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Sample records for australian veterinary association

  1. American Veterinary Medical Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Meetings & Events About AVMA Knowledge Base Thanksgiving Thanksgiving Pet Safety Help make Thanksgiving safe for both people and animals. Share these important tips with clients and friends. Practice Ownership Is Practice Ownership for You? Veterinary practice ownership ...

  2. Food-supply veterinary medicine and veterinary medical education: an Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Reuben

    2006-01-01

    Food-supply veterinary medicine has been an essential part of veterinary degree programs in Australia since the first veterinary school opened in the late nineteenth century. Australian veterinary schools, like others internationally, are being challenged by the relevance of material in current curricula for modern food-supply veterinary medicine. Additionally, student aspirations are a major issue, as curriculum designers balance companion-animal training with the herd/flock-based issues that focus on productivity and profitability. One of the challenges is to examine the relative balance of education in generic skills (self-knowledge, change management, teamwork, leadership, negotiation) with more technically or scientifically based education. An ongoing process of curriculum review and renewal, which involves input from both external and internal stakeholders and allows regular review and assessment, is needed to ensure continuing curriculum relevance.

  3. Analysis of the costs of veterinary education and factors associated with financial stress among veterinary students in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, K P; Matthew, S M; Baguley, J A

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the course-related and other costs involved in obtaining a veterinary education in Australia and how these costs are met. The study also aimed to identify sociodemographic and course-related factors associated with increased financial stress. Students from seven Australian veterinary schools were surveyed using an online questionnaire. A total of 443 students participated (response rate 17%). Responses to survey items relating to finances, employment and course-related costs were compared with sociodemographic factors and prior research in the area of student financial stress. Respondents reported spending a median of A$300 per week on living costs and a median of A$2,000 per year on course-related expenses. Over half of respondents received the majority of their income from their parents or Youth Allowance (56%). A similar proportion (55%) reported that they needed to work to meet basic living expenses. Circumstances and sociodemographic factors linked to perceived financial stress included requiring additional finances to meet unexpected costs during the course; sourcing additional finances from external loans; an expected tuition debt at graduation over A$40,000; being 22 years or older; working more than 12 hours per week; living costs above A$300 per week; and being female. The costs involved in obtaining a veterinary education in Australia are high and over half of respondents are reliant on parental or Government income support. Respondents with certain sociodemographic profiles are more prone to financial stress. These findings may have implications for the psychological health, diversity and career plans of veterinary students in Australia. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  4. The Prevalence of Compassion Fatigue among Veterinary Students in Australia and the Associated Psychological Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Michelle L; Andrews, Jena R; Brand, Conor; Hazel, Susan J

    Compassion fatigue, compassion satisfaction, and other characteristics such as mindfulness and mental health stigma have not been investigated in veterinary students. The aims of this study were twofold: first to determine the prevalence of compassion, satisfaction, burnout, and secondary traumatic stress among Australian veterinary students and second to investigate the association between these factors and self-stigma, coping, empathy, and mindfulness. A cross-sectional online survey consisting of demographic questions and four validated psychological measures sampled 828 students, with a response rate of 31% (255/828). We obtained a usable sample of completed surveys from 193 of 828 (23%) veterinary students from six of the seven Australian veterinary schools. Bivariate correlations and multiple regression analyses were used to examine associations between the psychological predictors and the outcome variables. Approximately 30% of veterinary students were at high risk of burnout, 24% were at high risk of secondary traumatic stress, and 21% reported low compassion satisfaction. High empathic concern, low personal distress, female gender, and employment history at a veterinary clinic were associated with high compassion satisfaction. High dysfunctional coping, low nonjudgmental and acting-with-awareness mindfulness, and lack of previous employment at a veterinary clinic were associated with high burnout. High dysfunctional coping, low acting-with-awareness mindfulness, high self-stigma, and high personal distress were associated with high secondary traumatic stress. As a result of these findings, certain emotional characteristics can be identified as targets for intervention to minimize the frequency and potentially negative impact of compassion fatigue and burnout in veterinary students.

  5. Business education in veterinary schools: the potential role of the Veterinary Business Management Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieves, Nina R; Roark, Andrew W; Sparks, Tonya K

    2007-01-01

    Studies have indicated the importance of business education in improving the income level attained by veterinarians and the quality of service they provide. The Veterinary Business Management Association (VBMA), a national organization of veterinary students, has the potential to augment veterinary curricula by providing additional education to help ensure professional success. Local chapters at 27 of the 28 veterinary colleges in the United States (as of 2007) supplement the curriculum by focusing on business topics. A national governing board oversees the chapters, helping to ensure that high-quality educational programs are conducted and providing a conduit for communication.

  6. [History of the Association of German Veterinary Officers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raack, C; Lessing, R

    2000-12-01

    This article gives a review over the beginning, the aims and the centres of gravidity of the association, which was founded on the 4th of January 1919 with the designation "German Veterinary Officers Association". The priority of its aims was the representation of the professional and commercial interests of the members before the background of the disarmament of the German Army, which was inforced by the victor nations. The federation supported the responsible veterinary officers of the Ministry of the "Reichswehr" in the matter of planing a new structure of the veterinary service of the "Reichswehr" in a very effective manner. In addition numerous members were represented in the sphere of commercial interests and public assistance. In 1936 the general meeting decided to dissolve the association, because there existed the danger, that the national socialistic leadership could forbid the membership of the active veterinary officers. In 1952 the federation was founded again and received the designation "Association of former Veterinary Officers and Members of the Veterinary Troops and their Survivors". One primary aim of the federation was the search of missing and killed members of the veterinary service of the "Wehrmacht". Further aims were the cultivation of comradship, the information and representation in the sphere of publical assistance of former professional veterinary officers and their survivors. Also the documentation of the history of the former army veterinary service was a task. In 1966 the veterinary officers of the "Bundeswehr" and the reservists received the possibility to become a member by a changing the statutes. At the same time the association was renamed in "Association of German Veterinary Officers". After temporary rising of the number of members it sank continuously at the end of the eighties. Because of the sinking of the rates of subscription, the general meeting decided on 12th May 2000 to dissolve the association.

  7. Students' opinions on welfare and ethics issues for companion animals in Australian and New Zealand veterinary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeling, C; Fawcett, A; Collins, T; Hazel, S; Johnson, J; Lloyd, J; Phillips, Cjc; Stafford, K; Tzioumis, V; McGreevy, P

    2017-06-01

    To determine what veterinary students in Australia and New Zealand consider important competences in companion animal welfare and ethics (AWE) required on their first day of practice, and to explore how their priorities relate to gender and stage of study. Undergraduate students at all veterinary schools in Australia and New Zealand were sent an online survey. A subset of questions required participants to rank the importance of preselected AWE topics pertaining to companion animals. Data were analysed to determine differences in the way students of different gender or academic stage prioritised each of these AWE topics. Of 3220 currently enrolled students, 851 participated in the survey: 79% were female, 17% male, 4% unspecified. Ranking of the AWE topics, from highest to lowest importance, was: neutering, companion animal husbandry, euthanasia, behaviour and training, animal breeding, over-servicing in relation to animal needs and cosmetic surgery. Female students consistently ranked competency in AWE issues surrounding neutering more highly than male students (P = 0.006). Students in senior years of study ranked the importance of competency in animal abuse/hoarding (P = 0.048), shelter medicine (P = 0.012) and animal breeding (P = 0.002) less highly than those in junior years. Australasian veterinary students placed more importance on competency in AWE issues associated with clinical practice (such as neutering and euthanasia) than on professional behaviours (such as over-servicing and animal breeding). However, we consider that emphasis should still be placed on developing graduate competency in the latter categories to reflect growing societal concerns about companion animal over-supply and inappropriate professional conduct. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  8. Venomous and Poisonous Australian Animals of Veterinary Importance: A Rich Source of Novel Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret C. Hardy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Envenomation and poisoning by terrestrial animals (both vertebrate and invertebrate are a significant economic problem and health risk for domestic animals in Australia. Australian snakes are some of the most venomous animals in the world and bees, wasps, ants, paralysis ticks, and cane toads are also present as part of the venomous and poisonous fauna. The diagnosis and treatment of envenomation or poisoning in animals is a challenge and can be a traumatic and expensive process for owners. Despite the potency of Australian venoms, there is potential for novel veterinary therapeutics to be modeled on venom toxins, as has been the case with human pharmaceuticals. A comprehensive overview of envenomation and poisoning signs in livestock and companion animals is provided and related to the potential for venom toxins to act as therapeutics.

  9. Venomous and poisonous Australian animals of veterinary importance: a rich source of novel therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Margaret C; Cochrane, Jonathon; Allavena, Rachel E

    2014-01-01

    Envenomation and poisoning by terrestrial animals (both vertebrate and invertebrate) are a significant economic problem and health risk for domestic animals in Australia. Australian snakes are some of the most venomous animals in the world and bees, wasps, ants, paralysis ticks, and cane toads are also present as part of the venomous and poisonous fauna. The diagnosis and treatment of envenomation or poisoning in animals is a challenge and can be a traumatic and expensive process for owners. Despite the potency of Australian venoms, there is potential for novel veterinary therapeutics to be modeled on venom toxins, as has been the case with human pharmaceuticals. A comprehensive overview of envenomation and poisoning signs in livestock and companion animals is provided and related to the potential for venom toxins to act as therapeutics.

  10. South African Association of Veterinary Technologists : congress abstracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The following are abstracts of papers and posters presented at the 'Back to Basics Congress' of the South African Association of Veterinary Technologists (SAAVT, 15-16 September 2009, Batter Boys, Pretoria, South Africa.

  11. Problems associated with veterinary dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisner, E.R.

    1990-01-01

    Veterinarians have been radiographing animal skulls for many years, but sophisticated dentistry was not widely used until the 1970s. Elevated awareness of veterinary dental techniques has led to the need for producing accurate radiographic images of the teeth and periodontal structures. Many problems arise for the clinician who treats small animals who has, before this time, radiographed the skull of dogs and cats solely for the purpose of assessing neoplastic, infectious, or traumatic disease of the mandible, maxilla, or calvarium and now desires to perform dental radiography. This chapter will describe the advantages and disadvantages of some of the more common types of radiographic equipment and supplies, discuss extraoral and intraoral radiographic positioning and technique, identify anatomic landmarks and diagnostic features of intraoral radiography, and offer suggestions concerning the art of using dental radiography in veterinary practice

  12. Using group learning to promote integration and cooperative learning between Asian and Australian second-year veterinary science students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Paul C; Woodall, Peter F; Bellingham, Mark; Noad, Michael; Lloyd, Shan

    2007-01-01

    There is a tendency for students from different nationalities to remain within groups of similar cultural backgrounds. The study reported here used group project work to encourage integration and cooperative learning between Australian students and Asian (Southeast Asian) international students in the second year of a veterinary science program. The group project involved an oral presentation during a second-year course (Structure and Function), with group formation engineered to include very high, high, moderate, and low achievers (based on previous grades). One Asian student and three Australian students were placed in each group. Student perceptions of group dynamics were analyzed through a self-report survey completed at the end of the presentations and through group student interviews. Results from the survey were analyzed by chi-square to compare the responses between Asian and Australian students, with statistical significance accepted at p learning experience. Asian students expressed a greater preference for working in a group than for working alone (p = 0.001) and reported more frequently than Australian students that teamwork produces better results (p = 0.01). Australian students were more likely than Asian students to voice their opinion in a team setting (p = 0.001), while Asian students were more likely to depend on the lecturer for directions (p = 0.001). The results also showed that group project work appeared to create an environment that supported learning and was a successful strategy to achieve acceptance of cultural differences.

  13. Updates in the American Heart Association guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and potential applications to veterinary patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maton, Barbara L; Smarick, Sean D

    2012-04-01

    To review the updates in the American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and identify potential applications to veterinary patients. Cardiopulmonary arrest is common in veterinary emergency and critical care, and consensus guidelines are lacking. Human resuscitation guidelines are continually evolving as new clinical and experimental studies support updated recommendations. Synthesis of human, experimental animal model, and veterinary literature support the potential for updates and advancement in veterinary CPR practices. This review serves to highlight updates in the AHA guidelines for CPR and evaluate their application to small animal veterinary patients. Interventions identified will be evaluated for trans-species potential, raise questions regarding best resuscitation recommendations, and offer opportunities for further research to continue to advance veterinary CPR. The prognosis for any patient undergoing cardiopulmonary arrest remains guarded. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2012.

  14. Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC): 50 Years of History and Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccabe, Andrew T; Crawford, Lester; Heider, Lawrence E; Hooper, Billy; Mann, Curt J; Pappaioanou, Marguerite

    2015-01-01

    The mission of the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC) is to advance the quality of academic veterinary medicine. Founded in 1966 by the 18 US colleges of veterinary medicine and 3 Canadian colleges of veterinary medicine then in existence, the AAVMC is celebrating 50 years of public service. Initially, the AAVMC comprised the Council of Deans, the Council of Educators, and the Council of Chairs. In 1984, the tri-cameral structure was abandoned and a new governing structure with a board of directors was created. In 1997, the AAVMC was incorporated in Washington, DC and a common application service was created. Matters such as workforce issues and the cost of veterinary medical education have persisted for decades. The AAVMC is a champion of diversity in the veterinary profession and a strong advocate for One Health. The AAVMC has adopted a global perspective as more international colleges of veterinary medicine have earned COE accreditation and become members.

  15. A short history of veterinary education in Australia: the 120-year transition from education for a trade to education for a profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caple, I W

    2011-08-01

    World Veterinary Year in 2011 celebrates the 250th anniversary of the establishment of the first modern veterinary school at Lyon in France. To put veterinary education in Australia in its historical context, the veterinary school at Lyon was established nine years before the British had discovered the east coast of Australia in 1770, and 27 years before a shipment of convicts transported from overcrowded gaols in England had arrived in Sydney in 1788. This paper discusses the development of veterinary education in Australia from that time to the present day. © 2011 The Author. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2011 Australian Veterinary Association.

  16. Venomous and Poisonous Australian Animals of Veterinary Importance: A Rich Source of Novel Therapeutics

    OpenAIRE

    Hardy, Margaret C.; Cochrane, Jonathon; Allavena, Rachel E.

    2014-01-01

    Envenomation and poisoning by terrestrial animals (both vertebrate and invertebrate) are a significant economic problem and health risk for domestic animals in Australia. Australian snakes are some of the most venomous animals in the world and bees, wasps, ants, paralysis ticks, and cane toads are also present as part of the venomous and poisonous fauna. The diagnosis and treatment of envenomation or poisoning in animals is a challenge and can be a traumatic and expensive process for owners. ...

  17. [The Cheiron emblem and Cheiron medal of the World Association for the History of Veterinary Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochmann, E H

    2001-01-01

    In 1964 the first symposium on history of veterinary medicine was organised in Hanover by the section "History of Veterinary Medicine" of the German Society of Veterinary Medicine. During the 6th symposium in Hanover the World Association for the History of Veterinary Medicine (WAHVM) was created. In the following years further symposiums, called later on congresses took place almost every year. In 2001 the 32nd congress will be held. The Association gave herself in 1973 a distinguishing mark, the Cheiron Emblem. Sixteen years later, the Cheiron Medal was endowed to allow the World Association to express thanks and acknowledgement for special achievements in the field of history of veterinary medicine. The Cheiron Medal was bestowed for the first time on May 26th, 1989.

  18. Factors associated with dementia in Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kate; Flicker, Leon; Dwyer, Anna; Atkinson, David; Almeida, Osvaldo P; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; LoGiudice, Dina

    2010-10-01

    Although the prevalence of dementia in remote living Aboriginal Australians is one of the highest in the world, the factors associated with dementia in this population are yet to be examined. This study was designed to determine the demographic, lifestyle and clinical factors associated with dementia in Aboriginal Australians living in the Kimberley region of Western Australia. A total of 363 Aboriginal Australians aged over 45 years from the Kimberley region were selected by semi-purposeful sampling. The factors analysed for association with dementia were age, sex, education, smoking, chewing tobacco, alcohol, head injury, heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, previous stroke, epilepsy, falls, mobility, incontinence, urinary problems, vision and hearing. This exposure data was collected from participants' and informants' reports using the Kimberley Indigenous Cognitive Assessment and specialist review, and medical records. Factors associated with dementia included older age, male gender (OR 3.1, 95%CI 1.4, 6.8) and no formal education (OR 2.7, 95%CI 1.1, 6.7) and after adjusting for age, sex and education, dementia was associated with current smoking (OR 4.5, 95%CI 1.1, 18.6), previous stroke (OR 17.9, 95%CI 5.9, 49.7), epilepsy (OR 33.5, 95%CI 4.8, 232.3), head injury (OR 4.0, 95%CI 1.7, 9.4), and poor mobility, incontinence and falls. Interventions aimed at better management or prevention of the modifiable factors identified could reduce dementia risk in Aboriginal populations.

  19. Factors associated with simulator-assessed laparoscopic surgical skills of veterinary students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilkenny, Jessica J; Singh, Ameet; Kerr, Carolyn L; Khosa, Deep K; Fransson, Boel A

    2017-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether simulator-assessed laparoscopic skills of veterinary students were associated with training level and prior experience performing nonlaparoscopic veterinary surgery and other activities requiring hand-eye coordination and manual dexterity. DESIGN Experiment. SAMPLE 145 students without any prior laparoscopic surgical or fundamentals of laparoscopic surgery (FLS) simulator experience in years 1 (n = 39), 2 (34), 3 (39), and 4 (33) at a veterinary college. PROCEDURES A questionnaire was used to collect data from participants regarding experience performing veterinary surgery, playing video games, and participating in other activities. Participants performed a peg transfer, pattern cutting, and ligature loop-placement task on an FLS simulator, and FLS scores were assigned by an observer. Scores were compared among academic years, and correlations between amounts of veterinary surgical experience and FLS scores were assessed. A general linear model was used to identify predictors of FLS scores. RESULTS Participants were predominantly female (75%), right-hand dominant (92%), and between 20 and 29 years of age (98%). No significant differences were identified among academic years in FLS scores for individual tasks or total FLS score. Scores were not significantly associated with prior surgical or video game experience. Participants reporting no handicraft experience had significantly lower total FLS scores and FLS scores for task 2 than did participants reporting a lot of handicraft experience. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Prior veterinary surgical and video game experience had no influence on FLS scores in this group of veterinary students, suggesting that proficiency of veterinary students in FLS may require specific training.

  20. Level of and motivation for extracurricular activity are associated with academic performance in the veterinary curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Meredyth L; Rush, Bonnie R; Elmore, Ronnie G; White, Brad J

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this project were to determine the number of school-sanctioned extracurricular opportunities available to veterinary students and characterize the policies of school administrations toward extracurricular involvement and academic standing. Further, we sought to describe the level of extracurricular involvement of veterinary students, determine the association between extracurricular activity involvement and academic performance, and determine the motivation for extracurricular involvement of veterinary students. Survey data were obtained from 18 associate deans of colleges of veterinary medicine regarding the number of extracurricular student organizations within their school and administrative recommendations regarding student involvement. Another survey was administered and responded to by 665 veterinary students enrolled in curricular years 1-3 at Kansas State University and Texas A&M University regarding their extracurricular involvement. Associate deans of 11 schools responded that they make formal or informal recommendations to students about extracurricular activities, workload, and academic priority (61.1%). In a multivariate model, students who participated two times per week or more had a significantly higher overall grade point average (GPA) than students participating once per week (pextracurricular involvement is a consideration for administrators when counseling students in academic difficulty. Moderate levels of extracurricular involvement can contribute to the academic success of students, but students should temper their level of involvement based upon their own motivations.

  1. Dare nuclear energy with the Australian Nuclear Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2016-01-01

    Australian authorities have been traditionally opposed to nuclear energy. The interdiction to build nuclear power plants in the Australian states without the approval of the federal authority was even officially written in the environment code in 1999. Today coal provides 75% of the electricity needs of Australia. Because of climate warming, things are changing, the Australian government is now considering the possibility of using nuclear energy and a site located in southern Australian has been selected for the disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. In this context the Australian Nuclear Association (ANA) is developing an ambitious program for the promotion of all the applications of nuclear energy through the organisation of conferences and meetings with various experts of nuclear industry. The aim is to make the public aware of the assets of nuclear energy. (A.C.)

  2. Milk quality parameters associated with the occurrence of veterinary drug residues in bulk tank milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Cristina Almeida Picinin

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Veterinary drug residues in bulk tank milk are important to all sectors of the dairy chain because they are one of the major factors which determine the safety of the final product. This study attempted to identify milk quality parameters that are associated with the occurrence of veterinary drug residues using multivariate principal component analysis (PCA. A total of 132 raw milk samples were collected from 45 dairy farms in the state of Minas Gerais - Brazil and analyzed for 42 analytes, including pyrethroids, macrocyclic lactones and antibacterials, using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry in tandem mode and gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Out of the 132 milk samples, 40 samples tested positive for at least one analyte (above the detection limit. The milk parameters associated with the antimicrobial residues by confirmatory tests were lactose and nonfat concentrations, as revealed by PCA. This analysis showed that fat and total solid concentrations, as well as the somatic cell and total bacteria counts were associated with macrocyclic lactone residues in bulk tank milk. A PCA assessing pyrethroid residues in bulk tank milk revealed that the lactose and nonfat solid concentrations and titratable acidity were inversely associated with these residues. Thus, the data analysis indicated that the veterinary drug residues were associated with certain milk quality parameters that can be used to target farms at higher risk of veterinary drug residue contamination for testing programs in combination with incentives, education and training programs to improve mammary health, milk hygiene and safety.

  3. 78 FR 17679 - Implementation of the Updated American Veterinary Medical Association Guidelines for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... Updated American Veterinary Medical Association Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals: 2013 Edition... for the Euthanasia of Animals: 2013 Edition (Guidelines). The NIH is seeking input from the public on... updated AVMA Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals: 2013 Edition must be submitted electronically at...

  4. Canada and veterinary parasitology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocombe, J Owen D

    2009-08-07

    A World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology tradition for its conference is to present some highlights of the country hosting the event, and with an emphasis on the history of, and research in, veterinary parasitology. A review of Canada's peoples, physiography, climate, natural resources, agriculture, animal populations, pioneers in veterinary parasitology, research accomplishments by other veterinary parasitologists, centres for research in veterinary parasitology, and major current research had been presented at a World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology Conference in Canada in 1987, and was published. The present paper updates the information on the above topics for the 22 years since this conference was last held in Canada.

  5. Associations among depressive symptoms, drinking motives, and risk for alcohol-related problems in veterinary students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diulio, Andrea R; Dutta, Nicole M; Gauthier, Jami M; Witte, Tracy K; Correia, Christopher J; Angarano, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Hazardous alcohol consumption among medical students appears to occur at a level comparable to the general population; however, among medical students, it has been found that the motivation to use alcohol partially stems from unique stressors related to their professional training. Although veterinary students may also experience psychological distress in association with their training, little work has focused on the way that these students use alcohol to cope with their distress. The current study sought to examine the severity of depressive symptoms and alcohol consumption among veterinary students as well as students' specific motives for drinking alcohol. The majority of our sample reported experiencing at least one depressive symptom, and a significant proportion engaged in high-risk drinking, with men reporting more harmful alcohol use patterns. Drinking motives related to managing internal bodily and emotional states accounted for variance in drinking patterns. Further, drinking to ameliorate negative emotions partially accounted for the relationship between psychological distress and high-risk drinking. The results of this study suggest that depressive symptoms among veterinary students may be related to harmful drinking patterns, due to alcohol being used as a coping mechanism to regulate emotions. The findings from this study can be used to develop targeted interventions to promote psychological well-being among veterinary students.

  6. Collation of data on applicants, offers, acceptances, students and graduates in veterinary science in Australia 2001-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, G B

    2016-01-01

    To collate data on the numbers of applications, offers, acceptances, students and graduates at Australian veterinary schools between 2001 and 2013. Data were obtained from the Australian Department of Education, the Australian Bureau of Statistics, Graduate Careers Australia and the Australian Veterinary Association Ltd. The number of eligible applicants for veterinary science courses increased from 1540 in 2001 to 2243 in 2013 (46% increase). Offers for places ranged from 400 in 2001 to 643 in 2013 (61% increase) and acceptances ranged from 254 in 2001 to 457 in 2013 (80% increase).The total number of students enrolled ranged from 1641 in 2001 to 3036 in 2013 (85% increase). Female students increased from 1195 in 2001 to 2340 in 2013 (96% increase) and male students increased from 446 to 696 (56%) over this time period. Domestic students numbered 1411 in 2001 and 2391 in 2013 (69% increase). International students increased from 230 in 2001 to 643 in 2013 (180% increase). Students entering veterinary courses numbered 389 in 2001 and increased to 688 in 2013 (77% increase). Graduates increased from 312 in 2001 to 561 in 2013 (80% increase). Percent of recent veterinary graduates seeking full-time employment was 7.6% in 2001 and increased to 21.2% in 2013. Median starting salaries for veterinary graduates in Australia were A$34,000 in 2001 and A$46,000 in 2013 (35% increase). These data provide additional information about the ongoing increase in the numbers of domestic and international students studying veterinary science at Australian universities. Between 2001 and 2013 the numbers of Australian veterinary students and graduates increased at a greater rate than the Australian population. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  7. Nigerian Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigerian Veterinary Journal (NVJ) has been in existence since 1971. The NVJ is published by the Nigerian Veterinary Medical Association (NVMA) as part of the association's commitment to the advancement of Veterinary Medicine in Nigeria and other parts of the world, with a general view of enhancing the livestock ...

  8. Veterinary practice marketeer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Justin

    2015-01-24

    Justin Phillips is marketing manager at White Cross Vets and the Veterinary Marketing Association's (VMA's) Young Veterinary Marketeer of the Year. Here, he describes what he does and why he believes other practices should embrace marketing to improve their quality and client care. British Veterinary Association.

