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Sample records for australian wholesale spot

  1. Modelling price and volatility inter-relationships in the Australian wholesale spot electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the inter-relationships of wholesale spot electricity prices among the four regional electricity markets in the Australian National Electricity Market (NEM): namely, New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia and Victoria using the constant conditional correlation and Tse and Tsui's (Tse, Y.K., Tsui, A.K.C., 2002. A multivariate generalised autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity model with time-varying correlations. Journal of Business and Economic Statistics 20 (3), 351-362.) and Engle's (Engle, R., 2002. Dynamic conditional correlation: a sample class of multivariate generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity models. Journal of Business and Economic Statistics 20 (3), 339-350.) dynamic conditional correlation multivariate GARCH models. Tse and Tsui's (Tse, Y.K., Tsui, A.K.C., 2002. A multivariate generalised autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity model with time-varying correlations. Journal of Business and Economic Statistics 20 (3), 351-362.) dynamic conditional correlation multivariate GARCH model which takes account of the Student t specification produces the best results. At the univariate GARCH(1,1) level, the mean equations indicate the presence of positive own mean spillovers in all four markets and little evidence of mean spillovers from the other lagged markets. In the dynamic conditional correlation equation, the highest conditional correlations are evident between the well-connected markets indicating the presence of strong interdependence between these markets with weaker interdependence between the not so well-interconnected markets. (author)

  2. Distributional effects of the Australian Renewable Energy Target (RET) through wholesale and retail electricity price impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Renewable Energy Target (RET) has spurred significant investment in renewable electricity generation, notably wind power, over the past decade. This paper considers distributional implications of the RET for different energy users. Using time-series regression, we show that the increasing amount of wind energy has placed considerable downward pressure on wholesale electricity prices through the so-called merit order effect. On the other hand, RET costs are passed on to consumers in the form of retail electricity price premiums. Our findings highlight likely significant redistributive transfers between different energy user classes under current RET arrangements. In particular, some energy-intensive industries are benefiting from lower wholesale electricity prices whilst being largely exempted from contributing to the costs of the scheme. By contrast, many households are paying significant RET pass through costs whilst not necessarily benefiting from lower wholesale prices. A more equitable distribution of RET costs and benefits could be achieved by reviewing the scope and extent of industry exemptions and ensuring that methodologies to estimate wholesale price components in regulated electricity tariffs reflect more closely actual market conditions. More generally, these findings support the growing international appreciation that policy makers need to integrate distributional assessments into policy design and implementation. - Highlights: • The Australian RET has complex yet important distributional impacts on different energy users. • Likely wealth transfers from residential and small business consumers to large energy-intensive industry. • Merit order effects of wind likely overcompensate exempt industry for contribution to RET costs. • RET costs for households could be reduced if merit order effects were adequately passed through. • Need for distributional impact assessments when designing and implementing clean energy policy

  3. Retrospective modeling of the merit-order effect on wholesale electricity prices from distributed photovoltaic generation in the Australian National Electricity Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In electricity markets that use a merit order dispatch system, generation capacity is ranked by the price that it is bid into the market. Demand is then met by dispatching electricity according to this rank, from the lowest to the highest bid. The last capacity dispatched sets the price received by all generation, ensuring the lowest cost provision of electricity. A consequence of this system is that significant deployments of low marginal cost electricity generators, including renewables, can reduce the spot price of electricity. In Australia, this prospect has been recognized in concern expressed by some coal-fired generators that delivering too much renewable generation would reduce wholesale electricity prices. In this analysis we calculate the likely reduction of wholesale prices through this merit order effect on the Australian National Electricity Market. We calculate that for 5 GW of capacity, comparable to the present per capita installation of photovoltaics in Germany, the reduction in wholesale prices would have been worth in excess of A$1.8 billion over 2009 and 2010, all other factors being equal. We explore the implications of our findings for feed-in tariff policies, and find that they could deliver savings to consumers, contrary to prevailing criticisms that they are a regressive form of taxation. - Highlights: ► We model the impact of photovoltaic generation on the Australian electricity market. ► Photovoltaic generation depresses electricity prices, particularly in summer peaks. ► Over the course of a year, the depression in wholesale prices has significant value. ► 5 GW of solar generation would have saved $1.8 billion in the market over two years. ► The depression of wholesale prices offsets the cost of support mechanisms

  4. Forward and Spot Prices in Multi-Settlement Wholesale Electricity Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrieu, Jeremy

    In organized wholesale electricity markets, power is sold competitively in a multi-unit multi-settlement single-price auction comprised of a forward and a spot market. This dissertation attempts to understand the structure of the forward premium in these markets, and to identify the factors that may lead forward and spot prices to converge or diverge. These markets are unique in that the forward demand is price-sensitive, while spot residual demand is perfectly inelastic and must be met in full, a crucial design feature the literature often glosses over. An important contribution of this dissertation is the explicit modeling of each market separately in order to understand how generation and load choose to act in each one, and the consequences of these actions on equilibrium prices and quantities given that firms maximize joint profits over both markets. In the first essay, I construct a two-settlement model of electricity prices in which firms that own asymmetric capacity-constrained units facing convex costs compete to meet demand from consumers, first in quantities, then in prices. I show that the forward premium depends on the costliness of spot production relative to firms' ability to exercise market power by setting quantities in the forward market. In the second essay, I test the model from the first essay with unit-level capacity and marginal cost data from the California Independent System Operator (CAISO). I show that the model closely replicates observed price formation in the CAISO. In the third essay, I estimate a time series model of the CAISO forward premium in order to measure the impact that virtual bidding has had on forward and spot price convergence in California between April 2009 and March 2014. I find virtual bidding to have caused forward and spot prices to diverge due to the large number of market participants looking to hedge against - or speculate on - the occurrence of infrequent but large spot price spikes by placing virtual demand bids.

  5. High penetration wind generation impacts on spot prices in the Australian national electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper explores wind power integration issues for the South Australian (SA) region of the Australian National Electricity Market (NEM) by assessing the interaction of regional wind generation, electricity demand and spot prices over 2 recent years of market operation. SA's wind energy penetration has recently surpassed 20% and it has only a limited interconnection with other regions of the NEM. As such, it represents an interesting example of high wind penetration in a gross wholesale pool market electricity industry. Our findings suggest that while electricity demand continues to have the greatest influence on spot prices in SA, wind generation levels have become a significant secondary influence, and there is an inverse relationship between wind generation and price. No clear relationship between wind generation and demand has been identified although some periods of extremely high demand may coincide with lower wind generation. Periods of high wind output are associated with generally lower market prices, and also appear to contribute to extreme negative price events. The results highlight the importance of electricity market and renewable policy design in facilitating economically efficient high wind penetrations. - Highlights: → In South Australia (SA) wind generation is having an influence on market prices. → Little or no correlation is found between wind generation and demand. → Wind farms in SA are receiving a lower average price than in other States. → The results highlight the importance of appropriate electricity market design.

  6. A literature review of economic studies on carbon pricing and Australian wholesale electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the ongoing development of Australian anthropogenic climate change mitigation policies, there has been a steady increase in modelling studies undertaken to estimate Australian carbon prices and their impact on existing electricity markets. This article summarises some of the more prominent studies completed by many of Australia’s foremost economic modelling firms. We developed a simple approach for testing the consistency of these studies and their findings in relation to carbon pass-through. Unfortunately, we have established that the studies are entirely inconsistent in their estimation of carbon pass-through. Furthermore, we were unable to establish why the estimation of carbon pass-through varies so significantly. This has important implications for policy makers given much of the compensation to be paid to households and businesses under the Clean Energy Future package is predicated on simple assumptions of carbon pass-through. Based upon our analysis of these economic studies, our conclusion is that Australian policy makers are best guided by relying upon the numerous a posteriori estimations of pass-through in the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) rather than Australian a priori studies. - Highlights: ► This article summarises prominent studies of Australia's leading economic modelling firms. ► We developed a simple approach for testing estimations of carbon pass-through. ► We found that the average rate of pass-through was similar to the market's average intensity (93.45%). ► We established that the studies vary significantly in their estimation of carbon pass-through. ► We believe that further research is required to explain why the studies vary so significantly.

  7. Analysing the relationship between wholesale and end-user prices in the Nordic electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efficient pricing in a deregulated market means prices which closely reflect the cost of obtaining electricity in the wholesale market. This research report analyses and explains the relationship between wholesale prices (especially Spot Prices) and end-user prices for residential, industrial and commercial users in the Finnish, Swedish and Norwegian electricity markets. The report primarily analyses the closeness of wholesale and end-user price patterns (the primary tracking period is 1998-2003, focusing especially closely on Finland and the period 2002-2003). The report reveals that Finnish, Norwegian and Swedish end- user prices can all be said to follow spot prices (and other wholesale prices) to a greater or lesser extent. The relationship is however complex and, especially regarding spot prices, clearly closest in Norway, followed by Sweden and then Finland. Whilst, overall, Finnish prices seem quite competitive and Nordic end-user prices currently seem to be extremely similar, there is some cause for concern in Finland. In particular, very few customers have spot based tariffs; wholesale prices (including spot prices) appear to sometimes have been used as an excuse for end-user price rises; Finnish suppliers have often been slow to respond to post-spike spot price reductions; offer prices are currently often higher than standard variable prices; and suppliers seem quite free to follow any pricing strategy, regardless of the presence of competition. Six factors are identified which influence end-user prices and their relationship with wholesale (and particularly spot) prices: hydro-dependency; concentration and entry barriers; cultural and historical determination; legislation; pricing strategies; the competitive environment. The report additionally specifically illustrates a wide variety of possible supplier strategies which might explain Finnish end-user pricing. Spot prices seem to provide only a minor explanation for Finnish end-user prices. (orig.)

  8. The prerequisites for effective competition in restructured wholesale electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, R.; Auer, H. [Energy Economics Group, Institute of Power Systems and Energy Economics, Vienna University of Technology, Gusshausstrasse 27-29/373-2, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2006-05-15

    This paper argues that effective competition in reformed wholesale electricity markets can only be achieved if the following six prerequisites are met: (1) separation of the grid from generation and supply; (2) wholesale price deregulation; (3) sufficient transmission capacity for a competitive market and non-discriminating grid access; (4) excess generation capacity developed by a large number of competing generators; (5) an equilibrium relationship between short-term spot markets and the long-term financial instruments that marketers use to manage spot-market price volatility; (6) an essentially hands-off government policy that encompasses reduced oversight and privatization. The absence of any one of the first five conditions may result in an oligopoly or monopoly market whose economic performance does not meet the efficiency standards of a competently managed regulated electrical utility. (author)

  9. The prerequisites for effective competition in restructured wholesale electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper argues that effective competition in reformed wholesale electricity markets can only be achieved if the following six prerequisites are met: (1) separation of the grid from generation and supply; (2) wholesale price deregulation; (3) sufficient transmission capacity for a competitive market and non-discriminating grid access; (4) excess generation capacity developed by a large number of competing generators; (5) an equilibrium relationship between short-term spot markets and the long-term financial instruments that marketers use to manage spot-market price volatility; (6) an essentially hands-off government policy that encompasses reduced oversight and privatization. The absence of any one of the first five conditions may result in an oligopoly or monopoly market whose economic performance does not meet the efficiency standards of a competently managed regulated electrical utility. (author)

  10. 7 CFR 1206.24 - Wholesaler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for sale to other wholesalers, retailers, and foodservice firms. National Mango Promotion Board ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.24 Wholesaler....

  11. Wholesale electricity markets in Europe; Mercados Mayoristas de Electricidad en Europa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, J. L.

    2010-07-01

    Electricity Wholesale Markets provide efficient operation of power stations, facilitate hedging instruments for generators and retailers and deliver price signals for new investments. Despite having a common regulatory framework at European level whose last aim is a single electricity market, Wholesale markets have been unevenly developed in each Member State. The evolution form a spot-based market towards a forward-based market needs a certain level of liquidity, transparency and regulatory stability. Interconnections are the key element to promote the integration of electricity markets. To facilitate this, European Regional Initiatives have pushed regulatory harmonization between countries and market coupling projects. (Author)

  12. Liquidity in the Dutch wholesale electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industry concerns over perceived reductions in the liquidity of the Dutch wholesale electricity market led the DTe to ask the Market Surveillance Committee (MSC) to examine recent developments. This report starts with a generic examination of wholesale power markets and liquidity and its measurement. An overview of the Dutch wholesale electricity market and its constituent segments follows together with a summary of events and opinions connected to liquidity that have been reported in the trade press. Sources of information on market liquidity are then reviewed. Participation in the market is analysed before examining each market segment and this analysis and the earlier sections are then drawn together in conclusions and recommendations

  13. Gas pricing in Europe. Pt. 1. Wholesale markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article investigates gas pricing in the European procurement market and the wholesale markets of the most important EU consumer markets. It demonstrates that value-oriented pricing principles override cost-oriented pricing principles. For one thing, and independently of pricing principles, two- or three-part demand price systems or basic price systems are common. For another, the frequently encountered opportunities for the differentiation of prices show that as long as there is merely substitution competition instead of direct competition, gas suppliers have a certain degree of freedom in fixing their prices. By contrast, the introduction of direct competition in Great Britain has reduced suppliers' individual price fixing margins, because short-term supply and demand variations in the now created spot market are decisive for gas pricing. (orig.)

  14. Liver spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun-induced skin changes - liver spots; Senile or solar lentigines; Skin spots - aging; Age spots ... your skin by using skin bleaching lotions or creams. Most bleaching lotions use hydroquinone. This medicine is ...

  15. Oil industry consolidation and refined product prices. Evidence from US wholesale gasoline terminals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our objective in this paper is to quantify the impact of petroleum industry consolidation on refined product prices, controlling for other important factors that could also impact prices. Our empirical analysis focuses on the US petroleum refining industry using data on industry consolidation and wholesale gasoline prices collected over the interval 2000-2008. We match refinery units to wholesale city-terminal gasoline markets, and then estimate pooled cross-section time-series regressions to quantify the impact of petroleum industry consolidation on wholesale gasoline prices at city-specific terminals. The results of the empirical analysis of mergers are mixed, showing that some petroleum industry mergers resulted in statistically significant increases in refined product prices; others resulted in statistically significant declines and still others had no statistical impact at all. Our analysis of the effects of measures of market concentration - one at the level of city-specific wholesale terminals and another at the level of regional spot markets - found evidence that less concentrated markets are associated with lower price levels. (author)

  16. Oil industry consolidation and refined product prices: Evidence from US wholesale gasoline terminals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our objective in this paper is to quantify the impact of petroleum industry consolidation on refined product prices, controlling for other important factors that could also impact prices. Our empirical analysis focuses on the US petroleum refining industry using data on industry consolidation and wholesale gasoline prices collected over the interval 2000-2008. We match refinery units to wholesale city-terminal gasoline markets, and then estimate pooled cross-section time-series regressions to quantify the impact of petroleum industry consolidation on wholesale gasoline prices at city-specific terminals. The results of the empirical analysis of mergers are mixed, showing that some petroleum industry mergers resulted in statistically significant increases in refined product prices; others resulted in statistically significant declines and still others had no statistical impact at all. Our analysis of the effects of measures of market concentration-one at the level of city-specific wholesale terminals and another at the level of regional spot markets-found evidence that less concentrated markets are associated with lower price levels.

  17. 75 FR 63805 - Annual Wholesale Trade Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... Census Bureau will collect data on annual sales, e-commerce sales, purchases, total operating expenses... wholesale distributors, the Census Bureau will collect data covering sales, e-commerce sales, year-end... manufacturers' sales branches and offices, the Census Bureau will collect data covering annual sales,...

  18. 27 CFR 1.22 - Wholesalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Basic Permits When...) Engage in the business of purchasing for resale at wholesale, distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages... interstate or foreign commerce, directly or indirectly or through an affiliate, distilled spirits, wine,...

  19. 29 CFR 779.327 - Wholesale sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., that what is a retail sale for purposes of a sales tax law is not necessarily a retail sale for... INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS... that sales of goods or services are not wholesale or are made to the ultimate consumer and are not...

  20. The TC-PSI indicator for forecasting the potential for market power in wholesale electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wholesale electricity market regulators have long sought a simple, reliable, transparent indicator of the likely impact of wholesale market developments on the exercise of market power. Conventional indicators, such as the Pivotal Supplier Indicator (PSI) and the Residual Supply Index (RSI) cannot be extended to apply to meshed transmission networks, especially when generating companies hold a portfolio of generating units at different locations on the network. This paper proposes a generalisation of these standard measures termed the 'Transmission-Constrained Pivotal Supplier Indicator (TC-PSI)'. The TC-PSI of a generating company is defined as the maximum must-run generation for any subset of generating plant while allowing for strategic operation of other plant in the portfolio. We illustrate the use of the TC-PSI using a five-node model of the Australian NEM. - Highlights: → An indicator for assessing the pivotality of generating portfolios is proposed. → Transmission constraints are modelled explicitly in the proposed indicator. → Strategic behaviours of a generating portfolio in using its units are modelled. → This approach was illustrated using a 5-node model of the Australian NEM.

  1. Eastern European retailers and wholesalers' buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Stacey, Julia

    1999-01-01

    Eastern Europe compared to Western Europe? Eastern European buyers attach great importance to other aspects when they list new suppliers and products than does Western European retailing. These are the results of a MAPP study of Eastern European retail and wholesale buying behaviour for fish and cheese...... comparison,Western European retailers prefer doing business with suppliers that are capable of supplying all shops in a chain. Also the question about traceability is decisive.Retailers also prefer doing business with suppliers that are interested in a long-term trade relationship and who are from their own...

  2. Moscow wholesale market portioned cuts meat delicacies

    OpenAIRE

    Sidorchuk, Roman

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of our marketing research is to review the status of the Moscow wholesale market cuts meat delicacies in 2003. The study is based on the method of the expert survey, a method that includes: selection of experts survey form, the definition of the structure and strength of the expert group, the development of the methodology of the study, survey, a list of problems. As experts in the survey attended by leaders and experts who know the state of the market of meat products. Also in ...

  3. 7 CFR 1786.163 - Existing wholesale power contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PREPAYMENT OF RUS GUARANTEED AND INSURED LOANS TO ELECTRIC AND TELEPHONE BORROWERS Discounted Prepayments on RUS Electric Loans § 1786.163 Existing wholesale power contracts. (a) If the borrower is a party to a wholesale power contract with a power supply...

  4. 29 CFR 779.328 - Retail and wholesale distinguished.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Retail and wholesale distinguished. 779.328 Section 779.328... AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Exemptions for Certain Retail or Service Establishments ârecognizedâ As Retail âin the Particular Industryâ § 779.328 Retail and wholesale distinguished. (a)...

  5. 27 CFR 31.34 - Wholesale dealer in beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wholesale dealer in beer... Classified § 31.34 Wholesale dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines,...

  6. Bier spots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahu Yorulmaz,

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Also called as physiologic anemic macules, Bier spots are small, hypopigmented irregularly shaped macules against a background of diffuse erythema, which creates an appearance of speckled vascular mottling of the skin. Bier spots most commonly appear on distal portions of the limbs though there are case reports describing diffuse involvement, which also affect trunk and mucous membranes of the patient. Although the exact pathophysiological mechanisms underlying Bier spots still need to be elucidated, Bier spots have been suggested to be a vascular anomaly caused by vasoconstriction of small vessels. In addition, several diseases have been proposed to be associated with Bier spots, including scleroderma renal crisis, cryoglobulinemia, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, alopecia areata and hypoplasia of the aorta, although it has not been shown whether these associations are casual or coincidental. The clinical presentation of Bier spots is quite typical. These tiny whitish macules easily become prominent when the affected limb is placed in a dependent position and fade away when the limb is raised. Here we report a case of Bier spots in a 32-year-old male patient with characteristical clinical manifestations.

  7. Electricity wholesale market prices in Europe: Convergence?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper tests the hypothesis that the ongoing restructuring process in the European electricity sector has led to a common European market for electricity. Based on a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of wholesale electricity prices in 2002-2006, we reject the assumption of full market integration. For several pairs of countries, the weaker hypothesis of (bilateral) convergence is accepted based on unit root tests (KPSS and ADF) and a convergence test based on filtered pairwise price relations. This indicates that the efforts to develop a single European market for electricity were so far only partially successful. We show that the daily auction prices of scarce cross-border transmission capacities are insufficient to explain the persistence of international price differentials. Empirically, our findings confirm the insufficiency of explicit capacity auctions as stated in the theoretical literature. (author)

  8. Electricity wholesale market prices in Europe: Convergence?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachmann, Georg [DIW Berlin, Department of International Economics, Koenigin Luise Str. 5p, Berlin (Germany)

    2008-07-15

    This paper tests the hypothesis that the ongoing restructuring process in the European electricity sector has led to a common European market for electricity. Based on a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of wholesale electricity prices in 2002-2006, we reject the assumption of full market integration. For several pairs of countries, the weaker hypothesis of (bilateral) convergence is accepted based on unit root tests (KPSS and ADF) and a convergence test based on filtered pairwise price relations. This indicates that the efforts to develop a single European market for electricity were so far only partially successful. We show that the daily auction prices of scarce cross-border transmission capacities are insufficient to explain the persistence of international price differentials. Empirically, our findings confirm the insufficiency of explicit capacity auctions as stated in the theoretical literature. (author)

  9. Wholesale power marketing in restructured electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior to 1992, very few people had heard the term power marketing. Today, power marketing is well-recognized, however, few people know what is behind the industry's exponential growth. This communication, which is based on a major study recently completed for the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), explains what power marketing is, who the power marketers are, what they do, and what's behind the industry's explosive growth in the past few years. It also explains what types of products and services power marketers offer, and what are the fundamental drivers of this demand. Understanding the last item is particularly significant, namely the growth of power marketing in the context of the rapid restructuring of the wholesale - soon to be followed by the retail - electricity markets in the US. (author)

  10. Migration, the Chinese wholesale trade and ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Betrisey Nadali

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In the historical-social context of Spain, the ethnic-national identities of Chinese immigrants are not free from hierarchisation, given that they can tend to be sources of recognition and prestige, though also of discrimination. In recent decades, the presenceof Chinese people has become alternately or simultaneously an ambiguous resource to be celebrated by certain hegemonic groups as something positive in accordance with their cultural and economic contributions (“entrepreneurs”, “model traders”, or a dissonance thatis sufficiently complex to be accepted within the country. This article focuses on analysing Chinese immigrants working in the area of wholesale trading in the city of Madrid, and bears in mind the social processes by which these groups were constituted as different in cultural terms in the heart of social relations of inequality; it also examines to what extent and under what conditions these processes end up forming part of these traders’ self-image, determine

  11. The energy in Colombia: A wholesale market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One year ago, the national government's energy politics, gave beginning to a novel strategy for the restructuring of the sector: The setting in march of the wholesale energy market -WEM - and the opening of the energy bag under the administration of interconnection electric S.A. E. P. S., ISA. After a year of works, the positive balance of the market and their permanent growth, are the best letter in presentation of this sector of the national economy. The wholesale energy market is conformed by generating companies. The generating ones are the companies with capacity of superior generation to the 20 MW that they are connected to the national interconnected system; it doesn't care if the origin of this energy is hydraulic, gas, coal or liquid fuel. The generators participate in the WEM with energy offers for price and with their long-term contracts. In the bag they can also offer or to buy energy the generators with capacity between 1 and 20 MW, registered in the National Center of Office CO of ISA, as WEM participants. These can be associated to a generator, to a distributor, to be conformed by one or several groups of big consumers or for organized companies for this purpose, as Mamonal in Cartagena. These users with more demand to 2 MW assisted in oneself place, receive the name of Not Regulated Clients -NRC - and they can hire their energy in free form. The commission of energy regulation and gas ERG modified the tops for these clients starting from January of 1997, the not regulated clients will be this way those that have a same demand or superior to 1 MW; and in January of 1998, bigger than 0.5 MW

  12. THE DEMAND FOR WHOLESALE BEEF CUTS BY SEASON AND TREND

    OpenAIRE

    Namken, Jerry C.; Farris, Donald E.; Capps, Oral, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    This study estimates demand during the 1980-90 period for wholesale beef cuts by season and by trend. A data set containing monthly nominal prices for wholesale cuts and average choice boxed beef from January 1980 to December 1990 was collected from multiple sources. The approach expressed the change in demand for wholesale cuts as the change in the price ratio of individual cuts relative to the price of boxed beef. This approach shows changes in amount by season and over time relative to the...

  13. Price determinants of the wholesale electricity market in France; Preisdeterminanten des Stromgrosshandels in Frankreich. Eine modellgestuetzte Analyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondziella, Hendrik; Mueller, Bjoern; Bruckner, Thomas [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Infrastruktur und Ressourcenmanagement

    2011-12-15

    This article provides a model-based analysis of the French spot market for electricity. Therefore a cost optimizing dispatch model is applied in order to derive a broader understanding of the liberalized electricity market in France considering empirical spot market prices in 2009. At first analysis of market structure and power plant mix is done in accordance with the european framework. The state of supply side competition is suggested as well. Due to the high portion of nuclear energy in the French energy mix the technical availability forecast of the plants plays a crucial role during the price formation on the wholesale market. As a result prices determined by the model are highly correlated with the French spot market. The results suggest a functioning pricing mechanism although deviations occur by ex-ante uncertain demand or unscheduled non-usability of generating units. (orig.)

  14. Predicting Entry of Swedish Wholesale Firms into Local Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Håkansson, Johan; Macuchova, Zuzana; Rudholm, Niklas

    2013-01-01

    Applying microeconomic theory, we develop a forecasting model for firm entry into local markets and test this model using data from the Swedish wholesale industry. The empirical analysis is based on directly estimating the profit function of wholesale firms. As in previous entry studies, profits are assumed to depend on firm- and location-specific factors, and the profit equation is estimated using panel data econometric techniques. Using the residuals from the profit equation estimations, we...

  15. Competition for Partners: Strategic Games in Wholesale International Roaming

    OpenAIRE

    Domínguez Lacasa, Javier

    2011-01-01

    High international roaming prices have puzzled and occupied analysts and regulators for quite a time. While on the retail side the problem seems to be well understood, and the high margins can be justified using Ramsey pricing logic, on the wholesale side the picture is not so clear. Recent contributions find reasons for regulation based on the existence of random traffic and on the bilateral nature of the wholesale deals, which raise the equilibrium prices even when operators can choose a pr...

  16. Reformulating Competition? Gasoline Content Regulation and Wholesale Gasoline Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Jennifer; Hastings, Justine; Erin T. Mansur; Villas-Boas, Sofia B

    2007-01-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments stipulated gasoline content requirements for metropolitan areas with air pollution levels above predetermined federal thresholds. The legislation led to exogenous changes in the type of gasoline required for sale across U.S. metropolitan areas. This paper uses a panel of detailed wholesale gasoline price data to estimate the effect of gasoline content regulation on wholesale prices and price volatility. We investigate the extent to which the estimated price e...

  17. Measuring Market Inefficiencies in California's Restructured Wholesale Electricity Market

    OpenAIRE

    Severin Borenstein; James B. Bushnell; Frank A. Wolak

    2002-01-01

    We present a method for decomposing wholesale electricity payments into production costs, inframarginal competitive rents, and payments resulting from the exercise of market power. Using data from June 1998 to October 2000 in California, we find significant departures from competitive pricing during the high-demand summer months and near-competitive pricing during the lower-demand months of the first two years. In summer 2000, wholesale electricity expenditures were $8.98 billion up from $2.0...

  18. Retail Price Levels and Concentrations of Wholesalers, Retailers and Hypermarkets

    OpenAIRE

    Asplund, Marcus; Friberg, Richard

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines retail grocery price levels with a very large (unbalanced) panel of stores that operate in well-defined local markets. We explain price variation across grocery retailers by the concentration of wholesalers and retailers, and the market share of hypermarkets (and control for a number of store and region specific factors). Our most important result is that concentration at the wholesale level is an important determinant of retail prices. The price effect of retail concentra...

  19. Retail price levels and concentration of wholesalers, retailers, and hypermarkets

    OpenAIRE

    Asplund, Marcus; Friberg, Richard

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines retail grocery price levels with a very large (unbalanced) panel of stores that operate in well-defined local markets. We explain price variation across grocery retailers by the concentration of wholesalers and retailers, and the market share of hypermarkets (and control for a number of store and region specific factors). Our most important result is that concentration at the wholesale level is an important determinant of retail prices. The price effect of retail concentra...

  20. Australian Extinctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Massive extinctions of animals and the arrival of the first humans in ancient Australia--which occurred 45,000 to 55,000 years ago--may be linked. Researchers at the Carnegie Institution, University of Colorado, Australian National University, and Bates College believe that massive fires set by the first humans may have altered the ecosystem of…

  1. Age Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for treating age spots include: Improved appearance. Enhanced self-esteem. Promotion of better skin health. What you need ... 480px View Render 320px View Connect with ASDS: Facebook LinkedIn YouTube Twitter Quick Links About ASDS Advocacy ...

  2. Competition compliant wholesale electricity prices. An examination of the regulation on the integrity and transparency of wholesale energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of wholesale electricity prices showed in recent years a very fluctuating course. The starting point for ensuring competitive compliant electricity prices have uniform rules that establish effective competition in the overall wholesale electricity, ensure greater transparency in the market and prohibit market abuse influence exercised on the wholesale price. The REMIT regulation creates a first union-law rules to this standardized specifications. The volume first examines the transparency, competitiveness, and supervisory structures in the wholesale electricity before legislating a regulation. It is clear, as the transparency and supervisory structures should be designed from the wholesale electricity ideally. On this basis, the work is dealing with the REMIT regulation. The author works out to market participants relevant notification and publication requirements, the follow-up demands on the company as well as the now existing prohibitions on market abuse and the related penalty catalog and analyze the supervisory structures newly created in the wholesale electricity. Here, the work also identified the weaknesses of the regulation and shows suitable solution approaches.

  3. Convergence of electricity wholesale prices in Europe - a Kalman filter approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study tests the hypothesis that the ongoing restructuring process in the European electricity sector, as well as market participants' adaptation to the new legal framework, have caused electricity wholesale day-ahead prices to converge towards arbitrage freeness. Using hourly cross-border capacity auction results at the Dutch-German and at the Danish-German border for the years 2002 to 2004, and the respective spot prices, we estimate a time-varying coefficient model based on the law of one price (LOP). The results of these estimations are used to calculate the speed of convergence towards the LOP. While the German - Dutch prices and the German - West Danish prices are clearly developing towards arbitrage freeness, the German and East Danish prices do not exhibit significant convergence. (Author)

  4. Capacity withholding in wholesale electricity markets: The experience in England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, James Arnold

    This thesis examines the incentives wholesale electricity generators face to withhold generating capacity from centralized electricity spot markets. The first chapter includes a brief history of electricity industry regulation in England and Wales and in the United States, including a description of key institutional features of England and Wales' restructured electricity market. The first chapter also includes a review of the literature on both bid price manipulation and capacity bid manipulation in centralized electricity markets. The second chapter details a theoretical model of wholesale generator behavior in a single price electricity market. A duopoly model is specified under the assumption that demand is non-stochastic. This model assumes that duopoly generators offer to sell electricity at their marginal cost, but can withhold a continuous segment of their capacity from the market. The Nash equilibrium withholding strategy of this model involves each duopoly generator withholding so that it produces the Cournot equilibrium output. A monopoly model along the lines of the duopoly model is specified and simulated under the assumption that demand is stochastic. The optimal strategy depends on the degree of demand uncertainty. When there is a moderate degree of demand uncertainty, the optimal withholding strategy involves production inefficiencies. When there is a high degree of demand uncertainty, the optimal monopoly quantity is greater than the optimal output level when demand is non-stochastic. The third chapter contains an empirical examination of the behavior of generators in the wholesale electricity market in England and Wales in the early 1990's. The wholesale market in England and Wales is analyzed because the industry structure in the early 1990's created a natural experiment, which is described in this chapter, whereby one of the two dominant generators had no incentive to behave non-competitively. This chapter develops a classification methodology

  5. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Final Proposal : Wholesale Power Rate Development Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-07-01

    The Wholesale Power Rate Development Study (WPRDS) serves two primary purposes. It synthesizes information supplied by the other final studies that comprise the BPA rate proposal and shows the actual calculations for BPA's power rates. In addition, the WPRDS is the primary source for certain information used in establishing the power rates. Information developed in the WPRDS includes rate design (including seasonal and diurnal shapes for energy rates, demand, and load variance rates), the risk mitigation tools (Cost Recovery Adjustment Clause (CRAC), along with the [N]ational Marine Fisheries Service [F]ederal Columbia River Power System [B]iological Opinion (NFB) Adjustment, the Emergency NFB Surcharge, and Dividend Distribution Clause (DDC)), development of the Slice rate, and all discounts and other adjustments that are included in the rate schedules and the General Rate Schedule Provisions. The WPRDS also includes the description of the methodology for the Cost of Service Analysis (COSA), and the various rate design steps necessary to establish BPA's power rates. The WPRDS also shows the calculations for inter-business line revenues and expenses, the revenue forecast and, finally, includes a description of all of the rate schedules. The actual rate schedules are shown in ''Administrator's Final Record of Decision (ROD), Appendix A: 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions, WP-07-A-02''. The WPRDS also includes the Partial Resolution of Issues, shown in Attachment 1 of the ROD. The Partial Resolution of Issues affected many of the features described in this study. These are noted where appropriate.

  6. Mongolian spots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mongolian spots (MS are birthmarks that are present at birth and their most common location is sacrococcygeal or lumbar area. Lesions may be single or multiple and usually involve < 5% total body surface area. They are macular and round, oval or irregular in shape. The color varies from blue to greenish, gray, black or a combination of any of the above. The size varies from few to more than 20 centimetres. Pigmentation is most intense at the age of one year and gradually fades thereafter. It is rarely seen after the age of 6 years. Aberrant MS over occiput, temple, mandibular area, shoulders and limbs may be confused with other dermal melanocytoses and bruises secondary to child abuse, thus necessitating documentation at birth. Although regarded as benign, recent data suggest that MS may be associated with inborn errors of metabolism and neurocristopathies. Mongolian spots usually resolve by early childhood and hence no treatment is generally needed if they are located in the sacral area. However, sometimes it may be required for extrasacral lesions for cosmesis.

  7. Australian Research Council

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Introduction The Australian Research Council(ARC) is the Australian Government's main agency for allocating research funding to academics and researchers in Australian universities.Its mission is to deliver policy and programs that advance Australian research and innovation globally and benefit the community.

  8. Strategic Wholesale Pricing for an Incumbent Supplier Facing with a Competitive Counterpart

    OpenAIRE

    Jianwu Sun

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a wholesale pricing strategy for an incumbent supplier facing with a competitive counterpart. We propose a profit function which considers both the present loss and future loss from a wholesale price and then study the optimal wholesale prices for different objectives about this profit function for the incumbent supplier. First, we achieve an optimal wholesale price for the incumbent supplier to maximize his expected profit. Then, to reduce the risk originating from the fluctuati...

  9. 75 FR 28004 - Credit Reforms in Organized Wholesale Electric Markets; Notice Establishing Date for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Credit Reforms in Organized Wholesale Electric Markets; Notice Establishing... related to the Commission's Notice of Proposed Rulemaking on Credit Reforms in Organized Wholesale... Organized Wholesale Electric Markets, 130 FERC ] 61,055 (2010) (Credit Reforms NOPR). Entities wishing...

  10. 75 FR 27330 - Credit Reforms in Organized Wholesale Electric Markets; Notice of Agenda for Technical Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Credit Reforms in Organized Wholesale Electric Markets; Notice of... conference is to discuss the proposal in the Credit Reforms in Organized Wholesale Electric Markets Notice of... Reforms in Organized Wholesale Electric Markets, 130 FERC ] 61,055 (2010). The agenda is attached....

  11. Forecasting Electricity Prices in Deregulated Wholesale Spot Electricity Market: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Girish Godekere Panchakshara Murthy,; Vijayalakshmi Sedidi

    2014-01-01

    In the new framework of competitive electricity markets, all power market participants need accurate price forecasting tools. Electricity price forecasts characterize significant information that can help captive power producer, independent power producer, power generation companies, power distribution companies or open access consumers in careful planning of their bidding strategies for maximizing their profits, benefits and utilities from long term, medium term and short term perspective. S...

  12. 76 FR 10492 - Credit Reforms in Organized Wholesale Electric Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    ... discussed below. \\1\\ Credit Reforms in Organized Wholesale Electric Markets, Order No. 741, 75 FR 65942 (Oct.... 888, 61 FR 21540 (May 10, 1996), FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 31,036, at 31,937 (1996) (pro forma OATT, section 11 (Creditworthiness)), order on reh'g, Order No. 888-A, 62 FR 12274 (Mar. 14, 1997), FERC...

  13. 76 FR 23513 - Wholesale Pork Reporting Negotiated Rulemaking Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ... Establishment of Negotiated Rulemaking Committee published November 24, 2010 (75 FR 71568). On January 26, 2011... announcing the first meeting (76 FR 4554). Previous Committee meetings have been held on February 8-10, 2011...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 59 Wholesale Pork Reporting...

  14. 76 FR 12887 - Wholesale Pork Reporting Negotiated Rulemaking Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... the Notice of Establishment of Negotiated Rulemaking Committee published November 24, 2010 (75 FR..., Federal Register notice, and announcing the first meeting (76 FR 4554). II. Statutory Provisions The...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 59 Wholesale Pork Reporting...

  15. 27 CFR 31.51 - Wholesale dealers making retail sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... retail sales. 31.51 Section 31.51 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Persons Exempt from Registration And/or Recordkeeping § 31.51 Wholesale dealers making retail sales. A... under this part, is exempt from registration at that place as a retail dealer in liquors or in beer....

  16. 27 CFR 31.32 - Wholesale dealer in liquors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... liquors. 31.32 Section 31.32 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Activities Subject to This Part Dealers Classified § 31.32 Wholesale dealer in liquors. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided...

  17. Commercial Interactions in the Buenos Aires Central Wholesale Produce Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arce, A.M.G.; Viteri, M.L.

    2010-01-01

    The Buenos Aires Central Wholesale Produce Market (BACWM) in Argentina supplies 1,500,000 tons of produce yearly to more than 11 million consumers and receives about 13,000 trucks a week from areas within and outside the country. This market faced global transformations with the emergence of superma

  18. Who Gains from Australian Generic Wine R&D and Promotion?

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xueyan; Anderson, Kym; Wittwer, Glyn

    2002-01-01

    A multi-sectoral partial equilibrium model of the markets for two types of Australian grapes and wine (premium and non-premium) is developed to study the aggregate returns from different types of research and promotion investments by the industry and their distribution across actors in the market (grapegrowers, winemakers, wholesalers/retailers, domestic consumers, the tax office and foreign consumers). The distinction is made between premium and non-premium, since half the market is non-prem...

  19. Pertumbuhan dan Distribusi Potongan Komersial Karkas Sapi Australian Commercial Cross dan Brahman Cross Hasil Penggemukan

    OpenAIRE

    Harapin Hafid H; R. Priyanto

    2006-01-01

    This research was conducted to study the growth and distribution of carcass components of beef carcas from Australian Commercial Cross and Brahman Cross cattle. The number of animals used was 165 heads with the body weight range of 350 – 400 kg taken from feedlot fattening. To study the growth and development of carcass component, the equation alometric Huxley was used. The result showed that breed had not significant effect on wholesale cuts. The geometry estimation on the specification of t...

  20. Strategic wholesale pricing for an incumbent supplier facing with a competitive counterpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianwu

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a wholesale pricing strategy for an incumbent supplier facing with a competitive counterpart. We propose a profit function which considers both the present loss and future loss from a wholesale price and then study the optimal wholesale prices for different objectives about this profit function for the incumbent supplier. First, we achieve an optimal wholesale price for the incumbent supplier to maximize his expected profit. Then, to reduce the risk originating from the fluctuation in the competitive supplier's wholesale price, we integrate the conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) measure in financial risk management into this study and derive an optimal wholesale price to maximize CVaR about profit for the incumbent supplier. Besides, the properties of the two optimal wholesale prices are discussed. Finally, some management insights are suggested for the incumbent supplier in a competitive setting. PMID:25614891

  1. Australian natural gas market outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new study of the Australian natural gas industry by leading Australian economics and policy consultancy ACIL Tasman highlights the significant supply and demand side uncertainties currently facing the industry. The ACIL Tasman 'Australian Gas Market Review and Outlook 2004' study presents modelling results for three supply/demand scenarios in Eastern Australia and two in Western Australia. The results show that, even under moderate assumptions about future levels of gas demand growth, major supply-side investment is likely to be needed over the next ten to fifteen years. The base supply/demand scenario for Eastern Australia and Northern Territory, illustrated in Figure 1, shows that even allowing for substantial new discoveries in existing production basins and major expansion of coal seam methane production, in the absence of a northern gas connection to the eastern states (Timor Sea or PNG Highlands) a significant supply gap will begin to emerge from around 2013. The study identifies several supply-side options for Eastern Australia - new discoveries in the established production provinces in Bass Strait and Central Australia; greenfield developments such as the Otway Basin offshore from Victoria and South Australia; continuing expansion of coal seam methane production in Queensland and New South Wales; and gas from Papua New Guinea, Timor Sea or from the North West Shelf region delivered via a trans-continental pipeline. The study concludes that it is unlikely that any single option will suffice to meet future demand. Almost inevitably, a combination of these sources will be needed if anticipated growth opportunities are to be met. With regard to prices, the study shows that in the short to medium term the outlook is for some real reductions in wholesale prices in most regional markets. This reflects increasing levels of upstream competition and declining real costs of pipeline transportation. However in the longer term, supply-side constraints will tend to

  2. The Second Story: Wholesale Microfinance in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Marguerite Berger; Alison Beck Yonas; María Lucía Lloreda

    2003-01-01

    Drawing on project documents, evaluations, surveys and interviews with participating financial intermediaries and second-tier institutions, this paper tells the story of the IDB¿s microenterprise global credit program. The purpose of the paper is to garner lessons from this experience that can be applied to future efforts to promote microfinance, especially those that involve a wholesale mechanism. This paper explores how market conditions and program design and execution elements have determ...

  3. Market Power in the German Wholesale Electricity Market

    OpenAIRE

    Müsgens, Felix

    2004-01-01

    This paper quantifies the degree of market power in the German wholesale electricity market. A fundamental model is used to derive competitive marginal cost estimators which are compared with observed electricity prices. Marginal costs are calculated focusing on market fundamentals such as plant capacities, fuel prices, and load structures. In addition, international power exchange and dynamic effects like start-up costs and hydro storage plant dispatch are incorporated. The comparison of mar...

  4. Competitive equilibrium in the italian wholesale electricity market

    OpenAIRE

    Bigerna, Simona; Bollino, Carlo Andrea; D'Errico, Maria Chiara; Paolo POLINORI

    2015-01-01

    The market power analysis in electricity market is relevant for understanding the competitive development of the industry’s restructuring and the liberalization process. The paper analyzes the market power exercised by power generators in the Italian wholesale electricity market. Following the approach of Wolak (2003, 2009), the extent of market power is measured using the Lerner index computed as the inverse of arc elasticity of the residual demand faced by each Cournot competitors. Then, th...

