric and/or adult clients with speech sound difficulties, completed an online survey. The majority of speech-language pathologists reported that they did not use non-speech oral motor exercises when working with paediatric or adult clients with speech sound difficulties. However, more than half of the speech-language pathologists working with adult clients who have dysarthria reported using non-speech oral motor exercises with this population. The most frequently reported rationale for using non-speech oral motor exercises in speech sound difficulty management was to improve awareness/placement of articulators. The majority of speech-language pathologists agreed there is no clear clinical or research evidence base to support non-speech oral motor exercise use with clients who have speech sound difficulties. This study provides an overview of Australian speech-language pathologists' reported use and perceptions of non-speech oral motor exercises' applicability and efficacy in treating paediatric and adult clients who have speech sound difficulties. The research findings provide speech-language pathologists with insight into how and why non-speech oral motor exercises are currently used, and adds to the knowledge base regarding Australian speech-language pathology practice of non-speech oral motor exercises in the treatment of speech sound difficulties. Implications for Rehabilitation Non-speech oral motor exercises refer to oral motor activities which do not involve speech, but involve the manipulation or stimulation of oral structures including the lips, tongue, jaw, and soft palate. Non-speech oral motor exercises are intended to improve the function (e.g., movement, strength) of oral structures. The
Omeje, Joachim C; Oshi, Sarah N; Oshi, Daniel C
This study is based on a population-based, descriptive questionnaire survey, the objective of which was to elicit the perceptions of women in south-eastern Nigeria on whether possession of economic/household assets by women enhanced their capacity to negotiate reproductive issues with their husbands. The findings show that the respondents believed that possession of economic/household assets by women in their communities might not necessarily increase their negotiation power in their reproductive decision-making. Other factors tend to attenuate the effects of women's possession of economic/household assets on their reproductive bargaining power. Notable among these may be social norms that implicitly arrogate control of the assets owned by the conjugal couple to the man, even when they are bought by the women. Planners of reproductive health intervention projects, policy-makers and researchers need to be aware of such sociocultural specific phenomena, which do not fit with widely held international beliefs.
Dynes, Michelle; Stephenson, Rob; Rubardt, Marcie; Bartel, Doris
The paper uses data from Ethiopia and Kenya to examine how perceptions of community norms differentially shape contraceptive use among men and women. Women whose current number of sons is lower than their perception of the community ideal had lower odds of reporting contraceptive use, while women whose own personal ideal number of sons is lower than the community ideal had greater odds of reporting contraceptive use. Men and women in Kenya were influenced more by their perception of their social network's approval of family planning than by their own approval of family planning. Results highlight the importance of place, conceptualized as the place-specific perceptions of fertility ideals, when conducting reproductive health research. Identification of people who use contraception in the face of pervasive pronatalist community norms presents a point for future intervention. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Varanasi, L Chitra; Subasinghe, Asvini; Jayasinghe, Yasmin L; Callegari, Emma T; Garland, Suzanne M; Gorelik, Alexandra; Wark, John D
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common condition among reproductive-aged women. However, its exact prevalence is unknown. To determine the prevalence of PCOS in Australian women aged 16-29 years using the National Institutes of Health (NIH) criteria compared to self-reported PCOS, to compare co-morbidities between the groups and to determine the most distressing aspect of a diagnosis of PCOS for these young women. Participants were recruited from the Young Female Health Initiative (YFHI) and Safe-D studies. Participants completed questionnaires, physical examinations and blood tests from 2012 to 2016. In March 2016, two supplementary questionnaires were distributed: the first, comprising questions on reproductive health and impact of diagnosis, was sent to participants who self-reported having PCOS in the original studies. The second, comprising general reproductive health questions, was sent to the remainder. The prevalence of PCOS, according to the NIH criteria, was 12% (31/254), while the prevalence of self-reported PCOS was 8% (23/300). Only 35% (8/23) of those with self-reported PCOS actually fulfilled the NIH criteria for PCOS. Comorbidities were relatively similar among groups. Finally, approximately 65% (15/23) were unhappy or worried about their initial PCOS diagnosis, with 72% (13/18) stating fertility concerns were the most distressing aspect of their diagnosis. The lack of consistent and accurate diagnosis of PCOS in young women potentially leads to over-diagnosis. This creates unnecessary fears of health complications, particularly infertility. Therefore, we recommend the development of standardised criteria with set parameters that allow for better diagnosis of PCOS. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance use in pregnancy is a major public health problem. It can have profound effects on pregnancy outcomes, and childhood health and development. Additionally, women who use substances have their own health-related issues. Although intervention is important, these women often have difficulty using traditional systems of care. The New Choices program is a centralized, multi-sector approach to service delivery that has attempted to overcome barriers to care by offering one-stop shopping in a supportive environment. As part of an evaluation of this program designed for women who are pregnant and/or parenting young children, interviews were conducted with participants to gain insight into their experiences in New Choices and perceptions of any changes attributed to program involvement. Methods A qualitative, exploratory design was used to guide data collection and analysis. Four women participated in a focus group interview and seven women agreed to individual interviews over the course of the program evaluation (N = 11. A semi-structured interview guide was used to explore women's experiences in New Choices and their perceptions of the program and its impact. The interview data were analyzed using NVivo software and an inductive approach to data analysis. Results The emergent themes captured women's motivations for attending New Choices, benefits of participation, and overall quality of the program. Children were the primary motivating factor for program enrollment. Perceived benefits included decreased substance use, improved maternal health, enhanced opportunity for employment, increased access to other resources, enhanced parenting skills, and improved child behaviour and development. Women highly valued the comprehensive and centralized approach to service delivery that provided a range of informal and formal supports. Conclusions Interview findings endorse the appropriateness and potential efficacy of a collaborative
McCarthy, Simone; Thomas, Samantha L; Randle, Melanie; Bestman, Amy; Pitt, Hannah; Cowlishaw, Sean; Daube, Mike
Women's participation in, and harm from gambling, is steadily increasing. There has been very limited research to investigate how gambling behaviour, product preferences, and perceptions of gambling harm may vary across subgroups of women. This study surveyed a convenience sample of 509 women from Victoria and New South Wales, Australia. Women were asked a range of questions about their socio-demographic characteristics and gambling behaviour. Focusing on four gambling products in Australia-casino gambling, electronic gambling machines (EGMs), horse betting, and sports betting-women were asked about their frequency of participation, their product preferences, and perceptions of product harms. The sample was segmented a priori according to age and gambling risk status, and differences between groups were identified using Chi-square tests and ANOVAs. Thematic analysis was used to interpret qualitative data. Almost two thirds (n = 324, 63.7%) of women had engaged with one of the four products in the previous 12 months. Compared to other age groups, younger women aged 16-34 years exhibited a higher proportion of problem gambling, gambled more frequently, and across more products. While EGMs were the product gambled on most frequently by women overall, younger women were significantly more likely to bet on sports and gamble at casinos relative to older women. Qualitative data indicated that younger women engaged with gambling products as part of a "night out", "with friends", due to their "ease of access" and perceived "chance of winning big". There were significant differences in the perceptions of the harms associated with horse and sports betting according to age and gambling risk status, with younger women and gamblers perceiving these products as less harmful. This study highlights that there are clear differences in the gambling behaviour, product preferences, and perceptions of product harms between subgroups of women. A gendered approach will enable public
Saveanu Tomina; Borza Adriana
Our study aims at identifying correlations between preferences and psycho-social choices of women entrepreneurs, more precisely the effect of these characteristics on a given managerial strategy. Based on the data obtained through the administration of two types of questionnaires, we analyzed the relations between social and psychological set of perceptions and managerial strategy. Social success and managerial performance are related with these perceptions and thus we can identify a signific...
Full Text Available Our study aims at identifying correlations between preferences and psycho-social choices of women entrepreneurs, more precisely the effect of these characteristics on a given managerial strategy. Based on the data obtained through the administration of two types of questionnaires, we analyzed the relations between social and psychological set of perceptions and managerial strategy. Social success and managerial performance are related with these perceptions and thus we can identify a significant conversion of mentalities determined by the governmental changes which took place in Eastern Europe after 1990. The data presented here are driven from the research conducted within the project ”Entrepreneurship and equality of chances. A inter-regional model of entrepreneurship training for women in western Romania”.
Kim, Hee Joo; Gerber, Jurg
This article examines the effectiveness of diversionary restorative justice (RJ) conferences through the eyes of juvenile offenders. In Australia, Reintegrative Shaming Experiments (RISE) are based on Braithwaite's theory of reintegrative shaming. Previous studies, although showing that RISE reported high levels of victim satisfaction and positive changes in the attitudes of offenders, also demonstrated that it has different outcomes for juvenile offenders depending on the type of offense with which they were charged. However, the effectiveness of RISE in terms of the offenders' perceptions has not been addressed, and the impact of the offenders' perceptions about RISE still remains under investigation. Using Australian data from RISE between 1995 and 1999, this article examines juvenile offenders' perceptions on preventing reoffending, repaying the victim and society, and the degree of repentance. The data were taken from interviews with juvenile offenders to measure their perceptions after the court or RISE processing. A comparison of standard court processing effects and RISE on juvenile offending, including property crime, shoplifting, and violent offenses, was undertaken. The results from this study were somewhat inconsistent with previous research. In this study, there was no significant relationship between RJ conference and the offenders' own perceptions on the prevention of future offending. However, it was found that there were treatment effects on repaying the victim, repaying society, and the degree of feeling repentance, and that younger offenders wanted to repay the victim/society and feel repentance.
Full Text Available The leadership style of people in managerial positions has a significant impact on employee behavior and attitudes towards business. Therefore, finding out the perceptions of employees regarding their managers’ leadership style will guide to managers to display successful management. There are several distinctions in the literature as to the type of leadership. In this study, first the concept and types of leadership determined and then the autocratic, democratic and free reign leadership styles will be explained. In the second part of the study a field research, to measure the perceptions of women workers about their managers’ leadership style, will be included in the textile industry as leading sector in Kahramanmaras.
Lefler, Leanne L; McSweeney, Jean C; Garner, Kimberly K
Approximately 95% of older women have factors that put them at risk for developing cardiovascular disease, but research indicates many do not perceive themselves to be at risk. We examined older women's perceived risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) and the factors influencing their perceptions. We conducted a descriptive, qualitative study using in-depth, individual interviews and quantitative measures to assess perceived risk and risk factors. Twenty-four older African American and Caucasian women had a mean 4.46 cardiac risk factors but perceived their own CHD risk as unrealistically low at 1.95 cm (SD = 1.57, on 0-to-8 cm visual analogue scale). Narrative data clustered in themes that represented a lack of fact-based information and multiple misconceptions about CHD and prevention. Major improvements in CHD health are only achievable if risk factors are prevented. This research suggests older women have substantial needs for consistent CHD information and prevention guidance. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.
Mącik, Dorota; Ziółkowska, Patrycja; Kowalska, Monika
Analysis of changes in self-perception in post-mastectomy patients and its comparison with self-perception of healthy women. The subjects of this study were 50 women. The main group was post-mastectomy patients involved in the meetings of the Amazons Club (25 women). The reference group consisted of 25 healthy women. The method used in the study was the ACL (Adjective Check List) test, identifying 37 dimensions of self-image. Oncological patients completed a test twice (for current and pre-cancer self-image), and healthy women once - for current self. Both groups were selected similarly in respect of education level for the purpose of ensuring a similar level of insight. Retrospective self-image and the current one in the Amazon women group were highly convergent. Existing differences include a reduced need for achievement and dominance, and a lower level of self-confidence. However, the comparison of current self-images in both groups showed a large discrepancy of the results. The Amazon women assess themselves in a much more negative way. Also, their self-image is self-contradictory in certain characteristics. Mastectomy is a difficult experience requiring one to re-adapt and to accept oneself thereafter. The way of thinking about oneself is a defence mechanism helping to cope. The work with patients programmes must, therefore, focus on identifying their emotions and thoughts, especially on those they do not want to accept because of the perceived pressure from the environment to effectively and quickly deal with this difficult situation. The increasing acceptance of personal limitations may help the affected women to adjust psychologically faster and easier.
Full Text Available This paper examines, first, data about perceptions and attitudes in Latin-American immigrants and the Spanish population towards intimate partner violence against women. Secondly, it explores correlates of attitudes towards reporting cases of partner violence against women in a sample of Latin-American immigrants. Three data sources, which include two representative samples of the Spanish population and a sample of Latin-American immigrants, are used. Results show significant differences between Spanish and immigrant perceptions and attitudes toward intimate partner violence against women. Analyses also show that positive attitudes among Latin-American immigrants towards reporting cases of partner violence were more frequent among those who were less tolerant, who perceived it as a major problem in society, and tended not to blame the victims. These results underline the importance of public attitudes towards intimate partner violence against women for the understanding and prevention of this social problem.
The aim of this study was to describe and understand the perceptions of women doctors working ... Results: The main theme was balance. ... that the proximity of home and work gives a rural woman doctor far more connection with her family.
Opoku, Constance A; Browne, Edmund Nii Laryea; Spangenberg, Kathryn; Moyer, Cheryl; Kolbilla, David; Gold, Katherine J
This study assessed the perception of risk of cervical cancer and existence of risk factors for cervical cancer based on five known risk factors among women attending the Tamale Teaching Hospital in Tamale, Ghana. A consecutive sample of 300 women was interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire to inquire about risk factors and perception of risk of cervical cancer. Specific risk factors that were explored included early coitarche, multiple sexual partners, polygamous relationships, history of smoking, and having a current partner who had multiple sexual partners. Sixty-one per cent of women reported that they had no personal risk for cervical cancer. 27% of respondents were in polygamous relationships, and of those, more than half didn't think they were at an increased risk of cervical cancer. 2 women had a total of ≥ 5 sexual partners in their lifetime and neither believed they were at any risk for cervical cancer. 23% said their current partner had had at least 2 sexual partners in his lifetime, and of those, (61%) thought they were at no risk for cervical cancer. 46% of respondents reported not having any of the risk factors listed in the study. 23% of respondents reported having one risk factor while 21% had two risk factors and 11% had three or more risk factors. Women's perception of personal risk for cervical cancer is lower than their actual risk based on the five behavioural risk factors assessed and a lack of knowledge of the personal factors for the disease. This project was supported by NIH Research Training Grant #R25 TW009345 funded by the Fogarty International Centre, in partnership with several NIH Institutes (NIMH, NIGMS, NHLBI, OAR and OWH).
Mukerji, G; Kainth, S; Pendrith, C; Lowe, J; Feig, D S; Banerjee, A T; Wu, W; Lipscombe, L L
To determine what proportion of women with gestational diabetes underestimate their diabetes risk and identify factors associated with low diabetes risk perception. Participants included pregnant adult women with gestational diabetes between 2009 and 2012 across seven diabetes clinics in Ontario, Canada. Data were collected through chart review and a survey that included a diabetes risk perception question. Of the 614 of 902 women (68% response rate) with gestational diabetes, 89% correctly responded that gestational diabetes increases the risk for developing diabetes. However, 47.1% of women perceived themselves to be at low risk for developing diabetes within 10 years. On multivariable analysis, BMI gestational diabetes history, absent diabetes family history and absent insulin use were appropriately associated with low diabetes risk perception. However, compared with Caucasian ethnicity, high-risk ethnicity (Aboriginal, Latin American, West Indian, South Asian, Middle Eastern, Filipino, Black, Pacific Islander) [odds ratio (OR) 2.07; 95% CI 1.30-3.31] and East and South East Asian ethnicity (OR 2.01; 1.10-3.67) were associated with low diabetes risk perception. After further adjustment for immigration, only high-risk ethnicity remained a predictor of low diabetes risk perception (OR 1.86; 1.09-3.19), whereas East and South East Asian ethnicity did not (OR 1.67; 0.86-3.22). Although the majority of women recognized gestational diabetes as a risk factor for diabetes, almost half underestimated their personal high diabetes risk despite prenatal care. Furthermore, women from high-risk ethnic groups were more likely to underestimate their risk, even after adjusting for immigration. Interventions tailored to these groups are necessary to enhance perceived diabetes risk. © 2015 Diabetes UK.
Lambert, Eric G; Smith, Brad; Geistman, James; Cluse-Tolar, Terry; Jiang, Shanhe
Stalking is a crime that can terrify its victims and ultimately take a severe emotional toll. Although a growing body of research has examined stalking experiences and reactions of victims, there has been far less research on whether men and women differ in their perceptions of stalking. Toward this end, a survey of college students at a large public 4-year Midwestern university was undertaken. We examined differences is how men and women view stalking and whether gender differences were moderated by prior stalking experience. Specifically, we examined whether there were gender differences in perceptions of the pervasiveness of stalking, the harm stalking does, who tends to be stalked, if stalking mainly involves former relational partners, possible motivations for stalking, the line between courtship and stalking, and notions of victim blaming. We found significant differences in stalking views between men and women on all the measures, except for perceptions of the line between courtship and stalking. Women tended to perceive stalking as more pervasive and harmful. Men were more likely to perceive stalking as involving strangers and to blame the victim for the stalking. Female and male respondents also differed in their perceptions of motivations for stalking. Prior victim stalking experience did not moderate the gender differences. Although being a prior stalking victim had a significant association with 4 of the 7 stalking perception variables, its effect sizes were smaller than that of gender.
Objective: To examine, for dominant Australian cigarette brands, brand identity (overriding brand vision), brand positioning (brand identity elements communicated to the consumer), brand image (consumers' brand perceptions) and brand equity (financial value).
Seib, Charrlotte; Whiteside, Eliza; Lee, Kathryn; Humphreys, Janice; Tran, Tiet Hanh Dao; Chopin, Lisa; Anderson, Debra
Chronic psychological stress may pose a serious threat to health, although the mechanisms are not fully understood. This study examines the impact of stress on modifiable lifestyle factors, depressive symptoms, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and chronic illness in older Australian women. Cross-sectional data were collected from a random sample of 181 older adults aged 60 to 70 years from rural and urban areas of South-East Queensland, Australia. We used structural equation modelling to examine associations between stress, modifiable lifestyle factors, HRQOL, and chronic illness. Parameter estimates show that older women who reported life stressors where they felt helpless and feared for their life (high-magnitude stressors) also reported higher body mass index (p = .03) and more chronic illness (p unhealthy lifestyle factors. Findings highlight the need for more research on how stress reduction, a healthy lifestyle, and positive coping strategies can be used to reduce the effects of high-magnitude stress on HRQOL and chronic illness. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Memon, Fouzia R; Jonker, Leon; Qazi, Roshan A
To determine knowledge levels, and attitudes and perceptions towards, menopause among highly educated Asian women in their midlife. A cross-sectional survey. Five teaching institutions in Hyderabad, Pakistan. In total, 200 out of 225 (89% response rate) teachers, lecturers and professors, aged 40-59 years, were surveyed in 2013 using a self-administered questionnaire. The mean age of responders was 48 years. Premenopausal and perimenopausal women attributed for 58%, whereas 42% were postmenopausal. All women had a masters degree; 15% had a PhD degree. Forty-six percent of responders thought they had sufficient knowledge about the menopause and 87% had positive perceptions about it, with 76% feeling life was easier and calmer as a result of it. Reported negative perceptions included 30% of women experiencing feelings of grumpiness, irritability, altered work capability and loss of femininity. Health professionals were an information resource. of 60% of cases, only 5% of participants knew about hormone replacement therapy and none knew about available alternative therapies. Despite the fact that the majority of women felt well informed and exhibited a positive attitude towards menopause, a strong urge for more knowledge was expressed. Public health care systems should mobilize resources and take measures to improve women's awareness and knowledge about menopause-related changes through a variety of educational tools and media, including the Internet. A recommendation would be for physicians to provide more information about menopausal symptoms and also therapies to alleviate these symptoms, regardless of the patient's socioeconomic background. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Ahmad, Mas S; Abuzar, Menaka A; Razak, Ishak A; Rahman, Sabariah A; Borromeo, Gelsomina L
Education in oral health is important to prepare future medical professionals for collaborative roles in maintaining patients' oral health, an important component of general health and well-being. The aims of this study were to determine the perceptions of medical students in Malaysia and Australia of the quality of their training in oral health care and their perceptions of their professional role in maintaining the oral health of their patients. A survey was administered in the classroom with final-year Malaysian (n=527; response rate=79.3%) and Australian (n=455; response rate: 60%) medical students at selected institutions in those countries. In the results, most of these medical students reported encountering patients with oral health conditions including ulcers, halitosis, and edentulism. A majority in both countries reported believing they should advise patients to obtain regular dental check-ups and eat a healthy diet, although they reported feeling less than comfortable in managing emergency dental cases. A high percentage reported they received a good education in smoking cessation but not in managing dental trauma, detecting cancerous lesions, or providing dietary advice in oral disease prevention. They expressed support for inclusion of oral health education in medical curricula. These students' experience with and perceptions of oral health care provide valuable information for medical curriculum development in these two countries as well as increasing understanding of this aspect of interprofessional education and practice now in development around the world.
Gauss, Julie W.; Mabiso, Athur; Williams, Karen Patricia
BACKGROUND Understanding women’s psychological barriers to getting Papanicolaou (Pap) screening has potential to impact cancer disparities. This study examined pain perceptions of Pap testing among Black, Latina and Arab women and goal setting to receive Pap tests. METHODS Data on 420 women, a longitudinal study, were analyzed using Chi-square tests of differences and generalized linear mixed models. RESULTS At baseline, 30.3% of Black and 35.5% of Latina women perceived Pap tests to be very painful compared to 24.2% of Arab women. Perceptions of pain influenced goal settings, such as scheduling a first ever Pap test (Odds ratio = 0.58, 95% Confidence interval: 0.14-0.94). Immediately following the intervention, women’s perception that Pap tests are very painful significantly declined (P-valuetest is very painful significantly reduces the likelihood of Black, Latina and Arab women setting the goal to schedule their first ever Pap test. Latina women are the least likely to improve their perception that the Pap test is very painful, though national statistics show they have the highest rates of morbidity and mortality from cervical cancer. These findings are instructive for designing tailored interventions to break down psychological barriers to Pap screening among underserved women. PMID:23288606
Full Text Available Zhixian Sui,1 Jodie M Dodd1,21The University of Adelaide, Robinson Institute, Discipline of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Women’s and Children’s Hospital, 2Department of Perinatal Medicine, Women’s and Babies Division, Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Adelaide, SA, AustraliaAbstract: Overweight and obesity have significant implications during pregnancy and childbirth. The objective of this review was to provide a comprehensive overview of the effect of physical activity on pregnancy outcomes, the change of physical activity during pregnancy, and women’s perception of being physically active during pregnancy, with a particular focus on women who are overweight or obese. Many studies have investigated the beneficial effect of exercise during pregnancy, including reduced risk of gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and operative birth, in addition to improved cardiovascular function, overall fitness, psychological well-being, and mood stability. Benefits for the infant include reduced risks of prematurity and improved fetal growth, although there is more limited information about longer-term health benefits for both women and infants. The existing literature examining physical activity patterns during pregnancy has generally focused on women of all body mass index categories, consistently indicating a reduction in activity over the course of pregnancy. However, the available literature evaluating physical activity during pregnancy among women who are overweight or obese is more limited and contradictory. A number of studies identified barriers preventing women from being active during pregnancy, including pregnancy symptoms, lack of time, access to child care, and concerns about their safety and that of their unborn baby. Conversely, significant enablers included positive psychological feelings, family influence, and receiving advice from health professionals. Very few studies have provided insights about perceptions of being active during
Klein, P M
A convenient sample of 32 women seeking abortion was studied to determine the relationship between a woman's use of birth control and her perception of her chance and ability of conceiving. Subjects were between the ages of 16 and 29 years, white, unmarried, and gravida one. The Consistency Chance and Ability inventory, a self-report questionnaire, was completed by each subject. The data show a relationship between a woman's use of birth control and her perception of her chance and ability of conceiving. How nurses can assist women in making choices about contraceptive use is discussed.
Miner, Kathi N.; Cortina, Lilia M.
The present study examined perceptions of interpersonal injustice as a mediator of the relationship between observed incivility toward women at work and employees' occupational well-being. We also examined gender of the observer as a moderator of these mediational relationships. Using online survey data from 1702 (51% women; 92% White) employees, results showed that perceptions of injustice partially mediated the relationship between observed incivility toward women and job satisfaction, turnover intentions, and organizational trust. Men reported greater perceptions of injustice than did women the more they observed the uncivil treatment of women at work, and the indirect effects of observed incivility toward women on well-being were stronger for men compared to women. Observed incivility toward women also had direct relationships with the occupational well-being outcomes over and above the impact mediated through injustice, particularly for women. Specifically, observing incivility toward female coworkers directly related to lowered job satisfaction and perceptions of safety for female bystanders. In addition, although both male and female bystanders reported heightened turnover intentions and lowered trust in the organization with higher levels of observed incivility toward women, these relationships were stronger for female than male observers. Our findings both replicate and extend past research on vicarious workplace incivility toward women. PMID:27242558
Full Text Available The present study examined perceptions of interpersonal injustice as a mediator of the relationship between observed incivility toward women at work and employees’ occupational well-being. We also examined gender of the observer as a moderator of these mediational relationships. Using online survey data from 1,702 (51% women; 92% White employees, results showed that perceptions of injustice partially mediated the relationship between observed incivility toward women and job satisfaction, turnover intentions, and organizational trust. Men reported greater perceptions of injustice than did women the more they observed the uncivil treatment of women at work and the indirect effects of observed incivility toward women on well-being were stronger for men compared to women. Observed incivility toward women also had direct relationships with the occupational well-being outcomes over and above the impact mediated through injustice, particularly for women. Specifically, observing incivility toward female coworkers directly related to lowered job satisfaction and perceptions of safety for female bystanders. In addition, although both male and female bystanders reported heightened turnover intentions and lowered trust in the organization with higher levels of observed incivility toward women, these relationships were stronger for female than male observers. Our findings both replicate and extend past research on vicarious workplace incivility toward women.
Fortington, Lauren V; Finch, Caroline F
Participation in Australian football (AF) has traditionally been male dominated and current understanding of injury and priorities for prevention are based solely on reports of injuries in male players. There is evidence in other sports that indicates that injury types differ between males and females. With increasing participation in AF by females, it is important to consider their specific injury and prevention needs. This study aimed to provide a first injury profile from existing sources for female AF. Compilation of injury data from four prospectively recorded data sets relating to female AF: (1) hospital admissions in Victoria, 2008/09-13/14, n=500 injuries; (2) emergency department (ED) presentations in Victoria, 2008/09-2012/13, n=1,879 injuries; (3) insurance claims across Australia 2004-2013, n=522 injuries; (4) West Australian Women's Football League (WAWFL), 2014 season club data, n=49 injuries. Descriptive results are presented as injury frequencies, injury types and injury to body parts. Hospital admissions and ED presentations were dominated by upper limb injuries, representing 47% and 51% of all injuries, respectively, primarily to the wrist/hand at 32% and 40%. Most (65%) insurance claim injuries involved the lower limb, 27% of which were for knee ligament damage. A high proportion of concussions (33%) were reported in the club-collected data. The results provide the first compilation of existing data sets of women's AF injuries and highlight the need for a rigorous and systematic injury surveillance system to be instituted.
Wood, Terence; Burkot, Camilla; Howes, Stephen
In this article, we use data from the 2013 and 2015 Australian Aid Stakeholder Surveys to gauge the extent of the changes to the Australian Government Aid Program since the 2013 federal election. The two surveys targeted the same set of stakeholders of the aid program, and both gathered data on a wide range of aspects of its functioning. As we assess the findings that emerged from the surveys, we situate our work amongst recent academic studies that have looked at the post-2013 aid changes in Australia. Our key findings are that the post-2013 changes to Australian aid have had wide-ranging impacts and have led to deteriorating overall aid quality. However, changes have not affected all aspects of the aid program equally, and some changes are starting to be reversed. In discussion, we examine what these developments mean for the future of Australian aid.
Roelofs, Renée L; Wingbermühle, Ellen; Freriks, Kim; Verhaak, Chris M; Kessels, Roy P C; Egger, Jos I M
Noonan syndrome (NS) and Turner syndrome (TS) are associated with cognitive problems and difficulties in affective information processing. While both phenotypes include short stature, facial dysmorphisms, and a webbed neck, genetic etiology and neuropsychological phenotype differ significantly. The present study examines putative differences in affective information processing and social assertiveness between adult women with NS and TS. Twenty-six women with NS, 40 women with TS, and 40 female controls were matched on age and intelligence, and subsequently compared on (1) alexithymia, measured by the Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire, (2) emotion perception, evaluated by the Emotion Recognition Task, and (3) social assertiveness and social discomfort, assessed by the Scale for Interpersonal Behavior. Women with TS showed higher levels of alexithymia than women with NS and controls (P-values assertiveness and the level of social discomfort. Women with NS and TS demonstrated different patterns of impairment in affective information processing, in terms of alexithymia and emotion perception. The present findings suggest neuropsychological phenotyping to be helpful for the diagnosis of specific cognitive-affective deficits in genetic syndromes, for the enhancement of genetic counseling, and for the development of personalized treatment plans. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Bissonnette-Maheux, Véronique; Provencher, Veronique; Lapointe, Annie; Dugrenier, Marilyn; Dumas, Audrée-Anne; Pluye, Pierre; Straus, Sharon; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Desroches, Sophie
Chronic diseases are the leading cause of death (63%) worldwide. A key behavioral risk factor is unhealthy eating. New strategies must be identified and evaluated to improve dietary habits. Social media, such as blogs, represent a unique opportunity for improving knowledge translation in health care through interactive communication between health consumers and health professionals. Despite the proliferation of food and lifestyle blogs, no research has been devoted to understanding potential blog readers' perceptions of healthy eating blogs written by dietitians. To identify women's salient beliefs and perceptions regarding the use of healthy eating blogs written by dietitians promoting the improvement of their dietary habits. We conducted a qualitative study with female Internet users living in the Quebec City, QC, area with suboptimal dietary habits. First, the women explored 4 existing healthy eating blogs written in French by qualified dietitians. At a focus group 2-4 weeks later, they were asked to discuss their experience and perceptions. Focus group participants were grouped by age (18-34, 35-54, and 55-75 years) and by their use of social media (users/nonusers). Using a questionnaire based on the Theory of Planned Behavior, participants were asked to identify salient beliefs underlying their attitudes (advantages/disadvantages), subjective norms (what people important to them would think), and perceptions of control (facilitators/barriers) regarding the use of a healthy eating blog written by a dietitian to improve dietary habits. Discussion groups were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, coded, and a deductive content analysis was performed independently by 2 individuals using the NVivo software (version 10). All participants (N=33) were Caucasian women aged between 22 to 73 year. Main advantages perceived of using healthy eating blogs written by a dietitian were that they provided useful recipe ideas, improved lifestyle, were a credible source of
Dryer, Rachel; Uesaka, Yuri; Manalo, Emmanuel; Tyson, Graham
To identify similarities and differences in beliefs about the causes of Bulimia Nervosa (BN) held by Asian (Japanese) women and Western (Australian) women, and hence, to examine the applicability of belief models of eating disorders (ED) across different cultures. Four hundred three Japanese and 256 Australian female university students (aged 17-35 years) completed a questionnaire that gauged beliefs about the causes of BN. Among the Australian women, the four-component structure of perceived causes (dieting and eating practices, family dynamics, socio-cultural pressure, and psychological vulnerability) found in Dryer et al. (2012) was replicated. Among the Japanese women, however, a three-component structure (without the psychological vulnerability component) was obtained. The groups also differed in the causal component they most strongly endorsed, that being socio-cultural pressure for the Australian women, and dieting and eating practices for the Japanese women. The Japanese participants were found to endorse three out of the four Western-based causal explanations for BN, but the relative importance they placed on those explanations differed from that of the Australian participants. Further research is needed, particularly to establish whether Japanese women simply fail to see psychological vulnerability as a viable cause of BN, or there are in fact cultural differences in the extent to which such vulnerability causes BN. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Internalized homophobia has been linked to depression among gay men, lesbians, and bisexuals. Relatively little research has investigated the link between internalized homophobia and suicidal thoughts and behaviors. The current research investigated the interrelations among internalized homophobia, depressive symptoms, and suicidal ideation by testing additive, mediation, and moderation models. Self-identified Australian gay men (n = 360), lesbians (n = 444), and bisexual women (n = 114) completed the Internalized Homophobia Scale, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, and the suicide subscale of the General Health Questionnaire. Results supported the additive and partial mediation models for gay men and the mediation and moderation models for lesbians. None of the models were supported for bisexual women. The findings imply that clinicians should focus on reducing internalized homophobia and depressive symptoms among gay men and lesbians, and depressive symptoms among bisexual women, to reduce suicidal ideation.