  9. A Cross-Sectional Study of Horse-Related Injuries in Veterinary and Animal Science Students at an Australian University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B. Riley

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Specific estimates of the risk of horse-related injury (HRI to university students enrolled in veterinary and animal sciences have not been reported. This study aimed to determine the risk of student HRI during their university education, the nature and management of such injuries. A retrospective questionnaire solicited demographic information, data on students’ equine experience prior to and during their educational programs, and on HRI during their program of study. Of 260 respondents, 22 (8.5% reported HRI (27 incidents. Including concurrent injuries the most commonly injured body parts were the foot or ankle (nine of 32 injures, the upper leg or knee (eight of 32, and hands (three of 32. Trampling and being kicked by a hind limb were each associated with 30.4% of HRI, and 13% with being bitten. Bruising (91.3% of respondents and an open wound (17.4% were most commonly described. No treatment occurred for 60.9% of incidents; professional medical treatment was not sought for the remainder. Most incidents (56.5% occurred during program-related work experience placements. Although injury rates and severity were modest, a proactive approach to injury prevention and reporting is recommended for students required to handle horses as part of their education. Student accident and injury data should be monitored to ensure effective evaluation of risk-reduction initiatives. The risk and nature of university student horse-related injury (HRI was studied. Of 260 students, 22 (8.5% reported HRI (27 incidents. Including multiple injuries, reports described involvement of the foot or ankle (nine of 32 injures, upper leg or knee (eight of 32, and hands (three of 32. Trampling (30.4% and being kicked (30.4% accounted for most HRI. The injuries were usually bruising (91.3% or an open wound (17.4%. Most (60.9% injuries were untreated; professional medical treatment was not sought for the rest. Most incidents (56.5% occurred during program-related off

  10. A Cross-Sectional Study of Horse-Related Injuries in Veterinary and Animal Science Students at an Australian University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Christopher B; Liddiard, Jessica R; Thompson, Kirrilly

    2015-09-25

    Specific estimates of the risk of horse-related injury (HRI) to university students enrolled in veterinary and animal sciences have not been reported. This study aimed to determine the risk of student HRI during their university education, the nature and management of such injuries. A retrospective questionnaire solicited demographic information, data on students' equine experience prior to and during their educational programs, and on HRI during their program of study. Of 260 respondents, 22 (8.5%) reported HRI (27 incidents). Including concurrent injuries the most commonly injured body parts were the foot or ankle (nine of 32 injures), the upper leg or knee (eight of 32), and hands (three of 32). Trampling and being kicked by a hind limb were each associated with 30.4% of HRI, and 13% with being bitten. Bruising (91.3% of respondents) and an open wound (17.4%) were most commonly described. No treatment occurred for 60.9% of incidents; professional medical treatment was not sought for the remainder. Most incidents (56.5%) occurred during program-related work experience placements. Although injury rates and severity were modest, a proactive approach to injury prevention and reporting is recommended for students required to handle horses as part of their education. Student accident and injury data should be monitored to ensure effective evaluation of risk-reduction initiatives. The risk and nature of university student horse-related injury (HRI) was studied. Of 260 students, 22 (8.5%) reported HRI (27 incidents). Including multiple injuries, reports described involvement of the foot or ankle (nine of 32 injures), upper leg or knee (eight of 32), and hands (three of 32). Trampling (30.4%) and being kicked (30.4%) accounted for most HRI. The injuries were usually bruising (91.3%) or an open wound (17.4%). Most (60.9%) injuries were untreated; professional medical treatment was not sought for the rest. Most incidents (56.5%) occurred during program-related off

  11. A Cross-Sectional Study of Horse-Related Injuries in Veterinary and Animal Science Students at an Australian University

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher B. Riley; Jessica R. Liddiard; Kirrilly Thompson

    2015-01-01

    Specific estimates of the risk of horse-related injury (HRI) to university students enrolled in veterinary and animal sciences have not been reported. This study aimed to determine the risk of student HRI during their university education, the nature and management of such injuries. A retrospective questionnaire solicited demographic information, data on students’ equine experience prior to and during their educational programs, and on HRI during their program of study. Of 260 respondents, 22...

  12. Food irradiation: an inquiry by the Australian Consumers' Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    The Australian Consumers' Association's Inquiry into Food Irradiation was undertaken at the request of the Commonwealth Minister of Health, Dr N Blewett. The terms of reference of the Inquiry covered the implications of food irradiation in terms of consumer health, the environment, and the cost to the consumer

  13. Pilot Study of Veterinary Student Mindset and Association with Academic Performance and Perceived Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root Kustritz, Margaret V

    Individuals with a growth mindset believe that all failures are opportunities and that their baseline intelligence and talent can be used for continuous improvement. Individuals with a fixed mindset believe that baseline intelligence and talent cannot be developed. A growth mindset is associated with greater academic success and greater resilience in the face of failure or stress. Second-year veterinary students completed three surveys to determine mindset, perceived levels of stress, and life change score. Of 57 students, 70% had a strong growth mindset or a growth mindset with some fixed ideas. No students had a strong fixed mindset. Mindset was not correlated with GPA or perceived stress level. Colleges of veterinary medicine can assist students by providing resources and training for stress management, including training in how to further develop a growth mindset.

  14. Should there be an Australian Army Association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-15

    of the United States Army BAFF British Armed Forces Federation BCOF British Commonwealth Occupation Forces CAD Canadian Dollars CDA Conference of...Federation ( BAFF ) 7. The Canadian Infantry Association 23 8. The Royal Canadian Armoured Corps Association 9. The Canadian Association of Veterans in...surprising that these associations and the focus of their objects have high degrees of similarity.2 The British Armed Forces Federation ( BAFF ) is a

  15. What’s in a Dog’s Breakfast? Considering the Social, Veterinary and Environmental Implications of Feeding Food Scraps to Pets Using Three Australian Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirrilly Thompson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Diverting food waste away from landfills is one way to minimise its serious environmental impact. Given that over a third of Australian households have at least one pet, the feeding of food waste to dogs constitutes one potentially significant waste diversion path. However, the proportion of dog owners that feed food waste to their pets is unknown. Moreover, there has been no investigation into any relationship between practices of feeding scraps to pets and the animals’ body condition, living arrangements (inside or outside and exercise regime. To provide some insight, this paper presents findings from three surveys across two Australian studies. The first reports both pet and dog-specific findings from two surveys within a wider food waste research project (n = 1017, establishing that 28% of respondents fed leftovers to pets as a main food waste minimization strategy, yet in only 5% of households did this constitute more than half of the household’s food scraps. This modest diversion of food scraps from landfill to feeding pets was reflected in the finding that there was no significant difference seen in the claimed level of food discards to the waste stream for households feeding food scraps to dogs and those that did not. The second—a dog owner specific study (n = 355—found that almost half (44% of respondents reported feeding table scraps to dogs. They were more likely to be females, owners of medium sized dogs, and in larger households. There was no significant difference in self-rated dogs’ body condition scores between respondents who fed table scraps to their dog and those who did not. Further multidisciplinary research is recommended to reconcile the social, veterinary and environmental risks and benefits of feeding food waste to animals.

  16. Presence of Ureaplasma diversum in the Australian cattle population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argue, B; Chousalkar, K K; Chenoweth, P J

    2013-03-01

    In cattle, Ureaplasma diversum has been associated with decreased fertility, granular vulvovaginitis, endometritis, salpingitis and spontaneous abortion in cows and seminal vesiculitis, balanoposthitis and changes in bull sperm. The presence of U. diversum within the Australian cattle population has not been established. One of the aims of this study was to determine if U. diversum was present in Australian cattle, using culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), both of which are considered to be gold standards for bacterial identification. Of 100 samples collected from 66 male and 34 female cattle, 15 were positive for U. diversum. Therefore, Australia can no longer be considered free of U. diversum. Further studies should be conducted to ascertain the effects of U. diversum within Australian cattle herds and, if warranted, to investigate prevention, treatment and eradication protocols. © 2013 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2013 Australian Veterinary Association.

  17. World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP): the 50th anniversary in 2013--history, achievements, and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, J

    2013-08-01

    In 2013 the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) can celebrate its 50th anniversary. At this occasion in this article selected historical data are updated, and the achievements and future perspectives of the WAAVP are discussed. Although the WAAVP is a small association with only a few hundred members, it has been able to develop remarkable activities. Between 1963 and 2011 the WAAVP has organized 23 international scientific congresses, and the 24th conference will take place in Perth, Western Australia, in 2013. These conferences have achieved a high degree of international recognition as indicated by relatively large numbers of participants (up to ~800). Furthermore, the WAAVP has promoted veterinary parasitology in various ways, such as publishing international guidelines (efficacy evaluation of antiparasitic drugs, parasitological methods, standardized nomenclature of animal parasitic diseases "SNOAPAD"), stimulating international discussions on teaching and continued education ("colleges of veterinary parasitology") and by supporting the high quality journal "Veterinary Parasitology" which is the official organ of the WAAVP. In retrospect, the development of the WAAVP can be classified as very successful. New challenges associated with global changes (growth of the world population, urbanization, climate change, new developments in animal and plant production, etc.) will require new efforts in research in various fields, including veterinary parasitology. Future activities of WAAVP may include inter alia: (a) support of international parasitological networks; (b) stimulation of coordinated research aimed at the solution of defined problems; (c) increasing the exposure of WAAVP to parasitology from hitherto neglected regions of the world; (d) strengthening of official links to international organizations (FAO, WHO, etc.); (e) continuation of guideline preparation; and (d) preparation and international distribution of high

  18. Clinical Research Abstracts of the British Equine Veterinary Association Congress 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammersley, E; Duz, M; Marshall, J F

    2015-09-01

    Triamcinolone is commonly used in equine practice for the treatment of orthopaedic conditions. A serious potential adverse effect of triamcinolone is laminitis. However, evidence for the risk of laminitis associated with triamcinolone use is limited. To determine the risk of laminitis within 90 days of triamcinolone administration and compare with the risk of laminitis in a veterinary-attended horse population. Retrospective study of clinical records. Text mining and data extraction was performed using content analysis software (SimStat-WordStat v.6) on a database of anonymous digital clinical records from a convenience sample of North American equine practices (n = 9). Medical records were retrieved using a dictionary of keywords for 3 groups of horses: 1) treated with triamcinolone, 2) age and practice matched control population (no triamcinolone) and 3) all laminitic horses. Records of horses within Groups 1 and 2 were mined for evidence of laminitis within a 90-day period of treatment or a random date respectively. Data manipulation and analysis was performed using R v3.0.0 (R Development Core Team). The prevalence of laminitis within all groups was determined and relative risk of developing laminitis determined by single logistic regression. The clinical records of 225,777 horses were examined. Overall prevalence of laminitis within the database was 1.1% (n = 2533). Triamcinolone was administered to 12.4% (n = 27,898) horses and 0.07% of treated horses (n = 20) developed laminitis. In the control population (n = 56,695), 0.2% of horses (n = 134) developed laminitis. The risk of developing laminitis was significantly lower in the triamcinolone treatment group than the control population (OR 0.3 95%CI, 0.18-0.48 Plaminitis. However, further investigation of risk factors for laminitis in the 20 horses identified by this preliminary study is warranted to aid development of evidence-based treatment guidelines. Ethical animal research

  19. Origin and history to date of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) African Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krecek, R C; Penzhorn, B L; de Waal, D T; Peter, R J; Prichard, R; Sumption, D

    2011-03-01

    The origin of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) African Foundation is described. The 16th WAAVP Conference held in South Africa in 1997 generated a surplus of ZAR 430 460 (US$ 70 116). This was invested and a foundation established to manage the fund with the intention of using it to the mutual advantage of the WAAVP and African veterinary parasitologists. To date, more than 110 scholarship applications have been screened, and 51 full and partial scholarships awarded to young African veterinary parasitologists to attend subsequent biennial WAAVP Conferences. This investment has grown into a very successful endowment currently valued at US$ 206 553. This article is written in response to many queries across the globe about the origin of this fund and how it has been invested, managed, sustained and utilised.

  20. Nigerian Veterinary Journal: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The Nigerian Veterinary Journal (NVJ) has been in existence since 1971. The NVJ is published by the Nigerian Veterinary Medical Association (NVMA) as part of the association's commitment to the advancement of Veterinary Medicine in Nigeria and other parts of the world, with a general view of ...

  1. A survey of Australian dairy farmers to investigate animal welfare risks associated with increasing scale of production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beggs, D S; Fisher, A D; Jongman, E C; Hemsworth, P E

    2015-08-01

    Although large herds (more than 500 cows) only represent 13% of Australian dairy farms, they represent more than 35% of the cows milked. A survey of Australian dairy farmers was conducted to assess relationships between herd size and known or proposed risk factors for adverse animal welfare outcomes in Australian dairy herds in relation to increasing scale of production. Responses from 863 Australian dairy farms (13% of Australian dairy farms) were received. Increasing herd size was associated with increases in stocking density, stock per labor unit, and grain fed per day-all of which could reasonably be hypothesized to increase the risk of adverse welfare outcomes unless carefully managed. However, increasing herd size was also associated with an increased likelihood of staff with formal and industry-based training qualifications. Herd size was not associated with reported increases in mastitis or lameness treatments. Some disease conditions, such as milk fever, gut problems, and down cows, were reported less in larger herds. Larger herds were more likely to have routine veterinary herd health visits, separate milking of the main herd and the sick herd, transition diets before calving, and written protocols for disease treatment. They were more likely to use monitoring systems such as electronic identification in the dairy, computerized records, daily milk yield or cell count monitoring, and pedometers or activity meters. Euthanasia methods were consistent between herds of varying sizes, and it was noted that less than 3% of farms make use of captive-bolt devices despite their effectiveness and ready availability. Increasing herd size was related to increased herd milking time, increased time away from the paddock, and increased distance walked. If the milking order of cows is consistent, this may result in reduced feed access for late-milking-order cows because of a difference in time away from the paddock. More than 95% of farmers believed that their cows were

  2. Fluoroquinolone-resistant extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli, including O25b-ST131, isolated from faeces of hospitalized dogs in an Australian veterinary referral centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Siyu; Brouwers, Huub J M; Cobbold, Rowland N; Platell, Joanne L; Chapman, Toni A; Barrs, Vanessa R; Johnson, James R; Trott, Darren J

    2013-05-01

    To determine rates of carriage of fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli and extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) among dogs in a specialist referral hospital and to examine the population structure of the isolates. Fluoroquinolone-resistant faecal E. coli isolates (n = 232, from 23 of 123 dogs) recovered from hospitalized dogs in a veterinary referral centre in Sydney, Australia, over 140 days in 2009 were characterized by phylogenetic grouping, virulence genotyping and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. The RAPD dendrogram for representative isolates showed one group B2-associated cluster and three group D-associated clusters; each contained isolates with closely related ExPEC-associated virulence profiles. All group B2 faecal isolates represented the O25b-ST131 clonal group and were closely related to recent canine extraintestinal ST131 clinical isolates from the east coast of Australia by RAPD analysis. Hospitalized dogs may carry fluoroquinolone-resistant ExPEC in their faeces, including those representing O25b-ST131.

  3. Clinical Research Abstracts of the British Equine Veterinary Association Congress 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, R; Jacklin, B D; Gillespie, S; Vaughan, L; Fiske-Jackson, A R; Smith, R K

    2015-09-01

    Injury to the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) is common in equids, with a high risk of re-injury associated with changes in tendon stiffness. In vivo measurement of limb stiffness has been shown to correlate with tendon stiffness after injury [1] but requires kinematic analysis which is impractical in a clinical setting. We have developed a simple system for measuring limb stiffness statically, which could be used as a tool for monitoring SDFT healing. To validate a goniometric measurement of limb stiffness. Cross sectional study. Initially, forelimb stiffness indices were determined at the walk for 6 equids using a validated kinematic analysis [1]. Limb stiffness indices were then calculated using portable floor scales to record ground reaction force (GRF), and an electrogoniometer to record metacarpophalangeal joint angle. Goniometric limb stiffness indices were subsequently measured in 11 horses ranging from 2 to 20 years of age, with no clinical evidence of SDFT injury. Strength and significance of correlation and agreement between the measurement methods was assessed and association between limb stiffness, limb (left vs. right), weight and age of horse and were calculated. There were strong positive correlations between GRF and joint angle (R(2) = 0.98) and between the static and kinematic methods (R = 0.78, Ptheory of an optimised limb spring [2] for energy-efficient cursorial locomotion which may, in turn, provide a clinically-relevant measure of running efficiency and therefore the quality of tendon healing post injury. Ethical animal research: Owner consent was obtained. None. Competing interests: None declared. © 2015 The Author(s). Equine Veterinary Journal © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  4. Summary of the World Small Animal Veterinary Association standardization committee guide to classification of liver disease in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, John M

    2009-05-01

    Liver disease is a frequently encountered problem in small animal practice. The World Small Animal Veterinary Association has formed a group of experienced clinicians and pathologists to develop a standardized format for diagnostic terminology. This is hoped to lead to greater uniformity in diagnoses and better communication between clinicians and pathologists alike. The aim is to find a sound scientific basis of diagnostic and treatment protocols for hepatobiliary diseases. This article provides an overview of that monograph.

  5. Costs of managing conditions associated with obesity among Australian teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Michael L; Dobbins, Timothy; Aitken, Robert; Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth; Hardy, Louise L; Okely, Anthony D; George, Jacob; Sullivan, David; Cowell, Christopher T

    2009-01-01

    To determine the health-care charges associated with monitoring and managing, over 1 year, the cases of elevated insulin concentration, elevated alanine aminotransferase concentration and dyslipidaemia due to overweight or obesity among 15-19-year-old Australian males and females. Fasting blood samples (n= 500) were collected in 2004 from a representative population sample of adolescents (n= 496; mean age 15.3 years) attending schools in Sydney, Australia. Full service charges and Medicare expenditures for specialist medical and dietary consultations, pathology tests and radiological investigations, over 1 year, under efficient and inefficient health-care delivery models, including and excluding participants in the healthy body mass index (BMI) category. Under an inefficient delivery model and including all participants with elevated risk factors, the Medicare expenditure was $A305.1 million per annum (M pa). Exclusion of participants in the healthy BMI category resulted in an annual Medicare expenditure of $A170.0M pa. Under an efficient delivery model and including all participants with elevated risk factors, the Medicare expenditure was $A295.5M pa. Exclusion of participants in the healthy BMI category reduced annual Medicare expenditure to $A164.8M pa. Medicare expenditure for 15-19-year-olds would increase by 48% if only cases among overweight and obese adolescents were treated and by 85% if all cases were identified and treated. Short-term management of the health consequences of overweight and obesity among adolescents will increase Medicare expenditure on this group by at least 48%. Failure to treat will delay, but compound, health-care expenditure.

  6. Suicide in veterinarians and veterinary nurses in Australia: 2001-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, A J; Niven, H; Page, K; LaMontagne, A D

    2015-09-01

    Whether veterinarians have an elevated suicide rate compared with the general population is controversial. Reported cases of suicide among veterinarians and veterinary nurses in Australia over the period 2001 to 2012 were investigated in a retrospective case-series study. The standardised mortality ratio of veterinarians (n = 18) was 1.92 (95% CI 1.14-3.03) and that of veterinary nurses (n = 7) to the general population was 1.24 (95% CI 0.80-1.85). Overdosing on drugs (pentobarbitone) was the main method of suicide in these occupations. The reasons for veterinary suicides are likely to be multifactorial, including work- and life-related stressors, and individual characteristics. This research highlights the need for targeted suicide prevention and intervention for veterinarians. © 2015 Australian Veterinary Association.

  7. Determinants associated with veterinary antimicrobial prescribing in farm animals in the Netherlands: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speksnijder, D C; Jaarsma, A D C; van der Gugten, A C; Verheij, T J M; Wagenaar, J A

    2015-04-01

    Antimicrobial use in farm animals might contribute to the development of antimicrobial resistance in humans and animals, and there is an urgent need to reduce antimicrobial use in farm animals. Veterinarians are typically responsible for prescribing and overseeing antimicrobial use in animals. A thorough understanding of veterinarians' current prescribing practices and their reasons to prescribe antimicrobials might offer leads for interventions to reduce antimicrobial use in farm animals. This paper presents the results of a qualitative study of factors that influence prescribing behaviour of farm animal veterinarians. Semi-structured interviews with eleven farm animal veterinarians were conducted, which were taped, transcribed and iteratively analysed. This preliminary analysis was further discussed and refined in an expert meeting. A final conceptual model was derived from the analysis and sent to all the respondents for validation. Many conflicting interests are identifiable when it comes to antimicrobial prescribing by farm animal veterinarians. Belief in the professional obligation to alleviate animal suffering, financial dependency on clients, risk avoidance, shortcomings in advisory skills, financial barriers for structural veterinary herd health advisory services, lack of farmers' compliance to veterinary recommendations, public health interests, personal beliefs regarding the veterinary contribution to antimicrobial resistance and major economic powers are all influential determinants in antimicrobial prescribing behaviour of farm animal veterinarians. Interventions to change prescribing behaviour of farm animal veterinarians could address attitudes and advisory skills of veterinarians, as well as provide tools to deal with (perceived) pressure from farmers and advisors to prescribe antimicrobials. Additional (policy) measures could probably support farm animal veterinarians in acting as a more independent animal health consultant. © 2014 Blackwell

  8. Serious injuries to Australian veterinarians working with cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, M; Day, L; Fritschi, L

    2013-01-01

    To describe the factors associated with serious injuries sustained during cattle-associated activities by veterinarians responding to the Health Risks of Australian Veterinarians (HRAV) survey. Responses from the HRAV survey were reviewed and the factors associated with serious injuries reported by veterinarians while working with cattle were analysed. All veterinarians who had graduated from Australian veterinary schools between 1960 and 2000 were eligible for inclusion in the survey. The survey identified 474 serious injuries sustained while undertaking cattle-associated activities. Most cattle-associated injuries (82%) were sustained in stock or handling yards and 57% of reported injuries were sustained while undertaking pregnancy testing or undertaking examinations. Nearly 80% of all cattle-associated injuries were sustained as a result of the veterinarian being kicked or struck (49%) or pushed against or stepped on (30%). The part of the body most commonly injured was the upper limbs. Fractures were the most common type of serious injury sustained. The use of safety precautions at the time of the injury was reported by 62% of those veterinarians reporting injury. This study describes factors associated with serious injuries while working with cattle, as reported by veterinarians responding to the HRAV survey. Findings from this study will facilitate discussions aimed at addressing injury prevention for cattle veterinarians, including improving the awareness of safe handling practices and safety precautions. © 2012 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2012 Australian Veterinary Association.

  9. Dissatisfaction with Veterinary Services Is Associated with Leopard (Panthera pardus Predation on Domestic Animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Khorozyan

    Full Text Available Human-carnivore conflicts challenge biodiversity conservation and local livelihoods, but the role of diseases of domestic animals in their predation by carnivores is poorly understood. We conducted a human-leopard (Panthera pardus conflict study throughout all 34 villages around Golestan National Park, Iran in order to find the most important conflict determinants and to use them in predicting the probabilities of conflict and killing of cattle, sheep and goats, and dogs. We found that the more villagers were dissatisfied with veterinary services, the more likely they were to lose livestock and dogs to leopard predation. Dissatisfaction occurred when vaccination crews failed to visit villages at all or, in most cases, arrived too late to prevent diseases from spreading. We suggest that increased morbidity of livestock makes them particularly vulnerable to leopard attacks. Moreover, conflicts and dog killing were higher in villages located closer to the boundaries of the protected area than in distant villages. Therefore, we appeal for improved enforcement and coordination of veterinary services in our study area, and propose several priority research topics such as veterinarian studies, role of wild prey in diseases of domestic animals, and further analysis of potential conflict predictors.

  10. Risk factors associated with struvite urolithiasis in dogs evaluated at general care veterinary hospitals in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Chika C; Pearl, David L; Lefebvre, Sandra L; Wang, Mansen; Yang, Mingyin; Blois, Shauna L; Lund, Elizabeth M; Dewey, Cate E

    2013-12-15

    To identify factors associated with development of struvite urolithiasis in dogs evaluated at general care veterinary hospitals in the United States. Retrospective case-control study. 508 dogs with a first-time diagnosis of struvite urolithiasis and 7,135 control dogs. Electronic medical records of all dogs evaluated at 787 general care veterinary hospitals in the United States between October 2007 and December 2010 were reviewed to identify dogs that developed struvite urolithiasis and 2 groups of control dogs with no history of urolithiasis. Information extracted included diet, age, sex, neuter status, breed size category, hospital location, and date of diagnosis. Urinalysis results, urolith composition, and other disease conditions were recorded if applicable. Potential risk factors were assessed with univariable and multivariable regression analysis. Toy- or small-sized breeds had significantly greater odds of struvite urolithiasis, compared with medium- or large-sized breeds. Neutering significantly increased the odds of this outcome in females only; sexually intact females were more likely to develop struvite urolithiasis than were sexually intact males, but only up to 5 years of age. Urinary factors significantly associated with the outcome were basic (vs acidic) pH, presence of RBCs or WBCs, protein concentration > 30 mg/dL, and ketone concentration ≥ 5 mg/dL. Evaluation of demographic characteristics and urinalysis results may be useful in the early identification of struvite urolithiasis in dogs. Periodic urinalysis in dogs is recommended because of the potential health impact of a late diagnosis of urolithiasis.