  5. French wholesale electricity and gas markets in 2007. Monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Settled on 24 March 2000, the French Energy Regulatory Commission (CRE) is an independent authority. CRE supports an efficient functioning of the electricity and natural gas markets, to the advantage of final consumers. CRE ensures the absence of any discrimination, cross subsidy or obstacle to competition. CRE has examined the functioning of the wholesale markets for electricity and gas for the year 2007. The report discloses the results of a first set of analyses, as well as the next actions to be conducted in order to explain some observed behaviour. On the basis of analyses led on the electricity market, CRE observes that nuclear generation was marginal during 15% of the hours in 2007. Hydraulic generation was marginal during 25% of the hours, coal generation during 25% to 30% of the hours and oil generation during less than 2% of the hours in 2007. Finally, prices on the border markets were of high importance on the French prices which they determined during 20% to 25% of the hours of the year. On an efficient market, the price is driven by the marginal power plant among all those which contribute to satisfy the demand. Therefore the wholesale price formation is conditioned by the frequency of marginality of each generation sector and by the associated valuation of production. On the day-ahead market, when nuclear or hydraulic generation was marginal, the day-ahead price reflected the associated valuation which was decided by EDF. The level of this valuation was generally higher than the marginal generation cost of these plants. As a matter of fact, a producer, even market dominant, may legitimately seek to optimise its income, provided that there is no abuse of a dominant position or any price manipulation. Consequently, at this stage, the relevance of the valuation method for nuclear and hydraulic generation on the wholesale market is still to be checked. CRE has also demonstrated that generation transparency, even if it gradually increased, still needs to

  6. The distribution and hierarchy of wholesale vegetable markets in the tohoku district

    OpenAIRE

    Koganezawa, Takaaki

    1986-01-01

    The regional pattern of fresh vegetable flows in Japan has been enlarged. This paper analyses the reasons for this enlargement in terms of the function of wholesale markets. The results show that the regional pattern of fresh vegetable flows is basically organized by the collection and shipment system of Japanese three large central wholesale markets. But the enforcement of the wholesale marketing Act in 1971 made the regional pattern of vegetable flows more complex by increasing the function...

  7. U.S. Fresh Produce Wholesale Sector Trade Practices: Initial Survey Results

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Lourdes R.; Thornsbury, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    The wholesale sector is an intermediate stage in the supply chain of fresh produce. In general, business operations in this sector do not transform a specific product, but rather provide services related to the sale of the product. The term 'wholesaler' refers to all merchants that are part of this intermediate stage in the supply chain; namely, wholesale merchants, distributors, jobbers, shippers, import/export merchants, agents, brokers, commission merchants, and other types of intermediari...

  8. The Spotted Wing Drosophila Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura, 1931) – Monitoring And First Records In Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Łabanowska Barbara H.; Piotrowski Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    The spotted wing drosophila (Drosophila suzukii) (SWD) monitoring was carried out between 2012-2014 in eight locations. In order to determine the presence of Drosophila suzukii, several types of traps and baits were used. In 2014, Polish (prototype of Drosinal) and Spanish (Cera Trap) traps and baits were used in our study. In each year, traps were placed on the plantations of blueberry, strawberry, raspberry and at a wholesale market at the beginning of July, and monitored once or twice a we...

  9. Review the Moscow wholesale market meat delicacies imported

    OpenAIRE

    Sidorchuk, Roman

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of our marketing research is to review the status of the Moscow wholesale market meat delicacies imported in 2003. The study is based on the method of the expert survey, a method that includes: selection of experts survey form, the definition of the structure and strength of the expert group, the development of the methodology of the study, survey, a list of problems. As experts in the survey attended by leaders and experts who know the state of the market of meat products. Also...

  10. Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000654.htm Rocky Mountain spotted fever To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a disease caused by a ...

  11. The effect of virtual bidding on forward premiums in the New York wholesale energy market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Andrew D.

    In many parts of the United States, the power industry has been deregulated and replaced with regional wholesale energy markets, where utilities purchase electricity from generators at competitive market rates for subsequent distribution to customers. Numerous studies have shown that in each of these markets, the price of energy purchased in the Day Ahead (futures) market exceeds the price in the Real Time (spot) market on average. The existence of this "forward premium" is evidence of market inefficiency and may indicate participants' aversion to risk in the Real Time market or the exercise of market power by generators. To address this inefficiency, the New York Independent System Operator introduced a virtual bidding system within its wholesale market, which permitted participants to engage in purely financial transactions and hedge their exposure to risk. The new policy was expected to promote price convergence by allowing bidders to arbitrage expected differences between Day Ahead and Real Time prices. This study examines whether the presence of virtual bidding was associated with a change in the mean value and magnitude of forward premiums in the NYISO energy market. The study applies a GARCH model to hourly pricing data from 2001 to 2009, controlling for temperature and economic activity. The results indicate that prior to 2005, virtual bidding was associated with significantly lower and less volatile forward premiums in New York's five most congested zones but with increased premiums in the remaining less congested zones. However, when the entire period from 2001 to 2009 is examined, the results suggest that prices have become significantly more divergent in the presence of virtual bidding. Closer examination of the data reveals a dramatic increase in forward premium volatility across all zones beginning in 2005 that is not accounted for by temperature or economic activity and may have biased the results. This study attempts to account for this unexplained

  12. The impact of electricity storage on wholesale electricity prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyzes the impact of electricity storage on the production cost of a power system and the marginal cost of electricity (electricity price) using a unit commitment model. Also, real world data has been analyzed to verify the effect of storage operation on the electricity price using econometric techniques. The unit commitment model found that the deployment of a storage system reduces the fuel cost of the power system but increases the average electricity price through its effect on the power system operation. However, the reduction in the production cost was found to be less than the increase in the consumer's cost of electricity resulting in a net increase in costs due to storage. Different storage and CO2 price scenarios were investigated to study the sensitivity of these results. The regression analysis supports the unit commitment results and finds that the presence of storage increases average wholesale electricity prices for the case study system. - Highlights: ► The effect of storage on the simulated shadow price of electricity and the production cost. ► Comparison of the savings in the consumer cost and the reduction in the production cost. ► Actual effect of storage on the wholesale price

  13. Evaluation on Core Competitiveness of Wholesale Market of Agricultural Products Based on CWAA Operator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to relevant data,we select five indices,namely management ability,organization and management capability,enterprise culture,development ability and technical equipment ability,to establish the index system of core competitiveness of wholesale market of agricultural products.Based on combination weight arithmetic average(CWAA) operator,we advance an evaluation model of core competitiveness of wholesale market of agricultural products which involves participation of many people.By inviting five exerts,we conduct evaluation in terms of management ability of wholesale market of agricultural products,organization and management capability of leadership,enterprise culture of wholesale market of agricultural products,future development ability of wholesale market of agricultural products,and exiting technical equipment ability of wholesale market of agricultural products.We adopt hundred-mark system to grade and evaluate core competitiveness of wholesale market of agricultural products.The results show that the experts’ evaluation score of core competitiveness of wholesale market of agricultural products is high.The evaluation result is reasonable and authentic and this model is feasible.

  14. 75 FR 74008 - Jake's Fireworks, Inc., Far East Imports, Inc., Wholesale Fireworks Enterprises LLC, Pacific...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... COMMISSION Jake's Fireworks, Inc., Far East Imports, Inc., Wholesale Fireworks Enterprises LLC, Pacific... Agreement with Jake's Fireworks, Inc., Far East Imports, Inc., Wholesale Fireworks Enterprises LLC, Pacific... Agreement 1. In accordance with 16 CFR 1118.20, Jake's Fireworks, Inc., Far East Imports, Inc.,...

  15. 27 CFR 31.163 - Requirements when a wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department. 31.163 Section 31.163 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department. (a) Constructive receipt and sale. When a... spirits, and the retail sales of distilled spirits normally represent 90 percent or more of the volume...

  16. The role of vibrant retail electricity markets in assuring that wholesale power markets operate effectively

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriers to competitive supplier entry such as California's wholesale-price pass-through model can provide an almost insurmountable barrier to effective retail competition. The telecommunications, airline, and software industries provide lessons--positive and negative--on how creating competitive wholesale markets is insufficient to bring the benefits of competition to smaller consumers

  17. 76 FR 16657 - Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 75 FR 15362 (Mar. 29, 2010... energy market at the market price for energy, referred to as the locational marginal price (LMP). This... \\3\\ participating in an organized wholesale energy market \\4\\ administered by an RTO or ISO has...

  18. 75 FR 27552 - Credit Reforms in Organized Wholesale Electric Markets; Further Notice Concerning Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... Requirements, 123 FERC ] 61,157 (2008). \\2\\ Notice of Technical Conference, 75 FR 20991, as supplemented by... Energy Regulatory Commission Credit Reforms in Organized Wholesale Electric Markets; Further Notice... Rulemaking on Credit Reforms in Organized Wholesale Electric Markets,\\1\\ as previously announced.\\2\\ \\1\\...

  19. The state line of solution of imbalances problem the wholesale electricity market of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.S. Kolesnichenko

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problem of formation and dynamics of imbalances of the wholesale electricity market (WEM of Ukraine. The features and prospects of imbalance control in the context of reforming the wholesale electricity market are analyzed.

  20. 18 CFR 366.7 - Procedures for obtaining exempt wholesale generator and foreign utility company status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-certification notice procedure. An exempt wholesale generator or a foreign utility company, or its... the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935 (15 U.S.C. 79z-5a (c)), any self-certification of an... obtaining exempt wholesale generator and foreign utility company status. 366.7 Section 366.7 Conservation...

  1. 40 CFR 80.33 - Controls applicable to natural gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... January 1, 1998 every retailer and wholesale purchaser-consumer handling over 1,215,000 standard cubic... this requirement applies to every natural gas retailer and wholesale purchaser-consumer. Any dispensing... before January 1, 1998 provided the station operator can demonstrate, to the satisfaction of...

  2. 27 CFR 31.53 - Wholesale dealers in beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wholesale dealers in beer... beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers. Any dealer who has registered as a wholesale dealer in beer for the place from which that dealer conducts selling operations may consummate sales...

  3. Renewal of handling and storage equipment in wholesale company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Brasileiro Azevedo Teixeira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a use of methodology for renewing handling and storage equipment in a wholesale company. It is based on equipment maintenance, downtime and possession costs. With the analysis performed,, it was possible to make some suggestions for an optimal economic point for pallets replacement. The methodology is based on mathematical and economic principles in order to provide the organization with an increase in productivity and costs reduction for handling and storage equipment. As a result of the use of methodology, the conclusion that it was possible to consider that this point is obtained when the total annual cost is equal to the average total cost was reached. Therefore, the equilibrium point is achieved when the equipment usage time is six years.

  4. SpotADAPT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaulakiene, Dalia; Thomsen, Christian; Pedersen, Torben Bach;

    2015-01-01

    Amazon Web Services (AWS). The users aiming for the spot market are presented with many instance types placed in multiple datacenters in the world, and thus it is difficult to choose the optimal deployment. In this paper, we propose the framework SpotADAPT (Spot-Aware (re-)Deployment of Analytical...... Processing Tasks) which is designed to help users by first, estimating the workload execution time on different AWS instance types, and, second, proposing the deployment (i.e., specific availability zone, instance type, pricing model) aligned with user-provided optimization goals (fastest or cheapest...... execution within boundaries). Moreover, during the execution of the workload, SpotADAPT suggests a redeployment if the current spot instance gets terminated by Amazon or a better deployment becomes possible due to fluctuations of the spot prices. The approach is evaluated using the actual execution times of...

  5. Essays on wholesale auctions in deregulated electricity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaduonis, Rimvydas

    2007-12-01

    The early experience in the restructured electric power markets raised several issues, including price spikes, inefficiency, security, and the overall relationship of market clearing prices to generation costs. Unsatisfactory outcomes in these markets are thought to have resulted in part from strategic generator behaviors encouraged by inappropriate market design features. In this dissertation, I examine the performance of three auction mechanisms for wholesale power markets - Offer Cost Minimization auction, Payment Cost Minimization auction and Simple-Offer auction - when electricity suppliers act strategically. A Payment Cost Minimization auction has been proposed as an alternative to the traditional Offer Cost Minimization auction with the intention to solve the problem of inflated wholesale electricity prices. Efficiency concerns for this proposal were voiced due to insights predicated on the assumption of true production cost revelation. Using a game theoretic approach and an experimental method, I compare the two auctions, strictly controlling for the level of unilateral market power. A specific feature of these complex-offer auctions is that the sellers submit not only the quantities and the minimum prices that they are willing to sell at, but also the start-up fees, which are designed to reimburse the fixed start-up costs of the generation plants. I find that the complex structure of the offers leaves considerable room for strategic behavior, which consequently leads to anti-competitive and inefficient market outcomes. In the last chapter of my dissertation, I use laboratory experiments to contrast the performance of two complex-offer auctions against the performance of a simple-offer auction, in which the sellers have to recover all their generation costs - fixed and variable - through a uniform market-clearing price. I find that a simple-offer auction significantly reduces consumer prices and lowers price volatility. It mitigates anti-competitive effects

  6. The Australian National Seismograph Network

    OpenAIRE

    D. Jepsen

    1994-01-01

    The Australian Seismological Centre of the Australian Geological Survey Organisation, operates and co-operates a national seismograph network consisting of 24 analogue and 8 digitally telemetred (3 broadband) stations (see fig. 1 and table 1). The network covers the Australian continent and the Australian Antarctic Territory.

  7. The Australian National Seismograph Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Jepsen

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Seismological Centre of the Australian Geological Survey Organisation, operates and co-operates a national seismograph network consisting of 24 analogue and 8 digitally telemetred (3 broadband stations (see fig. 1 and table 1. The network covers the Australian continent and the Australian Antarctic Territory.

  8. Market Monitor, development of the wholesale trade market of electricity 2005. Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Office of Energy Regulation carries out its legal task by means of a monitor, a practical tool to assess and analyze the wholesale market for electricity. Monitoring of the wholesale electricity market concerns continuous, accurate and structured following of developments in the market. The aim is to identify in time signals from the market that could lead to a decrease of competition and transparency. The starting point of the monitor for the wholesale electricity market is the selection of indicators which give insight in real competition, liquidity and transparency

  9. Australian G20 Presidency

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei G. Sakharov; Andrei V. Shelepov; Elizaveta A. Safonkina; Mark R. Rakhmangulov

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 Australian presidency took place against the backdrop of multiple challenges in both global economy and international politics, with Ukrainian crisis, Syrian conflict, Islamic State, and Ebola. Thus, despite being an economic forum, the G20 could not avoid addressing these issues, with discussions taking place during the bilateral meetings and on the sidelines of the forum. The article attempts to analyze the Australian G20 Presidency within a functional paradigm, assessing G20 perfo...

  10. Pertumbuhan dan Distribusi Potongan Komersial Karkas Sapi Australian Commercial Cross dan Brahman Cross Hasil Penggemukan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harapin Hafid H

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to study the growth and distribution of carcass components of beef carcas from Australian Commercial Cross and Brahman Cross cattle. The number of animals used was 165 heads with the body weight range of 350 – 400 kg taken from feedlot fattening. To study the growth and development of carcass component, the equation alometric Huxley was used. The result showed that breed had not significant effect on wholesale cuts. The geometry estimation on the specification of traditional markets and special market showed also the differences on topside (traditional market and flank (special market.

  11. Improvement of logistics system wholesale trade companies at conditions of uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizatulin, Artem Mahmutovych

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article has developed a new simulation model for optimizing logistics flows, which increases the efficiency of the wholesalers logistics system at conditions of uncertainty.

  12. Screening instruments for monitoring market power in wholesale electricity markets: Lessons from applications in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Bataille, Marc; Steinmetz, Alexander; Thorwarth, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    While liberalization in energy markets has been a widely successful process all over the world, incumbents often still hold a dominant position. Thus, electricity wholesale markets are subject to market surveillance. Nevertheless, consolidated findings on abusive practices of market power and their cause and effect in wholesale electricity markets are scarce and non-controversial market monitoring practices fail to exist. Our application of the established measure of market concentration RSI ...

  13. PRICE-RESPONSE ASYMMETRY IN DOMESTIC WHOLESALE AND RETAIL DIESEL 2 MARKETS IN PERU

    OpenAIRE

    Arturo Vasquez Cordano

    2005-01-01

    This paper tests and confirms the hypothesis that retail and wholesale Diesel 2 prices respond more quickly to increases than to decreases in wholesale and crude oil prices, respectively. Among the possible sources of this asymmetry, we find: production / inventory adjustment lags, refining adjustments, market power of some sellers, searching costs, among others. By analyzing price transmission at different points of the distribution chain, this paper attempts to shed light on these theories ...

  14. Perceptions and practices of pharmaceutical wholesalers surrounding counterfeit medicines in a developing country: a baseline survey

    OpenAIRE

    Khan Mohiuddin H; Akazawa Manabu; Dararath Eav; Kiet Heng B; Sovannarith Tey; Nivanna Nam; Yoshida Naoko; Kimura Kazuko

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Recent investigations by the Ministry of Health of Cambodia suggest that counterfeit medicines have been introduced into the pharmaceutical market in tampered packaging. To further explore this possibility, an interview survey was conducted at the wholesaler level to investigate the medicinal supply chain in Cambodia. Methods Managing executives of 62 (83.8%) registered wholesalers of modern medicines in Cambodia were interviewed in 2009 on their knowledge of, perception o...

  15. Watermarking spot colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alattar, Osama M.; Reed, Alastair M.

    2003-06-01

    Watermarking of printed materials has usually focused on process inks of cyan, magenta, yellow and black (CMYK). In packaging, almost three out of four printed materials include spot colors. Spot colors are special premixed inks, which can be produced in a vibrant range of colors, often outside the CMYK color gamut. In embedding a watermark into printed material, a common approach is to modify the luminance value of each pixel in the image. In the case of process color work pieces, the luminance change can be scaled to the C, M, Y and K channels using a weighting function, to produce the desired change in luminance. In the case of spot color art designs, there is only one channel available and the luminance change is applied to this channel. In this paper we develop a weighting function to embed the watermark signal across the range of different spot colors. This weighting function normalizes visibility effect and signal robustness across a wide range of different spot colors. It normalizes the signal robustness level over the range of an individual spot color"s intensity levels. Further, it takes into account the sensitivity of the capturing device to the different spot colors.

  16. A hybrid model for electricity spot prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electricity prices were highly regulated prior to the deregulation of the electric power industry. Prices were predictable, allowing generators and wholesalers to calculate their production costs and revenues. With deregulation, electricity has become the most volatile of all commodities. Electricity must be consumed as soon as it is generated due to the inability to store it in any sufficient quantity. Economic uncertainty exists because the supply of electricity cannot shift as quickly as the demand, which is highly variable. When demand increases quickly, the price must respond. Therefore, price spikes occur that are orders of magnitude higher than the base electricity price. This paper presents a robust and realistic model for spot market electricity prices used to manage risk in volatile markets. The model is a hybrid of a top down data driven method commonly used for financial applications, and a bottom up system driven method commonly used in regulated electricity markets. The advantage of the model is that it incorporates primary system drivers and demonstrates their effects on final prices. The 4 primary modules of the model are: (1) a model for forced outages, (2) a model for maintenance outages, (3) an electrical load model, and (4) a price model which combines the results of the previous 3 models. The performance of each model was tested. The forced outage model is the first of its kind to simulate the system on an aggregate basis using Weibull distributions. The overall spot price model was calibrated to, and tested with, data from the electricity market in Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland. The model performed well in simulated market prices and adapted readily to changing system conditions and new electricity markets. This study examined the pricing of derivative contracts on electrical power. It also compared a range of portfolio scenarios using a Cash Flow at Risk approach

  17. Mononucleosis spot test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monospot test; Heterophile antibody test; Heterophile agglutination test; Paul-Bunnell test; Forssman antibody test ... The mononucleosis spot test is done when symptoms of mononucleosis are ... Fatigue Fever Large spleen (possibly) Sore throat Tender ...

  18. Spotted Seal Distribution Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains GIS layers that depict the known spatial distributions (i.e., ranges) and reported breeding areas of spotted seals (Phoca largha). It was...

  19. Reactor hot spot analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilim, R.B.

    1985-08-01

    The principle methods for performing reactor hot spot analysis are reviewed and examined for potential use in the Applied Physics Division. The semistatistical horizontal method is recommended for future work and is now available as an option in the SE2-ANL core thermal hydraulic code. The semistatistical horizontal method is applied to a small LMR to illustrate the calculation of cladding midwall and fuel centerline hot spot temperatures. The example includes a listing of uncertainties, estimates for their magnitudes, computation of hot spot subfactor values and calculation of two sigma temperatures. A review of the uncertainties that affect liquid metal fast reactors is also presented. It was found that hot spot subfactor magnitudes are strongly dependent on the reactor design and therefore reactor specific details must be carefully studied. 13 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  20. Introducing the Australian Uranium Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Uranium Association was formed in September last year in the midst of a very exciting period of change for the industry. What forged this new grouping was the industry's belief that it needed a strong representative organisation to play an advocacy role for uranium exploration and mining, at a very important moment of opportunity for the industry. That 'moment of opportunity' was the result of some critical trends and events, First, the very rapid increase in the price of uranium was driving renewed exploration and investment across Australia and the world. In the previous twelve months, the spot price of uranium had risen more than 90%. Second, the Federal Government had established the Uranium Industry Framework as a means by which government and industry could discuss a better regulatory framework. This led to some very fruitful interchanges between industry players. While the UIF talks were continuing, the Federal Government announced a parallel inquiry into whether Australia ought to move further into the nuclear power cycle. Third, the new interest in Australia in climate change and greenhouse gas emissions had led to a steep increase in public interest in the nuclear power option, with many former opponents now willing to listen to the argument

  1. Arc cathode spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arc spots are usually highly unstable and jump statistically over the cathode surface. In a magnetic field parallel to the surface, preferably they move in the retrograde direction; i.e., opposite to the Lorentzian rule. If the field is inclined with respect to the surface, the spots drift away at a certain angle with respect to the proper retrograde direction (Robson drift motion). These well-known phenomena are explained by one stability theory

  2. Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate Projections 1993--2014 and Historical Wholesale Power Rates 1939--1992.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    US Bonneville Power Administration

    1993-11-01

    This document provides a range of high, medium, and low case long-term projections of Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) wholesale power rates and a medium case long-term projection of BPA`s wheeling rates. These projections are produced annually by BPA. BPA uses these projections in long-term marketing, resource, transmission, and financial planning assessments. BPA`s projections also are used by public utility commissions, utilities, and others for a variety of planning purposes. The analysis used for these rate projections assumes that current rate making methodologies continue into the future and are further based on certain assumptions about regional loads, extra-regional markets, the costs of resources, BPA`s financial requirements, and the capability of the region`s power plants. While these projections are intended to address the overall uncertainty in rate levels, BPA realizes that the future will not reflect any specific set of assumptions. The rate projections in this document have been prepared prior to the Draft 1993 BPA Marketing Plan, the implementation of which is almost certain to push BPA away from any set of assumptions in this document. Therefore, this document can be thought of as representing the ``old`` BPA with its products and policies. It can be viewed as a starting point or reference point to measure the impact of the ``new`` BPA with its Marketing Plan, and the broader undertaking referred to as the Competitiveness Project.

  3. Aspectos sobre a decisão de canais no pequeno varejo: a escolha entre o atacado e o atacarejo ASPECTS OF CHANNELS DECISION IN SMALL RETAIL: THE CHOISE BETWEEN THE TRADITIONAL WHOLESALE AND THE WHOLESALE AND RETAIL OUTLET

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Carlos Giuliani; Matheus Alberto Cônsoli; Huang Wen Hsien

    2011-01-01

    This article talks about purchase decision from small and medium retailers from Piracicaba Region, São Paulo State. The bibliographic and field research showed the main influence factors and decision criteria of small retailers for purchase, related to the choice between the traditional wholesale and the wholesale and retail outlet, which is a type of store that allows the wholesaler sales to sell to small or medium-sized retailers and for end consumers who are looking for the best price. The...

  4. NordREG report on the price peaks in the Nordic wholesale market during winter 2009-2010. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-01-15

    improvements is transparency. Based on the consultancy study and the feedback from some stakeholders, NordREG finds that it should be assessed whether the area bidding curves at Nord Pool Spot could be publicized to enhance the transparency of the market and to enable all the market participants to have access to the trading data. Transparency in the Nord Pool Spot bid data would enhance confidence in market developments. NordREG also proposes that the trading mechanisms at the Nord Pool Spot should be assessed. This assessment should especially focus on how to increase flexibility into the market, how to improve pricing and offering of peak load reserves to the Nord Pool Spot and how to improve possibilities to hedge area price risks. NordREG emphasizes that the development of the Nord Pool Spot trading mechanism and its transparency should be prepared together with the Nord Pool Spot. Finally, one of the key issues for ensuring a well-functioning electricity wholesale market is the optimal and sufficient transmission network with its cross-border interconnectors that support the wholesale electricity market. Traditionally the Nordic TSOs used to cooperate in the area of grid planning and produced Nordic Grid Master Plans. The Nordic Council of Energy Ministers has underlined the importance of continued Nordic grid planning. The 3rd Legislative Package raised the cooperation of TSOs on grid planning to the European level and as a task for the European TSO organisation ENTSO-E, which has organised regional groupings of TSOs to work on grid planning. ENTSO-E published the pilot Ten Year Network Development Plan in June 2010 and the process for preparing the next one is already underway. This planning work and the results of it that will materialise themselves through transmission network investments will have a significant impact on the functioning of the Nordic, Northern and the whole European electricity wholesale market and its integration. This work needs to be analyzed and

  5. Scleroderma in Australian aborigines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurauskas, J; Beroukas, D; Walker, J G; Smith, M D; Ahern, M J; Roberts-Thomson, P J

    2005-01-01

    Scleroderma (systemic sclerosis) has not been reported before in Australian Aborigines. We describe in detail a community middle-aged Aboriginal woman whose diffuse scleroderma terminated fatally with a renal crisis. Moreover, we have identified a further five Aboriginal patients on the South Australian Scleroderma Register (two with diffuse, two with limited and one with overlap scleroderma), a number consistent with that expected from the 2001 census data for our state. However, an analysis of all antinuclear antibody (ANA) requests from the Top End of Australia over a 6-year period revealed only two Aborigines with low titre anticentromere antibody (despite frequent occurrence of ANA with other specificities). Neither of these Aborigines had features of scleroderma. In conclusion, scleroderma does occur in indigenous Australians but further studies are needed to confirm the apparent infrequency of centromere-associated limited scleroderma (which is the commonest form of scleroderma in our Caucasian population). PMID:15667472

  6. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy: Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Ray P

    2013-01-01

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical component includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, and this knowledge was used for practical purposes, such as constructing calendars. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, paid careful attention to unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts, and could determine the cardinal points to an accuracy of a few degrees.

  7. Oligopolistic competition in wholesale electricity markets: Large-scale simulation and policy analysis using complementarity models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helman, E. Udi

    This dissertation conducts research into the large-scale simulation of oligopolistic competition in wholesale electricity markets. The dissertation has two parts. Part I is an examination of the structure and properties of several spatial, or network, equilibrium models of oligopolistic electricity markets formulated as mixed linear complementarity problems (LCP). Part II is a large-scale application of such models to the electricity system that encompasses most of the United States east of the Rocky Mountains, the Eastern Interconnection. Part I consists of Chapters 1 to 6. The models developed in this part continue research into mixed LCP models of oligopolistic electricity markets initiated by Hobbs [67] and subsequently developed by Metzler [87] and Metzler, Hobbs and Pang [88]. Hobbs' central contribution is a network market model with Cournot competition in generation and a price-taking spatial arbitrage firm that eliminates spatial price discrimination by the Cournot firms. In one variant, the solution to this model is shown to be equivalent to the "no arbitrage" condition in a "pool" market, in which a Regional Transmission Operator optimizes spot sales such that the congestion price between two locations is exactly equivalent to the difference in the energy prices at those locations (commonly known as locational marginal pricing). Extensions to this model are presented in Chapters 5 and 6. One of these is a market model with a profit-maximizing arbitrage firm. This model is structured as a mathematical program with equilibrium constraints (MPEC), but due to the linearity of its constraints, can be solved as a mixed LCP. Part II consists of Chapters 7 to 12. The core of these chapters is a large-scale simulation of the U.S. Eastern Interconnection applying one of the Cournot competition with arbitrage models. This is the first oligopolistic equilibrium market model to encompass the full Eastern Interconnection with a realistic network representation (using

  8. Perceptions and practices of pharmaceutical wholesalers surrounding counterfeit medicines in a developing country: a baseline survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Mohiuddin H

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent investigations by the Ministry of Health of Cambodia suggest that counterfeit medicines have been introduced into the pharmaceutical market in tampered packaging. To further explore this possibility, an interview survey was conducted at the wholesaler level to investigate the medicinal supply chain in Cambodia. Methods Managing executives of 62 (83.8% registered wholesalers of modern medicines in Cambodia were interviewed in 2009 on their knowledge of, perception on, and practices related to counterfeiting issues through a semi-structured questionnaire. Results According to our findings, 12.9% of the wholesalers had encountered counterfeit medicine. However, they demonstrated a variety of perceptions regarding this issue. A majority (59.7% defined counterfeit medicines as medicines without registration, while other definitions included medicines that were fraudulently manufactured, medicines without a batch/lot number, those containing harmful ingredients or a reduced amount of active ingredients, and expired medicines. Additionally, 8.1% responded that they did not know what counterfeit medicines were. During procurement, 66.1% of the wholesalers consider whether the product is registered in Cambodia, while 64.5% consider the credibility and quality of the products and 61.3% consider the reputation of the manufacturers. When receiving a consignment, 80.6% of wholesalers check the intactness of medicines, 72.6% check the specification and amount of medicines, 71% check Cambodian registration, 56.5% check that the packaging is intact, 54.8% check batch and lot numbers, 48.4% check the dates of manufacture and expiration, and 9.7% check analytical certificates. Out of 62 wholesalers, 14.5% had received medicines that arrived without packages or were separated from their packaging and had to be repacked before distribution. Significant statistical association was found between wholesalers who received medicines separately

  9. Strategic Wholesale Pricing and Commonality Strategy in a Supply Chain with Quality Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiantian Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop two game models of a one-supplier and one-manufacturer supply chain to investigate the supplier’s strategic wholesale pricing decision and the manufacturer’s commonality strategy. The manufacturer has three commonality strategies for the high-end and low-end products: common high-quality component, common low-quality component, and dedicated components. We consider both wholesale price first scenario and commonality strategy first scenario. Under the wholesale price first scenario, we identify the range of each commonality strategy and find that (i the common low-quality component strategy is harmful to the supplier; (ii if the quality of low-quality component and the unit production cost of high-quality component are sufficiently low, the supplier induces the common high-quality component strategy by strategically decreasing the unit wholesale price of high-quality component, while if they are sufficiently high, the supplier induces the dedicated components strategy by increasing the unit wholesale price of high-quality component and decreasing that of low-quality one. Under the commonality strategy first scenario, the common low-quality component strategy may exist. By comparing the two scenarios, we find that (i if the unit production cost of low-quality component is medium, the equilibrium outcomes under both scenarios are identical; (ii there exists a first-mover advantage for the two players.

  10. The surveillance of the electricity wholesale market and emission trading market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Regulation on Wholesale Market Integrity and Transparency (REMIT) and the German Law on the Establishment of a Market Transparency Office for Wholesale Trade in Electricity and Gas (MTS-G) have fundamentally changed the surveillance of electricity wholesale trade in Germany. From now on the Federal Network Agency and the Federal Cartel Office will be jointly responsible for monitoring the electricity wholesale trade for suspicious market phenomena and abusive behaviour. The REMIT specifies that the electricity trade must be surveilled ''with due consideration to interactions'' with the emission trade system. However, occurrences observed in recent years have shown that the emission trading system is in need of reform. This has also been recognised and has prompted extensive corrective action by the regulatory authorities of the European Union. These changes have yet to be transposed into the national surveillance regimes. The present article explains why the new role accorded to the Federal Network Agency under the REMIT fails to eliminate the structural shortcomings of the old surveillance system. At least the decision to put the collection and evaluation of data exclusively in the hands of the market transparency office and the cooperation this will prompt between the supervisory authorities responsible will make the task of surveilling the energy wholesale trading market a lot easier for the authorities. The energy transition and its exigencies will yet lead to further changes in the market and its surveillance regime.

  11. Australian Hackers and Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, M. J.; W. Hutchinson

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to look at the way hackers act and ways in which society can protect itself. The paper will show the current views and attitudes of hackers in an Australian context. The paper will also include a case study to show how a hacking incident can develop and how technology can be used to protect against hacking.

  12. A study on electricity export capability of the μCHP system with spot price

    OpenAIRE

    You, Shi; Træholt, Chresten; Poulsen, Bjarne

    2009-01-01

    When a number of muCHP systems are aggregated as a virtual power plant (VPP), they will be able to participate in the electricity wholesale market with no discrimination compared to conventional large power plants. Hence, this paper investigates the electricity export capability of the muCHP system when the electricity buyback price is given at a value equalizing the dynamic spot price. A muCHP system is modeled with optimized generation, and the marginal price of electricity export for such ...

  13. Industrial customer response to wholesale prices in the restructured Texas electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper estimates the demand responsiveness of the 20 largest industrial energy consumers in the Houston area to wholesale price signals in the restructured Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) market. Statistical analysis of their load patterns employing a Symmetric Generalized McFadden cost function model suggests that ERCOT achieved limited success in establishing a market that facilitates demand response from the largest industrial energy consumers in the Houston area to wholesale price signals in its second year of retail competition. The muted price response is at least partially because energy consumers who opt to offer their ''interruptibility'' to the market as an ancillary service are constrained in their ability to respond to wholesale energy prices. (author)

  14. THE WHOLESALE COMPANIES AS A LINK BETWEEN THE TWO CIRCUITS OF URBAN ECONOMY IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Xavier

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The current space division of labour increases the importance of circulation in production process and imposes a rapid and more frequent replacement of supplies, according to shorter stated periods, both in industry and retail. In Brazil, the opening of the economy, imposing a bigger competitiveness to the companies, and the social and territorial expansion of consumption have affected the organization and the structure of the wholesale companies. In reply, the logistics, as the management of the flow of goods, information and other resources, has enhanced the activities of planning and control. As the logistics becomes more important, a new organization of territory arises, increasing the relationships among places. Thus, we conclude that the wholesale distributors continue exerting a significant role in the intermediation between the industry and small retail. The modernization of Brazilian wholesale companies confirms the link existing between the two circuits of urban economy in Brazil.

  15. Supply Chain Coordination with Buy-back and Wholesale-price Contracts under Random Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azamat Rajapov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase supply chain total profit, we design a supply chain collaboration mechanism between one supplier and one retailer. Throughout the paper we present one supplier and one retailer set up with random demand in a decentralized supply chain. An incentive function on the buy-back cost and wholesale price cost is presented and scheme through the buy-back contract and wholesale-price contract has been developed to enrich the retailer take part in the collaboration ways. Furthermore, the paper shows that, how corporation between buy-back contract and wholesale contract could coordinate the supply chain in both a decentralized and centralized supply chain. Lastly, we set up numerical analyses and the result shows the implied collaboration mechanism is not permit the decentralized system to achieve the same performance as the centralized decision however it allows both members in the supply chain gains profit sharing by setting up the contract parameters.

  16. Wholesale water market application for assured energy certificates allocation among hydroelectric power plants; Aplicacao de um mercado atacadista de agua para reparticao dos certificados de energia assegurada entre usinas hidreletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Andre Dias

    2007-09-15

    The objective of this dissertation is to revise the methodology used in the calculation of assured energy certificates for hydro plants, in particular the relation among the objectives of reliability and market mechanisms with the certificates. The relationship between the economic signals provided by the market 'spot' of electricity with the certificates will be analyzed. It will be shown that the spot price payment does not provide the correct and necessary incentives for the energy certificates allocation in a cascade with agents belonging the different companies. Upstream reservoirs are not property compensated for the regulation of the energy production of the entire cascade and, as solution, alternative scheme to remunerate the water resources (wholesale water market) will be discussed. The assured energy certificates will be calculated with the proposed methodology and compared with nowadays practiced in the Brazilian system. (author)

  17. Automatic Termination of wholesale transactions of electricity and natural gas. A mandatory choice?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Authors argue that wholesale transactions in natural gas and most likely also electricity are subject to sections 38 and 237 of the Dutch Bankruptcy Code (Faillissementswet), the mandatory close-out netting sections. This would imply that parties can only choose for Automatic Termination under the EFET Agreements for power and natural gas wholesale or similar mechanisms, in case of bankruptcy (faillissement) or suspension of payments (surseance van betaling) of Dutch (counter)parties, regardless whether Dutch law applies to the agreement or not

  18. 75 FR 14342 - Market-Based Rates for Wholesale Sales of Electric Energy, Capacity and Ancillary Services by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 35 Market-Based Rates for Wholesale Sales of Electric Energy... INFORMATION CONTACT: Michelle Barnaby (Technical Information), Office of Energy Market Regulation, Federal.... ] 31,291 (2009). \\2\\ 18 CFR 35.42. \\3\\ Market-Based Rates for Wholesale Sales of Electric...

  19. 18 CFR 38.2 - Incorporation by reference of North American Energy Standards Board Wholesale Electric Quadrant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reference of North American Energy Standards Board Wholesale Electric Quadrant standards. 38.2 Section 38.2... UTILITIES § 38.2 Incorporation by reference of North American Energy Standards Board Wholesale Electric... Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of these standards may...

  20. The Australian synchrotron project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Australian Synchrotron to be built at Monash University, is a synchrotron light facility based on a 3-GeV electron storage ring. It is scheduled to be fully operational in 2007. In this paper we describe the accelerator systems that lie at the heart of the facility, and describe the spectral characteristics of the 'light' - ranging from infra-red to hard x-rays - that will be provided from bend magnets, undulators, and wigglers

  1. Australian Hackers and Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Warren

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to look at the way hackers act and ways in which society can protect itself. The paper will show the current views and attitudes of hackers in an Australian context. The paper will also include a case study to show how a hacking incident can develop and how technology can be used to protect against hacking.

  2. Spotting a fake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamonds are highly prized for their dazzling appearance and hardness, but would you be able to spot one that had been created in the laboratory? Simon Lawson describes how physics-based techniques can distinguish between natural and synthetic stones. For the last 50 years or so we have been able to make synthetic diamonds that replicate the superlative physical and chemical properties of natural diamonds, and these are used largely for industrial applications. But in the mind of the consumer, there is far more to a diamond than its hardness or brilliance. Research commissioned by the Diamond Trading Company (DTC) has shown that 94% of women surveyed prefer natural diamonds over synthetic ones as a symbol of love, possibly as a result of the immense age of natural stones. One of the key research activities at the DTC is therefore to ensure that synthetic diamonds can be spotted easily. (U.K.)

  3. Poisson Spot with Magnetic Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Matthew; Everhart, Michael; D'Arruda, Jose

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe a unique method for obtaining the famous Poisson spot without adding obstacles to the light path, which could interfere with the effect. A Poisson spot is the interference effect from parallel rays of light diffracting around a solid spherical object, creating a bright spot in the center of the shadow.

  4. Flying spot scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved flying spot x-ray scanning equipment is described which includes a grid controlled x-ray tube and associated collimators for producing a pencil beam of x-rays. It is possible to control the position of the scan field relative to the patient, to control the width of the scan field and also to independently achieve an arbitary variation in the longitudinal dimension of the scan field. (U.K.)

  5. Spot- Zombie Filtering System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arathy Rajagopal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A major security challenge on the Internet is the existence of the large number of compromised machines. Such machines have been increasingly used to launch various security attacks including spamming and spreading malware, DDoS, and identity theft. These compromised machines are called "Zombies". In general E-mail applications and providers uses spam filters to filter the spam messages. Spam filtering is a technique for discriminating the genuine message from the spam messages. The attackers send the spam messages to the targeted machine by exalting the filters, which causes the increase in false positives and false negatives. We develop an effective spam zombie detection system named SPOT by monitoring outgoing messages of a network. SPOT focuses on the number of outgoing messages that are originated or forwarded by each computer on a network to identify the presence of Zombies. SPOT is designed based on a powerful statistical tool called Sequential Probability Ratio Test, which has bounded false positive and false negative error rates.

  6. Spot- Zombie Filtering System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arathy Rajagopal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A major security challenge on the Internet is the existence of the large number of compromised machines. Such machines have been increasingly used to launch various security attacks including spamming and spreading malware, DDoS, and identity theft. These compromised machines are called “Zombies”. In general E-mail applications and providers uses spam filters to filter the spam messages. Spam filtering is a technique for discriminating the genuine message from the spam messages. The attackers send the spam messages to the targeted machine by exalting the filters, which causes the increase in false positives and false negatives. We develop an effective spam zombie detection system named SPOT by monitoring outgoing messages of a network. SPOT focuses on the number of outgoing messages that are originated or forwarded by each computer on a network to identify the presence of Zombies. SPOT is designed based on a powerful statistical tool called Sequential Probability Ratio Test, which has bounded false positive and false negative error rates.

  7. 76 FR 4554 - Notice of Establishment of the Wholesale Pork Reporting Negotiated Rulemaking Committee; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... Reporting Negotiated Rulemaking Committee (75 FR 71568). In that notice, AMS requested comments on the... were from organizations identified by AMS in the original Notice (75 FR 71568) as being potential... Wholesale Pork Reporting Negotiated Rulemaking Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Agricultural...

  8. 77 FR 50561 - Livestock Mandatory Reporting Program; Establishment of the Reporting Regulation for Wholesale Pork

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... FR 4554). The Committee members were: American Meat Institute; Chicago Mercantile Exchange; Food... Century Economics.'' 2000. The Quarterly Journal of Economics 115(November):1441-1478. The wholesale pork... / Wednesday, August 22, 2012 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural...

  9. 27 CFR 19.773 - Daily record of wholesale liquor dealer and taxpaid storeroom operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... liquor dealer and taxpaid storeroom operations. 19.773 Section 19.773 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Other Records § 19.773 Daily record of wholesale liquor dealer and...

  10. Regulating and supervising of wholesale energy markets : What's in it for the consumers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavrijssen, S.A.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper draws on the case law of the European Court of Justice to examine the current (im)possibilities of dealing with the supervision and regulation of the competition in the wholesale energy markets within the three different European regulatory frameworks, namely the Third Energy Package, REM

  11. 21 CFR 203.50 - Requirements for wholesale distribution of prescription drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... sale, purchase, or trade of such drug. This identifying statement shall include: (1) The proprietary... prescription drugs. 203.50 Section 203.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG MARKETING Wholesale Distribution §...

  12. 77 FR 16951 - Livestock Mandatory Reporting Program; Establishment of the Reporting Regulation for Wholesale Pork

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... considered wholesale pork to packers, processors, retailers, and others in the supply chain. For example, it... the Desk Officer for Agriculture, Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management... readily understood by producers; improves the price and supply reporting services of USDA; and...

  13. 75 FR 19959 - Uilk Wind Farm, LLC; Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Uilk Wind Farm, LLC; Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status April 9, 2010. Take notice that during the month March, 2010, the status of the...

  14. 78 FR 34373 - Flexible and Local Resources Needed for Reliability in the California Wholesale Electric Market...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Flexible and Local Resources Needed for Reliability in the California Wholesale Electric Market; Notice of Staff Technical Conference This notice establishes the location and date for the technical conference directed...

  15. Life cycle analysis with regard to environmental impact of apple wholesale packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Manteuffel Szoege, Henryk; Sobolewska, Agnieszka

    2009-01-01

    A comparison between cardboard and plastic boxes for apple packaging in the wholesale and retail trade has been drawn using the SimaPro programme for life cycle analysis. The environmental impact of using plastic cases was estimated much lower, mainly thanks to their repeated use.