Bhutani, Jaikrit; Kalra, Sanjay; Bhutani, Sukriti; Kalra, Bharti
The cross cultural differences in perception of menopausal symptoms are well known and these differences in perception of hypoglycemic symptoms in Russian-speaking and Caucasian postmenopausal women have been reported. This study assessed cross - linguistic and cross - cultural differences in symptomatology of self reported hypoglycemia, between Punjabi and Hindi speaking diabetic post menopausal women. Thirty Punjabi speaking and 20 Hindi speaking diabetic postmenopausal women aged over 50 years, were recruited for this study. Each subject was asked, what happens to you when you have low sugar? in the language of her choice, and spontaneous answers were recorded verbatim. The data so obtained was analyzed by paper and pen method to obtain an understanding of the frequency of self reporting of various symptoms and then analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science ver.19.0. Symptoms of hollowness, cold sweats and headache correlated significantly (P Punjabi speaking cohort were bilingual. Some symptoms of hypoglycemia may have been missed or over-reported by participants. Diabetes care professionals should be aware that persons with diabetes from varying linguistic backgrounds may report symptoms of hypoglycemia differently.
Darak, Shrinivas; Gadgil, Mukta; Balestre, Eric; Kulkarni, Maitreyee; Kulkarni, Vinay; Kulkarni, Sanjeevani; Orne-Gliemann, Joanna
Since the beginning of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in India, pregnant women attending antenatal clinics (ANC) have been considered as a low HIV risk population. Yet, a substantial proportion of new HIV infections are occurring among stable heterosexual couples. This paper sought to investigate the proportion and profile of women who, within the low-risk population, are potentially at higher risk of HIV infection. HIV risk perception of pregnant women enrolled within the ANRS 12127 Prenahtest trial was described and associated socio-behavioral characteristics, husband's characteristics, and HIV-related characteristics were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Among 484 women enrolled, baseline data were collected for 479 women and 460 women with completed data were considered for the present analysis (96%). Eighty-nine (19.4%) women perceived themselves at risk of HIV. Women with educational level Women who had heard about sexually transmitted infections were also more likely to report HIV risk perception (AOR = 3.36 [CI = 1.83-6.18]). Substantial proportion of women (one out of five) perceived themselves at risk of HIV and most of these have reported some form of vulnerability in their couple relationship such as intimate partner violence, alcoholic partner, lack of communication, and spaces for communication with partner. Though awareness and knowledge is the first step for prevention, considering the vulnerabilities associated with HIV risk perception, HIV prevention interventions in India should target overall sources of vulnerability to HIV. Targeted risk reduction for women in ANC should be considered for primary HIV prevention among couples.
Carapinha, René; McCracken, Caitlin M; Warner, Erica T; Hill, Emorcia V; Reede, Joan Y
Gender inequalities in the careers of faculty in academic medicine could partially be attributed to an organizational climate that can exclude or be nonsupportive of women faculty. This study explores the climate for women faculty from a systems perspective at the organizational and individual levels based on the perceptions of women faculty. Race differences were also investigated. Cross-sectional survey data from women faculty (N = 3127) at 13 purposively sampled medical schools and an institutional assessment of organizational characteristics were used. Organizational factors related to the climate for women were identified using bivariate statistics. The association between perceived climate for women and organizational characteristics, individual perceptions of the work environment and individual career, and personal characteristics with control variables were investigated using hierarchical linear regression models. Organizational effects by race/ethnicity were estimated using interaction terms. The climate for women faculty varied across institutions and by classification as minority-serving institutions (MSIs). Respondent's report of existence of an office for women's affairs, trust in leadership, and satisfaction with mentoring were positively associated with the climate for women. Perceived workplace discrimination and work-family conflict were inversely associated with a positive climate. No race/ethnicity differences were observed in the multivariable analysis. The climate for women faculty in academic medicine should not be regarded constant across organizations, specifically between MSIs and non-MSIs. Efforts to advance a positive climate for women could focus on improving trust in leadership, increasing support for structures/offices for women, and mitigating perceived discrimination and work-family conflict.
Truijens, Sophie; Zalm, van der Marieke; Pop, V.J.M.; Kuppens, S.M.I.
A considerable proportion of pregnant women with a fetus in breech position refuses external cephalic version (ECV), with fear of pain as important barrier. As a consequence, they are at high risk for caesarean section at term. The current study investigated determinants of pain perception during
Truijens, Sophie E. M.; van der Zalm, Marieke; Pop, Victor J. M.; Kuppens, S.M.
Objective A considerable proportion of pregnant women with a fetus in breech position refuses external cephalic version (ECV), with fear of pain as important barrier. As a consequence, they are at high risk for caesarean section at term. The current study investigated determinants of pain perception
Full Text Available Demographic changes of inhabitants are a factor changing increasingly the situation in Europe and other developed parts of the world. People live longer and are more vital than in the past. The ageing of population affects many areas of everyday life. The number of older persons grows and their characteristics are essentially different than the characteristics of past generations. Those were the reasons for the authors’ interest in the perception of the psychological age of women older than 50. They also focused on the differences between a group of women who see themselves as younger than their actual age and a group of women who feel older. The third field of interest was how that influence on their behavior as a consumer. A total of 225 women were included in the research. To acquire the informations we use a questionnaire, which includes questions about the chronological age against the perceived age and questions about 23 values, 31 free time activities and 15 sports activities. Results show that more than a half of the women feel younger than they really are, 40% feel as old as they are and less than 5% feel older than their actual age. More than a half of the interviewed women think they look 10 years younger. Most of the women think that a person is old when he/she is over 70.
Borthwick, Alan M; Nancarrow, Susan A; Vernon, Wesley; Walker, Jeremy
This paper explores the notion of professional status from the perspective of a sample of Australian podiatrists; how it is experienced, what factors are felt to affect it, and how these are considered to influence professional standing within an evolving healthcare system. Underpinning sociological theory is deployed in order to inform and contextualise the study. Data were drawn from a series of in-depth semi-structured interviews (n = 21) and focus groups (n = 9) with podiatrists from across four of Australia's eastern states (Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria and Australian Capital Territory), resulting in a total of 76 participants. Semi-structured interview schedules sought to explore podiatrist perspectives on a range of features related to professional status within podiatry in Australia. Central to the retention and enhancement of status was felt to be the development of specialist roles and the maintenance of control over key task domains. Key distinctions in private and public sector environments, and in rural and urban settings, were noted and found to reflect differing contexts for status development. Marketing was considered important to image enhancement, as was the cache attached to the status of the universities providing graduate education. Perceived determinants of professional status broadly matched those identified in the wider sociological literature, most notably credentialism, client status, content and context of work (such as specialisation) and an ideological basis for persuading audiences to acknowledge professional status. In an environment of demographic and workforce change, and the resultant policy demands for healthcare service re-design, enhanced opportunities for specialisation appear evident. Under the current model of professionalism, both role flexibility and uniqueness may prove important.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper explores the notion of professional status from the perspective of a sample of Australian podiatrists; how it is experienced, what factors are felt to affect it, and how these are considered to influence professional standing within an evolving healthcare system. Underpinning sociological theory is deployed in order to inform and contextualise the study. Methods Data were drawn from a series of in-depth semi-structured interviews (n = 21 and focus groups (n = 9 with podiatrists from across four of Australia's eastern states (Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria and Australian Capital Territory, resulting in a total of 76 participants. Semi-structured interview schedules sought to explore podiatrist perspectives on a range of features related to professional status within podiatry in Australia. Results Central to the retention and enhancement of status was felt to be the development of specialist roles and the maintenance of control over key task domains. Key distinctions in private and public sector environments, and in rural and urban settings, were noted and found to reflect differing contexts for status development. Marketing was considered important to image enhancement, as was the cache attached to the status of the universities providing graduate education. Conclusion Perceived determinants of professional status broadly matched those identified in the wider sociological literature, most notably credentialism, client status, content and context of work (such as specialisation and an ideological basis for persuading audiences to acknowledge professional status. In an environment of demographic and workforce change, and the resultant policy demands for healthcare service re-design, enhanced opportunities for specialisation appear evident. Under the current model of professionalism, both role flexibility and uniqueness may prove important.
Calder, Kristina M; Martin, Alison; Lydiate, Jessica; MacDermid, Joy C; Galea, Victoria; MacIntyre, Norma J
Arthritis of the hand can limit a person's ability to perform daily activities. Whether or not sensory deficits contribute to the disability in this population remains unknown. The primary purpose of this study was to determine if women with osteoarthritis (OA) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA) of the hand have sensory impairments. Sensory function in the dominant hand of women with hand OA or RA and healthy women was evaluated by measuring sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs) from the median, ulnar and radial nerves, sensory mapping (SM), and vibratory and current perception thresholds (VPT and CPT, respectively) of the second and fifth digits. All SNAP amplitudes were significantly lower for the hand OA and hand RA groups compared with the healthy group (p sensory fibers in the median, ulnar and radial nerves. Less apparent were losses in conduction speed or sensory perception.
East, Leah; Jackson, Debra; O'Brien, Louise; Peters, Kathleen
Sexually transmitted infections have long been associated with stigma and stereotypes due to their very nature. Throughout history sexually transmitted infections have been associated with female prostitution and deviant immoral behaviour making women who contract these infections particularly vulnerable to being stigmatised and stereotyped. Although the stigma attached to such infections has previously been documented in the literature, the aim of this research was to gain in depth insight into young Australian women's experiences of having a sexually transmitted infection from a feminist perspective. Findings from this study provide insight into the onerous effects stigma can have on women with these infections and sheds light on how these effects can influence self-perceptions, fear of rejection and feelings of unworthiness. These findings can provide nurses with greater understanding and insight into the effects of stigma on women's experiences of having a sexually transmitted infection. Having this understanding and insight has the potential to promote therapeutic care and minimise the stigma that may be felt among women who have contracted this type of infection.
Alstveit, Marit; Severinsson, Elisabeth; Karlsen, Bjørg
The World Health Organization calls on health professionals to support women in combining maternity and work. The aim of this study was to explore midwives' and public health nurses' perceptions of supporting employed women to balance work and family life during pregnancy and early motherhood. An exploratory design, including multistage focus group interviews, was used. The focus group consisted of five midwives and one public health nurse who was working in maternity care. The data were analyzed by using qualitative content analysis. The comprehensive theme, "empowering the women when they are in 'another' state of normality", was based on two themes, "being in dialogue with the women" and "supporting the women to manage daily activities". The first theme was based on the subthemes, "perceiving the women to be in 'another' state of normality" and "providing an open atmosphere for dialogue", while the second subtheme was based on "confirming self-esteem" and "suggesting adjustments at work". The midwives and public health nurse empowered the women by enhancing their ability to carry out the self-care that was necessary in order to manage both their work and family life. Collaboration between maternity healthcare providers and employers should be developed in order to support employed women. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Yerkes, Mara A; Martin, Bill; Baxter, Janeen; Rose, Judy
Mothers' return to work following childbirth is widely recognized as a key stage in establishing employment arrangements that disadvantage them in the long run. This article investigates why mothers accept these unequal arrangements using data from a qualitative study of 109 Australian mothers. It focuses on mothers' perceptions of the fairness and justice of the flexibility of arrangements they commonly enter into upon return to work. The article draws attention to the importance of different justice frameworks, distributive, procedural and interactional, in understanding women's acceptance of gender inequality in paid work. The results indicate that most mothers view their workplace arrangements as fair, consistent with a distributive justice framework. Many women also place great importance on interactional justice, particularly in their experiences in negotiating flexibility. The article also identifies differences across employment type with women in jobs with career prospects more likely to invoke interactional justice frameworks than women in jobs with few career prospects.
Szalacha, Laura A; Hughes, Tonda L; McNair, Ruth; Loxton, Deborah
We examined the relationships among experiences of interpersonal violence, mental health, and sexual identity in a national sample of young adult women in Australia. We used existing data from the third (2003) wave of young adult women (aged 25-30) in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH). We conducted bivariate analyses and fit multiple and logistic regression models to test experiences of six types of interpersonal violence (physical abuse, severe physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, harassment, and being in a violent relationship), and the number of types of violence experienced, as predictors of mental health. We compared types and number of types of violence across sexual identity subgroups. Experiences of interpersonal violence varied significantly by sexual identity. Controlling for demographic characteristics, compared to exclusively heterosexual women, mainly heterosexual and bisexual women were significantly more likely to report physical, sexual, and emotional abuse. Mainly heterosexual and lesbian women were more likely to report severe physical abuse. Mainly heterosexual women were more than three times as likely to have been in a violent relationship in the past three years, and all three sexual minority subgroups were two to three times as likely to have experienced harassment. Bisexual women reported significantly higher levels of depression than any of the other sexual identity groups and scored lower on mental health than did exclusively heterosexual women. In linear regression models, interpersonal violence strongly predicted poorer mental health for lesbian and bisexual women. Notably, mental health indicators were similar for exclusively heterosexual and sexual minority women who did not report interpersonal violence. Experiencing multiple types of interpersonal violence was the strongest predictor of stress, anxiety and depression. Interpersonal violence is a key contributor to mental health disparities
Dahlem, Chin Hwa Y; Villarruel, Antonia M; Ronis, David L
Poor patient-provider interaction among racial/ethnic minorities is associated with disparities in health care. In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, we examine African American women's perspectives and experiences of patient-provider interaction (communication and perceived discrimination) during their initial prenatal visit and their influences on perceptions of care received and prenatal health behaviors. Pregnant African American women (n = 204) and their providers (n = 21) completed a pre- and postvisit questionnaire at the initial prenatal visit. Women were also interviewed face to face at the subsequent return visit. Women perceived high quality patient-provider communication (PPC) and perceived low discrimination in their interaction with providers. Multiple regression analyses showed that PPC had a positive effect on trust in provider (p prenatal care satisfaction (p prenatal health behaviors. Findings suggest that quality PPC improves the prenatal care experience for African American women. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available Objective: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is one of the fatal complications of diabetes mellitus. The mortality of CVD is higher in diabetic persons. Women are at a higher risk for CVD. The purpose of this study is to determine the perception of CVD risk among women with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 58 diabetic women with type 2 diabetes in a Diabetes clinic in Qaen, South Khorasan province, Iran. The attitude of participants towards CVD was assessed by a modified RPS-DD questionnaire. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 20. Results: The participants aged from 31 to 66 years old. The mean duration of diabetic diagnosis was 7±4.88 years. Majority of them were literate (56.9%, married (89.7%, had low income (52% and were housekeepers (94.8%. Almost half the participants believed they had personal control over cardiovascular risk. 69% had optimistic attitude towards not getting CVD and 60.3% had a moderate level of concerns about cardiovascular risks. Also 80% had knowledge about the cardiovascular risks. Conclusion: Risk perception plays an important role in preventing CVD. A comprehensive educational program for changing the attitude toward CVD is recommended.
Gourounti, Kleanthi; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios; Potamianos, Grigoris
to control for the effects of demographic variables. This cross-sectional study included 137 women with fertility problems undergoing IVF in a public hospital. All participants completed questionnaires that measured fertility-related stress, state anxiety, depressive symptomatology, perception of control...
Sezgin, Billur; Findikcioglu, Kemal; Kaya, Basar; Sibar, Serhat; Yavuzer, Reha
Facial aesthetic treatments are among the most popular cosmetic procedures worldwide, but the factors that motivate women to change their facial appearance are not fully understood. The authors examine the relationships among the facial areas on which women focus most as they age, women's general self-perception, and the effect of their personal focus on "beauty points" on their perception of other women's faces. In this prospective study, 200 women who presented to a cosmetic surgery outpatient clinic for consultation between December 2009 and February 2010 completed a questionnaire. The 200 participants were grouped by age: 20-29 years, 30-39, 40-49, and 50 or older (50 women in each group). They were asked which part of their face they focus on most when looking in the mirror, which part they notice most in other women (of different age groups), what they like/dislike most about their own face, and whether they wished to change any facial feature. A positive correlation was found between women's focal points and the areas they dislike or desire to change. Younger women focused mainly on their nose and skin, while older women focused on their periorbital area and jawline. Women focus on their personal focal points when looking at other women in their 20s and 30s, but not when looking at older women. Women presenting for cosmetic surgery consultation focus on the areas that they dislike most, which leads to a desire to change those features. The plastic surgeon must fully understand patients' expectations to select appropriate candidates and maximize satisfaction with the outcomes.
Mischner, Isabelle H S; van Schie, Hein T; Wigboldus, Daniël H J; van Baaren, Rick B; Engels, Rutger C M E
The present study investigated the effect of sexually objectifying music video exposure on young women's implicit bodily self-perception and the moderating role of self-esteem. Fifty-six college women of normal weight were either exposed to three sexually objectifying music videos or three neutral music videos. Perceived and ideal body size were measured both before and after video exposure, using horizontally stretched and compressed photographs of the participant's own body in swimming garment. As expected, only women low (but not high) in self-esteem were negatively affected by the sexually objectifying content of the music videos: they perceived themselves as bigger and showed an increased discrepancy between their perceived and ideal body size after video exposure. The neutral music videos did not influence women's bodily self-perceptions. These findings suggest that body image is a flexible construct, and that high self-esteem can protect women against the adverse effects of sexually objectifying media. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Webb, Penelope M; Green, Adèle C; Jordan, Susan J
To compare trends in ovarian cancer incidence in the USA and Australia in relation to changes in oral contraceptive pill (OCP) and menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) use. US cancer incidence data (1973-2013) were accessed via SEER*Stat; Australian data (1982-2012) were accessed from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare Cancer Incidence and Mortality books. Age-period-cohort models were constructed to assess trends in ovarian cancer incidence by birth cohort and year of diagnosis. Ovarian cancer rates were increasing until the cohorts born around 1918 in the USA and 1923 in Australia who were the first to use the OCP. They then declined dramatically across subsequent cohorts such that rates for the 1968 cohort were about half those of women born 45 years earlier; however, there are early suggestions that this decline may not continue in more recent cohorts. In contrast, despite the large reduction in MHT use, there was no convincing evidence that ovarian cancer incidence rates in either country were lower after 2002 than would have been expected based on the declining trend from 1985. The major driver of ovarian cancer incidence rates appears to be the OCP. This means that when those women born since the late 1960s (who have used the OCP at high rates from an early age) reach their 60s and 70s, incidence rates are likely to stop falling and may even increase with changes in the prevalence of other factors such as tubal ligation and obesity. Forward predictions based on past trends may thus underestimate future rates and numbers of women likely to be affected.
Kang, Hee Sun; Shin, Hyunsook; Hyun, Myung-Sun; Kim, Mi Ja
This paper is a report of a descriptive study of young Korean women's perceptions of use of the human papilloma virus vaccine. In Korea, cervical cancer is one of the leading cancers in women, and the rate of human papilloma virus infection is increasing. A national media campaign has recently begun to promote human papilloma virus vaccination. However, research addressing the acceptability of this vaccine to women in Korea has been limited. Twenty-five Korean women, 21-30 years of age, participated in seven focus groups. The data were collected in 2007. Participants were concerned about the potential harmful effects of the human papilloma virus vaccine, a possible increase in unsafe sexual behaviours, and the high cost of the vaccine, which is not covered by health insurance. They suggested group vaccination at-cost or free of charge. They discussed ambivalence about the vaccination, the need for more information about the vaccine, and questions about its effectiveness. Most preferred to wait until more people have been vaccinated. There is a need for more aggressive dissemination of information about the safety and efficacy of the human papilloma virus vaccine. More reasonable cost, insurance coverage, or free vaccination using a group approach might increase young Korean women's acceptance and use of the human papilloma virus vaccine.
Koo, Fung Kuen; Kwok, Cannas; White, Kate; D'Abrew, Natalie; Roydhouse, Jessica K
In Australia, women from non-English-speaking backgrounds participate less frequently in breast cancer screening than English-speaking women, and Chinese immigrant women are 50% less likely to participate in breast examinations than Australian-born women. Chinese-born Australians comprise 10% of the overseas-born Australian population, and the immigrant Chinese population in Australia is rapidly increasing. We report on the strategies used in a pilot breast health promotion program, Living with Healthy Breasts, aimed at Cantonese-speaking adult immigrant women in Sydney, Australia. The program consisted of a 1-day education session and a 2-hour follow-up session. We used 5 types of strategies commonly used for cultural targeting (peripheral, evidential, sociocultural, linguistic, and constituent-involving) in a framework of traditional Chinese philosophies (Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism) to deliver breast health messages to Chinese-Australian immigrant women. Creating the program's content and materials required careful consideration of color (pink to indicate femininity and love), symbols (peach blossoms to imply longevity), word choice (avoidance of the word death), location and timing (held in a Chinese restaurant a few months after the Chinese New Year), communication patterns (the use of metaphors and cartoons for discussing health-related matters), and concern for modesty (emphasizing that all presenters and team members were female) to maximize cultural relevance. Using these strategies may be beneficial for designing and implementing breast cancer prevention programs in Cantonese-speaking Chinese immigrant communities.
Yelland, Jane; Brown, Stephanie J
Social adversity undermines health in pregnancy. The objective of this study was to examine the extent to which pregnant women were asked about their mental health and life circumstances in pregnancy checkups. Population-based postal survey of recent mothers in two Australian states. Around half of the 4,366 participants reported being asked about depression (45.9%) and whether they were anxious or worried about things happening in their life (49.6%); fewer reported being asked about relationship issues (29.6%), financial problems (16.6%), or family violence (14.1%). One in five women (18%) reported significant social adversity. These women were more likely to recall being asked about their mental health and broader social health issues. Far higher levels of inquiry were reported by women in the public maternity system with midwives more likely than doctors to ask about mental health, family violence, and other social hardships. Routine pregnancy visits afford a window of opportunity for identifying and supporting women experiencing mental health problems and social adversity. Changing practice to take advantage of this opportunity will require concerted and coordinated efforts by practitioners and policy makers to build systems to support public health approaches to antenatal care. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Williams, Warwick; Purdy, Suzanne; Murray, Narelle; LePage, Eric; Challinor, Kathy
To compare measured hearing levels of individuals regularly exposed to noise in their workplace to self-reported and family-reported hearing loss. To compare the attitudes and preventative actions adopted by individuals who are more aware of the potential for hearing loss to less aware individuals. The project examined the perceptions of rural workers concerning noise, noise exposure and hearing. The subjects completed a 'Noise at Work' questionnaire and some demographic data at the time of audiometric testing. The subjects were recruited when attending their rural health clinic for audiometric testing. Participants comprised 113 men and 23 women (20-65 years, mean = 39.6, SD = 11.4) working across a range of activities at different levels in their workplaces. The range in current employment was from 0.5 to 45 years (mean = 13.8, SD = 10.7). Hearing tests were compared with perceptions of noise annoyance, hearing damage risk and preventative action. Self- and family-reported hearing loss and conversational difficulties in noise correlated well with measured audiograms. Perceptions of workplace noise tended to be more positive if people felt they had hearing problems. There was no difference in preventative action between those who did and did not feel they had hearing problems. Both groups rated barriers to action and lack of self-efficacy in a similar negative way. There is a need for specific training to ensure that rural workers have skills to take more positive action in reducing noise exposure at work.
van Anders, Sari M; Dunn, Emily J
Past findings suggest links between orgasms and testosterone (T), as well as sexuality and estradiol (E), and we examined hormone-orgasm links in this study via two hypotheses (below). Participants were 86 women and 91 men who provided a saliva sample and completed a demographics questionnaire, the Orgasm Checklist (Mah and Binik, 2002), the Hurlbert (1991) Index of Sexual Assertiveness, and the Sexual Desire Inventory (Spector and Fremeth, 1996). Results supported the first hypothesis of correlations between T and positive orgasm experience in women, specifically with the relaxation, soothing, and peaceful items in both partnered and solitary orgasm contexts. Results also indicated correlations between E and flooding and spreading items in a solitary orgasm context. There were no associations between hormones and men's perceptions of their orgasm experiences. There was no support for the second hypothesis of associations between higher T and more sexual assertiveness. Post hoc analyses showed associations between E and women's sexual desire, and T and men's sexual desire. We discuss implications of these findings including that solitary vs. partnered orgasm experiences may differ, and suggest that T might be associated with perceptions of psychological experiences of orgasms, and E might be associated with perceptions of physical experiences of orgasms.
Loxton, Deborah; Powers, Jennifer; Anderson, Amy E; Townsend, Natalie; Harris, Melissa L; Tuckerman, Ryan; Pease, Stephanie; Mishra, Gita; Byles, Julie
In 2012, we set out to recruit a cohort of at least 10,000 women aged 18-23 from across Australia. With recent research demonstrating the inadequacy of traditional approaches to recruiting women in this age group, we elected to conduct open recruiting. Our aim was to report on the overall success of open recruiting and to evaluate the relative success of a variety of recruitment methods in terms of numbers and demographics. We used referrals, Facebook, formal advertising, and incentives in order to recruit the cohort. In all, 17,069 women were recruited for the longitudinal online survey, from 54,685 initiated surveys. Of these women, most (69.94%, n=11,799) who joined the longitudinal cohort were recruited via Facebook, 12.72% (n=2145) via the fashion promotion, 7.02% (n=1184) by referral, 4.9% (n=831) via other Web activities, and 5.4% (n=910) via traditional media. Facebook was by far the most successful strategy, enrolling a cohort of women with a similar profile to the population of Australian women in terms of age, area of residence, and relationship status. Women recruited via fashion promotion were the least representative. All strategies underrepresented less educated women-a finding that is consistent with more traditional means of recruiting. In conclusion, flexibility in recruitment design, embracing new and traditional media, adopting a dynamic responsive approach, and monitoring the results of recruiting in terms of sample composition and number recruited led to the successful establishment of a new cohort.
Clarke, Philip A.
In Aboriginal Australia, the corpus of cosmological beliefs was united by the centrality of the Skyworld, which was considered to be the upper part of a total landscape that possessed topography linked with that of Earth and the Underworld. Early historical accounts of classical Australian hunter-gatherer beliefs described the heavens as inhabited by human and spiritual ancestors who interacted with the same species of plants and animals as they had below. This paper is the first of two that describes Indigenous perceptions of the Skyworld flora and draws out major ethnobotanical themes from the corpus of ethnoastronomical records garnered from a diverse range of Australian Aboriginal cultures. It investigates how Indigenous perceptions of the flora are interwoven with Aboriginal traditions concerning the heavens, and provides examples of how the study of ethnoastronomy can provide insights into the Indigenous use and perception of plants.
Curtin, Kimberley D; Berry, Tanya R; Courneya, Kerry S; McGannon, Kerry R; Norris, Colleen M; Rodgers, Wendy M; Spence, John C
Ethnic minority groups including Asians in Canada have different knowledge and perceptions of heart disease and breast cancer compared with the ethnic majority group. Examine relationships between perceptions of heart disease and breast cancer, and lifestyle behaviors for Canadian women with British and with South Asian ancestry. Women with South Asian ( n = 170) and with British ( n = 373) ancestry ( M age = 33.01, SD = 12.86) reported leisure time physical activity, intended fruit and vegetable consumption, disease perceptions (ability to reduce risk, control over getting the diseases, and influence of family history), and demographic information. Mann-Whitney tests and multiple hierarchical linear regressions were used to examine the relationships between lifestyle behaviors and disease perceptions, with ancestry explored as a possible moderator. Participants with South Asian ancestry believed they had greater ability to reduce their risk and have control over getting breast cancer than participants with British ancestry. Family history influences on getting either disease was perceived as higher for women with British ancestry. Age was positively related to all three perceptions in both diseases. Intended fruit and vegetable consumption was positively related to perceptions of ability to reduce risk and control of both diseases, but was stronger for women with South Asian ancestry regarding perceptions of breast cancer. Leisure time physical activity was positively related to perceptions of control over getting heart disease for women with British ancestry. Women's disease perceptions can vary by ancestry and lifestyle behaviors. Accurate representation of diseases is essential in promoting effective preventative behaviors.
Karim, Rabiul; Lindberg, Lene; Wamala, Sarah; Emmelin, Maria
Without taking masculine issues into account, women's participation in development initiatives does not always guarantee their empowerment, health, and welfare in a male-dominated society. This study aimed to explore men's perceptions of women's participation in development (WPD) in rural Bangladesh. In adopting a qualitative approach, the study examined 48 purposively selected married and unmarried men aged 20-76 years in three northwest villages. Data collection was accomplished through four focus group discussions (FGDs) with 43 men clustered into four groups and through individual interviews with five other men. A qualitative content analysis of the data revealed an overall theme of "feeling challenged by fears and hopes," indicating variations in men's views on women's participation in development initiatives as represented by three main categories: (a) fearing the loss of male authority, (b) recognizing women's roles in enhancing family welfare, and (c) valuing women's independence. In the context of dominant patriarchal traditions in Bangladesh, these findings provide new insight into dynamics and variations of men's views, suggesting a need to better engage men during different stages of women-focused development initiatives.
Cramer, Holger; Sibbritt, David; Park, Crystal L; Adams, Jon; Lauche, Romy
To examine the relationship between yoga/meditation practice and health behavior in Australian women. Women aged 19-25years, 31-36years, and 62-67years from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH) were surveyed regarding smoking, alcohol or drug use, physical activity and dietary behavior; and whether they practiced yoga/meditation on a regular basis. Associations of health behaviors with yoga/meditation practice were analyzed using multiple logistic regression modelling. 11,344, 8200, and 9151 women aged 19-25years, 31-36years, and 62-67years, respectively, were included of which 29.0%, 21.7%, and 20.7%, respectively, practiced yoga/meditation. Women practicing yoga/meditation were significantly more likely to report at least moderate physical activity levels (OR=1.50-2.79), to follow a vegetarian (OR=1.67-3.22) or vegan (OR=2.26-3.68) diet, and to report the use of marijuana (OR=1.28-1.89) and illicit drugs in the last 12 months (OR=1.23-1.98). Yoga/meditation practice was associated with higher physical activity levels, a higher likelihood of vegetarian or vegan diet use, and a higher likelihood of drug use. While health professionals should keep the potential vulnerability of yoga/meditation practitioners to drug use in mind, the positive associations of yoga/meditation with a variety of positive health behaviors warrant its consideration in preventive medicine and healthcare. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Capon, Adam; Rolfe, Margaret; Gillespie, James; Smith, Wayne
Manufactured nanomaterials in Australia are managed predominantly through existing chemical regulatory frameworks. Many Australian government regulators have suggested the framing of manufactured nanomaterials as 'chemicals' when communicating about manufactured nanomaterials to the general public. This paper aims to determine whether the Australian public perception of manufactured nanomaterials differs to that of 'chemicals', and to examine the relationship between attitudes towards chemicals and perceptions of nanomaterial risk. We undertook a computerised assisted telephone survey of the Australian public. Analysis was undertaken using descriptive, paired tests of proportion, paired t-test and logistic regression techniques. We explored perceptions of nanomaterial risk and their relationship to perceptions of chemical risk and 'chemical attitudes'. We found that the public perceives nanomaterials in a more favourable light than it does chemicals. Perception of risk from chemicals had the greatest association with perceived nanomaterial risk (adjusted odds ratios between 0.1 and 0.2) and that attitudes to chemicals were associated with perception of nanomaterial risk in some cases. Risk communicators and policy makers need to consider the differences and associations between nanomaterials and chemicals when addressing the regulatory aspects of nanomaterials with the public. This is relevant for communication strategies that attempt to normalise the risks from nanomaterials compared with those of chemicals, especially as nanomaterials are perceived to be less risky than chemicals.