  11. Feasibility of establishing an Australian ACL registry: a pilot study by the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry (AOANJRR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekkas, Christina; Clarnette, Richard; Graves, Stephen E; Rainbird, Sophia; Parker, David; Lorimer, Michelle; Paterson, Roger; Roe, Justin; Morris, Hayden; Feller, Julian A; Annear, Peter; Forster, Ben; Hayes, David

    2017-05-01

    Rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a common and debilitating injury that impacts significantly on knee function and risks the development of degenerative arthritis. The outcome of ACL surgery is not monitored in Australia. The optimal treatment is unknown. Consequently, the identification of best practice in treating ACL is crucial to the development of improved outcomes. The Australian Knee Society (AKS) asked the Australian Orthopaedic Association (AOA) to consider establishing a national ACL registry. As a first step, a pilot study was undertaken by the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry (AOANJRR) to test the hypothesis that collecting the required information in the Australian setting was possible. Surgeons completed an operative form which provided comprehensive information on the surgery undertaken. Patients provided pre- and post-operative questionnaires including the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and the Marx Activity Scale (MA Scale). The number of ACL procedures undertaken at each hospital during the recruitment period was compared against State Government Health Department separation data. A total of 802 patients were recruited from October 2011 to January 2013. The overall capture rate for surgeon-derived data was 99%, and the capture rate for the pre-operative patient questionnaire was 97.9%. At 6 months, patient-reported outcomes were obtained from 55% of patients, and 58.5% of patients at 12 months. When checked against State Government Health Department separation data, 31.3% of procedures undertaken at each study hospital were captured in the study. It is possible to collect surgeon-derived and pre-operative patient-reported data, following ACL reconstruction in Australia. The need to gain patient consent was a limiting factor to participation. When patients did consent to participate in the study, we were able to capture nearly 100% of surgical procedures. Patient consent

  12. External dose estimation of the human associated with companion animals under veterinary nuclear medical diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Nobuhiko; Hanawa, Asumi; Suzuki, Kanan

    2004-01-01

    This study was performed in order to make a safety guideline for veterinary nuclear medicine in Japan. Well often used radionuclides ( 18 F and 99 mTc) were employed for evaluating the external radiation exposures of veterinarians, animal owners, and the public. The human external radiation exposure from radiation sources in phantom likened to animal was considered by comparing the results of computer simulation and the actually measured exposure. The computer simulation was performed by using macro program of Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). In this simulation calculation process, radiation absorption and buildup were taken into consideration with the gamma ray emitted from radioactive materials in the body of the animal. Both corresponded well though the simulation result tended to be overvalued from the actual measurement value. Therefore, it is thought that this system can be applied to the estimation of human's external exposure. When the calculation was done on the condition that the radioactive substance exists only in internal organs (heart, liver, kidneys, and bladder), the unequal distribution of the dose rate was found near the animal body. External radiation exposure estimation to the veterinarian, the animal owner and the public was performed under consideration of the actual working condition, the distance from the source, and the time of exposure. In the calculation, the radiation dose of the animal owner and the public did not exceed the dose limit (5 mSv/yr for the animal owner, and 1 mSv/yr for the general public: International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) 1990) in the release after 24 hours of the radiopharmaceutical administering. The calculation condition used in this study was actually more excessive. So the authors consider these exposures would cause no significant issue by starting the veterinary nuclear medicine in Japan. Moreover, since injected radiopharmaceutical is excreted out of the body actually, the

  13. Association of tracheal mucus or blood and airway neutrophilia with racing performance in Thoroughbred horses in an Australian racing yard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salz, R O; Ahern, B J; Boston, R; Begg, L M

    2016-04-01

    To determine the variation of tracheal mucus scores, tracheal blood scores and transendoscopic tracheal wash (TW) cytology in a population of Thoroughbred (TB) racehorses and assess their association with racing performance. A total of 220 endoscopic examinations were performed and TWs obtained from 155 TB racehorses. Samples were collected 60-120 min following gallop work. Tracheal mucus score, tracheal blood score and TW cytology were analysed and their association with racing performance assessed. Of the total examinations and samples, 194 from 135 horses fitted the criteria for inclusion. The overall prevalence of visible tracheal mucus was 2.5% (5/194) and of increased tracheal mucus was 0%. The prevalence of visible tracheal blood was 8.8% (17/194) and of increased tracheal blood was 4.6% (9/194). A total of 36% (70/194) of TWs contained elevated percentages of neutrophils and of these, 96% (67/70) occurred in the absence of any visible tracheal mucus. There was no significant association between tracheal mucus score or TW cytology and subsequent racing performance. There was a statistically significant association (P = 0.004) between increased tracheal blood scores and poor racing performance. Visible tracheal blood seen after strenuous exercise in clinically normal TB racehorses was a risk factor for poor racing performance, but the presence of airway neutrophilia was not. No horses in this study were found to have increased tracheal mucus, so the association of increased tracheal mucus with racing performance could not be assessed. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  14. Australian Nuclear Association David Culley award for 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Full text: This project follows from the school's development of the principles of stress / strain relationships in materials, Bragg's Law, and the wave and penetration properties of neutrons. It is expected to lead to a set of experiments to be carried out at the HIFAR research reactor facilities of the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) using neutron diffraction to demonstrate applied stress and residual stress within examples of engineering structural component sections. Prior to the visit of the students to ANSTO, the topic of radiation safety is to be addressed by staff from ANSTO Health and Safety Division. A report will be provided covering the project's results and calculations

  15. Methodology for environmental risk assessment associated with the use of veterinary medicinal products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Valentina Tihulca

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental risk assessment (ERA is mandatory for all new applications for centralized marketing authorization or national regardless of their legal basis. ERA aims to protect the environment. Risk assessment has two phases of veterinary product evaluation possible role of exposure and its effects. Phase I of the ERA isbased on filling a decision tree with 19 questions. If the answers to these questions do not stop the assessment at this stage then is advancing to Phase II. It uses a two stage approach stage A and stage B. The first stage, stage A, studies using simple, less expensive studies. I f the assessment is not complete, then is appealed to Step B to drill ERA. If there is still a risk indicator after filling and assessment in stage B, then, to mitigate risk, is recommended the file discussing and of the proposals for additional data.

  16. Prevalence and associations of refractive error in indigenous Australians within central Australia: the Central Australian Ocular Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, John; Henderson, Tim; Craig, Jamie

    2010-05-01

    To determine the prevalence and associations of refractive error within the indigenous Australian population living in central Australia. 1884 individuals aged 20 years or older, living in one of 30 remote communities within the statistical local area of 'central Australia' were recruited for this study. This equated to 36% of those aged 20 years or older and 67% of those aged 40 years or older within this district. Participants were recruited as they presented to the eye clinic at each remote community. Participants underwent subjective refraction to determine spherical equivalent and then had a slit-lamp anterior segment examination. Participants were only included if they were phakic and only the right eye was considered. The prevalence of hypermetropia worse than +1.0 dioptres (D), myopia worse than -0.5 D and astigmatism worse than 1.0 D is presented. From those recruited, 15.2% were hypermetropic; 11.1% were myopic; and 6.2% had astigmatism. Participants became progressively more hypermetropic with increasing age until the age of 70 years, after which time they become more myopic. Furthermore, there was an increasing likelihood of myopia and a decreasing likelihood of hypermetropia with increasing nuclear opalescent cataract. Our study has shown that indigenous Australians are less likely to be ametropic compared with non-indigenous groups. Variations with age and nuclear opalescent cataract seen in other previous work have also been observed in our sample.

  17. Overview of the industry and social impacts of the 2007 Australian equine influenza outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoare, R

    2011-07-01

    The equine influenza (EI) outbreak occurred at the worst time of the year as far as the horse industry was concerned. All horse sports and horse breeds had events planned in the spring, including those relating to qualification for the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. These were all disrupted and many were cancelled. The social and industry impacts were extensive, and included difficulties related to communication, animal welfare, vaccination, movement restrictions, economics, as well as the psychological stresses experienced by those involved, especially those for whom their primary source of income was horse related. © 2011 The Author. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2011 Australian Veterinary Association.

  18. Associations between periodontal disease and cardiovascular surrogate measures among Indigenous Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapellas, Kostas; Jamieson, Lisa M; Do, Loc G; Bartold, P Mark; Wang, Hao; Maple-Brown, Louise J; Sullivan, David; O'Dea, Kerin; Brown, Alex; Celermajer, David S; Slade, Gary D; Skilton, Michael R

    2014-05-01

    Inflammation is a key pathogenetic factor in atherogenesis. Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory source which can have systemic impacts. Indigenous Australians have a higher prevalence of periodontal disease and experience cardiovascular disease earlier than non-Indigenous Australians. The aim was to describe the association between severity of periodontal inflammatory disease and measures of arterial structure and function. Periodontal disease in a convenience sample of Indigenous Australians was assessed clinically; for those with periodontal disease, the extent of periodontal pockets ≥ 4 mm was stratified into quartiles. Vascular health was measured non-invasively via carotid-dorsalis pedis pulse-wave velocity (PWV), and via B-mode ultrasound of the common carotid intima-media (IMT). Non-fasting blood samples were collected for lipid and inflammatory marker evaluation. Linear regression models were constructed to determine the associations between extent of periodontal pocketing and vascular health, adjusting for traditional cardiovascular common risk factors. 273 Indigenous Australian adults were recruited and complete data was available for 269 participants (154 males), median age 39 years. Arterial stiffness (PWV) significantly increased with increasing extent of periodontal pocketing (p trend=0.001). By contrast, carotid IMT did not differ across quartiles. Periodontal pocketing was associated with central arterial stiffness, a marker of presymptomatic arterial dysfunction, in Indigenous Australian adults with periodontal disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Childhood Stress and Adversity is Associated with Late-Life Dementia in Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Kylie; Delbaere, Kim; Draper, Brian; Mack, Holly A; Daylight, Gail; Cumming, Robert; Chalkley, Simon; Minogue, Cecilia; Broe, Gerald A

    2017-10-01

    High rates of dementia have been observed in Aboriginal Australians. This study aimed to describe childhood stress in older Aboriginal Australians and to examine associations with late-life health and dementia. A cross-sectional study with a representative sample of community-dwelling older Aboriginal Australians. Urban and regional communities in New South Wales, Australia. 336 Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander Australians aged 60-92 years, of whom 296 were included in the current analyses. Participants completed a life course survey of health, well-being, cognition, and social history including the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), with consensus diagnosis of dementia and Alzheimer disease. CTQ scores ranged from 25-117 (median: 29) and were associated with several adverse childhood indicators including separation from family, poor childhood health, frequent relocation, and growing up in a major city. Controlling for age, higher CTQ scores were associated with depression, anxiety, suicide attempt, dementia diagnosis, and, specifically, Alzheimer disease. The association between CTQ scores and dementia remained significant after controlling for depression and anxiety variables (OR: 1.61, 95% CI: 1.05-2.45). In contrast, there were no significant associations between CTQ scores and smoking, alcohol abuse, diabetes, or cardiovascular risk factors. Childhood stress appears to have a significant impact on emotional health and dementia for older Aboriginal Australians. The ongoing effects of childhood stress need to be recognized as people grow older, particularly in terms of dementia prevention and care, as well as in populations with greater exposure to childhood adversity, such as Aboriginal Australians. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Demographic and preliminary employment data of the first two graduate cohorts from a rural veterinary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyams, J H; Raidal, S L; Hayes, L M; Heller, J

    2017-04-01

    To report initial career experiences and graduate employment destinations 1 and 5 years following graduation of the 67 graduates from the first two graduating classes of the veterinary science program at Charles Sturt University. Online survey of graduates from the 2010 and 2011 cohorts undertaken 12 months following course completion and descriptive data on graduate practice locations 5 years post-graduation. Questions covered general demographic information, issues relating to work-life balance and factors influencing vocational choices. Descriptive statistics and qualitative responses are reported, with comparisons between continuous variables by two-sample t-test and between categories by Chi-square analyses. Significance was set at P < 0.05. Graduates' locations 5 years after graduation were obtained from veterinary registration details and staff contact with graduates. Complete survey responses were received from 39 graduates of whom 34 were employed in regional areas, 1 in a very remote area, 3 in major cities and 1 overseas. Hours worked and salary received were consistent with other survey data, with new graduates working in regional practices earning slightly more than those working in metropolitan practices. At 5 years following graduation, the majority (56/61, 92%) remained in rural or regional Australian veterinary practices, with a further five graduates overseas and one lost to follow-up. This study supported the selection criteria and educational approaches at CSU in establishing most of the new graduates in rural and regional mixed veterinary practice. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  1. Veterinary radiobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirshin, V.A.; Belov, A.D.; Budarkov, V.A.; Prochazka, Z.

    1989-01-01

    The monograph summarizes the authors' experience and data from Soviet and foreign scientific literature. It consists of the following chapters: radioactive sources; utilization of ionizing radiation and radioactive isotopes; biological effects of ionizing radiation; radiation sickness in animals; combined post-irradiation syndromes; prophylaxis of radiation injury; therapy of irradiated animals; and veterinary radiation hygiene control of the environment, fodder, animals and animal products. (P.A.)

  2. Risk factors associated with calcium oxalate urolithiasis in dogs evaluated at general care veterinary hospitals in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Chika C; Lefebvre, Sandra L; Pearl, David L; Yang, Mingyin; Wang, Mansen; Blois, Shauna L; Lund, Elizabeth M; Dewey, Cate E

    2014-08-01

    Calcium oxalate urolithiasis results from the formation of aggregates of calcium salts in the urinary tract. Difficulties associated with effectively treating calcium oxalate urolithiasis and the proportional increase in the prevalence of calcium oxalate uroliths relative to other urolith types over the last 2 decades has increased the concern of clinicians about this disease. To determine factors associated with the development of calcium oxalate urolithiasis in dogs evaluated at general care veterinary hospitals in the United States, a retrospective case-control study was performed. A national electronic database of medical records of all dogs evaluated between October 1, 2007 and December 31, 2010 at 787 general care veterinary hospitals in the United States was reviewed. Dogs were selected as cases at the first-time diagnosis of a laboratory-confirmed urolith comprised of at least 70% calcium oxalate (n=452). Two sets of control dogs with no history of urolithiasis diagnosis were randomly selected after the medical records of all remaining dogs were reviewed: urinalysis examination was a requirement in the selection of one set (n=1808) but was not required in the other set (n=1808). Historical information extracted included urolith composition, dog's diet, age, sex, neuter status, breed size category, hospital location, date of diagnosis, and urinalysis results. Multivariable analysis showed that the odds of first-time diagnosis of calcium oxalate urolithiasis were significantly (P30 mg/dL (OR: 1.55, 1.04-2.30). Patient demographics and urinalysis results are important factors that can support risk assessment and early identification of canine oxalate urolithiasis. Therefore, periodic urolith screening and monitoring of urine parameters should be encouraged for dogs at risk of developing these uroliths. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Associations between Positive Mental Wellbeing and Depressive Symptoms in Australian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadow, Corinne; Houghton, Stephen; Hunter, Simon C.; Rosenberg, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the association and directionality of effect between mental wellbeing and depressive symptoms in Australian adolescents. Data were collected on two occasions 21 months apart. At Time 1, 1,762 10- to 14-year-old adolescents from a range of socio-economic status areas participated. At Time 2 (T2), 1,575 participated again. On…

  4. Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Gambling Consequences for Indigenous Australians in North Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Helen M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine risk and protective factors associated with the consequences of card gambling and commercial gambling for Indigenous Australians in north Queensland. With Indigenous Elders' approval and using qualitative methodology, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 60 Indigenous and 48 non-Indigenous…

  5. Biodegradation of the veterinary antibiotics enrofloxacin and ceftiofur and associated microbial community dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrino, Diogo A M; Mucha, Ana P; Almeida, C Marisa R; Gao, Wei; Jia, Zhongjun; Carvalho, Maria F

    2017-03-01

    Fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins are two classes of veterinary antibiotics arising as pollutants of emerging concern. In this work, the microbial degradation of two representative antibiotics of both these classes, enrofloxacin (ENR) and ceftiofur (CEF), is reported. Biodegradation of the target antibiotics was investigated by supplementing the culture medium with ENR and CEF, individually and in mixture. Microbial inocula were obtained from rhizosphere sediments of plants derived from experimental constructed wetlands designed for the treatment of livestock wastewaters contaminated with trace amounts of these antibiotics. Selected microbial inocula were acclimated during a period of 5months, where the antibiotics were supplemented every three weeks at the concentration of 1mgL -1 , using acetate as a co-substrate. After this period, the acclimated consortia were investigated for their capacity to biodegrade 2 and 3mgL -1 of ENR and CEF. Complete removal of CEF from the inoculated culture medium was always observed within 21days, independently of its concentration or the concomitant presence of ENR. Biodegradation of ENR decreased with the increase in its concentration in the culture medium, with defluorination percentages decreasing from ca. 65 to 4%. Ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin were detected as biodegradation intermediates of ENR in the microbial cultures supplemented with this antibiotic, indicating that defluorination of at least part of ENR in these cultures is not an immediate catabolic step. Abiotic mechanisms showed high influence in the removal of CEF, affecting less ENR degradation. The acclimation process with the target antibiotics led to significant shifts in the structure and diversity of the microbial communities, predominantly selecting microorganisms belonging to the phyla Proteobacteria (e.g. Achromobacter, Variovorax and Stenotrophomonas genera) and Bacteroidetes (e.g. Dysgonomonas, Flavobacterium and Chryseobacterium genera). The results

  6. Clinical Research Abstracts of the British Equine Veterinary Association Congress 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardeman, L C; van der Meij, B R; Back, W; van der Kolk, J H; Wijnberg, I D

    2015-09-01

    In cases of laminitis, an increased muscle force or contracture of the deep digital flexor muscle (DDFM) is suggested, but evidence-based research is lacking. To test if the DDFM of laminitic equines shows an increased muscle force detectable by needle-EMG including Interference Pattern Analysis (IPA). Cross-sectional study. Three groups consisted of Group 0 (control): 6 Royal Dutch Sport horses, 3 Shetland ponies and one Welsh pony (healthy, sound adults, mean ± s.d. weight 411 ± 217 kg). Group 1: 3 Royal Dutch Sport horses, one Friesian, one Haflinger, one Icelandic horse, 2 Welsh ponies, one miniature Appaloosa and 6 Shetland ponies (adults, mean ± s.d. weight 310 ± 172 kg) suffering from acute or chronic laminitis. EMG measurements including firing frequency (F) and IPA parameters Turns/Second (T), Amplitude/Turn (M) and Ratio M/T (R) were performed. ANOVA was used to analyse data. P values of PHz, mean ± s.d. T was 112 ± 57 and 106 ± 42, mean ± s.d. M was 284 ± 51 and 254 ± 38 μV and mean ± s.d. R was 0.39 ± 0.17 and 0.42 ± 0.16%, respectively. The firing frequency of Group 1 was significantly higher compared to Group 0 (P = 0.02), whereas other differences were not significant. In human medicine, an increased firing frequency is a characteristic of increased muscle force [1,2]. Thus, the increased firing frequency of the DDFM in case of laminitis suggests an elevated muscle force. As all parameters show a high variance, a repeated study including a larger test group is advised. Ethical animal research: Data collection from controls was approved by the Animal Welfare Committee of Utrecht University, approval number 2008.III.07.061 and 2013.III.01.012. Clinical cases were privately owned and written owner consent was obtained. None. Competing interests: None declared. © 2015 The Author(s). Equine Veterinary Journal © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  7. Trypanosomiasis in an Australian little red flying fox (Pteropus scapulatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, J T; Stenner, R; Gillett, A K; Barbosa, A; Ryan, U; Irwin, P J

    2017-07-01

    An adult female Australian little red flying fox (Pteropus scapulatus) presented with icterus and anaemia. Examination of a blood smear revealed numerous trypanosomes 20.4-30.8 µm long with tapered ends. Necropsy and histological findings were consistent with trypanosome infection of lymphoid tissue and intravascular haemolysis. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated this trypanosome species to be genetically distinct and most similar to Trypanosoma minasense and Trypanosoma rangeli (with a genetic distance of 1% at the 18S rRNA locus for both). To the authors' knowledge this is the first report of a trypanosome infection associated with clinical disease in bats. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  8. Obstetric and psychosocial risk factors for Australian-born and non-Australian born women and associated pregnancy and birth outcomes: a population based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, Hannah Grace; Barnett, Bryanne; Kohlhoff, Jane; Drum, Maya Elizabeth; Munoz, Ana Maria; Thornton, Charlene

    2015-11-09

    One in four Australians is born overseas and 47% are either born overseas or have a parent who was. Obstetric and psychosocial risk factors for these women may differ. Data from one Sydney hospital (2012-2013) of all births recorded in the ObstetriX database were analysed (n = 3,092). Demographics, obstetric and psychosocial risk profile, obstetric interventions and complications and selected maternal and neonatal outcomes were examined for women born in Australia and overseas. Women born in Australia were younger, more likely to be primiparous (28.6 v 27.5%), be obese (32.0% v 21.4%), smoke (19.7 % v 3.0%), have an epidural (26.2% v 20.2%) and were less likely to have gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) (6.8% v 13.7% when compared to non-Australian born women. The highest rates of GDM, Gestational Hypertension (GH) and maternal anaemia were seen in women born in China, the Philippines and Pakistan respectively. Differences were also seen in psychosocial screening between Australian and non-Australian women with Australian-born women more likely to smoke and report a mental health disorder. There was an association between having an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) ≥ 13 and other psychosocial issues, such as thoughts of self-harm, domestic violence, childhood abuse etc. These women were also less likely to breastfeed. Women with an EPDS ≥ 13 at booking compared to women with EPDS ≤12 had a higher chance of being diagnosed with GDM (AOR 1.85 95% CI 1.14-3.0). There are significant differences in obstetric and psychosocial risk profiles and maternal and neonatal outcomes between Australian-born and non-Australian born women. In particular there appears to be an association between an EPDS of ≥13 and developing GDM, which warrants further investigation.

  9. The Australian public's beliefs about the causes of depression: associated factors and changes over 16 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkington, Pamela D; Reavley, Nicola J; Jorm, Anthony F

    2013-09-05

    Biological conceptualisations of depression are increasingly prevalent. The current study aimed to investigate the current prevalence of causal beliefs about depression in the Australian public, the factors associated with these beliefs, and changes over time. A nationally representative sample of Australian adults was surveyed as part of the 2011 National Mental Health Literacy and Stigma Survey. Beliefs about the causes of depression were assessed based on responses to vignettes depicting a person with either depression (n=893) or depression with suicidal thoughts (n=903). Socio-demographic characteristics, personal and professional experience with depression, and correct recognition of depression were investigated as predictors of causal beliefs about depression using binary logistic regression. Comparisons were made between the Australian public's current causal beliefs and data obtained in national surveys conducted in 1995 and 2003/4. Over 80% of the Australian public attributed depression to day to day problems, death of a close friend or relative, a recent traumatic event, childhood problems, and a chemical imbalance in the brain. People who correctly labelled the disorder in the vignettes were more likely to attribute depression to psychosocial reasons and less likely to attribute it to an allergic reaction, a virus, or an infection. Belief in psychosocial and genetic causes has increased over time, whereas belief in infection, allergy and weakness of character has decreased. Comparisons between the 1995, 2003/4 and 2011 surveys were limited by the differences in the survey methodology at each time point, and by low response rates to the 2003/4 and 2011 surveys. The survey design prevented insight into the reasoning underlying individuals' responses, and lacked sufficient power to explore the beliefs of Australians from cultural minorities. The majority of the Australian public believe that both psychosocial and biological factors cause depression

  10. Higher energy prices are associated with diminished resources, performance and safety in Australian ambulance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lawrence H; Chaiechi, Taha; Buettner, Petra G; Canyon, Deon V; Crawford, J Mac; Judd, Jenni

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the impact of changing energy prices on Australian ambulance systems. Generalised estimating equations were used to analyse contemporaneous and lagged relationships between changes in energy prices and ambulance system performance measures in all Australian State/Territory ambulance systems for the years 2000-2010. Measures included: expenditures per response; labour-to-total expenditure ratio; full-time equivalent employees (FTE) per 10,000 responses; average salary; median and 90th percentile response time; and injury compensation claims. Energy price data included State average diesel price, State average electricity price, and world crude oil price. Changes in diesel prices were inversely associated with changes in salaries, and positively associated with changes in ambulance response times; changes in oil prices were also inversely associated with changes in salaries, as well with staffing levels and expenditures per ambulance response. Changes in electricity prices were positively associated with changes in expenditures per response and changes in salaries; they were also positively associated with changes in injury compensation claims per 100 FTE. Changes in energy prices are associated with changes in Australian ambulance systems' resource, performance and safety characteristics in ways that could affect both patients and personnel. Further research is needed to explore the mechanisms of, and strategies for mitigating, these impacts. The impacts of energy prices on other aspects of the health system should also be investigated. © 2013 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2013 Public Health Association of Australia.

  11. An analysis of the demand for and revenue from companion animal veterinary services in Australia between 1996 and 2026 using industry revenue data and household census and pet ownership data and forecasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baguley, J

    2011-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the potential impact of household demographic and pet ownership trends on the demand for and revenue from companion animal veterinary services in Australia. DESIGN The size of the market for companion animal veterinary services was estimated by creating a model using assumptions derived from the revenue equation. The model was verified and validated through sensitivity analyses and comparisons between model outputs and available industry data. RESULTS The model provided outputs similar to alternative industry estimates and suggested that revenue growth in recent years has been much stronger than demand growth. Under the assumptions used in this model, forecast changes to household numbers and types are less important than pet ownership trends in determining the potential demand for and revenue from companion animal veterinary services. Forecast trends in household types and relatively stable pet ownership in the future will lead to growth in demand for companion animal veterinary services in real terms of approximately 1.2% per annum to 2026. CONCLUSION The market for companion animal veterinary services in Australia is mature and growth in demand is expected to remain low over the forecast period. For most veterinary practices within this environment, growth in revenue will be a function of growth in average client fees. © 2011 The Author. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2011 Australian Veterinary Association.

  12. Associations between Indigenous Australian oral health literacy and self-reported oral health outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Eleanor J; Jamieson, Lisa M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objectives To determine oral health literacy (REALD-30) and oral health literacy-related outcome associations, and to calculate if oral health literacy-related outcomes are risk indicators for poor self-reported oral health among rural-dwelling Indigenous Australians. Methods 468 participants (aged 17-72 years, 63% female) completed a self-report questionnaire. REALD-30 and oral health literacy-related outcome associations were determined through bivariate analysis. Multivariate mode...