  16. Nash equilibrium strategy in the deregulated power industry and comparing its lost welfare with Iran wholesale electricity market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Seyed Hosein; Nazemi, Ali; Hafezalkotob, Ashkan

    2016-07-01

    With the increasing use of different types of auctions in market designing, modeling of participants' behaviors to evaluate the market structure is one of the main discussions in the studies related to the deregulated power industries. In this article, we apply an approach of the optimal bidding behavior to the Iran wholesale electricity market as a restructured electric power industry and model how the participants of the market bid in the spot electricity market. The problem is formulated analytically using the Nash equilibrium concept composed of large numbers of players having discrete and very large strategy spaces. Then, we compute and draw supply curve of the competitive market in which all generators' proposed prices are equal to their marginal costs and supply curve of the real market in which the pricing mechanism is pay-as-bid. We finally calculate the lost welfare or inefficiency of the Nash equilibrium and the real market by comparing their supply curves with the competitive curve. We examine 3 cases on November 24 (2 cases) and July 24 (1 case), 2012. It is observed that in the Nash equilibrium on November 24 and demand of 23,487 MW, there are 212 allowed plants for the first case (plants are allowed to choose any quantity of generation except one of them that should be equal to maximum Power) and the economic efficiency or social welfare of Nash equilibrium is 2.77 times as much as the real market. In addition, there are 184 allowed plants for the second case (plants should offer their maximum power with different prices) and the efficiency or social welfare of Nash equilibrium is 3.6 times as much as the real market. On July 24 and demand of 42,421 MW, all 370 plants should generate maximum energy due to the high electricity demand that the economic efficiency or social welfare of the Nash equilibrium is about 2 times as much as the real market.

  17. Customer response to day-ahead wholesale market electricity prices: Case study of RTP program experience in New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, C.; Hopper, N.; Sezgen, O.; Moezzi, M.; Bharvirkar, R.; Neenan, B.; Boisvert, R.; Cappers, P.; Pratt, D.

    2004-07-01

    There is growing interest in policies, programs and tariffs that encourage customer loads to provide demand response (DR) to help discipline wholesale electricity markets. Proposals at the retail level range from eliminating fixed rate tariffs as the default service for some or all customer groups to reinstituting utility-sponsored load management programs with market-based inducements to curtail. Alternative rate designs include time-of-use (TOU), day-ahead real-time pricing (RTP), critical peak pricing, and even pricing usage at real-time market balancing prices. Some Independent System Operators (ISOs) have implemented their own DR programs whereby load curtailment capabilities are treated as a system resource and are paid an equivalent value. The resulting load reductions from these tariffs and programs provide a variety of benefits, including limiting the ability of suppliers to increase spot and long-term market-clearing prices above competitive levels (Neenan et al., 2002; Boren stein, 2002; Ruff, 2002). Unfortunately, there is little information in the public domain to characterize and quantify how customers actually respond to these alternative dynamic pricing schemes. A few empirical studies of large customer RTP response have shown modest results for most customers, with a few very price-responsive customers providing most of the aggregate response (Herriges et al., 1993; Schwarz et al., 2002). However, these studies examined response to voluntary, two-part RTP programs implemented by utilities in states without retail competition.1 Furthermore, the researchers had limited information on customer characteristics so they were unable to identify the drivers to price response. In the absence of a compelling characterization of why customers join RTP programs and how they respond to prices, many initiatives to modernize retail electricity rates seem to be stymied.

  18. Towards Inclusion: An Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    This article outlines the views of the Australian Special Education Principals' Association (ASEPA) on inclusion and the impact this is having on Australian Government Schools from a school based perspective. ASEPA is a relatively young association and was formed in 1997 out of the need to put forward the case to support students with special…

  19. NPT review conference: Australian statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article contains the text of statement delivered by the leader of the Australian delegation to the Second Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference in Geneva on August 14, 1980. An outline is given of Australian policy regarding nuclear weapons proliferation

  20. The Spotting Distribution of Wildfires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Martin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In wildfire science, spotting refers to non-local creation of new fires, due to downwind ignition of brands launched from a primary fire. Spotting is often mentioned as being one of the most difficult problems for wildfire management, because of its unpredictable nature. Since spotting is a stochastic process, it makes sense to talk about a probability distribution for spotting, which we call the spotting distribution. Given a location ahead of the fire front, we would like to know how likely is it to observe a spot fire at that location in the next few minutes. The aim of this paper is to introduce a detailed procedure to find the spotting distribution. Most prior modelling has focused on the maximum spotting distance, or on physical subprocesses. We will use mathematical modelling, which is based on detailed physical processes, to derive a spotting distribution. We discuss the use and measurement of this spotting distribution in fire spread, fire management and fire breaching. The appendix of this paper contains a comprehensive review of the relevant underlying physical sub-processes of fire plumes, launching fire brands, wind transport, falling and terminal velocity, combustion during transport, and ignition upon landing.

  1. Marine Biodiversity in the Australian Region

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Alan J.; Rees, Tony; Beesley, Pam; Bax, Nicholas J.

    2010-01-01

    The entire Australian marine jurisdictional area, including offshore and sub-Antarctic islands, is considered in this paper. Most records, however, come from the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) around the continent of Australia itself. The counts of species have been obtained from four primary databases (the Australian Faunal Directory, Codes for Australian Aquatic Biota, Online Zoological Collections of Australian Museums, and the Australian node of the Ocean Biogeographic Information System),...

  2. Working Capital Management, Corporate Performance, and Strategic Choices of the Wholesale and Retail Industry in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-guo Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine the influence of strategic choice on working capital configurations and observe how the relationship between working capital ratio and operational performance differs depending on strategy. By clustering the strategic factors of the wholesale and retail industry, we find three categories of strategies: terminal market strategy, middle market strategy, and hybrid strategy. Using the panel data of the listed companies of the wholesale and retail industry as our sample, we analyze the differences in the ways companies configure working capital, the speed with which working capital adjusts to its target, and the effects of working capital on performance for companies that make different strategic choices. The empirical results suggest that working capital is configured and adjusted to its target in different ways under different competitive strategic choices. This effect is finally transferred to influence the relationship between working capital configuration and operational performance.

  3. Aggregate industrial energy consumer response to wholesale prices in the restructured Texas electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aggregate response of consumers to wholesale price signals is very limited in the restructured Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) market. An overall average own-price elasticity of demand of - 0.000008 for industrial energy consumers served at transmission voltage is estimated using a Symmetric Generalized McFadden cost function model. To date, ERCOT has sought to promote demand response to price signals without reliance on 'stand alone' demand response programs, but with a market structure that is designed to facilitate economic demand response. This very limited responsiveness to wholesale price signals may prove problematic in light of policy decisions to pursue an 'energy only' resource adequacy mechanism for ERCOT. (author)

  4. Testing causal relationships between wholesale electricity prices and primary energy prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We apply the lag-augmented vector autoregression technique to test the Granger-causal relationships among wholesale electricity prices, natural gas prices, and crude oil prices. In addition, by adopting a cross-correlation function approach, we test not only the causality in mean but also the causality in variance between the variables. The results of tests using both techniques show that gas prices Granger-cause electricity prices in mean. We find no Granger-causality in variance among these variables. -- Highlights: •We test the Granger-causality among wholesale electricity and primary energy prices. •We test not only the causality in mean but also the causality in variance. •The results show that gas prices Granger-cause electricity prices in mean. •We find no Granger-causality in variance among these variables

  5. Australian energy consumption and production to 2014-15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The medium to long term outlook for the Australian energy sector is examined, drawing on the ABARE report Australian Energy: Market Developments and Projections to 2014-2015. It is estimated that recent market developments, in particular in the electricity and gas markets, and ongoing policy responses to such things as global climate change, will continue to have profound implications for the energy sector over the medium to longer term. In this environment of uncertainty, high quality and timely information on the future of the energy sector is critical to decision makers. The major input into ABARE's energy projections is the information collected in the biennial fuel and electricity survey. The principal sectors covered by the survey include the mining, manufacturing electricity and gas production sectors. There is also some coverage in the government administration, defence, communications and community services sectors (for example, hospitals and universities). Energy consumption in the sectors not adequately covered by the survey are projected using economic models. These include agriculture, construction, wholesale and retail trade, transport other than rail, finance and insurance, government administration and defence, health and community services, property and business services, cultural and recreational services, personal and other services and residential services. The fuel and electricity survey covers about 5,300 separate establishments in 3,000 organisations. Information is collected on current and expected energy consumption patterns and levels. The projections for these sectors are therefore based on consumers' own expectations about factors that will influence their energy use. Responses to the survey are also supplemented by ABARE projections of the energy requirements of known and planned new projects, such as new minerals processing plants or gas pipelines coming on stream

  6. Real-Time Pricing Decision Making for Retailer-Wholesaler in Smart Grid Based on Game Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Yeming; Gao, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Real-time pricing DSM (demand side management) is widely used to dynamically change or shift the electricity consumption in the smart grid. In this paper, a game decision making scheme is proposed in the smart grid with DSM. The interaction between two retailers and their wholesaler is modeled as a two-stage game model. Considering the competition between two retailers, two different game models are developed in terms of the different action order between retailers and their wholesaler. Throu...

  7. Measuring Unilateral Market Power in Wholesale Electricity Markets: The California Market, 1998–2000

    OpenAIRE

    Wolak, Frank

    2003-01-01

    This paper measures the unilateral incentive each of the five largest electricity suppliers in the California had to exercise market power in the state's wholesale market during the five month period June 1 to September 30 of 1998, 1999 and 2000. Using the actual bids submitted to the California Independent System Operator's (CAISO) real-time energy market, I compute the hourly price elasticity of the ex post residual demand curve faced by each supplier evaluated at the market-clearing price ...

  8. Discussion paper on wholesale ratemaking considerations for sulfur dioxide emissions allowance trading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wessler, E.

    1993-07-01

    The acid rain provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) created an allowance trading program for SO{sub 2} emissions from electric utility power plants. Theoretically, the trading program will provide utilities the flexibility to control their SO{sub 2} emissions at minimum aggregate societal costs. The trading program is a significant change from command-and-control environmental policies. A continuing concern is whether the market-oriented trading program is compatible with the pervasive rate regulation of the electric utility industry. Economists accept traditional rate regulation policies tend to provide incentives for utilities to minimize risks, rather than costs. To the extent that this is true, the allowance trading experiment is not likely to be successful. A number of commenters have described proposals for alternative regulatory policies to provide utilities with appropriate incentives for cost-minimization. These proposals focus on utility incentives at a {open_quotes}macro{close_quotes} level This paper has a {open_quotes}micro{close_quotes} level focus. It examines options for ratemaking that may also influence utility incentives for cost-minimization to provide a structured discussion of the different types of transactions that involve allowances. Emphasis is on the implications of allowance trading on ratemaking for wholesale power sales. Some of the same considerations that apply to wholesale ratemaking may also apply to retail ratemaking. Four generic types of allowance transactions are examined: Type 1: Unbundled Allowance Sales, Type 2: Wholesale Power Sales, Type 3: Pooling Arrangements, and Type 4: Holding Company Transactions. Each of these four generic allowance transactions is assessed along two 3 dimensions: jurisdictional issues and wholesale ratemaking considerations.

  9. Firm Growth in the Retail and Wholesale Trade Sectors – Evidence from Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov; Lang, Åsa; Macuchova, Zuzana; Rudholm, Niklas

    2011-01-01

    To identify the determinants of firm growth within the Swedish retail – and wholesale trade industries during the period 1998- 2004, we analyze a sample of 400 limited companies using quantile regression techniques. Our results indicate that firm growth mainly can be explained by time-invariant firm-specific effects, supporting Penrose’s (1959) suggestion that internal resources such as firm culture, brand loyalty, entrepreneurial skills, and so on, are important determinants of firm growth r...

  10. Wholesale And Retail E-Commerce In Mauritius: Views Of Customers And Employees

    OpenAIRE

    Sawmy Tiruvenee; Damar-Ladkoo Adjnu

    2015-01-01

    The internet triggered a significant rise in e-commerce as many businesses found that the advent of online business provides unparalleled opportunities for organisations to extend their operations overseas. In Mauritius, many retail and wholesale shops have decided to embark in the online experience and are contemplating to launch e-commerce websites, more specifically electronic ordering (e-ordering), where customers can then order for their products without having to move to the outlets. Th...

  11. A Wholesale Price-Based Coordination Scheme to Optimize Supplier Profit in Newsvendor Problems

    OpenAIRE

    I-Ping Huang; Chiuh-Cheng Chyu

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we present a single-period supplier-profit-oriented newsvendor supply chain problem in a stochastic demand framework, where market price will impact demand in multiplicative form. The Weibull distribution is chosen, since this inter-relationship will affect the scale parameter of the distribution. The model is game-theoretic. The supplier determines the wholesale price, whereas the retailer will respond with a market price and order quantity ...

  12. The impact of intermittently renewable energy on Italian wholesale electricity prices: Additional benefits or additional costs?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most studies of the literature find that the development of renewable energy sources determines a decrease in the wholesale prices. Some authors use this finding to state that the current subsidies for renewable technologies cannot be considered as excessive. By carrying out a hybrid analysis (both simulation and ex-post empirical analyses) of the case of photovoltaic energy in Italy, this article demonstrates that this result cannot be generalised. Under market power, an increase in PV production can provide benefits in terms of a wholesale price decrease only beyond a specific threshold and especially if combined with other effects. Otherwise, it is likely that PV development could imply an increase in prices. Therefore, on the one hand, caution is necessary when using the estimated change in wholesale prices to evaluate the net cost for consumers of the supporting policies for renewables: either the simulation-based models or the full empirical analyses may be misleading. On the other hand, if 'decarbonisation' is the main objective, the energy policies should be designed in order to assure a deep and balanced penetration of the clean technologies, regardless of their estimated transitory impact on wholesale prices (and in the meantime reviewing the organisation of power markets). -- Highlights: •We use a hybrid analysis based on a combined approach (both simulation and ex-post empirical analyses). •There is a critical threshold of RES penetration within which prices may increase. •Price increases are more likely with PV rather than with wind power. •Either the simulation models or the full empirical analyses may be misleading. •Caution is necessary when using the results of these analyses for policy decisions

  13. Roaming the Woods of Regulation: Public Intervention vs Firms Cooperation in the Wholesale International Roaming Market

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Manenti; Paolo Lupi

    2006-01-01

    Despite a general trend of lower charges for mobile calls, prices for international roaming calls have remained at levels surprisingly high. The apparent reluctance of European mobile network operators to lower roaming tariffs is generating many antitrust concerns. This paper discusses in a two country - two firm framework, the distortions associated with the functioning of the current system governing wholesale international roaming agreements based on Inter Operator Tariffs (IOTs) and the r...

  14. Regulating and supervising of wholesale energy markets. What's in it for the consumers?

    OpenAIRE

    Bordei, I.; Lavrijssen, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper draws on the case law of the European Court of Justice to examine the current (im)possibilities of dealing with the supervision and regulation of the competition in the wholesale energy markets within the three different European regulatory frameworks, namely the Third Energy Package, REMIT and EU competition law. It contains a critical analysis of the potential of this complex interplay of rules- in itself a burden for the national energy authorities- to contribute to the key obje...

  15. Regulating and supervising of wholesale energy markets: What's in it for the consumers?

    OpenAIRE

    Lavrijssen, S.A.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper draws on the case law of the European Court of Justice to examine the current (im)possibilities of dealing with the supervision and regulation of the competition in the wholesale energy markets within the three different European regulatory frameworks, namely the Third Energy Package, REMIT and EU competition law. It contains a critical analysis of the potential of this complex interplay of rules- in itself a burden for the national energy authorities- to contribute to the key obje...

  16. A Quantitative Analysis of Pricing Behavior in California's Wholesale Electricity Market During Summer 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Joskow; Edward Kahn

    2001-01-01

    We simulate competitive benchmark wholesale prices for electricity in California during the summer of 2000, taking account of changes in natural gas prices, electricity demand, and imports of electricity from other states during this time period. We also examine the impact of changes in the prices of NOx emissions permits on estimated competitive benchmark prices for electricity. The competitive benchmark prices are then compared to actual prices. A significant fraction of the changes in whol...

  17. A wholesale level consumable item inventory model for non-stationary demand patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Robillard, Glenn C.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. military presently manages about 88 billion dollars in spare and repair parts, consumables, and other support items. Department of Defense (DOD) inventory models which help wholesale item managers make inventory decisions concerning these items are based on the assumption that mean demand remains constant over time. In DOD this assumption is rarely met. During periods of declining demand, such as that associated with force reduction or equipment retirement, the inventory models usual...

  18. Market Evolution: Wholesale Electricity Market Design for 21st Century Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, Jaquelin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, Mackay [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ela, Erik [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Arent, Douglas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bloom, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Futch, Matthew [IBM, Northcastle, NY (United States); Kiviluoma, Juha [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espo (Finland); Holtinnen, Hannele [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espo (Finland); Orths, Antje [Energinet.dk (Denmark); Gomez-Lazaro, Emilio [University of Castilla-La Mancha, Real (Spain); Martin-Martinez, Sergio [University of Castilla-La Mancha, Real (Spain); Kukoda, S. [International Copper Association, New York, NY (United States); Garcia, Glycon [International Copper Association, New York, NY (United States); Mikkelsen, Kim M. [Global Green Growth Inst., Seoul (Korea); Yongqiang, Zhao [China National Renewable Energy Center, Beijing (China); Sandholt, Kaare [China National Renewable Energy Center, Beijing (China)

    2013-10-01

    Demand for affordable, reliable, domestically sourced, and low-carbon electricity is on the rise. This growing demand is driven in part by evolving public policy priorities, especially reducing the health and environmental impacts of electricity service and expanding energy access to under-served customers. Consequently, variable renewable energy resources comprise an increasing share ofelectricity generation globally. At the same time, new opportunities for addressing the variability of renewables are being strengthened through advances in smart grids, communications, and technologies that enable dispatchable demand response and distributed generation to extend to the mass market. A key challenge of merging these opportunities is market design -- determining how to createincentives and compensate providers justly for attributes and performance that ensure a reliable and secure grid -- in a context that fully realizes the potential of a broad array of sources of flexibility in both the wholesale power and retail markets. This report reviews the suite of wholesale power market designs in use and under consideration to ensure adequacy, security, and flexibilityin a landscape of significant variable renewable energy. It also examines considerations needed to ensure that wholesale market designs are inclusive of emerging technologies, such as demand response, distributed generation, and storage.

  19. CHANGES ON THE MARKET OF WHOLESALE COMPANIES SELLING PLANTS AND FLOWERS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid Olewnicki

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available  The aim of the study was to evaluate the changes in the number of plants and fl owers wholesale companies in Poland. Analyses focused on the number of fi rms engaged in wholesale trade and the structure of employment in these companies. The investigations also included the location of the analysed companies in relation to the number of people in each voivodeship. Research period covered the years 2002-2012. The fi rst year of the analysed period was referred to as of 100%. The dynamics of changes and average annual changes in the number of existing companies and start-ups were analysed. The Główny Urząd Statystyczny yearbooks, and i.a. the ones of the Polska Klasyfi kacja Działalności [the abbreviation in Polish: PKD], served as data sources. The performed investigations reveal that the number of fi rms of the discussed line of business in the investigated period increased very clearly and this rise took the form of a linear trend. What is more, the number of the wholesale companies in particular voivodeships matched the agglomerations of consumers.

  20. Condition on price in contracts of petrol delivery at wholesale and retail in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irkyagul A. Sadriyevа

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to reveal the peculiarities of forming conditions on price in contracts on delivery of oil products in wholesale and retail markets on thenbspbasis of analysis of legislation and law enforcement practice and to substantiate the proposals concerning the necessity to codify in the legislation the rule that a condition on price in the petrol delivery contract is an essential condition. Methods the methodological basis of the study includes general logical methods analysis induction analogy research synthesis and specific scientific methods of interpretation of law comparative law survey method. Results normative legal acts legal practice and theoretical ideas on price were analyzed. The expediency of the legal rule isnbsp grounded which stipulates that the condition on price in the petrol delivery contract is essential. The peculiarities are revealed of forming the conditions on price in the petrol delivery contracts in wholesale and retail markets. Scientific novelty the article attempts to divide the conditions of price forming on the wholesale and retail markets of oil products supplies. Thenbspconcept is formulated of price in petrol delivery contracts reflecting the specifics of relations in this sphere through analysis of court practice and petrol delivery contracts. Practical significance the conclusions of the research can be used in the field of legislative activity to improve the civil legislation on the petrol delivery contract. The article can be used in educational process for preparing special courses on civil and business law in the law schools. nbsp

  1. Advances in spot curing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review of spot curing technology was presented. The process which a spot of energy of a specific wavelength bandwidth and irradiance is used to cause a coating, encapsulant or adhesive to change from a liquid to a solid state

  2. An Australian Sense of Xenophobia

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Burney

    2009-01-01

    Linda Burney of the Wiradjuri Nation and Minister for Community Services in New South Wales discusses how xenophobia has manifested itself as forms of political and institutional racism in Australian history. She asks us to think of Australia as a giant and beautiful mosaic with over 200 Aboriginal Nations and for the rest of the Australian population to welcome ways to work with all its nation's people.

  3. Learner discipline: An Australian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    STEWART, D.

    2004-01-01

    Australian schools by and large are safe schools. Nonetheless discipline problems do exist – including bullying behaviour. For this kind of problem schools should have management policies in place. As traditional behaviour-management practices – including corporal punishment – are largely prohibited in Australian schools, contemporary practices centre on management through supportive school programmes, including appropriate curricula and school-support structures. This article supports the be...

  4. Chinese Rebalancing and Australian Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Gerard Kelly

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese authorities plan to gradually rebalance the composition of Chinese economic growth from investment towards household consumption. This article uses the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) to give a general sense of how this rebalancing might affect Australian exports and economic activity. Dollar for dollar, Chinese investment appears to absorb more than twice as much Australian value-added output as Chinese household consumption. This largely reflects the significant role of resou...

  5. Prospects for Australian uranium exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the focus of this paper is Australian uranium exports, the status of other energy minerals is also discussed briefly. The size of its uranium resources has given Australia the opportunity to become a major exporter; however, it is estimated that any major long-term expansion of uranium production hinges on favourable market conditions and on major changes in the Australian government's policy towards the industry. 4 tabs., ill

  6. Big data integration shows Australian bush-fire frequency is increasing significantly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Ritaban; Das, Aruneema; Aryal, Jagannath

    2016-01-01

    Increasing Australian bush-fire frequencies over the last decade has indicated a major climatic change in coming future. Understanding such climatic change for Australian bush-fire is limited and there is an urgent need of scientific research, which is capable enough to contribute to Australian society. Frequency of bush-fire carries information on spatial, temporal and climatic aspects of bush-fire events and provides contextual information to model various climate data for accurately predicting future bush-fire hot spots. In this study, we develop an ensemble method based on a two-layered machine learning model to establish relationship between fire incidence and climatic data. In a 336 week data trial, we demonstrate that the model provides highly accurate bush-fire incidence hot-spot estimation (91% global accuracy) from the weekly climatic surfaces. Our analysis also indicates that Australian weekly bush-fire frequencies increased by 40% over the last 5 years, particularly during summer months, implicating a serious climatic shift. PMID:26998312

  7. Coulomb explosion of "hot spot"

    CERN Document Server

    Oreshkin, V I; Chaikovsky, S A; Artyomov, A P

    2016-01-01

    The study presented in this paper has shown that the generation of hard x rays and high-energy ions, which are detected in pinch implosion experiments, may be associated with the Coulomb explosion of the hot spot that is formed due to the outflow of the material from the pinch cross point. During the process of material outflow, the temperature of the hot spot plasma increases, and conditions arise for the plasma electrons to become continuously accelerated. The runaway of electrons from the hot spot region results in the buildup of positive space charge in this region followed by a Coulomb explosion. The conditions for the hot spot plasma electrons to become continuously accelerated have been revealed and estimates have been obtained for the kinetic energy of the ions generated by the Coulomb explosion.

  8. How to Spot Health Fraud

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bioterrorism and Drug Preparedness How to Spot Health Fraud Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... health fraud. --P.K. Joining Forces to Fight Fraud Health fraud isn't confined to the United ...

  9. The surveillance of the electricity wholesale market and emission trading market; Die Ueberwachung von Stromgrosshandelsmarkt und Emissionshandelsmarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luedemann, Volker [Hochschule Osnabrueck (Germany). Forschungszentrum Energiewirtschaft/Energierecht (fee); Hochschule Osnabrueck (Germany). Wirtschafts- und Wettbewerbsrecht; Konar, Selma [Sozietaet Becker Buettner Held, Muenchen (Germany)

    2015-05-15

    The Regulation on Wholesale Market Integrity and Transparency (REMIT) and the German Law on the Establishment of a Market Transparency Office for Wholesale Trade in Electricity and Gas (MTS-G) have fundamentally changed the surveillance of electricity wholesale trade in Germany. From now on the Federal Network Agency and the Federal Cartel Office will be jointly responsible for monitoring the electricity wholesale trade for suspicious market phenomena and abusive behaviour. The REMIT specifies that the electricity trade must be surveilled ''with due consideration to interactions'' with the emission trade system. However, occurrences observed in recent years have shown that the emission trading system is in need of reform. This has also been recognised and has prompted extensive corrective action by the regulatory authorities of the European Union. These changes have yet to be transposed into the national surveillance regimes. The present article explains why the new role accorded to the Federal Network Agency under the REMIT fails to eliminate the structural shortcomings of the old surveillance system. At least the decision to put the collection and evaluation of data exclusively in the hands of the market transparency office and the cooperation this will prompt between the supervisory authorities responsible will make the task of surveilling the energy wholesale trading market a lot easier for the authorities. The energy transition and its exigencies will yet lead to further changes in the market and its surveillance regime.

  10. Hot spots in fiber pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented on the behavior of ''bright spots'' in carbon and deuterium fiber Z-pinches using the MAGPIE generator at the I MA current level. The experimental diagnosis was carried out using optical and X-ray framing and streak images, along with Schlieren and shadowgraphy laser probing. After a short (∼4 ns) duration formation phase, these bright spots exhibit highly dynamic behavior. Bifurcation of the bright spots gives rise to rapid axial motion at 1-3x105 m/sec. The post-bifurcation bright spots persist for up to 40 ns. The important features of bright spot evolution can be reproduced using a 2-D MHD code incorporating LTE ionization dynamics and cold start conditions. Construction of ''artificial'' diagnostic images from the simulation data allows direct comparison to experiment. From the close agreement between experiment and 2-D simulation we infer that the observed bright spot behavior can be explained entirely in terms of the non-linear evolution of the m=0 instability

  11. Evolution of Wholesale Electricity Market Design with Increasing Levels of Renewable Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Bloom, A.; Botterud, A.; Townsend, A.; Levin, T.

    2014-09-01

    Variable generation such as wind and photovoltaic solar power has increased substantially in recent years. Variable generation has unique characteristics compared to the traditional technologies that supply energy in the wholesale electricity markets. These characteristics create unique challenges in planning and operating the power system, and they can also influence the performance and outcomes from electricity markets. This report focuses on two particular issues related to market design: revenue sufficiency for long-term reliability and incentivizing flexibility in short-term operations. The report provides an overview of current design and some designs that have been proposed by industry or researchers.

  12. The Impact of Catfish Imports on the U.S. Wholesale and Farm Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad, Andrew; Neal, Sammy J.; Hanson, Terrill R.; Jones, Keithly G.

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the impact of catfish imports and tariffs on the U.S. catfish industry, with particular focus on the U.S. International Trade Commission ruling on Vietnam in 2003. Given the importance of Vietnam to the U.S. catfish market, it was assumed that catfish import prices would increase by 35 percent if the maximum tariff was imposed on catfish from Vietnam. With the tariff, domestic catfish prices at the wholesale level would increase by $0.06 per l...

  13. Relative efficiency benefits of wholesale and retail competition in electricity: An analysis and a research agenda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohi, D R; Palmer, K L [Resources for the Future, Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-03-01

    A central issue in the debate over restructuring the electric power industry is the extent to which the market should be open to competition. One aspect of this debate is whether competition ought to be restricted to the whole sale power market or be extended to final retail consumers. This report begins to explore the potential differences in economic efficiency between wholesale and retail competition in the electric power industry. The two market-structure scenarios are defined and the factors responsible for differences in efficiency are described. The report also contains an assessment of the relative importance of the factors and recommendations for pursuing further research.

  14. VOCATIONAL TRAINING FOR RETAIL /WHOLESALE: AN EU-SURVEY OF 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Bernd Hallier

    2011-01-01

    Kicked by findings from scenarios for 2020 about the future change of quantitative and qualitative demands in labour force the EU initiated activities for the industrial sectors to explore ideas how to support change management and to build networks on the way towards European Sector Councils. For retail /wholesale a survey was started to check within the 27 EU countries how • they are prepared for the changes/they prepare the changes • what the topics of the present and future vocational tra...

  15. Moscow wholesale market meat delicacies and sausages in late 1999 and early 2000.

    OpenAIRE

    Sidorchuk, Roman

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of our marketing research is to obtain an overview of the status of the Moscow wholesale market meat delicacies and sausages at the end of 2000. The study was laid expert method, which includes: choice of the form the survey of experts, the definition of the structure and strength of the expert group, the development of survey methodology, survey, list of problems. By the expert survey involved managers and specialists, who know how deeply the problem of organization as a whole,...

  16. Changing Patterns of Governance for Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Kay; Treadgold, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    Dissatisfaction with the "corporate" model for university governance, a model advocated by both sides of the Australian parliament and adopted by Australian universities over the past two decades, prompted the Australian Vice-Chancellors' Committee (AVCC) in 2003 to suggest an alternative "trusteeship" model. The paper discusses how this model…

  17. Competition compliant wholesale electricity prices. An examination of the regulation on the integrity and transparency of wholesale energy market; Wettbewerbskonforme Stromgrosshandelspreise. Eine Untersuchung der Verordnung ueber die Integritaet und Transparenz des Energiegrosshandelsmarkts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konar, Selma

    2015-07-01

    The development of wholesale electricity prices showed in recent years a very fluctuating course. The starting point for ensuring competitive compliant electricity prices have uniform rules that establish effective competition in the overall wholesale electricity, ensure greater transparency in the market and prohibit market abuse influence exercised on the wholesale price. The REMIT regulation creates a first union-law rules to this standardized specifications. The volume first examines the transparency, competitiveness, and supervisory structures in the wholesale electricity before legislating a regulation. It is clear, as the transparency and supervisory structures should be designed from the wholesale electricity ideally. On this basis, the work is dealing with the REMIT regulation. The author works out to market participants relevant notification and publication requirements, the follow-up demands on the company as well as the now existing prohibitions on market abuse and the related penalty catalog and analyze the supervisory structures newly created in the wholesale electricity. Here, the work also identified the weaknesses of the regulation and shows suitable solution approaches. [German] Die Entwicklung der Stromgrosshandelspreise zeigte in den letzten Jahren einen sehr schwankenden Verlauf. Ausgangspunkt fuer die Gewaehrleistung wettbewerbskonformer Strompreise sind einheitliche Bestimmungen, die im gesamten Stromgrosshandel einen funktionierenden Wettbewerb etablieren, fuer mehr Transparenz am Markt sorgen und marktmissbraeuchliche Einflussnahmen auf den Grosshandelspreis verbieten. Die REMIT-Verordnung schafft als erstes unionsrechtliches Regelwerk hierzu einheitliche Vorgaben. Der Band untersucht zunaechst die Transparenz-, Wettbewerbs-, und Aufsichtsstrukturen im Stromgrosshandel vor Erlass der Verordnung. Dabei wird deutlich, wie die Transparenz- und Aufsichtsstrukturen im Stromgrosshandel idealerweise ausgestaltet sein sollten. Auf dieser Grundlage

  18. BOOMERANG - the Australian light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A proposal has been prepared for the installation in Australia of a national high performance synchrotron light facility called Boomerang. The Boomerang proposal had its origin in the establishment of the Australian Synchrotron Research Program (ASRP) which was one of the seven Major National Research Facilities announced by the Federal Government in December 1995. The ASRP provides the opportunity and funding for Australian researchers to access international synchrotron facilities, specifically two consortia at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at the Argonne National Laboratory, USA and continued interaction with the Photon Factory at the KEK Laboratory in Japan. The ASRP was the successor to the Australian National Beamline Facility project (ANBF) which began in 1991 following the ASTEC inquiry titled 'Small Country - Big Science'. The Federal Government also provided funding for a Feasibility Study to determine the value of establishing an Australian-based synchrotron radiation facility. The Feasibility Study was completed in August 1998 and endorsed by the institutional members of the ASRP and the research community in general. The study concluded that, on the data available in Australia, there was a strong case for the installation of an Australian-based facility. The study considered several options for an Australian-based facility and recommended that these options and the data supporting the general conclusions receive further investigation. A mission was arranged to a select group of overseas laboratories to explore these questions in detail. The review team included a mix of scientific and industrial experience and also represented the interests of the ASRP and an Industrial Synchrotron Consortium based in Victoria. Based on the conclusions of the overseas mission and incorporating the advice of all international specialists in the design and use of synchrotron facilities consulted during the mission, the most cost-effective option was an extended

  19. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy - An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Ray P.; Hamacher, Duane W.

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical component includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, and this knowledge was used for practical purposes such as constructing calendars. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, paid careful attention to unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts, and could determine the cardinal points to an accuracy of a few degrees.

  20. Strategies for Washing Australian Coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackinnon, W.L.A.; Swanson, A.R. [Downer EDI Engineering Projects Pty. Ltd. QCC, East Maitland, NSW (Australia)

    2010-07-01

    This article represents a distillation of QCC's experience over the last 20 years in developing coal-washing circuits to optimize coal recoveries for a wide range of Australian coals. The article will look at typical washabilities and product types to capture the general washing requirements. The major processing equipment will be reviewed as to their typical usage in the Australian context. From this background the processing circuits and strategies commonly used will be discussed for the relevant coal types, including hard coking coal, semi-hard coking coal, PCI, export thermal, and domestic thermal coal from the major producing regions in NSW and Queensland.

  1. Australian uranium and the election

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international and national complexities of the situation in Australia over the question of mining of the country's large and rich uranium deposits are explored with especial reference to the pending general election. The present position is ironical since access to low cost uranium would give a welcome boost to the nuclear industry which is enthusiastically supported by the Australian prime minister and his colleagues yet the Australian government is unable to promote mining as rapidly as it would like because of the international commitments it has made to provide a justification for its policy. (U.K.)

  2. A study on electricity export capability of the μCHP system with spot price

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Træholt, Chresten; Poulsen, Bjarne

    2009-01-01

    When a number of muCHP systems are aggregated as a virtual power plant (VPP), they will be able to participate in the electricity wholesale market with no discrimination compared to conventional large power plants. Hence, this paper investigates the electricity export capability of the muCHP system...... when the electricity buyback price is given at a value equalizing the dynamic spot price. A muCHP system is modeled with optimized generation, and the marginal price of electricity export for such system is explained. A sensitivity analysis of several key factors, e.g. fuel price, heat to power ratio...... of the muCHP unit, which influence the export capability of muCHP system, is firstly carried out in the intraday case study, followed by the annual case study which explores the annual system performance. The results show that the electricity export capability of a muCHP system is closely related to...

  3. MX1: a bending-magnet crystallography beamline serving both chemical and macromolecular crystallography communities at the Australian Synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The macromolecular crystallography beamline MX1 at the Australian Synchrotron is described. MX1 is a bending-magnet crystallography beamline at the 3 GeV Australian Synchrotron. The beamline delivers hard X-rays in the energy range from 8 to 18 keV to a focal spot at the sample position of 120 µm FWHM. The beamline endstation and ancillary equipment facilitate local and remote access for both chemical and biological macromolecular crystallography. Here, the design of the beamline and endstation are discussed. The beamline has enjoyed a full user program for the last seven years and scientific highlights from the user program are also presented

  4. Counterfeit medication: Perception of doctors and medical wholesale distributors in western India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Anup; Tambi, Swasti; Biswas, Gautam; Ganta, Shravani; Kumawat, Himanshu; Mathur, Gaurav

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fake drugs and active pharmaceutical ingredients most often originate in emerging industrial economies before entering the global market. Health care workers play a crucial role in detecting and preventing the distribution of counterfeit medicines. Aim: The present study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of doctors and medicine wholesale distributors regarding counterfeit medication in western India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among 300 participants consisting of 100 medical practitioners, 100 dental practitioners, and 100 medical storekeepers. Results: It was observed that medical practitioners had more knowledge, followed by medical storekeepers and dental practitioners (mean 2.82, 2.52, and 2.37, respectively). Dental practitioners had the best attitude, followed by medical practitioners and wholesale distributors (mean 1.77, 1.76, and 1.55, respectively). Best practice behaviors were observed in medical storekeepers followed by medical practitioners and dental practitioners (mean 1.46, 1.29, and 1.12, respectively). Conclusion: The study points out the need for designing and implementing continuing educational programs and enforcement of vigilant laws. PMID:25984469

  5. Wholesale And Retail E-Commerce In Mauritius: Views Of Customers And Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawmy Tiruvenee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The internet triggered a significant rise in e-commerce as many businesses found that the advent of online business provides unparalleled opportunities for organisations to extend their operations overseas. In Mauritius, many retail and wholesale shops have decided to embark in the online experience and are contemplating to launch e-commerce websites, more specifically electronic ordering (e-ordering, where customers can then order for their products without having to move to the outlets. The aim of this study was to provide a thorough understanding of the several benefits and problems associated with the adoption of an e-commerce website by wholesale and retail shops. The following were done: an assessment of the readiness of customers to go online and an evaluation of employees’ motivation and opinion towards the implementation of e-commerce. The study mainly revealed that majority of the respondents had never purchased online and a significant number of customers were reluctant to order online despite the various guarantees provided. Moreover, 56% of the employees were against the implementation of an e-commerce website as they related it to an increased workload or a waste of resources. Consequently, relevant recommendations catering for all stakeholders were formulated for successful implementation of an e-commerce website.

  6. Game Theoretic Modeling of NGANs: Impact of Retail and Wholesale Services Price Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Pereira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for broadband access leads operators to upgrade the existing access infrastructures (or building new access network. Broadband access networks require higher investments (especially passive infrastructures such as trenches/ducts and base station towers/masts, and before making any decision it is important to analyze all solutions. The selection of the best solution requires understanding the technical possibilities and limitations of the different access technologies, as well as understanding the costs of building and operating the networks. This study analyzes the effect of asymmetric retail and wholesale prices on operators’ NPV, profit, consumer surplus, welfare, retail market, wholesale market, and so on. For that, we propose a tehno-economic model complemented by a theoretic-game model. This tool identifies all the essential costs of building (and operating access networks, and performs a detailed analysis and comparison of the different solutions in various scenarios. Communities, operators/service providers, and regulators can use this tool to compare different technological solutions, forecast deployment costs, compare different scenarios, and so on, and help them in making deployment (or regulatory decisions. The game-theory analyses give a better understanding of the competition and its effect on the business case scenarios’ economic results.

  7. The Australian solar scene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowley, Paul [IT Power Australia (Australia)

    2007-06-15

    This presentation mainly talks about the actions taken by the Australian country concerning the use of renewable energy and the reduction of the peak load in some areas. In the first part, there are found both the geographical aspects as well as the major political, e.g. Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean development and Climate. There are also explained the issues related to peak load growth and it is shown a comparison graphic having information about the most used photovoltaic systems. Then, there are mentioned the communities that are testing one of the model photovoltaic systems in order to: reduce the peak load, use the energy in a properly way, reduce the energy cost, among others. Finally, it is succinctly explained the photovoltaic rebate program as well as the use of the off-grid systems, besides, it is given relevant information about those remote communities of Australia and the benefits of the implementation of Bushlight. [Spanish] Esta presentacion trata primordialmente de las acciones, referentes al uso de energia renovable, tomadas por Australia y creadas con el fin de reducir la maxima demanda en algunas regiones de este pais. En la primera parte, se encuentran tanto los aspectos geograficos como los principales aspectos politicos; por ejemplo, la Sociedad Asia-Pacifico para el Desarrollo no Contaminante y el Clima. Asimismo, se da una explicacion acerca de las cuestiones relacionadas al crecimiento de la maxima demanda; ademas, se muestra un cuadro comparativo, que contiene informacion relacionada con los sistemas fotovoltaicos mas utilizados. Despues, se mencionan aquellas comunidades que tienen en periodo de prueba alguno de los modelos fotovoltaicos con el fin de: reducir la maxima demanda, utilizar eficientemente la energia, reducir el costo de la misma, entre otros aspectos mas. Finalmente, se explica escuetamente el programa de reembolso centrado en el uso de sistemas fotovoltaicos, asi como el uso de sistemas asilados de la red; ademas, se

  8. Stress Literacy in Australian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlow, Megan; Wuthrich, Viviana; Murrihy, Rachael; Remond, Louise; Tuqiri, Rebekka; van Kessel, Jacobine; Wheatley, Anna; Dedousis-Wallace, Anna; Kidman, Antony

    2009-01-01

    Stress literacy is a term that refers to knowledge about stress and stress management techniques. Levels of stress literacy were examined in more than nine hundred Australian adolescents by providing a short stress-management education session and assessing stress literacy using a pre-post survey design. It was found that while adolescents had a…

  9. Staff Bullying in Australian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Dan; Duncan, Deirdre J.; Edwards, John

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to estimate the prevalence of staff bullying in Australian schools, to identify bullies and targets and to examine some implications for school leaders in dealing with staff bullying. Design/methodology/approach: The quantitative research design survey instrument contained 11 demographic items, 44 questions of…

  10. Laser based spot weld characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonietz, Florian; Myrach, Philipp; Rethmeier, Michael; Suwala, Hubert; Ziegler, Mathias

    2016-02-01

    Spot welding is one of the most important joining technologies, especially in the automotive industry. Hitherto, the quality of spot welded joints is tested mainly by random destructive tests. A nondestructive testing technique offers the benefit of cost reduction of the testing procedure and optimization of the fabrication process, because every joint could be examined. This would lead to a reduced number of spot welded joints, as redundancies could be avoided. In the procedure described here, the spot welded joint between two zinc-coated steel sheets (HX340LAD+Z100MB or HC340LA+ZE 50/50) is heated optically on one side. Laser radiation and flash light are used as heat sources. The melted zone, the so called "weld nugget" provides the mechanical stability of the connection, but also constitutes a thermal bridge between the sheets. Due to the better thermal contact, the spot welded joint reveals a thermal behavior different from the surrounding material, where the heat transfer between the two sheets is much lower. The difference in the transient thermal behavior is measured with time resolved thermography. Hence, the size of the thermal contact between the two sheets is determined, which is directly correlated to the size of the weld nugget, indicating the quality of the spot weld. The method performs well in transmission with laser radiation and flash light. With laser radiation, it works even in reflection geometry, thus offering the possibility of testing with just one-sided accessibility. By using heating with collimated laser radiation, not only contact-free, but also remote testing is feasible. A further convenience compared to similar thermographic approaches is the applicability on bare steel sheets without any optical coating for emissivity correction. For this purpose, a proper way of emissivity correction was established.