LaChapelle, Diane L; Lavoie, Susan; Higgins, Nancy C; Hadjistavropoulos, Thomas
This experimental study investigated how physical attractiveness, disability cue, and diagnostic ambiguity stereotypes impact perceptions of a patient's pain/disability and personality. After viewing photographs of women pictured with or without a cane, accompanied by descriptions of the women's diagnosis (fibromyalgia or rheumatoid arthritis), 147 university students rated the women's pain/disability and personality. Analyses revealed that more attractive women received lower ratings on pain/disability and higher ratings (more positive) on personality. Moreover, those pictured with a disability cue got higher ratings on both pain/disability and personality, and those with medical evidence of pathology (less ambiguity) got higher ratings on pain/disability and lower ratings on personality. Examination of the 3 stereotypes in a single study enabled an evaluation of their interactions. An Attractiveness × Disability Cue × Diagnostic Ambiguity interaction for ratings of pain/disability revealed that the presence of both medical evidence and a disability cue were needed to override the strong "beautiful is healthy" stereotype. Significant 2-way interactions for ratings of personality indicated that the impact of the disability stereotype tends to be overshadowed by the attractiveness stereotype. The results indicate that these stereotypes have a large effect on perceptions of women with chronic pain and that attractiveness, a contextual variable unrelated to the pain experience, exerts an even stronger effect when there is less objective information available. This could have clinical ramifications for assessment and treatment of patients with chronic pain, which often occurs in the absence of "objective" medical evidence or any external cues of disability. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Harris, Charlie L; Strayhorn, Gregory; Moore, Sandra; Goldman, Brian; Martin, Michelle Y
Obese African American women under-appraise their body mass index (BMI) classification and report fewer weight loss attempts than women who accurately appraise their weight status. This cross-sectional study examined whether physician-informed weight status could predict weight self-perception and weight self-regulation strategies in obese women. A convenience sample of 118 low-income women completed a survey assessing demographic characteristics, comorbidities, weight self-perception, and weight self-regulation strategies. BMI was calculated during nurse triage. Binary logistic regression models were performed to test hypotheses. The odds of obese accurate appraisers having been informed about their weight status were six times greater than those of under-appraisers. The odds of those using an "approach" self-regulation strategy having been physician-informed were four times greater compared with those using an "avoidance" strategy. Physicians are uniquely positioned to influence accurate weight self-perception and adaptive weight self-regulation strategies in underserved women, reducing their risk for obesity-related morbidity.
Chamberlain, Catherine R; Oldenburg, Brian; Wilson, Alyce N; Eades, Sandra J; O'Dea, Kerin; Oats, Jeremy J N; Wolfe, Rory
Gestational diabetes is associated with a high risk of type 2 diabetes. However, progression rates among Indigenous women in Australia who experience high prevalence of gestational diabetes are unknown. This retrospective cohort study includes all births to women at a regional hospital in Far North Queensland, Australia, coded as having 'gestational diabetes' from 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2010 (1098 births) and receiving laboratory postpartum screening from 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2011 (n = 483 births). Women who did not receive postpartum screening were excluded from the denominator. Data were linked between hospital electronic records, routinely collected birth data and laboratories, with sample validation by reviews of medical records. Analysis was conducted using Cox-proportional regression models. Indigenous women had a greater than fourfold risk of developing type 2 diabetes within 8 years of having gestational diabetes, compared with non-Indigenous women (hazards ratio 4.55, 95% confidence interval 2.63-7.88, p Australian women have a greater than fourfold risk of developing type 2 diabetes after gestational diabetes. Strategies are urgently needed to reduce rates of type 2 diabetes by supporting a healthy weight and breastfeeding and to improve postpartum screening among Indigenous women with gestational diabetes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Lowder, Jerry L; Ghetti, Chiara; Nikolajski, Cara; Oliphant, Sallie S; Zyczynski, Halina M
To describe perceptions of prolapse-specific body image in women with symptomatic prolapse. Women with symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse quantification stage ≥ II prolapse participated in semistructured focus groups or self-report questionnaire. Transcripts were independently reviewed and body image themes were identified and confirmed by consensus. Twenty-five women participated in focus groups and 27 in online questionnaires. Transcript analysis revealed 3 central themes and 25 body-image related subthemes. Women living with prolapse were more likely to feel self-conscious, isolated, "different," less feminine, and less attractive. Women often changed sexual intimacy practices because of embarrassment or discomfort, and many avoided intimacy all together. Prolapse greatly affected women's personal and professional activities causing some women to adjust routines or stop activities. Women reported loss of interest in activities, distraction while performing daily/work-related tasks, and embarrassment when asking for help with activities. Themes identified in this qualitative study demonstrate the profound effect of prolapse on a woman's body image. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Do experiences and perceptions about quality of care differ among social groups in Nepal? : A study of maternal healthcare experiences of women with and without disabilities, and Dalit and non-Dalit women.
Devkota, Hridaya Raj; Clarke, Andrew; Murray, Emily; Groce, Nora
Suboptimal quality of care and disparities in services by healthcare providers are often reported in Nepal. Experience and perceptions about quality of care may differ according to women's socio-cultural background, individual characteristics, their exposure and expectations. This study aimed to compare perceptions of the quality of maternal healthcare services between two groups that are consistently considered vulnerable, women with disabilities from both the non-Dalit population and Dalit population and their peers without disabilities from both non-Dalit and Dalit communities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 343 total women that included women with disabilities, Dalits and non-Dalits. Women were recruited for interview, who were aged 15-49 years, had been pregnant within the last five years and who had used maternal care services in one of the public health facilities of Rupandehi district. A 20-item, Likert-type scale with four sub-scales or dimensions: 'Health Facility', 'Healthcare Delivery', 'Inter-personal' and 'Access to Care' was used to measure women's perceptions of quality of care. Chi-square test and t test were used to compare groups and to assess differences in perceptions; and linear regression was applied to assess confounding effects of socio-demographic factors. The mean score was compared for each item and separately for each dimension. All groups, women with disabilities and women without disabilities, Dalit and non-Dalit rated their perceptions and experiences of quality of care lowly in a number of items. While perceived quality of care between women with disabilities and without disabilities in the 'Health Facility' dimension and associated items, was found to differ (phealthcare delivery, interpersonal and personal factors as well as access to services 'low.' Poor service user experiences and perceptions of quality of care undermine opportunities to translate increased healthcare coverage into improved access and outcomes
Kwon, Ivy; Bharmal, Nazleen; Choi, Sarah; Araiza, Daniel; Moore, Mignon R; Trejo, Laura; Sarkisian, Catherine A
To inform the development of a tailored behavioral stroke risk reduction intervention for ethnic minority seniors, we sought to explore gender differences in perceptions of stroke prevention and physical activity (walking). In collaboration with community-based organizations, we conducted 12 mixed-gender focus groups of African American, Latino, Chinese, and Korean seniors aged 60 years and older with a history of hypertension (89 women and 42 men). Transcripts were coded and recurring topics compared by gender. Women expressed beliefs that differed from men in 4 topic areas: 1) stroke-related interest, 2) barriers to walking, 3) facilitators to walking, and 4) health behavior change attitudes. Compared with men, women were more interested in their role in response to a stroke and post-stroke care. Women described walking as an acceptable form of exercise, but cited neighborhood safety and pain as walking barriers. Fear of nursing home placement and weight loss were identified as walking facilitators. Women were more prone than men to express active/control attitudes toward health behavior change. Older ethnic minority women, a high-risk population for stroke, may be more receptive to behavioral interventions that address the gender-specific themes identified by this study. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Mischner, I.H.S.; Schie, H.T. van; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Baaren, R.B. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.
The present study investigated the effect of sexually objectifying music video exposure on young women's implicit bodily self-perception and the moderating role of self-esteem. Fifty-six college women of normal weight were either exposed to three sexually objectifying music videos or three neutral
Rocío Rivas Martín
Full Text Available Introduction: Health care to women is mainly focused on their gynecological and reproductive health. It is directed toward heterosexual women, their coital relations and the gestation, and doesn´t consider other practices and health issues. In recent years, lesbian women have become more visible in society, recalling that should not focus solely on sexual vaginal coitus and demanding their desire of being mothers.Objetives: With this study we try to be closer to lesbian women´s perceptions about their sexual and reproductive health, as well as trying to determine the factors that influence their health care and their relationship with the health system. Methodology: For this purpose was carried out a qualitative study among lesbian women of different ages. Techniques of collected data used were in-depth interview and discussion group. Results: The results show that lesbians feel safe at the risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections; in addition they express their difficulties to reveal their sexual identity to healthcare professionals as well as problems accessing maternity. Conclusions: We conclude with the idea of the need for greater diversity and sexual health training for professionals, as well as further research on gynecological, sexual and reproductive health of this group of population.
Young, Megan K; El Saadi, Debra; McCall, Bradley J
Ongoing potential exposure of members of the public to Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) in South East Queensland, Australia, prompted investigation of community knowledge, risk perception, and intention to handle bats to inform future prevention efforts. After pilot testing, a computer-assisted telephone survey of a representative sample of 700 adults without previous potential exposure to ABLV was undertaken in the defined geographic region. Twenty-four percent of eligible contacted individuals participated. Basic knowledge of bats and ABLV was generally high, with 65% of participants answering nine or more of 12 knowledge questions correctly. The perceived risk that bats pose to human health was also high, with 93% indicating some degree of risk. Although 88% of participants indicated they would handle bats in one or more of the scripted situations, overall intention to handle bats was low, with 59% indicating they would handle a bat in four or less of the 12 scenarios. Younger males with lower risk perception of bats most frequently indicated intention to handle bats in varying situations. Knowledge score was not associated with intention to handle bats on multivariate modeling. Future public health prevention efforts, both in Australia and overseas, should focus further on conveying the risk to humans and to bats when nontrained, nonvaccinated people attempt to handle bats rather than attempting to purely convey knowledge about bats and ABLV or rabies. Suitable alternative measures to handling should be included. Younger adult males are a particular target group for prevention efforts.
Ahmadiyeh, Nasim; Cho, Nancy L; Kellogg, Katherine C; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Moore, Francis D; Ashley, Stanley W; Zinner, Michael J; Breen, Elizabeth M
With the current and projected shortages of general surgeons, more attention is being paid to the increasing pool of women physicians. This study seeks to understand the variables leading to career satisfaction for women surgeons to better recruit, retain, and support them. Eighteen semi-structured interviews of 12 female and 6 male surgeons 2 to 12 years into practice were qualitatively analyzed and converted to coded, categorized data. Significance was derived by Fisher's exact test. Participants were recruited by snowball sampling. Our sample represents a highly satisfied group of female and male surgeons. Although both women and men describe with equal frequency having made career tradeoffs for personal and family time, and vice versa, women far more frequently than men cite reasons related to their personal time, predictable time, and family relationships as why they are currently satisfied with their career (34.1% versus 8.7%; p women most frequently cite social networks as a key to success (88% versus 12% by men; p men more frequently cite reasons related to training (29% versus 0% by women; p women; p men and women make tradeoffs of career for family and family for career, women's perception of satisfaction comes from viewing their surgical career within the broader context of their lives. Women might be attracted to a career that acknowledges and values the whole person beyond the surgeon, and could benefit from work infrastructures that enhance networking. Copyright (c) 2010 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gladys Reuben Mahiti
Full Text Available Background: Maternal health care provision remains a major challenge in developing countries. There is agreement that the provision of quality clinical services is essential if high rates of maternal death are to be reduced. However, despite efforts to improve access to these services, a high number of women in Tanzania do not access them. The aim of this study is to explore women's views about the maternal health services (pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum period that they received at health facilities in order to identify gaps in service provision that may lead to low-quality maternal care and increased risks associated with maternal morbidity and mortality in rural Tanzania. Design: We gathered qualitative data from 15 focus group discussions with women attending a health facility after child birth and transcribed it verbatim. Qualitative content analysis was used for analysis. Results: ‘Three categories emerged that reflected women's perceptions of maternal health care services: “mothers perceive that maternal health services are beneficial,” “barriers to accessing maternal health services” such as availability and use of traditional birth attendants (TBAs and the long distances between some villages, and “ambivalence regarding the quality of maternal health services” reflecting that women had both positive and negative perceptions in relation to quality of health care services offered’. Conclusions: Mothers perceived that maternal health care services are beneficial during pregnancy and delivery, but their awareness of postpartum complications and the role of medical services during that stage were poor. The study revealed an ambivalence regarding the perceived quality of health care services offered, partly due to shortages of material resources. Barriers to accessing maternal health care services, such as the cost of transport and the use of TBAs, were also shown. These findings call for improvement on the services
Ferdenzi, Camille; Delplanque, Sylvain; Vorontsova-Wenger, Olga; Pool, Eva; Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco; Sander, David
Despite the high prevalence of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD), especially among women, this sexual disorder remains poorly understood. Among the multiple factors possibly involved in HSDD, particularities in the cognitive evaluations of social stimuli need to be better characterized. Especially, beauty and attractiveness judgments, two dimensions of interpersonal perception that are related but differ on their underlying motivational aspects, may vary according to the level of sexual desire. The main goal of this study was to investigate whether women with and without HSDD differ in their evaluations of beauty and attractiveness of men's faces and voices. Young women from the general population (controls, n = 16) and with HSDD (patients, n = 16) took part in the study. They were presented with a series of neutral/nonerotic voices and faces of young men from the GEneva Faces And Voices database. Ratings of beauty (i.e., assessments of aesthetic pleasure) and of attractiveness (i.e., assessments of the personal propensity to feel attracted to someone) and the frequency to which the participants pressed a key to see or listen to each stimulus again were the main outcome measures. Ratings of attractiveness were lower than ratings of beauty in both groups of women. The dissociation between beauty and attractiveness was larger in women with HSDD than in control participants. Patients gave lower attractiveness ratings than the controls and replayed the stimuli significantly less often. These results suggest that women with HSDD are characterized by specific alterations of the motivational component of men's perception, very early in the process of interpersonal relationships. Our findings have significant implications, both in better understanding the specific cognitive processes underlying hypoactive sexual desire and more largely the evaluative processes involved in human mate choice. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Kim, Kyounghae; Kim, Boyoung; Choi, Eunsuk; Song, Youngshin; Han, Hae-Ra
As one of the fastest growing ethnic minority groups in the United States, Korean American (KA) women experience a heightened cervical cancer burden. The advent of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine offers an unprecedented opportunity to eliminate cervical cancer disparities in KA women. However, the uptake of HPV vaccine among KA adolescents remains suboptimal. Hence, we set out to explore knowledge, perceptions, and decision making about HPV vaccination among KA women. We conducted four focus groups of 26 KA women who participated in a community-based, randomized, controlled trial to promote breast and cervical cancer screening. Focus group data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Four main themes emerged from the focus groups: 1) limited awareness and knowledge of HPV vaccine, 2) perceptions and beliefs about HPV vaccination (acceptance, negative perceptions, ambivalence), 3) patterns of decision making about HPV vaccination (hierarchical, peer influenced, autonomous, and collaborative), and 4) promoting HPV education and information sharing in the Korean community. KA women are generally positive toward HPV vaccination, but lack awareness and knowledge about HPV. Culturally tailored HPV education programs based on KA women's decision-making patterns and effective information sharing by trustworthy sources in comfortable environments are suggested strategies to promote HPV vaccination in the KA community. The findings point to the need for a multilevel approach to addressing linguistic, cultural, and system barriers that the recent immigrant community faces in promoting HPV vaccinations. In the development of targeted interventions for KA women, educational strategies and patterns of decision making need to be considered. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This grounded theory study in California, United States was an inquiry into the perceptions of health of Cambodian women in resettlement. The sequelae of significant life trauma on the health of women who escaped political conflict have received little attention in the nursing literature. Thirty-nine Cambodian women were recruited through a social service organization and verbal referrals. Open-ended questions and a conversational approach to dialogue and data gathering facilitated the interview process. Women were interviewed at home or the local temple. Seeking life balance emerged as the core perspective of this study. The relationships between thematic categories of seeking life balance, patterns of knowing, and caring for self were salient. Outcomes of these interrelationships further moved women's health toward disharmony or harmony. The findings of this study are limited by sampling participants in a tightly networked community and may serve as a pilot for future research.
Do experiences and perceptions about quality of care differ among social groups in Nepal? : A study of maternal healthcare experiences of women with and without disabilities, and Dalit and non-Dalit women.
Hridaya Raj Devkota
Full Text Available Suboptimal quality of care and disparities in services by healthcare providers are often reported in Nepal. Experience and perceptions about quality of care may differ according to women's socio-cultural background, individual characteristics, their exposure and expectations. This study aimed to compare perceptions of the quality of maternal healthcare services between two groups that are consistently considered vulnerable, women with disabilities from both the non-Dalit population and Dalit population and their peers without disabilities from both non-Dalit and Dalit communities.A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 343 total women that included women with disabilities, Dalits and non-Dalits. Women were recruited for interview, who were aged 15-49 years, had been pregnant within the last five years and who had used maternal care services in one of the public health facilities of Rupandehi district. A 20-item, Likert-type scale with four sub-scales or dimensions: 'Health Facility', 'Healthcare Delivery', 'Inter-personal' and 'Access to Care' was used to measure women's perceptions of quality of care. Chi-square test and t test were used to compare groups and to assess differences in perceptions; and linear regression was applied to assess confounding effects of socio-demographic factors. The mean score was compared for each item and separately for each dimension.All groups, women with disabilities and women without disabilities, Dalit and non-Dalit rated their perceptions and experiences of quality of care lowly in a number of items. While perceived quality of care between women with disabilities and without disabilities in the 'Health Facility' dimension and associated items, was found to differ (p<0.05, this difference was linked to disability status, but was not linked to caste differences. For example, differences in mean scores relating to 'Cleanliness and Facilities', 'Open and Friendliness' and 'Compassion and Kindness' were highly
Clarice Alves Bonow
Full Text Available This research has aimed to identify the perceptions of women apprentice welders about physical, chemical, biological, and physiological risk factors to which they are exposed and evaluate the identification of health disorders self-reported for women apprentice welders before and after implementation of a nursing socioenvironmental intervention. A quantitative study was performed with 27 women apprentice welders (first phase and before and after an intervention with 18 women (second phase in Southern Brazil in 2011. The data were analysed using SPSS 19.0. The participants identified the following risk types: physical (96.2%, chemical (96.2%, physiological (88.8%, and biological (62.9%. The results show a significant difference of the pre- and posttest averages for the musculoskeletal system and a posttest average increase for the integumentary, respiratory, and auditory system. A correlation of the women apprentices’ ages and the identification of health disorders were made. It was understood that the perception of women apprentices regarding a particular set of occupational risks is essential for public health nursing to develop an effective risk communication as a positive tool for teaching and learning.
Bonow, Clarice Alves; Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; de Almeida, Marlise Capa Verde; Rocha, Laurelize Pereira; Borges, Anelise Miritz; Piexak, Diéssica Roggia; Vaz, Joana Cezar
This research has aimed to identify the perceptions of women apprentice welders about physical, chemical, biological, and physiological risk factors to which they are exposed and evaluate the identification of health disorders self-reported for women apprentice welders before and after implementation of a nursing socioenvironmental intervention. A quantitative study was performed with 27 women apprentice welders (first phase) and before and after an intervention with 18 women (second phase) in Southern Brazil in 2011. The data were analysed using SPSS 19.0. The participants identified the following risk types: physical (96.2%), chemical (96.2%), physiological (88.8%), and biological (62.9%). The results show a significant difference of the pre- and posttest averages for the musculoskeletal system and a posttest average increase for the integumentary, respiratory, and auditory system. A correlation of the women apprentices' ages and the identification of health disorders were made. It was understood that the perception of women apprentices regarding a particular set of occupational risks is essential for public health nursing to develop an effective risk communication as a positive tool for teaching and learning. PMID:24288604
Full Text Available Ali Navidian,1 Shahindokht Navabi Rigi,2 Parvin Soltani2 1Department of Counseling, Pregnancy Health Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran; 2Department of Midwifery, Nursing and Midwifery School, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IranBackground: Marital relationships may fluctuate due to physical and psychological changes during pregnancy. This study aimed to investigate the effect of group sexual counseling on the traditional perceptions and attitudes of pregnant women.Methods: This was a quasiexperimental intervention study. Among the pregnant women who were referred to health care centers in Zahedan, Iran, in 2015 for routine care during pregnancy, 100 individuals were chosen and randomly categorized into two groups: intervention (n=50 and control (n=50. Variables were the participant’s attitudes and beliefs on sexual activity during pregnancy. The data were collected during pregnancy using the Sexual Activities and Attitudes Questionnaire. The questionnaire was completed before and 6 weeks after five sessions of group sexual counseling. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (Version 20 with descriptive and analytical statistics.Results: The mean of score changes for sexual attitudes and traditional perceptions in the intervention group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.0001. Analysis of covariance also showed that the mean score of the participant’s traditional perceptions and sexual attitudes in both groups was significantly different after the group sexual counseling.Discussion: Due to the positive effect of group sexual counseling on improving the attitudes of pregnant women about sexual issues and reframing the traditional perceptions over sexual activities during pregnancy, it is recommended that this educational intervention should be integrated into counseling and prenatal care for pregnant women. Keywords: group sexual counseling, belief, attitude
Treat, Teresa A; Church, Erin K; Viken, Richard J
Contemporary models of male-initiated sexual aggression toward female acquaintances implicate misperception of women's sexual interest. This study investigated the effects of gender, rape-supportive attitudes and an instructional manipulation on college students' sexual-interest judgments. Two hundred seventy-six women and 220 men judged the cues of momentary sexual interest expressed by photographed women; half received instruction on the differential validity of nonverbal cues of sexual interest for estimation of women's momentary sexual interest. Participants also completed an assessment of rape-supportive attitudes. Overall, college students' perceptions of women's momentary sexual interest are compromised both nomothetically and idiographically. Both male and female college students relied not only on women's nonverbal affect but also on the provocativeness of women's clothing and attractiveness when judging women's sexual interest. Men and women showed similar average ratings, but women relied more than men on women's affect, whereas men relied more than women on women's attractiveness. Both male and female students who endorsed more rape-supportive attitudes, relative to their peers, relied less on women's affect and more on women's clothing style and attractiveness. Explicit instruction regarding the greater validity of women's affective than nonaffective cues enhanced focus on nonverbal affective cues and decreased focus on clothing style and attractiveness. Although higher rape-supportive attitudes predicted more deficits in processing cues of sexual interest, explicit instruction proved to be effective for both higher-risk and lower-risk participants. These findings highlight the generalizability of the well-established effects of explicit instruction on category learning to sexual perception and may point to procedures that eventually could be incorporated into augmented prevention programs for sexual aggression on college campuses.
Hong, Rebecca C.; Jun, Alexander
Higher education institutions have struggled with the underrepresentation of female students in the STEM majors. The authors investigate the USC-MESA program and the role of women's self-efficacy perceptions in mathematics and science. It is crucial to understand the theory of self-efficacy in examining historically underrepresented populations in…
Aweidah, L.; Robinson, J.; Cumming, S.; Lewis, S.
Introduction and Objective: Imaging obese patients poses a number of challenges for diagnostic radiographers through positioning, radiation exposure, communication and care. Furthermore, the increasing prevalence of obesity in Australian society ensures these imaging challenges are more frequent however little is known about this area. This study aims to explore the attitudes and perceptions of diagnostic radiographers toward imaging obese patients through a mixed methods study. Methods: Ethics approval was granted to interview and survey diagnostic radiographers about their attitudes and perceptions of imaging obese patients. Twelve diagnostic radiographers who are designated clinical educators (DR CEs) took part in a 30–45 min semi-structured interview as well as a 20 min computer-based Weight Implicit Association Test (Weight-IAT) and self-report questionnaire of explicit attitudes. An additional 25 experienced Diagnostic Radiographers who were associate supervisors completed the Weight-IAT/explicit questionnaire only. Results: Thematic analysis of the interviews revealed that DR CEs adopted an image-focussed or patient-focussed approach to obese patients. Key themes with a negative bias included blame, tolerance and insecurity of skill. Positively associated key themes were empathy and experience in radiography. The sample overall showed a significant negative implicit weight bias (P = 0.016) as measured by the Weight-IAT and there was no evidence of negative explicit attitudes. Conclusion: Australian diagnostic radiographers in this study exhibited significant negative implicit weight bias, with interview results highlighting attitudes of blame and frustration towards obese patients. DR CEs were more likely to be focussed on image acquisition rather than patient considerations, with fewer responses related to empathy and equity. - Highlights: • Mixed-methods study combining qualitative interviews and implicit–explicit bias towards imaging obese
Rice, Whitney S; Logie, Carmen H; Napoles, Tessa M; Walcott, Melonie; Batchelder, Abigail W; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette; Wingood, Gina M; Konkle-Parker, Deborah J; Turan, Bulent; Wilson, Tracey E; Johnson, Mallory O; Weiser, Sheri D; Turan, Janet M
Attitudes and behavior that devalue individuals based upon their HIV status (HIV-related stigma) are barriers to HIV prevention, treatment, and wellbeing among women living with HIV. Other coexisting forms of stigma (e.g., racism, sexism) may worsen the effects of HIV-related stigma, and may contribute to persistent racial and gendered disparities in HIV prevention and treatment. Few studies examine perceptions of intersectional stigma among women living with HIV. From June to December 2015, we conducted 76 qualitative interviews with diverse women living with HIV from varied socioeconomic backgrounds enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) in Birmingham, Alabama; Jackson, Mississippi; Atlanta, Georgia; and San Francisco, California. Interview guides facilitated discussions around stigma and discrimination involving multiple interrelated identities. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and coded using thematic analysis. Interviewees shared perceptions of various forms of stigma and discrimination, most commonly related to their gender, race, and income level, but also incarceration histories and weight. Women perceived these interrelated forms of social marginalization as coming from multiple sources: their communities, interpersonal interactions, and within systems and structures. Our findings highlight the complexity of social processes of marginalization, which profoundly shape life experiences, opportunities, and healthcare access and uptake among women living with HIV. This study highlights the need for public health strategies to consider community, interpersonal, and structural dimensions across intersecting, interdependent identities to promote the wellbeing among women living with HIV and to reduce social structural and health disparities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Benino, Diana; Girardi, Antonia; Czarniak, Petra
To examine student perceptions regarding online lectures and quizzes undertaken during a pharmaceutical practice course for first year undergraduate students enrolled in the Bachelor of Pharmacy course at an Australian University. The University uses a standard instrument to collect feedback from students regarding unit satisfaction. Data were collected for three different teaching modalities: traditional face-to-face, online and partially online. Descriptive statistics support that, from a student's perspective, partial online delivery is the preferred teaching methodology for an introductory pharmaceutical practice unit. This study has served to highlight that while there are a few points of significant difference between traditional and online teaching and learning, a combination of the two provides a reasonable avenue for teaching exploration. This result has implications for teaching practice generally, and within the pharmacy discipline, specifically.
Gandhi, Sailaxmi; Poreddi, Vijayalakshmi; Nikhil, Reddy Ss; Palaniappan, Marimuthu; Math, Suresh Bada
intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant health problem and a gross violation of the human rights of women. Nurses play an important role in providing support for these women. There is limited research on nurses' understanding and perceptions of their role in caring for women with IPV issues in India. to assess novice nurses' perceptions of self-efficacy, educational preparedness and their role in this area. this was a cross-sectional descriptive survey carried out among a convenience sample of novice nurses (n=83) at a tertiary care centre using self-reported questionnaires. a majority of the subjects were confident and had adequate knowledge in dealing with women who have experienced IPV. A significantly positive relationship was found between educational preparedness and self-efficacy and attitudes towards nurses' roles in caring for these women. novice nurses were confident and held positive attitudes towards women who experienced IPV. Yet their self-efficacy in caring for these patients could be improved through continuing education and there is an urgent need to integrate comprehensive training on IPV to improve clinical competencies, including how to refer women for further support.
Wästberg, Birgitta A; Erlandsson, Lena-Karin; Eklund, Mona
The Redesigning Daily Occupations programme (ReDO) is a Swedish work rehabilitation programme for women on sick leave due to stress-related disorders. The aim of the study was to investigate the participants' perceptions of taking part in the work rehabilitation programme. Seven of the 38 women who completed ReDO were interviewed during and after the programme. The interviews were analysed by manifest and latent content analysis. The informants were satisfied with the content of the programme and the support they received in the programme and when returning to work. The women thought they had become more aware of what they did during a day and how they performed their daily activities, which helped them to change their ways of performing them. The result highlighted different parts of their rehabilitation process which constituted four sub-themes: "Perceptions of the ReDO", "The intrinsic process", "Person-related changes", and "Perceptions of returning to work", and formed the core theme "Critical parts of the rehabilitation process". The findings may not be generalized to other settings and future research should further investigate work rehabilitation for the target group.
Mead, Marianne M P; Kornbrot, Diana
to test the hypothesis that midwives working in higher intervention units would have a higher perception of risk for the intrapartum care of women suitable for midwifery-led care than midwives working in lower intervention units. an initial retrospective analysis of the computerised records of 9887 healthy Caucasian women in spontaneous labour enabled the categorisation of 11 units as either 'lower intrapartum intervention' or 'higher intrapartum intervention' units. A survey of the midwives involved in intrapartum care in these 11 units, using standardised scenario questionnaires, was used to investigate midwives' options for intrapartum interventions, their perceptions of intrapartum risk and the accuracy of these perceptions in the light of actual maternity outcomes. midwives working in maternity units that had a higher level of intervention generally perceived intrapartum risks to be higher than midwives working in lower intervention units. However, midwives generally underestimated the ability of women to progress normally and overestimated the advantages of technological interventions, in particular epidural analgesia. variations in intrapartum care cannot be solely explained by the characteristics of the women. The influence of the workplace culture plays a significant role in shaping midwives' perceptions of risk, but it seems even more likely that the medicalisation of childbirth has had an influence on midwives' appreciation of intrapartum risks. Intervention rates for low-risk births are often higher than recommended by research. The level of interventions varies across hospitals and higher rates are associated with higher perception of risk by midwives. Attention needs to be given to the influence the workplace plays in shaping midwives' perception of risk; and to the effect of organisational culture on intervention rates.
Kling, Johanna; Holmqvist Gattario, Kristina; Frisén, Ann
The relatively high gender equality in the Swedish society is likely to exert an influence on gender role construction. Hence, the present research aimed to investigate Swedish women's perceptions of and conformity to feminine norms. A mixed methods approach with two studies was used. In Study 1, young Swedish women's gender role conformity, as measured by the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory 45 (CFNI-45), was compared to the results from previously published studies in Canada, the United States, and Slovakia. Overall, Swedish women displayed less conformity than their foreign counterparts, with the largest difference on the subscale Sexual fidelity. In Study 2, focus group interviews with young Swedish women added a more complex picture of feminine norms in the Swedish society. For instance the results indicated that Swedish women, while living in a society with a strong gender equality discourse, are torn between the perceived need to invest in their appearances and the risk of being viewed as non-equal when doing so. In sum, despite the fact that traditional gender roles are less pronounced in Sweden, gender role conformity is still a pressing issue. Since attending to the potential roles of feminine norms in women's lives previously has been proposed to be useful in counseling and therapeutic work, the present research also offers valuable information for both researchers and practitioners. [Correction added on 5 May 2017, after first online publication in April 2017: An incorrect Abstract was inadvertently captured in the published article and has been corrected in this current version.]. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Rizvi, Narjis; Luby, Stephen
To understand women's perceptions and health seeking behavior and the association between vaginal discharge, clinical signs and laboratory findings as a presentation of sexually transmitted diseases (STD). We conducted five focus group discussions with women attending the outpatient department in a large public hospital in Katmandu, Nepal, during May-June 1997. We also interviewed seventy women presenting with vaginal discharge to the same hospital, through structured questionnaire. Women presenting with discharge were also examined and investigated for six common sexually transmitted diseases and reproductive tract infections. In the focus groups vaginal discharge was identified as a common disease distinct from STDs, for which women can seek treatment. STDs were considered as social diseases transmitted to women through multiple sexual partners and not from husband. Patients with vaginal discharge preferred traditional healers and pharmacist. Clinical signs were inconclusive for type of infection. Simple laboratory tests identified etiologic agent in 64 (91%) patients and the three commonest infections were Moniliasis (78%), Bacterial Vaginosis (25%) and Trichomoniasis (17%). Vaginal discharge may be used as a risk marker for identification of STDs by Primary Health Workers. Low cost investigations should be made available at the secondary care level for identification of most common Reproductive Tract Infections. Communication campaigns should target the misconceptions that exist in the communities local context related to the prevention, treatment and control of vaginal discharge and STDs.