  13. Association of Visual Impairment and All-Cause 10-Year Mortality Among Indigenous Australian Individuals Within Central Australia: The Central Australian Ocular Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Soo Khai; Kahawita, Shyalle; Andrew, Nicholas Howard; Henderson, Tim; Craig, Jamie Evan; Landers, John

    2018-03-22

    It is well established from different population-based studies that visual impairment is associated with increased mortality rate. However, to our knowledge, the association of visual impairment with increased mortality rate has not been reported among indigenous Australian individuals. To assess the association between visual impairment and 10-year mortality risk among the remote indigenous Australian population. Prospective cohort study recruiting indigenous Australian individuals from 30 remote communities located within the central Australian statistical local area over a 36-month period between July 2005 and June 2008. The data were analyzed in January 2017. Visual acuity, slitlamp biomicroscopy, and fundus examination were performed on all patients at recruitment. Visual impairment was defined as a visual acuity of less than 6/12 in the better eye. Mortality rate and mortality cause were obtained at 10 years, and statistical analyses were performed. Hazard ratios for 10-year mortality with 95% confidence intervals are presented. One thousand three hundred forty-seven patients were recruited from a total target population number of 2014. The mean (SD) age was 56 (11) years, and 62% were women. The total all-cause mortality was found to be 29.3% at 10 years. This varied from 21.1% among those without visual impairment to 48.5% among those with visual impairment. After adjustment for age, sex, and the presence of diabetes and hypertension, those with visual impairment were 40% more likely to die (hazard ratio, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.16-1.70; P = .001) during the 10-year follow-up period compared with those with normal vision. Bilateral visual impairment among remote indigenous Australian individuals was associated with 40% higher 10-year mortality risk compared with those who were not visually impaired. Resource allocation toward improving visual acuity may therefore aid in closing the gap in mortality outcomes between indigenous and nonindigenous Australian

  14. The challenge of teaching undergraduates evidence-based veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, R; Brennan, M; Ewers, R; Hudson, C; Daly, J M; Baillie, S; Eisler, M C; Place, E J; Brearley, J; Holmes, M; Handel, I; Shaw, D; McLauchlan, G; McBrearty, A; Cripps, P; Jones, P; Smith, R; Verheyen, K

    2017-09-16

    The Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons now lists 'How to evaluate evidence' as a day one competence for newly qualified vets. In this article, representatives from each of the veterinary schools in the UK discuss how the challenge of delivering and assessing the concepts of evidence-based veterinary medicine in a crowded undergraduate curriculum can be met. British Veterinary Association.

  15. [Veterinary dentistry: an update 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Foreest, Andries

    2008-12-01

    Rooted in human dentistry, veterinary dentistry has developed steadily in the Netherlands since the 1980s and is now recognized as an essential discipline of veterinary medicine. The availability of specialized tools and techniques has led to improved treatment outcomes and results, with the choice of treatment being largely determined by the functionality of the dentition and the costs involved. Domestic animals and horses with dental problems should be referred to dental veterinarians. The Working Group Veterinary Dentistry in the Netherlands is an association for skilled veterinarians with professional dental equipment at their disposal.

  16. Associations with dental caries experience among a convenience sample of Aboriginal Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasena, N; Kapellas, K; Skilton, M R; Maple-Brown, L J; Brown, A; O'Dea, K; Celermajer, D S; Jamieson, L M

    2015-12-01

    Few studies have examined dental caries experience in Aboriginal adults. The objectives of this study were to describe the dental caries experience of some Aboriginal Australian adults residing in the Northern Territory, and to determine associations with dental caries experience. A convenience sample of Aboriginal adults from Australia's Northern Territory was dentally examined. Self-reported oral health information was collected through a questionnaire. Data were available for 312 participants. The per cent of untreated decayed teeth (per cent DT >0) was 77.9 (95% CI 73.0 to 82.1), the mean DT was 3.0 (95% CI 2.6 to 3.4), the prevalence of any caries experience (the per cent DMFT >0) was 95.5 (95% CI 92.6 to 97.3) and the mean DMFT was 9.7 (95% CI 8.9 to 10.5). In multivariable analyses, unemployment and not brushing teeth the previous day were associated with the per cent DT >0. Problem-based dental attendance was associated with both the mean DT and the per cent DMFT >0. Older age, residing in the capital city, being non-incarcerated, last visiting a dentist caries experience among this convenience sample of Aboriginal Australian adults was very high. Most factors associated with dental caries were social determinants or dental service access-related. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  17. Factors associated with high consumption of soft drinks among Australian secondary-school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Maree; Morley, Belinda; Niven, Philippa; Crawford, David; Pratt, Iain S; Wakefield, Melanie

    2017-09-01

    To examine demographic and behavioural correlates of high consumption of soft drinks (non-alcoholic sugar-sweetened carbonated drinks excluding energy drinks) among Australian adolescents and to explore the associations between high consumption and soft drink perceptions and accessibility. Cross-sectional self-completion survey and height and weight measurements. Australian secondary schools. Students aged 12-17 years participating in the 2012-13 National Secondary Students' Diet and Activity (NaSSDA) survey (n 7835). Overall, 14 % of students reported consuming four or more cups (≥1 litres) of soft drinks each week ('high soft drink consumers'). Demographic factors associated with high soft drink consumption were being male and having at least $AU 40 in weekly spending money. Behavioural factors associated with high soft drink consumption were low fruit intake, consuming energy drinks on a weekly basis, eating fast foods at least once weekly, eating snack foods ≥14 times/week, watching television for >2 h/d and sleeping for good value for money were more likely to be high soft drink consumers, as were students who reported usually buying these drinks when making a beverage purchase from the school canteen/vending machine. High soft drink consumption clusters with other unhealthy lifestyle behaviours among Australian secondary-school students. Interventions focused on reducing the availability of soft drinks (e.g. increased taxes, restricting their sale in schools) as well as improved education on their harms are needed to lower adolescents' soft drink intake.

  18. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    4. 1Department of Theriogenology and Animal Production, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto; 2Department of. Veterinary Surgery and Theriogenology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Agriculture, Makurdi,. Nigeria; 3Department of Veterinary Parasitology and Entomology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, ...

  19. Factors associated with anesthetic-related death in dogs and cats in primary care veterinary hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Nora S; Mohn, Thomas J; Yang, Mingyin; Spofford, Nathaniel; Marsh, Alison; Faunt, Karen; Lund, Elizabeth M; Lefebvre, Sandra L

    2017-03-15

    OBJECTIVE To identify risk factors for anesthetic-related death in pet dogs and cats. DESIGN Matched case-control study. ANIMALS 237 dogs and 181 cats. PROCEDURES Electronic medical records from 822 hospitals were examined to identify dogs and cats that underwent general anesthesia (including sedation) or sedation alone and had death attributable to the anesthetic episode ≤ 7 days later (case animals; 115 dogs and 89 cats) or survived > 7 days afterward (control animals [matched by species and hospital]; 122 dogs and 92 cats). Information on patient characteristics and data related to the anesthesia session were extracted. Conditional multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with anesthetic-related death for each species. RESULTS The anesthetic-related death rate was higher for cats (11/10,000 anesthetic episodes [0.11%]) than for dogs (5/10,000 anesthetic episodes [0.05%]). Increasing age was associated with increased odds of death for both species, as was undergoing nonelective (vs elective) procedures. Odds of death for dogs were significantly greater when preanesthetic physical examination results were not recorded (vs recorded) or when preanesthetic Hct was outside (vs within) the reference range. Odds of death for cats were greater when intra-anesthesia records for oxygen saturation as measured by pulse oximetry were absent. Underweight dogs had almost 15 times the odds of death as nonunderweight dogs; for cats, odds of death increased with increasing body weight (but not with overweight body condition). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Several factors were associated with anesthetic-related death in cats and dogs. This information may be useful for development of strategies to reduce anesthetic-related risks when possible and for education of pet owners about anesthetic risks.

  20. Risk factors associated with the development of chronic kidney disease in cats evaluated at primary care veterinary hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Joseph P; Lefebvre, Sandra L; Wang, Mansen; Yang, Mingyin; Lund, Elizabeth M; Polzin, David J

    2014-02-01

    To identify risk factors associated with diagnosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in cats. Retrospective case-control study. 1,230 cats with a clinical diagnosis of CKD, serum creatinine concentration > 1.6 mg/dL, and urine specific gravity risk factors for CKD were extracted for multivariate logistic regression analysis from the medical records of cats brought to 755 primary care veterinary hospitals. For a subset of cats evaluated 6 to 12 months prior to the date of CKD diagnosis or control group inclusion, the percentage change in body weight between those dates as well as clinical signs at the earlier date were analyzed for associations with CKD development. Risk factors for CKD in cats included thin body condition, prior periodontal disease or cystitis, anesthesia or documented dehydration in the preceding year, being a neutered male (vs spayed female), and living anywhere in the United States other than the northeast. The probability of CKD decreased with increasing body weight in nondehydrated cats, domestic shorthair breed, and prior diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and increased when vomiting, polyuria or polydipsia, appetite or energy loss, or halitosis was present at the time of diagnosis or control group inclusion but not when those signs were reported 6 to 12 months earlier. Median weight loss during the preceding 6 to 12 months was 10.8% and 2.1% in cats with and without CKD, respectively. The probability of CKD diagnosis in cats was influenced by several variables; recent weight loss, particularly in combination with the other factors, warrants assessment of cats for CKD.

  1. Preseason hamstring muscle weakness associated with hamstring muscle injury in Australian footballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, J; Marsden, J; Lord, S; Garlick, D

    1997-01-01

    Hamstring muscle strain is the most prevalent injury in Australian Rules Football, accounting for 16% of playing time missed as a result of injury. Thirty-seven professional footballers from an Australian Football League team had preseason measurements of hamstring and quadriceps muscle concentric peak torque at 60, 180, and 300 deg/sec measured on a Cybex 340 dynamometer. Players were studied prospectively throughout the 1995 season. During that time, six players sustained clinically diagnosed hamstring muscle injuries that caused them to miss match-playing time. The injured hamstring muscles were all weaker than in the opposite leg in absolute values and hamstring-to-quadriceps muscle ratios. According to our t-test results, hamstring muscle injury was significantly associated with a low hamstring-to-quadriceps muscle peak torque ratio at 60 deg/sec on the injured side and a low hamstring muscle side-to-side peak torque ratio at 60 deg/sec. Flexibility (as measured by the sit-and-reach test) did not correlate with injury. Discriminant-function analysis using the two significant ratio variables resulted in a canonical correlation with injury of 0.4594 and correctly classified legs into injury groups with 77.4% success. These results indicate that preseason isokinetic testing of professional Australian Rules footballers can identify players at risk of developing hamstring muscle strains.

  2. Nanomedicine in veterinary oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Yin; Rodriguez, Carlos O; Li, Yuanpei

    2015-08-01

    Nanomedicine is an interdisciplinary field that combines medicine, engineering, chemistry, biology and material sciences to improve disease management and can be especially valuable in oncology. Nanoparticle-based agents that possess functions such as tumor targeting, imaging and therapy are currently under intensive investigation. This review introduces the basic concept of nanomedicine and the classification of nanoparticles. Because of their favorable pharmacokinetics, tumor targeting properties, and resulting superior efficacy and toxicity profiles, nanoparticle-based agents can overcome several limitations associated with conventional diagnostic and therapeutic protocols in veterinary oncology. The two most important tumor targeting mechanisms (passive and active tumor targeting) and their dominating factors (i.e. shape, charge, size and nanoparticle surface display) are discussed. The review summarizes published clinical and preclinical studies that utilize different nanoformulations in veterinary oncology, as well as the application of nanoparticles for cancer diagnosis and imaging. The toxicology of various nanoformulations is also considered. Given the benefits of nanoformulations demonstrated in human medicine, nanoformulated drugs are likely to gain more traction in veterinary oncology. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Veterinary School Applicants: Financial Literacy and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, McKensie M; Greenhill, Lisa M

    2015-01-01

    Each year the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC) conducts a survey after the close of the Veterinary Medical College Application Service (VMCAS) application. The survey provides a glimpse into applicant behavior surrounding the veterinary school application process. Additional survey questions probe into applicant financial behaviors, use of financial products and services, and pet ownership. This article examines the 2013 survey data from applicants who successfully completed the application, with a focus on applicant financial literacy and behaviors. Data from the study revealed a disconnect between applicants' perception of their ability to deal with day-to-day finances and their actual financial behaviors, particularly for first-generation college student applicants and applicants who are racially/ethnically underrepresented in veterinary medicine (URVM). Many applicants were not able to accurately report the average veterinary school graduate's student debt level, which suggests the potential need for better education about the costs associated with attending veterinary school.

  4. Pursuing a career in veterinary public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radakovic, Milorad

    2015-11-14

    Milorad Radakovic is a teaching fellow in veterinary public health (VPH) at the University of Cambridge. Here, he explains why he believes the challenges in this field of veterinary medicine make for an exciting career path. In a second article to be published in Vet Record Careers next week, he will share some of his own experiences of working in this field. British Veterinary Association.

  5. A Western Dietary Pattern Is Associated with Poor Academic Performance in Australian Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anett Nyaradi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate cross-sectional associations between dietary patterns and academic performance among 14-year-old adolescents. Study participants were from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine Study. A food frequency questionnaire was administered when the adolescents were 14 years old, and from the dietary data, a ‘Healthy’ and a ‘Western’ dietary pattern were identified by factor analysis. The Western Australian Literacy and Numeracy Assessment (WALNA results from grade nine (age 14 were linked to the Raine Study data by The Western Australian Data Linkage Branch. Associations between the dietary patterns and the WALNA (mathematics, reading and writing scores were assessed using multivariate linear regression models adjusting for family and socioeconomic characteristics. Complete data on dietary patterns, academic performance and covariates were available for individuals across the different analyses as follows: n = 779 for mathematics, n = 741 for reading and n = 470 for writing. Following adjustment, significant negative associations between the ‘Western’ dietary pattern and test scores for mathematics (β = −13.14; 95% CI: −24.57; −1.76; p = 0.024 and reading (β = −19.16; 95% CI: −29.85; −8.47; p ≤ 0.001 were observed. A similar trend was found with respect to writing (β = −17.28; 95% CI: −35.74; 1.18; p = 0.066. ANOVA showed significant trends in estimated means of academic scores across quartiles for both the Western and Healthy patterns. Higher scores for the ‘Western’ dietary pattern are associated with poorer academic performance in adolescence.

  6. Prevalence and associations of psychological distress in Australian junior medical officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Michelle W; Li, Wenlong E; Llewellyn, Anthony; Cyna, Allan M

    2017-10-01

    To determine the prevalence of psychological distress in Australian junior medical officers (JMO) and investigate the determinants associated with psychological distress over a 3-year (2014-2016) period. JMO were surveyed using the 2014-2016 JMO Census (n = 220, 399 and 466 each year; response rate approximately 15%). Levels of psychological distress were assessed using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). A K10 ≥ 25 was chosen to indicate high psychological distress, and this determinant was compared to various demographic and work-related factors. Australian JMO experience a high level of psychological distress (mean: 18.1, median 16.0). There were no differences in demographical variables, such as age, gender, marital status, dependants and between postgraduate years 1 and 2. Increasing hours worked per week was associated with a higher K10, with every hour worked increasing odds by 3%. Attitudinal items, including feeling unwilling to study medicine again, feeling poorly trained and experiences of bullying, were related to high psychological distress. Coping strategies like exercise and spending time with friends correlated positively with lower distress, while time off work, frequent alcohol use, smoking and drug use were associated with increased distress levels. Of those with a high K10, 54.5% indicated that they did not use any form of professional support; 17.83% expressed that given their time again, they would not choose to study medicine. A focused approach to JMO support and education regarding significant risk factors identified is likely to assist health policies that aim to improve the mental well-being of Australian JMO. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  7. Association of disease-specific causes of visual impairment and 10-year mortality amongst Indigenous Australians: the Central Australian Ocular Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevez, José; Kaidonis, Georgia; Henderson, Tim; Craig, Jamie E; Landers, John

    2018-01-01

    Visual impairment significantly impairs the length and quality of life, but little is known of its impact in Indigenous Australians. To investigate the association of disease-specific causes of visual impairment with all-cause mortality. A retrospective cohort analysis. A total of 1347 Indigenous Australians aged over 40 years. Participants visiting remote medical clinics underwent clinical examinations including visual acuity, subjective refraction and slit-lamp examination of the anterior and posterior segments. The major ocular cause of visual impairment was determined. Patients were assessed periodically in these remote clinics for the succeeding 10 years after recruitment. Mortality rates were obtained from relevant departments. All-cause 10-year mortality and its association with disease-specific causes of visual impairment. The all-cause mortality rate for the entire cohort was 29.3% at the 10-year completion of follow-up. Of those with visual impairment, the overall mortality rate was 44.9%. The mortality rates differed for those with visual impairment due to cataract (59.8%), diabetic retinopathy (48.4%), trachoma (46.6%), 'other' (36.2%) and refractive error (33.4%) (P visual impairment from diabetic retinopathy were any more likely to die during the 10 years of follow-up when compared with those without visual impairment (HR 1.70; 95% CI, 1.00-2.87; P = 0.049). Visual impairment was associated with all-cause mortality in a cohort of Indigenous Australians. However, diabetic retinopathy was the only ocular disease that significantly increased the risk of mortality. Visual impairment secondary to diabetic retinopathy may be an important predictor of mortality. © 2017 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  8. Cultural awareness in veterinary practice: student perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jennifer N; Volet, Simone; Fozdar, Farida

    2011-01-01

    Australian veterinary classrooms are increasingly diverse and their growing internal diversity is a result of migration and large numbers of international students. Graduates interact with other students and increasingly with clients whose attitudes, beliefs, values, and behaviors differ from their own. An understanding and respect for these differences has an impact on client communication and health care outcomes. The present study explored how students understand and are likely to deal with issues of cultural diversity in veterinary professional practice as well as the educational needs that students feel should be met in regard to preparation to engage productively with diversity in professional practice. The present study also explored the extent to which the rich diversity of the undergraduate student population constitutes an educational resource. A class of final-year veterinary students was invited to participate in a workshop exploring intercultural confidence in veterinary consultation. Twelve groups of six to eight students discussed a fictitious scenario involving a challenging clinical encounter with a client from a different culture. Students were reticent to see the scenario in terms of cultural difference, although they generally recognized that awareness of cultural issues in veterinary practice was important. They also tended to not see their own ethnicity as relevant to their practice. While some felt that veterinary practice should be culture blind, most recognized a need to orient to cultural difference and to respond sensitively. Their suggestions for curricular improvements to address these issues are also included.

  9. Tooth wear and associated risk factors in a sample of Australian primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, A; Brearley Messer, L

    2013-06-01

    Anecdotally, tooth wear is increasing, perhaps attributable to diet. The irreversible surface loss may result in sensitivity and loss of form and function. Little data exist on the prevalence of tooth wear in Australian children. This study investigated consumption of potentially erosive foods and drinks, examining the prevalence, distribution of tooth wear and associations in a sample of children. Parents of 350, 6-12-year-olds reported their child's oral hygiene, dietary intake, medical and dental histories; 154 children (subsample) were examined. Associations were studied with single and multivariable analyses. Tooth wear was parentally reported for 17% (59 children of the study population) and observed in 66% (102 of the subsample), particularly affecting primary teeth. Significant risk factors for parentally reported tooth wear were: consuming 2-4 cups soft drink/day (OR = 9.52), citrus flavoured sweets/gums ≥1/day (5.10), citrus fruits 1-2/wk (4.28); tooth grinding (5.32); medical condition present (2.48); male gender (2.80). Drinking 2-4 cups fruit juice/day was a significant risk factor for both parentally reported (3.23) and observed tooth wear (3.97). Tooth wear appeared under-reported as some parents were unaware their child's teeth were affected. Significant risk factors for tooth wear were identifiable from children's histories. Risk factors should be addressed early so that tooth wear in the primary dentition does not affect permanent teeth. © 2013 Australian Dental Association.

  10. Nigerian Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    En-Joy

    vision 2020. KEY WORDS: Nigerian, Veterinarians,. Millennium Development Goals, Empowerment,. Food security. Nigerian Veterinary Journal. ARTICLE. Veterinary Profession: Potential .... registered veterinarians were in the public sector (Anon, 1985), but over ... control of zoonotic and water borne diseases in humans.

  11. Veterinary and human medicine: learning from each other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey, Laura

    2016-03-26

    A well-attended session at this year's joint SPVS/VPMA congress considered what lessons the medical and veterinary professions might learn from one another. Laura Honey reports. British Veterinary Association.

  12. Biomarkers in Veterinary Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Michael J; Smith, Emily R; Turfle, Phillip G

    2017-02-08

    This article summarizes the relevant definitions related to biomarkers; reviews the general processes related to biomarker discovery and ultimate acceptance and use; and finally summarizes and reviews, to the extent possible, examples of the types of biomarkers used in animal species within veterinary clinical practice and human and veterinary drug development. We highlight opportunities for collaboration and coordination of research within the veterinary community and leveraging of resources from human medicine to support biomarker discovery and validation efforts for veterinary medicine.

  13. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Veterinary Anatomy, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria; 3Department of Veterinary Pathology, University of. Jos, Jos, Nigeria. ... laboratory technologists and academic staff of the departments of veterinary anatomy, pathology and public health. Design of the .... mouse, rabbit and rat (Carpenter, 2014). Polyclonal ...

  14. Tanzania Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Tanzania Veterinary Journal (The Tropical Veterinarian) is a biannual Journal, which publishes original contribution to knowledge on Veterinary Science, Animal Science and Production, and allied sciences including new techniques and developments in Veterinary Medicine. The target readers of the Journal are the ...

  15. Phylogenetic and microsatellite markers for Tulasnella (Tulasnellaceae) mycorrhizal fungi associated with Australian orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruibal, Monica P; Peakall, Rod; Smith, Leon M; Linde, Celeste C

    2013-03-01

    Phylogenetic and microsatellite markers were developed for Tulasnella mycorrhizal fungi to investigate fungal species identity and diversity. These markers will be useful in future studies investigating the phylogenetic relationship of the fungal symbionts, specificity of orchid-mycorrhizal associations, and the role of mycorrhizae in orchid speciation within several orchid genera. • We generated partial genome sequences of two Tulasnella symbionts originating from Chiloglottis and Drakaea orchid species with 454 genome sequencing. Cross-genus transferability across mycorrhizal symbionts associated with multiple genera of Australian orchids (Arthrochilus, Chiloglottis, Drakaea, and Paracaleana) was found for seven phylogenetic loci. Five loci showed cross-transferability to Tulasnella from other orchid genera, and two to Sebacina. Furthermore, 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci were developed for Tulasnella from Chiloglottis. • Highly informative markers were obtained, allowing investigation of mycorrhizal diversity of Tulasnellaceae associated with a wide variety of terrestrial orchids in Australia and potentially worldwide.

  16. Domestic violence shelter partnerships and veterinary student attitudes at North American veterinary schools and colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creevy, Kate E; Shaver, Stephanie L; Cornell, Karen K

    2013-01-01

    Animal abuse and domestic violence are linked issues, and pet ownership is reported to play a crucial role in the choice to leave an abusive situation. Although veterinarians witness the effects of abuse and violence over the course of their careers, they have limited training regarding these issues. One mechanism for educating veterinary students while providing a service for victims of domestic violence is the creation of partnerships between domestic violence shelters and veterinary schools. These extracurricular programs can provide both care for pets belonging to victims of domestic violence and an educational platform for student participants. The goals of this study were to determine the prevalence and characteristics of domestic violence shelter partnerships (DVSPs) at North American veterinary teaching hospitals and to determine whether the presence of a DVSP was associated with increased awareness among veterinary students regarding animal abuse and domestic violence. Nine of 33 veterinary schools surveyed described a DVSP program. Students at schools with DVSPs associated with their veterinary teaching hospitals were significantly more likely to indicate that their awareness of the link between animal abuse and domestic violence had increased during veterinary school. Most veterinary students reported that they felt poorly prepared to handle domestic violence and animal abuse issues in the workplace. This study indicates that extracurricular DVSPs are a viable means of educating veterinary students regarding domestic violence and animal abuse. A need for improved education on these topics in veterinary schools across North America is identified.

  17. Spatial and temporal evaluation of veterinarians and veterinary employers relative to human and domesticated animal populations in Australia 2002-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, G B; East, I J; Wicks, R M

    2015-05-01

    To examine the distribution of veterinarians, humans, domestic animals and non-private practice employers in Australia and assess whether a relationship exists between them. To identify trends in the number of veterinarians, humans and domestic animals between 2002 and 2012 that may influence future demands for veterinary services. Australian data on registered veterinarians, veterinary practices, the human population and various domestic animal species were obtained for the years 2002, 2007 and 2012. The data were mapped to assess distribution and temporal trends in number and distribution were assessed. Nationally, registered veterinarians were distributed similarly to the general population, with a slight bias to regional areas. The number of veterinarians nationally increased both in absolute terms and relative to the human population between 2002 and 2012. Companion animals were distributed similarly to the human population and livestock occurred in highest density in the more productive agricultural areas. The areas with highest density of domestic animals were within 100 km of an existing veterinary practice. There was moderate correlation between the number of registered veterinarians and the number of people or companion animals, but poor correlation for livestock. The number of domestic animal species decreased between 2002 and 2012, with the exceptions of cattle and poultry. There is not a simple relationship between the number of veterinarians, people or domestic animals. Better data are needed to describe the drivers for demand for veterinary services and enable future workforce planning. © 2015 Australian Veterinary Association.

  18. Ethiopian Veterinary Journal: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Editorial Board Members. Editor-in-Chief: Eshetu Yimer Ahmed, Development Consultant, E-mail:evjeditorinchief@yahoo.com ethiopvetj@gmail.com. Associate Editors: Melaku Tefera, College of Veterinary Medicine, Haramaya University E-mail: melaku22@yahoo.com. Abebe Wossene Wolde, E-mail: abebeww@yahoo.