  11. Color tunable LED spot lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelen, C.; Ansems, J.; Deurenberg, P.; van Duijneveldt, W.; Peeters, M.; Steenbruggen, G.; Treurniet, T.; Valster, A.; ter Weeme, J. W.

    2006-08-01

    A new trend in illumination is to use dynamic light to set or dynamically vary the ambience of a room or office. For this we need color tunable spots that can reliably vary over at least a wide range of color temperatures, and preferably also more saturated colors. LEDs are in principle ideally suited for this application thanks to their nature of emitting light in a relatively narrow band. For color tunable spot lighting based on the concept of mixing RGB LED colors, the key results have been presented before. Limitations of these 3-intrinsic-color mixing systems with high color rendering properties are found in a limited operating temperature range due to wavelength shifts, a limited color temperature range, and a low maximum operating temperature due to a strong flux decrease with increasing temperature. To overcome these limitations, a 3-color R pcGB system with phosphor-converted red (R pc) and a 4-color RAGB system have been investigated. With both systems, a CRI of at least 80 can be maintained over the relevant color temperature range of approximately 2700 K to 6500 K. In this paper we compare these concepts on overall system aspects and report on the performance of prototype spot lamps. The main features of the RAGB and R pcGB spot lamp concepts can be summarized as: 1) The RAGB spot overcomes CRI and gamut shortcomings of RGB light sources and gives much freedom in wavelength selection, but suffers from temperature sensitivity and complex controls; 2) The R pcGB spot overcomes shortcomings concerning CRI and thermal dependence of RGB sources and enables relatively simple controls, but needs an improved overall red efficacy. With both color concepts, prototype spot lamps have been built. The amber to red emitting nitridosilicate-based phosphors can be wavelength-tuned for optimal performance, which is found at a peak emission around 610 nm for high color quality systems. This results in a simple and very robust system with good color consistency. For the

  12. Is this Red Spot the Blue Spot (locus ceruleum)?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Won Sick; Lee, Yu Kyung; Lee, Min Kyung; Hwang, Kyung Hoon [Gachon University Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    The authors report brain images of 18F-FDG-PET in a case of schizophrenia. The images showed strikingly increased bilateral uptake in the locus ceruleum. The locus ceruleum is called the blue spot and known to be a center of the norepinephrinergic system.

  13. Fatal Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Rutherford, Jeremiah S.; Macaluso, Kevin; Smith, Nathaniel; Zaki, Sherif R.; Paddock, Christopher D.; Davis, Jon; Peterso, Norman; Azad, Abdu F.; Rosenberg, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    We report a fatal case of rickettsiosis in a woman from the United States living in Kenya, who had a history of tick exposure. Immunohistochemical staining of skin, kidney, and liver demonstrated spotted fever group rickettsiae. The clinical findings, severity, and fatal outcome are most consistent with Rickettsia conorii infection.

  14. 77 FR 27763 - Quantum Choctaw Power, LLC, USG Nevada LLC, et al.; Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Quantum Choctaw Power, LLC, USG Nevada LLC, et al.; Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status Docket Nos. Quantum Choctaw Power, LLC EG12-31-000 USG...

  15. 40 CFR 80.574 - What labeling requirements apply to retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers of ECA marine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a sulfur content greater than 1,000 ppm in an ECA is prohibited except as allowed by 40 CFR Part... retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers of ECA marine fuel beginning June 1, 2014? 80.574 Section 80.574... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and...

  16. 27 CFR 31.52 - Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. 31.52 Section 31.52 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Exemptions...

  17. 75 FR 11530 - Crystal Lake Wind III, LLC, et al.; Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Crystal Lake Wind III, LLC, et al.; Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status March 4, 2010. Docket Nos. Crystal Lake Wind III, LLC EG10-6-000...

  18. Optimal Willingness to Supply Wholesale Electricity Under Asymmetric Linearized Marginal Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hudgins

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This analysis derives the profit-maximizing willingness to supply functions for single-plant and multi-plant wholesale electricity suppliers that all incur linear marginal costs. The optimal strategy must result in linear residual demand functions in the absence of capacity constraints. This necessarily leads to a linear pricing rule structure that can be used by firm managers to construct their offer curves and to serve as a benchmark to evaluate firm profit-maximizing behavior. The procedure derives the cost functions and the residual demand curves for merged or multi-plant generators, and uses these to construct the individual generator plant offer curves for a multi-plant firm.

  19. Retail and wholesale buying behaviour for two different food products in six Eastern European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Skytte, Hans

    Poland and hence do not have the resources necessary to employ people whose sole task it is to buy fish or cheese. Buying therefore often becomes a management responsibility. Furthermore, whereas buying committees are in widespread use in Central Europe, none of the Baltic retailers had such committees...... implications and areas for future research. We propose that in the long term, the best strategy for Danish food exporters is to approach a number of key retailers and establish close relationships with these retailers in order to fulfil their specific requirements. Theoretically, we conclude that retail and...... wholesale buying behaviour in Eastern Europe can be analysed using concepts developed for studying retail buying behaviour in Western Europe. Finally, we believe that further research is needed regarding the importance of individual criteria, the relationship between economic development and the buying...

  20. Nazi medical experiments on Australian prisoners of war: Commentary on the testimony of an Australian soldier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, George M

    2015-12-01

    Archival research reveals that Australian prisoners of war were exposed to non-consensual medical experiments during World War II. This article discusses the first known case of an Australian soldier exposed to German medical experiments. PMID:26939510

  1. Empirical assessment of market power in the Alberta wholesale electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the 1990s, many countries began to unbundle regulated electricity monopolies into generation, transmission, distribution and retail companies. Transmission and distribution services remained regulated, but generation and retail services were open for competition. Wholesale and retail electricity markets were created. This paper presented a newly developed competitiveness index specifically for the Alberta market through a simple and standard economic approach. The Alberta Electric Utilities Act came into effect in January 1996. This paper described how the Alberta wholesale electricity market works and demonstrated how to model market power in the electricity market. In this study, power generating companies in Alberta were divided into 2 groups. The first group contained the 5 largest firms called strategic firms, while the other group contained the small generating companies called non-strategic firms or the competitive fringe. In the sample years 2003 and 2004, strategic firms withheld capacity when price was above marginal cost and behaved within the range of competitive pricing. They were more likely to price competitively than to use unilateral market power prices. In addition, firms had higher price-cost margins during the off-peak season. This paper explained in detail the reason for this unusual off-peak pattern. The index to measure a firm's strategic behaviour in the Alberta electricity market was developed according to price-cost margin data where firm-behaviour effect was distinguished from the demand-elasticity effect. It was concluded that policy-makers and regulations should consider the magnitude and source of market power when designing market structure, rules and trading practices. 9 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs

  2. How safe is Australian Radiotherapy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many incidents and near-incidents are known to occur in Australian radiation oncology departments. The vast majority of incidents are minor in nature; however a small percentage represent major threats to good patient care, administrative structures and public confidence. A small but regular number of incidents result in ad-hoc local and/or State committees of inquiry or Tort actions and inevitably have substantial personal and departmental repercussions. Apart from some local databases on treatment delivery incidents maintained by radiation therapists, no systematic data collection or analysis of treatment incidents exists for radiation oncology in Australia. This paper argues the case for a prospective, systematic approach to the recording and analysis of treatment-related incidents and near incidents. Major barriers to such a scheme, including fear of litigation, misuse of information and lack of understanding on the nature of an incident are discussed. Copyright (2003) Australian Institute of Radiography

  3. Research Output of Australian Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm Abbot; Hristos Doucouliagos

    2003-01-01

    Research plays an important role in underpinning a country’s economic and social life. Universities are at the centre of the research and human capital generating process. The aim of this paper is to explore the links between research output, research income, academic and non-academic labour and some of the characteristics of Australian universities. The results indicate that research income, academic staff and post-graduates are all positively associated with research output. There are notic...

  4. Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2010-06-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of Australian Aboriginal accounts of meteors. The data used were taken from anthropological and ethnographic literature describing oral traditions, ceremonies, and Dreamings of 97 Aboriginal groups representing all states of modern Australia. This revealed common themes in the way meteors were viewed between Aboriginal groups, focusing on supernatural events, death, omens, and war. The presence of such themes around Australia was probably due to the unpredictable nature of meteors in an otherwise well-ordered cosmos.

  5. Time Travel: Australian Tourists and Britain's Past

    OpenAIRE

    Richard White

    2012-01-01

    Across the twentieth century, Britain drew more Australian tourists for longer and more intense experiences than anywhere else, though as early as the 1970s Asia was attracting more Australians than Europe. They found much to admire and to deprecate in Britain but above all they were seduced by Britain’s past, or what they imagined it to be. This paper examines the Australian experience of history in Britain, their admiration for notions of tradition, for an unchanging village life, for fadin...

  6. Immune dysfunction in Australian Aborigines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Thomson, P J; Roberts-Thomson, R A; Nikoloutsopoulos, T; Gillis, D

    2005-12-01

    An examination of the prevalence and phenotype of immune disorders in different ethnic groups may provide important clues to the etiopathogenesis of these disorders. Whilst still conjectural the restricted and somewhat unique polymorphisms of the MHC (and other genetic loci involving host defences) of the Australian Aborigines may provide an explanation for their apparent heightened susceptibility to newly encountered infections and their resistance to many (auto) immune and allergic disorders. In comparison with non-Aboriginal Australians, Australian Aborigines have heightened frequencies of rheumatic fever, systemic lupus erythematosus, various infections and post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. In contrast various autoimmune disorders (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, CREST, biliary cirrhosis, coeliac disease, pernicious anaemia, vitiligo), B27 related arthropathies, psoriasis, lymphoproliferative disorders and atopic disorders appear infrequent or absent. Similarly various autoantibodies occur with increased or diminished frequency. With continuing racial admixture, social deprivation and deleterious lifestyles of these people it is likely that further changes in both the frequencies and phenotype of these immune disorders will occur. It is only with a full understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms involved in these immune disorders that meaningful and clinical relevant interventions will be possible. PMID:16572744

  7. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: Statistics and Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment Statistics ...

  8. Improvements on analytic modelling of stellar spots

    CERN Document Server

    Montalto, M; Oshagh, M; Boisse, I; Bruno, G; Santos, N C

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present the solution of the stellar spot problem using the Kelvin-Stokes theorem. Our result is applicable for any given location and dimension of the spots on the stellar surface. We present explicitely the result up to the second degree in the limb darkening law. This technique can be used to calculate very efficiently mutual photometric effects produced by eclipsing bodies occulting stellar spots and to construct complex spot shapes.

  9. Interpreting spotted dolphin age distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Barlow, Jay; Hohn, Aleta A.

    1984-01-01

    Previous work has determined the age distribution from a sample of spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata) killed in the eastern Pacific tuna purse-seine fishery. In this paper we examine the usefulness of this age distribution for estimating natural mortality rates. The observed age distribution has a deficiency of individuals from 5-15 years and cannot represent a stable age distribution. Sampling bias and errors in age interpretation are examined as possible causes of the "dip" in the obs...

  10. The Spotted Wing Drosophila Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura, 1931 – Monitoring And First Records In Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łabanowska Barbara H.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The spotted wing drosophila (Drosophila suzukii (SWD monitoring was carried out between 2012-2014 in eight locations. In order to determine the presence of Drosophila suzukii, several types of traps and baits were used. In 2014, Polish (prototype of Drosinal and Spanish (Cera Trap traps and baits were used in our study. In each year, traps were placed on the plantations of blueberry, strawberry, raspberry and at a wholesale market at the beginning of July, and monitored once or twice a week until mid-December. During 2012 and 2013 there were no flies of the spotted wing drosophila in traps. First flies of this species were captured in 2014 in two locations: Września (3rd week of October and Brzezna (1st week of December – western and southern Poland respectively, in both types of the traps. However, Polish traps were more effective in trapping D. suzukii. In addition, the Polish product has small holes and therefore captures less no target and beneficial insects than Spanish traps. Despite detection of SWD in Poland, damaged fruits were not found.

  11. ESA uncovers Geminga's `hot spot'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    16 July 2004 Astronomers using ESA’s X-ray observatory XMM-Newton have detected a small, bright ‘hot spot’ on the surface of the neutron star called Geminga, 500 light-years away. The hot spot is the size of a football field and is caused by the same mechanism producing Geminga’s X-ray tails. This discovery identifies the missing link between the X-ray and gamma-ray emission from Geminga. hi-res Size hi-res: 1284 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot This figure shows the effects of charged particles accelerated in the magnetosphere of Geminga. Panel (a) shows an image taken with the EPIC instrument on board the XMM-Newton observatory. The bright tails, made of particles kicked out by Geminga’s strong magnetic field, trail the neutron star as it moves about in space. Panel (b) shows how electrically charged particles interact with Geminga’s magnetic field. For example, if electrons (blue) are kicked out by the star, positrons (in red) hit the star’s magnetic poles like in an ‘own goal’. Panel (c) illustrates the size of Geminga’s magnetic field (blue) compared to that of the star itself at the centre (purple). The magnetic field is tilted with respect to Geminga’s rotation axis (red). Panel (d) shows the magnetic poles of Geminga, where charged particles hit the surface of the star, creating a two-million degrees hot spot, a region much hotter than the surroundings. As the star spins on its rotation axis, the hot spot comes into view and then disappears, causing the periodic colour change seen by XMM-Newton. An animated version of the entire sequence can be found at: Click here for animated GIF [low resolution, animated GIF, 5536 KB] Click here for AVI [high resolution, AVI with DIVX compression, 19128 KB] hi-res Size hi-res: 371 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot, panel (a) Panel (a) shows an image taken with the EPIC instrument on board the XMM-Newton observatory. The bright tails, made of

  12. Evaluation of wholesale electric power market rules and financial risk management by agent-based simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Nanpeng

    dissertation, basic financial risk management concepts relevant for wholesale electric power markets are carefully explained and illustrated. In addition, the financial risk management problem in wholesale electric power markets is generalized as a four-stage process. Within the proposed financial risk management framework, the critical problem of financial bilateral contract negotiation is addressed. This dissertation analyzes a financial bilateral contract negotiation process between a generating company and a load-serving entity in a wholesale electric power market with congestion managed by locational marginal pricing. Nash bargaining theory is used to model a Pareto-efficient settlement point. The model predicts negotiation results under varied conditions and identifies circumstances in which the two parties might fail to reach an agreement. Both analysis and agent-based simulation are used to gain insight regarding how relative risk aversion and biased price estimates influence negotiated outcomes. These results should provide useful guidance to market participants in their bilateral contract negotiation processes.

  13. Four Management Agendas for Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharrock, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    In a new mixed economy of higher learning, Australian universities require more strategic management to compete and collaborate sustainably. However, many scholars argue that new modes of university management are at odds with scholarly aims and values. This article examines how Australian universities frame their missions and communicate their…

  14. Recent developments in the Australian housing market

    OpenAIRE

    James Bond

    2003-01-01

    Housing plays an important role in Australia’s economic growth and in the welfare of Australians. This article examines developments in the Australian housing market over recent years. It argues that investors have played an increasingly important role in the housing market for both detached houses and apartments.

  15. Understanding Culture and Diversity: Australian Aboriginal Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vize, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Australian Aboriginal culture is rich, complex and fascinating. The art of Aboriginal Australians shows a great understanding of the earth and its creatures. This article presents an activity which has been designed as a multi-age project. The learning outcomes have been written to suit both younger and older students. Aspects of the project could…

  16. A global history of Australian trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Brett M

    2011-01-01

    Scholars studying the globalization of Australian trees have previously emphasized the rapid natural propagation of Australian trees outside of their native habitats, believing their success to be a reversal of "ecological imperialism" from the "new world" to the "old world." This article argues that the expansion of Australian trees should not be viewed as a biological phenomenon, but as the result of a long-term attempt by powerful states and state-sponsored scientists to select and breed Australian species that could grow in a variety of climates and ecological conditions. Five non-biological factors largely determined the success of these attempts to grow Australian trees: the abundance or paucity of natural forests, state power, the amount of scientific research directed to planting Australian trees, the cost of labor, and the ability to utilize hardwood timbers and bark. This paper compares the use of Australian trees in Australia, India, and South Africa to demonstrate that biology was not the determining factor in the long-term success of many Australian genera and species. PMID:20665086

  17. Are Young Muslims Adopting Australian Values?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Nahid Afrose

    2008-01-01

    Recently politicians in Australia have raised concerns that some Muslims are not adopting Australian values to a sufficient extent. In this paper I explore the notion of Australian values with respect to immigrant youth. By analysing interviews with 32 Muslim students who are 15-18 years of age and of diverse backgrounds in two state schools in…

  18. Performance of electricity wholesale and retail markets. Report by Matti Purasjoki, Administrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the report was to examine the performance of electricity wholesale and retail markets in Finland and the Nordic countries. The Administrator found that the electricity market has attracted wide international attention recently, apparently due to concerns over losing the benefits gained when market deregulation took place. The wholesale price of electricity has increased relatively steeply in the last couple of years, as consequence of rapid increases in raw material prices, emissions trading and increasing market power due to scarcity of electricity production capacity. In the European market, the electricity production market structure is oligopolistic, which means that a few large producers control production. In addition to these, there are several smaller, often local market players. Price formation in the Nordic electricity market takes place at the Nordic Power Exchange, the operating model of which is theoretically correct - provided producers engaged in trading do not establish supply models of a questionable nature as regards competition law. An extensive consultation round with electricity industry operators formed the basis for the report, clearly revealing the characteristics and defects of competition in the industry. Based on this, the Administrator prepared proposals with the aim of enhancing the performance of the electricity market. These can be grouped into four basic tasks, each of which is political, thus requiring a great deal of political willingness with respect to cooperation, both in Finland and other Nordic countries. The key basic task is to ensure the supply of electricity. This calls for major investments and the ability to take risks, thus putting public authorities in a highly significant role. The second basic task is to control the market power of Fortum, a state-owned listed company. The third aim must be to attempt to balance the ownership of the Nordic Power Exchange, to establish a shared Nordic transmission

  19. Market power in electric power markets: Indications of competitiveness in spatial prices for wholesale electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Michael John

    The issue of market delineation and power in the wholesale electric energy market is explored using three separate approaches: two of these are analyses of spatial pricing data to explore the functional size of the markets, and the third is a series of experimental tests of the effects of different cost structures and market mechanisms on oligopoly strength in those markets. An equilibrium model of spatial network competition is shown to yield linear relationships between spatial prices. A data set comprising two years of spatial weekly peak and off-peak prices and weather for 6 locations in the Western States Coordinating Council and the Southwest Power Pool is subjected to a pairwise cointegration analysis. The use of dummy variables to account the the flow directions is found to significantly improve model performance. The second analytical technique utilizes the extraction of principal components from a spatial price correlation matrix to identify the extent of natural markets. One year of daily price observations for eleven locations within the WSCC is compiled and eigenvectors are extracted and subjected to oblique rotation, each of which is then interpreted as representing a separate geographic market. The results show that two distinct natural markets, correlated at 84%, account for over 96% of the variation in the spatial prices in the WSSC. Together, the findings support the assertion that the wholesale electricity market in the Western U.S. is large and highly competitive. The experimental analysis utilizes a radial three node network in which suppliers located at the outer nodes sell to buyers located at the central node. The parameterization captures the salient characteristics of the existing bulk power markets, and includes cyclical demand, transmission losses, as well as fixed and avoidable fixed costs for all agents. Treatments varied the number of sellers, the avoidable fixed cost structures, and the trading mechanism. Results indicated that

  20. 29 CFR 794.137 - Effect of activities other than “wholesale or bulk distribution of petroleum products.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... activities other than the wholesale or bulk distribution of petroleum products. Examples are tire recapping... goods store, scrap paper and metal activities, the operation of a general repair garage, etc., are...

  1. The Australian Synchrotron Project - Update

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Alan

    2004-01-01

    The Australian Synchrotron - a synchrotron light facility based on a 3-GeV electron storage ring is under construction at a site in the Metropolitan District of Melbourne. Building preparation started on a "green-field" site in September 2003 and staff moved in to their new offices in February 2005. Installation of the technical equipment started in April 2005 with all accelerator contracts expected to be completed before April 2006. Storage Ring commissioning with beam will start in June 2006, and project completion is scheduled for March 2007. In this paper we present an overview of the facility and discuss progress to date in meeting this very aggressive schedule.

  2. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2013-01-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  3. Comets in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2010-01-01

    We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities, citing both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of bright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great Comets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of comets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with fear, death, omens, malevolent spirits, and evil magic, consistent with many cultures around the world. We also provide a list of words for comets in 16 different Aboriginal languages.

  4. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2013-07-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  5. Comets in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-03-01

    We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities, citing both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of historically bright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great Comets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of comets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with fear, death, omens, malevolent spirits, and evil magic, consistent with many cultures around the world. We also provide a list of words for comets in 16 different Aboriginal languages.

  6. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy and Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Philip A.

    Australian Aboriginal ethnoastronomical traditions were recorded from a wide variety of sources in different periods. While the corpus of mythology concerning the heavens is diverse, it is unified by beliefs of a Skyworld as land with its own topography, containing plants and animals familiar to those living below. Spirits of the dead reside alongside the Creation Ancestors as celestial bodies in the Skyworld. Aboriginal hunter-gatherers used the regular movement of constellations and planets to measure time and to indicate the season, while unexpected change in the sky was seen as an omen.

  7. Watermarking spot colors in packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Alastair; Filler, TomáÅ.¡; Falkenstern, Kristyn; Bai, Yang

    2015-03-01

    In January 2014, Digimarc announced Digimarc® Barcode for the packaging industry to improve the check-out efficiency and customer experience for retailers. Digimarc Barcode is a machine readable code that carries the same information as a traditional Universal Product Code (UPC) and is introduced by adding a robust digital watermark to the package design. It is imperceptible to the human eye but can be read by a modern barcode scanner at the Point of Sale (POS) station. Compared to a traditional linear barcode, Digimarc Barcode covers the whole package with minimal impact on the graphic design. This significantly improves the Items per Minute (IPM) metric, which retailers use to track the checkout efficiency since it closely relates to their profitability. Increasing IPM by a few percent could lead to potential savings of millions of dollars for retailers, giving them a strong incentive to add the Digimarc Barcode to their packages. Testing performed by Digimarc showed increases in IPM of at least 33% using the Digimarc Barcode, compared to using a traditional barcode. A method of watermarking print ready image data used in the commercial packaging industry is described. A significant proportion of packages are printed using spot colors, therefore spot colors needs to be supported by an embedder for Digimarc Barcode. Digimarc Barcode supports the PANTONE spot color system, which is commonly used in the packaging industry. The Digimarc Barcode embedder allows a user to insert the UPC code in an image while minimizing perceptibility to the Human Visual System (HVS). The Digimarc Barcode is inserted in the printing ink domain, using an Adobe Photoshop plug-in as the last step before printing. Since Photoshop is an industry standard widely used by pre-press shops in the packaging industry, a Digimarc Barcode can be easily inserted and proofed.

  8. A comparison of an alternative inventory control concept with the Navy's existing wholesale inventory control procedures for repairables

    OpenAIRE

    Kless, David R.

    1998-01-01

    The Director of Planning and Operation Research Department, Naval Inventory Control Point (NAVICP) Code M041, requested a study to compare the performance of two sets of inventory control procedures for managing high-cost repairable items. One of these sets is embedded in the Navy's existing wholesale inventory control system. The procedures of this set characterize a periodic review process, which calculates four decision variables in order to manage Navy inventories. These variables represe...

  9. Customer reponse to day-ahead wholesale market electricity prices: Case study of RTP program experience in New York

    OpenAIRE

    Goldman, C; Hopper, N; Sezgen, O.; Moezzi, M.; Bharvirkar, R.; Neenan, B.; Boisvert, R; Cappers, P.; D. Pratt

    2004-01-01

    There is growing interest in policies, programs and tariffs that encourage customer loads to provide demand response (DR) to help discipline wholesale electricity markets. Proposals at the retail level range from eliminating fixed rate tariffs as the default service for some or all customer groups to reinstituting utility-sponsored load management programs with market-based inducements to curtail. Alternative rate designs include time-of-use (TOU), day-ahead real-time pricing (RTP), cri...

  10. The changing role of wholesalers and logistics service providers in pharmaceutical supply chains: will it lead to greater sustainability?

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher J. Savage; Lambourdiere, E.; Corbin, E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Pharmaceutical distributors and wholesalers have played a key part in the pharmaceutical products supply chains in the United Kingdom and the USA for many years (HDMA, 2009). Their role is changing as control of the “space” between manufacturers and retailers has become contested (Corbin, 2006; PricewaterhouseCoopers, 2007; Savage and al., 2006), the economical crisis has taken hold and governments on both sides of the Atlantic have brought forward new legislation (V...

  11. NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN GROCERY MANUFACTURER AND DISTRIBUTOR MARKETING PROGRAMS: A SURVEY OF U.S. WHOLESALERS AND RETAILERS

    OpenAIRE

    Park, John L.; McLaughlin, Edward W.

    1998-01-01

    The retail food industry has taken initiatives to improve cost and to return the focus of management to the consumer. Among these initiatives are Efficient Consumer Response (ECR) and category management. A mail questionnaire elicited perceptions on these issues from 95 executives among U.S. food wholesalers and retailers. This study found that ECR category management are being used to streamline costs and to remove logistical inefficiencies. Although it is widely recognized that category man...

  12. 78 FR 6316 - Big Blue Wind Farm, LLC, et al.; Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Big Blue Wind Farm, LLC, et al.; Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status Docket Nos. Big Blue Wind Farm, LLC EG13-1-000 Calpine Bosque Energy Center, LLC EG13-2-000 Homer City Generation, L.P EG13-3-000 Texas Dispatchable Wind 1, LLC EG13-4-000 Blue Creek Wind Farm...

  13. Simulation of the Rungis Wholesale Market: Lessons on the Calibration, Validation and Usage of a Cognitive Agent-Based Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Caillou, Philippe; Curchod, Corentin; Baptista, Tiago

    2009-01-01

    International audience We present some methodological lessons and thoughts inferred from a research we are making on a simulation of the Rungis Wholesale Market (in France) using cognitive agents. The implication of using cognitive agents with an objective of realism at the individual level question some of the classical methodological assertions about simulations. Three such lessons are of particular interest: the calibration and validation focus on individuals rather than global values (...

  14. Determining Optimal Price and Order Quantity Under the Uncertainty in Demand and Supplier’s Wholesale Price

    OpenAIRE

    Seong-Hyun Nam; Hisashi Kurata; John Vitton; Jaesun Park

    2010-01-01

    Manufacturers in a high-tech durable product industry may have to make operational decisions in the presence of uncertainties associated with product demand and supplier’s wholesale price. In this paper, the authors investigate the impact of such uncertainties on the activities of a manufacturer and its supplier and develop an optimization model that describes how the manufacturers should reflect the uncertainty issues in their pricing and order quantity policy to achieve a desirable profit...

  15. Spotted hyena from north China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Acomplete fossil skeleton of spotted hyena unearthed on 26 July, 2008 in nearly perfect preservation, exhilarates CAS paleontologists, as the discovery in north China might offer new clues about the interactions between prehistoric faunas of Africa and Eurasia, and meanwhile afford a clue to the big extinction of large amount of species occurring about 11,000 years ago. Hinting at possible connections between species from Africa and Eurasia, the discovery would even provide new insights into the "out-of-Africa" model of human origins.

  16. Real-Time Pricing Decision Making for Retailer-Wholesaler in Smart Grid Based on Game Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeming Dai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Real-time pricing DSM (demand side management is widely used to dynamically change or shift the electricity consumption in the smart grid. In this paper, a game decision making scheme is proposed in the smart grid with DSM. The interaction between two retailers and their wholesaler is modeled as a two-stage game model. Considering the competition between two retailers, two different game models are developed in terms of the different action order between retailers and their wholesaler. Through analyzing the equilibrium revenues of the retailers for different situations we find that although the wholesaler expects to decentralize certain management powers to the retailers, it has retained the right to change the rules of the game and frequently reneged on the promises. More specifically, the law should ensure that any change of the revenue-sharing formula must go through certain legal procedures. Imposing legal restrictions on the wholesaler’s discretionary policy suggests that the time-inconsistency problem is mitigated. Numerical simulation shows the effectiveness of proposed scheme.

  17. Generators' bidding behavior in the NYISO day-ahead wholesale electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposes a statistical and econometric model to analyze the generators' bidding behavior in the NYISO day-ahead wholesale electricity market. The generator level bidding data show very strong persistence in generators' grouping choices over time. Using dynamic random effect ordered probit model, we find that persistence is characterized by positive state dependence and unobserved heterogeneity and state dependence is more important than unobserved heterogeneity. The finding of true state dependence suggests a scope for economic policy intervention. If NYISO can implement an effective policy to switch generators from higher price groups to lower price groups, the effect is likely to be lasting. As a result, the market price can be lowered in the long-run. Generators' offered capacity is estimated by a two-stage sample selection model. The estimated results show that generators in higher-priced groups tend to withhold their capacity strategically to push up market prices. It further confirms the importance of an effective policy to turn generators into lower price groups in order to mitigate unexpected price spikes. The simulated market prices based on our estimated aggregate supply curve can replicate most volatility of actual DA market prices. Applying our models to different demand assumptions, we find that demand conditions can affect market prices significantly. It validates the importance of introducing demand side management during the restructure of electricity industry. (author)

  18. Competition for transparency as a carrier of competition. Transparency needs in the European wholesale electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses different transparency aspects regarding European wholesale electricity markets and discusses transparency issues to be solved. In Europe, currently some progress has been made with respect to market transparency but transparency issues related to transmission, system operation and regulation have received little attention so far. Transmission system operators (TSOs) and regulatory authorities need certain market information in order to secure efficient competition. However, TSOs and regulatory authorities need to communicate themselves in order to facilitate competition and decrease uncertainty among market participants. Furthermore, considering ongoing market integration both TSOs and regulatory authorities must exchange information amongst themselves in order to facilitate coordination and monitoring activities. The effect of a higher level of transparency on effective competition is depended on two categories of transparency aspects: aspects that are related to transparency in the sense of open and adequate communication (perspicuity) and aspects that are related to the easiness to understand (clarity). Transparency includes both aspects. Pursuing overall harmonization of the European transparency level is important to fully profit from a higher level of (international) harmonization. Effective harmonization requires harmonization on all communication aspects. For Europe, with its many immature markets, the dilemma remains whether it is preferable to have less transparency with a high level of harmonization or to have a higher level of transparency but a lower level of harmonization. (Author)

  19. Estimating the volatility of electricity prices: The case of the England and Wales wholesale electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price fluctuations that partially comove with demand are a specific feature inherent to liberalized electricity markets. The regulatory authority in Great Britain, however, believed that sometimes electricity prices were significantly higher than what was expected and, therefore, introduced price-cap regulation and divestment series. In this study, I analyze how the introduced institutional changes and regulatory reforms affected the dynamics of daily electricity prices in the England and Wales wholesale electricity market during 1990–2001. This research finds that the introduction of price-cap regulation did achieve the goal of lowering the price level at the cost of higher price volatility. Later, the first series of divestments is found to be successful at lowering price volatility, which however happens at the cost of a higher price level. Finally, this study also documents that the second series of divestments was more successful at lowering both the price level and volatility. - Author-Highlights: • The impact of regulation on the dynamics of electricity prices is examined. • Price-cap regulation has decreased the level at the cost of higher volatility. • The first series of divestments has reversed the trade-off. • The reversed trade-off is explained as an indication of tacit collusion. • The second series of divestments is found generally successful

  20. Impact of Web Site Functions on E-Business Success in Chinese Wholesale and Retail Industries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Qian; HUANG Jinghua

    2008-01-01

    Web sites are very important and companies can attract customers by promoting various features of the web site. This paper presents an analysis of the relationship between web site functions and firm performance. A research model based on the DeLone and McLean (D&M) model and customer service life cycle (CSLC) theory was used to investigate the impact of web site functions on e-business success. The research model considers web site functions, web site use, customer satisfaction, and firm performance. According to the CSLC theory, there are three stages in a customer service life cycle. Therefore, the web site functions are divided into three stages: requirements, acquisition, and ownership. The functions in each stage serve to encourage usage and thus, enhance customer satisfaction and firm performance. The theoretical model and hypotheses were tested using data collected from 72 wholesale and retail firms in China using the partial least squares (PLS) method. The results suggest that web site functions in the acquisition stage have the strongest impact on web site use and that the improvement of customer satisfaction can significantly increase firm performance.

  1. Analysis of competition and market power in the wholesale electricity market in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electricity reforms were initiated in India with the objective of promoting competition in the electricity market. In order to promote competition, the Electricity Act 2003 was enacted and various policy initiatives were taken by the Government of India. Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC) also facilitated competition through the regulatory framework of availability based tariff, Indian Electricity Grid Code, open access in inter-state transmission, inter-state trading and power exchanges. Despite these initiatives, electricity prices increased in the Wholesale Electricity Market in India (WEMI). This paper analyses the market structure and competitiveness in the WEMI. There are, of course, various potential reasons for the rise in the electricity price. This paper seeks to investigate, if market power was one of the reasons for increase in market prices. Concentration ratio, Herfindahl-Hirschman index, Supply Margin Assessment, and Residual Supply Index have been used to measure market power. This paper also uses the price-cost mark-up to examine, if exercise of market power led to higher margins. The analysis suggests that market power of firms may be part of the reason for the increase in electricity prices in WEMI. The study suggests various measures to increase competition in the WEMI.

  2. Australian Expatriates: Who are They?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Calderón Prada

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Australia is made up of 20 million people and, interestingly enough, over one million of the total population live overseas. Australians living abroad are known as `expatriates´ and they have a particular profile: highly educated and better skilled than their counterparts at home. Thus, on the one hand, a general division may be established between expatriates and Australians living at home; on the other, a particular division between expatriates themselves, which depends on the individual reasons that push them to leave Australia. At this point, it is important to outline the general reasons that lead expatriates to go overseas. To begin with, in terms of migration, Australia is both historically and contemporarily linked to other countries. Secondly, Australia is geographically isolated and, therefore, far away from the main global markets. Finally, it is quite right to conclude that although the logical assumption of expatriation is distance, expatriates are mentally, and often emotionally, linked to Australia and, therefore, the understanding of their situation is more positive than negative

  3. Learner discipline: An Australian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Stewart

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Australian schools by and large are safe schools. Nonetheless discipline problems do exist – including bullying behaviour. For this kind of problem schools should have management policies in place. As traditional behaviour-management practices – including corporal punishment – are largely prohibited in Australian schools, contemporary practices centre on management through supportive school programmes, including appropriate curricula and school-support structures. This article supports the belief that measures such as the exclusion of misbehaving learners should be treated with caution. Measures such as this might not reflect accepted international principles and practices and should only be exercised in the most extreme circumstances. The article also supports the view that it is part of the school’s role to ensure that all learners are aware of the reality that while they have rights, they also have corresponding responsibilities. This awareness is more likely to be achieved in a supportive school culture where each learner is recognised as having unique qualities that can mature and grow in an appropriate learning environment.

  4. Energy is not Coffee. An assessment of blind spots on energy spot-markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jepma, C.J.; Spijker, E.; Van der Gaast, W.; De Jong, F. [Foundation Joint Implementation Network JIN, Paterswolde (Netherlands); Overmars, P. (ed.) [Energy Delta Institute EDI, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2006-01-15

    This study was to be the first in a series of studies on the title subject. It specifically focuses on the differences and similarities with a number of other spot-markets and aims to frame the energy spot markets and their potential development into a broader perspective. Main conclusion is that energy spot-markets differ from several other physical and non-physical spot-markets in many ways. This implies that 'perfect' energy spot-markets may inherently be (much) less perfect than other spot-markets that have approximated the stage of theoretical perfection.

  5. Energy is not Coffee. An assessment of blind spots on energy spot-markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was to be the first in a series of studies on the title subject. It specifically focuses on the differences and similarities with a number of other spot-markets and aims to frame the energy spot markets and their potential development into a broader perspective. Main conclusion is that energy spot-markets differ from several other physical and non-physical spot-markets in many ways. This implies that 'perfect' energy spot-markets may inherently be (much) less perfect than other spot-markets that have approximated the stage of theoretical perfection

  6. Integrating sustainable hunting in biodiversity protection in Central Africa: hot spots, weak spots, and strong spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa, John E; Olivero, Jesús; Farfán, Miguel Ángel; Márquez, Ana Luz; Vargas, Juan Mario; Real, Raimundo; Nasi, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Wild animals are a primary source of protein (bushmeat) for people living in or near tropical forests. Ideally, the effect of bushmeat harvests should be monitored closely by making regular estimates of offtake rate and size of stock available for exploitation. However, in practice, this is possible in very few situations because it requires both of these aspects to be readily measurable, and even in the best case, entails very considerable time and effort. As alternative, in this study, we use high-resolution, environmental favorability models for terrestrial mammals (N = 165) in Central Africa to map areas of high species richness (hot spots) and hunting susceptibility. Favorability models distinguish localities with environmental conditions that favor the species' existence from those with detrimental characteristics for its presence. We develop an index for assessing Potential Hunting Sustainability (PHS) of each species based on their ecological characteristics (population density, habitat breadth, rarity and vulnerability), weighted according to restrictive and permissive assumptions of how species' characteristics are combined. Species are classified into five main hunting sustainability classes using fuzzy logic. Using the accumulated favorability values of all species, and their PHS values, we finally identify weak spots, defined as high diversity regions of especial hunting vulnerability for wildlife, as well as strong spots, defined as high diversity areas of high hunting sustainability potential. Our study uses relatively simple models that employ easily obtainable data of a species' ecological characteristics to assess the impacts of hunting in tropical regions. It provides information for management by charting the geography of where species are more or less likely to be at risk of extinction from hunting. PMID:25372705

  7. Spot Market Power and Future Market Trading

    OpenAIRE

    Muermann, Alexander; Shore, Stephen H.

    2005-01-01

    When a spot market monopolist participates in the futures market, he has an incentive to adjust spot prices to make his futures market position more pro…table. Rational futures market makers take this into account when they set prices. Spot market power thus creates a moral hazard problem which parallels the adverse selection problem in models with inside information. This moral hazard not only reduces the optimal amount of hedging for those with and without market power, but also makes compl...

  8. Computational Prediction of Hot Spot Residues

    OpenAIRE

    Morrow, John Kenneth; Zhang, Shuxing

    2012-01-01

    Most biological processes involve multiple proteins interacting with each other. It has been recently discovered that certain residues in these protein-protein interactions, which are called hot spots, contribute more significantly to binding affinity than others. Hot spot residues have unique and diverse energetic properties that make them challenging yet important targets in the modulation of protein-protein complexes. Design of therapeutic agents that interact with hot spot residues has pr...

  9. The Portrayal of Indigenous Health in Selected Australian Media

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa J. Stoneham; Jodie Goodman; Mike Daube

    2014-01-01

    It is acknowledged that health outcomes for Australian Indigenous peoples are lower than those of non-Indigenous Australians. Research suggests negative media in relation to Indigenous Australians perpetuates racist stereotypes among the wider population and impacts on the health of Indigenous Australians. This study examined the media portrayal of Indigenous Australian public health issues in selected media over a twelve month period and found that, overwhelmingly, the articles were negative...

  10. Preventing proliferation : the role of Australian uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uranium debate has polarised Australian society for almost a decade. From 1977 until just before it achieved office in 1983 the Australia Labor Party took a position of strong opposition to uranium exports. The Australian Council of Trade Unions, the Australian Democrats, the Nuclear Disarmament Party, and many other organisations and sections of the community continue to oppose uranium mining and exports. Australia's uranium is currently exported for use in the commercial nuclear fuel cycle. But as the nuclear plants which are part of this cycle spread across the world, the risk rises that they will provide the cover and facilities for increasing numbers of countries to move towards nuclear weapons capability

  11. Compliance with Corporate Governance Principles: Australian Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Safari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the association between the level of compliance of Australian listed companies with Australian corporate governance principles, in aggregate, and the level of discretionary accruals using the modified Jones model. It is hypothesised that higher levels of compliance would be associated with lower levels of discretionary accruals. Data from a random sample of 214 Australian listed companies for the years 2009 and 2010 were used to test the hypothesis. The results demonstrate a significant negative relationship indicating that companies with higher levels of compliance engage in lower levels of earnings management via discretionary accruals.

  12. A new opportunity for Australian uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study analyses the outlook for the world uranium industry and includes projections of uranium demand, supply and prices over the next decade and a comparison with other forecasts. The potential increases in Australian output are quantified, under both continuation of the three mine policy and an open mine policy, as well as the potential impact on the world uranium market, using the well known ORANI model of the Australian economy. It is estimated that Australian output could almost double by 2004 if the three mine policy were abolished. 53 refs., 20 tabs., 6 figs

  13. Australian national residue survey – closing the loop on pesticide residue risk management for Australian grain

    OpenAIRE

    Reichstein, I.; Healy, K; James, A.; Murray, B.

    2010-01-01

    Australia exports a major proportion of its agricultural production and is highly dependent on maintaining and developing access to, and competitiveness in, export markets. To preserve Australia’s status as a provider of high quality grain, the majority of Australian primary producers rely on pesticides to protect their crops from pests and diseases, particularly in post-harvest situations. The Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority (APVMA) supports Australian agriculture by...

  14. A spot market for electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electric utilities in many parts of the world are being transformed from regulated monopolies to competitive enterprises. They are buying power from sources they don't control, and experiencing new competitive pressures in selling. In response, utilities have begun to use such techniques as ''active demand-side management'' and ''real-time pricing'' to improve their responsiveness to customers and to create new opportunities for revenue. As an extension of the industry's evolution so far, this article describes how the utilities industry might develop a ''spot market'' for electricity, with the utility providing value in the form of a service for arbitrating requests and demands from various generators and users. The author presents a possible future organization of the electricity market, for which there is no model currently known. Most of its elements do exist in some form at one or more power companies around the world

  15. Utilisation of intensive foraging zones by female Australian fur seals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Hoskins

    Full Text Available Within a heterogeneous environment, animals must efficiently locate and utilise foraging patches. One way animals can achieve this is by increasing residency times in areas where foraging success is highest (area-restricted search. For air-breathing diving predators, increased patch residency times can be achieved by altering both surface movements and diving patterns. The current study aimed to spatially identify the areas where female Australian fur seals allocated the most foraging effort, while simultaneously determining the behavioural changes that occur when they increase their foraging intensity. To achieve this, foraging behaviour was successfully recorded with a FastLoc GPS logger and dive behaviour recorder from 29 individual females provisioning pups. Females travelled an average of 118 ± 50 km from their colony during foraging trips that lasted 7.3 ± 3.4 days. Comparison of two methods for calculating foraging intensity (first-passage time and first-passage time modified to include diving behaviour determined that, due to extended surface intervals where individuals did not travel, inclusion of diving behaviour into foraging analyses was important for this species. Foraging intensity 'hot spots' were found to exist in a mosaic of patches within the Bass Basin, primarily to the south-west of the colony. However, the composition of benthic habitat being targeted remains unclear. When increasing their foraging intensity, individuals tended to perform dives around 148 s or greater, with descent/ascent rates of approximately 1.9 m•s-1 or greater and reduced postdive durations. This suggests individuals were maximising their time within the benthic foraging zone. Furthermore, individuals increased tortuosity and decreased travel speeds while at the surface to maximise their time within a foraging location. These results suggest Australian fur seals will modify both surface movements and diving behaviour to maximise their time within a

  16. Ambystoma maculatum (spotted salamander). Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glorioso, Brad M.; Waddle, Hardin; Hefner, Jeromi

    2012-01-01

    The Spotted Salamander is a wide-ranging salamander of the eastern United States that typically breeds in winter or early spring in ephemeral pools in lowland forests. Ambystoma maculatum is known to deposit 2-4 egg masses per year, each containing 1-250 eggs. As part of ongoing research into the ecology and reproductive biology of Spotted Salamanders in the Kisatchie District of Kisatchie National Forest in Natchitoches Parish, Louisiana, USA, we have been counting the number of embryos per egg mass. We captured seven female A. maculatum in a small pool, six of which were still gravid. We took standard measurements, including SVL, and then implanted a Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT tag) into each adult female as was the protocol. About an hour after processing these animals we marked new A. maculatum egg masses found in the same small pool using PVC pin flags pushed carefully through the outer jelly. We did not have enough time to process them that evening, and it was not until a few days later that we photographed those masses. We discovered that one of the masses contained a PIT tag in the outer jelly that corresponded to one of the six gravid females that were marked that same evening. To our knowledge, this is the first report of PIT tags being the means, albeit coincidentally, by which a particular egg mass of Ambystoma maculatum has been assigned to a particular female. For our purposes, losing the PIT tag from the adult female is counter to the goals of our study of this population, and we will no longer be implanting PIT tags into gravid females.