Zulfiqar, Tehzeeb; Lithander, Fiona E; Banwell, Cathy; Young, Rosemary; Boisseau, Lynelle; Ingle, Martha; Nolan, Christopher J
Overseas-born-women from certain ethnicities are at high risk of type-2 diabetes and related metabolic disorders. This study explored the barriers and facilitators to long-term healthy lifestyle recommendations among Australian-born and overseas-born-women who attended health promotion sessions at a tertiary Australian Hospital for gestational diabetes 3-4 years previously. Face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted. Data were analyzed to identify major themes and the differing experiences of both groups of women. Women in both groups faced many barriers to improve post-gestational-diabetes lifestyle. Women from both groups recalled healthy lifestyle recommendations for during pregnancy they received at the service, but had difficulty recalling the long-term lifestyle recommendations. Timing of the health information, non-reiteration of lifestyle recommendations, uncoordinated and fragmented health system support after childbirth were barriers faced by all women. Additional barriers for overseas-born women included the cultural competence of the health education material, their cultural preferences for food and physical activities and unsupportive family and partner. Both groups had excellent compliance with the first annual postnatal oral-glucose-tolerance-test. This was attributed to the personal motivation and health professional reminder. Women only reverted to the healthy lifestyles postnatally for weight loss. A better understanding of the barriers to healthy lifestyle by women in their everyday lives will assist in the development of culturally appropriate health promotion guidelines and strategies. Constant un-fragmented postnatal engagement by the specialised diabetes clinics and primary health care services is crucial to sustain the healthy lifestyle in the long-term for women with previous gestational-diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Issues of women’s empowerment and gender inequality have been of paramount importance, particularly in the two decades since the Fourth World Conference on Women, Beijing, 1995. At that conference, the campaign for women’s empowerment was initiated to implement laws promoting gender equality. This research explored the perceptions of nine academic women at the University of the Witwatersrand with regard to women’s empowerment and the changing roles of women in a South African context in the 21st century. The research adopted a qualitative research methodology, and purposive sampling was utilized to select the study population. Data were collected in the form of semistructured interviews of approximately 30 to 60 min in duration, and thematic content analysis was applied to analyze the data. The data collected indicated that women in academia face challenges and experiences like other women in the workforce. These challenges and experiences are a result of the patriarchal nature of the workplace environment and the slow transformation at the university. It is also interesting to note that the gender roles of women in academia in their daily activities, married or single, are aggravated by the patriarchal nature of the broader society in which these women live.
Mayanne Santana Nóbrega de Figueiredo
Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the perception of nurses of the Family Health Strategy on the factors that influence adhesion to treatment of sexual partners of pregnant women with syphilis. Methods: it is a qualitative research, made with 10 nurses. To collect data, a semi-structured interview was used. The data were submitted to thematic analysis. Results: the following categories were identified: the approach of the nurses to partners of pregnant women with syphilis; barriers that influence on the adhesion to the treatment; strategies and actions of adhesion of the partners in the treatment; perception of the nurse concerning the responsibility of assistance and effectiveness of the treatment. Conclusion: it was identified that nurses have a wide perception of aspects relating to adhesion to the treatment, but need better scientific and practical basis to perform effectively activities on the management of sexual partners with syphilis.
Draper, Catherine E; Davidowitz, Kesiah J; Goedecke, Julia H
A higher tolerance for a larger body size has been associated with obesity in black South African (SA) women. The aim of the present study was to explore perceptions regarding body size and weight loss in a sample of black women from a low-income community in Cape Town, SA. Qualitative pilot study including five focus groups. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Khayelitsha, Cape Town, SA. Twenty-one black SA women. The majority of participants had positive perceptions of overweight/obesity, which were influenced by community and cultural perceptions, but some inconsistencies were observed as overweight/obesity was also associated with ill health. Participants identified many benefits to weight loss, but due to the association with sickness, they were concerned about being stigmatised in their community. Although participants had knowledge about healthy eating, the main barrier to eating healthily included the perceived higher cost of healthier food and food insecurity. All participants saw exercise as a strategy to lose weight and improve health, and were interested in participating in a community-based exercise intervention, but negative community perceptions and conflicting views regarding who should lead the intervention were identified as barriers. These findings highlight the complexities surrounding participants' perceptions regarding body size, weight loss and weight-loss interventions, and emphasise low socio-economic status as a barrier to change. The study also highlights the strong influence of cultural ideals and community perceptions on personal perceptions. These findings underscore the necessity for culturally appropriate weight-loss interventions in low-income, transitioning communities.
YÜKSEL, Serpil; ALTUN UĞRAŞ, Gülay; ÇAVDAR, İkbal; BOZDOĞAN, Atilla; ÖZKAN GÜRDAL, Sibel; AKYOLCU, Neriman; ESENCAN, Ecem; VAROL SARAÇOĞLU, Gamze; ÖZMEN, Vahit
Background: The increase in breast cancer incidence has enhanced attention towards breast cancer risk. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of breast cancer and risk perception of women, factors that affect risk perception, and to determine differences between absolute risk and the perception of risk. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out among 346 women whose score in the Gail Risk Model (GRM) was ≥ 1.67% and/or had a 1st degree relative with breast cancer in Bahçeşehir town in Istanbul, Turkey between Jul 2012 and Dec 2012. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews. The level of risk for breast cancer has been calculated using GRM and the Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Form (BCRAF). Breast cancer risk perception (BCRP), has been evaluated by visual analogue 100-cm-long scale. Results: Even though 39.6% of the women considered themselves as high-risk carriers, according to the GRM and the BCRAF, only 11.6% and 9.8% of women were in the “high risk” category, respectively. There was a positive significant correlation between the GRM and the BCRAF scores (Prisk perception were age (40–59 yr), post-menopausal phase, high-very high economic income level, existence of breast cancer in the family, having regular breast self-examination and clinical breast examination (Prisk of breast, cancer there is a significant difference between the women’s risk perception and their absolute risk level. PMID:28435816
Babatunde-Sowole, Olutoyin O; Power, Tamara; Davidson, Patricia; Ballard, Charlotte; Jackson, Debra
This paper reports on women's experiences of weight gain and obesity as they became acculturated to the Australian diet and lifestyle. Migrants from sub-Saharan Africa have a much higher risk of obesity than the native population when settling in industrialised countries. Qualitative. Women in this study reported weight gain post-migration. This was attributed to increased access to a wide variety of food including takeaway food and more sedentary lifestyles. Obesity has long-term consequences for health and well-being. Further research is needed to support a healthy transition to life in Australia. Gaining insight into the underlying reasons that West African immigrants to Australia become obese could contribute to assisting health professionals design culturally appropriate interventions and health education programmes to support new arrivals.
Milner, A; Page, K M; LaMontagne, A D
Thoughts about suicide are a risk factor for suicide deaths and attempts and are associated with a range of mental health outcomes. While there is considerable knowledge about risk factors for suicide ideation, there is little known about protective factors. The current study sought to understand the role of perceived mattering to others as a protective factor for suicide in a working sample of Australians using a cross-sectional research design. Logistic regression analysis indicated that people with a higher perception that they mattered had lower odds of suicide ideation than those with lower reported mattering, after controlling for psychological distress, demographic and relationship variables. These results indicate the importance of further research and intervention studies on mattering as a lever for reducing suicidality. Understanding more about protective factors for suicide ideation is important as this may prevent future adverse mental health and behavioural outcomes.
Hearnshaw, Stephanie; Baker, Elise; Munro, Natalie
To investigate whether Australian-English speaking children with and without speech sound disorder (SSD) differ in their overall speech perception accuracy. Additionally, to investigate differences in the perception of specific phonemes and the association between speech perception and speech production skills. Twenty-five Australian-English speaking children aged 48-60 months participated in this study. The SSD group included 12 children and the typically developing (TD) group included 13 children. Children completed routine speech and language assessments in addition to an experimental Australian-English lexical and phonetic judgement task based on Rvachew's Speech Assessment and Interactive Learning System (SAILS) program (Rvachew, 2009). This task included eight words across four word-initial phonemes-/k, ɹ, ʃ, s/. Children with SSD showed significantly poorer perceptual accuracy on the lexical and phonetic judgement task compared with TD peers. The phonemes /ɹ/ and /s/ were most frequently perceived in error across both groups. Additionally, the phoneme /ɹ/ was most commonly produced in error. There was also a positive correlation between overall speech perception and speech production scores. Children with SSD perceived speech less accurately than their typically developing peers. The findings suggest that an Australian-English variation of a lexical and phonetic judgement task similar to the SAILS program is promising and worthy of a larger scale study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Brown, Emma; Hotham, Elizabeth; Hotham, Neil
Product information is a popular medicines information resource; however, there is some evidence that its pregnancy and lactation information is overconservative, which can lead to inadequate treatment of pregnant and lactating women. A thorough analysis of pregnancy and lactation information within Australian Product Information and Consumer Medicines Information was performed. The statements within these resources were compared with established clinical resources: Australian Medicines Handbook, Therapeutic Guidelines, South Australian Perinatal Practice Guidelines, Organization of Teratology Information Specialists, LactMed, Motherisk and the Pregnancy and Breastfeeding Medicines Guide published by the Royal Women's Hospital Melbourne. Product Information was found to be the most cautious resource, with 44.5% of pregnancy recommendations and 69% of lactation recommendations reviewed being more conservative than other resources. Product Information is an imperfect and often overconservative reference for pregnant and lactating women. Health professionals are urged to review established clinical resources to inform decision making.
Rivero-Mendez, Marta; Dawson-Rose, Carol S.; Solis-Baez, Solymar S.
This study examines healthcare providers' perceptions regarding experiences and factors that contribute to adherent and non-adherent behaviors to HIV treatment among women living with HIV infection in Puerto Rico and describes strategies implemented to improve adherence. Providers' accounts revealed that women with HIV infection are living…
Rojjanasrirat, Wilaiporn; Sousa, Valmi D
To describe the perceptions of breastfeeding in low-income pregnant women to understand their needs better as they plan to return to work or school. Maternal employment has a negative impact on breastfeeding duration. Yet there is insufficient research on challenges and facilitators regarding breastfeeding and employment issue among low-income women in the USA. Knowing the perceptions of breastfeeding among low-income pregnant women and their plan to return to work or school may have implications for nurses and midwives in providing quality care. Qualitative study using focus group interviews. The research setting consisted of three Women, Infants and Children clinics (WIC) in a midwestern city of the USA. Seventeen pregnant women (aged 19-35) participated in focus group interviews. Data were coded and analysed for themes and patterns using the QSR software - NVivo 6. Eleven participants were single. Ten women were primigravida, and seven were multipara. The following five themes were identified: (1) perceived benefits of breastfeeding; (2) general perceptions of breastfeeding; (3) maternal concerns; (4) having the right support; and (5) anticipated challenges of combining breastfeeding and work. Conclusions. Low-income women anticipated substantial barriers for breastfeeding when they planned to combine breastfeeding and work or school. The results of this study have many implications for public health practice, research and policy. Educating employers and the public at large about the health and economic benefits derived from long-term breastfeeding could help promote breastfeeding awareness. Strategies supporting breastfeeding among low-income working women must be provided at multiple levels to help overcome the barriers they concern. Health care providers should help women gain confidence by minimising their uncertainties and fears about breastfeeding to prepare them to continue breastfeeding successfully after returning to work. © 2010 Blackwell
Hall, Danika V; Jones, Sandra C; Iverson, Donald C
To examine the nature of disease awareness advertising (DAA). Therapeutic advertisements in six popular Australian women's magazines were monitored between April 2006 and March 2007. A subset of advertisements was included in the study based on criteria derived from a definition of DAA. Unique advertisements were analysed by four independent coders. Types of advertisements and their sponsors, the types of disease information present, and the persuasive techniques utilised. Of 711 advertisements identified, 60 met the inclusion criteria for DAA, and 30 of these were unique. Over one-third of the advertisements were classified as "unbranded product advertisements", which promote a product without referring directly to a brand. DAA sponsored by pharmaceutical companies most often provided treatment and prevalence information. Most (22/30) advertisements used emotional appeals; 15 of these used "happiness/healthiness/wellbeing". The educational value of industry-sponsored DAA could be improved if regulations and guidelines stipulated disease information requirements, such as inclusion of risk-factor and symptom information. Regulators should provide guidelines for "unbranded product advertisements" and the acceptability of other persuasive techniques. Further research into DAA is required and should consider advertisements in a range of media, and behavioural responses.
Women Farmers' Perception and Utilization of Marketing Information on ... effective integration of information and communications technologies (ICTs) in .... of information is an indication that the respondents are still depend on traditional and.
Råberg Kjøllesdal, Marte K; Hjellset, Victoria T; Bjørge, Benedikte; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd; Wandel, Margareta
To explore perceptions of diabetes risk factors among Pakistani immigrant women, as part of their explanatory model of the disease, and the changes in these perceptions after a culturally adapted intervention. Intervention study, carried out in Oslo, Norway, comprising 198 women. At baseline, about 75% of the women perceived sugar to be a risk factor for diabetes, about 30% mentioned physical inactivity and stress and close to 20% mentioned overweight. Twelve per cent could not identify any risk factors. When asked about foods to include in a diet to prevent diabetes, vegetables were mentioned by 45%, while 33% did not know any foods to include. Among those attending ≥60% of the educational sessions, the proportions mentioning little physical activity (pfood to include was reduced to 10% (p=0.004). Except for little physical activity, similar changes in responses were not registered in the control group. There is a need for improved knowledge about diabetes prevention among Pakistani immigrant women, and a culturally adapted intervention may contribute to this.
Nahas, V; Amasheh, N
This study discovers, describes, and explains the personal experiences, perceptions, and care meanings of Jordanian women who have suffered postpartum depression. Most postpartum cases often are misdiagnosed as exclusively psychological and untreated by health care professionals without consideration to the cultural meanings of this problem. Understanding the experiences of these women is important, as their expressions often are contextually and culturally influenced. Using Leininger's Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality, a purposive sample of 22 Jordanian women diagnosed with postpartum depression, living in Sydney, were interviewed. The ethnonursing research method and data analysis procedures were used. Results revealed that Jordanian mothers experienced severe loss of control over emotions of loneliness, hopelessness, and feelings of being a bad mother. Three major themes focusing on the care meanings and experiences of Jordanian women are discussed: (a) Care means strong family support and kinship during the postpartum period, (b) care is carrying out and fulfilling traditional gender roles as mother and wife, and (c) care is preservation of Jordanian childbearing customs as expressed in the celebration of the birth of the baby.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Households with fixed-line telephones have decreased while mobile (cell phone ownership has increased. We therefore sought to examine the feasibility of recruiting young women for a national health survey through random digit dialling mobile phones. Methods Two samples of women aged 18 to 39 years were surveyed by random digit dialling fixed and mobile numbers. We compared participation rates and responses to a questionnaire between women surveyed by each contact method. Results After dialling 5,390 fixed-lines and 3,697 mobile numbers, 140 and 128 women were recruited respectively. Among women contacted and found to be eligible, participation rates were 74% for fixed-lines and 88% for mobiles. Taking into account calls to numbers where eligibility was unknown (e.g. unanswered calls the estimated response rates were 54% and 45% respectively. Of women contacted by fixed-line, 97% reported having a mobile while 61% of those contacted by mobile reported having a fixed-line at home. After adjusting for age, there were no significant differences between mobile-only and fixed-line responders with respect to education, residence, and various health behaviours; however compared to those with fixed-lines, mobile-only women were more likely to identify as Indigenous (OR 4.99, 95%CI 1.52-16.34 and less likely to live at home with their parents (OR 0.09, 95%CI 0.03-0.29. Conclusions Random digit dialling mobile phones to conduct a health survey in young Australian women is feasible, gives a comparable response rate and a more representative sample than dialling fixed-lines only. Telephone surveys of young women should include mobile dialling.
Background Despite extensive literature demonstrating differing experiences in menopause around the world, documentation of the experience of menopause in Australian Aboriginal women is scarce, and thus their menopausal experience is relatively unknown. This study aimed to understand Australian Aboriginal women’s understanding and experience of menopause and its impact on their lives. Methods The study was an exploratory qualitative study. Twenty-five Aboriginal women were recruited from a regional centre in the Mid-West region of Western Australia using opportunistic and snowballing sampling. Interviews and focus group discussions were undertaken from February 2011 to February 2012 using open-ended questioning with a yarning technique. Thematic analysis was undertaken of the transcribed interviews. Results A number of themes were revealed. These related to the language used, meanings and attitudes to menopause, symptoms experienced, the role of men, a lack of understanding, coping mechanisms and the attribution of menopausal changes to something else. The term “change of life” was more widely recognised and signified the process of ageing, and an associated gain of respect in the local community. A fear of menopausal symptoms or uncertainty about their origin was also common. Overall, many women reported insufficient understanding and a lack of available information to assist them and their family to understand the transition. Conclusion There are similarities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal experiences of menopause, including similar symptom profiles. The current language used within mainstream health settings may not be appropriate to this population if it fails to recognise the importance of language and reflect the attributed meaning of menopause. The fear of symptoms and uncertainty of their relationship to menopause demonstrated a need for more information which has not adequately been supplied to Australian Aboriginal women through current
Schenberg, Tess [Department of Medical Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Familial Cancer Centre, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Mitchell, Gillian [Familial Cancer Centre, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Taylor, Donna [School of Surgery, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Department of Radiology, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); BreastScreen Western Australia, Adelaide Terrace, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Saunders, Christobel [School of Surgery, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Department of General Surgery, St John of God Hospital, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Department of Medical Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)
Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) screening of women under 50 years old at high familial risk of breast cancer was given interim funding by Medicare in 2009 on the basis that a review would be undertaken. An updated literature review has been undertaken by the Medical Services Advisory Committee but there has been no assessment of the quality of the screening or other screening outcomes. This review examines the evidence basis of breast MRI screening and how this fits within an Australian context with the purpose of informing future modifications to the provision of Medicare-funded breast MRI screening in Australia. Issues discussed will include selection of high-risk women, the options for MRI screening frequency and measuring the outcomes of screening.
Schenberg, Tess; Mitchell, Gillian; Taylor, Donna; Saunders, Christobel
Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) screening of women under 50 years old at high familial risk of breast cancer was given interim funding by Medicare in 2009 on the basis that a review would be undertaken. An updated literature review has been undertaken by the Medical Services Advisory Committee but there has been no assessment of the quality of the screening or other screening outcomes. This review examines the evidence basis of breast MRI screening and how this fits within an Australian context with the purpose of informing future modifications to the provision of Medicare-funded breast MRI screening in Australia. Issues discussed will include selection of high-risk women, the options for MRI screening frequency and measuring the outcomes of screening
Ragusa, Angela T.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a widespread, ongoing, and complex global social problem, whose victims continue to be largely women. Women often prefer to rely on friends and family for IPV help, yet when informal support is unavailable they remain hesitant to contact formal services, particularly legal support for many reasons. This study…
Ovseiko, Pavel V; Chapple, Alison; Edmunds, Laurel D; Ziebland, Sue
While in the United Kingdom, Ireland, and Australia, higher education and research institutions are widely engaged with the Athena SWAN Charter for Women in Science to advance gender equality, empirical research on this process and its impact is rare. This study combined two data sets (free- text comments from a survey and qualitative interviews) to explore the range of experiences and perceptions of participation in Athena SWAN in medical science departments of a research-intensive university in Oxford, United Kingdom. The study is based on the secondary analysis of data from two projects: 59 respondents to an anonymous online survey (42 women, 17 men) provided relevant free-text comments and, separately, 37 women participated in face-to-face narrative interviews. Free-text survey comments and narrative interviews were analysed thematically using constant comparison. Both women and men said that participation in Athena SWAN had brought about important structural and cultural changes, including increased support for women's careers, greater appreciation of caring responsibilities, and efforts to challenge discrimination and bias. Many said that these positive changes would not have happened without linkage of Athena SWAN to government research funding, while others thought there were unintended consequences. Concerns about the programme design and implementation included a perception that Athena SWAN has limited ability to address longstanding and entrenched power and pay imbalances, persisting lack of work-life balance in academic medicine, questions about the sustainability of positive changes, belief that achieving the award could become an end in itself, resentment about perceived positive discrimination, and perceptions that further structural and cultural changes were needed in the university and wider society. The findings from this study suggest that Athena SWAN has a positive impact in advancing gender equality, but there may be limits to how much it can
Pugh, Brandie; Li, Luye; Sun, Ivan Y
In both China and the United States, public attitudes toward intimate partner violence (IPV) have shifted from viewing IPV as a tolerable, private matter to viewing it as a matter of public concern that should be dealt with as a crime. Empirical and comparative examinations of the perceptions of why women stay in physically abusive relationships are lacking. Answering this question calls for comprehensive, methodologically rigorous research. Using survey data collected from approximately 1,000 college students from two Chinese and two U.S. universities, this study empirically compared and contrasted factors that impact U.S. and Chinese students' perceptions as to why women remain in physically abusive relationships. Utilizing a theoretical framework of social constructionism, two common reasons were assessed: Women stay in physically abusive relationships because of learned helplessness and positive beliefs in the relationship/hope for the future. The results show that viewing IPV as a crime, gender, and beliefs of the causes of IPV were robust predictors of college students' perceptions toward why women stay in physically abusive relationships. U.S. college students were more likely to express sympathy and understanding toward why women remain in abusive relationships than Chinese students. Directions for future research and policy implications were discussed.
Full Text Available Despite a significant increase in enrolments of postgraduate international Muslim students within Australian universities, little is known about their perceptions of life within Australian homes while undertaking their studies. The aim of this study is to investigate the ways in which students’ cultural and religious traditions affect their use of domestic spaces within the homes in which they reside. The research found that participants faced some minor difficulties in achieving privacy, maintaining modesty and extending hospitality while able to perform their daily activities in Australian designed homes. The findings suggest that greater research attention needs to be given to the development of Australian home designs that are adaptable to the needs of a multicultural society. Australian society encompasses diverse cultural customs and requirements with respect to home design, and these are yet to be explored.
Jama-Alol, Khadra A; Bremner, Alexandra P; Stewart, Louise M; Kemp-Casey, Anna; Malacova, Eva; Moorin, Rachael; Shirangi, Adeleh; Preen, David B
To describe trends in age-specific incidence rates of female sterilization (FS) procedures in Western Australia and to evaluate the effects of the introduction of government-subsidized contraceptive methods and the implementation of the Australian government's baby bonus policy on FS rates. Population-based retrospective descriptive study. Not applicable. All women ages 15-49 undergoing an FS procedure during the period January 1, 1990, to December 31, 2008 (n = 47,360 procedures). Records from statutory statewide data collections of hospitals separations and births were extracted and linked. Trends in FS procedures and the influence on these trends of the introduction of government policies: subsidization of long-acting reversible contraceptives (Implanon and Mirena) and the Australian baby bonus initiative. The annual incidence rate of FS procedures declined from 756.9 per 100,000 women in 1990 to 155.2 per 100,000 women in 2008. Compared with the period 1990-1994, women ages 30-39 years were 47% less likely (rate ratio [RR] = 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39-0.72) to undergo sterilization during the period 2005-2008. Adjusting for overall trend, there were significant decreases in FS rates after government subsidization of Implanon (RR = 0.89; 95% CI, 0.82-0.97) and Mirena (RR = 0.81; 95% CI, 0.73-0.91) and the introduction of the baby bonus (RR = 0.70; 95% CI, 0.61-0.81). Rates of female sterilization procedures in Western Australia have declined substantially across all age groups in the last two decades. Women's decisions to undergo sterilization procedures may be influenced by government interventions that increase access to long-term reversible contraceptives or encourage childbirth. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objectives: To examine student perceptions regarding online lectures and quizzes undertaken during a pharmaceutical practice course for first year undergraduate students enrolled in the Bachelor of Pharmacy course at an Australian University.Methods: The University uses a standard instrument to collect feedback from students regarding unit satisfaction. Data were collected for three different teaching modalities: traditional face-to-face, online and partially online. Results: Descriptive statistics support that, from a student's perspective, partial online delivery is the preferred teaching methodology for an introductory pharmaceutical practice unit. Conclusion: This study has served to highlight that while there are a few points of significant difference between traditional and online teaching and learning, a combination of the two provides a reasonable avenue for teaching exploration. This result has implications for teaching practice generally, and within the pharmacy discipline, specifically.
Condon John R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous women in Australia have a disproportionate burden of cervical cancer despite a national cervical screening program. Prior to introduction of a national human papilloma virus (HPV vaccination program, we determined HPV genotype prevalence by Indigenous status and residence in remote areas. Methods We recruited women aged 17 to 40 years presenting to community-based primary health services for routine Pap screening across Australia. A liquid-based cytology (LBC cervical specimen was tested for HPV DNA using the AMPLICOR HPV-DNA test and a PGMY09/11-based HPV consensus PCR; positive specimens were typed by reverse hybridization. We calculated age-adjusted prevalence by weighting to relevant population data, and determined predictors of HPV-DNA positivity by age, Indigenous status and area of residence using logistic regression. Results Of 2152 women (655 Indigenous, prevalence of the high-risk HPV genotypes was similar for Indigenous and non-Indigenous women (HPV 16 was 9.4% and 10.5%, respectively; HPV 18 was 4.1% and 3.8%, respectively, and did not differ by age group. In younger age groups, the prevalence of other genotypes also did not differ, but in those aged 31 to 40 years, HPV prevalence was higher for Indigenous women (35% versus 22.5%; P Conclusion Although we found no difference in the prevalence of HPV16/18 among Australian women by Indigenous status or, for Indigenous women, residence in remote regions, differences were found in the prevalence of risk factors and some other HPV genotypes. This reinforces the importance of cervical screening as a complement to vaccination for all women, and the value of baseline data on HPV genotype prevalence by Indigenous status and residence for the monitoring of vaccine impact.
Full Text Available This research study aimed to investigate the acceptability, knowledge and perceptions of pregnant women toward HIV testing in pregnancy in Ilembe District. An exploratory research design guided the study. A systematic random sampling was used to select pregnant women who were attending the ante-natal clinic for the first time in their current pregnancy.
Biggs, Sarah N; Meltzer, Lisa J; Tapia, Ignacio E; Traylor, Joel; Nixon, Gillian M; Horne, Rosemary S C; Doyle, Lex W; Asztalos, Elizabeth; Mindell, Jodi A; Marcus, Carole L
To compare sleep/wake patterns in children born preterm in Australia vs Canada and determine cultural differences in the relationship between parental perception of sleep and actual sleep behaviors. Australian and Canadian children born preterm were recruited from the Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity trial (n = 188, 5-12 y) and underwent 14 days actigraphy monitoring. Parents completed the National Sleep Foundation 2004 Sleep in America questionnaire. Cross-cultural differences in sleep characteristics assessed by actigraphy and parent-reported questionnaire were examined. Correlational analyses determined the associations between parental perceptions of child sleep need and sleep behavior. Actigraphy showed preterm children obtained, on average, 8 h sleep/night, one hour less than population recommendations for their age. There was no difference in total sleep time (TST) between Australian and Canadian cohorts; however, bed and wake times were earlier in Australian children. Bedtimes and TST varied by 60 minutes from night to night in both cohorts. Parent-reported child TST on the National Sleep Foundation questionnaire was 90 minutes longer than recorded by actigraphy. Both bedtime and TST on weekdays and weekends were related to parental perception of child sleep need in the Australian cohort. Only TST on weekdays was related to parental perception of child sleep need in the Canadian cohort. This study suggests that short sleep duration and irregular sleep schedules are common in children born preterm. Cultural differences in the association between parental perception of child sleep need and actual sleep behaviors provide important targets for future sleep health education. © 2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.
Fallin, Amanda; Miller, Alana; Assef, Sara; Ashford, Kristin
To describe perceptions and beliefs about electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use during pregnancy among pregnant and newly postpartum women. An exploratory, qualitative descriptive study. University-affiliated prenatal clinics. Twelve pregnant or recently postpartum women who reported use of tobacco and electronic cigarettes. Semistructured focus groups were audio recorded and professionally transcribed. The transcripts were coded to consensus and analyzed with MAXQDA software (version 11) using content analysis. Four overarching themes emerged: (a) Attraction to E-Cigarettes as a Harm Reduction Strategy, (b) Uncertainty Regarding the Health Effects of E-Cigarettes; (c) Ambivalence Regarding Novel Product Characteristics; and (d) Behaviors Reflected Dual Use and Often Complete Relapse to Traditional Cigarettes. Pregnant women are initially attracted to e-cigarettes as a harm reduction strategy, but they often return to traditional cigarettes in the postpartum period. Nurses should counsel pregnant women on the adverse effects of fetal exposure to nicotine. Evidence-based nursing interventions are needed to prevent relapse during the postpartum period. Copyright © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Agus, Yenita; Horiuchi, Shigeko; Iida, Mariko
In the 1990s, the Indonesian government launched programmes to train traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and increase the number of midwives. To identify and compare the factors that influence women's choice of a midwife or a TBA for maternal healthcare in Indonesia. This study used a descriptive design for comparing women's choice of maternal healthcare. The participants were (1) married women, (2) experienced birth within two years, (3) living in a rural or urban village, and (4) capable of communicating in the Indonesia language. Three instruments were used: (1) traditional belief questionnaire, (2) preference for caregiver questionnaire, and (3) women-centered care (WCC) questionnaire which measured women's perceptions of care that they received during pregnancy. A total of 371 women participated in this study. All these subjects answered based on their most recent birth within the last two years. Of the 371 women, 207 (55.8%) chose a midwife and 164 (44.2%) chose a TBA for giving birth. Women choosing midwives were generally satisfied and perceived receiving WCC. Factors determining choice were (1) women's background, (2) perception of WCC, (3) satisfaction, (4) choice of antenatal care (ANC), (5) family encouragement, and (6) traditional beliefs. The choice of caregivers was determined by not only education, parity, usual source of healthcare payment, and family encouragement but also traditional beliefs. Indonesian women's choice of a midwife instead of a TBA for their maternal healthcare resulted in a higher satisfaction of care and more ANC visits. Copyright © 2018 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bonomi, Amy E; Nichols, Emily M; Carotta, Christin L; Kiuchi, Yuya; Perry, Samantha
Millions of women are interacting with Fifty Shades of Grey-a best-selling novel and film. Yet, to date, no social science study has been undertaken to examine women's perceptions of the Fifty Shades relationship narrative in its film adaptation-what they deem appealing, what they deem unappealing, and what they would welcome or resist in their own relationship. In the present study, we used focus groups to examine women's perceptions of the relationship patterns in the Fifty Shades of Grey film. Focus groups were conducted with 35 young adult women (randomly sampled from the registrar's office of a large Midwestern university) immediately after watching the Fifty Shades film with the study team at a local theater within two days of the film's release. Seven semistructured questions concentrating on reactions to the relationship patterns between Christian Grey and Anastasia Steele depicted in the Fifty Shades film were asked, including general reactions, appealing and unappealing characteristics, romantic and dangerous elements, and aspects that participants would tolerate (or not tolerate) in their own relationships. While participants assessed parts of the relationship between Christian and Anastasia as exciting and romantic, they consistently indicated an unappealing lack of health in the relationship. Participants expressed grave concerns over Christian's stalking, controlling, manipulative, and emotionally abusive behavior, anger in sexual interactions, and neglect of Anastasia's needs. At the same time, they sympathized with and rationalized Christian's behaviors as a function of his personality, needs, and abilities. A small contingent implicated Anastasia in the unhealthy relationship process, whereas a broader majority of participants highlighted the challenges with trying to "speak up" in an unhealthy relationship like Christian and Anastasia's. When asked where participants would draw the line in their own relationship, participants indicated they would
Rieck, Allison; Pettigrew, Simone
Community pharmacists (CPs) have been changing their role to focus on patient-centred services to improve the quality of chronic disease management (CDM) in primary care. However, CPs have not been readily included in collaborative CDM with other primary care professionals such as physicians. There is little understanding of the CP role change and whether it affects the utilisation of CPs in primary care collaborative CDM. To explore physician and CP perceptions of the CP's role in Australian primary care and how these perceptions may influence the quality of physician/CP CDM programmes. Data were collected from physicians and CPs using semi-structured interviews. A qualitative methodology utilising thematic analysis was employed during data analysis. Qualitative methodology trustworthiness techniques, negative case analysis and member checking were utilised to substantiate the resultant themes. A total of 22 physicians and 22 CPs were interviewed. Strong themes emerged regarding the participant perceptions of the CP's CDM role in primary care. The majority of interviewed physicians perceived that CPs did not have the appropriate CDM knowledge to complement physician knowledge to provide improved CDM compared with what they could provide on their own. Most of the interviewed CPs expressed a willingness and capability to undertake CDM; however, they were struggling to provide sustainable CDM in the business setting within which they function in the primary care environment. Role theory was selected as it provided the optimum explanation of the resultant themes. First, physician lack of confidence in the appropriateness of CP CDM knowledge causes physicians to be confused about the role CPs would undertake in a collaborative CDM that would benefit the physicians and their patients. Thus, by increasing physician awareness of CP CDM knowledge, physicians may see CPs as suitable CDM collaborators. Second, CPs are experiencing role conflict and stress in trying to change
Full Text Available Suratman Suratman,1,2 Kirstin E Ross,1 Kateryna Babina,1 John William Edwards1 1Health and Environment Group, School of the Environment, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Flinders University, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 2School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Jenderal Soedirman University, Kampus Karangwangkal, Purwokerto, Indonesia Background: Farmworkers are at risk of exposure to organophosphate pesticides (OPs. Improvements of knowledge and perceptions about organophosphate (OP exposure may be of benefit for the reduction in OP exposure. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an educational intervention to improve knowledge and perceptions for reducing OP exposure among Indonesian and South Australian (SA migrant farmworkers. Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study. The educational intervention used a method of group communication for 30 Indonesian farmworkers and individual communication for seven SA migrant farmworkers. Knowledge and perceptions about OP exposure were measured pre-intervention and 3 months after the intervention. Results: Unadjusted intervention effects at follow-up showed statistically significantly improved scores of knowledge (both adverse effects of OPs and self-protection from OP exposure, perceived susceptibility, and perceived barriers among Indonesian farmworkers compared with SA migrant farmworkers. Furthermore, these four significant variables in the unadjusted model and the two other variables (perceived severity and perceived benefits were statistically significant after being adjusted for the level of education and years working as a farmworker. In contrast, knowledge about adverse effects of OPs was the only variable that was statistically significantly improved among SA migrant farmworkers. The results of this study suggests educational interventions using a method of group communication could be more effective than using individual intervention. Conclusion
Porrett, Liesel; Barkla, Sally; Knights, Janice; de Costa, Caroline; Harmen, Sonia
The benefits to women of having their male partners present during labor and birth have been well documented, but the effects on men of sharing the birth experience have been less well explored. Several studies have suggested that male partners' positive experiences at this time may benefit partner and family relationships subsequently, whereas negative experiences may translate into later difficulties in these relationships. This study explored the perceptions of male partners involved in the birthing experience in the Integrated Women's Health Unit of Cairns Base Hospital, Cairns, Australia, over a 6-month period in 2010. The aims of the study were to document male partners' self-reported perceptions of their antenatal, labor, and birth experiences and birth expectations and birth involvement and to determine whether these perceptions influenced their feelings that their presence during birth was beneficial to the birthing woman. Participants were men experiencing for the first time their partner giving birth. A self-administered 14-item questionnaire was used to collect data; 163 of 200 eligible participants returned completed questionnaires. Continuous variables were converted to categorical variables and chi-square testing was used to determine significant differences between groups. The relationship between beneficial presence and antenatal, labor, and birthing experiences was assessed using correlation analysis and hierarchical regression analysis. There was a significant relationship demonstrated between perceived benefit of the partners' presence and positive perception of both antenatal experience and birth involvement. There also was a positive relationship between realized birth expectations and both antenatal experience and birth involvement. This study suggests that male partners' perceptions of beneficial presence during the birth experience can be enhanced by their feeling well informed and supported during the antenatal period and feeling involved
Filippi, Melissa K; Pacheco, Joseph; James, Aimee S; Brown, Travis; Ndikum-Moffor, Florence; Choi, Won S; Greiner, K Allen; Daley, Christine M
Screening, especially screening mammography, is vital for decreasing breast cancer incidence and mortality. Screening rates in American Indian women are low compared to other racial/ethnic groups. In addition, American Indian women are diagnosed at more advanced stages and have lower 5-year survival rate than others. To better address the screening rates of American Indian women, focus groups (N=8) were conducted with American Indian men (N=42) to explore their perceptions of breast cancer screening for American Indian women. Our intent was to understand men's support level toward screening. Using a community-based participatory approach, focus groups were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using a text analysis approach developed by our team. Topics discussed included breast cancer and screening knowledge, barriers to screening, and suggestions to improve screening rates. These findings can guide strategies to improve knowledge and awareness, communication among families and health care providers, and screening rates in American Indian communities.