  19. Nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among Swiss veterinary health care providers: detection of livestock- and healthcare-associated clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettstein Rosenkranz, K; Rothenanger, E; Brodard, I; Collaud, A; Overesch, G; Bigler, B; Marschall, J; Perreten, V

    2014-07-01

    We screened a total of 340 veterinarians (including general practitioners, small animal practitioners, large animal practitioners, veterinarians working in different veterinary services or industry), and 29 veterinary assistants for nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) at the 2012 Swiss veterinary annual meeting. MRSA isolates (n = 14) were detected in 3.8 % (95 % CI 2.1 - 6.3 %) of the participants whereas MRSP was not detected. Large animal practitioners were carriers of livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA) ST398-t011-V (n = 2), ST398-t011-IV (n = 4), and ST398-t034-V (n = 1). On the other hand, participants working with small animals harbored human healthcare-associated MRSA (HCA-MRSA) which belonged to epidemic lineages ST225-t003-II (n = 2), ST225-t014-II (n = 1), ST5-t002-II (n = 2), ST5-t283-IV (n = 1), and ST88-t186-IV (n = 1). HCA-MRSA harbored virulence factors such as enterotoxins, β-hemolysin converting phage and leukocidins. None of the MRSA isolates carried Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). In addition to the methicillin resistance gene mecA, LA-MRSA ST398 isolates generally contained additional antibiotic resistance genes conferring resistance to tetracycline [tet(M) and tet(K)], trimethoprim [dfrK, dfrG], and the aminoglycosides gentamicin and kanamycin [aac(6')-Ie - aph(2')-Ia]. On the other hand, HCA-MRSA ST5 and ST225 mainly contained genes conferring resistance to the macrolide, lincosamide and streptogramin B antibiotics [erm(A)], to spectinomycin [ant(9)-Ia], amikacin and tobramycin [ant(4')-Ia], and to fluoroquinolones [amino acid substitutions in GrlA (S84L) and GyrA (S80F and S81P)]. MRSA carriage may represent an occupational risk and veterinarians should be aware of possible MRSA colonization and potential for developing infection or for transmitting these strains. Professional exposure to animals should be reported upon hospitalization and before medical

  20. Veterinary Technician Program Director Leadership Style and Program Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renda-Francis, Lori A.

    2012-01-01

    Program directors of American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) accredited veterinary technician programs may have little or no training in leadership. The need for program directors of AVMA-accredited veterinary technician programs to understand how leadership traits may have an impact on student success is often overlooked. The purpose of…

  1. Dietary zinc is associated with a lower incidence of depression: findings from two Australian cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashum, Khanrin Phungamla; McEvoy, Mark; Milton, Abul Hasnat; McElduff, Patrick; Hure, Alexis; Byles, Julie; Attia, John

    2014-09-01

    Several animal and human studies have shown that zinc plays a role in reducing depression, but there have been no longitudinal studies in both men and women on this topic. The aim of this study was to investigate dietary zinc, and the zinc to iron ratio, as predictors of incident depression in two large longitudinal studies of mid-age and older Australians. Data were self-reported, as part of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women׳s Health (women aged 50-61 years) and Hunter Community Study (men and women aged 55-85 years). Validated food frequency questionnaires were used to assess dietary intake. Energy-adjusted zinc was ranked using quintiles and predictors of incident depression were examined using multivariate logistic regression. Both studies showed an inverse association between dietary zinc intake and risk of depression, even after adjusting for potential confounders. Compared to those with the lowest zinc intake those with the highest zinc intake had significantly lower odds of developing depression with a reduction of about 30-50%. There was no association between the zinc to iron ratio and developing depression in either study. Dietary assessment was carried out only at baseline and although adjustments were made for all known potential confounders, residual confounding cannot be entirely excluded. Low dietary zinc intake is associated with a greater incidence of depression in both men and women, as shown in two prospective cohorts. Further studies into the precise role of zinc compared to other important nutrients from the diet are needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Hirudotherapy in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobczak, Natalia; Kantyka, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    The saliva of medicinal leeches, e.g., Hirudo medicinalis and Hirudo verbana commonly used in hirudotherapy, contains more than 100 bioactive substances with various therapeutic effects, including anticoagulant, vasodilator, thrombolytic, anti-inflammatory and anaesthetic properties. Recently, leeches have been used very successfully in veterinary medicine to treat many diseases of animals, especially dogs, cats and horses. The most common indications for the use of leeches are hip and elbow dysplasia, acute and chronic arthritis, diseases associated with inflammation of tendons, ligaments, and fascia, diseases of the vertebrae and the treatment of scars. Leech therapy is a painless procedure which takes an average of 30 to 120 minutes, the time being dependent on the size of the animal. All leeches used in medical procedures should originate only from certified biofarms. The maintenance of sterile conditions for the culture, transport and storage of medical leeches is very important to protect animals from microbial infections. Hirudotherapy is successfully used in veterinary medicine, especially when traditional treatment is not effective, the effects of treatment are too slow, or after surgery, when the tissues may be threatened by venous congestion.

  3. Development of phylogenetic markers for Sebacina (Sebacinaceae) mycorrhizal fungi associated with Australian orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruibal, Monica P; Peakall, Rod; Foret, Sylvain; Linde, Celeste C

    2014-06-01

    To investigate fungal species identity and diversity in mycorrhizal fungi of order Sebacinales, we developed phylogenetic markers. These new markers will enable future studies investigating species delineation and phylogenetic relationships of the fungal symbionts and facilitate investigations into evolutionary interactions among Sebacina species and their orchid hosts. • We generated partial genome sequences for a Sebacina symbiont originating from Caladenia huegelii with 454 genome sequencing and from three symbionts from Eriochilus dilatatus and one from E. pulchellus using Illumina sequencing. Six nuclear and two mitochondrial loci showed high variability (10-31% parsimony informative sites) for Sebacinales mycorrhizal fungi across four genera of Australian orchids (Caladenia, Eriochilus, Elythranthera, and Glossodia). • We obtained highly informative DNA markers that will allow investigation of mycorrhizal diversity of Sebacinaceae fungi associated with terrestrial orchids in Australia and worldwide.

  4. Factors associated with educational mobility in mid-age Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooth, Leigh R; Mishra, Gita D

    2017-02-01

    The educational mobility of mid-age women is rarely studied. We analysed the baseline socio-economic position (SEP) and health factors associated with obtaining further education in 4117 mid-age Australian women between 1996 and 2010 (aged 45-50 at baseline, 62-67 at follow-up) from a population-based study. Women either unemployed or working part-time at baseline had higher odds of a stable low and middle education over time (ORs ranging from 1.61 to 3.86) versus educational mobility. Apart from obesity, characteristics that may signal an unhealthy lifestyle in early mid-life were not useful indicators of women's future educational mobility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Applications of informatics in veterinary medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ronald D.; Williams, Mitsuko

    2000-01-01

    This study used the peer-reviewed biomedical literature to define the veterinary informatics knowledgebase and associated subspecialties, and assesses the level of activity in the field over the thirty-year period from 1966 through 1995. Grateful Med was used to search the MEDLINE bibliographic database for articles that shared one or more Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) keywords from the veterinary and medical informatics subject headings. Each of ninety-five MeSH medical informatics terms was assigned to one of twelve veterinary informatics subspecialties. The number of articles retrieved by each MeSH keyword and subspecialty was calculated. A total of 611 articles were retrieved, representing the contributions of 1,338 authors published in 153 journals. The field experienced slow growth over the twenty-year period from 1966 through 1985. In the following decade, the cumulative number of veterinary informatics articles almost tripled and the percentage of veterinary-related articles that included an informatics component increased almost two-and-one-half fold. Despite this recent growth, the number of veterinary-related articles with an informatics component has never exceeded 1% of either the veterinary or medical informatics literature over the past thirty years, and representation of veterinary subspecialties in the literature varied widely. PMID:10658963

  6. Prevalence and associations of domestic violence at an Australian colposcopy clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlivan, Julie A; Collier, Rachael R; Petersen, Rodney W

    2012-10-01

    Domestic violence is associated with significant mortality and morbidity including gynecological morbidity. We report the prevalence and associations of domestic violence in an Australian colposcopy service. A prospective study was performed from consecutive patients attending colposcopy clinics at a major metropolitan hospital in Australia. Key outcomes were the prevalence of intimate partner violence and its key demographic associations. Consent was obtained from 574 and domestic violence status was ascertained in 566 of 581 women approached. Overall, 33% of responders reported violence within 12 months. In 14.5%, the female reported being sole recipient of violence; in a further 16.6%, violence was bidirectional, and in 1.9% of cases, a woman was the sole perpetrator. Key associations of violence were younger age at presentation (32 vs 35 y; p = .01), higher rates of smoking (51.3% vs 38.2%; p = .0004), higher rates of housing instability (32.2% vs 12.2%; p Domestic violence is common in women presenting to colposcopy services and may be associated with poor housing stability and higher default rates.

  7. Veterinary Services Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Mission:To provide quality veterinary medical care and environmental enrichment programs for all animals, representing nine different species.To provide guidance for...

  8. Comparison of veterinary drugs and veterinary homeopathy: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, P; Pelligand, L; Whiting, M; Chambers, D; Toutain, P-L; Whitehead, M L

    2017-08-12

    For many years after its invention around 1796, homeopathy was widely used in people and later in animals. Over the intervening period (1796-2016) pharmacology emerged as a science from Materia Medica (medicinal materials) to become the mainstay of veterinary therapeutics. There remains today a much smaller, but significant, use of homeopathy by veterinary surgeons. Homeopathic products are sometimes administered when conventional drug therapies have not succeeded, but are also used as alternatives to scientifically based therapies and licensed products. The principles underlying the veterinary use of drug-based and homeopathic products are polar opposites; this provides the basis for comparison between them. This two-part review compares and contrasts the two treatment forms in respect of history, constituents, methods of preparation, known or postulated mechanisms underlying responses, the legal basis for use and scientific credibility in the 21st century. Part 1 begins with a consideration of why therapeutic products actually work or appear to do so. British Veterinary Association.

  9. Energy drink consumption is associated with anxiety in Australian young adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapp, Georgina S A; Allen, Karina; O'Sullivan, Therese A; Robinson, Monique; Jacoby, Peter; Oddy, Wendy H

    2014-05-01

    Energy drinks are predominantly targeted to young adult consumers; however, there has been limited research into their effects on psychological functioning in this demographic group. This study examined cross-sectional associations between energy drink consumption and mental health in a population-based sample of young adults participating in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. We used self-report questionnaires to assess energy drink consumption and mental health (Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21; DASS-21) at the 20-year cohort follow-up. In the regression analyses, we considered associations between energy drink consumption (mL/day) and continuous DASS-21 scores, adjusting for sociodemographic variables, alcohol and drug use, physical activity, body mass index (BMI), and dietary intake. Our sample included 502 males and 567 females (mean age 20 ± 3 years). After adjusting for potential confounding factors and controlling for coexisting mental health problems, energy drink consumption (per 100 mL/day) was significantly associated with anxiety (but not depression or stress), and this relationship was found only in males (β = 0.32; 95% CI = 0.05, 0.58). Our study found that energy drink consumption was associated with increased anxiety in young adult males. Further research into the possible contribution of energy drink use to the development of mental health problems in young adults is needed. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Factors associated with unwanted sexual experiences of young Australian females: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasinghe, Asvini K; Jayasinghe, Yasmin L; Wark, John D; Gorelik, Alexandra; Garland, Suzanne M

    2017-08-01

    Background Behavioural and lifestyle factors associated with childhood unwanted sexual experiences (USE) have yet to be investigated in Australian females aged less than 18 years. Women aged 16-25 years living in Victoria were recruited via targeted advertising on Facebook. A web-based validated questionnaire was used to collect information on participant demographics, mental health, USE and sexual behaviours. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine associations between a history of childhood (<16 years) and adolescent (16-18 years) USE and indices of sexual orientation. Data were collected from 639 females (mean±s.d. age 22±3 years). Approximately 14% reported childhood USE and 15% reported adolescent USE. Approximately 37% of survivors of childhood USE reported penile-genital contact in relation to their USE. Participants who reported depression were almost four times as likely to have experienced childhood USE than those who did not report suffering from depression (odds ratio 3.6, 95% confidence interval 2.1-6.0, P<0.001). Positive associations between childhood USE, same-sex relationships and smoking were also detected. A strong relationship between childhood USE, depression and same-sex sexual behaviours was found, but results did not determine the direction of this association. Longitudinal studies should be conducted to investigate whether there are groups of individuals who are at a high risk of experiencing childhood USE, so that appropriate support systems can be put in place.

  11. Results of a survey to determine demographic and business management factors associated with size and growth rate of rural mixed-animal veterinary practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusk, Amy M; White, Brad J; Goehl, Dan R; Dhuyvetter, Kevin C

    2010-12-15

    To determine potential associations between demographic and business management factors and practice size and growth rate in rural mixed-animal veterinary practices. Cross-sectional survey. 54 mixed-animal practitioners. A cross-sectional survey (96 questions) was electronically disseminated. Responses were collected, and outcomes (number of veterinarians [NV], growth in number of veterinarians [NVG], gross practice income [GPI], growth in gross practice income [GPIG], gross practice income per veterinarian [GPIV], and growth in gross practice income per veterinarian [GPIVG]) were calculated. Bivariate analyses were performed and multivariable models created to determine associations between survey responses and outcomes of interest. Survey respondents were from mixed-animal practices, and most (46/54 [85.2%]) practiced in small communities (< 25,000 people). Study practices had a median ± SD NV of 2.3 ± 1.9 veterinarians, median GPI of $704,547 ± 754,839, and median GPIV of $282,065 ± 182,344. Multivariable regression analysis revealed several factors related to practice size, including the number of associate veterinarians and veterinary technicians in the practice, service fee structure, and employment of a business manager. Typically, practices had positive mean growth in NVG (4.4%), GPIG (8.5%), and GPIVG (8.1%), but growth rate was highly variable among practices. Factors associated with growth rate included main species interest, frequency for adjusting prices, use of a marketing plan, service fee structure, and sending a client newsletter. Mixed-animal practices had a large range in size and growth rate. Economic indices were impacted by common business management practices.

  12. Association between short sleep duration and body mass index in Australian Indigenous children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon-Crouch, Melissa; Skinner, Isabelle; Tucci, Joseph; Skinner, Timothy

    2018-01-01

    Associations between short sleep duration and obesity and the relationship between obesity and chronic illness are well documented. Obese children are likely to become obese adults. To date, there is a paucity of information regarding sleep duration and quality for Indigenous Australian people. It may be that poor-quality, short sleep is contributing to the gap in health outcomes for Indigenous people compared with non-Indigenous adults and children. This study sought to investigate the possibility that poor sleep quality may be contributing to health outcomes for Indigenous children by exploring associations between sleep duration and body mass index (BMI). Participants included 1253 children aged 7-12 years in Wave 7 of the national Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children survey. Interviewers asked primary carers about children's sleep times. BMI was derived from measurements of children made by researchers. Regardless of age, relative socio-economic disadvantage and level of remoteness, unhealthy weight was associated with less sleep duration than healthy weight for Indigenous children. The relationship between short sleep duration and BMI in Indigenous children has important implications for their future health outcomes. Both overweight conditions and short sleep are established modifiable risk factors for metabolic dysfunction and other chronic illnesses prominent in the Indigenous population. It is important to consider strategies to optimise both for Indigenous children in an attempt to help 'close the gap' in health outcomes and life expectancy between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  13. Factors Associated With Sexual Coercion in a Representative Sample of Men in Australian Prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Paul L; Reekie, Joanne; Butler, Tony G; Richters, Juliet; Yap, Lorraine; Grant, Luke; Richards, Alun; Donovan, Basil

    2016-07-01

    Very little research has focused on men or prisoners as victims of sexual violence. This study provides the first population-based analysis of factors associated with sexual coercion of men in Australian prisons, and the first to use a computer-assisted telephone interview to collect this information in a prison setting. A random sample of men in New South Wales and Queensland prisons were surveyed using computer-assisted telephone interviewing. We asked participants about sexual coercion, defined as being forced or frightened into doing something sexually that was unwanted while in prison. Associations between sexual coercion in prison and sociodemographics, sexual coercion history outside of prison, and prison-related factors were examined. Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios in examining factors associated with sexual coercion in prisons. Of 2626 eligible men, 2000 participated. Participants identifying as non-heterosexual and those with a history of sexual coercion outside prison were found to be most at risk. Those in prison for the first time and those who had spent more than 5 years in prison ever were also more likely to report sexual coercion. Although prison policies and improving prison officer training may help address immediate safety and health concerns of those at risk, given the sensitivity of the issue and likely under-reporting to correctional staff, community-based organizations and prisoner peer-based groups arguably have a role too in providing both preventive and trauma-focused support.

  14. Environmental Factors Associated with Success Rates of Australian Stock Herding Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, Elizabeth R.; Early, Jonathan B.; Wade, Claire M.; McGreevy, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the current management practices associated with stock herding dogs on Australian farms. A parallel goal was to determine whether these practices and the characteristics of the dog handlers were associated with success rates. Success rate refers to the proportion of dogs acquired by the farmer that were retained as working dogs. Data on a total of 4,027 dogs were obtained through The Farm Dog Survey which gathered information from 812 herding dog owners around Australia. Using logistic regression, significant associations were identified between success rate and seven variables: dog breed, housing method, trial participation, age of the dog at acquisition, electric collar use, hypothetical maximum treatment expenditure and the conscientiousness score of the owner's personality. These findings serve as a guide to direct further research into ways of optimising herding dog performance and welfare. They emphasise the importance of not only examining the genetic predispositions of the working dog but also the impact the handler can have on a dog's success in the workplace. PMID:25136828

  15. Environmental factors associated with success rates of Australian stock herding dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth R Arnott

    Full Text Available This study investigated the current management practices associated with stock herding dogs on Australian farms. A parallel goal was to determine whether these practices and the characteristics of the dog handlers were associated with success rates. Success rate refers to the proportion of dogs acquired by the farmer that were retained as working dogs. Data on a total of 4,027 dogs were obtained through The Farm Dog Survey which gathered information from 812 herding dog owners around Australia. Using logistic regression, significant associations were identified between success rate and seven variables: dog breed, housing method, trial participation, age of the dog at acquisition, electric collar use, hypothetical maximum treatment expenditure and the conscientiousness score of the owner's personality. These findings serve as a guide to direct further research into ways of optimising herding dog performance and welfare. They emphasise the importance of not only examining the genetic predispositions of the working dog but also the impact the handler can have on a dog's success in the workplace.

  16. Understanding veterinary leadership in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Caroline Elizabeth; Butler, Allan J; Murray, Yaqub Paul

    2018-02-14

    The Vet Futures Report has identified 'exceptional leadership' as a key ambition for the long-term sustainability of the industry. This research investigates what it is like to be a veterinary surgeon in an in-practice leadership position, applying the qualitative methodology of interpretative phenomenological analysis. Through the researchers' interpretation of the seven participants' stories of their leadership experiences, the study advances understanding of the work environment, underlying motivations and the perceived responsibilities of veterinary leaders. Findings suggest, for many, a struggle in transition to leader positions, improving with time. The increase in pace of work is relayed by participants, with an ongoing, and unchallenged, work-life imbalance. The vets involved are highly motivated, driven by enjoyment of their jobs, a desire for self-determination and a need to make a difference. Relationships form the core of the perceived responsibilities, and yet are identified as the greatest day-to-day challenge of leadership. This study offers a valuable insight for veterinary surgeons, suggesting the industry could benefit from pausing and reflecting on behaviours. With a greater understanding of the complexity of leadership and followership, progress can be made to enact positive changes for the future. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Report on environmental radiation monitoring associated with visits to Australian ports by nuclear powered warships in 1980; and, amendments to the guidelines for environmental radiation monitoring during visits of nuclear powered warships to Australian ports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    The Australian Government requires that an environmental radiation monitoring program be carried out in association with visits of nuclear ships to Australian ports. The objectives and requirements of the program are summarised and the results of the marine environmental sampling program undertaken at berths are presented, together with radiation measurements taken during visits. During 1980, no releases of radioactive material were detected, nor were any radiation measurements recorded in excess of natural background levels

  18. Veterinary education in Africa: current and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, G E; Kriek, N P J

    2009-03-01

    Veterinary education commenced in South Africa in 1920 at the Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute in South Africa in association with the Transvaal University College, now the University of Pretoria. Sir Arnold Theiler, Director of Veterinary Research and Education, was the first Dean. Today there are 46 veterinary training institutions in Africa of which 21 are in sub-Saharan Africa. Veterinary services are indispensable to the sustained health and wellbeing of animals and humans, and agricultural economies of countries worldwide. Veterinary education, postgraduate training, and research, and adequate numbers of veterinarians, are essential to satisfy the millennium development goals, the objectives of NEPAD and the African Union, and the agreements regulating international trade. The relevance of the veterinary profession internationally is currently subject to profound scrutiny. Its contributions are assessed against major environmental, demographic, political, disease, technological and economic needs. The scope of veterinary training in future will have to emphasise veterinary public health, food safety, emerging diseases, international trade, bioterrorism, and biomedical research, within the context of a one-health system focusing on the interface between wildlife, domesticated animals, humans, and their environment. Within the context of time available, it would mean reducing the time allocated to training in the field of companion animals. A brief history and scope of veterinary education; current international trends in veterinary education and provisioning; and some perspectives on future veterinary training and initiatives applicable to Africa are provided.

  19. Sahel Journal of Veterinary Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Sahel Journal of Veterinary Sciences is the official journal of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria. The journal welcomes original research articles, short communications and reviews on all aspects of veterinary sciences and related disciplines.

  20. Veterinary microbiology and microbial disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quinn, P. J

    2011-01-01

    "Veterinary Microbiology is one of the core subjects for veterinary students. Fully revised and expanded, this new edition covers every aspect of veterinary microbiology for students in both paraclinical and clinical years...

  1. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Nigerian Veterinary Journal 37(3). 2016. Meseko et al. 155. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL. ISSN 0331-3026. Nig. Vet. J., September 2016. Vol. 37 (3): 155-159. SHORT COMMUNICATION. Detection of Haemagglutination inhibition antibody to Pandemic and. Classical Swine Influenza Virus in Commercial Piggery in ...

  2. Archives: Tanzania Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 15 of 15 ... Archives: Tanzania Veterinary Journal. Journal Home > Archives: Tanzania Veterinary Journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 15 of 15 Items ...

  3. .* Nigerian Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farmers' Awareness of Marek's Disease and Biosecurity. Practices in Poultry Production in. Selected States of Nigeria. JWANOER, L.O.", ABOU, P.A.', IBRAHIM, N.O.G.' and NOK, J.A.'. 'Central Diagnostic, National Veterinary Research Institute Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria, 'Department of Veterinary Medicine. Ahmadu Bello ...

  4. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    1Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Kwara State,. Nigeria.2Department of Wildlife and Ecotourism, Faculty of ... study showed that large number of occupational exposed humans did not receive rabies pre- exposure vaccination despite their frequent exposure to ...

  5. Archives: Ethiopian Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 16 of 16 ... Archives: Ethiopian Veterinary Journal. Journal Home > Archives: Ethiopian Veterinary Journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 16 of 16 Items ...

  6. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    SUMMARY. The prevalence and morphological pathology of renal failure in exotic breeds of dog in Lagos and Ogun States, within Southwestern Nigeria were determined from postmortem records of the. Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of. Agriculture, Abeokuta ...

  7. Archives: Nigerian Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 49 of 49 ... Archives: Nigerian Veterinary Journal. Journal Home > Archives: Nigerian Veterinary Journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 49 of 49 Items ...

  8. Open Veterinary Journal: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Dr. Ibrahim Eldaghayes Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tripoli Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tripoli, P. O. Box 13662, Tripoli, Libya Phone: +218 21 462 8422. Fax: +218 21 462 8421. Email: ibrahim.eldaghayes@vetmed.edu.ly ...

  9. The genesis and isotopic composition of carbonates associated with some Permian Australian coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, K.W.; Smith, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    Siderite and calcite are the two forms of carbonate commonly associated with Permian Australian coals. The former occurs as disseminated spherulites and is a product of the early post-depositional environment. Isotopic measurements show that the CO 2 fixed as siderite did not result from the direct oxidation of photosynthetically derived materials, but rather from the anaerobic fermentation of these. The higher concentrations of calcite are generally found towards the roofs of coal seams and are characterized by isotopic enrichments to delta 13 C values of +25% PDB. Isotopic exchange between CO 2 and CH 4 within the coal seam is postulated as the mechanism which leads to the formation of isotopically heavy CO 2 . At sites along the seam margins where the CO 2 escapes, interaction with circulating metal ions or preexisting calcite results in the deposition of ''heavy'' calcite. With increasing alteration of coal by thermal metamorphism, the 13 C content of calcites and finally siderites decreases so that it more nearly approaches that of the associated coal. (Auth.)

  10. Associations between sports participation, adiposity and obesity-related health behaviors in Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Stewart A; Cliff, Dylan P; Okely, Anthony D; Scully, Maree L; Morley, Belinda C

    2013-10-02

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between organized sports participation, weight status, physical activity, screen time, and important food habits in a large nationally representative sample of Australian adolescents. Nationally representative cross-sectional study of 12,188 adolescents from 238 secondary schools aged between 12 and 17 years (14.47 ± 1.25 y, 53% male, 23% overweight/obese). Participation in organized sports, compliance with national physical activity, screen time, and fruit and vegetable consumption guidelines, and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and high-fat foods were self-reported. Weight status and adiposity (BMI, waist circumference) were measured. Organized sports participation was higher among males and those residing in rural/remote areas. Underweight adolescents reported the lowest levels of participation. Higher levels of participation were associated with an increased likelihood of complying with national physical activity (OR = 2.07 [1.67-2.58]), screen time (OR = 1.48 [1.19-1.84]), and fruit and vegetable consumption guidelines (OR = 1.32 [1.05-1.67]). There was no association between organized sport participation and weight status, adiposity, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages or high-fat foods. Participation in organized sports was associated with a greater likelihood to engage in a cluster of health behaviors, including meeting physical activity guidelines, electronic screen time recommendations, and fruit and vegetable consumption guidelines. However, participation in organized sports was not associated with unhealthy dietary behaviors including the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and high-fat foods. There is no association between participation in organized sports and likelihood to be overweight or obese. The role of sports in promoting healthy weight and energy balance is unclear.