  17. Eclipses in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2011-01-01

    We explore 50 Australian Aboriginal accounts of lunar and solar eclipses to determine how Aboriginal groups understood this phenomenon. We summarise the literature on Aboriginal references to eclipses, showing that many Aboriginal groups viewed eclipses negatively, frequently associating them with bad omens, evil magic, disease, blood and death. In many communities, Elders or medicine men were believed to have the ability to control or avert eclipses by magical means, solidifying their role as provider and protector within the community. We also show that many Aboriginal groups understood the motions of the sun-earth-moon system, the connection between the lunar phases and tides, and acknowledged that solar eclipses were caused by the moon blocking the sun.

  18. Eclipses in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-07-01

    We explore about fifty different Australian Aboriginal accounts of lunar and solar eclipses to determine how Aboriginal groups understood this phenomenon. We summarize the literature on Aboriginal references to eclipses. We show that many Aboriginal groups viewed eclipses negatively, frequently associating them with bad omens, evil magic, disease, blood and death. In many communities, elders or medicine men claimed to be able to control or avert eclipses by magical means, solidifying their roles as providers and protectors within their communities. We also show that some Aboriginal groups seem to have understood the motions of the Sun-Earth-Moon system, the connection between the lunar phases and tides, and acknowledged that solar eclipses were caused by the Moon blocking the Sun.

  19. Australians' attitudes to nuclear disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a series of surveys of 2900 Australians show that some 80 per cent favour nuclear disarmament. The nuclear disarmament view is broad-based, for example it cuts across differences in age, sex and education. However the view is more common among people towards the left of the political spectrum who view the world as benign rather than hostile and who consider stockpiles can be reduced by small, reciprocated and supervised reductions. Between 2.5 per cent and 5.5 per cent of respondents act to bring about nuclear disarmament. The findings support and extend results from studies outside Australia showing that attitudes favouring nuclear disarmament are distributing themselves widely

  20. Innovation in Australian Workplaces: An Empirical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Mark

    1999-01-01

    The determinants of innovation were examined using data from 698 Australian workplaces. Results suggest that better employee-management communications are associated with more change and that workplaces with higher levels of training undergo more change. (Author/JOW)

  1. China's first Australian Garden opens in Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The opening for the Australian Garden was jointly held by the BHP Billiton China and the CAS South China Botanical Garden (SCBG) in Guangzhou, capital of south China's Guangdong Province on 18 January.

  2. ANSTO: Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization conducts or is engaged in collaborative research and development in the application of nuclear science and associated technology. Through its Australian radio-isotopes unit, it markets radioisotopes, their products and other services for nuclear medicine industry and research. It also operates national nuclear facilities ( HIFAR and Moata research reactors), promote training, provide advice and disseminates information on nuclear science and technology. The booklet briefly outlines these activities. ills

  3. Australian Politics in a Digital Age

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Peter John

    2013-01-01

    Information and communications technologies are increasingly important in the Australian political landscape. From the adoption of new forms of electoral campaigning to the use of networking technology to organise social movements, media technology has the potential to radically change the way politics is conducted and experienced in this country. The first comprehensive volume on the impact of digital media on Australian politics, this book examines the way these technologies shape political...

  4. Modelling and forecasting Australian domestic tourism

    OpenAIRE

    George Athanasopoulos; Rob J Hyndman

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we model and forecast Australian domestic tourism demand. We use a regression framework to estimate important economic relationships for domestic tourism demand. We also identify the impact of world events such as the 2000 Sydney Olympics and the 2002 Bali bombings on Australian domestic tourism. To explore the time series nature of the data, we use innovation state space models to forecast the domestic tourism demand. Combining these two frameworks, we build innovation state s...

  5. Ownership of Australian Equities and Corporate Bonds

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Black; Joshua Kirkwood

    2010-01-01

    Australian financial and non-financial companies tap capital markets – particularly equity and bond markets – to source funds from households, foreign investors and domestic institutional investors. Foreign investors supply around half of these funds, with institutional investors providing most of the remainder; households’ direct holdings are comparatively modest. During the financial crisis, foreign investors’ appetite for Australian assets remained strong, underpinned by the streng...

  6. Diffuse panbronchiolitis in an Australian aborigine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James; Simpson, Graham

    2014-06-01

    Diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB) is a chronic sino-bronchial disease. It has remained restricted to the Japanese and cases in the West are unusual. We present a patient of Australian aboriginal origin with DPB. The known efficacy of low-dose erythromycin in DPB is again described. Chronic respiratory disease is common in the Australian aboriginal population and DPB should be considered in the differential. PMID:25473569

  7. The Changing Political Economy of Australian Racism

    OpenAIRE

    Jock Collins

    1994-01-01

    The Australian labour market is undergoing fundamental change, following economic restructuring and industrial relations and vocational education reform. This article outlines the recent evidence relating to unequal outcomes for immigrants from non English-speaking background and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in the Australian labour market. It then argues that, rather than meritocratic, these outcomes are partially the result of racial discrimination. The paper then considers the so...

  8. An overview of Australian Higher Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯静

    2014-01-01

    This paper makes a brief introduction to Australian higher education in the following aspects such as educational ideas, teaching methods and assessment. The author of this paper holds the opinion that it’s necessary to take an overview of Australian higher education into consideration, if you hope that your study in Australia runs smoothly. In brief, this paper makes an attempt to provide a brief idea of higher education in Australia, especially to those who want to study in Australia for reference.

  9. Hot Spot Removal System: System description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazardous wastes contaminated with radionuclides, chemicals, and explosives exist across the Department of Energy complex and need to be remediated due to environmental concerns. Currently, an opportunity is being developed to dramatically reduce remediation costs and to assist in the acceleration of schedules associated with these wastes by deploying a Hot Spot Removal System. Removing the hot spot from the waste site will remove risk driver(s) and enable another, more cost effective process/option/remedial alternative (i.e., capping) to be applied to the remainder of the site. The Hot Spot Removal System consists of a suite of technologies that will be utilized to locate and remove source terms. Components of the system can also be used in a variety of other cleanup activities. This Hot Spot Removal System Description document presents technologies that were considered for possible inclusion in the Hot Spot Removal System, technologies made available to the Hot Spot Removal System, industrial interest in the Hot Spot Removal System''s subsystems, the schedule required for the Hot Spot Removal System, the evaluation of the relevant technologies, and the recommendations for equipment and technologies as stated in the Plan section

  10. Experimental and simulated strength of spot welds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Bennedbæk, Rune A.K.; Larsen, Morten B.;

    2014-01-01

    Weld strength testing of single spots in DP600 steel is presented for the three typical testing procedures, i.e. tensile-shear, cross-tension and peel testing. Spot welds are performed at two sets of welding parameters and strength testing under these conditions is presented by load-elongation cu...

  11. Hot Spot Removal System: System description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Hazardous wastes contaminated with radionuclides, chemicals, and explosives exist across the Department of Energy complex and need to be remediated due to environmental concerns. Currently, an opportunity is being developed to dramatically reduce remediation costs and to assist in the acceleration of schedules associated with these wastes by deploying a Hot Spot Removal System. Removing the hot spot from the waste site will remove risk driver(s) and enable another, more cost effective process/option/remedial alternative (i.e., capping) to be applied to the remainder of the site. The Hot Spot Removal System consists of a suite of technologies that will be utilized to locate and remove source terms. Components of the system can also be used in a variety of other cleanup activities. This Hot Spot Removal System Description document presents technologies that were considered for possible inclusion in the Hot Spot Removal System, technologies made available to the Hot Spot Removal System, industrial interest in the Hot Spot Removal System`s subsystems, the schedule required for the Hot Spot Removal System, the evaluation of the relevant technologies, and the recommendations for equipment and technologies as stated in the Plan section.

  12. HotSpot Software Configuration Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, H; Homann, S G

    2009-03-12

    This Software Configuration Management Plan (SCMP) describes the software configuration management procedures used to ensure that the HotSpot dispersion model meets the requirements of its user base, which includes: (1) Users of the PC version of HotSpot for consequence assessment, hazard assessment and safety analysis calculations; and (2) Users of the NARAC Web and iClient software tools, which allow users to run HotSpot for consequence assessment modeling These users and sponsors of the HotSpot software and the organizations they represent constitute the intended audience for this document. This plan is intended to meet Critical Recommendations 1 and 3 from the Software Evaluation of HotSpot and DOE Safety Software Toolbox Recommendation for inclusion of HotSpot in the Department of Energy (DOE) Safety Software Toolbox. HotSpot software is maintained for the Department of Energy Office of Emergency Operations by the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). An overview of HotSpot and NARAC are provided.

  13. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cases of epidemic typhus have been documented in Argentina since 1919; however, no confirmed reports of spotted fever rickettsiosis were described in this country until 1999. We describe the first molecular confirmation of Rickettsia rickettsii, the etiologic agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (R...

  14. Differential spot-size focus servo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milster, T. D.; Wang, M. S.; Froehlich, F. F.; Kann, J. L.; Treptau, J. P.; Erwin, K. E.

    1991-01-01

    We describe performance of a differential spot-size (wax-wane) focus servo. Crosstalk from the tracks are analyzed in the single detector and differential focus circuits. Magnitude of the crosstalk is reduced by a factor of three in the differential circuit. A false focus-error signal (FES) is present when the spot crosses sector marks at an angle.

  15. Using neural networks and extreme value distributions to model electricity pool prices: Evidence from the Australian National Electricity Market 1998–2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Neural nets are unable to properly capture spiky price behavior found in the electricity market. • We modeled electricity price data from the Australian National Electricity Market over 15 years. • Neural nets need to be augmented with other modeling techniques to capture price spikes. • We fit a Generalized Pareto Distribution to price spikes using a peaks-over-thresholds approach. - Abstract: Competitors in the electricity supply industry desire accurate predictions of electricity spot prices to hedge against financial risks. Neural networks are commonly used for forecasting such prices, but certain features of spot price series, such as extreme price spikes, present critical challenges for such modeling. We investigate the predictive capacity of neural networks for electricity spot prices using Australian National Electricity Market data. Following neural net modeling of the data, we explore extreme price spikes through extreme value modeling, fitting a Generalized Pareto Distribution to price peaks over an estimated threshold. While neural nets capture the smoother aspects of spot price data, they are unable to capture local, volatile features that characterize electricity spot price data. Price spikes can be modeled successfully through extreme value modeling

  16. Publishing and Australian Literature: Crisis, Decline or Transformation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Bode

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The globalisation and consolidation of book publishing is widely seen as having negative consequences for Australian literature. Some commentators argue that this shift is detrimental to Australian literature as a whole; others identify the growth of multinational publishing conglomerates with a specific decline in Australian literary fiction. This article explores both positions, first identifying and investigating trends in Australian novel publication and comparing these to trends in the publication of novels from other countries as well as other Australian-originated literature (specifically, poetry and auto/biography. It then considers the specific case of Australian literary fiction, before looking in detail at the output of large publishers of Australian novels. This analysis reveals a recent decline in Australian novel and poetry titles, but offers a more complex picture of this trend than dominant expressions of nostalgia and alarm about the fate of Australian literature and publishing would suggest.

  17. Element spots in HgMn stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, H.

    2014-11-01

    A fraction of late B-type stars, the so-called HgMn stars, exhibit enhanced absorption lines of certain chemical elements, notably Hg and Mn, combined with an underabundance of He. For about a decade it has been known that the elements with anomalously high abundances in HgMn stars are distributed inhomogeneously over the stellar surface. Observation of the temporal evolution of those spots has been reported in a few HgMn stars, first of a secular evolution of the mercury spots in α And, and more recently of a fast evolution of yttrium and strontium spots in HD 11753. The fast evolution of spots in HD 11753 is combined with a slower change in the overall abundance of the elements affected. In this paper I review what is known about these ``elemental spots'' in HgMn stars and their secular and fast temporal evolution.

  18. Crack imaging by pulsed laser spot thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A surface crack close to a spot heated by a laser beam impedes lateral heat flow and produces alterations to the shape of the thermal image of the spot that can be monitored by thermography. A full 3D simulation has been developed to simulate heat flow from a laser heated spot in the proximity of a crack. The modelling provided an understanding of the ways that different parameters affect the thermal images of laser heated spots. It also assisted in the development of an efficient image processing strategy for extracting the scanned cracks. Experimental results show that scanning pulsed laser spot thermography has considerable potential as a remote, non-contact crack imaging technique.

  19. Element spots in HgMn stars

    CERN Document Server

    Korhonen, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    A fraction of late B-type stars, the so-called HgMn stars, exhibit enhanced absorption lines of certain chemical elements, notably Hg and Mn, combined with an underabundance of He. For about a decade now the elements with anomalously high abundances in HgMn stars are known to be distributed inhomogeneously over the stellar surface. Temporal evolution of these elemental spots have been reported in a few HgMn stars, first secular evolution of the mercury spots in alpha And, and recently also a fast evolution of yttrium and strontium spots in HD 11753. The fast evolution of spots in HD 11753 is combined with a slower change in the overall abundance of the affected elements. In this paper I review what is known of elemental spots in HgMn stars and their secular and fast temporal evolution.

  20. Laser Spot Detection Based on Reaction Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Vázquez-Otero

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Center-location of a laser spot is a problem of interest when the laser is used for processing and performing measurements. Measurement quality depends on correctly determining the location of the laser spot. Hence, improving and proposing algorithms for the correct location of the spots are fundamental issues in laser-based measurements. In this paper we introduce a Reaction Diffusion (RD system as the main computational framework for robustly finding laser spot centers. The method presented is compared with a conventional approach for locating laser spots, and the experimental results indicate that RD-based computation generates reliable and precise solutions. These results confirm the flexibility of the new computational paradigm based on RD systems for addressing problems that can be reduced to a set of geometric operations.

  1. Laser Spot Detection Based on Reaction Diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Otero, Alejandro; Khikhlukha, Danila; Solano-Altamirano, J M; Dormido, Raquel; Duro, Natividad

    2016-01-01

    Center-location of a laser spot is a problem of interest when the laser is used for processing and performing measurements. Measurement quality depends on correctly determining the location of the laser spot. Hence, improving and proposing algorithms for the correct location of the spots are fundamental issues in laser-based measurements. In this paper we introduce a Reaction Diffusion (RD) system as the main computational framework for robustly finding laser spot centers. The method presented is compared with a conventional approach for locating laser spots, and the experimental results indicate that RD-based computation generates reliable and precise solutions. These results confirm the flexibility of the new computational paradigm based on RD systems for addressing problems that can be reduced to a set of geometric operations. PMID:26938537

  2. 7 CFR 28.412 - Strict Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.412 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Strict Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Strict Middling Color and Strict Middling Spotted Color....

  3. 7 CFR 28.413 - Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.413 Section 28.413... Spotted Color. Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Middling Color and Middling Spotted Color....

  4. 7 CFR 28.415 - Low Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Low Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.415 Section 28... Spotted Color. Low Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Low Middling Color and Low Middling Spotted Color....

  5. 7 CFR 28.411 - Good Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.411 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Good Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Good Middling Color and Good Middling Spotted Color....

  6. Empirical evidence against the exchange rate anomaly: the Australian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Gil-Alana

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Though there is widespread agreement that the logarithmic spot and forward rates are both integrated of order one (I(1 variables, so that their corresponding returns are I(0 stationary, it has been recently claimed that they may be long memory. In this article, we examine this hypothesis by means of fractional integration techniques. The results based on parametric and semiparametric tests show that though fractional degrees of integration are plausible alternatives, the confidence intervals include the unit root case in both series. In addition, the hypothesis of unbiasedness of the forward rate as a forecaster for the future spot rate cannot be rejected for the Australian daily exchange rate market.Embora haja um acordo difundido de que o ponto logarítmico e as taxas para frente são ambas integradas de variáveis da ordem um (I(1, de modo que seus retornos correspondentes sejam I(0 estacionário, tem-se reivindicado recentemente que elas podem ser memória longa. Neste artigo, examinamos esta hipótese por meio do uso de técnicas fracionárias de integração. Os resultados baseados em testes paramétricos e semiparametricos mostram que embora os graus fracionários de integração sejam alternativas plausíveis, os intervalos de confiança incluem o caso da raiz unitária em ambas as séries. Além disso, a hipótese de não viés da taxa para frente como um preditor para a taxa a vista futura não pode ser rejeitada para o caso australiano.

  7. Hours of Work and the Fair Labor Standards Act: A Study of Retail and Wholesale Trade, 1938-1950

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Dora L.

    1998-01-01

    I examine the impact of the overtime provisions of the Fair Labor Standards on weekly hours worked between 1938 and 1950 by comparing workers in wholesale trade, a sector which was covered by the Act, with those in retail trade, a sector which was not. I find that the Act reduced hours worked, with a 5 percent reduction in the length of the standard work week reducing by at least 18 percent the proportion of men and women working more than 40 hours per week. I find that employers responded to...

  8. The Australian terrestrial carbon budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Haverd

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a study of the full carbon (C-CO2 budget of the Australian continent, focussing on 1990–2011 in the context of estimates over two centuries. The work is a contribution to the RECCAP (REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes project, as one of numerous regional studies. In constructing the budget, we estimate the following component carbon fluxes: net primary production (NPP; net ecosystem production (NEP; fire; land use change (LUC; riverine export; dust export; harvest (wood, crop and livestock and fossil fuel emissions (both territorial and non-territorial. Major biospheric fluxes were derived using BIOS2 (Haverd et al., 2012, a fine-spatial-resolution (0.05° offline modelling environment in which predictions of CABLE (Wang et al., 2011, a sophisticated land surface model with carbon cycle, are constrained by multiple observation types. The mean NEP reveals that climate variability and rising CO2 contributed 12 ± 24 (1σ error on mean and 68 ± 15 TgC yr−1, respectively. However these gains were partially offset by fire and LUC (along with other minor fluxes, which caused net losses of 26 ± 4 TgC yr−1 and 18 ± 7 TgC yr−1, respectively. The resultant net biome production (NBP is 36 ± 29 TgC yr−1, in which the largest contributions to uncertainty are NEP, fire and LUC. This NBP offset fossil fuel emissions (95 ± 6 TgC yr−1 by 38 ± 30%. The interannual variability (IAV in the Australian carbon budget exceeds Australia's total carbon emissions by fossil fuel combustion and is dominated by IAV in NEP. Territorial fossil fuel emissions are significantly smaller than the rapidly growing fossil fuel exports: in 2009–2010, Australia exported 2.5 times more carbon in fossil fuels than it emitted by burning fossil fuels.

  9. Superluminal Spot Pair Events in Astronomical Settings: Sweeping Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Nemiroff, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Sweeping beams of light can cast spots moving with superluminal speeds across scattering surfaces. Such faster-than-light speeds are well-known phenomena that do not violate special relativity. It is shown here that under certain circumstances, superluminal spot pair creation and annihilation events can occur that provide unique information to observers. These spot pair events are {\\it not} particle pair events -- they are the sudden creation or annihilation of a pair of relatively illuminated spots on a scattering surface. Real spot pair illumination events occur unambiguously on the scattering surface when spot speeds diverge, while virtual spot pair events are observer dependent and perceived only when real spot radial speeds cross the speed of light. Specifically, a virtual spot pair creation event will be observed when a real spot's speed toward the observer drops below $c$, while a virtual spot pair annihilation event will be observed when a real spot's radial speed away from the observer rises above $c...

  10. Modelling turbulent spots in swept boundary layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A linear perturbation method can capture the important flow features within a turbulent spot. • The horseshoe vortex in the perturbed velocity field is the dominant flow feature. • Sweep leads to skewing of the turbulent spot and calmed region. • The effects of pressure gradient are generally reduced by sweep. -- Abstract: A computational technique is presented for determining the fully 3-d viscid unsteady perturbation to a non-developing laminar swept boundary layer. For zero pressure gradient, unswept boundary layers, the perturbation method reveals a strongly three dimensional flow within the turbulent spot and its associated calmed region which is very similar to that observed in experiments and full DNS calculations. The perturbation method cannot predict turbulent motion but nevertheless provides a simple yet accurate means of studying and understanding the development of turbulent spot geometry. The most influential flow feature is the horseshoe vortex observed in the fluctuation velocity field, which is responsible for delivering the fluid found in the calmed region between its trailing legs. The upwards flow around the outer periphery of the vortex is also responsible for delivering low momentum fluid to the spot, but additional high momentum fluid also enters the spot from its rear through the downward sweeping motion of fluid between the vortex legs. The effect of an adverse streamwise pressure gradient is to increase the size of the spot and calmed region whereas a favourable pressure gradient has the opposite effect. When sweep is introduced to the boundary layer the spot is skewed for all non-zero pressure gradients, but the changes in size of the spot and calmed region due to pressure gradient are reduced. For favourable pressure gradients the skew increases monotonically with sweep, but this is not the case for adverse pressure gradients where the effect of sweep is more complex

  11. The Australian Replacement Research Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Shane; Robinson, Robert

    2004-03-01

    The 20-MW Australian Replacement Research Reactor represents possibly the greatest single research infrastructure investment in Australia's history. Construction of the facility has commenced, following award of the construction contract in July 2000, and the construction licence in April 2002. The project includes a large state-of-the-art liquid deuterium cold-neutron source and supermirror guides feeding a large modern guide hall, in which most of the instruments are placed. Alongside the guide hall, there is good provision of laboratory, office and space for support activities. While the facility has "space" for up to 18 instruments, the project has funding for an initial set of 8 instruments, which will be ready when the reactor is fully operational in July 2006. Instrument performance will be competitive with the best research-reactor facilities anywhere, and our goal is to be in the top 3 such facilities worldwide. Staff to lead the design effort and man these instruments have been hired on the international market from leading overseas facilities, and from within Australia, and 7 out of 8 instruments have been specified and costed. At present the instrumentation project carries 10contingency. An extensive dialogue has taken place with the domestic user community and our international peers, via various means including a series of workshops over the last 2 years covering all 8 instruments, emerging areas of application like biology and the earth sciences, and computing infrastructure for the instruments.

  12. Managing Australian Defence Force Activities in Marine Protected Areas:Using Jervis Bay as a Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brian Lees

    2008-01-01

    <正>Australian Defence Force has done training activities in marine areas even some marine protected areas for a long time.These activities may cause pollution to the environment and related animals both directly and indirectly.So it is necessary to do some research on the environmenta1 influence of ADF activities and try our best to protect the natural environment.In this essay,we take Jervis Bay Marine Park as a case study to study the methods of environmental management of Australian Defence Force Activities.Through our spot investigation,we found that the ADF has some special power in JBMP and their activities certainly did negative impact on not only the environment but also the surrounding communities.To solve these problems,the common citizens and the authority of ADF must shape a good relationship to reduce misunderstanding and the environmental management in Jervis Bay Marine Park should be increased in the future.

  13. Did Accession to the EU Affect Small and Large Firms Differently? The Case of the Austrian Retail and Wholesale Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Koller

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the effects that Austria's accession to the EU had on several key financial ratios of small business firms in the retail and wholesale trade sectors. These two industries were selected because before 1995 they were protected in many respects, thus vulnerable to increased competition after accession. The financial ratios selected are cash-flow per employed person, mean absolute deviation of cash-flow per employed person (as a variation-based risk measure, debt per employed person and financing cost as percentage of external debt. Together these four ratios determine a firm's creditworthiness. Our study is unique in that it is based on micro data, which allows us to consider the whole distribution of the ratios as compared to only aggregates as in other studies and to examine the scale effects within idustries. The data basis are balance sheets of more than 14,000 retail and 8,000 wholesale trade firms of all size classes during 1989-1996. In the empirical analysis we test the hypothsis of a structural break in the year of Austria's accession to the EU and put particular emphasis on the question whether small and large firms were affected differently by that structural break.

  14. Machine concept optimization for pumped-storage plants through combined dispatch simulation for wholesale and reserve markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Germany's energy markets of today, pumped-storage power plants offer excellent business opportunities due to their outstanding flexibility. However, the energy-economic simulation of pumped-storage plants, which is necessary to base the investment decision on a sound business case, is a highly complex matter since the plant's capacity must be optimized in a given plant portfolio and between two relevant markets: the scheduled wholesale and the reserve market. This mathematical optimization problem becomes even more complex when the question is raised as to which type of machine should be used for a pumped-storage new build option. For the first time, it has been proven possible to simulate the optimum dispatch of different pumped-storage machine concepts within two relevant markets - the scheduled wholesale and the reserve market - thereby greatly supporting the investment decision process. The methodology and findings of a cooperation study between E.ON and RWTH Aachen University in respect of the German pumped-storage extension project 'Waldeck 2+' are described, showing the latest development in dispatch simulation for generation portfolios. (authors)

  15. Living with aphasia: three Indigenous Australian stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Elizabeth; Hersh, Deborah; Hayward, Colleen; Fraser, Joan; Brown, Melita

    2012-06-01

    The incidence of cardiovascular disorders and stroke in Australian Aboriginal communities is more than twice as high as non-Indigenous Australians. Approximately 30% of people who survive stroke are left with some level of aphasia, and yet Indigenous Australians appear to be infrequent users of speech-language pathology services, and there is virtually no research literature about the experiences of aphasia for this group of people. This paper presents the stories of living with aphasia for three Indigenous Australian men living in Perth, Western Australia. Their narratives were collected by an Indigenous researcher through in-depth, supported interviews, and were explored using both within-case and cross-case analyses for common and recurring themes. It is argued that there is value for speech-language pathologists, and other health professionals, to be aware of the broad experiences of living with aphasia for Indigenous Australians because their stories are rarely heard and because, as with people with aphasia generally, they are at risk of social isolation and tend to lack visibility in the community. This study explores the key issues which emerge for these three men and highlights the need for further research in this area. PMID:22472033

  16. A comprehensive overview of the Cold Spot

    CERN Document Server

    Vielva, P

    2010-01-01

    The report of a significant deviation of the CMB temperature anisotropies distribution from Gaussianity (soon after the public release of the WMAP data in 2003) has become one of the most solid WMAP anomalies. This detection grounds on an excess of the kurtosis of the Spherical Mexican Hat Wavelet coefficients at scales of around 10 degrees. At these scales, a prominent feature --located in the southern Galactic hemisphere-- was highlighted from the rest of the SMHW coefficients: the Cold Spot. This article presents a comprehensive overview related to the study of the Cold Spot, paying attention to the non-Gaussianity detection methods, the morphological characteristics of the Cold Spot, and the possible sources studied in the literature to explain its nature. Special emphasis is made on the Cold Spot compatibility with a cosmic texture, commenting on future tests that would help to give support or discard this hypothesis.

  17. Lupus a Tough Disease to Spot, Treat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159098.html Lupus a Tough Disease to Spot, Treat But experts ... 30, 2016 MONDAY, May 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Lupus is difficult to diagnose and treat, but scientists ...

  18. SPOT Controlled Image Base 10 meter

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — SPOT Controlled Image Base 10 meter (CIB-10) is a collection of orthorectified panchromatic (grayscale) images. The data were acquired between 1986 and 1993 by the...

  19. Measuring microfocus focal spots using digital radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, David A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of microfocus spot size can be important for several reasons: (1) Quality assurance during manufacture of microfocus tubes; (2) Tracking performance and stability of microfocus tubes; (3) Determining magnification (especially important for digital radiography where the native spatial resolution of the digital system is not adequate for the application); (4) Knowledge of unsharpness from the focal spot alone. The European Standard EN 12543-5 is based on a simple geometrical method of calculating focal spot size from unsharpness of high magnification film radiographs. When determining microfocus focal spot dimensions using unsharpness measurements both signal-to-noise (SNR) and magnification can be important. There is a maximum accuracy that is a function of SNR and therefore an optimal magnification. Greater than optimal magnification can be used but it will not increase accuracy.

  20. Plasma spot welding of ferritic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma spot wedding of ferritic stainless steels studied. The study was focused on welding parameters, plasma and shieldings and the optimum welding equipment. Plasma-spot welded overlap joints on a 0.8 mm thick ferritic stainless steel sheet were subjected to a visual examination and mechanical testing in terms of tension-shear strength. Several macro specimens were prepared Plasma spot welding is suitable to use the same gas as shielding gas and as plasma gas , i. e. a 98% Ar/2% H2 gas mixture. Tension-shear strength of plasma-spot welded joint was compared to that of resistance sport welded joints. It was found that the resistance welded joints withstand a somewhat stronger load than the plasma welded joints due to a large weld sport diameter of the former. Strength of both types of welded joints is approximately the same. (Author) 32 refs

  1. Asparagus Beetle and Spotted Asparagus Beetle

    OpenAIRE

    Erin W Hodgson; Drost, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Asparagus beetle, Crioceris asparagi, and spotted asparagus beetle, C. duodecimpunctata are leaf beetles in the family Chrysomelidae. These beetles feed exclusively on asparagus and are native to Europe. Asparagus beetle is the more economically injurious of the two species.

  2. An expanded prescribing role for pharmacists - an Australian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kreshnik Hoti; Jeffery Hughes; Bruce Sunderland

    2011-01-01

    Expanded pharmacist prescribing is a new professional practice area for pharmacists. Currently, Australian pharmacists’ prescribing role is limited to over-the-counter medications. This review aims to identify Australian studies involving the area of expanded pharmacist prescribing. Australian studies exploring the issues of pharmacist prescribing were identified and considered in the context of its implementation internationally. Australian studies have mainly focused on the attitudes of com...

  3. Representations of the Japanese in Contemporary Australian Literature and Film

    OpenAIRE

    Erika Smith

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this article is to investigate general contemporary Australian perceptions of the Japanese. I will do this by exploring how Australian contemporary literature (2006- 2007) and Australian contemporary film (1997-2007) depicts Japanese characters. By analysing the representation of the Japanese characters in these areas I will attempt to gather a broad understanding of how Australians represent, perceive and identify the Japanese today.

  4. Investigations of initiation spot size effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, Steven A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Akinci, Adrian A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Leichty, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schaffer, Timothy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Murphy, Michael J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Munger, Alan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thomas, Keith A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    As explosive components become smaller, a greater understanding of the effect of initiation spot size on detonation becomes increasingly critical. A series of tests of the effect of initiation spot size will be described. A series of DOI (direct optical initiation) detonators with initiation spots sizes from {approx}50 um to 1000um have been tested to determine laser parameters for threshold firing of low density PETN pressings. Results will be compared with theoretical predictions. Outputs of the initiation source (DOI ablation) have been characterized by a suite of diagnostics including PDV and schlieren imaging. Outputs of complete detonators have been characterized using PDV, streak, and/or schlieren imaging. At present, we have not found the expected change in the threshold energy to spot size relationship for DOI type detonators found in similar earlier for projectiles, slappers and EBWs. New detonators designs (Type C) are currently being tested that will allow the determination of the threshold for spot sizes from 250 um to 105um, where we hope to see change in the threshold vs. spot size relationship. Also, one test of an extremely small diameter spot size (50um) has resulted in preliminary NoGo only results even at energy densities as much as 8 times the energy density of the threshold results presented here. This gives preliminary evidence that 50um spot may be beyond the critical initiation diameter. The constant threshold energy to spot size relationship in the data to date does however still give some insight into the initiation mechanism of DOI detonators. If the DOI initiation mechanism were a 1D mechanism similar to a slapper or a flyer impact, the expected inflection point in the graph would have been between 300um and 500um diameter spot size, within the range of the data presented here. The lack of that inflection point indicates that the DOI initiation mechanism is more likely a 2D mechanism similar to a sphere or rod projectile. We expect to

  5. X-ray spot film device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improvements are described in an X-ray spot film device which is used in conjunction with an X-ray table to make a selected number of radiographic exposures on a single film and to perform fluoroscopic examinations. To date, the spot film devices consist of two X-ray field defining masks, one of which is moved manually. The present device is more convenient to use and speeds up the procedure. (U.K.)

  6. Water metabolism in Australian marsupials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies are discussed in which tritiated water (TOH) has been used to investigate water metabolism in Australian marsupials, particularly arid-zone species. Equilibration of injected TOH in large kangaroos was slower than in smaller marsupials and similar to that in ruminants and camels, presumably because of the high gut water space of all large forestomach fermenters. Loss of TOH in urine, faeces and insensible water during equilibration was also similar to that in ruminants. Total body water (TBW) was similar whether estimated by equilibration or extrapolation. TBW of small marsupial species (16 g to 6.5 kg body weight) was usually in the range found for small eutherian mammals (56 to 68% of body weight). However, in the larger kangaroos TBW ranged from 73 to 78% of body weight, possibly due to the low body fat content and the high ratio of gut contents to total body weight of kangaroos. In general, the water turnover rate of marsupials is about 30% below that of eutherians; this has been related to their lower metabolic rate. Nevertheless, significant differences in water turnover have been found between some species. It has been suggested that there may be a correlation between the water turnover rates measured under ad libitum water availability and the aridity of the animal's habitat. However, this is not always so; differences in behaviour and in the water content of the natural diet explain why some marsupials with high ad libitum water turnovers can survive in desert environments. The physiological state of the animals (e.g. lactation) has also been shown to affect water turnover, both in the laboratory and in the field. (author)

  7. Data Convergence - An Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, S. S.; Howell, B.

    2012-12-01

    Coupled numerical physical, biogeochemical and sediment models are increasingly being used as integrators to help understand the cumulative or far field effects of change in the coastal environment. This reliance on modeling has forced observations to be delivered as data streams ingestible by modeling frameworks. This has made it easier to create near real-time or forecasting models than to try to recreate the past, and has lead in turn to the conversion of historical data into data streams to allow them to be ingested by the same frameworks. The model and observation frameworks under development within Australia's Commonwealth and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) are now feeding into the Australian Ocean Data Network's (AODN's) MARine Virtual Laboratory (MARVL) . The sensor, or data stream, brokering solution is centred around the "message" and all data flowing through the gateway is wrapped as a message. Messages consist of a topic and a data object and their routing through the gateway to pre-processors and listeners is determined by the topic. The Sensor Message Gateway (SMG) method is allowing data from different sensors measuring the same thing but with different temporal resolutions, units or spatial coverage to be ingested or visualized seamlessly. At the same time the model output as a virtual sensor is being explored, this again being enabled by the SMG. It is only for two way communications with sensor that rigorous adherence to standards is needed, by accepting existing data in less than ideal formats, but exposing them though the SMG we can move a step closer to the Internet Of Things by creating an Internet of Industries where each vested interest can continue with business as usual, contribute to data convergence and adopt more open standards when investment seems appropriate to that sector or business.Architecture Overview

  8. Australian Indigenous Perspectives on Quality Assurance in Children's Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Teresa; Frances, Katie; Saggers, Sherry

    2009-01-01

    The Australian Government has recently committed to the development of an integrated system of assuring national quality standards for Australian childcare and preschool services (Australian Government, 2008). This article addresses two fundamental issues relating to the development of an integrated system as it applies to Indigenous children's…

  9. Modelling Choice: Factors Influencing Modes of Delivery in Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew; Ling, Peter; Hill, Doug

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study of Multiple Modes of Delivery in Australian universities that was commissioned by Australian Universities Teaching Committee over the period 2001-2004. The project examined and described the various means of educational delivery deployed by Australian universities. It identified the pedagogical,…

  10. Drama in the Australian National Curriculum: Decisions, Tensions and Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Madonna; Saunders, John Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    In September 2015, the Australian Federal Government endorsed the final version of the Australian Curriculum arts framework a document resulting from nearly seven years of consultation and development. "The Australian Curriculum: The Arts Version 8.0" comprises five subjects: dance, drama, media arts, music and visual arts. This article…

  11. Aboriginal Agency and Marginalisation in Australian Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Moore

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It is often argued that while state rhetoric may be inclusionary, policies and practices may be exclusionary. This can imply that the power to include rests only with the state. In some ways, the implication is valid in respect of Aboriginal Australians. For instance, the Australian state has gained control of Aboriginal inclusion via a singular, bounded category and Aboriginal ideal type. However, the implication is also limited in their respect. Aborigines are abject but also agents in their relationship with the wider society. Their politics contributes to the construction of the very category and type that governs them, and presses individuals to resist state inclusionary efforts. Aboriginal political elites police the performance of an Aboriginality dominated by notions of difference and resistance. The combined processes of governance act to deny Aborigines the potential of being both Aboriginal and Australian, being different and belonging. They maintain Aborigines’ marginality.

  12. Topics from Australian Conferences on Teaching Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, Brian; Martin, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The first OZCOTS conference in 1998 was inspired by papers contributed by Australians to the 5th International Conference on Teaching Statistics. In 2008, as part of the program of one of the first National Senior Teaching Fellowships, the 6th OZCOTS was held in conjunction with the Australian Statistical Conference, with Fellowship keynotes and contributed papers, optional refereeing and proceedings. This venture was so successful that the 7th and 8th OZCOTS were similarly run, conjoined with Australian Statistical Conferences in 2010 and 2012. Authors of papers from these OZCOTS conferences were invited to develop chapters for refereeing and inclusion in this volume. There are sections on keynote topics, undergraduate curriculum and learning, professional development, postgraduate learning, and papers from OZCOTS 2012. Because OZCOTS aim to unite statisticians and statistics educators, the approaches this volume takes are immediately relevant to all who have a vested interest in good teaching practices. Glo...

  13. Isotopes in Australian environmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: ANSTO Environment is playing a pioneering role in developing new methods for monitoring adherence to the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty. Working with the IAEA Department of Safeguards, new analytical procedures have been developed to assist with their environmental monitoring programme. Signatures of nuclear activities, in the form of trace amounts of radioisotopes in environmental samples, can be used to identify undeclared nuclear facilities or undeclared activities at declared facilities. At ANSTO we have developed the use of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) for analysis of 236U in environmental samples. 236U is a sensitive indicator of irradiated uranium. AMS is also used to detect the long- lived fission product 129I at extremely low levels. The presence of 129I can be a signature of reprocessing. ANSTO performs analyses of these radioisotopes as an accredited member of the IAEA Safeguards network of analytical laboratories. Australian soldiers on duty in the Gulf risk possible exposure to depleted uranium. Depleted uranium is the uranium that is left after most of the radioactive isotopes are removed for nuclear fuel. Due to its high density, it is the ideal material for use in armour-piercing ammunition and in armour for fighting vehicles. However, like any heavy metal, it is toxic in high doses. Depleted uranium enters the body through inhalation of the dust- like particles, ingestion of contaminated food or through wounds. At ANSTO, a sensitive analytical technique based on isotope dilution and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to detect depleted uranium in urine samples. By addition of known quantities of 236U (isotope dilution) to the urine samples and measuring the relative abundances of different isotopes (236U, 235U and 238U) of uranium by ICP-MS, we are able to quantify (quantification limit of 20 ng/L) and distinguish between natural and depleted uranium. In Australia, there are legislative limits on the

  14. Spot weld arrangement effects on the fatigue behavior of multi-spot welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, the effects of spot weld arrangements in multi-spot welded joints on the fatigue behavior of the joints are studied. Three different four-spot welded joints are considered: one-row four-spot parallel to the loading direction, one-row four-spot perpendicular to the loading direction and two-row four-spot weld specimens. The experimental fatigue test results reveal that the differences between the fatigue lives of three spot welded types in the low cycle regime are more considerable than those in the high cycle regime. However, all kinds of spot weld specimens have similar fatigue strength when approaching a million cycles. A non-linear finite element analysis is performed to obtain the relative stress gradients, effective distances and notch strength reduction factors based on the volumetric approach. The work here shows that the volumetric approach does a very good job in predicting the fatigue life of the multi-spot welded joints

  15. Australian clinical guidelines for radiological event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Health Protection Committee oversees national health protection priorities in: communicable disease outbreaks; chemical, biological or radiological incidents; mass casualty incidents; and deployment of Australian health teams overseas. The Australian Clinical Guidelines for a Radiological Event to complement existing national guidelines on chemical agents, anthrax, and smallpox. Other prompts included the need to revise the ARPANSA Guidance Manual, Medical Management of Individuals Involved in Radiation Accidents, 2000, and the requirement for specific therapeutic information regarding the indications and use of radiological decorporation agents held as part of the National Medical Stockpile. Matters identified by clinicians requiring specific guidance included: basic understanding of radiation; an approach to dose assessment; specific thresholds for initiating decorporation and other therapy; the role of gastric lavage, as contemporary practice considers this ineffective for other toxicological indications. rationale for, and detailed description of pulmonary lavage; advice on prenatal exposure to radiation; protocols for biodosimetry and other laboratory analysis. The objective was to produce a plain language guidance document for Australian clinicians on the diagnosis and management of radiation injury. It was to be based on evaluation of existing Australian documents, a literature review and consultation of appropriate specialists. Content areas included human health effects of radiation, scenario-based risk assessment and risk management, pre-hospital and hospital systems of care, management of specific injury types, radionuclide pathophysiology and decorporation protocols, biodosimetry options, individual psychological support 'and public health information, and Australian responsibilities under the Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Assistance Network, of the World Health Organization. The range of resources utilised in preparing the

  16. Aspectos sobre a decisão de canais no pequeno varejo: a escolha entre o atacado e o atacarejo ASPECTS OF CHANNELS DECISION IN SMALL RETAIL: THE CHOISE BETWEEN THE TRADITIONAL WHOLESALE AND THE WHOLESALE AND RETAIL OUTLET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Giuliani

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article talks about purchase decision from small and medium retailers from Piracicaba Region, São Paulo State. The bibliographic and field research showed the main influence factors and decision criteria of small retailers for purchase, related to the choice between the traditional wholesale and the wholesale and retail outlet, which is a type of store that allows the wholesaler sales to sell to small or medium-sized retailers and for end consumers who are looking for the best price. The topics treated are the distribution channels, types of agents, the role of each one and the retailers' decision of purchasing. The exploratory research was applied to small and medium-sized retailers from Piracicaba Region, Sao Paulo State Countryside. From the eight case studies it was possible to identify the aspects considered relevant for retailers in the purchase decision and partner choice. Retailers were expressed by five attributes considered the most relevant, they are: convenience, variety, price, reliability and quantity.Este artigo aborda a temática da decisão de compra dos varejistas de pequeno e de médio porte da região de Piracicaba, SP. O levantamento bibliográfico, bem como a pesquisa de campo, apontaram os principais fatores de influência e os critérios de decisão de compra de pequenos varejistas quanto à escolha entre o atacado tradicional e o atacarejo, que é um tipo de loja que permite ao atacadista vender aos varejistas de pequeno ou de médio porte e aos consumidores finais que estão à procura do melhor preço. Os tópicos abordados são os canais de distribuição, os tipos de agentes, a função que cada um exerce e a decisão de compra dos varejistas. A pesquisa exploratória foi aplicada a varejistas de pequeno e de médio porte da região de Piracicaba, interior do estado de São Paulo. A partir de oito estudos de caso, foram identificados os aspectos considerados relevantes para os varejistas na decisão de compra e

  17. Wholesale energy market in a smart grid. Dynamic modeling, stability, and robustness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiani Bejestani, Arman

    2013-01-24

    The recent paradigm shift in the architecture of the smart grid is driven by the need to integrate Renewable Energy Resources (RER), the availability of information through communication networks, and an emerging policy of demand that is intertwined with pricing. A major component of this architecture is the design of electricity markets, which pertains to the optimal scheduling of power generation and reserve requirements. The challenge is to carry out this scheduling with a high level of integration of renewable generation sources, a formidable task due to intermittency and uncertainty. Introducing huge intermittency and uncertainty in the smart grid will demand a dynamic framework for addressing the operation, scheduling and financial settlements in the uncertain environment. The temporal components in scheduling generation are necessary due to increasing penetration of renewable sources, and increasing potential of adjustable demand via Demand Response (DR). The former brings issues of strong intermittency and uncertainty, and the latter brings a feedback structure, where demand can be modulated over a range of time-scales. Both of these components are dictating a new look at market mechanisms, with a controls viewpoint enabling a novel framework for analysis and synthesis. This dissertation provides static and dynamic models that capture the various aspects of electrical power systems, including the dynamics of market participants, the physical and technical constraints of power systems, and the uncertainty of RER. The proposed models shed new light on wholesale electricity market design, allowing an understanding to be gained of how to create markets, which enhance the stability of price profiles, and efficiency of the power systems, in the presence of uncertain demand and intermittent resources. The notion of market equilibrium in the presence of RER and DR is presented. The effects of uncertainties due to forecast errors in RER and variations due to DR on

  18. Australian internet histories: Past, present and future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    2012-01-01

    This Afterword compares the articles in this issue of Media International Australia to the ‘first wave’ of Australian internet historiography, a field of study established by Australian internet scholars around 2000. After identifying what is new in the present issue, I outline four paths that may...... be worth considering in the future: constituting the field based on shared theoretical and methodological reflections; using archived web material to a larger extent; participating in the shaping of a digital research infrastructure for internet studies; and increasing international research...