Rivero-Méndez, Marta; Dawson-Rose, Carol S.; Solís-Báez, Solymar S.
This study examines healthcare providers’ perceptions regarding experiences and factors that contribute to adherent and non-adherent behaviors to HIV treatment among women living with HIV infection in Puerto Rico and describes strategies implemented to improve adherence. Providers’ accounts revealed that women with HIV infection are living “beyond their strengths” attempting to reconcile the burden of the illness and keep adherent. Factors putting women beyond their strengths and influencing ...
Loh, Claire; Wong, David H.; Quazi, Ali; Kingshott, Russel Philip
Purpose: Australian tertiary institutions are increasingly incorporating technologies, such as social media and Web 2.0 tools into teaching in response to changing student needs. The purpose of this paper is to revisit a fundamental question, frequently asked in marketing, "what do our "customers" [students] think now?" This…
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF is now an accepted and effective treatment for infertility, however IVF is acknowledged as contributing to, rather than lessening, the overall psychosocial effects of infertility. Psychological and counselling interventions have previously been widely recommended in parallel with infertility treatments but whilst in many jurisdictions counselling is recommended or mandatory, it may not be widely used. Acupuncture is increasingly used as an adjunct to IVF, in this preliminary study we sought to investigate the experience of infertile women who had used acupuncture to improve their fertility. Methods A sample of 20 women was drawn from a cohort of women who had attended for a minimum of four acupuncture sessions in the practices of two acupuncturists in South Australia. Eight women were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Six had sought acupuncture during IVF treatment and two had begun acupuncture to enhance their fertility and had later progressed to IVF. Descriptive content analysis was employed to analyse the data. Results Four major categories of perceptions about acupuncture in relation to reproductive health were identified: (a Awareness of, and perceived benefits of acupuncture; (b perceptions of the body and the impact of acupuncture upon it; (c perceptions of stress and the impact of acupuncture on resilience; and (d perceptions of the intersection of medical treatment and acupuncture. Conclusion This preliminary exploration, whilst confined to a small sample of women, confirms that acupuncture is indeed perceived by infertile women to have an impact to their health. All findings outlined here are reported cautiously because they are limited by the size of the sample. They suggest that further studies of acupuncture as an adjunct to IVF should systematically explore the issues of wellbeing, anxiety, personal and social resilience and women's identity in relation to sexuality
Norhayati, Mohd Noor; Nik Hazlina, Nik Hussain; Asrenee, Ab Razak; Sulaiman, Zaharah
Maternal mortality has been the main way of ascertaining the outcome of maternal and obstetric care. However, maternal morbidities occur more frequently than maternal deaths; therefore, maternal near miss was suggested as a more useful indicator for the evaluation and improvement of maternal health services. Our study aimed to explore the experiences of women with maternal near miss and their perception of the quality of care in Kelantan, Malaysia. A qualitative phenomenological approach with in-depth interview method was conducted in two tertiary hospitals in Kelantan, Malaysia. All women admitted to labour room, obstetrics and gynaecology wards and intensive care units in 2014 were screened for the presence of any vital organ dysfunction or failure based on the World Health Organization criteria for maternal near miss. Pregnancy irrespective of the gestational age was included. Women younger than 18 years old, with psychiatric disorder and beyond 42 days of childbirth were excluded. Thirty women who had experienced maternal near miss events were included in the analysis. All were Malays between the ages of 22 and 45. Almost all women (93.3%) had secondary and tertiary education and 63.3% were employed. The women's perceptions of the quality of their care were influenced by the competency and promptness in the provision of care, interpersonal communication, information-sharing and the quality of physical resources. The predisposition to seek healthcare was influenced by costs, self-attitude and beliefs. Self-appraisal of maternal near miss, their perception of the quality of care, their predisposition to seek healthcare and the social support received were the four major themes that emerged from the experiences and perceptions of women with maternal near miss. The women with maternal near miss viewed their experiences as frightening and that they experienced other negative emotions and a sense of imminent death. The factors influencing women's perceptions of
Kunta Devi Pun
Full Text Available Background: Globally, knowledge of health sector options to respond to domestic violence during pregnancy is increasing, but this topic is under-investigated in Nepal. This gap affects the provision of adequate antenatal care services and understanding of factors that influence women’s willingness and ability to use available services. It is critical to know more about the social norms in a community that promote and prevent women experiencing domestic violence from seeking antenatal care. Objective: To explore community perceptions of domestic violence against pregnant women. Methods: A qualitative study was conducted in Dhulikhel municipality, involving 41 men and 76 women in 12 focus group discussions in different gender and family role separated groups. The interviews were recorded, transcribed in verbatim, and analyzed using content analysis. A socio-ecological model was used as a theoretical framework to illustrate linkages between individual, relationship, community, and societal influences on perceptions of domestic violence during pregnancy. Results: The community recognized different forms of violence during pregnancy threatening women’s physical and psychological health and presenting obstacles to seeking antenatal care. Some types of culturally specific violence were considered particularly harmful, such as pressure to give birth to sons, denial of food, and forcing pregnant women to do hard physical work during pregnancy, which may leave daughters-in-law vulnerable to domestic violence in extended families. A culture where violence is normalized and endurance and family reconciliation are promoted above individual health was perceived to cause women to tolerate and accept the situation. Participants suggested actions and strategies to address continuing violence, which indicated a societal transition toward increased awareness and changing attitudes and practices. Conclusions: Domestic violence during pregnancy needs to be
Biggs, Sarah N.; Meltzer, Lisa J.; Tapia, Ignacio E.; Traylor, Joel; Nixon, Gillian M.; Horne, Rosemary S.C.; Doyle, Lex W.; Asztalos, Elizabeth; Mindell, Jodi A.; Marcus, Carole L.
Study Objectives: To compare sleep/wake patterns in children born preterm in Australia vs Canada and determine cultural differences in the relationship between parental perception of sleep and actual sleep behaviors. Methods: Australian and Canadian children born preterm were recruited from the Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity trial (n = 188, 5–12 y) and underwent 14 days actigraphy monitoring. Parents completed the National Sleep Foundation 2004 Sleep in America questionnaire. Cross-cultural differences in sleep characteristics assessed by actigraphy and parent-reported questionnaire were examined. Correlational analyses determined the associations between parental perceptions of child sleep need and sleep behavior. Results: Actigraphy showed preterm children obtained, on average, 8 h sleep/night, one hour less than population recommendations for their age. There was no difference in total sleep time (TST) between Australian and Canadian cohorts; however, bed and wake times were earlier in Australian children. Bedtimes and TST varied by 60 minutes from night to night in both cohorts. Parent-reported child TST on the National Sleep Foundation questionnaire was 90 minutes longer than recorded by actigraphy. Both bedtime and TST on weekdays and weekends were related to parental perception of child sleep need in the Australian cohort. Only TST on weekdays was related to parental perception of child sleep need in the Canadian cohort. Conclusions: This study suggests that short sleep duration and irregular sleep schedules are common in children born preterm. Cultural differences in the association between parental perception of child sleep need and actual sleep behaviors provide important targets for future sleep health education. Citation: Biggs SN, Meltzer LJ, Tapia IE, Traylor J, Nixon GM, Horne RS, Doyle LW, Asztalos E, Mindell JA, Marcus CL. Sleep/wake patterns and parental perceptions of sleep in children born preterm. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(5):711–717
Full Text Available Increasing demand for services and rising health care costs create pressures within the Australian health care system and result in higher health insurance premiums and out-of-pocket costs for consumers.To measure changes in consumer views on the quality of the Australian health care system, contributors to rising costs and attitudes towards managing these costs.Two computer-assisted telephone interviews were conducted in 2006 (533 respondents and 2015 (1318 respondents and results compared.More respondents in 2015 rated the Australian health care system 'very adequate' than in 2006 (22.3% vs 8.3%; Odds Ratio OR 3.2, 99% CI 2.1, 5.1 with fewer 'concerned' or 'fairly concerned' about the health care costs (69.0% vs 85.7%; OR 0.37, 99% CI 0.25, 0.53. The 2015 respondents were more likely to identify new treatments for cancer (77% vs 65.7%; OR 1.75, 99% CI 1.30, 2.35 and community expectations for access to the latest technologies (73.8% vs 67%; OR 1.39, 99% CI 1.04, 1.86 as contributors to rising health care costs. While more 2015 respondents agreed that patients should pay a greater part of the health care costs, this remained a minority view (37.9% vs 31.7%; OR 1.32, 99% CI 0.99, 1.76. They were less likely to agree that doctors should offer medical treatments regardless of the cost and chance of benefit (63.6% vs 82.9%; OR 0.36, 99% CI 0.25, 0.50.Satisfaction with the Australian health care system has increased over time. Consumers recognise the cost pressures and have lower expectations that all services should be provided regardless of their costs and potential benefit. Public consultation on the allocation of health care resources and involvement in health care decision-making remains important. There should be community consultation about the principles and values that should guide resource allocation decisions.
Robertson, Jane; Newby, David A; Walkom, Emily J
Increasing demand for services and rising health care costs create pressures within the Australian health care system and result in higher health insurance premiums and out-of-pocket costs for consumers. To measure changes in consumer views on the quality of the Australian health care system, contributors to rising costs and attitudes towards managing these costs. Two computer-assisted telephone interviews were conducted in 2006 (533 respondents) and 2015 (1318 respondents) and results compared. More respondents in 2015 rated the Australian health care system 'very adequate' than in 2006 (22.3% vs 8.3%; Odds Ratio OR 3.2, 99% CI 2.1, 5.1) with fewer 'concerned' or 'fairly concerned' about the health care costs (69.0% vs 85.7%; OR 0.37, 99% CI 0.25, 0.53). The 2015 respondents were more likely to identify new treatments for cancer (77% vs 65.7%; OR 1.75, 99% CI 1.30, 2.35) and community expectations for access to the latest technologies (73.8% vs 67%; OR 1.39, 99% CI 1.04, 1.86) as contributors to rising health care costs. While more 2015 respondents agreed that patients should pay a greater part of the health care costs, this remained a minority view (37.9% vs 31.7%; OR 1.32, 99% CI 0.99, 1.76). They were less likely to agree that doctors should offer medical treatments regardless of the cost and chance of benefit (63.6% vs 82.9%; OR 0.36, 99% CI 0.25, 0.50). Satisfaction with the Australian health care system has increased over time. Consumers recognise the cost pressures and have lower expectations that all services should be provided regardless of their costs and potential benefit. Public consultation on the allocation of health care resources and involvement in health care decision-making remains important. There should be community consultation about the principles and values that should guide resource allocation decisions.
Wasiak, Radoslaw; Filonenko, Anna; Vanness, David J; Wittrup-Jensen, Kim U; Stull, Donald E; Siak, Steven; Fraser, Ian
The purpose of this study was to quantify the impact of estradiol-valerate/dienogest (E(2)V/DNG; Qlaira(®)/Natazia(®)) on work productivity and activities of daily living in European and Australian women with heavy menstrual bleeding. Women aged 18-54 years with a confirmed diagnosis of heavy menstrual bleeding and no recognizable pathology were recruited across nine European countries (the Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Hungary, The Netherlands, Poland, Sweden, UK, and Ukraine) and Australia. The women were randomized to receive either E(2)V/DNG (n = 149) or placebo (n = 82) for seven treatment cycles (196 days). The outcomes assessed included work productivity (ie, productivity while at work) and activities of daily living, measured on a Likert scale from 0 to 10 (with higher values denoting higher impairment levels) at baseline and at the end of the third and seventh cycles (days 84 and 196). The equivalent monetary value associated with the changes in work productivity and activities of daily living was also calculated. Across all the countries, greater improvements from baseline to the end of treatment were observed with E(2)V/DNG treatment than placebo in work productivity (46.0% versus 15.1%) and activities of daily living (55.6% versus 30.8%). In 2008, savings associated with improvements in work productivity and activities of daily living due to E(2)V/DNG treatment (net of placebo improvement) were estimated to be between US$22-62 and US$18-56 per month (in purchasing power parity of US$), respectively. E(2)V/DNG has a consistent positive impact on work productivity and activities of daily living in European and Australian women with heavy menstrual bleeding. These improvements were associated with a reduction in monetary burden of heavy menstrual bleeding compared with the placebo group, consistent with the response to treatment observed.
Wessman, Maria; Aho, Inka; Thorsteinsson, Kristina
INTRODUCTION: As the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive population ages, issues concerning sexuality and fertility, among others, are becoming relevant. HIV is still surrounded by stigma and taboos, and there have been few studies conducted in industrialized settings concerning...... these questions. We therefore wanted to investigate the perception of sexuality and fertility in women living with HIV (WLWH) in an industrialized setting, using a questionnaire. METHODS: WLWH were recruited at their regular outpatient clinic visits, at the major Departments of Infectious Diseases in Denmark...... Finland) or from a national HIV cohort (in Denmark). Statistical analysis was performed using STATA, version 11. RESULTS: In total, 560 women were included in the study. The median age was 44 years. The majority were of white European origin, with fully suppressed HIV viral load, CD4 cell count >350 µ...
Baron, R A; Markman, G D; Hirsa, A
It was hypothesized that perceptions of women who become entrepreneurs are enhanced by attributional augmenting because they adopt this role despite major obstacles to doing so. In contrast, attributional augmenting was expected to operate to a lesser degree for men who become entrepreneurs because they presumably face weaker obstacles. Three studies offered support for these hypotheses; all of these investigations used between-subjects designs in which women and men shown in standard-format photos were described to different groups of raters as being either entrepreneurs or managers. As predicted, raters assigned significantly higher scores to women, but not to men, when they were described as entrepreneurs.
Schofield, Margot J; Khan, Asaduzzaman
The study examined prevalence of self-reported use of medication recommended or prescribed by a doctor for depression, anxiety, stress, and sleep problems; and modelled baseline factors that predicted use over 3 years for each condition. Analyses were undertaken on the 2001 and 2004 surveys of mid-aged women in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. Dependent variables were self-reported use in past 4 weeks of medications recommended or prescribed by a doctor for depression, anxiety, stress, or sleep problems in 2001 and 2004. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) were used to predict medication use for each condition over 3 years. Prevalence of prescribed medication use (2001, 2004) for each condition was depression (7.2, 8.9 %), anxiety (7.4, 9.0 %), stress (4.8, 5.7 %), and sleep problems (8.7, 9.5 %). Multivariable analyses revealed that odds of medication use across 3 years in all four conditions were higher for women with poorer mental and physical health, using hormone replacement therapy (HRT), or having seen a counsellor; and increased over time for depression, anxiety, and stress models. Medication use for depression was also higher for overweight/obese women, ex-smokers, and unmarried. Medication use for anxiety was higher for unmarried and non-working/low occupational women. Medication use for stress was higher for non-working women. Additional predictors of medication for sleep were surgical menopause, and area of residence. Self-reported use of prescribed medication for four mental health conditions is increased over time after controlling for mental and physical health and other variables. Research needs to explore decision-making processes influencing differential rates of psychoactive medication use and their relationship with health outcomes.
Payne, Matthew S; Ireland, Demelza J; Watts, Rory; Nathan, Elizabeth A; Furfaro, Lucy L; Kemp, Matthew W; Keelan, Jeffrey A; Newnham, John P
Detection of Ureaplasma, Mycoplasma and Candida spp. in the vagina during pregnancy has previously been associated with preterm birth (PTB). However, the prevalence of these microorganisms and the associated obstetric risks (likely to be population-specific) have not been determined in Australian women; furthermore, in the case of Ureaplasma spp., very few studies have attempted characterisation at the species level and none have examined genotype/serovar status to further refine risk assessment. In order to address these issues we sampled the vaginal fluid of 191 pregnant Australian women at three time points in pregnancy. Culture methods were used for detection of Ureaplasma spp. and Candida spp., and real-time PCR was used for speciation of U. parvum and U. urealyticum, non-albicans Candida spp., Mycoplasma hominis and Mycoplasma genitalium. High-resolution melt PCR was used to genotype U. parvum. Data on various lifestyle factors (including sex during pregnancy and smoking), antimicrobial use and pregnancy outcome were collected on all participants. Chi-square tests were used to assess the association of vaginal microorganisms with PTB. Detection of Ureaplasma spp. was higher among spontaneous PTB cases, specifically in the presence of U. parvum [77 % preterm (95 % confidence interval (CI) 50-100 %) vs. 36 % term (CI: 29-43 %), p = 0.004], but not U. urealyticum. The association with PTB strengthened when U. parvum genotype SV6 was detected (54 % preterm (CI: 22-85 %) vs. 15 % term (CI: 10-20 %), p = 0.002); this genotype was also present in 80 % (4/5) of cases of PTB Ureaplasma spp. in the vagina confers an increased risk of spontaneous PTB, findings which may be useful in risk assessment for identifying women who would benefit from antimicrobial treatment.
Do experiences and perceptions about quality of care differ among social groups in Nepal? : A study of maternal healthcare experiences of women with and without disabilities, and Dalit and non-Dalit women
Devkota, H. R.; Clarke, A.; Murray, E.; Groce, N.
BACKGROUND: Suboptimal quality of care and disparities in services by healthcare providers are often reported in Nepal. Experience and perceptions about quality of care may differ according to women's socio-cultural background, individual characteristics, their exposure and expectations. This study aimed to compare perceptions of the quality of maternal healthcare services between two groups that are consistently considered vulnerable, women with disabilities from both the non-Dalit populatio...
Powell, Sarah J.
This paper investigates musical and personal success from the perspective of Australian boys and men who participate in choir. Findings have been taken from a larger study, which seeks to understand the way in which male notions of success, masculinity and identity influence their choral participation. Participants from four choirs indicated that…
Izmirli, Serdar; Phillips, Clive J C
The attitudes of veterinary faculty toward animal welfare were surveyed in four Australian and three Turkish veterinary schools. The former were considered to be typical of modern Western schools, with a faculty of more than 40% women and a primary focus on companion animals, whereas the latter were considered to represent more traditional veterinary teaching establishments, with a faculty of 88% men and a primary focus on livestock. A total of 116 faculty responded to the survey (42 Australian and 74 Turkish faculty members), for response rates of 30% and 33%, respectively. This survey included demographic questions as well as questions about attitudes toward animal-welfare issues. Women were more concerned than men about animal-welfare issues, especially the use of animals in experiments, zoos, entertainment, and sports and for food and clothing. Total scores demonstrated different concerns among Turkish and Australian faculty. The study demonstrates that the veterinary faculty of these two countries have different concerns for animal welfare, concerns that should be acknowledged in considering the welfare attitudes that students may adopt.
Ossana, Shelly M.; And Others
Survey of undergraduate women (n=659) indicated questioning of previously held stereotypical views about gender and dawning awareness of alternative perspectives and active rejection of male supremacist values and beliefs and search for a positive self-affirming definition of womanhood attitudes were inversely related to perceptions of…
Advertising is regarded as the most effective tool for multinationals to communicate with their target consumers. Further, understanding target consumers' perceptions and preferences can help advertisers implement advertising strategy more easily and effectively. However, as the implementation of China reform and openness policy in 1979, the society has a tendency toward modernisation and Westernisation, and Chinese urban young women become more opened, experienced, and affluent for shopping ...
Ngum Chi Watts, Mimmie C; Liamputtong, Pranee; Carolan, Mary
To discuss the contraception knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of African Australian teenagers and women with a refugee background in Melbourne. The numbers of African Australian persons continue to increase, with a significant proportion being refugee women and children. Attitudes and behaviours towards contraception in this group continue to be influenced by culture, family and beliefs. This study is based on qualitative research that was underpinned by intersectionality theory, cultural competency and phenomenology. Sixteen teenagers and women who had experienced teenage pregnancy in Greater Melbourne, Australia, were interviewed. In-depth interviews were conducted with the sixteen African Australian teenagers and women. Following data collection, data were transcribed verbatim, and coded, and key themes identified and analysed using thematic analysis. Knowledge of contraception among this group of migrants was low and filled with myths. Attitudes towards contraception use were insufficient and influenced by beliefs and external factors such as partner, family and community attitudes towards contraception. Migration status and other instabilities in the lives of these participants all intersected to shape their health beliefs and contraception decision-making. Refugee teenage mothers' knowledge of contraception was low and their attitude towards contraceptive use was poor. Myths and external factors continued to influence teenagers' and women's attitudes towards contraceptives. The events and life experiences of African Australian teenagers/women, culture, and family and community influences should be taken into consideration when providing healthcare services and sexual health education to this migrant group. Service providers should consider the multiple intersections in the lives of these women when delivering healthcare services and information to them. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gu, Can; Chan, Carmen W H; He, Guo-Ping; Choi, K C; Yang, Sheng-Bo
This paper adopted Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) to examine Chinese women's knowledge and perceptions of cervical cancer risk and factors influencing their motivation to receive future screening. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 167 Chinese women (142 women were willing to receive a screening in the future and 25 women were not) in 2007 to collect women's socio-demographic information and sexual history, perceptions related to body health and knowledge about cervical cancer and screening, and Protection Motivation Theory measures. The majority of women stated they intended to receive future screening and response efficacy was significantly associated with their intention. However, no significant association was observed between sexual history and protection motivation. Using multivariate analysis, cancer in relatives (odds ratio, OR = 9.97, 95% CI [1.44-436.3], p = 0.010), a perception that visiting a doctor regularly is important to health (OR = 9.85, 95% CI [1.61-999.9], p = 0.009)), and ever attending for cervical screening during the previous three years (OR = 3.49, 95% CI [1.23-11.02], p = 0.016) were significantly associated with women' motivation to receive future screening. The findings of this study highlight the important role of women's beliefs in the value of cervical screening and previous screening experience in motivating them to receive a screening. Education intervention is needed to provide information and raise public awareness about the importance of cervical screening to women's health. Culture-related beliefs and social motivational processes in addition to those specified by PMT need to be addressed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Blue, Katina Michelle
While women have made significant inroads and gains in the twentieth century, there remain challenges and barriers in regard to their satisfaction with career advancement opportunities. This mixed-method research study investigated perceptions of challenges and barriers to career advancement by women administrators at Group 2 institutions in the…
Full Text Available The rapid development of adaptation as a mainstream strategy for managing the risks of climate change has led to the emergence of a broad range of adaptation policies and management strategies globally. However, the success of such policies or management interventions depends on the effective integration of new scientific research into the decision-making process. Ineffective communication between scientists and environmental decision makers represents one of the key barriers limiting the integration of science into the decision-making process in many areas of natural resource management. This can be overcome by understanding the perceptions of end users, so as to identify knowledge gaps and develop improved and targeted strategies for communication and engagement. We assessed what one group of environmental decision makers, Australian marine protected area (MPA managers, viewed as the major risks associated with climate change, and their perceptions regarding the role, importance, and achievability of adaptation for managing these risks. We also assessed what these managers perceived as the role of science in managing the risks from climate change, and identified the factors that increased their trust in scientific information. We do so by quantitatively surveying 30 MPA managers across 3 Australian management agencies. We found that although MPA managers have a very strong awareness of the range and severity of risks posed by climate change, their understanding of adaptation as an option for managing these risks is less comprehensive. We also found that although MPA managers view science as a critical source of information for informing the decision-making process, it should be considered in context with other knowledge types such as community and cultural knowledge, and be impartial, evidence based, and pragmatic in outlining policy and management recommendations that are realistically achievable.
Full Text Available Background: Methadone maintenance therapy (MMT is an evidence-based approach for opiate addiction treatment. While its effectiveness in reducing opiate use has been evidently verified, unanswered questions with respect to the cultural scenarios for MMT programs remain unanswered. This study was conducted to explore understanding address MMT initiation among a women-recruited sample of persons who use Opiate. Methods: Qualitative in-depth interviews were used in purposeful and maximum variation sampling. All participants recruited for interview in 60-90 minutes were 17 women with opiate addiction experience from three MMT clinics in Sari capital city of Mazandaran, Iran. We applied a content analysis with a conventional approach for analyzing and finding addicted women perception towards MMT. Results: To answer the main concern of the research team about how Iranian Opiate- addicted women perceived the MMT. The results were categorized into six main themes including Service Providers’ Support, Stigma in Society, Fear of Rejection, Long waiting time, Family Support, and Methadone’ Side Effects. Conclusion: The results revealed that there are several perceived reasons beyond personal and psychological factors. The contextual experience acts as important cues that might encourage or deter drug users toward MMT.
Van Dyck, Delfien; Veitch, Jenny; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Thornton, Lukar; Ball, Kylie
Women living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods are at increased risk for physical inactivity and associated health outcomes and are difficult to reach through personally tailored interventions. Targeting the built environment may be an effective strategy in this population subgroup. The aim of this study was to examine the mediating role of environmental perceptions in the relationship between the objective environment and walking for transportation/recreation among women from socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Baseline data of the Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality (READI) study were used. In total, 4139 women (18-46 years) completed a postal survey assessing physical environmental perceptions (aesthetics, neighbourhood physical activity environment, personal safety, neighbourhood social cohesion), physical activity, and socio-demographics. Objectively-assessed data on street connectivity and density of destinations were collected using a Geographic Information System database and based on the objective z-scores, an objective destinations/connectivity score was calculated. This index was positively scored, with higher scores representing a more favourable environment. Two-level mixed models regression analyses were conducted and the MacKinnon product-of-coefficients test was used to examine the mediating effects. The destinations/connectivity score was positively associated with transport-related walking. The perceived physical activity environment mediated 6.1% of this positive association. The destinations/connectivity score was negatively associated with leisure-time walking. Negative perceptions of aesthetics, personal safety and social cohesion of the neighbourhood jointly mediated 24.1% of this negative association. For women living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods, environmental perceptions were important mediators of the relationship between the objective built environment and walking. To
Ovseiko, Pavel V.; Chapple, Alison; Edmunds, Laurel D.; Ziebland, Sue
Background While in the United Kingdom, Ireland, and Australia, higher education and research institutions are widely engaged with the Athena SWAN Charter for Women in Science to advance gender equality, empirical research on this process and its impact is rare. This study combined two data sets (free- text comments from a survey and qualitative interviews) to explore the range of experiences and perceptions of participation in Athena SWAN in medical science departments of a research-intensiv...
Vanstone, Meredith; Kandasamy, Sujane; Giacomini, Mita; DeJean, Deirdre; McDonald, Sarah D
Excess gestational weight gain has numerous negative health outcomes for women and children, including high blood pressure, diabetes, and cesarean section (maternal) and high birth weight, trauma at birth, and asphyxia (infants). Excess weight gain in pregnancy is associated with a higher risk of long-term obesity in both mothers and children. Despite a concerted public health effort, the proportion of pregnant women gaining weight in excess of national guidelines continues to increase. To understand this phenomenon and offer suggestions for improving interventions, we conducted a systematic review of qualitative research on pregnant women's perceptions and experiences of weight gain in pregnancy. We used the methodology of qualitative meta-synthesis to analyze 42 empirical qualitative research studies conducted in high-income countries and published between 2005 and 2015. With this synthesis, we provide an account of the underlying factors and circumstances (barriers, facilitators, and motivators) that pregnant women identify as important for appropriate weight gain. We also offer a description of the strategies identified by pregnant women as acceptable and appropriate ways to promote healthy weight gain. Through our integrative analysis, we identify women's common perception on the struggle to enact health behaviors and physical, social, and environmental factors outside of their control. Effective and sensitive interventions to encourage healthy weight gain in pregnancy must consider the social environment in which decisions about weight take place. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Volant, Anne M.; Johnson, Judy A.; Gullone, Eleonora; Coleman, Grahame J.
Several North American studies have found a connection between domestic violence and animal abuse. This article reports on the first Australian research to examine this connection. A group of 102 women recruited through 24 domestic violence services in the state of Victoria and a nondomestic violence comparison group (102 women) recruited from the…
Jasmin E. Rosa
Full Text Available Construction is traditionally a male industry. Women have long had difficulties entering or advancing their career in construction. Evidence shows that a diversified workforce with gender balance will bring about higher levels of productivity. Despite the importance of this issue, there have been limited studies on women’s career development in construction. This study aims to investigate women’s career development in the Australian construction industry, with objectives to evaluate the challenges and success factors of women’s career development in the construction industry and provide strategies for narrowing the gender imbalance. A mixed approach of questionnaire survey and interview were conducted with female practitioners in the construction industry. Forty-three completed questionnaires were received and 10 interviews were conducted. Stress, family-work balance, and negative perception towards women in construction were the top three challenges identified. Dedication, determination, and independence were the top three success factors of women in construction. This study recommends construction employers consider providing personal development programs and flexible working arrangement for their female employees. Significance of this study lies on contributing to understanding women’s career development in construction. Findings will be useful for government and professional institutions to promulgate strategies for advancing women’s career development in construction.