  11. Associations between selected dietary behaviours and academic achievement: A study of Australian school aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Tracy; Goldman, Sharni; Olson, Richard K; Byrne, Brian; Coventry, William L

    2017-09-01

    Research investigating the effects of dietary behaviours on children's academic achievement has predominately focused on breakfast consumption. The aim of this study was to conduct secondary analysis to examine associations between a range of dietary behaviours and children's academic achievement. Data on five dietary variables (fruit intake; vegetable intake; consumption of takeaway; sugar sweetened beverages; and breakfast) and scores in the five domains of a standardised academic achievement test known as NAPLAN (reading, writing, grammar/punctuation, spelling and numeracy) were obtained for Australian children aged 8-15 years in school grades three (n = 1185), five (n = 1147), seven (n = 1053) and nine (n = 860). Mixed linear models adjusted for socioeconomic status and gender were used to examine associations between dietary behaviours and academic scores. Greater consumption of vegetables with the evening meal (7 nights/week) was associated with higher test scores in the domains of spelling and writing (p=<0.01), with the greatest effect observed for spelling with a mean score difference of 86 ± 26.5 NAPLAN points between the highest and lowest levels of consumption (95% CI: 34.0-138.1; p=<0.01). Increased consumption of sugar sweetened beverages was associated with significantly lower test scores in reading, writing, grammar/punctuation and numeracy (<0.01). The findings of this study demonstrate dietary behaviours are associated with higher academic achievement. Future research should further explore relationships between a wide range of dietary behaviours and children's academic achievement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Association of gender and specialty interest with video-gaming, three-dimensional spatial analysis, and entry-level laparoscopic skills in third-year veterinary students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Heather R; Towle Millard, Heather A; Millard, Ralph P; Constable, Peter D; Freeman, Lyn J

    2016-06-15

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether gender or interest in pursuing specialty certification in internal medicine or surgery was associated with video-gaming, 3-D spatial analysis, or entry-level laparoscopic skills in third-year veterinary students. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SAMPLE A convenience sample of 68 (42 female and 26 male) third-year veterinary students. PROCEDURES Participants completed a survey asking about their interest in pursuing specialty certification in internal medicine or surgery. Subsequently, participants' entry-level laparoscopic skills were assessed with 3 procedures performed in box trainers, their video-gaming skills were tested with 3 video games, and their 3-D spatial analysis skills were evaluated with the Purdue University Visualization of Rotations Spatial Test. Scores were assigned for laparoscopic, video-gaming, and 3-D spatial analysis skills. RESULTS Significantly more female than male students were interested in pursuing specialty certification in internal medicine (23/42 vs 7/26), and significantly more male than female students were interested in pursuing specialty certification in surgery (19/26 vs 19/42). Males had significantly higher video-gaming skills scores than did females, but spatial analysis and laparoscopic skills scores did not differ between males and females. Students interested in pursuing specialty certification in surgery had higher video-gaming and spatial analysis skills scores than did students interested in pursuing specialty certification in internal medicine, but laparoscopic skills scores did not differ between these 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE For this group of students, neither gender nor interest in specialty certification in internal medicine versus surgery was associated with entry-level laparoscopy skills.

  13. Pediatric Exposures to Veterinary Pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasi, Suzanne; Roberts, Kristin J; Stull, Jason; Spiller, Henry A; McKenzie, Lara B

    2017-03-01

    To describe the epidemiology of veterinary pharmaceutical-related exposures to children based on calls to a regional poison control center. A retrospective analysis of pediatric (≤19 years of age) exposures to pharmaceutical products intended for animal use, managed by a regional poison control center from 1999 through 2013, was conducted. Case narratives were reviewed and coded for exposure-related circumstances and intended species. Descriptive statistics were generated. From 1999 through 2013, the Central Ohio Poison Center received 1431 calls that related to a veterinary pharmaceutical exposure for children ≤19 years of age. Most of the pediatric calls (87.6%) involved children ≤5 years of age. Exploratory behavior was the most common exposure-related circumstance (61.4%) and ingestion accounted for the exposure route in 93% of cases. Substances commonly associated with exposures included: veterinary drugs without human equivalent (17.3%), antimicrobial agents (14.8%), and antiparasitics (14.6%). Based on substance and quantity, the majority of exposures (96.9%) were not expected to result in long-term or lasting health effects and were managed at home (94.1%). A total of 80 cases (5.6%) were referred to a health care facility, and 2 cases resulted in a moderate health effect. Children ≤5 years of age are most at risk for veterinary pharmaceutical-related exposures. Although most exposures do not result in a serious medical outcome, efforts to increase public awareness, appropriate product dispensing procedures, and attention to home storage practices may reduce the risk of veterinary pharmaceutical exposures to young children. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. The attitudes of owners and veterinary professionals in the United Kingdom to the risk of adverse events associated with using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to treat dogs with osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belshaw, Zoe; Asher, Lucy; Dean, Rachel S

    2016-09-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly prescribed by veterinary surgeons for the treatment of canine osteoarthritis, and affected dogs may receive these drugs for long periods of time. Whilst short term administration of NSAIDs to dogs is linked to adverse events such as gastrointestinal haemorrhage and renal injury, reports of adverse events associated with their long-term administration are limited in the veterinary literature. This study aimed to investigate the attitudes towards the long term use of NSAIDs for canine osteoarthritis held by three groups who manage osteoarthritic dogs in the United Kingdom: dog owners, veterinary surgeons and veterinary nurses. A qualitative methodology was adopted, using semi-structured interviews and focus groups. Thematic analysis of these data identified three themes: awareness of potential risks; recognition of adverse events; and influence of risk perception on the use of NSAIDs. Awareness of, and concern about, the risk of adverse events associated with NSAID administration to dogs with osteoarthritis was high in all groups, with veterinary surgeons being one of a variety of information sources used by owners to acquire this knowledge. Veterinary surgeons described difficulty in recognising, managing and avoiding adverse events associated with NSAIDs. When adverse events occurred, a wide range of management approaches were adopted ranging from a brief drug respite to permanent cessation of administration of any NSAIDs to that dog. Commonly employed approaches to minimise risk included dose reduction and screening blood tests. This study describes a high level of concern about the risks associated with long term NSAID administration to dogs with osteoarthritis and highlights a diverse range of strategies employed to minimise these risks. The evidence base for these strategies is poor, and this may present a risk to animal welfare if the affected dogs are not receiving adequate analgesia. In order to

  15. Dietary patterns by reduced rank regression are associated with obesity and hypertension in Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Katherine M; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2017-01-01

    Evidence linking dietary patterns (DP) and obesity and hypertension prevalence is inconsistent. We aimed to identify DP derived from energy density, fibre and sugar intakes, as well as Na, K, fibre, SFA and PUFA, and investigate associations with obesity and hypertension. Adults (n 4908) were included from the cross-sectional Australian Health Survey 2011-2013. Two 24-h dietary recalls estimated food and nutrient intakes. Reduced rank regression derived DP with dietary energy density (DED), fibre density and total sugar intake as response variables for obesity and Na:K, SFA:PUFA and fibre density as variables for hypertension. Poisson regression investigated relationships between DP and prevalence ratios (PR) of overweight/obesity (BMI≥25 kg/m2) and hypertension (blood pressure≥140/90 mmHg). Obesity-DP1 was positively correlated with fibre density and sugars and inversely with DED. Obesity-DP2 was positively correlated with sugars and inversely with fibre density. Individuals in the highest tertile of Obesity-DP1 and Obesity-DP2, compared with the lowest, had lower (PR 0·88; 95 % CI 0·81, 0·95) and higher (PR 1·09; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·18) prevalence of obesity, respectively. Na:K and SFA:PUFA were positively correlated with Hypertension-DP1 and inversely correlated with Hypertension-DP2, respectively. There was a trend towards higher hypertension prevalence in the highest tertile of Hypertension-DP1 compared with the lowest (PR 1·18; 95 % CI 0·99, 1·41). Hypertension-DP2 was not associated with hypertension. Obesity prevalence was inversely associated with low-DED, high-fibre and high-sugar (natural sugars) diets and positively associated with low-fibre and high-sugar (added sugars) diets. Hypertension prevalence was higher on low-fibre and high-Na and SFA diets.

  16. Association between infant formula feeding and dental fluorosis and caries in Australian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Loc G; Levy, Steven M; Spencer, A John

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between patterns of infant formula feeding and dental fluorosis and caries in a representative sample of Australian children. A population-based study gathered information on fluoride exposure in early childhood. Information on infant formula feeding and fluoridation status was used to group children: three groups in nonfluoridated areas (formula nonuser, user for ≤6 months, and user for 6+ months) and four groups in fluoridated areas (nonuser, user with nonfluoridated water, user with fluoridated water for ≤6 months, and user with fluoridated water for 6+ months). Children aged 8-13 years were examined for fluorosis using the Thylstrup and Fejerskov (TF) Index. Primary tooth caries experience recorded at age 8-9 years was extracted from clinical records. Fluorosis cases were defined as having TF 1+ on maxillary incisors. Fluorosis prevalence and primary caries experience were compared across formula user groups in multivariable regression models adjusting for other factors. Total sample was 588 children. Children in fluoridated areas had higher prevalence of very mild to mild fluorosis, but lower caries experience than those in nonfluoridated areas. Among children in nonfluoridated areas, formula users for 6+ months had significantly higher prevalence of fluorosis compared with nonusers. There was no significant difference in fluorosis prevalence among the formula users in fluoridated areas. Among children in fluoridated areas, formula users with nontap water had higher caries experience. Infant formula use was associated with higher prevalence of fluorosis in nonfluoridated areas but not in fluoridated areas. Type of water used for reconstituting infant formula in fluoridated areas was associated with caries experience. © 2011 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  17. The Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine Shelter Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushby, Philip; Woodruff, Kimberly; Shivley, Jake

    2015-04-24

    The shelter program at the Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine provides veterinary students with extensive experience in shelter animal care including spay/neuter, basic wellness care, diagnostics, medical management, disease control, shelter management and biosecurity. Students spend five days at shelters in the junior year of the curriculum and two weeks working on mobile veterinary units in their senior year. The program helps meet accreditation standards of the American Veterinary Medical Association's Council on Education that require students to have hands-on experience and is in keeping with recommendations from the North American Veterinary Medical Education Consortium. The program responds, in part, to the challenge from the Pew Study on Future Directions for Veterinary Medicine that argued that veterinary students do not graduate with the level of knowledge and skills that is commensurate with the number of years of professional education.

  18. Structure, dynamics and movement patterns of the Australian pig industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, I J; Davis, J; Sergeant, E S G; Garner, M G

    2014-03-01

    To assess management practices and movement patterns that could influence the establishment and spread of exotic animal diseases (EAD) in pigs in Australia. A literature review of published information and a telephone survey of 370 pig producers owning >10 pigs who were registered with the PigPass national vendor declaration scheme. The movement and marketing patterns of Australian pig producers interviewed were divided into two groups based predominantly on the size of the herd. Major pig producers maintain closed herds, use artificial insemination and market direct to abattoirs. Smaller producers continue to purchase from saleyards and market to other farms, abattoirs and through saleyards in an apparently opportunistic fashion. The role of saleyards in the Australian pig industry continues to decline, with 92% of all pigs marketed directly from farm to abattoir. This survey described movement patterns that will assist in modelling the potential spread of EAD in the Australian pig industry. Continued movement towards vertical integration and closed herds in the Australian pig industry effectively divides the industry into a number of compartments that mitigate against the widespread dissemination of disease to farms adopting these practices. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  19. Health inequalities, physician citizens and professional medical associations: an Australian case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naccarella Lucio

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As socioeconomic health inequalities persist and widen, the health effects of adversity are a constant presence in the daily work of physicians. Gruen and colleagues suggest that, in responding to important population health issues such as this, defining those areas of professional obligation in contrast to professional aspiration should be on the basis of evidence and feasibility. Drawing this line between obligation and aspiration is a part of the work of professional medical colleges and associations, and in doing so they must respond to members as well as a range of other interest groups. Our aim was to explore the usefulness of Gruen's model of physician responsibility in defining how professional medical colleges and associations should lead the profession in responding to socioeconomic health inequalities. Methods We report a case study of how the Royal Australian College of General Practitioners is responding to the issue of health inequalities through its work. We undertook a consultation (80 interviews with stakeholders internal and external to the College and two focus groups with general practitioners and program and policy review of core programs of College interest and responsibility: general practitioner training and setting of practice standards, as well as its work in public advocacy. Results Some strategies within each of these College program areas were seen as legitimate professional obligations in responding to socioeconomic health inequality. However, other strategies, while potentially professional obligations within Gruen's model, were nevertheless contested. The key difference between these lay in different moral orientations. Actions where agreement existed were based on an ethos of care and compassion. Actions that were contested were based on an ethos of justice and human rights. Conclusion Colleges and professional medical associations have a role in explicitly leading a debate about values

  20. Socioeconomic and health factors associated with kindergarten retention in Australian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Evelyn; Steele, Emily; Johnson, Shae; Proimos, Jenny; Batterham, Angela; Nolan, Terry; Waters, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    We aimed to identify key socioeconomic and health factors that are associated with a child's likelihood of being retained in kindergarten prior to commencing first year of school in Australian children. We used data linked from the School Entrant Health Questionnaire administered to children commencing school in 2012 (N = 42 002). Kindergarten retention here is defined by children accessing a second year of funded kindergarten prior to commencing school. We used logistic regression analysis to estimate the strength of associations between a range of socioeconomic and health factors to the likelihood of kindergarten retention. Of the 25 289 children included in our analysis, 903 (3.6%) had a second year of funded kindergarten prior to commencing school. In comparison, 1680 children out of 42 002 in the Kinder-School Entrant Health Questionnaire dataset had a second year of funded kindergarten (4.0%). From our final regression model, the highest association was found in children whose parents reported a history of speech and language difficulties (odds ratio 2.25, 95% confidence interval (1.91-2.66)) (adjusting for a range of demographic, health and developmental factors). Similarly, children from an indigenous background were twice as likely to be retained in kindergarten compared with those with a non-indigenous background (odds ratio 2.06 (1.17-3.64)). This analysis adds to the evidence base that children who are more socially disadvantaged as well as children with health difficulties, particularly speech and language difficulties, are more likely to be retained in kindergarten. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  1. Hepatitis C virus prevalence and associated risk factors among Indigenous Australians who inject drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Michael; Maher, Lisa; Graham, Simon; Wand, Handan; Iversen, Jenny

    2018-02-01

    To examine factors associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among a national sample of Indigenous and non-Indigenous people who inject drugs (PWID) in Australia. Respondents were recruited from Australia's Needle Syringe Program Survey; an annual bio-behavioural surveillance project that monitors HCV antibody prevalence among PWID. Data from 2006-2015 were de-duplicated to retain only one record where individuals participated in >1 survey round. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression examined demographic characteristics and injection-related behaviours associated with exposure to HCV. Among 17,413 respondents, 2,215 (13%) were Indigenous Australians. Compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts, Indigenous respondents were significantly more likely to be exposed to HCV infection (53% vs. 60% respectively, pIndigenous respondents, HCV antibody positivity was independently associated with a history of imprisonment (Adjusted Odd Ratio [AOR] 2.13, 95%CI 1.73-2.64), opioid injection (AOR 1.53, 95%CI 11.43-2.16), recruitment in a metropolitan location (AOR 1.27, 95%CI 1.02-1.59), engagement in opioid substitution therapy (AOR 2.83, 95%CI 2.23-3.59) and length of time since first injection (pIndigenous PWID are more likely to be exposed to HCV infection than their non-Indigenous counterparts. Implications for public health: Increased access to culturally sensitive harm reduction programs is required to prevent primary HCV infection and reinfection among Indigenous PWID. Given recent advances in HCV treatment, promotion of treatment uptake among Indigenous PWID may reduce future HCV-related morbidity and mortality. © 2017 The Authors.

  2. Associations between Indigenous Australian oral health literacy and self-reported oral health outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamieson Lisa M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To determine oral health literacy (REALD-30 and oral health literacy-related outcome associations, and to calculate if oral health literacy-related outcomes are risk indicators for poor self-reported oral health among rural-dwelling Indigenous Australians. Methods 468 participants (aged 17-72 years, 63% female completed a self-report questionnaire. REALD-30 and oral health literacy-related outcome associations were determined through bivariate analysis. Multivariate modelling was used to calculate risk indicators for poor self-reported oral health. Results REALD-30 scores were lower among those who believed teeth should be infrequently brushed, believed cordial was good for teeth, did not own a toothbrush or owned a toothbrush but brushed irregularly. Tooth removal risk indicators included being older, problem-based dental attendance and believing cordial was good for teeth. Poor self-rated oral health risk indicators included being older, healthcare card ownership, difficulty paying dental bills, problem-based dental attendance, believing teeth should be brushed infrequently and irregular brushing. Perceived need for dental care risk indicators included being female and problem-based dental attendance. Perceived gum disease risk indicators included being older and irregular brushing. Feeling uncomfortable about oro-facial appearance risk indicators included problem-based dental attendance and irregular brushing. Food avoidance risk indicators were being female, difficulty paying dental bills, problem-based dental attendance and irregular brushing. Poor oral health-related quality of life risk indicators included difficulty paying dental bills and problem-based dental attendance. Conclusions REALD-30 was significantly associated with oral health literacy-related outcomes. Oral health literacy-related outcomes were risk indicators for each of the poor self-reported oral health domains among this marginalised population.

  3. Identification of dietary patterns associated with blood pressure in a sample of overweight Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anil, S; Charlton, K E; Tapsell, L C; Probst, Y; Ndanuko, R; Batterham, M J

    2016-11-01

    The dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet provides strong evidence for an optimal dietary pattern for blood pressure (BP) control; however, investigation at the level of key foods in a dietary pattern is sparse. This study aimed to assess the relationship between dietary patterns driven by key foods with BP in a sample of obese Australian adults. Secondary analysis was conducted on baseline data of 118 participants (45.1±8.4 years, mean BP=124.1±15.8/72.6±9.2 mm Hg) recruited in a weight reduction randomized controlled trial (ACTRN12608000425392). Dietary assessment was by a validated diet history interview. The average of three office BP measurements was taken. Factor analysis extracted dietary patterns and their relation to systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) was analysed using multiple linear regression. Eight dietary patterns were identified based on leading foods: meat and alcohol; seafood; fats; fruits and nuts; legumes; confectionery; sweet foods; and yeast extracts and seasonings. A lower SBP was associated with alignment with the fruit and nuts pattern (β=-4.1 (95% confidence interval -7.5 to -0.7) mm Hg) and with seafood for DBP (β=-2.4 (-4.6 to -0.3) mm Hg). SBP and DBP were higher with yeast extract and seasonings (β=4.3 (1.4-7.3); 2.5 (0.9-4.0) mm Hg, respectively). In obese adults attending for weight loss, dietary patterns that included larger amounts of fruits and nuts and/or seafood were associated with lower BP at baseline, whereas patterns that were characterised by yeast extract and seasonings were associated with higher BP.

  4. Identification of a dietary pattern prospectively associated with bone mass in Australian young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hooven, Edith H; Ambrosini, Gina L; Huang, Rae-Chi; Mountain, Jenny; Straker, Leon; Walsh, John P; Zhu, Kun; Oddy, Wendy H

    2015-11-01

    Relatively little is known about the relations between dietary patterns and bone health in adolescence, which is a period of substantial bone mass accrual. We derived dietary patterns that were hypothesized to be related to bone health on the basis of their protein, calcium, and potassium contents and investigated their prospective associations with bone mineral density (BMD), bone area, and bone mineral content (BMC) in a cohort of young adults. The study included 1024 young adults born to mothers who were participating in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Dietary information was obtained from food-frequency questionnaires at 14 and 17 y of age. Dietary patterns were characterized according to protein, calcium, and potassium intakes with the use of reduced-rank regression. BMD, bone area, and BMC were estimated with the use of a total body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan at 20 y of age. We identified 2 major dietary patterns. The first pattern was positively correlated with intakes of protein, calcium, and potassium and had high factor loadings for low-fat dairy products, whole grains, and vegetables. The second pattern was positively correlated with protein intake but negatively correlated with intakes of calcium and potassium and had high factor loadings for meat, poultry, fish, and eggs. After adjustment for anthropometric, sociodemographic, and lifestyle factors, a higher z score for the first pattern at 14 y of age was positively associated with BMD and BMC at 20 y of age [differences: 8.6 mg/cm(2) (95% CI: 3.0, 14.1 mg/cm(2)) and 21.9 g (95% CI: 6.5, 37.3 g), respectively, per SD increase in z score]. The z score for this same pattern at 17 y of age was not associated with bone outcomes at 20 y of age. The second pattern at 14 or 17 y of age was not associated with BMD, BMC, or bone area. A dietary pattern characterized by high intakes of protein, calcium, and potassium in midadolescence was associated with higher BMD and BMC at 20

  5. Associations of sitting accumulation patterns with cardio-metabolic risk biomarkers in Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellettiere, John; Winkler, Elisabeth A H; Chastin, Sebastien F M; Kerr, Jacqueline; Owen, Neville; Dunstan, David W; Healy, Genevieve N

    2017-01-01

    High amounts of time spent sitting can increase cardiovascular disease risk and are deleteriously associated cardio-metabolic risk biomarkers. Though evidence suggests that accruing sitting time in prolonged periods may convey additional risk, verification using high-quality measures is needed. We examined this issue in adults from the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study, using accurate measures of sitting accumulation. In 2011/12, 739 adults aged 36 to 89 years (mean±SD 58±10 years) wore activPAL3™ monitors (which provide accurate objective measures of sitting); 678 provided ≥4 valid days of monitor data and complete cardio-metabolic biomarker and confounder data. Multivariable linear regression models examined associations of sitting time, sitting time accrued in ≥30 minute bouts (prolonged sitting time), and three measures of sitting accumulation patterns with cardio-metabolic risk markers: body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure, high- and low- density lipoprotein (HDL and LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-hour post-load glucose (PLG). Interactions tests examined whether associations of sitting time with biomarkers varied by usual sitting bout duration. Adjusted for potential confounders, greater amounts of sitting time and prolonged sitting time were significantly (psitting time was also significantly associated with higher PLG. Sitting accumulation patterns of frequently interrupted sitting (compared to patterns with relatively more prolonged sitting) were significantly beneficially associated with BMI, waist circumference, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, PLG, and with FPG. Effect sizes were typically larger for accumulation patterns than for sitting time. Significant interactions (psitting time with HDL, triglycerides and PLG became more deleterious the longer at a time sitting was usually accumulated. Adding to previous evidence reliant on low

  6. Risk factors associated with academic difficulty in an Australian regionally located medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malau-Aduli, Bunmi S; O'Connor, Teresa; Ray, Robin A; Kerlen, Yolanda; Bellingan, Michelle; Teague, Peta-Ann

    2017-12-28

    Despite the highly selective admission processes utilised by medical schools, a significant cohort of medical students still face academic difficulties and are at a higher risk of delayed graduation or outright dismissal. This study used survival analysis to identify the non-academic and academic risk factors (and their relative risks) associated with academic difficulty at a regionally located medical school. Retrospective non-academic and academic entry data for all medical students who were enrolled at the time of the study (2009-2014) were collated and analysed. Non-academic variables included age at commencement of studies, gender, Indigenous status, origin, first in family to go to University (FIF), non-English speaking background (NESB), socio-economic status (SES) and rurality expressed as Australian Standard Geographical Classification-Remoteness Area (ASGC-RA). Academic variables included tertiary entrance exam score expressed as overall position (OP) and interview score. In addition, post-entry mid- and end-of-year summative assessment data in the first and second years of study were collated. The results of the survival analysis indicated that FIF, Indigenous and very remote backgrounds, as well as low post-entry Year 1 (final) and Year 2 (mid-year and final) examination scores were strong risk factors associated with academic difficulty. A high proportion of the FIF students who experienced academic difficulty eventually failed and exited the medical program. Further exploratory research will be required to identify the specific needs of this group of students in order to develop appropriate and targeted academic support programs for them. This study has highlighted the need for medical schools to be proactive in establishing support interventions/strategies earlier rather than later, for students experiencing academic difficulty because, the earlier such students can be flagged, the more likely they are able to obtain positive academic outcomes.

  7. Ethiopian Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Veterinary Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 15, No 1 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. Diet quality is associated with obesity and hypertension in Australian adults: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M. Livingstone

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor diet, characterized by a low diet quality score, has been associated with greater prevelence of obesity and hypertension. However, the evidence is inconsistent across diet quality scores and by sex. The aim was to investigate the relationship between diet quality and obesity and hypertension. Methods Adults (n = 4908; age 45.2 ± 0.24 years were included from the cross-sectional Australian Health Survey 2011–2013. Two 24-h dietary recalls were used to derive the dietary guideline index (DGI and recommended food score (RFS. Logistic regression investigated relationships between diet quality score and odds ratio of obesity, hypertension and obesity-associated hypertension. Results In the highest tertile of DGI, but not RFS, individuals were less likely to be obese (men: OR 0.64, CI: 0.45, 0.92, P-trend = 0.014; women: 0.68, 0.48, 0.96, P-trend = 0.025 and to have central adiposity (men: 0.68, 0.48, 0.97, P-trend = 0.030; women: 0.53, 0.37, 0.77, P-trend = 0.001 compared with the lowest tertile. Men, but not women, in the highest tertile of DGI and RFS were less likely to be hypertensive (DGI: 0.56, 0.37, 0.85, P-trend = 0.006; RFS: 0.62, 0.41, 0.94, P-trend = 0.021 compared with the lowest tertile. In men with obesity, but not normal weight men or women, those in the highest tertile of DGI were less likely to be hypertensive (0.53, 0.36, 0.78, P-trend = 0.001 compared with the highest tertile. Conclusions Higher diet quality, as estimated using DGI, was associated with lower odds ratio of obesity in men and women. Odds ratio of hypertension was lower in men, but not women, with a high diet quality score compared with a low score, while obesity-associated hypertension was only associated with diet quality score in men with obesity. Longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate whether diet quality predicts risk of obesity and hypertension.