  19. Astronomical Symbolism in Australian Aboriginal Rock Art

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Ray P

    2010-01-01

    Traditional Aboriginal Australian cultures include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition and ceremony. This knowledge has practical navigational and calendrical functions, and sometimes extends to a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky. Here we explore whether this astronomical tradition is reflected in the rock art of Aboriginal Australians. We find several plausible examples of depictions of astronomical figures and symbols, and also evidence that astronomical observations were used to set out stone arrangements. However, we recognise that the case is not yet strong enough to make an unequivocal statement, and describe our plans for further research.

  20. Astronomical Symbolism in Australian Aboriginal Rock Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Ray P.; Hamacher, Duane W.

    2011-05-01

    Traditional Aboriginal Australian cultures include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition and ceremony. This knowledge has practical navigational and calendrical functions, and sometimes extends to a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky. Here we explore whether this astronomical tradition is reflected in the rock art of Aboriginal Australians. We find several plausible examples of depictions of astronomical figures and symbols, and also evidence that astronomical observations were used to set out stone arrangements. However, we recognise that the case is not yet strong enough to make an unequivocal statement, and describe our plans for further research.

  1. SPOTTED STAR LIGHT CURVES WITH ENHANCED PRECISION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nearly continuous timewise coverage of recent photometric surveys is free of the large gaps that compromise attempts to follow starspot growth and decay as well as motions, thereby giving incentive to improve computational precision for modeled spots. Due to the wide variety of star systems in the surveys, such improvement should apply to light/velocity curve models that accurately include all the main phenomena of close binaries and rotating single stars. The vector fractional area (VFA) algorithm that is introduced here represents surface elements by small sets of position vectors so as to allow accurate computation of circle-triangle overlap by spherical geometry. When computed by VFA, spots introduce essentially no noticeable scatter in light curves at the level of one part in 10,000. VFA has been put into the Wilson-Devinney light/velocity curve program and all logic and mathematics are given so as to facilitate entry into other such programs. Advantages of precise spot computation include improved statistics of spot motions and aging, reduced computation time (intrinsic precision relaxes needs for grid fineness), noise-free illustration of spot effects in figures, and help in guarding against false positives in exoplanet searches, where spots could approximately mimic transiting planets in unusual circumstances. A simple spot growth and decay template quantifies time profiles, and specifics of its utilization in differential corrections solutions are given. Computational strategies are discussed, the overall process is tested in simulations via solutions of synthetic light curve data, and essential simulation results are described. An efficient time smearing facility by Gaussian quadrature can deal with Kepler mission data that are in 30 minute time bins.

  2. 7 CFR 28.423 - Middling Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Spotted Color. 28.423 Section 28.423... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Spotted Cotton § 28.423 Middling Spotted Color. Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody...

  3. Western Australian food security project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maycock Bruce

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the Western Australian (WA Food Security Project was to conduct a preliminary investigation into issues relating to food security in one region within the Perth metropolitan area in Western Australia. The first phase of the project involved a food audit in one lower income area that was typical of the region, to identify the range, variety and availability of foods in the region. Methods A comprehensive food audit survey was provided to all food outlet owners/operators in one lower socio-economic region within the City of Mandurah (n = 132 outlets. The purpose of the survey was to investigate the range, variety and availability of foods in the Mandurah region as well as examining specific in-store characteristics such as the types of clientele and in-store promotions offered. Surveys were competed for 99 outlets (response rate = 75%. Results The range of foods available were predominantly pre-prepared with more than half of the outlets pre-preparing the majority of their food. Sandwiches and rolls were the most popular items sold in the outlets surveyed (n = 51 outlets followed by pastries such as pies, sausage rolls and pasties (n = 33 outlets. Outlets considered their healthiest food options were sandwiches or rolls (n = 51 outlets, salads (n- = 50 outlets, fruit and vegetables (n = 40 outlets, seafood (n = 27 outlets, meats such as chicken (n = 26 outlets and hot foods such as curries, soups or quiches (n = 23 outlets. The majority of outlets surveyed considered pre-prepared food including sandwiches, rolls and salads, as healthy food options regardless of the content of the filling or dressings used. Few outlets (n = 28% offered a choice of bread type other than white or wholemeal. High fat pastries and dressings were popular client choices (n = 77% as were carbonated drinks (n = 88% and flavoured milks (n = 46%. Conclusion These findings clearly indicate the need for further investigation of the impact of

  4. Professional Standards for Australian Special Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Ian; Dally, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Although professional standards for Australian teachers were developed several years ago, this country is yet to develop such standards for special education teachers. The lack of standards for the special education profession is associated with the absence of a consistent process of accreditation in Australia and a lack of clarity in the pathways…

  5. Is achievement in Australian chemistry gender based?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, John; Fogliani, Charles; Owens, Chris; Wilson, Audrey

    1993-12-01

    This paper compares the performances of female and male secondary students in the 1991 and 1992 Australian National Chemistry Quizzes. Male students consistently achieved a higher mean score in all Year groups (7 to 12), even though the numbers of female and male entrants were approximately equal. Implications for class tests and assessment tasks are addressed.

  6. Commercial Activities and Copyright in Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelly, Marita

    2008-01-01

    With government funding for most Australian universities below 60% and falling a major strategic emphasis for universities has been on securing other sources of operating revenue, including commercial opportunities and partnerships. The implication of increasing commercial activities such as non-award and tailored professional programmes, contract…

  7. Bacteriophages from the forestomachs of Australian marsupials.

    OpenAIRE

    Klieve, A V

    1991-01-01

    Bacteriophages were observed in forestomach contents from three species of Australian macropodoid marsupials possessing a foregut fermentative digestion: the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus), the eastern wallaroo (Macropus robustus robustus), and the rufous bettong (Aepyprymnus rufescens). Forty-six morphologically distinct phage types, representing the families Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, and Podoviridae, were identified. The range of forms varied between host species. The greatest d...

  8. Education for Sustainability and the Australian Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennelly, Julie; Taylor, Neil; Serow, Pep

    2011-01-01

    A national curriculum is presently being developed in Australia with implementation due during 2014. Associated standards for the accreditation of teachers and for teacher education providers have been prepared with the standards describing skills and attributes that teachers are expected to attain. The developing Australian Curriculum, along with…

  9. Learning Choices, Older Australians and Active Ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton-Lewis, Gillian M.; Buys, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of qualitative, semistructured interviews conducted with 40 older Australian participants who either did or did not engage in organized learning. Phenomenology was used to guide the interviews and analysis to explore the lived learning experiences and perspectives of these older people. Their experiences of…

  10. Exposures to patients in Australian radiological practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paix, D. (South Australian Inst. of Tech., Adelaide)

    1983-11-01

    The findings of a 1980 Australian Radiation Laboratory study of genetic and bone-marrow doses to the population from medical, dental and chiropractic uses of ionising radiation are discussed. Attention is drawn to the large variability in patient exposure: maximum values were from five to eleven times greater than the means.

  11. Exposures to patients in Australian radiological practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The findings of a 1980 Australian Radiation Laboratory study of genetic and bone-marrow doses to the population from medical, dental and chiropractic uses of ionising radiation are discussed. Attention is drawn to the large variability in patient exposure: maximum values were from five to eleven times greater than the means

  12. Understanding Australian Aboriginal Tertiary Student Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Rhonda; Rochecouste, Judith; Bennell, Debra; Anderson, Roz; Cooper, Inala; Forrest, Simon; Exell, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Drawing from a study of the experiences of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander university students, this paper presents an overview of the specific needs of these students as they enter and progress through their tertiary education. Extracts from a set of case studies developed from both staff and student interviews and an online…

  13. Linguistic Aspects of Australian Aboriginal English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    It is probable that the majority of the 455 000 strong Aboriginal population of Australia speak some form of Australian Aboriginal English (AAE) at least some of the time and that it is the first (and only) language of many Aboriginal children. This means their language is somewhere on a continuum ranging from something very close to Standard…

  14. Is There Cultural Safety in Australian Universities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochecouste, Judith; Oliver, Rhonda; Bennell, Debra

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the cultural safety offered to Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students within their university environments. In the context of this paper, cultural safety includes cultural competency, as recently subscribed by Universities Australia, and "extends beyond (to) cultural awareness and cultural…

  15. Wilson's disease in an Australian aborigine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, D H; Shepherd, R; Cooksley, W G; Patrick, M; Powell, L W

    1990-01-01

    Wilson's disease is due to a genetically determined defect inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. Most reported cases have been caucasoid. This report describes a case of Wilson's disease in an Australian Aboriginal girl, only the second such case reported. PMID:2129845

  16. Australian Children's Understanding of Display Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Grace

    2009-01-01

    Cultural display rules govern the manifestation of emotional expressions. In compliance with display rules, the facial expressions displayed (i.e. apparent emotion) may be incongruent with the emotion experienced (i.e. real emotion). This study investigates Australian Caucasian children's understanding of display rules. A sample of 80 four year…

  17. Brain drain threat to Australian science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Around half of all academics in Australia intend to retire, move to an overseas university or leave Australian higher education within the next 10 years, according to a survey of more than 5500 researchers based at 20 universities in the country.

  18. Licensing of the Australian replacement research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO)'s Replacement Research Reactor has been submitted to a comprehensive licensing process of which peer review has been a fundamental part. Following Australian Regulation, an application for a site licence was the first step supported by an Environmental Impact Statement approved by The Minister for the Environment and Heritage, and a Reference Accident Analysis. After the site licence had been granted and the contract awarded to the Designer and Constructor, INVAP S.E:, a 2500 page Preliminary Safety Analysis Report was submitted by ANSTO to the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA), which conducted its review. ARPANSA requested that the PSAR be also reviewed by an experts mission from the International Atomic Energy Agency. The PSAR was also reviewed by the Argentine Regulatory Body, it was submitted to public examination in Australia and it was reviewed by international experts hired as consultants by several Australian organisations. A public forum was also held in Sydney. The Regulator, the applicant and the Designer-Constructor maintained constant interaction during the whole process, so that questions, comments and observations that arose from the review of the PSAR were fed back to the designers. This process allowed for a robust, safe design enriched by the results of the safety analysis and review process. (author)

  19. Revitalising Languages in Australian Universities: What Chance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Bianco, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Institutions of higher education teach fewer languages, in less secure ways, for less time per week, for shorter periods, by an increasingly casually employed staff, in often underfunded, underappreciated and under stress modes, but participants in the Australian Academy of the Humanities' "Beyond the Crisis: Revitalising Languages in Australian…

  20. Cognitive and Social Play of Australian Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyver, Shirley R.; Spence, Susan H.

    1995-01-01

    Observed behaviors of 37 female and 23 male Australian preschoolers. Found that only 20% engaged in thematic pretend play (linked to perspective taking, language development, impulse control, divergent problem solving) whereas 24% used cooperative social play (linked to divergent problem solving). Results suggest need for assistance in the…

  1. Sustainability in the Australian Curriculum: Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maude, Alaric

    2014-01-01

    "Sustainability" is one of the seven major concepts in the geography curriculum. It is also one of the three cross-curriculum priorities in the Australian curriculum, together with Asia and Australia's engagement with Asia, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures. This paper describes how the concept is explained…

  2. Demands of Training: Australian Tourism and Hospitality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeland, Brett

    Qualitative research was conducted as part of a four-industry project studying operation of training markets, one of which was Australian tourism and hospitality (T&H). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 individuals representing stakeholder groups. Interviews were conducted across Queensland, Victoria, and South Australia and…

  3. Marketing in the Australian Higher Education Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaloro, Chrissa

    2015-01-01

    This article examines domestic marketing in the Australian higher education sector, specifically, the marketing investment patterns of universities and their levels of student growth as a return on marketing investment. Marketing expenditure by universities has risen 23 per cent in the five years to 2013, with several institutions allocating in…

  4. Does Academic Work Make Australian Academics Happy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Roderick; Tilbrook, Kerry; Krivokapic-Skoko, Branka

    2015-01-01

    Happiness research is a rapidly-growing area in social psychology and has emphasised the link between happiness and workplace productivity and creativity for knowledge workers. Recent articles in this journal have raised concerns about the level of happiness and engagement of Australian academics with their work, however there is little research…

  5. Exporting Australian Educational Services to China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the deregulation of the overseas student sector that took place in Australia during the mid-1980s. It focuses specifically upon the short-term English- language courses that were sold to students from the People's Republic of China. The article suggests that the Hawke government's policy of encouraging Australian language…

  6. Australian Study Cites Low English Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, David

    2007-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a study showing that one-third of all foreign students who studied at Australian universities speak English so poorly that they should never have been granted visas to study in the country in the first place. The study, by Robert Birrell, director of the Centre for Population and Urban Research at Australia's…

  7. Making Space for Multilingualism in Australian Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Marianne; Cross, Russell

    2016-01-01

    In this article we introduce the special issue: Language(s) across the curriculum in Australian schools. The special issue includes a focus on English as an additional language in mainstream classes, Indigenous education, heritage languages and foreign languages, and we give background to these different--though frequently overlapping--contexts.…

  8. Box Plots in the Australian Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the definition of "box plot" as used in the "Australian Curriculum: Mathematics" with other definitions used in the education community; describes the difficulties students experience when dealing with box plots; and discusses the elaboration that is necessary to enable teachers to develop the knowledge necessary to use them…

  9. CORTICAL REPRESENTATION OF SPACE AROUND THE BLIND SPOT

    OpenAIRE

    Awater, Holger; Kerlin, Jess R.; Evans, Karla K.; Tong, Frank

    2005-01-01

    The neural mechanism that mediates perceptual filling-in of the blind spot is still under discussion. One hypothesis proposes that the cortical representation of the blind spot is activated only under conditions that elicit perceptual filling-in, and requires congruent stimulation on both sides of the blind spot. Alternatively, the passive remapping hypothesis proposes that inputs from regions surrounding the blind spot infiltrate the representation of the blind spot in cortex. This theory pr...

  10. The integration of Price Responsive Demand into Regional Transmission Organization (RTO) wholesale power markets and system operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of states and utilities are pursuing demand response based on dynamic and time-differentiated retail prices and utility investments in Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI), often as part of Smart Grid initiatives. These developments could produce large amounts of Price Responsive Demand, demand that predictably responds to changes in wholesale prices. Price Responsive Demand could provide significant reliability and economic benefits. However, existing RTO tariffs present potential barriers to the development of Price Responsive Demand. Effectively integrating Price Responsive Demand into RTO markets and operations will require changes in demand forecasting, scarcity pricing reform, synchronization of scarcity pricing with capacity markets, tracking voluntary hedging by price responsive loads, and a non-discriminatory approach in curtailments in capacity emergencies. The article describes changes in RTO policies and systems needed incorporate Price Responsive Demand. (author)

  11. The impact of the adoption of the Accounting Standardisation System in Portuguese construction companies and wholesale trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmem Serrenho

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In January 2010 a set of new accounting rules named Sistema de Normalização Contabilística (or SNC, changed the Plano Oficial de Contabilidade (or POC. During its transition from POC to SNC, an opening balance is prepared by the entities according to the accounting principles of the Normas Contabilísticas and the Relato Financeiro (or NCRF. This balance was a guarantee of comparability of the first financial reports in accordance to NCRF. The impact of the first set of accounts of NCRF in the 2009 opening balance was analyzed in wholesale activities and construction companies and this study highlights the significant impact on assets, inventories and liabilities, and also on the debts ratios, solvability and financial autonomy.

  12. Assessing the impact of forward trading, retail liberalization, and white certificates on the Italian wholesale electricity prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    How do policy actions affect the dynamics of deregulated electricity prices? We investigate this issue in the context of the Italian Power Exchange (IPEX), using data on the daily average day-ahead price (PUN) between April 2004 and December 2008. Estimates of baseline time series models (SARMAX and SARMAX-EGARCH) and their forecasting performances suggest that the trend in natural gas prices, market power indicators, deterministic weekly patterns, perceived temperatures, persistence in conditional volatility, and the inverse leverage effect are essential features of the PUN dynamics. We then augment the best-performing models with dummies that account for changes in the market architecture, such as the introduction of contracts for differences (CfDs) to support renewables, trading of white certificates for energy efficiency, and the demand-side liberalization. The findings show that changes in the market architecture affected both the PUN level and its volatility. Specifically, wholesale electricity prices and volatility appear to have decreased upon the introduction of CfDs, only to be pushed upwards following the start of white certificates' trading and retail liberalization. Moreover, after controlling for reforms the inverse leverage effect vanishes, and the persistence in volatility is lower than in the baseline estimates. - Highlights: ► We model Italian wholesale power prices using SARMAX and EGARCH models. ► We assess the price impact of contracts for differences, retail liberalization, white certificates. ► The electricity price level and its volatility have increased after the adoption of contracts for differences. ► Following retail liberalization and the start of white certificates trading, the price level and its volatility have increased.

  13. Demand side management in a day-ahead wholesale market: A comparison of industrial & social welfare approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We compare two demand side management in a day-ahead electricity wholesale market. • We develop and reconcile social welfare & industrial DSM mathematical models. • We show the industrial netload has an additional forecast quantity of baseline. • We analytically and numerically show the model equivalence with accurate baseline. • We numerically demonstrate the baseline errors lead to higher and costlier dispatch. - Abstract: The intermittent nature of renewable energy has been discussed in the context of the operational challenges that it brings to electrical grid reliability. Demand side management (DSM) with its ability to allow customers to adjust electricity consumption in response to market signals has often been recognized as an efficient way to mitigate the variable effects of renewable energy as well as to increase system efficiency and reduce system costs. However, the academic & industrial literature have taken divergent approaches to DSM implementation. While the popular approach among academia adopts a social welfare maximization formulation, the industrial practice compensates customers according to their load reduction from a predefined electricity consumption baseline that would have occurred without DSM. This paper rigorously compares these two different approaches in a day-ahead wholesale market context analytically and in a test case using the same system configuration and mathematical formalism. The comparison of the two models showed that a proper reconciliation of the two models might make them mitigate the stochastic netload in fundamentally the same way, but only under very specific conditions which are rarely met in practice. While the social welfare model uses a stochastic net load composed of two terms, the industrial DSM model uses a stochastic net load composed of three terms including the additional baseline term. DSM participants are likely to manipulate the baseline in order to receive greater financial

  14. PREDICTING RELEVANT EMPTY SPOTS IN SOCIAL INTERACTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshiharu MAENO; Yukio OHSAWA

    2008-01-01

    An empty spot refers to an empty hard-to-fill space which can be found in the records of the social interaction, and is the clue to the persons in the underlying social network who do not appear in the records. This contribution addresses a problem to predict relevant empty spots in social interaction. Homogeneous and inhomogeneous networks are studied as a model underlying the social interaction. A heuristic predictor function method is presented as a new method to address the problem. Simulation experiment is demonstrated over a homogeneous network. A test data set in the form of market baskets is generated from the simulated communication. Precision to predict the empty spots is calculated to demonstrate the performance of the presented method.

  15. Simulating acoustic waves in spotted stars

    CERN Document Server

    Papini, Emanuele; Gizon, Laurent; Hanasoge, Shravan M

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic modes of oscillation are affected by stellar activity, however it is unclear how starspots contribute to these changes. Here we investigate the non-magnetic effects of starspots on global modes with angular degree $\\ell \\leq 2$ in highly active stars, and characterize the spot seismic signature on synthetic light curves. We perform 3D time-domain simulations of linear acoustic waves to study their interaction with a model starspot. We model the spot as a 3D change in the sound speed stratification with respect to a convectively stable stellar background, built from solar Model S. We perform a parametric study by considering different depths and perturbation amplitudes. Exact numerical simulations allow investigation of the wavefield-spot interaction beyond first order perturbation theory. The interaction of the axisymmetric modes with the starspot is strongly nonlinear. As mode frequency increases, the frequency shifts for radial modes exceed the value predicted by linear theory, while the shifts for...

  16. Statistical Hot Spot Model for Explosive Detonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, III, A L

    2005-07-14

    The Non-local Thermodynamic Equilibrium Statistical Hot Spot Model (NLTE SHS), a new model for explosive detonation, is described. In this model, the formation, ignition, propagation, and extinction of hot spots is explicitly modeled. The equation of state of the explosive mixture is treated with a non-local equilibrium thermodynamic assumption. A methodology for developing the parameters for the model is discussed, and applied to the detonation velocity diameter effect. Examination of these results indicates where future improvements to the model can be made.

  17. Statistical Hot Spot Model for Explosive Detonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols III, A L

    2004-05-10

    The Non-local Thermodynamic Equilibrium Statistical Hot Spot Model (NLTE SHS), a new model for explosive detonation, is described. In this model, the formation, ignition, propagation, and extinction of hot spots is explicitly modeled. The equation of state of the explosive mixture is treated with a nonlocal equilibrium thermodynamic assumption. A methodology for developing the parameters for the model is discussed, and applied to the detonation velocity diameter effect. Examination of these results indicates where future improvements to the model can be made.

  18. Element spots in HgMn stars

    OpenAIRE

    Korhonen, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    A fraction of late B-type stars, the so-called HgMn stars, exhibit enhanced absorption lines of certain chemical elements, notably Hg and Mn, combined with an underabundance of He. For about a decade now the elements with anomalously high abundances in HgMn stars are known to be distributed inhomogeneously over the stellar surface. Temporal evolution of these elemental spots have been reported in a few HgMn stars, first secular evolution of the mercury spots in alpha And, and recently also a ...

  19. Illiquidity transmission from spot to futures markets

    OpenAIRE

    Korn, Olaf; Krischak, Paolo; Theissen, Erik

    2014-01-01

    We develop a model of the illiquidity transmission from spot to futures markets that formalizes the derivative hedge theory proposed by Cho and Engle (1999). The model shows that spot market illiquidity does not translate one-to-one to the futures market, but rather interacts with price risk, liquidity risk, and the risk aversion of the market maker. The predictions of the model are tested empirically with data from the stock market and the market for single-stock futures. The results support...

  20. Climate impacts of Australian land cover change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, P. J.

    2004-05-01

    Australian land cover has been dramatically altered since European settlement primarily for agricultural utilization, with native vegetation widely replaced or modified for cropping and intensive animal production. While there have been numerous investigations into the regional and near surface climate impacts of Australian land cover change, these investigation have not included the climate impacts of larger-scale changes in atmospheric circulation and their associated feedbacks, or the impacts of longer-term soil moisture feedbacks. In this research the CSIRO General Circulation Model (GCM) was used to investigate the climate impacts of Australian land cover change, with larger-scale and longer-term feedbacks. To avoid the common problem of overstating the magnitude and spatial extent of changes in land surface conditions prescribed in land cover change experiments, the current Australian land surface properties were described from finer-scale, satellite derived land cover datasets, with land surface conditions extrapolating from remnant native vegetation to pre-clearing extents to recreate the pre-clearing land surface properties. Aggregation rules were applied to the fine-scale data to generate the land surface parameters of the GCM, ensuring the equivalent sub-grid heterogeneity and land surface biogeophysics were captured in both the current and pre-clearing land surface parameters. The differences in climate simulated in the pre-clearing and current experiments were analyzed for changes in Australian continental and regional climate to assess the modeled climate impacts of Australian land cover change. The changes in modeled climate were compared to observed changes in Australian precipitation over the last 50 and 100 years to assess whether modeled results could be detected in the historical record. The differences in climate simulation also were analyzed at the global scale to assess the impacts of local changes on larger scale circulation and climate at

  1. Using renewables to hedge against future electricity industry uncertainties—An Australian case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A generation portfolio modelling was employed to assess the expected costs, cost risk and emissions of different generation portfolios in the Australian National Electricity Market (NEM) under highly uncertain gas prices, carbon pricing policy and electricity demand. Outcomes were modelled for 396 possible generation portfolios, each with 10,000 simulations of possible fuel and carbon prices and electricity demands. In 2030, the lowest expected cost generation portfolio includes 60% renewable energy. Increasing the renewable proportion to 75% slightly increased expected cost (by $0.2/MWh), but significantly decreased the standard deviation of cost (representing the cost risk). Increasing the renewable proportion from the present 15% to 75% by 2030 is found to decrease expected wholesale electricity costs by $17/MWh. Fossil-fuel intensive portfolios have substantial cost risk associated with high uncertainty in future gas and carbon prices. Renewables can effectively mitigate cost risk associated with gas and carbon price uncertainty. This is found to be robust to a wide range of carbon pricing assumptions. This modelling suggests that policy mechanisms to promote an increase in renewable generation towards a level of 75% by 2030 would minimise costs to consumers, and mitigate the risk of extreme electricity prices due to uncertain gas and carbon prices. - Highlights: • A generation portfolio with 75% renewables in 2030 is the most optimal in terms of cost, cost risk and emissions. • Investment in CCGT is undesirable compared to renewables given the cost risk due to gas and carbon price uncertainties. • Renewables can hedge against extreme electricity prices caused by high and uncertain carbon and gas prices. • Existing coal-fired plants still play a key role by moving into a peaking role to complement variable renewables. • Policy mechanisms to promote renewable generation are important

  2. Proposed layout features of an Australian proton treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: From a theoretical point of view protons offer the best possible physical dose distribution for many radiotherapy treatment scenarios. However, proton generation of sufficient energy for treatment (about 250MeV) requires a large accelerator and is more expensive than conventional radiotherapy. Therefore the present project aimed at determining the desired configuration for a proton radiotherapy treatment facility in Australia. This is part of a proposal to introduce proton radiotherapy to Australia by the Australian Proton Project Group. It is assumed that a proton centre is build as a dedicated national radiotherapy facility. In this context and to be economically viable it must be large enough to treat well in excess of 1000 patients per year on several treatment stations. When building a proton treatment facility, it is essential to make use of all state-of-the-art features such as spot scanning techniques in order to offer patients a significant improvement in dose distribution compared to advanced conventional treatment techniques such as conformal and/or intensity modulated X-ray radiotherapy. As the potential useful life of a proton treatment unit is of the order of 20 years, it must be designed in a flexible way to allow upgrading as technology advances. The proposed facility includes at least one rotating gantry for isocentric beam delivery and stationary beam lines delivering protons between 70 and 250MeV energy. Features such as proton radiography and in situ PET treatment verification should be considered as a potential upgrade for future expansion. Other commercial activities (eg. radiation hardness testing) which could contribute to the running costs of the facility and scientific research out of the normal treatment hours is to be considered in the final design. Copyright (2000) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  3. Spot Weight Adaptation for Moving Target in Spot Scanning Proton Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eMorel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study describes a real-time spot weight adaptation method in spot-scanning proton therapy for moving target or moving patient, so that the resultant dose distribution closely matches the planned dose distribution. Materials and Methods: The method proposed in this study adapts the weight (MU of the delivering pencil beam to that of the target spot it will actually hit during patient/target motion. The target spot a certain delivering pencil beam may hit relies on patient monitoring and/or motion modeling using four-dimensional (4D CT. After the adapted delivery, the required total weight (MU for this target spot is then subtracted from the planned value. With continuous patient motion and continuous spot scanning, the planned doses to all target spots will eventually be all fulfilled. In a proof-of-principle test, a lung case was presented with realistic temporal and motion parameters; the resultant dose distribution using spot weight adaptation was compared to that without using this method. The impact of the real-time patient/target position tracking or prediction was also investigated.Results: For moderate motion (i.e., mean amplitude 0.5 cm, D95% to the planning target volume (PTV was only 81.5% of the prescription (RX dose; with spot weight adaptation PTV D95% achieves 97.7%RX. For large motion amplitude (i.e., 1.5 cm, without spot weight adaptation PTV D95% is only 42.9% of RX; with spot weight adaptation, PTV D95% achieves 97.7%RX. Larger errors in patient/target position tracking or prediction led to worse final target coverage; an error of 3mm or smaller in patient/target position tracking is preferred. Conclusion: The proposed spot weight adaptation method was able to deliver the planned dose distribution and maintain target coverage when patient motion was involved. The successful implementation of this method would rely on accurate monitoring or prediction of patient/target motion.

  4. Variation in T-SPOT.TB Spot Interpretation between Independent Observers from Different Laboratories▿

    OpenAIRE

    Franken, Willeke P. J.; Thijsen, Steven; Wolterbeek, Ron; Bouwman, John J. M.; el Bannoudi, Hanane; Kik, Sandra V; van Dissel, Jaap T.; Arend, Sandra M.

    2009-01-01

    T-SPOT.TB is a specific assay for the diagnosis of tuberculosis. The assay needs to be performed with freshly isolated cells, and interpretation requires training. T-SPOT.TB has been used in various clinical-epidemiological settings, but so far no studies have evaluated the effect of interobserver variation in test reading. Our aim was to evaluate variation between different observers in reading T-SPOT.TB results. The study was nested within an ongoing cohort study, in which part of the T-SPO...

  5. Matching Two-dimensional Gel Electrophoresis' Spots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dos Anjos, António; AL-Tam, Faroq; Shahbazkia, Hamid Reza;

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for matching Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis (2-DE) gels' spots, involving the use of image registration. The number of false positive matches produced by the proposed approach is small, when compared to academic and commercial state-of-the-art approaches. This ar...

  6. PPR Great Red Spot Temperature Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This map shows temperature for the region around Jupiter's Great Red Spot and an area to the northwest. It corresponds to a level in Jupiter's atmosphere where the pressure is 1/2 of the of the Earth's at sea level (500 millibars), the same as it is near 6000 meters (20,000 feet) above sea level on Earth. The center of Great Red Spot appears colder than the surrounding areas, where air from below is being brought up. The 'panhandle' to the northwest is warmer and drier, and the gases there are descending, so it is much clearer of clouds. Compare this map to one released earlier at a higher place in the atmosphere (250 millibars or 12000 meters). The center of the Great Red Spot is warmer lower in the atmosphere, and a white 'hot spot' appears in this image that is not present at the higher place. This map was made from data taken by the Photopolarimeter/Radiometer (PPR) instrument on June 26, 1996.Launched in October 1989, Galileo entered orbit around Jupiter on December 7, 1995. The spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet, its largest moons and the Jovian magnetic environment.JPL manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  7. Spotted Locoweed on the Henry Mountains

    OpenAIRE

    Bagley, Verl L.; Ralphs, Michael H; James, Lynn A.

    1989-01-01

    Spotted locoweed (Astragalus lentlginosus, var. wahweapens) also known as freckled or Wahweap Milkvetch is characterized by blue leguminous flowers, purple speckled seed pods, and leaves resembling those of garden pea. The plant is poisonous to cattle, sheep and horses. It grows on gravely clay loam semi-desert benches and swales supporting desert shrubs and sparse stands of juniper.

  8. Easy Demonstration of the Poisson Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluck, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Many physics teachers have a set of slides of single, double and multiple slits to show their students the phenomena of interference and diffraction. Thomas Young's historic experiments with double slits were indeed a milestone in proving the wave nature of light. But another experiment, namely the Poisson spot, was also important historically and…

  9. 9 CFR 149.4 - Spot audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spot audit. 149.4 Section 149.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... results as a result of testing of certified swine from that site at the slaughter facility. (b) All...

  10. Ciprofloxacin therapy for Mediterranean spotted fever.

    OpenAIRE

    Raoult, D.; Gallais, H.; De Micco, P; Casanova, P

    1986-01-01

    We report the treatment of five patients with Mediterranean spotted fever with the antimicrobial agent ciprofloxacin. The treatment was administered intravenously for 2 days and then perorally for 8 days. All five patients were cured. These preliminary data seem to correlate with the in vitro activity of ciprofloxacin against Rickettsia conorii.

  11. Measuring microfocal spots using digital radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, David A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ewert, Uwe [BAM

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of microfocus spot size can be important for several reasons: (1) Quality assurance during manufacture of microfocus tubes; (2) Tracking performance and stability of microfocus tubes; (3) Determining magnification is especially important for digital radiography where the native spatial resolution of the digital system is not adequate for the application; and (4) Knowledge of unsharpness from the focal spot alone. The European Standard EN 12543-5 is based on a simple geometrical method of calculating focal spot size from unsharpness of high magnification film radiographs. The following equations are used for the focal spot size measurement: By similar triangles the following equations are presupposed: f/a = U/b and M = (a+b)/a. These equations can be combined to yield the well known expression: U = f(M - 1). Solving for f, f = U/(M-1). Therefore, the focal spot size, f, can be calculated by measuring the radiographic unsharpness and magnification of a known object. This is the basis for these tests. The European standard actually uses one-half of the unsharpness (which are then added together) from both sides of the object to avoid additional unsharpness contributions due to edge transmission unsharpness of the round test object (the outside of the object is measured). So the equation becomes f = (1/2 U{sub 1} + 1/2 U{sub 2})/(M-1). In practice 1/2 U is measured from the 50% to the 90% signal points on the transition profile from ''black'' to ''white,'' (positive image) or attenuated to unattenuated portion of the image. The 50% to 90% points are chosen as a best fit to an assumed Gaussian radiation distribution from the focal spot and to avoid edge transmission effects. 1/2 U{sub 1} + 1/2 U{sub 2} corresponds about to the full width at half height of a Gaussian focal spot. A highly absorbing material (Tungsten, Tungsten Alloy, or Platinum) is used for the object. Either wires or a sphere are used as the object to

  12. Nature Study, Aborigines and the Australian Kindergarten: Lessons from Martha Simpson's "Australian Programme Based on the Life and Customs of the Australian Black"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This article examines an experimental kindergarten programme "Work in the Kindergarten: An Australian Programme based on the Life and Customs of the Australian Black" developed by Martha Simpson in early twentieth-century Australia. Here Simpson adapted international Revisionist Froebelian approaches to cultural epoch theory and nature…

  13. Prevalence of congenital hereditary sensorineural deafness in Australian Cattle Dogs and associations with coat characteristics and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sommerlad Susan F

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congenital hereditary sensorineural deafness (CHSD occurs in many dog breeds, including Australian Cattle Dogs. In some breeds, CHSD is associated with a lack of cochlear melanocytes in the stria vascularis, certain coat characteristics, and potentially, abnormalities in neuroepithelial pigment production. This study investigates phenotypic markers for CHSD in 899 Australian Cattle Dogs. Results Auditory function was tested in 899 Australian Cattle Dogs in family groups using brainstem auditory evoked response testing. Coat colour and patterns, facial and body markings, gender and parental hearing status were recorded. Deafness prevalence among all 899 dogs was 10.8% with 7.5% unilaterally deaf, and 3.3% bilaterally deaf, and amongst pups from completely tested litters (n = 696 was 11.1%, with 7.5% unilaterally deaf, and 3.6% bilaterally deaf. Univariable and multivariable analyses revealed a negative association between deafness and bilateral facial masks (odds ratio 0.2; P ≤ 0.001. Using multivariable logistic animal modelling, the risk of deafness was lower in dogs with pigmented body spots (odds ratio 0.4; P = 0.050. No significant associations were found between deafness and coat colour. Within unilaterally deaf dogs with unilateral facial masks, no association was observed between the side of deafness and side of mask. The side of unilateral deafness was not significantly clustered amongst unilaterally deaf dogs from the same litter. Females were at increased risk of deafness (odds ratio from a logistic animal model 1.9; P = 0.034 after adjusting for any confounding by mask type and pigmented body spots. Conclusions Australian Cattle Dogs suffer from CHSD, and this disease is more common in dogs with mask-free faces, and in those without pigmented body patches. In unilaterally deaf dogs with unilateral masks, the lack of observed association between side of deafness and side of mask suggests that if CHSD is due to

  14. Reconstructing Indian-Australian phylogenetic link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Satish; Ravuri, Rajasekhara Reddy; Koneru, Padmaja; Urade, BP; Sarkar, BN; Chandrasekar, A; Rao, VR

    2009-01-01

    Background An early dispersal of biologically and behaviorally modern humans from their African origins to Australia, by at least 45 thousand years via southern Asia has been suggested by studies based on morphology, archaeology and genetics. However, mtDNA lineages sampled so far from south Asia, eastern Asia and Australasia show non-overlapping distributions of haplogroups within pan Eurasian M and N macrohaplogroups. Likewise, support from the archaeology is still ambiguous. Results In our completely sequenced 966-mitochondrial genomes from 26 relic tribes of India, we have identified seven genomes, which share two synonymous polymorphisms with the M42 haplogroup, which is specific to Australian Aborigines. Conclusion Our results showing a shared mtDNA lineage between Indians and Australian Aborigines provides direct genetic evidence of an early colonization of Australia through south Asia, following the "southern route". PMID:19624810

  15. Reconstructing Indian-Australian phylogenetic link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar BN

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An early dispersal of biologically and behaviorally modern humans from their African origins to Australia, by at least 45 thousand years via southern Asia has been suggested by studies based on morphology, archaeology and genetics. However, mtDNA lineages sampled so far from south Asia, eastern Asia and Australasia show non-overlapping distributions of haplogroups within pan Eurasian M and N macrohaplogroups. Likewise, support from the archaeology is still ambiguous. Results In our completely sequenced 966-mitochondrial genomes from 26 relic tribes of India, we have identified seven genomes, which share two synonymous polymorphisms with the M42 haplogroup, which is specific to Australian Aborigines. Conclusion Our results showing a shared mtDNA lineage between Indians and Australian Aborigines provides direct genetic evidence of an early colonization of Australia through south Asia, following the "southern route".

  16. Decolonising Australian Psychology: Discourses, Strategies, and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pat Dudgeon

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Colonisation in Australia has had a devastating and lasting impact on the wellbeing of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in Australia (herein referred to as Indigenous Australians. This paper discusses the role of psychology in Australia and the negative impact that certain disciplinary theories and practices have had on Indigenous Australians. The impact has been further exacerbated by the failure of mainstream policy makers and mental health practitioners to recognise the key, distinctive cultural and social determinants that contribute to Aboriginal health and wellbeing. There is a growing response by Aboriginal psychologists, critical social theorists, and their allies to decolonise psychological theory and practice to redress this situation. This paper outlines key decolonising strategies that have been effective in interrupting those aspects of psychology that are inimical to Aboriginal wellbeing.

  17. Accelerators for the Australian environment and heritage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australian researchers have access to a variety of natural systems where records of the Earth's past environment have been stored. These archives include sediment cores, Antarctic ice, Tasmanian pine trees, rock surfaces, corals, etc. Each of these media contain information on past environmental conditions but the records must be carefully deciphered and compared with one-another. The AMS analysis of long-lived cosmogenic radionuclides is essential for providing absolute time scales for these natural archives. Other analytical methods based on high-energy ion interactions are well suited to characterise environmental and archaeological samples with high sensitivity. The use of ANSTO's accelerators in research programs related to the environment in the Australian region is reviewed

  18. The Portrayal of Indigenous Health in Selected Australian Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa J. Stoneham

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It is acknowledged that health outcomes for Australian Indigenous peoples are lower than those of non-Indigenous Australians. Research suggests negative media in relation to Indigenous Australians perpetuates racist stereotypes among the wider population and impacts on the health of Indigenous Australians. This study examined the media portrayal of Indigenous Australian public health issues in selected media over a twelve month period and found that, overwhelmingly, the articles were negative in their portrayal of Indigenous health. A total of 74 percent of the coverage of Australian Indigenous related articles were negative, 15 percent were positive, and 11 percent were neutral. The most common negative subject descriptors related to alcohol, child abuse, petrol sniffing, violence, suicide, deaths in custody, and crime.

  19. Progress with the Australian replacement research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Construction of the new Australian Research Reactor, the replacement for the now 46 year old HIFAR research reactor, is approximately 80% completed. Construction of the reactor facility began in April 2002 at ANSTO's Lucas Heights site near Sydney and commissioning is still on track for late 2005. Some details of the progress of construction and licensing and an outline of ANSTO research related to the use of Zircaloy-4 in the core region and reflector vessel of the reactor are given. (author)

  20. FINANCIAL CONTROL IN AUSTRALIAN GOVERNMENT BUDGETING

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Robinson

    2000-01-01

    With the arrival of accrual accounting and a performance budgeting system known as \\"accrual output budgeting\\", there have been huge changes in the mechanism of central financial control in the budget-dependent Australian public sector. This article outlines and evaluates these changes. The new parliamentary appropriations arrangements are discussed, as is the increased role played by non-appropriated departmental \\"own-source\\" funding. The commercialisation rationale of these changes is ou...

  1. "Bridging the Gap" through Australian Cultural Astronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-01-01

    For more than 50,000 years, Indigenous Australians have incorporated celestial events into their oral traditions and used the motions of celestial bodies for navigation, time-keeping, food economics, and social structure. In this paper, we explore the ways in which Aboriginal people made careful observations of the sky, measurements of celestial bodies, and incorporated astronomical events into complex oral traditions by searching for written records of time-keeping using celestial bodies, th...

  2. The Australian Credit Default Swap Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Fabbro

    2011-01-01

    The Australian credit default swap (CDS) market has been increasingly used by financial institutions to trade and manage credit risk. As a result, there has been greater use of the market as a source of credit risk pricing information. Similarities between CDS and bonds allow pricing in the two markets to be compared. However, the CDS market has a greater tendency at times to be affected by poor liquidity, which complicates the interpretation of CDS pricing, particularly when there are large ...