Quinton, Jessica Elizabeth
Career interests develop over a lifetime and tend to solidify during late adolescence and early adulthood (Lent, Brown, and Hackett, 2002). The primary purpose of the present qualitative study, which is framed in Feminist Standpoint Theory (Haraway, 1988; Harding, 2007; Naples, 2007; Richardson, 2007), is to understand how eighth-grade, young women in a suburban, public, southern, middle school the South Carolina County School District (CCSD) (pseudonym) perceive their accessibility to Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) courses and careers. The secondary purpose is to understand these young women's "perceptions and unconscious beliefs about gender in science and mathematics" and how their "perceptions and unconscious beliefs about gender" in the STEM fields may impact the careers that these young women may choose in the future (American Association of University Women, 2010, 9). Within the present study, the perceptions of young women who identified as "Interested in Science," "Somewhat Interested in Science" and "Uninterested in Science" were identified. STEM courses and careers are a major emphasis in education today. Increasing the numbers of Americans who pursue STEM careers is a government priority, as these careers will strengthen the economy (AAUW 2010). The present study reveals how young women who are highly motivated, talented students perceive STEM courses and careers and how they are influenced by their experiences, gendered messages, and knowledge of STEM careers. To analyze the data, four of Saldana's (2010) dramaturgical codes were utilized including: 1. OBJectives, or motives; 2. CONflicts the participants faced; 3. TACtics to dealing with obstacles; and 4. ATTitudes toward the setting, others, and the conflict. The InVivo Codes allowed the participants stories to emerge through the set of dramaturgical codes that allowed for viewing the girls' experience sin different ways that added depth to their stories. The young women in
Todd, Angela L; Ampt, Amanda J; Roberts, Christine L
Surveys have shown that women are highly satisfied with their maternity care. Their satisfaction has been associated with various demographic, personal, and care factors. Isolating the factors that most matter to women about their care can guide quality improvement efforts. This study aimed to identify the most significant factors associated with high ratings of care by women in the three maternity periods (antenatal, birth, and postnatal). A survey was sent to 2,048 women who gave birth at seven public hospitals in New South Wales, Australia, exploring their expectations of, and experiences with maternity care. Women's overall ratings of care for the antenatal, birth, and postnatal periods were analyzed, and a number of maternal characteristics and care factors examined as potential predictors of "Very good" ratings of care. Among 886 women with a completed survey, 65 percent assigned a "Very good" rating for antenatal care, 74 percent for birth care, 58 percent for postnatal care, and 44 percent for all three periods. One factor was strongly associated with care ratings in all three maternity periods: women who were "always or almost always" treated with kindness and understanding were 1.8-2.8 times more likely to rate their antenatal, birth, and postnatal care as "Very good." A limited number of other factors were significantly associated with high care ratings for one or two of the maternity periods. Women's perceptions about the quality of their interpersonal interactions with health caregivers have a significant bearing on women's views about their maternity care journey. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lau, Ying; Tha, Pyai Htun; Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Wang, Yuqiong; Wang, Ying; Yobas, Piyanee Klainin
Few studies have examined different perceptions of stress or explored the positive aspects of well-being among pregnant Chinese women, so there is a need to explore these phenomena in order to fill the research gap. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among the different perceptions of stress, coping styles, and general well-being using a structural equation modeling approach. We examined a hypothetical model among 755 pregnant Chinese women based on the integration of theoretical models. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), the Trait Coping Styles Questionnaire (TCSQ), and the General Well-Being Schedule (GWB) were used to measure perceived stress, coping styles, and general well-being, respectively. A structural equation model showed that positive and negative perceptions of stress significantly influenced positive and negative coping styles, respectively. Different perceptions of stress were significantly associated with general well-being, but different coping styles had no significant effects on general well-being. The model had a good fit to the data (IFI = 0.910, TLI = 0.904, CFI = 0.910, and RMSEA = 0.038). Different perception of stress was able to predict significant differences in coping styles and general well-being.
Homann, Diogo; Stefanello, Joice Mara Facco; Góes, Suelen Meira; Breda, Chris Andreissy; Paiva, Eduardo dos Santos; Leite, Neiva
Depression is one of the most frequent psychiatric comorbidities in patients with fibromyalgia (FM), and chronic stress might be one of the triggering events of the characteristic FM symptoms. To compare depressive symptoms and stress perception between women with and without FM, in addition to investigate the relationship between those characteristics and the functionality and the impact on the quality of life of those patients. The study included 20 women with FM (FM group) and 20 healthy women (control group). The following instruments were used: Beck Depression Inventory, Perceived Stress Scale-10, Health Assessment Questionnaire, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, and Visual Analogue Scale for pain (0-10 cm). The FM group showed higher severity of the depressive symptoms (24.10 ± 11.68) and greater perception of stress (25.10 ± 4.82) as compared with those of the control group (10.20 ± 12.78, P quality of life (r = 0.46, P quality of life of patients with FM.
Thomas David P
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia, national smoking prevalence has successfully fallen below 20%, but remains about 50% amongst Indigenous Australians. Australian Indigenous tobacco control is framed by the idea that nothing has worked and a sense of either despondency or the difficulty of the challenge. Methods This paper examines the trends in smoking prevalence of Australian Indigenous men and women aged 18 and over in three large national cross-sectional surveys in 1994, 2002 and 2004. Results From 1994 to 2004, Indigenous smoking prevalence fell by 5.5% and 3.5% in non-remote and remote men, and by 1.9% in non-remote women. In contrast, Indigenous smoking prevalence rose by 5.7% in remote women from 1994 to 2002, before falling by 0.8% between 2002 and 2004. Male and female Indigenous smoking prevalences in non-remote Australia fell in parallel with those in the total Australian population. The different Indigenous smoking prevalence trends in remote and non-remote Australia can be plausibly explained by the typical characteristics of national tobacco epidemic curves, with remote Indigenous Australia just at an earlier point in the epidemic. Conclusion Reducing Indigenous smoking need not be considered exceptionally difficult. Inequities in the distribution of smoking related-deaths and illness may be reduced by increasing the exposure and access of Indigenous Australians, and other disadvantaged groups with high smoking prevalence, to proven tobacco control strategies.
Blackstock, Oni J; Frew, Paula; Bota, Dorothy; Vo-Green, Linda; Parker, Kim; Franks, Julie; Hodder, Sally L; Justman, Jessica; Golin, Carol E; Haley, Danielle F; Kuo, Irene; Adimora, Adaora A; Rompalo, Anne; Soto-Torres, Lydia; Wang, Jing; Mannheimer, Sharon B
Although studies have consistently demonstrated that women at high risk for HIV and non-HIV sexually transmitted infections (STIs) tend to underestimate their individual risk, little is known about how women at risk perceive their community's HIV/STI risk. We explored perceptions of community HIV/STI risk among U.S. women living in areas with high poverty and HIV prevalence rates as part of a qualitative substudy of the Women's HIV SeroIncidence Study. Semi-structured focus groups were conducted. Data were coded and analyzed using the constant comparative method. Participants expressed the perception that their communities were at elevated HIV/STI risk, mostly due to contextual and structural factors such as lack of access to health care and education. Findings suggest that HIV prevention messages that target U.S. women at high risk for HIV may be strengthened by addressing the high perceived community HIV/STI risk driven by structural factors.
Eleje, George U; Onwusulu, Daniel N; Ezeama, Chukwuemeka O; Afiadigwe, Evaristus A; Eke, Ahizechukwu C; Ikechebelu, Joseph I; Ugboaja, Joseph O; Okwuosa, Ayodele O
To determine women's perceptions and expectations of focused prenatal care visits. The present questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey was performed among pregnant women in their third trimester attending two tertiary health centers in southern Nigeria between January and March 2012. Obstetric data, histories, and information on preferences for prenatal visits were obtained using questionnaires. A total of 353 questionnaires were appropriately completed. Among 277 participants who stated a preference for the number of prenatal care visits, 241 (87.0%) reported a preference of more than four. Among 203 parous women, 132 (65.0%) had no previous negative obstetric experience. Only previous stillbirth (odds ratio [OR] 2.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-6.77; P = 0.039) among multiparous women, and HIV/AIDS (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.06-1.17; P = 0.048) among all women were significantly associated with a preference for more prenatal visits. Previous negative obstetric experiences did not generally affect preference for prenatal visits. However, pregnant women expressed dissatisfaction with a reduced number of visits. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Andrews, Lynda; Gajanayake, Randike; Sahama, Tony
The move internationally by Governments and other health providers to encourage patients to have their own electronic personal health record (e-PHRs) is growing exponentially. In Australia the initiative for a personally controlled electronic health record (known as PCEHR) is directed towards the public at large. The first objective of this study then, is to examine how individuals in the general population perceive the promoted idea of having a PCEHR. The second objective is to extend research on applying a theoretically derived consumer technology acceptance model to guide the research. An online survey was conducted to capture the perceptions and beliefs about having a PCEHR identified from technology acceptance models and extant literature. The survey was completed by 750 Queensland respondents, 97% of whom did not have a PCEHR at that time. The model was examined using exploratory factor analysis, regressions and mediation tests. Findings support eight of the 11 hypothesised relationships in the model. Perceived value and perceived risk were the two most important variables explaining attitude, with perceived usefulness and compatibility being weak but significant. The perception of risk was reduced through partial mediation from trust and privacy concerns. Additionally, web-self efficacy and ease of use partially mediate the relationship between attitude and intentions. The findings represent a snapshot of the early stages of implementing this Australian initiative and capture the perceptions of Queenslanders who at present do not have a PCEHR. Findings show that while individuals appreciate the value of having this record, they do not appear to regard it as particularly useful at present, nor is it particularly compatible with their current engagement with e-services. Moreover, they will need to have any concerns about the risks alleviated, particularly through an increased sense of trust and reduction of privacy concerns. It is noted that although the
The Australian nuclear debate is focused on Australia's role as a uranium supplier, on the risks that this uranium might be diverted to nuclear weapons and on the risks of nuclear weapons generally. The results of a survey which was designed to measure the importance of uranium as an issue and reveal underlying influences and information behind public perceptions are presented. The methods and questions asked are given as well as the results. The results show that Australians are fairly unconcerned about uranium. However, many fear the possible application of civil nuclear technology to nuclear weapons, a fear not recognised or expected by the nuclear industry. The public image of the industry could, and should, be improved by television, films and documentaries to inform the general public about the nuclear industry. (U.K.)
Rawolle, Tessa A; Sadauskas, David; van Kessel, Gisela; Dollman, James
To explore perceptions of health among South Australian farmers. Descriptive qualitative study, using semi-structured interviews. Two rural towns in the Riverland region of South Australia. Fifteen adults involved in farming within the Riverland region of South Australia, from a variety of farming industries; age range 23-70 years old; 53% male, 47% female. Perceptions and definitions of health. Participants described an ecological understanding of health across individual, farm, and community domains. Participants perceived health as being able to function and complete farm work. Participants reported that farm work helped to maintain fitness, but the multiple stress and hazards associated with farming had a significant influence on health. Participants described how health was influenced by community activities and social support from friends and families. Women were reported to take a lead role in health. Health providers can frame interventions to resonate with the perceptions of health held by people, shaped and formed by the context of farming. Further research is needed to explore farmers' perceptions of health in different locations, from different industries and from a range of age groups. © 2016 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.
Hartley, Stefanie; Garland, Suzanne; Young, Elisa; Bennell, Kim Louise; Tay, Ilona; Gorelik, Alexandra; Wark, John Dennis
The evidence for beneficial effects of recommended levels of physical activity is overwhelming. However, 70% of Australians fail to meet these levels. In particular, physical activity participation by women falls sharply between ages 16 to 25 years. Further information about physical activity measures in young women is needed. Self-administered questionnaires are often used to measure physical activity given their ease of application, but known limitations, including recall bias, compromise the accuracy of data. Alternatives such as objective measures are commonly used to overcome this problem, but are more costly and time consuming. To compare the output between the Modified Active Australia Survey (MAAS), the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and an objective physical activity measure-the SenseWear Armband (SWA)-to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the MAAS and to determine the acceptability of the SWA among young women. Young women from Victoria, Australia, aged 18 to 25 years who had participated in previous studies via Facebook advertising were recruited. Participants completed the two physical activity questionnaires online, immediately before and after wearing the armband for 7 consecutive days. Data from the SWA was blocked into 10-minute activity times. Follow-up IPAQ, MAAS, and SWA data were analyzed by comparing the total continuous and categorical activity scores, while concurrent validity of IPAQ and MAAS were analyzed by comparing follow-up scores. Test-retest reliability of MAAS was analyzed by comparing MAAS total physical activity scores at baseline and follow-up. Participants provided feedback in the follow-up questionnaire about their experience of wearing the armband to determine acceptability of the SWA. Data analyses included graphical (ie, Bland-Altman plot, scatterplot) and analytical (ie, canonical correlation, kappa statistic) methods to determine agreement between MAAS, IPAQ, and SWA data. A total of 58
Reyhani, Mitra; Kazemi, Ashraf; Keshvari, Mahrokh
The present study was conducted to determine the perceptions of middle-aged women of reproductive changes. The present study was a qualitative research with a content analysis approach. The participants were 30 middle-aged women whose perceptions of reproductive changes had been collected on in-depth semi-structured interviews. The data were analyzed using the Graneheim and Lundman's inductive content analysis method. The main themes extracted from the data were a sense of "fall" and "the beginning of a new life cycle." A feeling of fall was formed from the subthemes "deterioration of youth," "the dusk of femininity," and "fade-out of the gender roles." The theme "beginning of a new life cycle" was formed from the subthemes of "acceptance," "sophistication," and "maturity." Middle-aged women had a wide range of emotions experienced from the reproductive changes ranging from a feeling of decline to that of excellence and rise.
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to that assess the perceptions and understanding of dental practitioners in the provision of dental treatment to pregnant women. Materials and Methods: The study was a quantitative, cross-sectional type. A sample size of 200 dental practitioners were included in the study between the period of 6 months, i.e. June–December. A cluster sampling technique was employed covering four different dental institutes. A structured questionnaire was designed to assess the perception and understanding of dental practitioners in providing treatment to the pregnant women. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 19. Chi-square test was done to analyze the association of perception of dental practitioners in treating pregnant women in relation to gender. Results: A total of 200 dental practitioners filled the questionnaire out of which 43% (86 were males and 57% (114 were females. Eighty-two percent of the total participants said that it is safe to provide dental treatment during pregnancy, almost 90.4% of the total dentist interviewed was aware of the special position in which to place a pregnant woman on a dental chair. 85.5% of the study population do not prefer taking radiographs of a pregnant woman, 63% of the entire dentist surveyed prefers to use local anesthesia before any dental procedure on a pregnant patient. 96.5% care to educate their pregnant patient about improving dental health care. 59.5% of the dental practitioners said that they would consult the patient's gynecologist as a mandatory requirement before treating the patient. 57% of the dental practitioners answered with gingivitis. 70.5% agreed on scaling. The majority of the dentists prescribed paracetamol 85.5%. Conclusion: Little is known about the perception and utilization of dental practitioners in providing dental treatment to pregnant women in Pakistan. The present survey concluded that dental practitioners lack
Tabassum, Aqeela; Manj, Yasir Nawaz; Gunjial, Tahira Rehman; Nazir, Salma
To identify the perceptions of rural women about modern contraceptive methods and to ascertain the psycho-social and economic attitude of women about family planning methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted at the University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan, from December 2014 to March 2015, and comprised married women. The sample was selected using multistage sampling technique through Fitzgibbon table. They were interviewed regarding use of family planning methods. . SPSS 16 was used for data analysis. Of the 500 women, 358(71.6%) were never-users and 142(28.4%) were past-users of family planning methods. Moreover, 52(14.5%) of never-users did not know about a single modern contraceptive method. Of the past-users, 43(30.3%) knew about 1-3 methods and 99(69.7%) about 4 or more methods. Furthermore, 153(30.6%) respondents graded condoms as good, 261(55.2%) agreed that family planning helped in improving one's standard of living to a great extent while 453(90.6%) indicated that family planning methods were not expensive. Besides, 366(71.2%) respondents believed that using contraceptive method caused infertility. Dissatisfaction with methods, method failure, bad experiences with side effects, privacy concerns and different myths associated to the methods were strongly related to the non-usage of modern contraceptive methods.
Fisher, Carole; Adams, Jon; Hickman, Louise; Sibbritt, David
To assess the prevalence of cyclic perimenstrual pain and discomfort and to detail the pattern of complementary and alternative (CAM) use adopted by women for the treatment of these symptoms. Data from the 2012 national Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health (ALSWH) cross-sectional survey of 7427 women aged 34-39 years were analysed to estimate the prevalence of endometriosis, premenstrual syndrome (PMS), irregular or heavy periods and severe dysmenorrhoea and to examine the association between their symptoms and their visits to CAM practitioners as well as their use of CAM therapies and products in the previous 12 months. The prevalence of endometriosis was 3.7 % and of the perimenstrual symptoms assessed, PMS was most prevalent at 41.2 % whilst irregular bleeding (22.2 %), heavy periods (29.8 %) and severe period pain (24.1 %) were reported at lower levels. Women with endometriosis were more likely than non-sufferers to have consulted with a massage therapist or acupuncturist and to have used vitamins/minerals, yoga/meditation or Chinese medicines (p alternative health practitioner and to have used all forms of CAM therapies except Chinese medicines than women who had infrequent PMS (all p medicines, Chinese medicines and other alternative therapies compared to non-sufferers (all p effective use and to ascertain their significance as a treatment option enabling women with menstrual problems and their care providers to improve their quality of life.
A A Saleh
Full Text Available Background: Ultrasonography is firmly embedded in antenatal maternity care around the world. It proves accuracy in calculation of gestational age, earlier identification of multiple pregnancies, and diagnosis of nonviable pregnancies and certain fetal malformations. Objective: The study is aimed to determine the awareness and perception of pregnant women towards obstetric scan, at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital (AKTH. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective and cross-sectional study conducted among 400 pregnant women that attended antenatal ultrasound scan at AKTH. A pretested and structured questionnaire was used. Only women that agreed to participate were included in the study. Convenience sampling technique was employed for the data collection. Information collected from the participants was: Age, marital status, occupation, level of education, parity, level of awareness and level of perception. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS (16.0 software for windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA to obtain frequency, mean and percentages. Results: A total of 400 women were included in the study, of which most of them were within the age range of 21–30 years. Almost all the participants (97% had ultrasound before, and they believed it is safe. The majority (93.8% believed that ultrasound is necessary during pregnancy. Ninety-seven percent believed it is done to determine fetal viability and wellbeing. Conclusion: The study established that most of the participants are aware of ultrasound scan. The subjects also believed that the procedure is safe, and the main purpose is for fetal wellbeing and viability.
Bowden, Jacqueline A; Delfabbro, Paul; Room, Robin; Miller, Caroline L; Wilson, Carlene
Alcohol consumption by young people (particularly early initiation) is a predictor for poorer health in later life. In addition, evidence now clearly shows a causal link between alcohol and cancer. This study investigated prevalence, predictors of alcohol consumption among adolescents including perceptions of the link between alcohol and cancer, and the role of parents and peers. A sample of Australian school students aged 12-17 years participated in a survey (n = 2885). Logistic regression analysis was undertaken to determine predictors. Alcohol use increased with age and by 16, most had tried alcohol with 33.1% of students aged 12-17 reporting that they drank at least occasionally (95% CI = 31.0-35.2). Awareness of the link between alcohol and cancer was low (28.5%). Smoking status and friends' approval were predictive of drinking, whereas parental disapproval was protective. Those aged 14-17 who did not think the link between alcohol and cancer was important were more likely to drink, as were those living in areas of least disadvantage. The only factors that predicted recent drinking were smoking and the perception that alcohol was easy to purchase. An education campaign highlighting the link between alcohol and cancer may have positive flow-on effects for young people, and schools should incorporate this messaging into any alcohol education programs. Consideration should be given to factors that serve to regulate under-aged accessibility of alcohol.
Oosterhoff, Alberta; Hutter, Inge; Haisma, Hinke
Background: In the Netherlands, 81% of mothers initiate breastfeeding. After one month the percentage of mothers still breastfeeding drops, despite positive intentions. Little is known about women's perceptions of breastfeeding during the period of intention. Aim: This qualitative study aimed to
Objective: To examine, for dominant Australian cigarette brands, brand identity (overriding brand vision), brand positioning (brand identity elements communicated to the consumer), brand image (consumers' brand perceptions) and brand equity (financial value). Design: Tobacco industry documents, articles from retail trade publications since 1990, and current brand advertising from retail trade publications were searched for information about Australian brands. Results: Cigarette manufacturers benefit from their competitors' brand equity as well as their own. The industry sees Australian smokers as far less brand loyal and strongly oriented to "low tar". A few predominantly local brands dominate the market, with variation by state. Successful Australian brands exist in one of three categories: premium, mainstream, and supervalue. Their brand identity essence is as follows. Premium: quality. Mainstream: a good humoured "fair go" for ordinary Australians. Supervalue: value for money. All supervalue brand identities also include freedom, escape, mildness, an aspirational attitude, blue tones, and waterside scenes. Brand image and brand identity is frequently congruent, even when marketing is restricted, and brand image is generally more positive for a smoker's own brand. Conclusions: Tobacco control activities have undermined cigarette brand equity. Further research is needed regarding brand loyalty, low tar, and brand categories. Smokers may respond more positively to tobacco control messages consistent with the identities of their chosen brand, and brand-as-organisation elements may assist. Further marketing restrictions should consider all elements of brand identity, and aim to undermine brand categories. PMID:14645952
Carter, S M
To examine, for dominant Australian cigarette brands, brand identity (overriding brand vision), brand positioning (brand identity elements communicated to the consumer), brand image (consumers' brand perceptions) and brand equity (financial value). Tobacco industry documents, articles from retail trade publications since 1990, and current brand advertising from retail trade publications were searched for information about Australian brands. Cigarette manufacturers benefit from their competitors' brand equity as well as their own. The industry sees Australian smokers as far less brand loyal and strongly oriented to "low tar". A few predominantly local brands dominate the market, with variation by state. Successful Australian brands exist in one of three categories: premium, mainstream, and supervalue. Their brand identity essence is as follows. Premium: quality. Mainstream: a good humoured "fair go" for ordinary Australians. Supervalue: value for money. All supervalue brand identities also include freedom, escape, mildness, an aspirational attitude, blue tones, and waterside scenes. Brand image and brand identity is frequently congruent, even when marketing is restricted, and brand image is generally more positive for a smoker's own brand. Tobacco control activities have undermined cigarette brand equity. Further research is needed regarding brand loyalty, low tar, and brand categories. Smokers may respond more positively to tobacco control messages consistent with the identities of their chosen brand, and brand-as-organisation elements may assist. Further marketing restrictions should consider all elements of brand identity, and aim to undermine brand categories.
Gloria N. Makuwa
Full Text Available Background: The majority of South African aging population are women, who spend late adulthood experiencing natural menopause. Despite the government spending billions of rand on different services for ageing women, menopausal challenges to African women still receive little attention. Objectives: The aim of the study was to explore and describe the perceptions of African women regarding natural menopause, in order to propose recommendations for health and social support systems for women in Mamelodi, Tshwane district. Method: A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual design was used to conduct the study. The population of the study consisted of menopausal women, between the ages 45 and 60 years or more, visiting the clinics for collection of chronic medication and othe rhealth assessment. Individual face-to-face interviews were conducted, using a semi-structured interview guide to collect data. Tesch’s method of qualitative data analysis was used in the study. Results: The main theme that emerged from the study was ‘attitude toward menopause’, which was supported by cultural beliefs and experience. The African menopausal women expressed the importance of health support systems that will meet their needs within their context. Conclusion: Women’s health programs and educational health information at facilities should include menopausal education to promote and improve health of all African menopausal women during their adulthood. There is a need to establish a women’s health support group network within communities to share menopausal experiences with peers. The training and education curriculum of healthcare providers should include detailed menopause in order to provide comprehensive, congruent care.
Hollander, M H; van Hastenberg, E; van Dillen, J; van Pampus, M G; de Miranda, E; Stramrood, C A I
The purpose of this study is to explore and quantify perceptions and experiences of women with a traumatic childbirth experience in order to identify areas for prevention and to help midwives and obstetricians improve woman-centered care. A retrospective survey was conducted online among 2192 women with a self-reported traumatic childbirth experience. Women were recruited in March 2016 through social media, including specific parent support groups. They filled out a 35-item questionnaire of which the most important items were (1) self-reported attributions of the trauma and how they believe the traumatic experience could have been prevented (2) by the caregivers or (3) by themselves. The responses most frequently given were (1) Lack and/or loss of control (54.6%), Fear for baby's health/life (49.9%), and High intensity of pain/physical discomfort (47.4%); (2) Communicate/explain (39.1%), Listen to me (more) (36.9%), and Support me (more/better) emotionally/practically (29.8%); and (3) Nothing (37.0%), Ask for (26.9%), or Refuse (16.5%) certain interventions. Primiparous participants chose High intensity of pain/physical discomfort, Long duration of delivery, and Discrepancy between expectations and reality more often and Fear for own health/life, A bad outcome, and Delivery went too fast less often than multiparous participants. Women attribute their traumatic childbirth experience primarily to lack and/or loss of control, issues of communication, and practical/emotional support. They believe that in many cases, their trauma could have been reduced or prevented by better communication and support by their caregiver or if they themselves had asked for or refused interventions.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore non-technical skills from the perspective of Australian business graduates who had recently made the transition from higher education into full-time employment. Design/methodology/approach: A mixed-methods approach was applied through the use of an online survey containing closed and open-ended…
A group of individuals who share common beliefs form a culture in which they communicate their values and attributes about certain aspects of society. Sex education remains one of the early teachings that humans experience irrespective of the race or level of development of a given society. However, different cultures perceive sex education differently due to differences in attitudes and beliefs, leading to significant diversity in the management of sex education among different societies across the globe. Many studies have found that in a traditional society with a homogeneous culture, the foremost reason for the different approaches to sex education is related to traditional values, in addition to other factors such as religion and political belief. In order to improve sex education, and consequently, sexual health in a modern multicultural society such as Australia, it becomes imperative to identify the inconsistency in beliefs about sex education among individuals with different cultural backgrounds in the Australian population. In this report, the author highlights similarities and differences in the methods employed by certain cultures of the Australian population. The report considers the different cultural environments of specific societies, the prevalence of sex education in these societies and how culture influences the prevalence. The concluding thoughts reflect on the success of the education programs in Australia, based on the idea that resolving the problems of sex education needs support from a number of bodies within Australian society.
Nonnenmacher, Daniele; Benute, Gláucia Rosana Guerra; Nomura, Roseli Mieko Yamamoto; Azevedo, George Dantas de; Dutra, Elza Maria do Socorro; Rebouças, Melina Séfora Souza; Luci, Mara Cristina Souza de; Francisco, Rossana Pulcineli Vieira
to analyze women's perception in relation to their partner's reaction and behavior during the abortion process in two Brazilian capitals, associating the variables from women who suffered a spontaneous abortion with those from women who induced it. semi-structured, questionnaire-based interviews were conducted with 285 women who underwent spontaneous abortion and 31 who reported having induced it. The data were analyzed using the thematic analysis technique, and, subsequently, by the IBM SPSS Statistics Standard Edition software program. The significance level was set at p women who induced an abortion referred to the partner as the person who could not find out about the abortion (pindependence, women still regard male participation in the abortion process as an important factor. The specifics of each capital denote the influence of the geographic and cultural dimension, indicating the need to take into account the particulars of each region in Brazil while considering a holistic approach to women's health.
Full Text Available Background: The obese person besides being affected to suffer physiological damage, may also have psychological and social changes. So the obese person suffers and develops self- deprecating feelings of self-indulgence, anxiety and changes in feeding behavior, thus ta- king it, can progress to the state of depression, leaving it susceptible to social isolation. Aim: This study aimed to investigate the perception of obese women in relation to its body and the influences in their lives and affective. Method: It is a descriptive, exploratory and qualitative research involving 20 women attending Basic Health Units in the municipality of Cuité/PB, through semi-structured interview, conducted in February 2013. Data collection only started after approval of the project by the Research Ethics Committee of the Health Sciences Center of the Federal University of Paraíba, under CAAE 06662222.4.0000.5188. Results: The data were analyzed using the technique Bardin Content Analysis. Analysis emerged the following categories: Distortion of body image, discrimination and social restrictions, limitations on work activities and dissatisfaction in love life. Conclusion: We conclude that obesity, besides causing physical changes, leads to discrimination and prejudice, promoting social exclusion
The relationship of time perception, maternal tasks, and maternal role behavior was examined in 140 pregnant Japanese women with a short-term longitudinal design. A model developed by Rubin provided the conceptual framework for this research. The Time Perception Scale. Time Production Method, and the Prefatory Maternal Response measured the study variables. Study results revealed significant differences in duration of time, time production, maternal-fetal attachment, and maternal role behavior before and after quickening(fetal movement)occurred. Medium to strong positive relationships among time orientation, maternal-fetal attachment, gratification, and maternal role behavior were found before and after movement. After quickening, a weak relationship between time orientation and duration was found. After controlling maternal-fetal attachment and gratification in pregnancy and maternal role, orientation in time perception accounted for significant amounts of variance in maternal role behavior before and after fetal movement. Results show that the process of becoming a mother, which started before quickening, increased in magnitude after fetal movement. The function of fetal movement is important in developing motherhood. In the process of becoming a mother, cognitive, emotional, and behavioral aspects in becoming a mother are inseparable from each other. Future orientation of time perception contributes to development of maternal role behavior. Having a future orientation during pregnancy may indicate hope or positive expectation. Based on these findings, several recommendations were proposed: (a)to study further the general process of becoming a mother and the role of time perception in developing motherhood, (b)to disseminate information to the general public about the process in development of motherhood, (c)to construct theory to explain the process of becoming a mother, and(d)to conduct future research to clarify the construct of time perception and attachment.
Mitiku, Israel; Addissie, Adamu; Molla, Mitike
Ethiopia has implemented routine HIV testing and counselling using a provider initiated HIV testing ('opt-out' approach) to achieve high coverage of testing and prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. However, women's perceptions and experiences with this approach have not been well studied. We conducted a qualitative study to explore pregnant women's perceptions and experiences of routine HIV testing and counselling in Ghimbi town, Ethiopia, in May 2013. In-depth interviews were held with 28 women tested for HIV at antenatal clinics (ANC), as well as four health workers involved in routine HIV testing and counselling. Data were analyzed using the content analysis approach. We found that most women perceived routine HIV testing and counselling beneficial for women as well as unborn babies. Some women perceived HIV testing as compulsory and a prerequisite to receive delivery care services. On the other hand, health workers reported that they try to emphasise the importance HIV testing during pre-test counselling in order to gain women's acceptance. However, both health workers and ANC clients perceived that the pre-test counselling was limited. Routine HIV testing and counselling during pregnancy is well acceptable among pregnant women in the study setting. However, there is a sense of obligation as women felt the HIV testing is a pre-requisite for delivery services. This may be related to the limited pre-test counselling. There is a need to strengthen pre-test counselling to ensure that HIV testing is implemented in a way that ensures pregnant women's autonomy and maximize opportunities for primary prevention of HIV.
Horndasch, Stefanie; Heinrich, Hartmut; Kratz, Oliver; Mai, Sandra; Graap, Holmer; Moll, Gunther H
Body image disturbance in anorexia nervosa (AN) has been widely studied with regard to the patient's own body, but little is known about perception of or attitude towards other women's bodies in AN. The aim of the present study was to investigate how 20 girls aged 12-18 years and 19 adult women suffering from AN compared to 37 healthy adolescent girls and women estimate weight and attractiveness of women's bodies belonging to different BMI categories (BMI 13.8-61.3 kg/m²). Weight and attractiveness ratings of the participant's own body and information on physical comparisons were obtained, and effects on others' weight and attractiveness ratings investigated. Differential evaluation processes were found: AN patients estimated other women's weight higher than control participants. Patients showed a bias towards assessing extremely underweight women as more attractive and normal weight and overweight women as less attractive than healthy girls and women. These effects were more pronounced in adult than in adolescent AN patients. The tendency to engage in physical comparison with others significantly correlated with weight as well as attractiveness ratings in patients. A logistic regression model encompassing own attractiveness ratings, attractiveness bias towards strongly underweight others' bodies and the interaction of this bias with age as predictors differentiated best between AN patients and controls. Our results indicate that females suffering from AN and healthy girls and women perceive other women's bodies differently. Assessment of others' weight and attractiveness may contribute to the maintenance of dysfunctional physical comparison processes.