  9. Prevalence of congenital hereditary sensorineural deafness in Australian Cattle Dogs and associations with coat characteristics and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sommerlad Susan F

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congenital hereditary sensorineural deafness (CHSD occurs in many dog breeds, including Australian Cattle Dogs. In some breeds, CHSD is associated with a lack of cochlear melanocytes in the stria vascularis, certain coat characteristics, and potentially, abnormalities in neuroepithelial pigment production. This study investigates phenotypic markers for CHSD in 899 Australian Cattle Dogs. Results Auditory function was tested in 899 Australian Cattle Dogs in family groups using brainstem auditory evoked response testing. Coat colour and patterns, facial and body markings, gender and parental hearing status were recorded. Deafness prevalence among all 899 dogs was 10.8% with 7.5% unilaterally deaf, and 3.3% bilaterally deaf, and amongst pups from completely tested litters (n = 696 was 11.1%, with 7.5% unilaterally deaf, and 3.6% bilaterally deaf. Univariable and multivariable analyses revealed a negative association between deafness and bilateral facial masks (odds ratio 0.2; P ≤ 0.001. Using multivariable logistic animal modelling, the risk of deafness was lower in dogs with pigmented body spots (odds ratio 0.4; P = 0.050. No significant associations were found between deafness and coat colour. Within unilaterally deaf dogs with unilateral facial masks, no association was observed between the side of deafness and side of mask. The side of unilateral deafness was not significantly clustered amongst unilaterally deaf dogs from the same litter. Females were at increased risk of deafness (odds ratio from a logistic animal model 1.9; P = 0.034 after adjusting for any confounding by mask type and pigmented body spots. Conclusions Australian Cattle Dogs suffer from CHSD, and this disease is more common in dogs with mask-free faces, and in those without pigmented body patches. In unilaterally deaf dogs with unilateral masks, the lack of observed association between side of deafness and side of mask suggests that if CHSD is due to

  10. What are the key conditions associated with lower limb amputations in a major Australian teaching hospital?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazzarini Peter A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lower extremity amputation results in significant global morbidity and mortality. Australia appears to have a paucity of studies investigating lower extremity amputation. The primary aim of this retrospective study was to investigate key conditions associated with lower extremity amputations in an Australian population. Secondary objectives were to determine the influence of age and sex on lower extremity amputations, and the reliability of hospital coded amputations. Methods Lower extremity amputation cases performed at the Princess Alexandra Hospital (Brisbane, Australia between July 2006 and June 2007 were identified through the relevant hospital discharge dataset (n = 197. All eligible clinical records were interrogated for age, sex, key condition associated with amputation, amputation site, first ever amputation status and the accuracy of the original hospital coding. Exclusion criteria included records unavailable for audit and cases where the key condition was unable to be determined. Chi-squared, t-tests, ANOVA and post hoc tests were used to determine differences between groups. Kappa statistics were used to measure reliability between coded and audited amputations. A minimum significance level of p  Results One hundred and eighty-six cases were eligible and audited. Overall 69% were male, 56% were first amputations, 54% were major amputations, and mean age was 62 ± 16 years. Key conditions associated included type 2 diabetes (53%, peripheral arterial disease (non-diabetes (18%, trauma (8%, type 1 diabetes (7% and malignant tumours (5%. Differences in ages at amputation were associated with trauma 36 ± 10 years, type 1 diabetes 52 ± 12 years and type 2 diabetes 67 ± 10 years (p  Conclusions This study, the first in over 20 years to report on all levels of lower extremity amputations in Australia, found that people undergoing amputation are more likely to be older, male and have

  11. Associations between exposure to viruses and bovine respiratory disease in Australian feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, K E; Barnes, T S; Morton, J M; Gravel, J L; Commins, M A; Horwood, P F; Ambrose, R C; Clements, A C A; Mahony, T J

    2016-05-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most important cause of clinical disease and death in feedlot cattle. Respiratory viral infections are key components in predisposing cattle to the development of this disease. To quantify the contribution of four viruses commonly associated with BRD, a case-control study was conducted nested within the National Bovine Respiratory Disease Initiative project population in Australian feedlot cattle. Effects of exposure to Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1), Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and Bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3), and to combinations of these viruses, were investigated. Based on weighted seroprevalences at induction (when animals were enrolled and initial samples collected), the percentages of the project population estimated to be seropositive were 24% for BoHV-1, 69% for BVDV-1, 89% for BRSV and 91% for BPIV-3. For each of the four viruses, seropositivity at induction was associated with reduced risk of BRD (OR: 0.6-0.9), and seroincrease from induction to second blood sampling (35-60 days after induction) was associated with increased risk of BRD (OR: 1.3-1.5). Compared to animals that were seropositive for all four viruses at induction, animals were at progressively increased risk with increasing number of viruses for which they were seronegative; those seronegative for all four viruses were at greatest risk (OR: 2.4). Animals that seroincreased for one or more viruses from induction to second blood sampling were at increased risk (OR: 1.4-2.1) of BRD compared to animals that did not seroincrease for any viruses. Collectively these results confirm that prior exposure to these viruses is protective while exposure at or after feedlot entry increases the risk of development of BRD in feedlots. However, the modest increases in risk associated with seroincrease for each virus separately, and the progressive increases in risk with multiple viral exposures highlights

  12. Associations between childhood overweight, obesity, abdominal obesity and obesogenic behaviors and practices in Australian homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihrshahi, Seema; Drayton, Bradley A; Bauman, Adrian E; Hardy, Louise L

    2017-07-21

    Despite emerging research about the role of the family and home environment on early childhood obesity, little is known on how weight-related behaviors, parent practices and the home environment influence overweight/obesity in older children and adolescents. This analysis used data from a cross-sectional, representative population survey of Australian children age 5-16 years conducted in 2015. Data included measured anthropometry to calculate body mass index (BMI; kg/m 2 ) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR; waist circumference/height). Information on home-based weight-related behaviors (individual eating and screen time behaviors, parent influences including rules and home environment factors) were measured using established short questions, with parental proxy reporting for children in up to grade 4, and self-report for students in grades 6, 8 and 10. Logistic regression models were used to examine associations between weight status and home-based weight-related behaviors. Both children and adolescents who did not consume breakfast daily were more likely to be overweight/obese OR (95% CI) = 1.39 (1.07-1.81) p = 0.015, OR (95% CI) =1.42 (1.16-1.74) p = 0.001, respectively, adjusted for age, gender, socio-economic status, rural/urban residence and physical activity. There was also a significant positive association with higher waist-to-height ratio in both children and adolescents. Among children, having a TV in the bedroom was also associated with overweight and obesity OR (95% CI) = 1.54 (1.13-2.09) p = 0.006 and higher waist-to-height ratio. For adolescents, parenting practices such as having no rules on screen-time, OR (95% CI) = 1.29 (1.07-1.55) p = 0.008, and rewarding good behavior with sweets, OR (95% CI) = 2.18 (1.05-4.52) p = 0.036, were significant factors associated with overweight and obesity. The prevalence of these obesogenic behaviors were higher in certain sub-groups of children and adolescents, specifically those from social

  13. Associations between childhood overweight, obesity, abdominal obesity and obesogenic behaviors and practices in Australian homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Mihrshahi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite emerging research about the role of the family and home environment on early childhood obesity, little is known on how weight-related behaviors, parent practices and the home environment influence overweight/obesity in older children and adolescents. Methods This analysis used data from a cross-sectional, representative population survey of Australian children age 5–16 years conducted in 2015. Data included measured anthropometry to calculate body mass index (BMI; kg/m2 and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR; waist circumference/height. Information on home-based weight-related behaviors (individual eating and screen time behaviors, parent influences including rules and home environment factors were measured using established short questions, with parental proxy reporting for children in up to grade 4, and self-report for students in grades 6, 8 and 10. Logistic regression models were used to examine associations between weight status and home-based weight-related behaviors. Results Both children and adolescents who did not consume breakfast daily were more likely to be overweight/obese OR (95% CI = 1.39 (1.07–1.81 p = 0.015, OR (95% CI =1.42 (1.16–1.74 p = 0.001, respectively, adjusted for age, gender, socio-economic status, rural/urban residence and physical activity. There was also a significant positive association with higher waist-to-height ratio in both children and adolescents. Among children, having a TV in the bedroom was also associated with overweight and obesity OR (95% CI = 1.54 (1.13–2.09 p = 0.006 and higher waist-to-height ratio. For adolescents, parenting practices such as having no rules on screen-time, OR (95% CI = 1.29 (1.07–1.55 p = 0.008, and rewarding good behavior with sweets, OR (95% CI = 2.18 (1.05–4.52 p = 0.036, were significant factors associated with overweight and obesity. The prevalence of these obesogenic behaviors were higher in certain sub-groups of children

  14. A qualitative study to explore communication skills in veterinary medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamood, Wendy J; Chur-Hansen, Anna; McArthur, Michelle L

    2014-10-11

    To explore and gain an understanding of what "clinical communication skills" mean to veterinarians working in private practice and what implications this might have for veterinary medical education. Qualitative research methods were used to purposefully sample a range of veterinary practitioners from a pool of South Australian veterinary practices who were interviewed to determine their understanding of what communication skills mean in the context of veterinary practice. Interviews were conducted with fourteen veterinary practitioners. Participants were sampled from a range of ages, veterinary schools of graduation plus urban and rural locations. Interview transcripts were analysed for themes, definitions and contexts. Participants' accounts included a number of skills which they considered to be "communication". Some of the definitions of these skills parallel communication skills and competencies for human medicine on which communication skills training incorporated into veterinary curricula to date have largely been based. However, the veterinarians in this study also raised interesting contextual differences unique to the veterinary profession, such as communication with the animal, selling service, discussing money in relation to decisions for care, and communicating about euthanasia. Veterinary practitioners require high level communication skills. Education and training in veterinary medicine may be better tailored to reflect the unique context of the veterinary profession.

  15. Global veterinary leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, G Gale; Brown, Corrie C

    2002-11-01

    The public needs no reminder that deadly infectious diseases such as FMD could emerge in any country at any moment, or that national food security could be compromised by Salmonella or Listeria infections. Protections against these risks include the knowledge that appropriate and equivalent veterinary education will enable detection and characterization of emerging disease agents, as well as an appropriate response, wherever they occur. Global veterinary leadership is needed to reduce the global threat of infectious diseases of major food animal and public health importance. We believe that the co-curriculum is an excellent way to prepare and train veterinarians and future leaders who understand and can deal with global issues. The key to the success of the program is the veterinarian's understanding that there is a cultural basis to the practice of veterinary medicine in any country. The result will be a cadre of veterinarians, faculty, and other professionals who are better able (language and culture) to understand the effects of change brought about by free trade and the importance of interdisciplinary and institutional relationships to deal effectively with national and regional issues of food safety and security. New global veterinary leadership programs will build on interests, experience, ideas, and ambitions. A college that wishes to take advantage of this diversity must offer opportunities that interest veterinarians throughout their careers and that preferably connect academic study with intensive experiential training in another country. At its best, the global veterinary leadership program would include a partnership between veterinarians and several international learning centers, a responsiveness to the identified international outreach needs of the profession, and attention to critical thinking and reflection. The global veterinary leadership program we have described is intended to be a set of ideas meant to promote collaboration, coalitions, and

  16. Prevalence of heterophoria and associations with refractive error, heterotropia and ethnicity in Australian school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Jody F; Cornell, Elaine; Morgan, Ian G; Mitchell, Paul; Kifley, Annette; Wang, Jie Jin; Rose, Kathryn A

    2010-05-01

    AIMS To establish the prevalence of heterophoria and its association with refractive error and ethnicity in a population-based study of Australian schoolchildren. METHODS The Sydney Myopia Study is a stratified, random cluster (school-based) sample of 4093 students (examined: 2003-2005). Two samples aged 6 (n=1692) and 12 years (n=2289) without heterotropia were included. Prevalent heterophoria was assessed using cover un-cover and prism bar alternate cover testing at 33 cm and 6 m distance fixation. Cycloplegic autorefraction (1% cyclopentolate) was performed. Significant refractive error was defined as or =+2.00SE. RESULTS Exophoria was highly prevalent at near fixation (age 6: 58.3%, age 12: 52.2%). Orthophoria predominated at distance fixation (age 6: 85.4%, age 12: 90.9%). Hyperopia was associated with esophoria at near (age 6: OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.8, age 12: OR 2.9, CI 1.1 to 2.8) and distance fixation (age 6: OR 9.7, CI 3.5 to 26, age 12: 9.6 OR, CI 4.2 to 22). Myopia was associated with exophoria at near (OR 2.1, CI 1.5 to 2.7) and distance fixation (OR 3.1, CI 2.1 to 4.4) for 12-year-old children only. Exophoria was more frequent in children of East Asian than European Caucasian origins, even after adjusting for refraction; at near (age 6: OR 1.4, CI 1.0 to 2.0, age 12: OR 1.4, CI 1.0 to 1.9) and distance (age 12: OR 1.7, CI 1.1 to 2.7). CONCLUSION Contrary to other studies, exophoria, not orthophoria, was predominant for near. Exophoria was more prevalent in children of East Asian origin. Longitudinal studies are needed to establish if incident heterotropia is preceded by heterophoria.

  17. The role of veterinary team effectiveness in job satisfaction and burnout in companion animal veterinary clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Irene C; Coe, Jason B; Adams, Cindy L; Conlon, Peter D; Sargeant, Jan M

    2014-09-01

    To determine the role of veterinary team effectiveness regarding job satisfaction and burnout in companion animal veterinary practice. Cross-sectional observational study. 48 companion animal veterinary health-care teams. 274 team members participated in an online survey. Overall job satisfaction was evaluated with a 1-item measure, and the 3 dimensions of burnout (exhaustion, cynicism, and professional efficacy) were measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey. Team effectiveness was assessed with a survey developed for this study. Demographic and team effectiveness factors (coordinated team environment, toxic team environment, team engagement, and individual engagement) associated with job satisfaction and burnout were evaluated. Overall mean job satisfaction score was 5.46 of 7 (median, 6.00); veterinary technicians and kennel attendants had the lowest scores. According to the Maslach survey results, 22.4% of participants were in the high-risk category for exhaustion, 23.2% were in the high-risk category for cynicism, and 9.3% were in the high-risk category for professional efficacy. A coordinated team environment was associated with increased professional efficacy and decreased cynicism. A toxic team environment was negatively associated with job satisfaction and positively associated with exhaustion and cynicism. Individual engagement was positively associated with job satisfaction and professional efficacy and negatively associated with exhaustion and cynicism. Results suggested the effectiveness of a veterinary team can significantly influence individual team members' job satisfaction and burnout. Practices should pay specific attention to the effectiveness with which their veterinary team operates.

  18. Risk of an equine influenza virus reservoir establishing in wild horses in New South Wales during the Australian epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, P; Sergeant, E S G

    2011-07-01

    Australia has the world's largest population of wild equids and equine influenza (EI) was confirmed on several properties in New South Wales (NSW) close to uncontrolled areas of land during the 2007 outbreak. Likelihood and risk management assessments were carried out to determine the risk of EI infection of the wild horse populations. The likelihood of spread to the wild horse population was determined to be extremely low, but the likelihood of spread from an established wild horse reservoir back to domestic horses was considered high. The most effective mechanism of control was determined to be prevention of the spread of EI into the wild horse population through a vaccination buffer zone between EI infection foci and known wild horse populations. © 2011 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2011 Australian Veterinary Association.

  19. Prevalence of Body Dysmorphic Disorder Symptoms and Associated Clinical Features among Australian University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Dianna

    2007-01-01

    The current study addressed the frequency of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) symptoms among university students and investigated the predictors of dysmorphic concern. Six hundred and nineteen Australian university students completed measures assessing BDD, dysmorphic concern, self-esteem, depression, life satisfaction, self-oriented and socially…

  20. Vet Futures: taking account of the wider veterinary team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-13

    A summit meeting held at the Royal Veterinary College in July saw the launch of an action plan to take forward the six key ambitions set out in the 2015 Vet Futures report. Developed by an action group following publication of the report, the plan outlines an ambitious programme of work. The summit also saw the launch of a VN Futures report setting out a vision for the veterinary nursing profession over the next five years. Laura Honey reports. British Veterinary Association.

  1. Veterinary student and veterinarian attitudes toward veterinary public health and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosgate, Geoffrey T

    2008-07-15

    To identify predictors of veterinary students and veterinarians having an interest in veterinary public health and epidemiology (PH&E). Cross-sectional study. Veterinary students enrolled in the College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences at Texas A&M University and veterinarians with membership in a Texas veterinary professional organization. 2 questionnaires were designed and administered to investigate hypothesized predictors of PH&E interests among veterinary students and veterinarians. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all variables from both questionnaires. Prevalence ratios, 95% confidence intervals, and chi(2) tests were used to evaluate bivariate associations between variables and an interest in PH&E. Multivariable logistic regression was used to adjust for the effects of multiple variables on the outcome. 70% (215/305) of students believed that a course in PH&E was necessary, and 46% (140/304) believed that more courses in PH&E would improve the veterinary curriculum. Ninety-nine percent (299/303) of veterinarians believed that a course in PH&E was necessary in the curriculum. Ninety-two percent (272/297) of veterinarians agreed that knowledge related to PH&E was important to perform the functions of their job. History of raising animals and membership in 4-H or Future Farmers of America were significant predictors of veterinary students having an interest in PH&E. Being male and growing up in a rural environment were not significant predictors. Most veterinary students and veterinarians agreed that knowledge of PH&E is important. Variables identified as associated with an interest in PH&E may be useful for designing mitigation strategies to increase the number of veterinarians entering public health careers.

  2. Reduction in the incidence of elbow dysplasia in four breeds of dog as measured by the New Zealand Veterinary Association scoring scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worth, A J; Bridges, J P; Jones, G

    2010-08-01

    To determine if there has been any reduction in the incidence of elbow dysplasia in four popular large-dog breeds as measured by the New Zealand Veterinary Association (NZVA) scoring scheme. A retrospective analysis of the NZVA elbow dysplasia database was performed using records of all German Shepherd dogs, Labrador Retrievers, Golden Retrievers and Rottweilers that had undergone evaluation since the scheme's inception in 1992. The data for each dog included date of birth, date of radiography, gender, grade of left and right elbow (0, 1, 2 or 3), and accredited or dysplastic status. Ordinal logistic regression was used to model the grade of the worst-affected elbow over time. The model included age at scoring and gender as additional variables. Given the known heritability of elbow dysplasia, the hypothesis was that if the NZVA scheme effectively identifies elbow dysplasia, and that dog breeders have been using the data responsibly, there should have been a trend towards a lower incidence of dogs graded dysplastic over time. In all four breeds, there was a significant trend towards lower grades of the worst-affected elbow over time. For German Shepherd dogs the incidence of elbow dysplasia (worst elbow grade not zero) fell from 75% to 47% between dogs born in 1991 vs those born in 2008. The corresponding figures were a drop from 86% to 68% for the Labrador Retriever, from 89% to 77% for Golden Retrievers, but only 98% to 95% for Rottweilers. In the Rottweiler and Golden Retriever, gender had a significant effect on the worst elbow grade. In the Golden Retriever, age at scoring also had a significant effect. There has been a significant reduction in the incidence of elbow dysplasia in four popular large-dog breeds as scored by the NZVA elbow dysplasia scoring scheme. The limitations of the study are the non-compulsory nature of the elbow dysplasia scheme, and the potential bias caused by dog breeders or veterinarians pre-screening potential submissions. The results

  3. Fatal columbid herpesvirus-1 infections in three species of Australian birds of prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phalen, D N; Holz, P; Rasmussen, L; Bayley, C

    2011-05-01

    We document columbid herpesvirus-1 (CoHV-1) infection in two barking owls (Ninox connivens), a powerful owl (Ninox strenua) and an Australian hobby (Falco longipennis). Antemortem signs of infection were non-specific and the birds either died soon after they were identified as ill or were found dead unexpectedly. Gross postmortem findings were also not specific. Microscopically, marked to massive splenic and hepatic necrosis with the presence of eosinophilic inclusion bodies in remaining splenocytes and hepatocytes was found in all birds. Herpesvirus virions were identified in liver sections from one of the boobook owls by electron microscopy. Using CoHV-1-specific primers and polymerase chain reaction, CoHV-1 DNA was amplified from tissue samples from all birds. A comparison of these sequences to previously reported sequences of CoHV-1 found them to be identical or to vary by a single base pair. These findings increase the number of known species of birds of prey that are susceptible to CoHV-1 infection and indicate that rock pigeons (Columbia livia) should not be included in the diet of captive Australian birds of prey. © 2011 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2011 Australian Veterinary Association.

  4. VetCompass Australia: A National Big Data Collection System for Veterinary Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreevy, Paul; Thomson, Peter; Dhand, Navneet K; Raubenheimer, David; Masters, Sophie; Mansfield, Caroline S; Baldwin, Timothy; Soares Magalhaes, Ricardo J; Rand, Jacquie; Hill, Peter; Peaston, Anne; Gilkerson, James; Combs, Martin; Raidal, Shane; Irwin, Peter; Irons, Peter; Squires, Richard; Brodbelt, David; Hammond, Jeremy

    2017-09-26

    VetCompass Australia is veterinary medical records-based research coordinated with the global VetCompass endeavor to maximize its quality and effectiveness for Australian companion animals (cats, dogs, and horses). Bringing together all seven Australian veterinary schools, it is the first nationwide surveillance system collating clinical records on companion-animal diseases and treatments. VetCompass data service collects and aggregates real-time, clinical records for researchers to interrogate, delivering sustainable and cost-effective access to data from hundreds of veterinary practitioners nationwide. Analysis of these clinical records will reveal geographical and temporal trends in the prevalence of inherited and acquired diseases, identify frequently prescribed treatments, revolutionize clinical auditing, help the veterinary profession to rank research priorities, and assure evidence-based companion-animal curricula in veterinary schools. VetCompass Australia will progress in three phases: (1) roll-out of the VetCompass platform to harvest Australian veterinary clinical record data; (2) development and enrichment of the coding (data-presentation) platform; and (3) creation of a world-first, real-time surveillance interface with natural language processing (NLP) technology. The first of these three phases is described in the current article. Advances in the collection and sharing of records from numerous practices will enable veterinary professionals to deliver a vastly improved level of care for companion animals that will improve their quality of life.

  5. VetCompass Australia: A National Big Data Collection System for Veterinary Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul McGreevy

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available VetCompass Australia is veterinary medical records-based research coordinated with the global VetCompass endeavor to maximize its quality and effectiveness for Australian companion animals (cats, dogs, and horses. Bringing together all seven Australian veterinary schools, it is the first nationwide surveillance system collating clinical records on companion-animal diseases and treatments. VetCompass data service collects and aggregates real-time, clinical records for researchers to interrogate, delivering sustainable and cost-effective access to data from hundreds of veterinary practitioners nationwide. Analysis of these clinical records will reveal geographical and temporal trends in the prevalence of inherited and acquired diseases, identify frequently prescribed treatments, revolutionize clinical auditing, help the veterinary profession to rank research priorities, and assure evidence-based companion-animal curricula in veterinary schools. VetCompass Australia will progress in three phases: (1 roll-out of the VetCompass platform to harvest Australian veterinary clinical record data; (2 development and enrichment of the coding (data-presentation platform; and (3 creation of a world-first, real-time surveillance interface with natural language processing (NLP technology. The first of these three phases is described in the current article. Advances in the collection and sharing of records from numerous practices will enable veterinary professionals to deliver a vastly improved level of care for companion animals that will improve their quality of life.