  3. New Measures of Australian Corporate Credit Spreads

    OpenAIRE

    Ivailo Arsov; Matthew Brooks; Mitch Kosev

    2013-01-01

    Australian corporations access bond markets both domestically and offshore. Despite this, there is a lack of publicly available data on bond market conditions faced by non-financial corporations (NFCs). This gap in the data is particularly apparent at longer maturities where the low level of bond issuance, especially in the domestic market, makes it difficult to gauge the long-term credit spreads faced by resident issuers. To address this lack of data, the article presents a method for estima...

  4. Financial Regulation and Australian Dollar Liquid Assets

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Heath; Mark Manning

    2012-01-01

    Liquid assets with low credit and market risk have a number of uses in financial markets, such as providing collateral against short-term funding or credit exposures that arise between counterparties to financial transactions. This article examines the existing sources of demand for Australian dollar-denominated liquid assets. Given relatively low levels of government debt in Australia, demand for these assets has been increasing relative to supply for some time. A further increase in demand ...

  5. Representative Democracy in Australian Local Government

    OpenAIRE

    Colin Hearfield; Brian Dollery

    2009-01-01

    In an assessment of representative democracy in Australian local government, this paper considers long-run changes in forms of political representation, methods of vote counting, franchise arrangements, numbers of local government bodies and elected representatives, as well as the thorny question of constitutional recognition. This discussion is set against the background of ongoing tensions between the drive for economic efficiency and the maintenance of political legitimacy, along with more...

  6. Inventories in the Australian business cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Chindamo, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    This Economics Research Note examines inventories in the business cycle for Australia covering the period since the mid 1980s. The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) defines inventories as all materials etc., work in progress and finished goods owned by a business, whether held at locations of the business or elsewhere. These items are usually held by businesses in anticipation of a product’s sale. Inventory investment is counted as an additional contribution to gross domestic product (...

  7. Profiling socially responsible investors: Australian evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Blanca Pérez-Gladish; Karen Benson; Robert Faff

    2012-01-01

    With the aid of an online survey, the purpose of this study is to examine financial preferences; social, environmental and ethical concerns; and socio-demographic characteristics of Australian socially responsible (SR) investors. The study advances knowledge of SR investors’ profiles and their motivations when making investment decisions. Based on a sample of 145 investors, our findings suggest that SR investors seek financial return as well as non-financial benefits. Social conscience and ...

  8. Accrual Financial Reporting and Australian Fiscal Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Robinson

    2000-01-01

    Australian governments have recently moved from cash accounting to accrual accounting. In doing so they have made simultaneous use of two rival accrual accounting frameworks: AAS 31 and GFS. AAS 31 and GFS operating result measures differ significantly. To date, the AAS 31 framework has enjoyed primacy. This paper evaluates these two frameworks, and suggests that GFS is superior. Accrual accounting has been accompanied at the national government level by the introduction of a new key fiscal p...

  9. Assessing the Research Performance of Australian Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Valadkhani, Abbas; Worthington, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    This paper identifies new classifications of Australian universities based on their total and per-academic staff research outputs using the data for the period 1998-2002. We define research performance in terms of audited numbers of PhD completions, publications and grants (in accordance with rules established by the Department of Education, Science and Training). Our analysis indicates that (a) the highest achievers consists of the seven Group of Eight (Go8) universities; (b) the top-three...

  10. Ownership Structure and Corporate Performance: Australian Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Julian Fishman; Gerard Gannon; Russell Vinning

    2007-01-01

    This paper seeks to analyse the relationship between ownership structure and corporate performance for fifty firms listed on the Australian Stock Exchange during 2002-2003. The study initially tests a two equation model similar to that in the existing literature, but is distinguished from prior literature by subsequently reclassifying leverage. By categorising leverage as an endogenous variable, an examination of the relationship between ownership and performance is undertaken through ordinar...

  11. The Australian synchrotron - a progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarises progress with the development of the Australian Synchrotron. The facility is based on the Boomerang Storage Ring which has a DBA structure with 14 superperiods. The design objective was to achieve a low emittance in a relatively compact circumference that had an excellent dynamic aperture and was obust with respect to potential construction aberrations. The potential suite of beamline and instrument stations is discussed and some examples are given

  12. How Australian and Indonesian Universities Treat Plagiarism: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bambang Yudi Cahyono

    2016-01-01

    This article is a part of a larger study comparing various aspects of policies on plagiarism in two university contexts. It compares policies on plagiarism in universities in Australia and Indonesia. The results of this comparative study showed that Australian and Indonesian universities treat plagiarism differently. Australian universities treat plagiarism explicitly in their university policies. In Australian universities, plagiarism is defined clearly and forms of plagiarism are explained ...

  13. Australian and Japanese Value Stereotypes: A two Country Study

    OpenAIRE

    Geoffrey N. Soutar; Richard Grainger; Pamela Hedges

    1999-01-01

    Australians and Japanese working in Australian and Japanese organizations in both countries were involved in a research project that estimated stereotypical views of national culture. Respondents rated the importance of cultural values in Australia and Japan using the List of Values (LOV) instrument. The results of a discriminant analysis suggested that potentially detrimental misunderstandings about their respective cultures may exist between Australians and Japanese engaged in mutual intern...

  14. Calcium Intake in Elderly Australian Women Is Inadequate

    OpenAIRE

    Colin W. Binns; Xingqiong Meng; Kerr, Deborah A; Kun Zhu; Amanda Devine; Vicky Solah; Richard L. Prince

    2010-01-01

    The role of calcium in the prevention of bone loss in later life has been well established but little data exist on the adequacy of calcium intakes in elderly Australian women. The aim of this study was to compare the dietary intake including calcium of elderly Australian women with the Australian dietary recommendation, and to investigate the prevalence of calcium supplement use in this population. Community-dwelling women aged 70–80 years were randomly recruited using the Electoral Roll for...

  15. The Australian Centre for Minesite Rehabilitation Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Centre for Minesite Rehabilitation Research (ACMRR) is a joint venture between the Australian mining industry through the Australian Mineral Industries Research Association Ltd. (AMIRA) and three of the organizations working most actively in this area in Australia: CSIRO Minesite Rehabilitation Research Program; University of Queensland Centre for Mined Land Rehabilitation; and Curtin University Mulga Research Centre. The ACMRR was established in July 1993 to provide a national framework to conduct Strategic Research into minesite rehabilitation. It is an industry led and funded initiative. The Goals of the Centre include: to conduct strategic research into minesite rehabilitation to provide sustainable environmental solutions which are acceptable to industry, government and the community; to be recognized as a center of excellence undertaking commissioned research on minesite rehabilitation in an independent and thorough manner; to provide scientific and technological foundations to facilitate industry and government in setting acceptable standards; to act as networking and communications focus; and to enhance education and training in minesite rehabilitation. Strategic Research Programs in: Water Systems--downstream surface and groundwater quality; Land--the long-term behavior and stability of constructed landforms; Ecosystems--the long-term sustainability of constructed landforms; Waste--the long-term treatment and disposal of waste products; will allow the ACMRR to achieve these goals through specific research projects in these areas, developed with industry sponsors. This paper will discuss their progress to date, research projects underway, and plans for the future

  16. Australian RRRP seismic design and qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper focuses on the structural design and qualification that has been carried out for the safety against seismic events at the Australian RRRP (Replacement Research Reactor Project). The RRRP is a 20 MW multi-purpose nuclear research reactor designed and constructed by INVAP from Argentina, for ANSTO (Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation) in Sydney, Australia. On account of the site characteristics, the australian regulations and the engineering and design standards applicable to the project, the design requirements for the reactor included very stringent and clear guidelines that should be observed to ensure that appropriate levels of protection are provided against seismic events. Despite the fact of being a research reactor with a thermal power two orders of magnitude lower than that of nuclear power plants, the methodology used in the seismic qualification was based on the one used for NPPs instead of using simplified methods as suggested by the literature on research reactors. With this in mind, the regulatory and engineering frame was based on IAEA standards for power reactors and complementary guides for specific issues. The paper describes the Design Basis Ground Motion, Seismic Levels, Seismic Classification and the particular design criteria and qualification methods used for systems as: Civil, Mechanical, Process, Instrumentation and Control, Electrical, HVAC, etc. (authors)

  17. Deep Roots for Aboriginal Australian Y Chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Anders; Nagle, Nano; Chen, Yuan; McCarthy, Shane; Pollard, Martin O; Ayub, Qasim; Wilcox, Stephen; Wilcox, Leah; van Oorschot, Roland A H; McAllister, Peter; Williams, Lesley; Xue, Yali; Mitchell, R John; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2016-03-21

    Australia was one of the earliest regions outside Africa to be colonized by fully modern humans, with archaeological evidence for human presence by 47,000 years ago (47 kya) widely accepted [1, 2]. However, the extent of subsequent human entry before the European colonial age is less clear. The dingo reached Australia about 4 kya, indirectly implying human contact, which some have linked to changes in language and stone tool technology to suggest substantial cultural changes at the same time [3]. Genetic data of two kinds have been proposed to support gene flow from the Indian subcontinent to Australia at this time, as well: first, signs of South Asian admixture in Aboriginal Australian genomes have been reported on the basis of genome-wide SNP data [4]; and second, a Y chromosome lineage designated haplogroup C(∗), present in both India and Australia, was estimated to have a most recent common ancestor around 5 kya and to have entered Australia from India [5]. Here, we sequence 13 Aboriginal Australian Y chromosomes to re-investigate their divergence times from Y chromosomes in other continents, including a comparison of Aboriginal Australian and South Asian haplogroup C chromosomes. We find divergence times dating back to ∼50 kya, thus excluding the Y chromosome as providing evidence for recent gene flow from India into Australia. PMID:26923783

  18. Curated exhibitions and Australian art history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine De Lorenzo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Australian Art history in all it guises has tended to bypass the impact of contemporary curated exhibitions on shaping the discipline. Yet an examination of a cluster of key contemporary exhibitions from the early 1970s onwards reveals their significance for the history of art in Australia. They reflect institutional judgements behind the selection, research and display the work of artists as well as the reception of such work by the public, artists, art critics and art historians. This is especially so in the last decades of the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st, as the country underwent major cultural changes. This paper focuses on selected exhibitions of Australian art from 1968 to 2008 and indicates how exhibitions also constitute a major form of contemporary Australian art historiography. As this period coincides with a transformation in the way exhibitions were funded, it also begins to investigate the question of the long term impact of public funding of the arts.

  19. Outlook for the Australian coal market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A shortage of bituminous coal is now being witnessed on the world market, which stems from an increase in demand for it. The prices for bituminous coal, which have been increasing since 1988, will continue to rise in 1990. World coal production in 1989/1990 has been estimated by the Australian Bureau of Mineral Resources at 3,370 million tons, which is 50 million tons more than in the preceding year. Australian experts predict a doubling in world demand for coal by 2025. Many Australian coal mining companies, counting on the increased demand in the future, are taking measures to consolidate production and strengthen their financial base in order to accelerate development of new fields or expand production at existing mines. It is expected that the highest rates of growth in demand will be for power coal. Because of increased world production of steel the demand for coking coal will also rise, but the rates of growth will be much lower than for power coal

  20. Deep Roots for Aboriginal Australian Y Chromosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Anders; Nagle, Nano; Chen, Yuan; McCarthy, Shane; Pollard, Martin O.; Ayub, Qasim; Wilcox, Stephen; Wilcox, Leah; van Oorschot, Roland A.H.; McAllister, Peter; Williams, Lesley; Xue, Yali; Mitchell, R. John; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Summary Australia was one of the earliest regions outside Africa to be colonized by fully modern humans, with archaeological evidence for human presence by 47,000 years ago (47 kya) widely accepted [1, 2]. However, the extent of subsequent human entry before the European colonial age is less clear. The dingo reached Australia about 4 kya, indirectly implying human contact, which some have linked to changes in language and stone tool technology to suggest substantial cultural changes at the same time [3]. Genetic data of two kinds have been proposed to support gene flow from the Indian subcontinent to Australia at this time, as well: first, signs of South Asian admixture in Aboriginal Australian genomes have been reported on the basis of genome-wide SNP data [4]; and second, a Y chromosome lineage designated haplogroup C∗, present in both India and Australia, was estimated to have a most recent common ancestor around 5 kya and to have entered Australia from India [5]. Here, we sequence 13 Aboriginal Australian Y chromosomes to re-investigate their divergence times from Y chromosomes in other continents, including a comparison of Aboriginal Australian and South Asian haplogroup C chromosomes. We find divergence times dating back to ∼50 kya, thus excluding the Y chromosome as providing evidence for recent gene flow from India into Australia. PMID:26923783

  1. Sporting Chance: Indigenous Participation in Australian Sport History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Gorman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available For many non-Indigenous Australians the only time they have any engagement with Indigenous peoples, history or issues is through watching sport on television or being at a football match at the MCG. This general myopia and indifference by settler Australians with Indigenous Australians manifests itself in many ways but perhaps most obscenely in the simple fact that Indigenous Australians die nearly 20 years younger than the rest of Australias citizens. Many non-Indigenous Australians do not know this. Sport in many ways has offered Indigenous Australians a platform from which to begin the slow, hard process for social justice and equity to be actualised. This paper will discuss the participation of Indigenous Australians in sport and show how sport has enabled Indigenous Australians to create a space so that they can speak out against the injustices they have experienced and to further improve on relations going into the future. The central contention is that through sport all Australians can begin a process of engaging with Indigenous history as a means to improve race relations between the two groups.

  2. A Comparison between Australian Football League (AFL) Injuries in Australian Indigenous versus Non-indigenous Players

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica Orchard; John Orchard; Hugh Seward

    2013-01-01

    It has previously been shown that being of aboriginal descent is a risk factor for hamstring injuries in Australian football. The aim of this study was to review the Australian Football League (AFL) injury database to determine whether there were any injuries where indigenous players had different relative risks to non-indigenous players. Analysis was conducted using data from the AFL injury database, which included data from 4,492 players over 21 years (1992–2012), covering 162,683 player-ma...

  3. An agent-based approach with collaboration among agents. Estimation of wholesale electricity price on PJM and artificial data generated by a mean reverting model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines the performance of MAIS (Multi-Agent Intelligent Simulator) equipped with various learning capabilities. In addition to the learning capabilities, the proposed MAIS incorporates collaboration among agents. The proposed MAIS is applied to estimate a dynamic change of wholesale electricity price in PJM (Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Mainland) and an artificial data set generated by a mean reverting model. Using such different types of data sets, the methodological validity of MAIS is confirmed by comparing it with other well-known alternatives in computer science. This study finds that the MAIS needs to incorporate both the mean reverting model and the collaboration behavior among agents in order to enhance its estimation capability. The MAIS discussed in this study will provide research on energy economics with a new numerical capability that can investigate a dynamic change of not only wholesale electricity price but also speculation and learning process of traders. (author)

  4. Multiresolution Network Temporal and Spatial Scheduling Model of Scenic Spot

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Ge; Zhixue Liao; Chang Liu; Peiyu Ren; Zhaoxia Guo

    2013-01-01

    Tourism is one of pillar industries of the world economy. Low-carbon tourism will be the mainstream direction of the scenic spots' development, and the ω path of low-carbon tourism development is to develop economy and protect environment simultaneously. However, as the tourists' quantity is increasing, the loads of scenic spots are out of control. And the instantaneous overload in some spots caused the image phenomenon of full capacity of the whole scenic spot. Therefore, realizing the real-...

  5. Overcoming Barriers to Scaling Up Sustainable Alternative Food Systems: A Comparative Case Study of Two Ontario-Based Wholesale Produce Auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Rylea Johnson; Evan D. G. Fraser; Roberta Hawkins

    2016-01-01

    Conventional food systems are viewed by the literature as unsustainable in that they provide consumers with convenience while disconnecting them from producers thus leading to environmental and social problems. By contrast, sustainable or “alternative” food systems are viewed as correcting such problems. Wholesale produce auctions, which are well established in the Old Order Mennonite community, are physical sites where large quantities of produce are sold through a competitive bidding proces...

  6. BUSINESS CLIMATE OF FOOD FIRMS: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PROBLEMS FACED BY FOOD MANUFACTURERS, WHOLESALERS, RETAILERS AND SERVICE INSTITUTIONS IN NEW JERSEY

    OpenAIRE

    Adelaja, Adesoji O.; Nayga, Rodolfo M.; Tank, Karen Rose; Schilling, Brian J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the problems facing food firms using information from focus groups of industry executives from New Jersey. The leading problems for food manufacturers are related to regulation, taxation, economic development, and high business costs. For food wholesalers the leading problems are transportation, regulation, labor quality, training and education, and public relations. Food retailers cite litigation and liability, high business costs, regulation, and insurance costs as leadi...

  7. SPOT PROTOCOL DETECTING OUTGOING SPAM MESSAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansari.R

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available compromised machines it is one of the internet key security threats. It is used to identifying thesecurity attacks such as Ddos, spreading malware and spamming threats and identifying networking threats.It is detect the compromised machines that are all involved in networking activities. This type of spammingactivities is known as spam zombies. We implementing the effective attacks are detecting spam zombie systemthat name is spot by monitoring outgoing messages with packages of the network. It is one of the powerfulstatistical tools that is known as sequential probability ratio test, it must be bounded in false negative andfalse positive error rates. The spot protocols are used to filtering the without extension file formats andattachment and also compressed files and eliminated those data in the sender part itself.

  8. Research Hot Spots of Black Peanut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Taking the research papers on black peanut in National Knowledge Infrastructure(CNKI)as data sources,we determine the research hot spots on black peanut using word frequency analysis,and analyze the main research directions that change over the years.The results show that the relevant researches on black peanut are mainly concentrated in six themes(study of varieties,physiological property,cultivation management,development prospects,relationship with agriculture,and molecular level);varieties,physiology,cultivation and other aspects are the focus of current research hot spots;the researches on selection and breeding of variety and various physiological and ecological mechanisms,still need a breakthrough.

  9. Dynamically variable spot size laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Paul R. (Inventor); Hurst, John F. (Inventor); Middleton, James R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A Dynamically Variable Spot Size (DVSS) laser system for bonding metal components includes an elongated housing containing a light entry aperture coupled to a laser beam transmission cable and a light exit aperture. A plurality of lenses contained within the housing focus a laser beam from the light entry aperture through the light exit aperture. The lenses may be dynamically adjusted to vary the spot size of the laser. A plurality of interoperable safety devices, including a manually depressible interlock switch, an internal proximity sensor, a remotely operated potentiometer, a remotely activated toggle and a power supply interlock, prevent activation of the laser and DVSS laser system if each safety device does not provide a closed circuit. The remotely operated potentiometer also provides continuous variability in laser energy output.

  10. 7 CFR 28.421 - Good Middling Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good Middling Spotted Color. 28.421 Section 28.421 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Good Middling Spotted Color is color which is better than Strict Middling Spotted Color....

  11. 7 CFR 28.424 - Strict Low Middling Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Spotted Color. 28.424 Section 28.424 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Low Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a...

  12. 7 CFR 28.426 - Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color. 28.426 Section 28.426 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a...

  13. On the turbulent spot and calmed region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jonáš, Pavel

    Praha: Institute of Thermomechanics AS CR, v. v. i., 2007 - (Zolotarev, I.), s. 109-110 ISBN 978-80-87012-06-2. [Engineering Mechanics 2007. Svratka (CZ), 14.05.2007-17.05.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/05/0675; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200760614 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : transition to turbulence * boundary layer * calmed region * turbulent spot Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  14. Friction Stir Spot Welding of Polymer Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Bekir ÇEVİK

    2014-01-01

    Polymer materials are engineering materials used for various industrial fields. Polymer processing and fabrication techniques have developed with the advancement of technology. Friction Stir Spot Welding (FSSW) is a solid-state process in joining thermoplastic materials. In the present work, the polymeric material (Polyethylene) has been made to join by FSSW process. 3 mm thickness polyethylene materials were used in the experiments. Welding process was carried out by rotating 460 and 900 rpm...

  15. Investigation of Friction Stir Spot Welding Method

    OpenAIRE

    MERT, Şenol; MERT, Sevda

    2013-01-01

    The Friction Stir Spot Welding (FSSW) method is a derivative of the Friction Stir Welding (FSW) process, which is a new process that recently has received considerable attention from the automotive and other industries. In both methods, the joining mechanism is the same. However, there are several important differences between the applications. The most obvious difference FSSW than FSW that there is no translation of the tool in the vertical direction during the welding. The FSSW process cons...

  16. Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction and Poisson's spot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the Fresnel-Kirchhoff (FK) diffraction integral is evaluated exactly (instead of using the Fresnel approximation), the well-known mathematical inconsistency in the FK boundary conditions leads to unacceptable results for the intensity of Poisson's spot. The Rayleigh-Sommerfeld (RS) integral has no inconsistencies and leads to an accurate description. The case for RS is bolstered by the observation that it is equivalent to Fourier propagation

  17. Characterization of LIL laser UV focal spot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangeant, M.; Dubois, J.L.; Behar, G.; Arroyo, P.; Durand, V.; Lahonde, C. [CEA - Centre d' Etudes Scientifiques et Techniques d' Aquitaine, CESTA/DLP, 33 - Le Barp (France)

    2006-06-15

    One way to get the fusion of hydrogen in laboratory consists in heating and compressing a DT fuel capsule by using a laser. To reach this aim requires a new generation of high power laser facility. Cea (French board for atomic energy) is developing for this purpose a new 240 laser line facility, the LMJ facility. The LIL which is the prototype of four LMJ laser lines is operational now. In order to confirm the technical choices, a systematic characterization of LIL was carried out. A particular effort has been provided to measure the 3{omega} high energy focal spot (1.5 kJ/700 ps and 5 ns for one beam) and the synchronization of laser beams onto the target, which are key issues for the plasma production. An experimental device, SAT-3{omega} (a 3{omega} laser focal spot analysis) has been designed to perform these measures. That diagnostic which is located at the end of the laser lines delivered its first results during the 2004 quadruplet qualification campaigns. The near field imaging showed no diaphony and vignetting. Low power spots allowed us to control we had no ghost. The energy measurement quality showed the photometric transfer function was perfectly known. Our caustic image are given with an average dynamic range of 800, a spatial resolution of 10 {mu}m and diameter accuracy about 1% for 50% and 3% for 90% of encircled energy. The high energy focal spot diameters are in agreement with low and very low energy diameters. The phase plate and 14 GHz effects are similar to what we had expected. For a laser shot completed with a continuous phase plate at 14 GHz, and for an energy level of 1.5 kJ per beam at 351 nm, the focal beam diameter at 3% of the peak level is (875 {+-} 45) {mu}m.

  18. Acuerdos de comercio internacional spot de electricidad

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Ibarburu

    2012-01-01

    International power trade requires the existence of regulation and a formal agreement between the countries. In South America power trade is mainly a bilateral spot trade decided by system operators, at prices resulting from rules determined in long term agreements between countries. The institutional framework is quite different from other regions’, where the goal is the existence of a single integrated energy market. Very soon Uruguay will be strongly interconnected with its two neighbors, ...

  19. DNA-nanostructure-assembly by sequential spotting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breitenstein Michael

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to create nanostructures with biomolecules is one of the key elements in nanobiotechnology. One of the problems is the expensive and mostly custom made equipment which is needed for their development. We intended to reduce material costs and aimed at miniaturization of the necessary tools that are essential for nanofabrication. Thus we combined the capabilities of molecular ink lithography with DNA-self-assembling capabilities to arrange DNA in an independent array which allows addressing molecules in nanoscale dimensions. Results For the construction of DNA based nanostructures a method is presented that allows an arrangement of DNA strands in such a way that they can form a grid that only depends on the spotted pattern of the anchor molecules. An atomic force microscope (AFM has been used for molecular ink lithography to generate small spots. The sequential spotting process allows the immobilization of several different functional biomolecules with a single AFM-tip. This grid which delivers specific addresses for the prepared DNA-strand serves as a two-dimensional anchor to arrange the sequence according to the pattern. Once the DNA-nanoarray has been formed, it can be functionalized by PNA (peptide nucleic acid to incorporate advanced structures. Conclusions The production of DNA-nanoarrays is a promising task for nanobiotechnology. The described method allows convenient and low cost preparation of nanoarrays. PNA can be used for complex functionalization purposes as well as a structural element.

  20. First- and second-order Poisson spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, William R.; Shirley, Eric L.; Migdall, Alan L.; Polyakov, Sergey V.; Hendrix, Kurt

    2009-08-01

    Although Thomas Young is generally given credit for being the first to provide evidence against Newton's corpuscular theory of light, it was Augustin Fresnel who first stated the modern theory of diffraction. We review the history surrounding Fresnel's 1818 paper and the role of the Poisson spot in the associated controversy. We next discuss the boundary-diffraction-wave approach to calculating diffraction effects and show how it can reduce the complexity of calculating diffraction patterns. We briefly discuss a generalization of this approach that reduces the dimensionality of integrals needed to calculate the complete diffraction pattern of any order diffraction effect. We repeat earlier demonstrations of the conventional Poisson spot and discuss an experimental setup for demonstrating an analogous phenomenon that we call a "second-order Poisson spot." Several features of the diffraction pattern can be explained simply by considering the path lengths of singly and doubly bent paths and distinguishing between first- and second-order diffraction effects related to such paths, respectively.

  1. Word Spotting and Recognition with Embedded Attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almazán, Jon; Gordo, Albert; Fornés, Alicia; Valveny, Ernest

    2014-12-01

    This paper addresses the problems of word spotting and word recognition on images. In word spotting, the goal is to find all instances of a query word in a dataset of images. In recognition, the goal is to recognize the content of the word image, usually aided by a dictionary or lexicon. We describe an approach in which both word images and text strings are embedded in a common vectorial subspace. This is achieved by a combination of label embedding and attributes learning, and a common subspace regression. In this subspace, images and strings that represent the same word are close together, allowing one to cast recognition and retrieval tasks as a nearest neighbor problem. Contrary to most other existing methods, our representation has a fixed length, is low dimensional, and is very fast to compute and, especially, to compare. We test our approach on four public datasets of both handwritten documents and natural images showing results comparable or better than the state-of-the-art on spotting and recognition tasks. PMID:26353157

  2. Co-Movement Analysis of Italian and Greek Electricity Market Wholesale Prices by Using a Wavelet Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George P. Papaioannou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We study the co-evolution of the dynamics or co-movement of two electricity markets, the Italian and Greek, by studying the dynamics of their wholesale day-ahead prices, simultaneously in the time-frequency domain. Co-movement is alternatively referred as market integration in financial economics and markets are internationally integrated if the reward for risk is identical regardless the market one trades in. The innovation of this work is the application of wavelet analysis and more specifically the wavelet coherence to estimate the dynamic interaction between these two prices. Our method is compared to other generic econometric tools used in Economics and Finance namely the dynamic correlation and coherence analysis, to study the co-movement of variables of the type related to these two fields. Our study reveals valuable information that we believe will be extremely useful to the authorities as well as other agents participating in these markets to better prepare the national markets towards the European target model, a framework in which the two markets will be coupled.

  3. New wholesale power market design using linked forward markets : a study for the DOE energy storage systems program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto; Loose, Verne William; Ellison, James F.; Elliott, Ryan Thomas; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Guttromson, Ross; Tesfatsion, Leigh S. [Iowa State University, Ames, IA

    2013-04-01

    This report proposes a reformulation of U.S. ISO/RTO-managed wholesale electric power mar- kets for improved reliability and e ciency of system operations. Current markets do not specify or compensate primary frequency response. They also unnecessarily limit the participation of new technologies in reserve markets and o er insu cient economic inducements for new capacity invest- ment. In the proposed market reformulation, energy products are represented as physically-covered rm contracts and reserve products as physically-covered call option contracts. Trading of these products is supported by a backbone of linked ISO/RTO-managed forward markets with planning horizons ranging from multiple years to minutes ahead. A principal advantage of this reformulation is that reserve needs can be speci ed in detail, and resources can o er the services for which they are best suited, without being forced to conform to rigid reserve product de nitions. This should improve the business case for electric energy storage and other emerging technologies to provide reserve. In addition, the facilitation of price discovery should help to ensure e cient energy/reserve procurement and adequate levels of new capacity investment.

  4. Modeling of GE Appliances: Cost Benefit Study of Smart Appliances in Wholesale Energy, Frequency Regulation, and Spinning Reserve Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Jason C.; Parker, Graham B.

    2012-12-31

    This report is the second in a series of three reports describing the potential of GE’s DR-enabled appliances to provide benefits to the utility grid. The first report described the modeling methodology used to represent the GE appliances in the GridLAB-D simulation environment and the estimated potential for peak demand reduction at various deployment levels. The third report will explore the technical capability of aggregated group actions to positively impact grid stability, including frequency and voltage regulation and spinning reserves, and the impacts on distribution feeder voltage regulation, including mitigation of fluctuations caused by high penetration of photovoltaic distributed generation. In this report, a series of analytical methods were presented to estimate the potential cost benefit of smart appliances while utilizing demand response. Previous work estimated the potential technical benefit (i.e., peak reduction) of smart appliances, while this report focuses on the monetary value of that participation. The effects on wholesale energy cost and possible additional revenue available by participating in frequency regulation and spinning reserve markets were explored.

  5. Australian Apprentice & Trainee Statistics: Electrical and Electronics Trades, 1995 to 1999. Australian Vocational Education & Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Leabrook (Australia).

    Statistics regarding Australians participating in apprenticeships and traineeships in the electrical and electronics trades in 1995-1999 were reviewed to provide an indication of where skill shortages may be occurring or will likely occur in relation to the following occupations: electrical engineering associate professional; electronics…

  6. Immigrant Australians and Education. A Review of Research. Australian Education Review Number 22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturman, Andrew

    This review examines whether immigrant Australians are disadvantaged educationally or vocationally by the education they receive, and whether their educational experiences are of a high quality and relevant to their needs. First, data is provided on the patterns of post-war immigration, along with information about the changing attitudes of…

  7. The Australian-Ness of Curriculum Jigsaws: Where Does Environmental Education Fit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Annette

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews Australian Government actions related to environmental education, particularly in the past decade, and examines the actions forthcoming from two national action plans (Environment Australia, 2000 and DEWHA, 2009), the implementation strategy for the Decade of ESD (DEWHA, 2006) and developments related to the Australian…

  8. Redefining & Leading the Academic Discipline in Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkin, Damien G.; Healy, Annah H.

    2013-01-01

    Disciplines have emerged as an alternative administrative structure to departments or schools in Australian universities. We presently investigate the pattern of discipline use and by way of case study examine a role for distributed leadership in discipline management. Over forty per cent of Australian universities currently employ disciplines,…

  9. Australian Higher Education Reforms--Unification or Diversification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombe, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    The higher education policy of the previous Australian government aimed to achieve an internationally competitive higher education sector while expanding access opportunities to all Australians. This policy agenda closely reflects global trends that focus on achieving both quality and equity objectives. In this paper, the formulation and…

  10. Living Smart Homes: A Pilot Australian Sustainability Education Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Evonne; Buys, Laurie; Bell, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    This article documents the rationale and experience of a pilot Australian sustainability education programme, "Living Smart Homes" (LSH) based on a community-based social marketing model. Inspired by the Australian "Land for Wildlife" scheme, LSH is designed to engage homeowners with sustainable practices through face-to-face workshops, an…

  11. The Sleep Patterns and Well-Being of Australian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Lack, Leon C.; Wright, Helen R.; Dohnt, Hayley

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Adolescent sleep patterns vary between countries, and these differences influence adolescent functioning and well-being. The present study provides data on the sleep and well-being of Australian adolescents. Methods: 385 adolescents aged 13-18 years were recruited from 8 South Australian schools spanning the socio-economic spectrum.…

  12. Training at the Australian School of Nuclear Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian School of Nuclear Technology was founded in 1964 as a joint enterprise of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission and the University of New South Wales to support nuclear developments primarily in Australia. However, ASNT has developed into an important centre for nuclear science and technology training within the South East Asian Region with participants also attending from countries outside this Region. (author)

  13. Training at the Australian School of Nuclear Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian School of Nuclear Technology (ASNT) was founded in 1964 as a joint enterprise of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission and the University of New South Wales to support nuclear developments primarily in Australia. However, ASNT has developed into an important centre for nuclear science and technology training within the South East Asian Region with participants also attending from countries outside this Region

  14. The "Paradox of Interdisciplinarity" in Australian Research Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelert, Peter; Millar, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    This paper identifies what can be called the "paradox of interdisciplinarity" (Weingart 2000) in Australian higher education research governance and explores some of its constitutive dimensions. In the Australian context, the paradox of interdisciplinarity primarily concerns the proliferation of a programmatic discourse of…

  15. Defining and Assessing Generic Competencies in Australian Universities: Ongoing Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Elaine; O'Neill, Marnie

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss ongoing challenges in defining and assessing generic competencies in Australian universities. The paper begins with a discussion of factors that led to, and later fuelled, the focus on generic competencies in Australian higher education. Broad constructs that have underpinned research and practice in the field are then…

  16. The Shades of Grey of Cyberbullying in Australian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the effects of cyberbullying in relation to a school's duty of care. By examining the impact of cyberbullying through an increasingly common scenario, it becomes apparent that the strategies for Australian schools in maintaining their duty of care may be unclear and uncommunicated. Findings suggest that Australian law in its…

  17. Schema-Based Processing in Australian Speakers of Aboriginal English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifian, Farzad

    2001-01-01

    Explores features of Aboriginal English discourse that appear to be associated with some distinctive roles played by schemas in processing and formation of discourse by Aboriginal children. Examines the complexity of intercultural communication between Australian aborigines and the dominant class of white Australians. (Author/VWL)

  18. The Teaching of First Year Economics in Australian Universities*

    OpenAIRE

    Nilss Olekalns

    2002-01-01

    This paper surveys current pedagogical practice in the teaching of introductory macroeconomics and microeconomics in Australian universities. Survey results are presented detailing lecturers’ approaches to their teaching over 2001 and other aspects of their teaching environment. A comparison of the content and methodology of the main textbooks used in Australian introductory economic courses is also presented.

  19. Casual Academic Staff in an Australian University: Marginalised and Excluded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Suzanne; Burgess, John; Connell, Julia; Groen, Egbert

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, the Australian workforce has become more casualised, with approximately one-quarter of the workforce in casual employment today. One of the highest users of casual employees is the higher education sector, where casual academics (referred to as sessionals in the Australian context) are estimated to account for 50% of the…

  20. Teacher Transculturalism and Cultural Difference: Addressing Racism in Australian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casinader, Niranjan R.; Walsh, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    The increasing cultural diversity of students in Australia's schools is one of the salient changes in education over the last 30 years. In 2011, nearly half of all Australians had one or more parents born overseas, with migration from China, the Indian subcontinent and Africa increasing during the early 2000s (Australian Bureau of Statistics,…

  1. Teaching Australian Football in Physical Education: Constraints Theory in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pill, Shane

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines a constraints-led process of exploring, modifying, experimenting, adapting, and developing game appreciation known as Game Sense (Australian Sports Commission, 1997; den Duyn, 1996, 1997) for the teaching of Australian football. The game acts as teacher in this constraints-led process. Rather than a linear system that…

  2. Cultural Patterns of Metacognitive Guidance in Australian Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanagavarapu, Prathyusha

    2008-01-01

    This article provides insight into the cultural patterns of metacognitive guidance that occurs among children and mothers in selected Australian homes. Fourteen Anglo Australian and eight immigrant Indian (Telugu) mothers' interactions with their 4-year-old male and female children on a puzzle-solving task were videotaped. Mother-child dyads'…

  3. The Myth of the World of Literature for Australian Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumb, Peter

    1984-01-01

    Briefly reviews two South Australian Education Department curriculum documents that justify the teaching of literature and then argues that newly arrived immigrants and many Australian ethnic minority students are denied the experiences of literature as established in the rationale of the documents. (HOD)

  4. Philosophy and Ethics in Western Australian Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millett, Stephan; Tapper, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of Philosophy and Ethics to the Western Australian Certificate of Education courses in 2008 brought philosophy into the Western Australian secondary school curriculum for the first time. How philosophy came to be included is part of a larger story about the commitment and perseverance of a relatively small number of Australian…

  5. Effects of long-term wholesale contracts on the competitive situation in electricity sales; Pitkien tukkusaehkoesopimusten vaikutukset saehkoen vaehittaeismyynnin kilpailutilanteeseen. Selvitysmiesten raportti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The old long-term wholesale contracts of Imatran Voima Oy and Teollisuuden Saehkoenmyynti Oy were signed in 1991-1995 and they became effective on November 1, 1995. The contractual terms conformed partly to old tariff structure from the year 1985 and partly they included some new flexibility. The contracts included besides energy charges also fixed charges amounting to about 55-60 % of the total price of the base-load electricity. The availability of the market priced electricity and the competitive electricity market that was opened also to small customers in autumn 1998 resulted in strong price competition in the retail market of electricity. It is probable that the net result of the retail trade of electricity decreases considerably compared to the year 1997. However, the total net results of utilities remain positive in most cases by means of the network and production businesses. The utilities with old long-term contracts are in the most difficult situation. The report presents several changes in the market, which came into force since signing the contracts and which changed the shearing of risk between contractors. The contractors have had difficulties in the anticipation of the total effects of several separate changes on the commercial conditions. In the agreements the contracting parties also express their aim to adjust the payments to the nonforeseeable changes caused by legislation or commercial conditions. Therefore, the authors` opinion is that it is not fair to require that contracting parties should anticipate such kind of changes to occur which are not based on existing legislation or official proposal at the time when the contracts were signed. The profitability problems caused by the old wholesale contracts should preferably be solved through mutual negotiations between wholesalers and retailers. In case of disagreements in negotiations the next step is the court of arbitration. The problem could also be solved through new legislation, but this

  6. Patient Experience of Australian General Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Ajit; Greco, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The number of data-based research articles focusing on patient sociodemographic profiling and experience with healthcare practices is still relatively small. One of the reasons for this relative lack of research is that categorizing patients into different demographic groups can lead to significant reductions in sample numbers for homogeneous subgroups. The aim of this article is to identify problems and issues when dealing with big data that contains information at two levels: patient experience of their general practice, and scores received by practices. The Practice Accreditation and Improvement Survey (PAIS) consisting of 27 five-point Likert items and 11 sociodemographic questions is a Royal Australian College of General Practitioners (RACGP)-endorsed instrument for seeking patient views as part of the accreditation of Australian general practices. The data were collected during the 3-year period May 2011-July 2014, during which time PAIS was completed for 3734 individual general practices throughout Australia involving 312,334 anonymous patients. This represents over 60% of practices in Australia, and ∼75% of practices that undergo voluntary accreditation. The sampling method for each general practice was convenience sampling. The results of our analysis show how sociodemographic profiles of Australian patients can affect their ratings of practices and also how the location of the practice (State/Territory, remote access area) can affect patient experience. These preliminary findings can act as an initial set of results against which future studies in patient experience trends can be developed and measured in Australia. Also, the methods used in this article provide a methodological framework for future patient experience researchers to use when dealing with data that contain information at two levels, such as the patient and practice. Finally, the outcomes demonstrate that different subgroups can experience healthcare provision differently, especially

  7. The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index Martin Thoms, Melissa Parsons, Phil Morley Bushfire and Natural Hazards Cooperative Research Centre, Geography and Planning, University of New England, Armidale NSW 2351, Australia. Natural hazard management policy directions in Australia - and indeed internationally - are increasingly being aligned to ideas of resilience. Resilience to natural hazards is the ability of individuals and communities to cope with disturbance and adversity and to maintain adaptive behaviour. Operationalizing the measurement and assessment of disaster resilience is often undertaken using a composite index, but this exercise is yet to be undertaken in Australia. The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index is a top-down, national scale assessment of the resilience of communities to natural hazards. Resilience is assessed based on two sets of capacities: coping and adaptive capacities. Coping capacity relates to the factors influencing the ability of a community to prepare for, absorb and recover from a natural hazard event. Adaptive capacity relates to the arrangements and processes that enable adjustment through learning, adaptation and transformation. Indicators are derived under themes of social character, economic capital, infrastructure and planning, emergency services, community capital, information and engagement and governance/leadership/policy, using existing data sets (e.g. census data) or evaluation of policy and procedure (e.g. disaster management planning). A composite index of disaster resilience is then computed for each spatial division, giving national scale coverage. The results of the Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index will be reported in a State of Disaster Resilience report, due in 2018. The index is co-designed with emergency service agencies, and will support policy development, planning, community engagement and emergency management.

  8. Dementia risk factors for Australian baby boomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. Panegyres

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Baby boomers are individuals born in the years 1946 to 1965. The objective of this paper was to define the risk factors for dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD and their relevance to Australian baby boomers, with the aim of providing evidence-based guidelines for dementia prevention. A series of PubMed searches (1994-2010 were conducted with relevant key words. Data was included from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS in relation to baby boomers in Australia. Article titles and abstracts were assessed by two reviewers for inclusion. Searches through ABS revealed no specific study on baby boomers at a national level; information was only available for Western Australia, South Australia and Queensland. A number of genetic and non-genetic risk factors for dementia were identified most of which remain controversial and require further study. We did not identify significant differences in the prevalence and incidence of dementia in those under 65 years in Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia. There were no correlations of risk factors and dementia between the Australian states. Modification of risk factors has not been proven to reduce the incidence and prevalence of dementia and AD in baby boomers. Nevertheless, on available evidence, we recommend: i active management of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension; ii the encouragement of a healthy lifestyle (eg, weight reduction, exercise as offering the best pathways to reduce the emerging dementia risk for baby boomers. The implications are that activities promoting a healthy heart might lead to a healthy brain and help to prevent dementia.

  9. Time Resolved X-Ray Spot Size Diagnostic

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Roger; Falabella, Steven; Guethlein, Gary; Raymond, Brett; Weir, John

    2005-01-01

    A diagnostic was developed for the determination of temporal history of an X-ray spot. A pair of thin (0.5 mm) slits image the x-ray spot to a fast scintillator which is coupled to a fast detector, thus sampling a slice of the X-Ray spot. Two other scintillator/detectors are used to determine the position of the spot and total forward dose. The slit signal is normalized to the dose and the resulting signal is analyzed to get the spot size. The position information is used to compensate for small changes due to spot motion and misalignment. The time resolution of the diagnostic is about 1 ns and measures spots from 0.5 mm to over 3 mm. The theory and equations used to calculate spot size and position are presented, as well as data. The calculations assume a symmetric, Gaussian spot. The spot data is generated by the ETA II accelerator, a 2kA, 5.5 MeV, 60ns electron beam focused on a Tantalum target. The spot generated is typically about 1 mm FWHM. Comparisons are made to an X-ray pinhole camera which images th...

  10. Amorphous-silicon module hot-spot testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, C. C.

    1985-01-01

    Hot spot heating occurs when cell short-circuit current is lower than string operating current. Amorphous cell hot spot are tested to develop the techniques required for performing reverse bias testing of amorphous cells. Also, to quantify the response of amorphous cells to reverse biasing. Guidelines are developed from testing for reducing hot spot susceptibility of amorphous modules and to develop a qualification test for hot spot testing of amorphous modules. It is concluded that amorphous cells undergo hot spot heating similarly to crystalline cells. Comparison of results obtained with submodules versus actual modules indicate heating levels lower in actual modules. Module design must address hot spot testing and hot spot qualification test conducted on modules showed no instabilities and minor cell erosion.