Waters, Erika A; Pachur, Thorsten; Colditz, Graham A
Side effects prompt some patients to forego otherwise-beneficial therapies. This study explored which characteristics make side effects particularly aversive. We used a psychometric approach, originating from research on risk perception, to identify the factors (or components) underlying side effect perceptions. Women ( N = 149) aged 40 to 74 years were recruited from a patient registry to complete an online experiment. Participants were presented with hypothetical scenarios in which an effective and necessary medication conferred a small risk of a single side effect (e.g., nausea, dizziness). They rated a broad range of side effects on several characteristics (e.g., embarrassing, treatable). In addition, we collected 4 measures of aversiveness for each side effect: choosing to take the medication, willingness to pay to avoid the side effect (WTP), negative affective attitude associated with the side effect, and how each side effect ranks among others in terms of undesirability. A principal components analysis (PCA) was used to identify the components underlying side effect perceptions. Then, for each aversiveness measure separately, regression analyses were used to determine which components predicted differences in aversiveness among the side effects. The PCA revealed 4 components underlying side effect perceptions: affective challenge (e.g., frightening), social challenge (e.g., disfiguring), physical challenge (e.g., painful), and familiarity (e.g., common). Side effects perceived as affectively and physically challenging elicited the highest levels of aversiveness across all 4 measures. Understanding what side effect characteristics are most aversive may inform interventions to improve medical decisions and facilitate the translation of novel biomedical therapies into clinical practice.
ABARE's energy statistics include comprehensive coverage of Australian energy consumption, by state, by industry and by fuel. Australian Energy Update 2005 provides an overview of recent trends and description of the full coverage of the dataset. There are 14 Australian energy statistical tables available as free downloads (product codes 13172 to 13185).
Meryl J. Alappattu, DPT, PhD
Conclusions: Differences in local pain ratings suggest that women with pelvic pain perceive stimuli in this region as more painful than pain-free women although the magnitude of stimuli does not differ. Alappattu MJ, George SZ, Robinson ME, Fillingim RB, Moawad N, LeBrun EW, and Bishop MD. Painful intercourse is significantly associated with evoked pain perception and cognitive aspects of pain in women with pelvic pain. Sex Med 2015;3:14–23.
Lin, Jin-Ding; Sung, Chang-Lin; Lin, Lan-Ping; Liu, Ta-Wen; Lin, Pei-Ying; Chen, Li-Mei; Chu, Cordia M.; Wu, Jia-Ling
This study aims to establish evidence-based data to explore the perceptions and experience of primary care physicians in the Pap smear screening provision for women with intellectual disabilities (ID), and to analyze the associated factors in the delivery of screening services to women with ID in Taiwan. Data obtained by a cross-sectional survey…
Temple, Jeromey B
The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of housing affordability stress among community-dwelling older Australians. The 2002 ABS General Social Survey was used to measure the prevalence of housing affordability stress. Rare event logistic regression was used to measure the potential correlates of housing affordability stress. Almost 5% of Australians aged 55 years and older, and 20% of those younger than 55 years, are estimated to experience housing affordability stress. Men and women living alone are more likely to experience affordability stress when compared to couples. Low-income earners, those with a consumer debt or who do not hold assets, are at a heightened risk of such stress. Home ownership, regardless of income, is the strongest buffer against housing affordability problems in old age. Although the prevalence of housing affordability stress is low among older Australians when compared to the younger population, a definite social gradient exists in those at risk.
Baker, William J.; Hunter, Mary Ann; Thomas, Sharon
This article presents the findings of an investigation of eLearning & teaching in Arts education in Australian Initial Teacher Education (ITE) degrees. This project used survey and interviews to collect data from academics in 16 universities in 5 Australian states regarding their experiences of eLearning and Arts education. A rigorous and…
Baines, Surinder; Powers, Jennifer; Brown, Wendy J
To compare the sociodemographic characteristics, health status and health service use of vegetarians, semi-vegetarians and non-vegetarians. In cross-sectional data analyses of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health in 2000, 9113 women (aged 22-27 years) were defined as non-vegetarians if they reported including red meat in their diet, as semi-vegetarians if they excluded red meat and as vegetarians if they excluded meat, poultry and fish from their diet. The estimated prevalence was 3% and 10% for vegetarian and semi-vegetarian young women. Compared with non-vegetarians, vegetarians and semi-vegetarians were more likely to live in urban areas and to not be married. Vegetarians and semi-vegetarians had lower body mass index (mean (95% confidence interval): 22.2 (21.7-22.7) and 23.0 (22.7-23.3) kg m(-2)) than non-vegetarians (23.7 (23.6-23.8) kg m(-2)) and tended to exercise more. Semi-vegetarians and vegetarians had poorer mental health, with 21-22% reporting depression compared with 15% of non-vegetarians (P vegetarian groups. Vegetarian and semi-vegetarian women were more likely to consult alternative health practitioners and semi-vegetarians reported taking more prescription and non-prescription medications. Compared with non-vegetarians, semi-vegetarians were less likely and vegetarians much less likely to be taking the oral contraceptive pill. The levels of physical activity and body mass indices of the vegetarian and semi-vegetarian women suggest they are healthier than non-vegetarians. However, the greater reports of menstrual problems and the poorer mental health of these young women may be of clinical significance.
Price, Karen; Clearihan, Lynette
Women are increasingly entering the Australian general practice workforce. This study aims to explore female general practitioners' (GPs') perceptions of possible barriers to leadership and professional roles in the workforce. A purposive, convenience sample of 30 female GPs in active practice was approached in February, 2012. An anonymous, pa-per-based, semi-quantitative survey sought to identify participation and leadership confidence within general practice in a number of professional roles. The top two barriers participants identified for after-hours medical meetings were energy to attend and geographical location. For after-hours care, the top two barriers identified were energy and self-motivation. Few participants aspired to 'leadership' activities. 'Medical mentoring' was most likely to attract them into leadership. It is important female GPs' perspectives are explored in general practice. This small survey suggests further studies are needed in the importance of energy limitations and lack of self-confidence in restricting female GPs' capacity to fully engage in professional roles.
Tully, D.; Jacobs, B.
This study focused on a population of female engineering students, probing the influences of their secondary school experience on their choice to pursue an engineering course of study at university. The motivating question is: Do unique opportunities exist in an all-female secondary school mathematics classroom, which impact a young woman's self-perception of her mathematics ability as well as promote a positive path towards an engineering-based university major? Using both qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments, this study examined a sample of Australian engineering students enrolled at the University of Technology, Sydney (UTS). Demographic statistics show that 40% of UTS' female engineering student population attended a single-gender secondary school, indicating a potential influence of school type (single-gender) on engineering enrolment patterns. Female students were primarily motivated to pursue a post secondary engineering path because of a self-belief that they are good at mathematics. In contrast, male students were more influenced by positive male role models of family members who are practising engineers. In measures of self- perception of mathematical skill and ability, female students from single-gender schools outscored their male engineering counterparts. Additionally, female students seem to benefit from verbal encouragement, contextualisation, same gender problem-solving groups and same gender classroom dynamics.
Paola A Campos
Full Text Available Objective. To document the frequency and forms of street harassment and examine the association between street harassment experiences and perceptions of social cohesion. Materials and methods. Baseline survey data collected among women seeking care in public health clinics in Mexico City were used for analysis. Results. Nearly two-thirds (62.8% of women reported experiencing some form of street harassment in the prior month; women with street harassment experiences reported significantly lower perceived social cohesion (b=-0.46; 95%CI:0.69,-0.22. Conclusions. Findings indicate reducing street harassment may have important implications for improving women’s perceived social cohesion and their safety in Mexico City.
Provides an overview of Australian Government information resources. Features content from Australian Government agency websites such as the Department of Environment and Energy, Department of Defence, Australian National Maritime Museum, ANZAC Memorial in Sydney, Department of Immigration & Border Protection, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Dept. of Agriculture and Water Resources, Australian Parliament, Australian Treasury, Australian Transport Safety Board, and Australian Parl...
Maria del Carmen Herrera
Full Text Available Violence against women in close relationships is one of the most worrying and controversial situations in modern society. The main goal of this study was to identify the social perception that people generally have of gender violence in order to obtain profiles of both men who resort to violence against their partners and women who are victims of abuse, identifying both individual (e.g. self-esteem and social (power in relationship characteristics related to gender violence. Using a questionnaire (designed between groups, 268 participants were asked to estimate the probability of men (Batterers vs. Non-batterers and women (Victims vs. Non-victims displaying certain behaviours, beliefs or attitudes. The results revealed the existence of clear social profiles of both aggressors and victims, comprising both individual and psychosocial characteristics. These profiles contained aspects that coincide with the roles traditionally associated with men and women, thus highlighting inequality between both sexes, and which seems to be one of the main causes of gender violence.
Tan, Jeffrey; Farrell, Louise; Allen, David G
With human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccines now approved for women up to 45 years of age, gynaecologists in Australia will be approached increasingly for advice on whether to have the HPV vaccine. We seek to establish the attitudes of gynaecologists to HPV vaccination when advising women in various age groups. Fellows, members and trainees of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists were approached in early 2009 to complete an Australian Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology survey, which they could return by post or internet on-line. There were 836 (49.0%) responses, with 35.6% of responders using 'Tuna' on-line. 836 RANZCOG fellows, members and trainees responded to the survey. The gender of responders are 261 (43%) females and 470 (56%) males. Of the responders, 391 (46.8%) usually initiated discussion regarding the role of HPV vaccination with their patients. More than 93% encourage when recommending the HPV vaccines for female responders aged 12-26 years. This proportion decreased to 66% for women aged 27-45 years, with 15% strongly encouraging vaccination for this age group. The attitudes to HPV vaccination for the different age groups of females were similar for trainees, fellows and members, as well as for gender and age groups of the responders. However, those with lower level of knowledge are less likely to encourage HPV vaccination in all vaccination age groups and the association is statistically significant after adjusting for role, gender and age. The results show a strong support from gynaecologists in Australia for HPV vaccination. © 2010 The Authors. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2010 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
Freedman, Murray A
Symptoms of vulvar and vaginal atrophy (VVA), including dyspareunia and vaginal dryness, have a distinct negative impact on a woman's quality of life. The REVIVE survey highlighted the lack of awareness of VVA symptoms among postmenopausal women with vaginal symptoms, with many women reluctant to initiate discussions with their healthcare professionals despite the presence of vaginal symptoms. The REVIVE survey also provided insights into women's views of VVA treatments. Women reported displeasure with the vaginal administration route, lack of symptom relief with over-the-counter products, and concerns about the safety of estrogen therapies. With the high prevalence of VVA, obstetricians/gynecologists should become vigilant in identifying women with VVA by implementing screening and discussion of symptoms during routine office visits - providing patients with information about appropriate therapies based on the severity and impact of symptoms, keeping in mind individual preferences and perceptions.
Rhodes, Kate; Chan, Flora; Prichard, Ivanka; Coveney, John; Ward, Paul; Wilson, Carlene
Family food choice is complex with a number of people within the family sharing food choice and preparation responsibilities. Differences in dietary behaviours also exist between various ethnic groups worldwide, and are apparent within multicultural nations such as Australia. This study examined the intergenerational transmission of eating behaviour through semi-structured family interviews with 27 three generation families (Anglo-Australian: n = 11, Chinese-Australian: n = 8, Italian-Australian: n = 8; N = 114). The influence of generation (grandparent, parent, child), role (grandmother, grandfather, mother, father, daughter, son), and ethnic background were considered. Thematic analysis identified that regardless of ethnic background, grandmothers and mothers dominated family food choice decisions even in families where fathers were primarily responsible for the preparation of family meals. The women in each generation influenced fruit and vegetable intake by controlling purchasing decisions (e.g., by shopping for food or editing family grocery shopping lists), insisting on consumption, monitoring and reminding, utilizing food as a prerequisite for conditional treats (e.g., eating fruit before being allowed snacks), instigating and enforcing food rules (e.g., fast food only on weekends), and restricting others' food choices. Grandparents and children shared a relationship that skipped the parent generation and influenced dietary behaviours bi-directionally. These findings have implications for the delivery of dietary health messages used in disease prevention interventions designed to successfully reach culturally and linguistically diverse populations and all members of multigenerational families. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hardy, Louise L; Hector, Debra; Saleh, Shay; King, Lesley
The home environment is associated with obesity-related behaviours among children, and research in Australia has shown that some of these behaviours are more prevalent among children from particular cultural backgrounds including Middle Eastern. This study presents findings from face-to-face, semi-structured interviews conducted in April 2013 with a convenience sample of Middle Eastern parents of primary school-age children at an Islamic private school in Sydney, Australia. The interviews explored parental perceptions and practices regarding state government health messages addressing children's eating, physical activity and screen time. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether the content of these generic public health messages is relevant and acceptable to Middle Eastern parents of young children, and to identify any enablers and barriers to adopting these healthy practices at home. Thematic analysis identified predominant themes. In total, 21 interviews were conducted (reference children: 12 boys/9 girls, aged 5-12 years). The content of current health messages regarding children's weight-related behaviours was familiar to respondents, and accepted as relevant for guiding their parenting practices. Parents perceived that they typically encouraged healthy behaviours, although they also reported making regular exemptions, in response to various circumstances. Overall, the perceptions and reported practices of the parents were consistent with other studies with Australian parents. There were no apparent culturally specific barriers or enablers to children's weight-related behaviours. There is however scope for health promoters to provide more precise information on health recommendations, health risks and benefits, and to provide more specific ideas for ways in which parents can act on these health messages within the home and family environment, to encourage and support healthy behaviours in their children. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Angie Motshekga, the president of the Women�s League of the ruling African National Congress (ANC 2014, is reported to have said that �South Africa is not ready to have a female president ...� What is perturbing about her statement is the presupposition that South-African society perceives women as presently incapable of leading the country as president. Given the variety of literature on female empowerment in South Africa, Motshekga�s statement comes both as a disappointment and a disempowering assertion as it does not exhibit a clear attempt to address patriarchy. This article re-interprets the character of Athaliah in 2 Kings 11 and probes it for the empowering possibility that it offers the women of South Africa. It argues that Athaliah was a politically astute queen and that the scarcity of female rulers in ancient Israel confirms the patriarchal bias against women. Thus, drawing from the reconstructed character of Athaliah and from the leadership demonstrated by selected women politicians against a patriarchal paradigm that is part of African cultures, the article submits that the perception of women as capable of leading South Africa as president is justified.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: The present article partly responds to Angie Motshekga�s statement that �South Africa is not ready to have a female president ...� Thus, drawing from the insight in the fields of the Old Testament, social sciences and gender studies, this article submits that the perception that women are capable of leading South Africa as president is warranted.
Kingston, Dawn; Biringer, Anne; Veldhuyzen van Zanten, Sander; Giallo, Rebecca; McDonald, Sarah; MacQueen, Glenda; Vermeyden, Lydia; Austin, Marie-Paule
Pregnant women's perceptions of the risks and benefits during mental health screening impact their willingness to disclose concerns. Early research in violence screening suggests that such perceptions may vary by mode of screening, whereby women view the anonymity of e-screening as less risky than other approaches. Understanding whether mode of screening influences perceptions of risk and benefit of disclosure is important in screening implementation. The objective of this randomized controlled trial was to compare the perceptions of pregnant women randomized to a Web-based screening intervention group and a paper-based screening control group on the level of risk and benefit they perceive in disclosing mental health concerns to their prenatal care provider. A secondary objective was to identify factors associated with women's perceptions of risk and benefit of disclosure. Pregnant women recruited from maternity clinics, hospitals, and prenatal classes were computer-randomized to a fully automated Web-based e-screening intervention group or a paper-based control. The intervention group completed the Antenatal Psychosocial Health Assessment and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale on a computer tablet, whereas the control group completed them on paper. The primary outcome was women's perceptions of the risk and benefits of mental health screening using the Disclosure Expectations Scale (DES). A completer analysis was conducted. Statistical significance was set at Pcontrol (n=331) groups. There were no significant baseline differences between groups. The mode of screening was not associated with either perceived risk or benefit of screening. There were no differences in groups in the mean scores of the risk and benefit of disclosure subscales. Over three-quarters of women in both intervention and control groups perceived that mental health screening was beneficial. However, 43.1% (272/631) of women in both groups reported feeling very, moderately, or somewhat
Catherine Margaret Speck
Full Text Available Australian artists living and working in Paris and London in the Belle Époque and modern eras had a deep engagement with cosmopolitanism in cities that were at the frontiers of international modernism. They experienced the liberation of putting aside issues of nation, and of working in large, alienating but culturally challenging multi-nation environs in the pre and post war years. This paper will explore how two women artists, Hilda Rix in Paris, a hub of internationalism; and Nora Heysen in London, a city ill-described in the Empire language of ‘home’ for Australians, connected with and articulated cosmopolitan culture. Expatriatism facilitated an offshore variant of Australian modernism.
Full Text Available Background: Proper levels of physical activity (PA are important to healthy aging. Little is known about racial differences in influences of neighborhood perceptions (NP on PA and use of neighborhood resources among community-dwelling older women. Materials and methods: In 2014 and 2015, 49 white and 44 black women of age 65 and older living in Washington, DC were queried about their PA, NP, use of neighborhood resources and sociodemographic characteristics. They wore an accelerometer and a Global Positioning System device concurrently for 7 consecutive days. Data were analyzed by race. Results: Compared to Whites, Blacks had lower NP scores (71% positive vs. 77%, p = 0.01, lower mean daily step counts (mean (SD: 3256 (1918 vs. 5457 (2989, p < 0.001, and lower frequencies of all exercise activities combined (19.7 (8.7 vs. 25.2 (11.8 per week, p = 0.01. For both Whites and Blacks, better NPs were associated with more frequent PA both at (p = 0.05 and away from home (p = 0.01. However, better NPs were associated with higher frequencies of exercise activities, moderate-to-high intensity activities, and utilitarian walking for Whites but not Blacks (p < 0.05 for race-perception interaction terms. Conclusions: In an urban setting, older Black women were more likely than older White women to have poor NPs, less PA, and weaker or no association of positive NPs with higher levels of certain PAs. Such substantial racial differences warrant further investigation and consideration in health promotion programs.
Kirk, K M; Eaves, L J; Martin, N G
Measures of self-transcendence, physical health and psychological well-being were included in a self-report Health and Lifestyle questionnaire administered to Australian twins aged over 50 between 1993 and 1995. Self-transcendence appears to be higher among older Australian women than men, and was significantly associated with religious affiliation, marital status (in women) and age (in men). No strong correlations were observed between self-transcendence and any measure of psychological or physical health. Additive genetic effects were found to be important in influencing self-transcendence, with heritability estimates of 0.37 and 0.41 for men and women respectively, whilst shared environment effects were not found to be significant. Multivariate modelling of self-transcendence scores and self-reported church attendance behavior indicated substantially different etiologies for these variables, with implications for methods of investigation of religiosity and spirituality.
Parkinson, Lynne; Warburton, Jeni; Sibbritt, David; Byles, Julie
As populations age, there will be a need for more volunteers in social welfare, and consequently a need to better understand potential effects of volunteering for older people. Whilst there is a body of international literature exploring health benefits of volunteering in later life, there are currently no longitudinal studies of Australian populations. Internationally, there is a lack of studies focusing on older women, who comprise the majority of the ageing population. The aim of this article was to explore the relationship between volunteering and psychosocial and health factors for a cohort of older Australian women over time. Data for this study were from the oldest cohort of Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a 20-year longitudinal survey of Australian women aged 70-75 years in 1996. Volunteering status was the factor of interest and study factors included a broad range of demographic, health and social factors. A longitudinal model was developed for mediators of volunteering over time. Of 7088 women in 2005, 24.5% reported actively volunteering, 15.5% were continuing, 7.5% were new, 15.3% were intermittent and 34.7% had never been volunteers. Volunteering was associated with increased quality of life and social support. Women were more likely to continue volunteering over time if they lived in a rural area, had higher socioeconomic indicators, and better levels of physical and mental health. This study contributes to the literature on the relationship between volunteering and health for older women. Understanding the potential health implications of volunteering is a critical issue in current policy debates.
Barcenilla-Wong, A. L.; Chen, J. S.; March, L. M.
This study aimed to determine the effect that level of concern for osteoporosis, as well as self-perceived risk of osteoporosis and fracture, has on supplementation use, seeking medical advice, bone mineral density (BMD) testing, and antiosteoporosis medication (AOM) use. Study subjects were 1,095 female Australian participants of the Global Longitudinal study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW) untreated for osteoporosis at baseline. Study outcomes from self-administered questionnaires included calcium and vitamin D supplementation, self-reported seeking of medical advice regarding osteoporosis, BMD testing, and AOM use in the last 12 months at the late assessment. Logistic regression was used in the analysis. Concern significantly increased the likelihood of seeking medical advice and, however, had no significant impact on screening or treatment. Heightened self-perceived risks of osteoporosis and fracture both significantly increased the likelihood of seeking medical advice and BMD testing while elevated self-perceived risk of fracture increased AOM use. Supplementation use was not significantly associated with concern levels and risk perception. Concern and risk perceptions to osteoporosis and fracture were significantly associated with certain bone-protective behaviours. However, the disconnect between perceived osteoporosis risk and AOM use illustrates the need to emphasize the connection between osteoporosis and fracture in future education programs. PMID:25276471
Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Müller, Stephanie M; López-Zafra, Esther
Recent studies on the malleability of gender stereotypes show that they are flexible, dynamic structures that change with the passage of time. In a study, we examined perceptions about men and women of the past, present, and future in Spain and focused on the influence of an important demographic variable on these perceptions: the population size of people's location of residence. Results showed that people perceived an increase in similarity of men and women from the past to the present and from the present to the future. In less-populated locations, however, men and women were more gender stereotyped and, consequently, still perceived to be further from equality than those in more populated areas. We concluded that the study of dynamic gender stereotypes benefits from extensive research in populations that vary in their demographic characteristics and shows the importance of recent movements in rural areas supporting women's participation in the modernization process.
Bookari, Khlood; Yeatman, Heather; Williamson, Moira
Khlood Bookari,1 Heather Yeatman,1 Moira Williamson2,3 1School of Health and Society, Faculty of Social Sciences, 2School of Nursing, Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, 3School of Nursing and Midwifery, Higher Education Division, Central Queensland University, Noosaville, QLD, Australia Background: The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) for pregnancy provides a number of food- and nutrition-related recommendations to assist pregnant wo...
De Jesus, Maria; Taylor, Juanita; Maine, Cathleen; Nalls, Patricia
Background To date, there are very few comparative US studies and none in DC that distinguish between US-born and foreign-born Black women to examine and compare their perceptions of HIV risk. This qualitative study, therefore, analyzes African American and East African women’s perceptions of HIV risk in the Washington DC Metropolitan area, which has the highest AIDS rate in the US. Methods Forty in-depth, semi-structured interviews and 10 cognitive interviews were conducted among a sample of 25 African American women and 25 East African born women between October 2012 and March 2013 to examine perceptions regarding HIV risk. The in-depth semi-structured interviews were preceded by the cognitive interviews and accompanying survey. Study protocol was reviewed and approved by the American University Institutional Review Board. Results Adopting Boerma and Weir’s Proximate Determinants conceptual framework to interpret the data, the results of the study demonstrate that African American and East African immigrant women have divergent perceptions of HIV risk. While African American women ascribe HIV risk to individual-level behaviors and choices such as unprotected sex, East African women attribute HIV risk to conditions of poverty and survival. Conclusions Study findings suggest that addressing HIV prevention and education among Black women in DC will require distinct and targeted strategies that are culturally and community-centered in order to resonate with these different audiences. PMID:26766523
Christopher J. Diehm
Full Text Available Introduction: Indigenous Australians experience higher rates of renal disease and hypertension than non-Indigenous Australians. Low birth weight is recognized as a contributing factor in chronic disease and has been shown to increase the risk of renal failure in adulthood. A smaller kidney volume with fewer nephrons places an individual at risk of hypertension and renal failure. Indigenous Australians have fewer nephrons than non-Indigenous Australians. In this study, intrauterine fetal and kidney growth were evaluated in 174 Indigenous Australian babies throughout gestation in order to record and evaluate fetal growth and kidney size, within a population that is at high risk for chronic illness.Methods: Pregnant women that identified as Indigenous, or non-Indigenous women that were pregnant with a partner who identified as an Indigenous Australian were eligible to participate. Maternal history, smoking status, blood and urine samples and fetal ultrasounds were collected throughout pregnancy. Fetal kidney measurements were collected using ultrasound. Statistical analysis was performed using the Stata 14.1 software package.Results: 15.2% of babies were born prematurely. 44% of the mothers reported smoking in pregnancy. The median birth weight of this cohort was 3,240 g. Male fetuses had higher kidney to body weight ratios than female fetuses (P = 0.02. The birth weights of term neonates whose mothers smoked during pregnancy were lower (327 g, P < 0.001 than the birth weights of term babies from non-smoking mothers. The kidney volumes of babies whose mothers smoked were also smaller (P = 0.02, but were in proportion to body weight.Conclusion: In this cohort of Indigenous women smoking was associated with both increased number of preterm births and with a reduction in birth weights, even of term infants. Since kidney volume is a surrogate measure of nephron number and nephrogenesis is complete at birth, babies whose mothers smoked during pregnancy
Barr, Nigel; Holmes, Mark; Roiko, Anne; Dunn, Peter; Lord, Bill
This study explored the self-reported behaviors and perceptions of Australian paramedics in relation to their environmental hygiene practices. A national online survey was conducted with Paramedics Australasia members (N = 417). Participants reported working in ambulances often contaminated with body fluids. Widespread noncompliance with routine and deep cleaning of ambulances, and misunderstandings about environmental hygiene practices were apparent. Improvements to environmental hygiene practices of Australian paramedics are recommended to avoid pathogen transmission and ensure patient safety. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Australia's position on international population issues is consistent with the major international statements on population: the World Population Plan of Action (1974), the Mexico City Declaration (1984), and the Amsterdam Declaration (1989). Australia's policy emphasizes the importance of population policies as an integral part of social, economic, and cultural development aimed at improving the quality of life of the people. Factors that would promote smaller families include improving economic opportunities, old-age security, education and health (particularly for women), as well as improving the accessibility and quality of family planning services. The quality of care approach is directly complementary to the Australian International Development Assistance Bureau (AIDAB)'s Women-In-Development Policy and its Health Policy, which stresses the theme of Women And Their Children's Health (WATCH). Australia's support for population programs and activities has increased considerably over the last few years. Total assistance for the year 1990/91 was around $7 million out of a total aid program of $1216 million. In recent years AIDAB has funded family planning activities or health projects with family planning components in a number of countries in the Asia-Pacific region. In the South Pacific region AIDAB has funded a reproductive health video project taking into consideration the cultural sensitivities and customs of the peoples of the region. AIDAB has supported a UN Population Fund project in Thailand that aims to strengthen the capacity of the National Statistical Office to collect population data. The US currently accounts for around 40% of all population-related development assistance to improve the health of women and children through family planning. The other major donors are Japan, the Scandinavian countries, and the Netherlands. Funding for population has been a relatively low percentage of overall development assistance budgets in OECD countries. In the
Flores, Yesica Yolanda Rangel
ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the influence of sexual violence on the perception and management of the risk of HIV in women married to migrants. Methods: study with an ethnographic approach carried out in urban and rural communities. Data were obtained by methodological triangulation, with participant and non-participant observation, as well as interviews. The informants were 21 women married to international migrants. The interviews were transcribed and discourse analysis was applied to them. Results: three categories emerged from the speeches to problematize the influence of sexual violence in the perception and management of the risk of HIV: "Characterization of sexual practices in the context of migration", "Experiences of sexual violence" and "Construction of the risk of HIV-AIDS". Conclusion: women have difficulty to recognize the acts of sexual violence in their daily lives, and their perceptions of risk are not decisive in the management of the threat to which they are exposed. Therefore, it is becoming increasingly urgent that nursing problematizes the sexual violence within "steady couples", as a challenge to the promotion of healthy lifestyles. PMID:27598375
Adegbija, Odewumi Oluwarotimi; Wang, Zhiqiang
To compare gender-specific waist circumference (WC) levels of Aboriginal Australians with non-Aboriginal Australians. A systematic search on Medline, PubMed, EMBASE and Google Scholar databases was conducted to identify papers that reported gender-specific waist circumference (WC) estimates of participants from the age of 15 years and above among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. Means and their 95% confidence intervals of gender differences in WC, height and weight were recorded or calculated where they were not provided. Gender-specific WC, height and weight mean estimates were pooled and the I(2) statistic was used to test heterogeneity among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. Of 17 selected cross-sectional studies, 9 focused on Aboriginal and 8 on non-Aboriginal Australians. Seven studies reported significantly higher WC estimates among indigenous females than males. On the other hand, non-indigenous males had significantly higher WC levels than females. Males had greater height and weight estimates than females in both groups. Although indigenous women were shorter and had lower weight estimates, they had greater WC levels than indigenous men. This is the first systematic review to assess the gender-specific differences between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. The findings of this review warrant more efforts to understand and reduce the high prevalence of central obesity and related chronic diseases among Aboriginal women. Copyright © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McNair, Ruth; Power, Jennifer; Carr, Susan
The study compared levels of awareness of human papilloma virus (HPV) as a sexually transmissible infection (STI) between women of different sexual orientations. It also examined self-reported risk factors for HPV infection, perceived level of personal risk, and willingness to have the HPV vaccine. Recruitment occurred through community sampling and data was collected using a self-completion questionnaire. A convenience sample of 349 women completed the questionnaire in early 2007, 309 were sexually active; 47.6% had lifetime sexual partners of both genders, 26.9% had only male partners, and 25.5% had only female partners. Women with partners of both genders were more likely to have ever had a pap test but were also more likely to report an abnormal result (OR 3.19) than women with only male partners. Only 68% of the sample had heard of HPV and women with partners of both genders were significantly more likely to be aware than women with only male partners (OR 2.56). Forty-four per cent did not know how HPV was transmitted and less than half correctly identified HPV-associated clinical problems, with no differences according to gender of partners. The majority of women had risk factors for HPV, however, few felt personally at risk. The very low personal risk perception for HPV, particularly among women who have female and male sexual partners, suggests the need for targeted education for this group regarding HPV transmission and prevention. Health promotion regarding HPV should be broadened to specifically include information about HPV as an STI between women.
Duarte, Fernanda P.
This paper contributes to the debate on what constitutes good teaching in early 21st Century higher education, through an examination of the experience of five outstanding lecturers from a business school in an Australian university. It is based on a qualitative study that explored their perceptions on what constitutes "good teaching".…
Agrawal, Praween; Gupta, Kamla; Mishra, Vinod; Agrawal, Sutapa
We examined the socio-economic differential in the self-perception of body weight, future intention for weight management and actual weight-management behaviour among normal-weight, overweight and obese women in India. A population-based follow-up survey of ever-married women, systematically selected from the second round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2, 1998-99) samples, who were re-interviewed after four years in 2003. Information on women's perception about their own weight, intention of weight management and actual weight-management behaviour were collected through personal interview. Anthropometric measurements were obtained from women to compute their current BMI. Three hundred and twenty-five ever-married women aged 20-54 years residing in the national capital territory of Delhi in India. Discrepancy between self-perceived body weight and women's actual body weight was reported. One-quarter of overweight women and one in ten obese women perceived themselves as normal weight. Although a majority of overweight and obese women wanted to reduce their weight, a significant proportion of overweight (one in four) and 4 % of obese women also wanted to maintain their weight as it is. Only one in three overweight and one in four obese women were performing any physical activity to reduce their weight. These findings are important for public health interventions in obesity care. Implementation of health promotion and health education in the community should use effective school education and mass-media programmes to raise awareness of appropriate body weight to combat the growing level of obesity among Indian women.