  11. Star spot location estimation using Kalman filter for star tracker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-bo; Yang, Jian-kun; Wang, Jiong-qi; Tan, Ji-chun; Li, Xiu-jian

    2011-04-20

    Star pattern recognition and attitude determination accuracy is highly dependent on star spot location accuracy for the star tracker. A star spot location estimation approach with the Kalman filter for a star tracker has been proposed, which consists of three steps. In the proposed approach, the approximate locations of the star spots in successive frames are predicted first; then the measurement star spot locations are achieved by defining a series of small windows around each predictive star spot location. Finally, the star spot locations are updated by the designed Kalman filter. To confirm the proposed star spot location estimation approach, the simulations based on the orbit data of the CHAMP satellite and the real guide star catalog are performed. The simulation results indicate that the proposed approach can filter out noises from the measurements remarkably if the sampling frequency is sufficient. PMID:21509065

  12. A new era in Australian migration policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birrell, R

    1984-01-01

    The discussion traces the evolution of Australian migration policy since 1975, arguing that the primary factor shaping policy has been interparty competition for influence within Australia's ethnic communities. Since late 1975 when the Liberal/National Country Party (LibNCP) Conservative Government returned to power, Australian immigration policy has moved in different directions from the previous post World War II experience. The demographic implications have been profound. In 1975 the LibNCP government returned to office committed to restoring an active migration program. By 1980-81 it had largely succeeded in this numerical goal. Australia's migration growth rate at .82% of the total population exceeded almost all other Western society. What was new, in comparison to previous policy, was the migrant selection system and source countries. By the time the government lost office in March 1983, family reunion had become the major migration program souce and Asia was rapidly becoming the dominant place of migrant origin. This emphasis on family reunion was not intended by government immigration planners but was a product of domestic political change and resultant new influences over migration policy. As to the increasing Asian component, it has mainly been an unintended consequence of the expansion in the family reunion program. Although the liberalization of family reunion eligibility has largely been designed to appease the major Southern European ethnic communities, few applications have been forthcoming from these countries. Asian applicants have been numerous. Labor government policy since March 1983 has shown remarkable continuity with that of the LibNCP both in its selection system and in the size of the migrant intake. The motivation for the commitment to immigration derived first from longstanding traditions within the Australian business community that Australia's economic growth and dynamism depended on rapid population growth. More specifically there

  13. The State of the Australian Middle Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive Hamilton

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a widespread view that the middle class in Australia is doing it tough, that they arefinding it increasingly difficult to maintain a decent standard of living and are suffering frommortgage stress. Indeed, some media reports have announced the end of the middle classdream.This paper tests a number of these popular views against the statistical data. It asks whetherthe typical Australian family can be said to be struggling? Are mortgages creating severeproblems for middle-class families? Is the middle class shrinking? Are families copingfinancially only because wives are going out to work?

  14. Nuclear geophysiology: Isotopes in Australian environmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovelock introduced the term 'geophysiology' to describe the holistic study of the Earth systems. By analogy with medicine, and the corresponding field of nuclear medicine, 'nuclear geophysiology' describes the application of nuclear techniques to Earth system science. Injections of radioisotopes into the Earth's systems occur naturally and continuously, while artificial radionuclides have been injected at times as a result of human activities. Here, we provide some examples of Australian investigations into the physiology of the Earth derived from the study of these isotopes. (author)

  15. Aboriginal Oral Traditions of Australian Impact Craters

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2013-01-01

    We explore Aboriginal oral traditions that relate to Australian meteorite craters. Using the literature, first-hand ethnographic records, and fieldtrip data, we identify oral traditions and artworks associated with four impact sites: Gosses Bluff, Henbury, Liverpool, and Wolfe Creek. Oral traditions describe impact origins for Gosses Bluff and Wolfe Creek craters and non-impact origins of Liverpool and Henbury craters, with Wolfe Creek stories having both impact and non-impact origins. Three impact sites that are believed to have formed during human habitation of Australia - Dalgaranga, Veevers, and Boxhole - do not have associated oral traditions that are reported in the literature.

  16. Aboriginal oral traditions of Australian impact craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Goldsmith, John

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we explore Aboriginal oral traditions that relate to Australian meteorite craters. Using the literature, first-hand ethnographic records and field trip data, we identify oral traditions and artworks associated with four impact sites: Gosses Bluff, Henbury, Liverpool and Wolfe Creek. Oral traditions describe impact origins for Gosses Bluff, Henbury and Wolfe Creek Craters, and non-impact origins for Liverpool Crater, with Henbury and Wolfe Creek stories having both impact and non-impact origins. Three impact sites that are believed to have been formed during human habitation of Australia -- Dalgaranga, Veevers, and Boxhole -- do not have associated oral traditions that are reported in the literature.

  17. Representative Democracy in Australian Local Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Hearfield

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In an assessment of representative democracy in Australian local government, this paper considers long-run changes in forms of political representation, methods of vote counting, franchise arrangements, numbers of local government bodies and elected representatives, as well as the thorny question of constitutional recognition. This discussion is set against the background of ongoing tensions between the drive for economic efficiency and the maintenance of political legitimacy, along with more deep-seated divisions emerging from the legal relationship between local and state governments and the resultant problems inherent in local government autonomy versus state intervention.

  18. Gender Still Matters in Australian Schooling

    OpenAIRE

    Léonie J Rennie

    2010-01-01

    In the 1980s, gender issues and a focus on girls’ and young women'sparticipation in SET was a significant issue in Australian education. Much has changed, however, with current policy paying scant attention to gender as an issue in SET. Léonie Rennie was a co-organiser of the Sixth International Gender and Science and Technology conference held in Australia and in this article presents her personal reflection on some of the changes and possiblereasons for the apparent lack of interest in gend...

  19. Building the clinical bridge: an Australian success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Marianne; Chaboyer, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Nursing effectiveness science includes primary, secondary, and translational, clinically focused research activities which aim to improve patient or client outcomes. It is imperative, for the successful conduct of a program of nursing effectiveness science, that a clinical bridge is established between academic and healthcare service facilities. An Australian example of the development of a robust clinical bridge through the use of jointly funded positions at the professorial level is outlined. In addition, an analysis of the practical application of Lewin's model of change management and the contribution of both servant and transformational leadership styles to the bridge building process is provided. PMID:22577536

  20. Revisiting the Occupational Aspirations and Destinations of Anglo-Australian and Chinese-Australian High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Ranbir Singh

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from Australia lends support to the "Asian high achieving syndrome" in Chinese-Australian students and "self-deprivation syndrome" in Anglo-Australian students. Applying ethnographic case studies approach for doctoral thesis the author collected data on a longitudinal basis from homes and school of these students. All…

  1. The Relationship between Self-Esteem and Parenting Style: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Australian and Vietnamese Australian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, Lara; Gullone, Eleonora

    1999-01-01

    Studied the relationship between self-esteem and parenting style with 118 Vietnamese Australian and 120 Anglo-Australian adolescents. As expected, parenting characterized by high levels of overprotection and low levels of acceptance related negatively with self-esteem for both samples of adolescents. (SLD)

  2. 蔬菜批发市场和零售市场价格变化及传导机制研究%Research on Vegetable Price Changes and Transmission Mechanism between Wholesale and Retail Markets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵安平; 赵友森; 王川; 王晓东

    2011-01-01

    以北京市场大白菜、黄瓜和菠菜为对象,探究批发与零售市场蔬菜价格传导机制.采用相关系数、变异系数、批零比分析蔬菜批零市场价格的各自变化规律,建立VAR模型,运用Granger因果检验、脉冲响应函数和方差分解等分析批零价格相互关系.得出批零价格相关性强,零售市场价格较批发市场稳定,3种蔬菜批发与零售价格比值均维持在2倍的关系.大白菜批零价格互为Granger因果关系,而黄瓜和菠菜则是从批发到零售价格单向引导.脉冲响应函数和方差分解分析表明,不同蔬菜品种批零市场发挥的作用存在一定差异,但是总体来看批发市场或批发商在批零价格传导中发挥主导作用,是价格变动的中心环节,零售商相对处于弱势地位.在此基础上提出完善市内农产品流通机制.规范批发市场经营,引导零售商在市场竞争中发挥更大作用.%This paper explored the wholesale and retail vegetable prices transmission mechanism, at the base of prices of cabbage, cucumber and spinach in Beijing markets. And using correlation coefficient, coefficient of variation, the ratio of wholesale and retail prices, this paper analyzed the price change rules in both wholesale and retail market, and also explored the relationship between wholesale and retail prices, with the establishment of VAR model, Granger causality test, impulse response functions and variance decomposition.The results demonstratd that when wholesale and retail prices obtain a strong correlation, retail market prices were more stable than those of wholesale, and the ratio relationship of the three kinds of vegetables between wholesale and retail prices maintains at 2 times. The cabbage price of wholesale and retail had Granger causal relationship with each other, while prices of cucumber and spinach were in one-way guide from the wholesale to retail price. Impulse response function and variance decomposition analysis

  3. Dynamical Spot Evolution in HD 11753

    OpenAIRE

    Korhonen, H.; Hubrig, S.; Briquet, Maryline; González, J.F.; Savanov, I.

    2011-01-01

    Our recent studies of HD 11753, a late B-type star showing a HgMn peculiarity for the first time revealed the presence of a fast dynamical evolution of chemical spots on the surface of this chemically peculiar early-type star. These observations suggest a hitherto unknown physical process operating in stars with outer radiative envelopes. Furthermore, we have also discovered existence of magnetic fields on HgMn stars that were up to now considered non-magnetic. Here we will discuss the dyna...

  4. Modelling of friction stir spot welding

    OpenAIRE

    Reilly, Aidan

    2013-01-01

    Friction stir spot welding (FSSW) is a solid-state welding process which is especially useful for joining precipitation-hardened aluminium alloys that undergo adverse property changes during fusion welding. It also has potential as an effective method for solid-state joining of dissimilar alloys. In FSSW, heat generation and plastic flow are strongly linked, and the scale of the process in time and space is such that it is difficult to separate and control the influence of all the relevant in...

  5. Dispersion of hot spots in steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The streamwise development of hot spots in a helical type heat exchanger has been treated experimentally and theoretically as well. Velocity profiles across the bundle have been measured varying the Reynolds number, Re, from 103 to 1.35 x 105. Pressurized air or helium have been applied as coolant. In an additional series of tests the length scale parameter of the turbulence structure has been determined. It is correlated with the turbulent Peclet number, Pet, which occurs in the basic equation as an unknown parameter. Its value was found to be independent of Re (Pet = 8.2). Introducing this value leads to a good agreement of theoretical and experimental results. (author)

  6. On cold spots in tumor subvolumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losses in tumor control are estimated for cold spots of various 'sizes' and degrees of 'cold dose'. This question is important in the context of intensity modulated radiotherapy where differential dose-volume histograms (DVHs) for targets that abut a critical structure often exhibit a cold dose tail. This can be detrimental to tumor control probability (TCP) for fractions of cold volumes even as small as 1%, if the cold dose is lower than the prescribed dose by substantially more than 10%. The Niemierko-Goitein linear-quadratic algorithm with γ50 slope 1-3 was used to study the effect of cold spots of various degrees (dose deficit below the prescription dose) and size (fractional volume of the cold dose). A two-bin model DVH has been constructed in which the cold dose bin is allowed to vary from a dose deficit of 1%-50% below prescription dose and to have volumes varying from 1% to 90%. In order to study and quantify the effect of a small volume of cold dose on TCP and effective uniform dose (EUD), a four-bin DVH model has been constructed in which the lowest dose bin, which has a fractional volume of 1%, is allowed to vary from 10% to 45% dose deficit below prescription dose. The highest dose bin represents a simultaneous boost. For fixed size of the cold spot the calculated values of TCP decreased rapidly with increasing degrees of cold dose for any size of the cold spot, even as small as 1% fractional volume. For the four-subvolume model, in which the highest dose bin has a fractional volume of 80% and is set at a boost dose of 10% above prescription dose, it is found that the loss in TCP and EUD is moderate as long as the cold 1% subvolume has a deficit less than approximately 20%. However, as the dose deficit in the 1% subvolume bin increases further it drives TCP and EUD rapidly down and can lead to a serious loss in TCP and EUD. Since a dose deficit to a 1% volume of the target that is larger than 20% of the prescription dose may lead to serious loss of TCP

  7. The potential for an Australian uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of uranium and its part upgrading to enriched uranium for export could be equivalent to 20-25 per cent of Australia's future export income from coal. Australia could be supplying 15,000 tonnes U/yr. and enrichment services of 2.5 million SWU/yr. by 2000. The principles of nuclear energy, nuclear power reactors and the nuclear fuel cycle are described and the relationship between nuclear power and the requirements for uranium and the other steps in the fuel cycle is discussed. Estimates are given of the future world supply-demand balance for each step in the fuel cycle. A survey is made of world uranium resources and fuel cycle upgrading facilities. The costs of production and pricing are assessed in relation to the potential for an Australian industry. Comments are made on the possibility that Australia could provide the repository for both low-level radioactive waste from small countries and the bulk of the world's high level waste. The impact of a uranium industry on the Australian economy is discussed

  8. Patterns of multimorbidity in working Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ng Shu-Kay

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multimorbidity is becoming more prevalent. Previously-used methods of assessing multimorbidity relied on counting the number of health conditions, often in relation to an index condition (comorbidity, or grouping conditions based on body or organ systems. Recent refinements in statistical approaches have resulted in improved methods to capture patterns of multimorbidity, allowing for the identification of nonrandomly occurring clusters of multimorbid health conditions. This paper aims to identify nonrandom clusters of multimorbidity. Methods The Australian Work Outcomes Research Cost-benefit (WORC study cross-sectional screening dataset (approximately 78,000 working Australians was used to explore patterns of multimorbidity. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify nonrandomly occurring clusters of multimorbid health conditions. Results Six clinically-meaningful groups of multimorbid health conditions were identified. These were: factor 1: arthritis, osteoporosis, other chronic pain, bladder problems, and irritable bowel; factor 2: asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and allergies; factor 3: back/neck pain, migraine, other chronic pain, and arthritis; factor 4: high blood pressure, high cholesterol, obesity, diabetes, and fatigue; factor 5: cardiovascular disease, diabetes, fatigue, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and arthritis; and factor 6: irritable bowel, ulcer, heartburn, and other chronic pain. These clusters do not fall neatly into organ or body systems, and some conditions appear in more than one cluster. Conclusions Considerably more research is needed with large population-based datasets and a comprehensive set of reliable health diagnoses to better understand the complex nature and composition of multimorbid health conditions.

  9. Supplement Use of Elite Australian Swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Gregory; Slater, Gary; Burke, Louise M

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the influence the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) Sport Supplement Program had on supplement practices of elite Australian swimmers, comparing those guided by the Program with others in the same national team. Thirty-nine elite swimmers (13 AIS, 26 Other; 20 female, 19 male; age 21.8 ± 3.3 y) completed a questionnaire investigating supplement use. Ninety-seven percent of swimmers reported taking supplements or sports foods over the preceding 12 months. AIS swimmers reported using more total brands (p = .02) and supplements considered Ergogenic (p = .001) than Other swimmers who used more supplements considered to be lacking scientific support (p = .028). Swimmers rated the risk of a negative outcome from the use of supplements available in Australia (Mdn = 3.0) as less than the risk of supplements from international sources (Mdn = 4.0; p dietary supplements from supermarkets. These findings suggest that swimmers influenced by this sport supplement program more frequently use supplements that are recommended by allied health trained individuals, classified as evidence based and provided by the program. PMID:26630501

  10. Glomerular size and glomerulosclerosis in Australian aborigines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R J; Hoy, W E; Kincaid-Smith, P; Seymour, A E; Bertram, J F

    2000-09-01

    We have previously described the prevalence of glomerulomegaly in biopsy specimens from Australian Aborigines with renal disease, a phenomenon documented in a number of other indigenous populations. Many of the biopsy specimens showed variable degrees of focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Correlations between glomerular size and FSGS have been described in various animal models, as well as studies of humans. The aim of this study is to determine whether a relation exists between glomerular volume and severity of FSGS in biopsy specimens from Australian Aboriginals in the Northern Territory and Aboriginal inhabitants of the Tiwi Islands (Bathurst Island and Melville Island, Northern Territory, Australia). Consecutive clinical biopsy specimens were obtained from 78 non-Tiwi and 72 Tiwi Aboriginals. Glomerular volume was estimated using the stereological method of Weibel and Gomez. FSGS was graded from 0 to 4; 0 indicates no sclerosis and 4 indicates severe sclerosis. A biphasic relationship between glomerular size and severity of FSGS was identified. As the severity of FSGS increased from grade 0 to grade 3, glomerular size also increased. For both populations studied, glomeruli scored as grades 1, 2, and 3 were approximately 50% (PAustralian Aborigines. PMID:10977779

  11. Injury profile of amateur Australian rules footballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawdon, A; Brukner, P

    1994-01-01

    Australian Rules Football is played by numerous young Australians throughout winter each year. There have been a number of studies on professional and semi-professional footballers, establishing the nature and frequency of injuries within this football code. Medical cover of an amateur football club over the 1993 season allowed detailed recording of injuries over this period. The data collected revealed a markedly different injury profile to that seen previously. The injury rate in this study was 96 per 1000 player hours. The most common injury was concussion (15%), with hand fractures next most frequent (13.5%). The lower limb was the most common site of injury, with head and neck second and upper limb third. Injuries with an overuse component were seen less commonly in the amateur group while traumatic injuries were more frequent. The time allocated by amateur footballers to their sport is less than professional players, quite aside from the difference in skill level attained. Overuse injuries may be correspondingly much less frequent on a time basis alone. The increased incidence of traumatic injuries is postulated to be a manifestation of both less well developed skills and possibly less available and effective preventative measures such as ankle strapping and tape supplies. Considering the large number of young people playing amateur football and the significant time and cost of what are often relatively minor injuries, more work is required to establish what injuries are most common, and importantly, what measures can be taken to decrease their incidence. PMID:8665278

  12. Is there an Australian Pastoral Poetry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Taylor

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pastoral was common as a European literary genre from the Renaissance until the eighteenth century. It existed in other artistic forms as well, especially in the visual arts, and after its demise as a distinct genre elements of it persisted into the twentieth century, for example in music. With the colonial spread of European culture the pastoral influence also extended into other countries, with a mixed fate. Recently, the term Pastoral has come back into prominence in literature in English, not only in Great Britain but also, notably in the USA and Australia, with the growth of writing motivated by ecological involvement with the natural world, especially landscape. This has led to re-definitions of the term Pastoral in the last few decades. A number of Australian poets are looked at to see whether, and how, their writing about landscape might relate to, or incorporate elements of the Pastoral. The Australian poet John Kinsella, in particular, has been a widely published spokesperson for a new definition of Pastoral. His published works trace his move from a politically activist anti-colonialist redefinition of Pastoral towards a quieter, more harmonious, and essentially ethical engagement with the natural world.

  13. Large-scale wind power integration and wholesale electricity trading benefits: Estimation via an ex post approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The integration of large-scale wind power has brought about a series of challenges to the power industry, but at the same time a number of benefits are being realized. Among those, the ability of wind power to cause a decline in the electricity market prices has been recognized. In quantifying this effect, some models used in recent years are based on simulations of the market supply-side and the price clearing process. The accuracy of the estimates depend on the quality of the input data, the veracity of the adopted scenarios and the rigorousness of the solution technique. In this work, a series of econometric techniques based on actual ex post wind power and electricity price data are implemented for the estimation of the impact of region-wide wind power integration on the local electricity market clearing prices and the trading savings that stem from this effect. The model is applied to the case of Spain, where the estimated savings are compared against actual credit and bonus expenses to ratepayers. The implications and extent of these results for current and future renewable energy policy-making are discussed. - Highlights: ► Wholesale electricity market trading benefits by wind power are quantified. ► Actual wind power forecast-based bids and electricity price data from Spain are used. ► Different econometric tools are used and compared for improved estimation accuracy. ► Estimated benefits outweigh current credit overhead paid to wind farms in Spain. An economically efficient benefit surplus allocation framework is proposed.

  14. Evaluation of fungal bio burden and mycotoxins presence in irradiated samples of medicinal plants purchased from wholesale and retail market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This present study evaluated the effect of gamma radiation on the fungal survival in packed medicinal plants, purchased from wholesale and retail market, in different period (0 and 30 days) after the treatment. Five kind of medicinal plants (Peumus boldus, Camellia sinensis, Maytenus ilicifolia, Paullinia cupana and Cassia angustifolia), were collected from different cities of Sao Paulo State, and submitted to irradiation treatment using a 60Co source (type Gammacell 220) with doses of 5,0 kGy and 10 kGy and at dose rate of 3.0 kGy/h. Non-irradiated samples (control group) were used for fungal counts and serial dilutions from 10-1 to 10-6 of the samples were seeded in duplicates and plated using the surface culture method in Dichloran 18% Glycerol Agar (DG 18) and were counted after five days at 25 deg C. The control group revealed the presence of genera Aspergillus and Penicillium, which are known as toxigenic fungi and a few samples of control group were within the safety limits of World Health Organization (WHO, 1998) to medicinal plants. In response to resistance of ionizing treatment, in the dose of 5 kGy, it was observed that the genera Aspergillus, Phoma and Syncephalastrum were radio-resistant after the process (day 0 and 30th day). The treatment by gamma radiation was effective in decontamination of all irradiated samples of medicinal plants, after 30 days, with the dose of 10 kGy and kept of veiled conditions. It was not detected aflatoxins in samples of control group, even though these samples were heavily contaminated with Aspergillus flavus. (author)

  15. The fractal nature of vacuum arc cathode spots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Andre

    2005-05-27

    Cathode spot phenomena show many features of fractals, for example self-similar patterns in the emitted light and arc erosion traces. Although there have been hints on the fractal nature of cathode spots in the literature, the fractal approach to spot interpretation is underutilized. In this work, a brief review of spot properties is given, touching the differences between spot type 1 (on cathodes surfaces with dielectric layers) and spot type 2 (on metallic, clean surfaces) as well as the known spot fragment or cell structure. The basic properties of self-similarity, power laws, random colored noise, and fractals are introduced. Several points of evidence for the fractal nature of spots are provided. Specifically power laws are identified as signature of fractal properties, such as spectral power of noisy arc parameters (ion current, arc voltage, etc) obtained by fast Fourier transform. It is shown that fractal properties can be observed down to the cutoff by measurement resolution or occurrence of elementary steps in physical processes. Random walk models of cathode spot motion are well established: they go asymptotically to Brownian motion for infinitesimal step width. The power spectrum of the arc voltage noise falls as 1/f {sup 2}, where f is frequency, supporting a fractal spot model associated with Brownian motion.

  16. Extraction of Spots in DNA Microarrays Using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sreedevi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available DNA microarray technology is an eminent tool for ge nomic studies. Accurate extraction of spots is a crucial issue since biological interpretations depe nd on it. The image analysis starts with the format ion of grid, which is a laborious process requiring human intervention. This paper presents a method for opti mal search of the spots using genetic algorithm without formation of grid. The information of every spot i s extracted by obtaining a pixel belonging to that sp ot. The method developed selects pixels of high int ensity in the image, thereby spot is recognized. The objec tive function, which is implemented, helps in ident ifying the exact pixel. The algorithm is applied to differ ent sizes of sub images and features of the spots a re obtained. It is found that there is a tradeoff betw een accuracy in the number of spots identified and time required for processing the image. Segmentation pro cess is independent of shape, size and location of the spots. Background estimation is one step process as both foreground and complete spot are realized. Coding of the proposed algorithm is developed in MA TLAB-7 and applied to cDNA microarray images. This approach provides reliable results for identif ication of even low intensity spots and elimination of spurious spots.

  17. Advanced spot quality analysis in two-colour microarray experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vetter Guillaume

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Image analysis of microarrays and, in particular, spot quantification and spot quality control, is one of the most important steps in statistical analysis of microarray data. Recent methods of spot quality control are still in early age of development, often leading to underestimation of true positive microarray features and, consequently, to loss of important biological information. Therefore, improving and standardizing the statistical approaches of spot quality control are essential to facilitate the overall analysis of microarray data and subsequent extraction of biological information. Findings We evaluated the performance of two image analysis packages MAIA and GenePix (GP using two complementary experimental approaches with a focus on the statistical analysis of spot quality factors. First, we developed control microarrays with a priori known fluorescence ratios to verify the accuracy and precision of the ratio estimation of signal intensities. Next, we developed advanced semi-automatic protocols of spot quality evaluation in MAIA and GP and compared their performance with available facilities of spot quantitative filtering in GP. We evaluated these algorithms for standardised spot quality analysis in a whole-genome microarray experiment assessing well-characterised transcriptional modifications induced by the transcription regulator SNAI1. Using a set of RT-PCR or qRT-PCR validated microarray data, we found that the semi-automatic protocol of spot quality control we developed with MAIA allowed recovering approximately 13% more spots and 38% more differentially expressed genes (at FDR = 5% than GP with default spot filtering conditions. Conclusion Careful control of spot quality characteristics with advanced spot quality evaluation can significantly increase the amount of confident and accurate data resulting in more meaningful biological conclusions.

  18. Crude oil spot market pricing: Pearsonian analysis of crude oil spot market prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akinnusi, Ayo (Ondo State Polytechnic, Owo (Nigeria))

    This paper presents a brief overview of crude oil pricing before describing a study of sets of 1991 spot market prices, and examining Pearson's model. Empirical distribution characteristics for 14 crude oils are tabulated, and skewness-kurtosis relationship and implication are considered. (UK)

  19. SpotADAPT: Spot Aware (re-)Deployment of Analytical Processing Tasks on Amazon EC2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaulakiene, Dalia; Thomsen, Christian; Pedersen, Torben Bach;

    2015-01-01

    Having constantly increasing amounts of data, the analysis of it is often entrusted for a MapReduce framework. The execution of an analytical workload can be cheapened by adopting cloud computing resources, and in particular by using spot instances (cheap, fluctuating price instances) offered by ...

  20. Hot spot exercise: 1975 (HSX-75)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A special unannounced exercise, called HOT SPOT Exercise--1975 (HSX-75), was prepared to test the general capability of the LLL ALERT Program to activate and deploy the LLL and Sandia Laboratory, Livermore (SLL) component of the ERDA/ARG. The exercise activities were limited to the LLL facilities in Livermore and the Site 300 explosive test facility located approximately 15 miles southeast of Livermore. The exercise simulated an accident at a U.S. Army storage facility (Site 300). The simulated accident involved two LLL designed weapons (W-70). One weapon was dropped during unloading operations and ignited the gas tank of the weapon transporter. The subsequent fire caused a low-order detonation of the high explosive component. The fire caused dispersal of fissile material downwind from the site. A second weapon was damaged in the explosion by fragments from the first weapon. The extent of damage to the second weapon was initially unknown. The exercise was conducted on September 23, 1975. A complete description of the specific nature of the simulated accident is contained in the scenario. Umpires were assigned to evaluate and subsequently report on the effectiveness of the response. All test objectives were accomplished. The following appendices are included: operational safety procedures, photographs and site map, HOT SPOT equipment, atmospheric release advisory capability, personnel list, chronology of events, and critique comments

  1. Can a supervoid explain the Cold Spot?

    CERN Document Server

    Nadathur, Seshadri; Hotchkiss, Shaun; Räsänen, Syksy

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of a void of size $\\sim200\\;h^{-1}$Mpc and average density contrast of $\\sim-0.1$ aligned with the Cold Spot direction has been recently reported. It has been argued that, although the first-order integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect of such a void on the CMB is small, the second-order Rees-Sciama (RS) contribution exceeds this by an order of magnitude and can entirely explain the observed Cold Spot temperature profile. In this paper we examine this surprising claim using both an exact calculation with the spherically symmetric Lema\\^itre--Tolman--Bondi metric, and perturbation theory about a background Friedmann--Robertson--Walker (FRW) metric. We show that both approaches agree well with each other, and both show that the dominant temperature contribution of the postulated void is an unobservable dipole anisotropy. If this dipole is subtracted, we find that the remaining temperature anisotropy is dominated by the linear ISW signal, which is orders of magnitude larger than the second-order RS ef...

  2. A new index for electricity spot markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different indexes are used in electricity markets worldwide to represent the daily behavior of spot prices. However, the peculiarities of these markets require a careful choice of the index, based on mathematical formulation and its statistical properties. Choosing a bad index may influence the financial policies of market players, since derivative pricing and hedging performance can be deeply affected. In this paper with an initial theoretical analysis, we intend to show that the most widely used indexes (simple arithmetic average and weighted average with current volumes) are poor representatives of the spot market. We will then perform an analysis of the hedging strategy on a derivative instrument (an Asian option) written on a reference index. The resulting simulations, applied to OMEL (Spain) and EEX (Germany), are sufficiently clear cut to suggest that the decision to adopt an index to represent properly a market must be taken very carefully. Finally we will propose a new index (FAST index) and, after comparing it with the previous indexes, will show that both theoretically and practically this index can be taken as a good electricity market synthetic indicator. (author)

  3. Indian Jute in Australian Collections: Forgetting and Recollecting Transnational Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hassam

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Indian jute sacking played an essential role in Australian life for over 150 years, yet its contribution to Australian development and its Indian origins have been barely recognised in Australian public collections. What has Australian history gained by this erasing of jute from public memory? Wool, sugar and hop sacks are displayed in public collections as evidence of an Australian national story, but their national dimension depends on the cultural invisibility of jute and jute’s connections to the stories of other communities in other places. Developing an awareness of the contribution of Indian jute to the development of Australia requires an awareness not simply that jute comes from India but that the construction of national identity by collecting institutions relies on forgetting those transnational connections evident in their own collections. Where jute sacks have been preserved, it is because they are invested with memories of a collective way of life, yet in attempting to speak on behalf of the nation, the public museum denies more multidimensional models of cultural identity that are less linear and less place-based. If Indian jute is to be acknowledged as part of ‘the Australian story’, the concept of an Australian story must change and exhibitions need to explore, rather than ignore, transnational networks.

  4. Heart failure among Indigenous Australians: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woods John A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular diseases contribute substantially to the poor health and reduced life expectancy of Indigenous Australians. Heart failure is a common, disabling, progressive and costly complication of these disorders. The epidemiology of heart failure and the adequacy of relevant health service provision in Indigenous Australians are not well delineated. Methods A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cinahl Plus, Informit and Google Scholar was undertaken in April 2012 for peer-reviewed journal articles relevant to the topic of heart failure in Indigenous Australians. Additionally, a website search was done to identify other pertinent publications, particularly government reports. Results There was a paucity of relevant peer-reviewed research, and government reports dominated the results. Ten journal articles, 1 published conference abstract and 10 reports were eligible for inclusion. Indigenous Australians reportedly have higher morbidity and mortality from heart failure than their non-Indigenous counterparts (age-standardised prevalence ratio 1.7; age-standardised hospital separation ratio ≥3; crude per capita hospital expenditure ratio 1.58; age-adjusted mortality ratio >2. Despite the evident disproportionate burden of heart failure in Indigenous Australians, the accuracy of estimation from administrative data is limited by poor indigenous identification, inadequate case ascertainment and exclusion of younger subjects from mortality statistics. A recent journal article specifically documented a high prevalence of heart failure in Central Australian Aboriginal adults (5.3%, noting frequent undiagnosed disease. One study examined barriers to health service provision for Indigenous Australians in the context of heart failure. Conclusions Despite the shortcomings of available published data, it is clear that Indigenous Australians have an excess burden of heart failure. Emerging data

  5. Medical students’ attitudes and perspectives regarding novel computer-based practical spot tests compared to traditional practical spot tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijerathne, Buddhika; Rathnayake, Geetha

    2013-01-01

    Background Most universities currently practice traditional practical spot tests to evaluate students. However, traditional methods have several disadvantages. Computer-based examination techniques are becoming more popular among medical educators worldwide. Therefore incorporating the computer interface in practical spot testing is a novel concept that may minimize the shortcomings of traditional methods. Assessing students’ attitudes and perspectives is vital in understanding how students perceive the novel method. Methods One hundred and sixty medical students were randomly allocated to either a computer-based spot test (n=80) or a traditional spot test (n=80). The students rated their attitudes and perspectives regarding the spot test method soon after the test. The results were described comparatively. Results Students had higher positive attitudes towards the computer-based practical spot test compared to the traditional spot test. Their recommendations to introduce the novel practical spot test method for future exams and to other universities were statistically significantly higher. Conclusions The computer-based practical spot test is viewed as more acceptable to students than the traditional spot test. PMID:26451213

  6. Occupational exposure to radon in Australian Tourist Caves an Australian-wide study of radon levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, S.B.; Langroo, R.; Peggie, J.R. [Australian Radiation Laboratory. Yallambie, VIC (Australia); Lyons, R.G. [University of Auckland, Auckland, (New Zealand). Department of Physics; James, J.M. [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Department of Chemisty

    1996-02-01

    The study described in this report sets out to determine which Australian show caves have long- term radon levels in excess of the proposed action level of 1000 Bq m{sup -3}. The collaborative study between the Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL), the University of Sydney and the University of Auckland, was carried out with the support of a Research Grant from Worksafe Australia. The aims of this study were to measure radon levels for each season over a period of one year, at representative sites in all developed show caves around Australia, to determine yearly average radon levels for each cave tour, based on these site measurements, to estimate the radiation doses to the tour guides employed in these caves, and to identify caves with radon concentrations in excess of the action level. (authors) 7 refs., 10 tabs., 2 figs.

  7. Occupational exposure to radon in Australian Tourist Caves an Australian-wide study of radon levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study described in this report sets out to determine which Australian show caves have long- term radon levels in excess of the proposed action level of 1000 Bq m-3. The collaborative study between the Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL), the University of Sydney and the University of Auckland, was carried out with the support of a Research Grant from Worksafe Australia. The aims of this study were to measure radon levels for each season over a period of one year, at representative sites in all developed show caves around Australia, to determine yearly average radon levels for each cave tour, based on these site measurements, to estimate the radiation doses to the tour guides employed in these caves, and to identify caves with radon concentrations in excess of the action level. (authors)

  8. Technologies, Democracy and Digital Citizenship: Examining Australian Policy Intersections and the Implications for School Leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Kathryn Moyle

    2014-01-01

    There are intersections that can occur between the respective peak Australian school education policy agendas. These policies include the use of technologies in classrooms to improve teaching and learning as promoted through the Melbourne Declaration on Educational Goals for Young Australians and the Australian Curriculum; and the implementation of professional standards as outlined in the Australian Professional Standard for Principals and the Australian Professional Standards for Teachers. ...

  9. Hot spot formation on different tokamak wall materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal contraction phenomenon and generation of 'hot spots' due to thermoemission were described. The paper consider non-linear stages of heat contraction on the graphite, beryllium, tungsten and vanadium wall. It is shown that on the beryllium surface hot spot can't appear due to strong cooling by sublimation. For other materials the conditions of hot spot appearance due to local superheating of the wall have been calculated and their parameters were found: critical surface temperature, size of spots and their temperature profiles, heat fluxes from plasma to the spots. It have been calculated fluxes of sublimating materials from spots to the plasma. It is noticed that nominal temperature of the grafite divertor plate, accepted in ITER's project to being equal 1500 C, is lower then critical temperature of the development heat contraction due to thermoemission. (orig.)

  10. Hot spot formation on different tokamak wall materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedospasov, A.V.; Bezlyudny, I.V. [IVTAN, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1998-05-01

    The thermal contraction phenomenon and generation of `hot spots` due to thermoemission were described. The paper consider non-linear stages of heat contraction on the graphite, beryllium, tungsten and vanadium wall. It is shown that on the beryllium surface hot spot can`t appear due to strong cooling by sublimation. For other materials the conditions of hot spot appearance due to local superheating of the wall have been calculated and their parameters were found: critical surface temperature, size of spots and their temperature profiles, heat fluxes from plasma to the spots. It have been calculated fluxes of sublimating materials from spots to the plasma. It is noticed that nominal temperature of the grafite divertor plate, accepted in ITER`s project to being equal 1500 C, is lower then critical temperature of the development heat contraction due to thermoemission. (orig.) 5 refs.

  11. Spot: A Programming Language for Verified Flight Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocchino, Robert L., Jr.; Gamble, Edward; Gostelow, Kim P.; Some, Raphael R.

    2014-01-01

    The C programming language is widely used for programming space flight software and other safety-critical real time systems. C, however, is far from ideal for this purpose: as is well known, it is both low-level and unsafe. This paper describes Spot, a language derived from C for programming space flight systems. Spot aims to maintain compatibility with existing C code while improving the language and supporting verification with the SPIN model checker. The major features of Spot include actor-based concurrency, distributed state with message passing and transactional updates, and annotations for testing and verification. Spot also supports domain-specific annotations for managing spacecraft state, e.g., communicating telemetry information to the ground. We describe the motivation and design rationale for Spot, give an overview of the design, provide examples of Spot's capabilities, and discuss the current status of the implementation.

  12. Distinctive convergence in Australian floral colours seen through the eyes of Australian birds

    OpenAIRE

    Burd, Martin; Stayton, C. Tristan; Shrestha, Mani; Dyer, Adrian G.

    2014-01-01

    We used a colour-space model of avian vision to assess whether a distinctive bird pollination syndrome exists for floral colour among Australian angiosperms. We also used a novel phylogenetically based method to assess whether such a syndrome represents a significant degree of convergent evolution. About half of the 80 species in our sample that attract nectarivorous birds had floral colours in a small, isolated region of colour space characterized by an emphasis on long-wavelength reflection...

  13. Platelet antigen allele frequencies in Australian aboriginal and Caucasian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z; Lester, S; Boettcher, B; McCluskey, J

    1997-11-01

    We have applied genotyping methods of PCR-SSOP and PCR-RFLP to three, bi-allelic platelet specific antigen systems HPA-1 (Pla), HPA-3 (Bak) and HPA-5 (Br). This combination of techniques offers flexibility for high volume or rapid typing. The phenotype and genotype frequencies of alleles from the three systems differ significantly between the Yuendumu Australian Aboriginals (Wailbri) and Australian Caucasians. The major differences are the very low frequencies of HPA-1b and HPA-3b in Yuendumu Aboriginals which are potentially relevant to platelet transfusion in patients of Australian Aboriginal descent. PMID:9423221

  14. An Empirical Analysis of Australian Gold Mining Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Baur, Dirk G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the exposure of Australian gold-mining firms to changes in the gold price, the stock market and the Australian dollar - US dollar exchange rate. The empirical analysis uses daily, weekly and monthly data of all gold-mining firms in the S&P/ASX All Ordinaries Gold Index for the period from January 1980 to December 2010 and finds that the average gold beta is 0.67 for gold denominated in US dollar and 0.38 for gold denominated in Australian dollars. The study also finds subst...

  15. Beverage intake and obesity in Australian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifton Peter M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been increases in the obesity and overweight rates in Australian children over the past 25 years and it has been suggested that sugar sweetened beverages (SSB have played a role in this increase. Objective The objectives of this study were to: (1 examine SSB intakes in the 2007 Australian Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (2 relate SSB intake to rates of overweight and obesity, socio-economic status (SES, TV viewing time, and activity levels and (3 compare 2007 SSB intakes with data from the 1995 National Nutrition Survey. Design A computer assisted 24 h dietary recall in 4,400 children aged 2-16 years was performed. Results In the 2007 survey 47% of all children reported drinking SSBs with 25% consuming sugar sweetened soft drinks on the day of the survey. The mean consumption of soft drink was 436 g/d/consumer. Activity levels were unrelated to SSB consumption. Television viewing was positively related to soft drink consumption with a difference of 55 g/day from bottom to top tertile of time spent TV viewing (p = 0.015 in children aged 9-16 years. 55% of SSB consumption occurred at home and 10% occurred at school. Lower SES status was associated with a greater prevalence of SSB consumption- 30% for the lowest SES quartile vs 19% in the highest quartile. The proportion of overweight who consumed SSBs (which excludes 100% fruit was not different from the non-overweight children although the proportion of SSB consumers in the 6% of children who were obese was significant compared with the non-overweight children (59% vs 47%, p Conclusions This cross-sectional data set provides evidence that SSB consumption for Australian children is still high despite the decrease since 1995 in some age groups. It provides little support to conclude that overweight in children is currently being driven by excessive SSB consumption although it may be factor in some obese children. Conclusions are limited by the cross

  16. Protein determinants of meiotic DNA break hot spots

    OpenAIRE

    Fowler, Kyle R.; Gutiérrez-Velasco, Susana; Martín-Castellanos, Cristina; Smith, Gerald R.

    2013-01-01

    Meiotic recombination, crucial for proper chromosome segregation and genome evolution, is initiated by programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in yeasts and likely all sexually reproducing species. In fission yeast, DSBs occur up to hundreds of times more frequently at special sites, called hot spots, than in other regions of the genome. What distinguishes hot spots from cold regions is an unsolved problem, although transcription factors determine some hot spots. We report the discovery th...

  17. Optimal Resource Allocation Between Spot and Package Demands

    OpenAIRE

    Yoram Kinberg; Ambar G. Rao; Ephraim F Sudit

    1980-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of allocating fixed resources between two types of demands; (a) spot demand; and (b) package (subscription) demand---demand that is satisfied by selling usage rights over a prespecified time period prior to actual consumption. In Model 1, a probabilistic spot demand for a single resource, stationary over time, is assumed together with externally determined spot and package pricing. It is shown that the optimal (profit maximizing) policy is to sell all the pac...

  18. Inverter DC resistance spot welding of magnesium alloy AZ31

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, I. S.; D. C. Kim; Kang, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The welding lobes of AC resistance spot welding and inverter DC resistance spot welding for the magnesium alloy sheet AZ31 were compared and analyzed.Design/methodology/approach: Using the welding lobe in terms of electrode force, weld time, and weld current which are process variables of the resistance spot welding, optimal welding conditions were determined. The lower limit of the range of the optimal welding condition was decided by minimum shear tension strength for the magnesium...

  19. Dominant inheritance of overo spotting in paint horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, A T

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of selected studbook records of the American Paint Horse Association, consisting of 687 foals sired by 13 overo stallions from non-overo mares, supports the inheritance of overo spotting as an autosomal dominant gene. More than one gene may control patterns registered as overo. Additional studies are necessary to explain the sporadic occurrence of overo spotting from nonspotted quarter horse parents and to confirm the inheritance of overo spotting in other breeds. PMID:8014463

  20. 需求依赖于价格环境下的批发价格契约%Study on Wholesale Price Contract with Price -Dependent Demands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马蓉; 马俊; 王亚涛

    2011-01-01

    The wholesale price contract with price dependent demands is discussed for a supply chain com-posed of a manufacturer and a retailer. In such a supply chain, the manufacturer determines the wholesale price, while the retailer determines the ordering quantity and sale price. The supply chain can operate un-der centralized or decentralized decision making mode. In this study, the profits, sale price, and sale quantity resulting from centralized decision making are set as benchmark. To explore the performance of decentralized decision making, the profits, sale price, and sale quantity resulting from decentralized deci-sion making are compared with the benchmark. By doing so, it is shown how the wholesale price and the price elasticity affect the efficiency of the supply chain and profit distribution in the supply chain.%研究需求依赖于价格环境下的批发价格契约,建立了由单个零售商和单个制造商组成的供应链模型。该模型中零售商决定商品的订货量和销售价格,制造商决定商品的批发价格。以集中决策系统下供应链的利润、销售价格和销售量作为基准,研究分散情况下供应链的效率、销售价格以及销售量的变化,同时考虑在此情况下制造商提供的批发价格构成,在此基础上进一步探讨价格弹性对供应链效率和供应链利润分配比例的影响。