Henderson, Jane; Gao, Haiyan; Redshaw, Maggie
According to the Office for National Statistics, approximately a quarter of women giving birth in England and Wales are from minority ethnic groups. Previous work has indicated that these women have poorer pregnancy outcomes than White women and poorer experience of maternity care, sometimes encountering stereotyping and racism. The aims of this study were to examine service use and perceptions of care in ethnic minority women from different groups compared to White women. Secondary analysis of data from a survey of women in 2010 was undertaken. The questionnaire asked about women's experience of care during pregnancy, labour and birth, and the postnatal period, as well as demographic factors. Ethnicity was grouped into eight categories: White, Mixed, Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Black Caribbean, Black African, and Other ethnicity. A total of 24,319 women completed the survey. Compared to White women, women from minority ethnic groups were more likely to be younger, multiparous and without a partner. They tended to access antenatal care later in pregnancy, have fewer antenatal checks, fewer ultrasound scans and less screening. They were less likely to receive pain relief in labour and, Black African women in particular, were more likely to deliver by emergency caesarean section. Postnatally, women from minority ethnic groups had longer lengths of hospital stay and were more likely to breastfeed but they had fewer home visits from midwives. Throughout their maternity care, women from minority ethnic groups were less likely to feel spoken to so they could understand, to be treated with kindness, to be sufficiently involved in decisions and to have confidence and trust in the staff. Women in all minority ethnic groups had a poorer experience of maternity services than White women. That this was still the case following publication of a number of national policy documents and local initiatives is a cause for concern.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Women's return to work can be a significant barrier to continued breastfeeding. Workplace policies and practices to promote and support continued, and longer duration of, breastfeeding are important. In the context of the introduction of a new breastfeeding policy for Area Health Services in New South Wales, Australia, a baseline survey was conducted to describe current practices and examine women's reports of perceived organisational support on breastfeeding intention and practice. Methods A cross sectional survey of female employees of the Sydney South West Area Health Service was conducted in late 2009. A mailed questionnaire was sent to 998 eligible participants who had taken maternity leave over the 20-month period from January 2008 to August 2009. The questionnaire collected items assessing breastfeeding intentions, awareness of workplace policies, and the level of organisational and social support available. For those women who had returned to work, further questions were asked to assess the perceptions and practices of breastfeeding in the work environment, as well as barriers and enabling factors to combining breastfeeding and work. Results Returning to work was one of the main reasons women ceased breastfeeding, with 60 percent of women intending to breastfeed when they returned to work, but only 40 percent doing so. Support to combine breastfeeding and work came mainly from family and partners (74% and 83% respectively, with little perceived support from the organisation (13% and human resources (6%. Most women (92% had received no information from their managers about their breastfeeding options upon their return to work, and few had access to a room specially designated for breastfeeding (19%. Flexible work options and lactation breaks, as well as access to a private room, were identified as the main factors that facilitate breastfeeding at work. Conclusions Enabling women to continue breastfeeding at work has
Weber, Danielle; Janson, Anneka; Nolan, Michelle; Wen, Li Ming; Rissel, Chris
Women's return to work can be a significant barrier to continued breastfeeding. Workplace policies and practices to promote and support continued, and longer duration of, breastfeeding are important. In the context of the introduction of a new breastfeeding policy for Area Health Services in New South Wales, Australia, a baseline survey was conducted to describe current practices and examine women's reports of perceived organisational support on breastfeeding intention and practice. A cross sectional survey of female employees of the Sydney South West Area Health Service was conducted in late 2009. A mailed questionnaire was sent to 998 eligible participants who had taken maternity leave over the 20-month period from January 2008 to August 2009. The questionnaire collected items assessing breastfeeding intentions, awareness of workplace policies, and the level of organisational and social support available. For those women who had returned to work, further questions were asked to assess the perceptions and practices of breastfeeding in the work environment, as well as barriers and enabling factors to combining breastfeeding and work. Returning to work was one of the main reasons women ceased breastfeeding, with 60 percent of women intending to breastfeed when they returned to work, but only 40 percent doing so. Support to combine breastfeeding and work came mainly from family and partners (74% and 83% respectively), with little perceived support from the organisation (13%) and human resources (6%). Most women (92%) had received no information from their managers about their breastfeeding options upon their return to work, and few had access to a room specially designated for breastfeeding (19%). Flexible work options and lactation breaks, as well as access to a private room, were identified as the main factors that facilitate breastfeeding at work. Enabling women to continue breastfeeding at work has benefits for the infant, employee and organisation. However, this
Blair, Karen L; Pukall, Caroline F; Smith, Kelly B; Cappell, Jaclyn
The literature on genital and pelvic pain has largely focused on heterosexual women. An online study examined characteristics of vulvar pain in 839 lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual women 18-45 years of age and investigated associations between relationship qualities such as love and communication with participants' perceptions of pain's influence on relationships. Characteristics of vulvar pain were similar across groups. Groups differed in how they perceived pain to impact their relationships, such that better communication for same-sex couples and more love for mixed-sex couples was associated with the perception of their pain as having less of an effect on their relationship functioning.
Cappelle, Tessa; Fink, Bernhard
Women's preferences for putative cues of genetic quality in men's voices, faces, bodies, and behavioral displays are stronger during the fertile phase of the ovulatory cycle. Here we show that ovulatory cycle-related changes in women's attractiveness perceptions of male features are also found with dance movements, especially those perceived as highly masculine. Dance movements of 79 British men were recorded with an optical motion-capture system whilst dancing to a basic rhythm. Virtual humanoid characters (avatars) were created and converted into 15-second video clips and rated by 37 women on masculinity. Another 23 women judged the attractiveness of the 10 dancers who scored highest and those 10 who scored lowest on masculinity once in days of high fertility and once in days of low fertility of their ovulatory cycle. High-masculine dancers were judged higher on attractiveness around ovulation than on other cycle days, whilst no such perceptual difference was found for low-masculine dancers. We suggest that women may gain fitness benefits from evolved preferences for masculinity cues they obtain from male dance movements.
Full Text Available Women's preferences for putative cues of genetic quality in men's voices, faces, bodies, and behavioral displays are stronger during the fertile phase of the ovulatory cycle. Here we show that ovulatory cycle-related changes in women's attractiveness perceptions of male features are also found with dance movements, especially those perceived as highly masculine. Dance movements of 79 British men were recorded with an optical motion-capture system whilst dancing to a basic rhythm. Virtual humanoid characters (avatars were created and converted into 15-second video clips and rated by 37 women on masculinity. Another 23 women judged the attractiveness of the 10 dancers who scored highest and those 10 who scored lowest on masculinity once in days of high fertility and once in days of low fertility of their ovulatory cycle. High-masculine dancers were judged higher on attractiveness around ovulation than on other cycle days, whilst no such perceptual difference was found for low-masculine dancers. We suggest that women may gain fitness benefits from evolved preferences for masculinity cues they obtain from male dance movements.
Coles, Jan; Lee, Adeline; Taft, Angela; Mazza, Danielle; Loxton, Deborah
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) occurs across the world, with a prevalence of 20% internationally. Our aim was to investigate the associations between CSA, CSA plus adult violence experiences, and selected self-reported physical and mental health in a community sample of women. Data from 7,700 women aged 28-33 years from the 1973-1978 cohort who completed Survey 4 of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH) were analyzed. Questions about prior abuse experience such as child sexual abuse, IPV, adult physical and sexual assaults, andphysical and mental health. Women who experienced CSA were 1.4 times more likely to experience bodily pain (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.37, confidence interval [CI] = [1.19, 1.58]), 1.3 times more likely to have poorer general health (AOR = 1.33, CI = [1.15, 1.54]), and 1.4 times more likely to be depressed in the past 3 years (AOR = 1.44, CI = [1.22, 1.71]) compared with those without abuse.. Women who experienced both CSA and adult violence were 2.4 to 3.1 times more likely to experience poor general (AOR = 2.35, CI = [1.76, 3.14]) and mental health (AOR = 2.69, CI = [1.98, 3.64]), and suffer from depression (AOR = 2.84, CI = [2.13, 3.78]) and anxiety (AOR = 3.10, CI = [2.12, 4.53]) compared with women with no abuse. This study demonstrates the importance of CSA in pain and poorer long-term mental and physical health.. It emphasizes how prior CSA may amplify pain and poorer long-term mental and physical health among women who are again exposed to violence in adulthood. © The Author(s) 2014.
Background According to the Office for National Statistics, approximately a quarter of women giving birth in England and Wales are from minority ethnic groups. Previous work has indicated that these women have poorer pregnancy outcomes than White women and poorer experience of maternity care, sometimes encountering stereotyping and racism. The aims of this study were to examine service use and perceptions of care in ethnic minority women from different groups compared to White women. Methods Secondary analysis of data from a survey of women in 2010 was undertaken. The questionnaire asked about women’s experience of care during pregnancy, labour and birth, and the postnatal period, as well as demographic factors. Ethnicity was grouped into eight categories: White, Mixed, Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Black Caribbean, Black African, and Other ethnicity. Results A total of 24,319 women completed the survey. Compared to White women, women from minority ethnic groups were more likely to be younger, multiparous and without a partner. They tended to access antenatal care later in pregnancy, have fewer antenatal checks, fewer ultrasound scans and less screening. They were less likely to receive pain relief in labour and, Black African women in particular, were more likely to deliver by emergency caesarean section. Postnatally, women from minority ethnic groups had longer lengths of hospital stay and were more likely to breastfeed but they had fewer home visits from midwives. Throughout their maternity care, women from minority ethnic groups were less likely to feel spoken to so they could understand, to be treated with kindness, to be sufficiently involved in decisions and to have confidence and trust in the staff. Conclusion Women in all minority ethnic groups had a poorer experience of maternity services than White women. That this was still the case following publication of a number of national policy documents and local initiatives is a cause for concern. PMID
Mealings, Kiri T.; Demuth, Katherine; Buchholz, Jörg; Dillon, Harvey
Purpose: Open-plan classroom styles are increasingly being adopted in Australia despite evidence that their high intrusive noise levels adversely affect learning. The aim of this study was to develop a new Australian speech perception task (the Mealings, Demuth, Dillon, and Buchholz Classroom Speech Perception Test) and use it in an open-plan…
Raquel Guimarães Nobre
Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the eating behavior and body image perception in pregnant women attending a high-risk outpatient center. Methods: A quantitative, cross-sectional, observational study conducted with 28 overweight pregnant women attending the first consultation in the nutrition outpatient center of a maternity hospital in Fortaleza-CE, from December 2010 to February 2011. It has been used a pre-established form containing data on the characterization of the sample (socioeconomic, obstetric, and nutritional, the BES (Binge Eating Scale to assess binge eating and BSQ (Body Shape Questionnaire to assess the severity or absence of body image disorder. The variables were presented as mean ± standard deviation and simple frequency and percentage. The Pearson’s correlation was used to verify the relation between body image and binge eating, considering p <0.05. Results: The pregnant women studied had a mean age of 29.4 ± 6.3 years and mean gestational age of 24.6 ± 8.2 weeks. It was found a prevalence of 71.5% (n=20 of body image disorder and 17.8% (n=5 of binge eating. It was also observed a direct and significant correlation between the body image perception and the degree of binge eating (r=0.4358, p=0.020. Conclusion: The high rate of body image disorder positively related to a significant binge eating indicates an unfavorable adjustment of this group of pregnant women to alterations in weight and body shape and size, which are inherent to pregnancy, standing out as group that needs special attention by the professional team. doi:10.5020/18061230.2014.p256
Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking rates among women are currently low, but they are the fastest growing segment of cigarette smoking population in developing countries. We aimed to assess the knowledge and perceptions towards smoking and to identify the factors related with level of knowledge and perceptions among adult women in urban slums. Methods This was a cross sectional study conducted on 250 adult (≥18 years of age women attending primary care clinics in three slums of Karachi, Pakistan. A pre-tested and structured, interviewer administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Factors associated with level of understanding about smoking were analyzed with chi-square test. Results Most of the women knew that smoking has adverse effects on women and children's health but the knowledge of specific health effects was limited. About one third of the women knew that active smoking can cause lung disease, but only a small percentage (7% knew that it could lead to heart disease. None of the women were aware that smoking contributes to infertility and osteoporosis. A small proportion of women were aware that smoking can lead to low birth weight (7%, congenital anomalies (5% and less than 1% of women knew that it contributes to pregnancy loss, still birth and preterm delivery. The understanding of passive smoking affecting children's lung was low (20% and a similar proportion voiced concern about the bad influence of maternal smoking on children. Educated women had better knowledge of health effects of smoking. Education was associated with having better knowledge about effects on women health in general (p = 0.02 and specific effects like lung (p = 0.03 and reproductive health effects (p Conclusions This study reveals that women are aware of the general ill effects of smoking but fail to identify smoking to be associated with female maladies particularly those who were illiterate and had lower levels of education. Understanding and attitudes
Yamin, Fazal; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Singhasivanon, Pratap; Lawpoolsri, Saranath
Growing rates of global mobile subscriptions pave the way for implementation of mobile health (mHealth) initiatives, especially among hard-to-reach populations. This study aimed to determine the perceptions of Afghan women regarding the use of mobile phones for maternal and child health services. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in both rural and urban districts of Nangarhar Province, Afghanistan. The interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to assess participants' demographic profile, mobile phone usage, and perception of respondents toward different aspects of health care delivery via mobile phones. Of the 240 participants, 142 (59.2%) owned mobile phones and 220 (91.7%) routinely used mobile phones. Approximately 209 (87.1%) of participants were willing to receive health messages via a mobile phone. Automated voice call was the most preferred method for sending health messages. More than 90% of the women reported that they would like to receive reminders for their children's vaccinations and antenatal care visits. Users' perception was associated with mobile phone ownership, literacy level, and experience using mobile phones. In the study area, where the literacy rate is low, mHealth was well perceived. ©Fazal Yamin, Jaranit Kaewkungwal, Pratap Singhasivanon, Saranath Lawpoolsri. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (http://mhealth.jmir.org), 10.04.2018.
Brough, Sarah; Bauer, Amanda E.; Brooks, Kate; Hopkins, Andrew; Maddison, Sarah
Here we report on the Women in Astronomy Workshop (http://asawomeninastronomy.org/meetings/wia2011/), which was held on 13 May 2011 in Sydney, Australia. The workshop was organised by the Astronomical Society of Australia's Chapter on Women in Astronomy, to discuss some of the issues that face women in astronomy and make recommendations to help support the success of women in Australian astronomy but came to broader conclusions that have value for the whole astronomical community. The worksho...
Loong, Esther Yook-Kin; Vale, Colleen; Bragg, Leicha A.; Herbert, Sandra
Little is known about how Australian teachers interpret, enact and assess reasoning. This paper reports on primary teachers' perceptions of reasoning prior to observation and subsequent trialling of demonstration lessons in a primary school. The findings indicate that while some teachers were able to articulate what reasoning means, others were…
Gould, Gillian S; Bar-Zeev, Yael; Bovill, Michelle; Atkins, Lou; Gruppetta, Maree; Clarke, Marilyn J; Bonevski, Billie
Indigenous smoking rates are up to 80% among pregnant women: prevalence among pregnant Australian Indigenous women was 45% in 2014, contributing significantly to the health gap for Indigenous Australians. We aimed to develop an implementation intervention to improve smoking cessation care (SCC) for pregnant Indigenous smokers, an outcome to be achieved by training health providers at Aboriginal Medical Services (AMS) in a culturally competent approach, developed collaboratively with AMS. The Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW), incorporating the COM-B model (capability, opportunity and motivation for behavioural interventions), provided a framework for the development of the Indigenous Counselling and Nicotine (ICAN) QUIT in Pregnancy implementation intervention at provider and patient levels. We identified evidence-practice gaps through (i) systematic literature reviews, (ii) a national survey of clinicians and (iii) a qualitative study of smoking and quitting with Aboriginal mothers. We followed the three stages recommended in Michie et al.'s "Behaviour Change Wheel" guide. Targets identified for health provider behaviour change included the following: capability (psychological capability, knowledge and skills) by training clinicians in pharmacotherapy to assist women to quit; motivation (optimism) by presenting evidence of effectiveness, and positive testimonials from patients and clinicians; and opportunity (environmental context and resources) by promoting a whole-of-service approach and structuring consultations using a flipchart and prompts. Education and training were selected as the main intervention functions. For health providers, the delivery mode was webinar, to accommodate time and location constraints, bringing the training to the services; for patients, face-to-face consultations were supported by a booklet embedded with videos to improve patients' capability, opportunity and motivation. The ICAN QUIT in Pregnancy was an intervention to train health
Student feedback-based evaluation performs a significant social role in framing perceptions of the quality of teaching in contemporary Australian higher education. Yet its emergence is a relatively recent phenomenon, having only been in widespread application since the mid-1980s. The early manifestations of student feedback-based evaluation came…
Sandell, Tiffany; Sebar, Bernadette; Harris, Neil
Australia and Sweden have similar immunisation rates. However, during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic the uptake of immunisation was 60% in Sweden and 18% in Australia. During pandemics, perceptions of risk are largely formed by media communication which may influence the public's response. The study aimed to compare the differences in how the media framed the 2009 H1N1 pandemic message and the associated public perceptions of risk as expressed through the uptake of vaccinations in Australia and Sweden. A qualitative content analysis was conducted on 81 articles from the Australian and Swedish print media: 45 and 36, respectively. The risk of H1N1 was communicated similarly in Australia and Sweden. However, major differences were found in how the Australian and Swedish media framed the pandemic in terms of responsibility, self-efficacy, and uncertainty. In Australia, responsibility was predominantly reported negatively, blaming various organisations for a lack of information, compared to Sweden where responsibility was placed on the community to help protect public health. Furthermore, there was limited self-efficacy measures reported in the Australian media compared to Sweden and Sweden's media was more transparent about the uncertainties of the pandemic. This study affirms the association between the framing of health messages in the media and the public's perception of risk and related behaviour. Governments need to actively incorporate the media into pandemic communication planning.
Richmond Nii Okai Aryeetey
Full Text Available Introduction: Overweight and obesity are a growing public health challenge among women of reproductive age. While cultural norms suggest preference for an overweight body image, limited evidence exists regarding women’s beliefs and experiences of overweight in Ghana. The current study explored beliefs, perceptions, experiences and practices concerning overweight among women living in suburban Accra, Ghana.Methods: Four focus group discussions, and 10 in-depth interviews (IDI were implemented among 42 adult women (>18y seeking preventive child health services in Dome, Accra. All the women in the IDI were overweight. In addition to notes, interviews and discussions were audio-recorded and transcribed for systematic content and narrative analysis. Results: Overweight was considered undesirable by most women. Overweight individuals were often stigmatized using uncomplimentary names like cargo, obolo, etc. However, some weight gain was admired and expected by women and their family and friends. Weight gain that was considered beautiful was believed to ‘evolve naturally’. Weight gain that is either medically-induced perceived as excessive, was not viewed positively. Weight gain by women was perceived as a sign of financial prosperity and good care by a spouse. Overweight was perceived to be linked with heredity, childbirth, gluttony, and contraception. Adverse experiences of overweight included poor self-image, declining social lifestyle, increased disease risk, and feeling tired always. Strategies which had been used in order to lose weight included skipping meals, avoiding carbohydrate-based foods, and drinking herbal teas. Conclusion: There is admiration for some weight gain among women but when it is excessive, overweight is stigmatized. Misperceptions regarding partner expectations, determinants of overweight, and weight reduction strategies requires effective behavior change interventions in Ghana.
Holton, Sara; Thananjeyan, Aberaami; Rowe, Heather; Kirkman, Maggie; Jordan, Lynne; McNamee, Kathleen; Bayly, Christine; McBain, John; Sinnott, Vikki; Fisher, Jane
Introduction Despite the considerable and increasing proportion of women of reproductive age with a chronic non-communicable disease (NCD) and the potential adverse implications of many NCDs for childbearing, little is known about the fertility management experiences of women with an NCD, including their contraceptive use, pregnancy experiences and outcomes, and reproductive health care utilisation. The aim of this study was to investigate the fertility management experiences of women with an NCD and draw comparisons with women without an NCD. Method A sample of 18-50 year-old women (n = 1543) was randomly recruited from the Australian electoral roll in 2013. Of these women, 172 women reported a physical, chronic non-communicable disease: diabetes, arthritis, asthma, hypertension, heart disease, thyroid disorders, and cystic fibrosis. Respondents completed an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire. Factors associated with fertility management were identified in multivariable analyses. Results Women who reported having an NCD were significantly more likely than women who did not report an NCD to have ever been pregnant (75.9 vs. 67.5%, p = 0.034), have had an unintended pregnancy (33.47 vs. 25.5%, p = 0.026), and have had an abortion (20.3 vs. 14.2%, p = 0.044); they were less likely to consult a healthcare provider about fertility management (45.0 vs. 54.4%, p = 0.024). Similar proportions were using contraception (48.8 vs. 54.5%, p = 0.138). Conclusion The findings have implications for healthcare providers and women with an NCD and highlight the importance of addressing possible assumptions about the inability of women with an NCD to become pregnant, and ensuring women receive information about suitable methods of contraception and pre-pregnancy care.
Koch, K L; Bingaman, S; Tan, L; Stern, R M
Bulimia nervosa remains a common eating disorder in young women. Little is known about upper gastrointestinal symptoms or gastric motility in patients with bulimia nervosa. The aim of this study was to measure gastric myoelectrical activity and hunger/satiety and stomach emptiness/fullness before and after a non-nutrient water load and solid-phase gastric emptying in hospitalized patients with bulimia nervosa (n = 12) and in healthy women (n = 13). Gastric myoelectrical activity was measured by means of cutaneous electrodes; visual analogue scales were used to measure perceptions of hunger/satiety and stomach emptiness/fullness. Before and after a standard water load the bulimia patients reported significantly greater stomach fullness and satiety compared with control subjects (P scrambled eggs showed the lag phase was shortened in the bulimic patients (16 +/- 4 min vs 31 +/- 4 min in controls, P < 0.01), but the percentage of meal emptied at 2 h was similar to control values. bulimia patients had exaggerated perceptions of stomach fullness and satiety in response to water; and abnormal gastric myoelectrical activity and accelerated lag phase of gastric emptying were objective stomach abnormalities detected in hospitalized patients with bulimia nervosa.
Gheibizadeh, Mahin; Abedi, Heidar Ali; Mohammadi, Easa; Abedi, Parvin
Equity as a basic human right builds the foundation of all areas of primary healthcare, especially prenatal care. However, it is unclear how pregnant women and their care providers perceive the equitable prenatal care. This study aimed to explore Iranian women's and care providers' perceptions of equitable prenatal care. In this study, a qualitative approach was used. Individual in-depth unstructured interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of pregnant women and their care providers. Data were analyzed using inductive content analysis method. A total of 10 pregnant women and 10 prenatal care providers recruited from six urban health centers across Ahvaz, a south western city in Iran, were participated in the study. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee affiliated to Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences. The ethical principles of voluntary participation, confidentiality, and anonymity were considered. Analysis of participants' interviews resulted in seven themes: guideline-based care, time-saving care, nondiscriminatory care, privacy-respecting care, affordable comprehensive care, effective client-provider relationships, and caregivers' competency. The findings explain the broader and less discussed dimensions of equitable care that are valuable information for the realization of equity in care. Understanding and focusing on these dimensions will help health policy-makers in designing more equitable healthcare services for pregnant women. © The Author(s) 2015.
Smith, Julie; Javanparast, Sara; Craig, Lyn
In 1999, two leading Australian academics challenged Australian universities to lead moves to better manage employees' maternity and breastfeeding needs, and 'bring babies and breasts into workplaces'. This paper addresses the question of how universities cope with the need for women to breastfeed, by exploring barriers facing women who combine breastfeeding and paid work at the Australian National University (ANU). Data were collected through online surveys in 2013 using mixed method, case study design, nested within a larger national study. Participants were 64 working mothers of children aged 0-2 years from the ANU community of employees and users of on-campus child care. Responses highlighted the ad hoc nature of support for breastfeeding at ANU. Lack of organisational support for breastfeeding resulted in adverse consequences for some ANU staff. These included high work-related stresses and premature cessation of breastfeeding among women who had intended to breastfeed their infants in line with health recommendations.
Chalelgn Kassaw; Nasir Tajure Wabe
Background: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among the widely used drugs and are often used by pregnant women. However, they can have significant teratogenic effects. The aim of the study was to investigate pregnant women′s knowledge about NSAIDs use during pregnancy and their perception and consumption pattern. Materials and Methods: The study was a cross sectional study on women waiting for a consultation in the selected maternity hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The pr...
Blackstock, Oni J.; Frew, Paula; Bota, Dorothy; Vo-Green, Linda; Parker, Kim; Franks, Julie; Hodder, Sally L.; Justman, Jessica; Golin, Carol E.; Haley, Danielle F.; Kuo, Irene; Adimora, Adaora A.; Rompalo, Anne; Soto-Torres, Lydia; Wang, Jing
Although studies have consistently demonstrated that women at high risk for HIV and non-HIV sexually transmitted infections (STIs) tend to underestimate their individual risk, little is known about how women at risk perceive their community’s HIV/STI risk. We explored perceptions of community HIV/ STI risk among U.S. women living in areas with high poverty and HIV prevalence rates as part of a qualitative substudy of the Women’s HIV SeroIncidence Study. Semi-structured focus groups were condu...
Mukamurigo, Judith U; Berg, Marie; Ntaganira, Joseph; Nyirazinyoye, Laetitia; Dencker, Anna
In recent years Rwanda has achieved remarkable improvement in quality of maternity care services but there is evidence of deficiencies in care quality in terms of disrespectful care. Women's overall childbirth experience is an important outcome of childbirth and a factor in assessing quality of care. The aim of this study was to investigate how women's overall childbirth experience in Rwanda was related to their perceptions of childbirth care. A cross-sectional household study of women who had given birth 1-13 months earlier (n = 921) was performed in the Northern Province and in the capital city. Data was collected via structured interviews following a questionnaire. Significant variables measuring perceptions of care were included in a stepwise forward selection logistic regression model with overall childbirth experience as a dichotomised target variable to find independent predictors of a good childbirth experience. The majority of women (77.5%) reported a good overall childbirth experience. In a logistic regression model five factors of perceived care were significant independent predictors of a good experience: confidence in staff (Adjusted OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.20-2.49), receiving enough information (AOR 1.44, 95% CI 1.03-2.00), being treated with respect (AOR 1.69, 95% CI 1.18-2.43), getting support from staff (AOR 1.75, 95% CI 1.20-2.56), and having the baby skin-to-skin after birth (AOR 2.21, 95% CI 1.52-3.19). To further improve childbirth care in Rwanda and care for women according to their preferences, it is important to make sure that the childbirth care includes the following quality aspects in national and clinical guidelines: build confidence, provide good information, treat women and families with respect, provide good professional support during childbirth and put the newborn baby skin-to-skin with its mother early after birth.
Jones, Sandra C
Early detection of breast cancer by mammographic screening has the potential to dramatically reduce mortality rates, but many women do not comply with screening recommendations. The media are an important source of health information for many women--through both direct social marketing advertisements and indirect dissemination of information via editorial content. This study investigated the accuracy of breast cancer detection messages in the top-selling Australian women's magazines and three weekend newspapers in the six-month period from December 2000 to May 2001 that included any reference to breast cancer and found that current coverage of breast cancer in the Australian print media conveys messages that are unlikely to encourage appropriate screening.
Ching, H L; Burke, V; Stuckey, B G A
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has clinical features and implications for long-term health that may lead to decreased quality of life (QoL) and psychological morbidity. We studied QoL in women with PCOS, compared the findings with population norms and assessed whether they correlated with reported quality of patient information received. Cross-sectional study. Women with PCOS by National Institutes of Health (NIH) criteria, diagnosis confirmed by one endocrinologist. Four questionnaires were mailed: the Short Form-36 (SF-36), the Quality-of-Life Questionnaire for Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOSQ), the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) and an assessment of information quality and sources, the Patient Information Questionnaire (PIQ). Questionnaires were sent to 443 women with PCOS from one endocrinologist's database; 203 women aged 15-65 years agreed to participate. To compare with Australian population norms, data from those women aged 18-44 years (n = 173) were used. Of these, 64% were obese, 18% overweight and 18% of normal weight. The demographics, socioeconomic status and untreated biochemistry of the responders and the total patient group were not significantly different. SF-36 scores were significantly lower than the age- and sex-matched Australian population (P PCOSQ was similar to other published studies. GHQ-28 identified psychological morbidity in 62.4%, compared with 26.4% in a matched Australian population (P < 0.0001). Body mass index (BMI) was negatively correlated with QoL (P < 0.01). There was a positive association between the psychological domain of QoL and the subjective assessment of the quality of health-related information in general (P < 0.001), for hirsutism (P < 0.01) and for menstrual irregularity (P < 0.05). We have shown impaired QoL and increased prevalence of psychological morbidity in PCOS compared with population norms. The perception of inadequate information about the condition correlated with poorer QoL scores
Full Text Available This paper examines key examples of writing about Australian Aboriginal art in the decades around 1900 specifically in relation to the way in which it is used to provide evidence for theories concerning the evolution of art. Analysis of published works by late nineteenth-century men of science reveals the main influences shaping their perceptions of Aboriginal art during this time and provides an early working definition of this emerging category. This paper confirms that turn-of-the-century European understandings of Aboriginal art were based on limited evidence mediated through a specifically ethnographic notion of ‘decorative art’.
Dreyer, Stacia J.; Walker, Iain; McCoy, Shannon K.; Teisl, Mario F.
As climate policies change through the legislative process, public attitudes towards them may change as well. Therefore, it is important to assess how people accept and support controversial climate policies as the policies change over time. Policy acceptance is a positive evaluation of, or attitude towards, an existing policy; policy support adds an active behavioural component. Acceptance does not necessarily lead to support. We conducted a national survey of Australian residents to investigate acceptance of, and support for, the Australian carbon pricing policy before and after the 2013 federal election, and how perceptions of the policy, economic ideology, and voting behaviour affect acceptance and support. We found acceptance and support were stable across the election period, which was surprising given that climate policy was highly contentious during the election. Policy acceptance was higher than policy support at both times and acceptance was a necessary but insufficient condition of support. We conclude that acceptance is an important process through which perceptions of the policy and economic ideology influence support. Therefore, future climate policy research needs to distinguish between acceptance and support to better understand this process, and to better measure these concepts.
Drummond, Peter D; Mizan, Ayse; Wright, Bernadette
Most women who live in sub-Saharan countries have heard of HIV/AIDS, but there is still widespread misunderstanding about how HIV is spread, the consequences of infection, and how to protect against infection. The aim of the present study was to investigate knowledge about HIV and attitudes towards condom use in West African refugees who had settled in Perth, Western Australia, within the past 5 years. Knowledge about transmission of HIV, myths about how HIV is spread, incorrect beliefs about protective factors, the effectiveness of condoms in protecting against sexually transmissible infections, and attitudes towards condom use were investigated by survey in 51 West African women, and in 100 Australian women for comparison. Where possible, each West African woman was matched for age and level of education with an Australian woman. Knowledge of HIV was poorest in the least educated West African women, but many of the more highly educated women also had misconceptions about how HIV is spread, how to protect against HIV, and the effectiveness of condoms in protecting against HIV. Moreover, most West African women held negative attitudes towards condom use. Within the Australian sample, HIV knowledge was greatest in women with tertiary qualifications, and was greater in younger than older women; in addition, attitudes towards condom use differed across the age span. The findings in the present study suggest that educational programs that focus on knowledge about HIV should be tailored to meet the needs and cultural sensitivities of newly emerging immigrant communities, and should target particular demographic groups within the Australian population.
Mitsis, Ann; Foley, Patrick
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine whether business students' gender, age and culturally-anchored values affect their perceptions of their university course experience. Design/methodology/approach: Culturally diverse business students (n 1/4 548) studying at an Australian university were surveyed using previously established scales.…
War and nursing are unequivocally linked and the impact that this type of nursing has had upon the nursing profession in indisputable. However, a review of the Australian scholarly nursing literature revealed that the contribution and experiences of Australian nurses in the Vietnam War has not been widely published. The direct involvement of Australian women in the Vietnam War was limited and, as female nurses, they were unquestionably a minority. This paper describes the gender issues that confronted the nurses who worked within the confines of war.
Vlado Dimovski; Miha Skerlavaj; Mandy Mok Kim Man
This study presents an overview of glass-ceiling type barriers in organizations based on the perceptions of a sample of Singaporean and Malaysian mid-level women managers. Previous studies indicated the existence of a glass ceiling in organizations and presented strategic recommendations with regard to what corporations could do to remove or reduce the glass ceiling. This study investigates how women in middle management perceive their career advancement opportunities and what they consider t...
Memon, Fouzia; Jonker, Leon; Qazi, Roshan
Objective: To determine knowledge levels, and attitudes and perceptions towards, menopause among highly educated Asian women in their midlife.\\ud \\ud Study design: A cross-sectional survey.\\ud \\ud Setting: Five teaching institutions in Hyderabad, Pakistan.\\ud \\ud Population: In total, 200 out of 225 (89% response rate) teachers, lecturers and professors, aged 40–59 years, were surveyed in 2013 using a self-administered questionnaire.\\ud \\ud Results: The mean age of responders was 48 years. Pr...
Full Text Available Khlood Bookari,1 Heather Yeatman,1 Moira Williamson2,3 1School of Health and Society, Faculty of Social Sciences, 2School of Nursing, Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, 3School of Nursing and Midwifery, Higher Education Division, Central Queensland University, Noosaville, QLD, Australia Background: The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE for pregnancy provides a number of food- and nutrition-related recommendations to assist pregnant women in optimizing their dietary behavior. However, there are limited data demonstrating pregnant women’s knowledge of the AGHE recommendations. This study investigated Australian pregnant women’s knowledge of the AGHE and related dietary recommendations for maintaining a healthy pregnancy. The variations in nutrition knowledge were compared with demographic characteristics. Methods: A cross-sectional study assessed eight different nutrition knowledge domains and the demographic characteristics of pregnant women. Four hundred women across Australia completed a multidimensional online survey based on validated and