  6. The association between submission counts to a veterinary diagnostic laboratory and the economic and disease challenges of the Ontario swine industry from 1998 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, T; Friendship, R; Pearl, D L; McEwen, B; Ker, A; Dewey, C

    2012-10-01

    An intuitive assumption is to believe that the number of submissions made to a veterinary diagnostic laboratory is dictated by the financial state of the industries using the laboratory. However, no research is available to document how the economics of a food animal industry affects laboratory submissions and therefore disease monitoring and surveillance efforts. The objective of this study was to determine if economic indices associated with the Ontario swine industry can account for the variability seen in these submissions. Retrospective swine submissions made to the Animal Health Laboratory at the University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario from January 1998 to July 2009 were compiled. The following economic, demographic, and health variables impacting Ontario swine production were selected for analysis: auction price, lean-hog futures, currency exchange rate, price of corn, an outbreak of porcine circovirus type-2 associated diseases (PCVAD), government incentive program, number of farms in province, and average farm size. All independent variables identified by unconditional associations to have a significance of P≤0.2 with the outcome of monthly submission count were included in a multivariable negative binomial model. A final model was identified by a backwards elimination procedure. A total of 30,432 swine submissions were recorded. The mean frequency of monthly submissions over 139 months was 212.9 (SD=56.0). After controlling for farm size, the number of pigs in Ontario, higher submission counts were associated with a weaker CAD$ versus US$, higher auction prices, and a PCVAD outbreak (Plaboratory. In conclusion, lab submissions are a useful source of animal health data for disease surveillance; however, surveillance activities should also monitor the economics of the industry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. VetCompass Australia: A National Big Data Collection System for Veterinary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreevy, Paul; Thomson, Peter; Dhand, Navneet K.; Raubenheimer, David; Masters, Sophie; Mansfield, Caroline S.; Baldwin, Timothy; Soares Magalhaes, Ricardo J.; Rand, Jacquie; Hill, Peter; Gilkerson, James; Combs, Martin; Raidal, Shane; Irwin, Peter; Irons, Peter; Squires, Richard; Brodbelt, David; Hammond, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary The VetCompass Australia program collects real-time clinical records from veterinary practices and aggregates them for researchers to interrogate. It delivers Australian researchers sustainable and cost-effective access to authoritative data from hundreds of veterinary practitioners, across Australia and opens up major international collaborative opportunities with related projects in the United Kingdom and elsewhere. Abstract VetCompass Australia is veterinary medical records-based research coordinated with the global VetCompass endeavor to maximize its quality and effectiveness for Australian companion animals (cats, dogs, and horses). Bringing together all seven Australian veterinary schools, it is the first nationwide surveillance system collating clinical records on companion-animal diseases and treatments. VetCompass data service collects and aggregates real-time, clinical records for researchers to interrogate, delivering sustainable and cost-effective access to data from hundreds of veterinary practitioners nationwide. Analysis of these clinical records will reveal geographical and temporal trends in the prevalence of inherited and acquired diseases, identify frequently prescribed treatments, revolutionize clinical auditing, help the veterinary profession to rank research priorities, and assure evidence-based companion-animal curricula in veterinary schools. VetCompass Australia will progress in three phases: (1) roll-out of the VetCompass platform to harvest Australian veterinary clinical record data; (2) development and enrichment of the coding (data-presentation) platform; and (3) creation of a world-first, real-time surveillance interface with natural language processing (NLP) technology. The first of these three phases is described in the current article. Advances in the collection and sharing of records from numerous practices will enable veterinary professionals to deliver a vastly improved level of care for companion animals that will

  8. Asymmetry during preseason Functional Movement Screen testing is associated with injury during a junior Australian football season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Samuel; Fuller, Joel T; Debenedictis, Thomas A; Townsley, Samuel; Lynagh, Matthew; Gleeson, Cara; Zacharia, Andrew; Thomson, Stuart; Magarey, Mary

    2017-07-01

    The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) is a popular screening tool, however, the postulated relationship between prospective injury and FMS scoring remains sparsely explored in adolescent athletes. The aim of the study was to examine the association between pre-season FMS scores and injuries sustained during one regular season competition in elite adolescent Australian football players. Prospective cohort study. 237 elite junior Australian football players completed FMS testing during the late pre-season phase and had their weekly playing status monitored during the regular season. The definition of an injury was 'a trauma which caused a player to miss a competitive match'. The median composite FMS score was 14 (mean=13.5±2.3). An apriori analysis revealed that the presence of ≥1 asymmetrical sub-test was associated with a moderate increase in the risk of injury (hazard ratio=2.2 [1.0-4.8]; relative risk=1.9; p=0.047; sensitivity=78.4%; specificity=41.0%). Notably, post-hoc analysis identified that the presence of ≥2 asymmetrical sub-tests was associated with an even greater increase in risk of prospective injury (hazard ratio=3.7 [1.6-8.6]; relative risk=2.8; p=0.003; sensitivity=66.7%; specificity=78.0%). Achieving a composite score of ≤14 did not substantially increase the risk of prospective injury (hazard ratio=1.1 [0.5-2.1]; p=0.834). Junior Australian football players demonstrating asymmetrical movement during pre-season FMS testing were more likely to sustain an injury during the regular season than players without asymmetry. Findings suggest that the commonly reported composite FMS threshold score of ≤14 was not associated with injury in elite junior AF players. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Radiology in veterinary medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrusovsky, J.; Benes, J.

    1985-01-01

    A textbook is presented for pregraduate and postgraduate students of veterinary medicine, offering an extensive review of all aspects of radiology as applied in veterinary sciences. Based on findings published in the literature and the authors' own research, the textbook familiarizes the reader with the problems of nuclear physics, biological effects of ionizing radiation on animals, the principles of biological cycles of radionuclides in the atmosphere, the fundamentals of radiochemistry, dosimetry, radiometry and nuclear medicine. Radiation protection of animals, raw materials, feeds, foodstuff and water, and the questions of the aplications of ionizing radiation and of radionuclides in veterinary medicine are discussed in great detail. The publication is complemented with numerous photographs, figures and graphs. (L.O.)

  10. Antimicrobials used for surgical prophylaxis by equine veterinary practitioners in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardefeldt, L Y; Browning, G F; Thursky, K; Gilkerson, J R; Billman-Jacobe, H; Stevenson, M A; Bailey, K E

    2018-01-01

    Antimicrobials are widely used in Australian veterinary practices, but no investigation into the classes of antimicrobials used, or the appropriateness of use in horses, has been conducted. The aim of the study was to describe antimicrobial use for surgical prophylaxis in equine practice in Australia. Cross-sectional questionnaire survey. An online questionnaire was used to document antimicrobial usage patterns. Information solicited in the questionnaire included demographic details of the respondents, the frequency with which antimicrobials were used for specific surgical conditions (including the dose, timing and duration of therapy) and practice antimicrobial use policies and sources of information about antimicrobials and their uses. A total of 337 members of the Australian veterinary profession completed the survey. Generally, the choice of antimicrobial was appropriate for the specified equine surgical condition, but the dose and duration of therapy varied greatly. While there was poor optimal compliance with British Equine Veterinary Association guidelines in all scenarios (range 1-15%), except removal of a nonulcerated dermal mass (42%), suboptimal compliance (compliant antimicrobial drug selection but inappropriate timing, dose or duration of therapy) was moderate for all scenarios (range 48-68%), except for an uninfected contaminated wound over the thorax, where both optimal and suboptimal compliance was very poor (1%). Veterinarians practicing at a university hospital had higher odds of compliance than general practice veterinarians (Odds ratio 3.2, 95% CI, 1.1-8.9, P = 0.03). Many survey responses were collected at conferences which may introduce selection bias, as veterinarians attending conferences may be more likely to have been exposed to contemporary antimicrobial prescribing recommendations. Antimicrobial use guidelines need to be developed and promoted to improve the responsible use of antimicrobials in equine practice in Australia. An emphasis

  11. Veterinary nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallfelz, F.A.; Comar, C.L.; Wentworth, R.A.

    1974-01-01

    A brief review is presented of the expanding horizons of nuclear medicine, the equipment necessary for a nuclear medicine laboratory is listed, and the value of this relatively new field to the veterinary clinician is indicated. Although clinical applications to veterinary medicine have not kept pace with those of human medicine, many advances have been made, particularly in the use of in vitro techniques. Areas for expanded applications should include competitive protein binding and other in vitro procedures, particularly in connection with metabolic profile studies. Indicated also is more intensive application by the veterinarian of imaging procedures, which have been found to be of such great value to the physician. (U.S.)

  12. The history of the veterinary profession and education in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priosoeryanto, Bambang Pontjo; Arifiantini, Iis

    2014-01-01

    The beginning of the veterinary profession in Indonesia dates back to the middle of the 19th century. During the Dutch colonization period a development program for large ruminants was started by the 'Nederlandsch-Indië' government. In 1907 this government established a veterinary laboratory, planned by Dr. J.K.F. de Does. The laboratory was then merged with a veterinary training course for Indonesian (bumiputera) 'veterinarians' named 'Cursus tot Opleiding van Inlandsche Veeartsen'. In 1910 the name of the training course was changed to 'Inlandsche Veeartsenschool', and in 1914 the school was named 'Nederlandsch-Indische Veeartsenijschool' (NIVS). During the Japanese occupation (1942-1945) the veterinary school was named 'Bogor Semon Zui Gakko'. After the declaration of independence by Indonesia in August 1945, it became the High School of Veterinary Education. In 1946 the curriculum was extended from 4 to 5 years. Thereafter the school was closed and re-opened a few times due to the changing political circumstances. In 1947 the first Faculty of Veterinary Medicine ('Diergeneeskundige Faculteit') of the University of Indonesia was established in the former building of NIVS at Taman Kencana Campus in Bogor. Between 1948 and 1963, four more veterinary faculties were established in Indonesia: Gajah Mada, Syiahkuala, Airlangga and Udayana. The Indonesian Veterinary Medical Association (IVMA) was established on January 9, 1953. The membership now exceeds 20,000 veterinarians and the association has 15 special interest groups. Since 2008, five new faculties of veterinary medicine have been established, bringing the total to 10.

  13. Lack of association between drought and mental health in a cohort of 45-61 year old rural Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Jennifer R; Dobson, Annette J; Berry, Helen L; Graves, Anna M; Hanigan, Ivan C; Loxton, Deborah

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the impact of drought on the mental health of rural Australian women and those in vulnerable sub-populations: women who were more isolated, poorer and less educated; and women who had histories of chronic disease or poor mental health. Surveys were mailed in 1996, 1998, 2001, 2004 and 2008 to 6,664 women born between 1946 and1951 who were participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. The surveys included the Mental Health Index of the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 (MHI). Drought was assessed by linking the latitude and longitude of women's place of residence at each survey to the Hutchinson Drought Index. Associations between MHI and drought were assessed using linear mixed-models. While 31% of the women experienced drought in 1998 and 50% experienced drought in 2007; experience of droughts was less common in the other years. Although drought varied from survey year to survey year, mental health did not vary with drought conditions for rural women or vulnerable sub-populations. These findings are contrary to the long-held assumption that droughts increase mental health problems in Australia. While similar results may not be true for men, empirical evidence (rather than assumptions) is required on associations between drought and mental health. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  14. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Veterinary Research Institute, P.M.B 01 Vom, Nigeria; 5Avian Influenza Control Program, Kano State; 6Ministry of. Agriculture. ... showed severe pathological lesions consistent with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). .... with subcutaneous hemorrhagic face (arrow), (B) shank and feet with diffuse subcutaneous.

  15. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Fowlpox Virus from Backyard Poultry in Plateau State Nigeria: Isolation and Phylogeny of the P4b Gene Compared to a Vaccine Strain. Meseko, C. A.. 1. ; Shittu, I. 1. ; Bwala, D. G.. 2. ; Joannis, T. M.. 1 and Nwosuh, C. I.. 2. 1Regional Laboratory For Animal Influenza and Transboundary Animal Diseases, National Veterinary ...

  16. Nigerian Veterinary Journal: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When books and theses are cited, the first letter of every key word is capitalized. The standard abbreviation form of the journal in which the paper appears should come ... and COCKRAN, W.G. (1976): Statistical Methods. Iowa State University Press, Iowa: 3-9. HALL, L.W and CLARKE, K.W. (1991): Veterinary Anesthesia.

  17. ~.Nigerian Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Veterinary Medicine, University ofIbadan. They were fed ad-libitum with commercial grower's mash (Guinea feeds, Benin,. Nigeria) containing 18% crude protein. Water was also given ad-libitum. The rabbits were allowed to acclimatize for three weeks before the commencement of the trials. During this period, health checks.

  18. 50 Years: Veterinary Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narlesky, Lynn

    1998-01-01

    Describes the history, research, teaching strategies, and specialties of the University of California at Davis School of Veterinary Medicine. Documents effects of changing societal attitudes toward wildlife, pets, working animals, and food animals on curriculum, the systems approach to disease, comparative genetics, biotechnology, the ecology of…

  19. Open Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. Journal Homepage Image. Open Veterinary Journal is a peer reviewed international open access online and printed journal that publishes high-quality original research articles, reviews, short communications and case reports dedicated ...

  20. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Dog, though a major companion or pet animal in Nigeria house-hold is kept for various reasons ranging from security, breeding business, ... using the record of dogs presented to two private veterinary practices between January 2006 to. December 2010 in Enugu, ..... chronic prostatitis, and perineal hernia (Reichler, 2009).

  1. '*Nigerian Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of Aeromonas hydrophila. Isolates in cultured and Feral Clarias gariepinus of the Kainji Lake Area, Nigeria,. OMEJE, V.O.' and CHUKWU, C.C.. Aquaculture Programme. National Institute for Freshwater Fisheries Researcl1. PMB 6006, New Bussa, Niger state. 'Department of. Veterinary Medicine, University of ...

  2. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Bello University, Zaria; 3 Department of Veterinary Pathology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. *Corresponding. Authors: Email: ... No:+234 8038386953. SUMMARY. In spite of numerous vaccines and different vaccination schedules used in the control of ... viral disease of domestic poultry and wild birds, characterised by ...

  3. Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Homepage Image. Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal contains original and review papers on all aspects of animal health in Zimbabwe and SADC countries, including articles by non-veterinarians. This journal did not publish any issues between 2002 and 2015 but has been revived and and it actively accepting papers ...

  4. Veterinary Replicon Vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hikke, Mia C.; Pijlman, Gorben P.

    2017-01-01

    Vaccination is essential in livestock farming and in companion animal ownership. Nucleic acid vaccines based on DNA or RNA provide an elegant alternative to those classical veterinary vaccines that have performed suboptimally. Recent advances in terms of rational design, safety, and efficacy have

  5. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Vet. J., June 2017. Vol 38 (2): 140-150. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Sonographic Measurements of Ocular Biometry of Indigenous Nigerian. Dogs in Zaria, Nigeria. Audu, H. A.. 1. ; Idris, S. Y.. 2. ; Hamidu, A. 3. ; Fadason, S. T.. 1 and Lawal, M. 1 and Bappa, M. N.. 1. 1Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, Ahmadu Bello ...

  6. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2000-07-02

    Jul 2, 2000 ... Vet. J., December 2015. Vol. 36 (4): 1341-1350. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Reproductive Potential of Male Catfish Treated with Gel Extract of Aloe. Vera Plant. Owoyemi, A. O.. 1. , Oyeyemi, M. O.. 1. , Adeyemo, A. K.. 2 and Aina, O. O.. 3. 1Department of Veterinary Surgery and Reproduction, 2Department of ...

  7. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    of Bentonite, Spirulina platensis and. Glucomannan Mycotoxin Binders on. Aflatoxicosis in Broiler Breeders and. Carry Over Effects on Progeny. Performance. Ph.D. thesis submitted to Karnataka Veterinary, Animal and. Fisheries Sciences University,. Bangalore, India. MANAFI, M. (2010). Effect of. AFlatoxicosis in Hatching ...

  8. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    epidermolysis bullosa (H-JEB) in two French draft horse breeds. Genetics Selection Evolution,. BioMed Central, 35 (2), pp.249-256. . MORIELLO, K.A. Congenital anomalies of the skin. (2010)The Merk veterinary. Manual 10th Ed. Merk & Co., INC. Whitehouse station, N.J., USA: 770. PETERS M., REBER I., JAGANNATHAN.

  9. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Vet. J., June 2016. Vol. 37 (2): 82-87. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Cystographic Evaluation Post Colocystoplasty in Two Nigerian. Indigenous Dogs. Muhammad S. T.*. 1 ., Awasum C. A.. 2 ... integrity/morphology of most internal body organs or system(s) of an individual, ..... Journal of Veterinary. Medicine and Animal Health, 7(1):.

  10. Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reference list should begin on a separate page. The Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal uses the Harvard referencing style. Note: No other style will be permitted. References should be confined to those cited in the text, arranged in alphabetical order of first author. Where a book is cited, the title of the book, the edition, the ...

  11. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Before sacrifice, the animals were weighed; the foetuses were weighed with Ohaus® Heavy. Duty Double Beam Balance (Thomas. Scientific, UK) in the laboratory, Department of. Veterinary Anatomy, UNN, while the prepubertal and pubertal goats were weighed with Avery® weighing balance (Pacific. Industrial Scale, USA) ...

  12. Meal Frequency but Not Snack Frequency Is Associated with Micronutrient Intakes and Overall Diet Quality in Australian Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech, Rebecca M; Livingstone, Katherine M; Worsley, Anthony; Timperio, Anna; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2016-10-01

    Skipping breakfast is associated with poorer diet quality among adults, but evidence of associations for other eating patterns [e.g., eating occasion (EO), meal, or snack frequency] is equivocal. An understanding of how eating patterns are associated with diet quality is needed to inform population-level dietary recommendations. We aimed in this cross-sectional study to determine the relation between frequency of meals, snacks, and all EOs with nutrient intakes and diet quality in a representative sample of Australian adults. Dietary data for 5242 adults aged ≥19 y collected via two 24-h recalls during the 2011-2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey were analyzed. EO, meal, and snack frequency was calculated. Adherence to recommendations for healthy eating was assessed with the use of the 2013 Dietary Guidelines Index (DGI) and its subcomponents. Linear regression, adjusted for covariates and energy misreporting, was used to examine associations between eating patterns, energy-adjusted nutrient intakes, and the DGI-2013. The frequency of meals, but not of snacks, was positively associated with micronutrient intakes, overall diet quality [men: β = 5.6 (95% CI: 3.9, 7.3); women: β = 4.1 (95% CI: 2.2, 5.9); P frequency of all EOs, meals, and snacks was positively associated with DGI-2013 scores for food variety, fruits, and dairy foods (P frequency was associated with a lower compliance with guidelines for discretionary foods and added sugars among men (P meal frequency is an important determinant of nutrient intakes and diet quality in Australian adults. Inconsistent associations for snack frequency suggest that the quality of snack choices is variable. More research examining the dietary profiles of eating patterns and their relations with diet quality is needed to inform the development of meal-based guidelines and messages that encourage healthy eating. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Australian elapid snake envenomation in cats: Clinical priorities and approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcalees, Trudi J; Abraham, Linda A

    2017-11-01

    Practical relevance: No fewer than 140 species of terrestrial snakes reside in Australia, 92 of which possess venom glands. With the exception of the brown tree snake, the venom-producing snakes belong to the family Elapidae. The venom of a number of elapid species is more toxic than that of the Indian cobra and eastern diamondback rattle snake, which has earned Australia its reputation for being home to the world's most venomous snakes. Clinical challenges: The diagnosis of elapid snake envenomation is not always easy. Identification of Australian snakes is not straightforward and there are no pathognomonic clinical signs. In cats, diagnosis of envenomation is confounded by the fact that, in most cases, there is a delay in seeking veterinary attention, probably because snake encounters are not usually witnessed by owners, and also because of the tendency of cats to hide and seek seclusion when unwell. Although the administration of antivenom is associated with improved outcomes, the snake venom detection kit and antivenom are expensive and so their use may be precluded if there are financial constraints. Evidence base: In providing comprehensive guidance on the diagnosis and treatment of Australian elapid snake envenomation in cats, the authors of this review draw on the published veterinary, medical and toxicology literature, as well as their professional experience as specialists in medicine, and emergency medicine and critical care.

  14. Lessons of history in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donald F

    2013-01-01

    The future of veterinary medicine is best understood in the context of history. What began as a profession rooted in urban centers in proximity to horses, physicians, and medical schools, was transformed into a land grant-based agricultural profession with the arrival of the internal combustion engine in the early twentieth century. Most of the United States' current veterinary colleges are still located in towns or small cities in the middle section of the country, outside the largest metropolitan areas where most veterinarians practice companion-animal medicine. Throughout veterinarian history, substantial numbers of US students have been educated in foreign colleges and this continues today, creating an even greater geographic imbalance between the veterinary educational process and US population centers and major medical schools. Three themes deserve special attention as we celebrate the profession's 150th anniversary. We must first move beyond the land-grant culture and develop a more geographically balanced approach to establishing new veterinary colleges that are also in closer association with schools of medicine and public health. We must also facilitate more opportunities for women leadership in organized veterinary medicine, in practice ownership, in academia, and in the corporate structures that educate, hire, and interface with veterinarians. Finally, we need to expand our understanding of One Health to include the concept of zooeyia (the role of animals in promoting human health), as well as continue to emphasize veterinarians' special roles in the control and management of zoonotic diseases and in advancing comparative medicine in the age of the genome.

  15. Veterinary Compounding: Regulation, Challenges, and Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Gigi

    2017-01-10

    The spectrum of therapeutic need in veterinary medicine is large, and the availability of approved drug products for all veterinary species and indications is relatively small. For this reason, extemporaneous preparation, or compounding, of drugs is commonly employed to provide veterinary medical therapies. The scope of veterinary compounding is broad and focused primarily on meeting the therapeutic needs of companion animals and not food-producing animals in order to avoid human exposure to drug residues. As beneficial as compounded medical therapies may be to animal patients, these therapies are not without risks, and serious adverse events may occur from poor quality compounds or excipients that are uniquely toxic when administered to a given species. Other challenges in extemporaneous compounding for animals include significant regulatory variation across the global veterinary community, a relative lack of validated compounding formulas for use in animals, and poor adherence by compounders to established compounding standards. The information presented in this article is intended to provide an overview of the current landscape of compounding for animals; a discussion on associated benefits, risks, and challenges; and resources to aid compounders in preparing animal compounds of the highest possible quality.

  16. Veterinary Compounding: Regulation, Challenges, and Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gigi Davidson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of therapeutic need in veterinary medicine is large, and the availability of approved drug products for all veterinary species and indications is relatively small. For this reason, extemporaneous preparation, or compounding, of drugs is commonly employed to provide veterinary medical therapies. The scope of veterinary compounding is broad and focused primarily on meeting the therapeutic needs of companion animals and not food-producing animals in order to avoid human exposure to drug residues. As beneficial as compounded medical therapies may be to animal patients, these therapies are not without risks, and serious adverse events may occur from poor quality compounds or excipients that are uniquely toxic when administered to a given species. Other challenges in extemporaneous compounding for animals include significant regulatory variation across the global veterinary community, a relative lack of validated compounding formulas for use in animals, and poor adherence by compounders to established compounding standards. The information presented in this article is intended to provide an overview of the current landscape of compounding for animals; a discussion on associated benefits, risks, and challenges; and resources to aid compounders in preparing animal compounds of the highest possible quality.

  17. Career identity in the veterinary profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page-Jones, S; Abbey, G

    2015-04-25

    This research investigates vet and vet nurse career identity through the qualitative methodology of narrative enquiry. It derives learning and understanding from these empirical data to assist the veterinary profession to adjust to the changing industry landscape. Through a case series of 20 vets and vet nurses' career stories, this paper seeks understanding about career identity and its impact on individuals and organisations in the light of industry consolidation. Findings suggest that career is central to identity for many veterinary professionals who tend to have a strong sense of self; this is particularly evident around self as learner and technically competent, teacher and educator, ethical and moral and dedicated and resilient. Consequently, mismatches between 'who I am' and 'what I do' tend not to lead to identity customisation (to fit self into role or organisation) but to the search for alternative, more identity-compatible employment. This study offers a valuable insight for employers, veterinary professionals and universities. It suggests that businesses can gain competitive advantage and employees achieve validation and enrichment by working towards organisational and individual identity congruence and that teaching veterinary professionals with contemporary business in mind may develop graduates with a more sustainable identity. British Veterinary Association.

  18. Biogeography of a Novel Ensifer meliloti Clade Associated with the Australian Legume Trigonella suavissima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eardly, Bertrand; Elia, Patrick; Brockwell, John; Golemboski, Daniel; van Berkum, Peter

    2017-05-15

    Here, we describe a novel clade within Ensifer meliloti and consider how geographic and ecological isolation contributed to the limited distribution of this group. Members of the genus Ensifer are best known for their ability to form nitrogen-fixing symbioses with forage legumes of three related genera, Medicago L., Melilotus Mill., and Trigonella L., which are members of the tribe Trifolieae. These legumes have a natural distribution extending from the Mediterranean Basin through western Asia, where there is an unsurpassed number of species belonging to these genera. Trigonella suavissima L. is unusual in that it is the only species in the tribe Trifolieae that is native to Australia. We compared the genetic diversity and taxonomic placement of rhizobia nodulating T. suavissima with those of members of an Ensifer reference collection. Our goal was to determine if the T. suavissima rhizobial strains, like their plant host, are naturally limited to the Australian continent. We used multilocus sequence analysis to estimate the genetic relatedness of 56 T. suavissima symbionts to 28 Ensifer reference strains. Sequence data were partitioned according to the replicons in which the loci are located. The results were used to construct replicon-specific phylogenetic trees. In both the chromosomal and chromid trees, the Australian strains formed a distinct clade within E. meliloti The strains also shared few alleles with Ensifer reference strains from other continents. Carbon source utilization assays revealed that the strains are also unusual in their ability to utilize 2-oxoglutarate as a sole carbon source. A strategy was outlined for locating similar strains elsewhere. IMPORTANCE In this study, we employed a biogeographical approach to investigate the origins of a symbiotic relationship between an Australian legume and its nitrogen-fixing rhizobia. The question of the ancestral origins of these symbionts is based on the observation that the legume host is not closely

  19. World association for the advancement of veterinary parasitology (WAAVP): Second edition of guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics in swine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hennessy, D.R.; Bauer, C.; Boray, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Guidelines are provided for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics in swine which, in conjunction with other sets of guidance such as those of the International Cooperation on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medicinal Products (VICH GL7 and VICH GL16), sho...

  20. New directions for veterinary technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadderdon, Linda M; Lloyd, James W; Pazak, Helene E

    2014-01-01

    Veterinary technology has generally established itself well in companion-animal and mixed-animal veterinary medical practice, but the career's growth trajectory is uncertain. Michigan State University (MSU) convened a national conference, "Creating the Future of Veterinary Technology-A National Dialogue," in November 2011 to explore ways to elevate the veterinary technician/technologist's role in the veterinary medical profession and to identify new directions in which the career could expand. Veterinary technicians/technologists might advance their place in private practice by not only improving their clinical skills, but by also focusing on areas such as practice management, leadership training, business training, conflict resolution, information technology, and marketing/communications. Some new employment settings for veterinary technicians/technologists include more participation within laboratory animal medicine and research, the rural farm industry, regulatory medicine, and shelter medicine. Achieving these ends would call for new training options beyond the current 2-year and 4-year degree programs. Participants suggested specialty training programs, hybrid programs of various types, online programs, veterinary technician residency programs of 12-18 months, and more integration of veterinary technician/technology students and veterinary medicine students at colleges of veterinary medicine.

  1. Veterinary treatment and rehabilitation of indigenous wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullineaux, E

    2014-06-01

    Veterinary surgeons in general practice are frequently presented with injured or orphaned animals by wildlife rescue centres, members of the public or police officers. Following treatment, many of these animals are released to the wild. Despite the large numbers of wildlife casualties rehabilitated in this way there are few published data detailing species, numbers treated, quality of care provided and outcome following release. There is also ongoing debate regarding the welfare and conservation benefits of such human intervention. This article reviews the available published evidence on wildlife rehabilitation and offers recommendations on future policy. © 2014 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  2. Microscope use in clinical veterinary practice and potential implications for veterinary school curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sherry M; Dowers, Kristy L; Cerda, Jacey R; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina M; Kogan, Lori R

    2014-01-01

    Microscopy (skill of using a microscope) and the concepts of cytology (study of cells) and histology (study of tissues) are most often taught in professional veterinary medicine programs through the traditional method of glass slides and light microscopes. Several limiting factors in veterinary training programs are encouraging educators to explore innovative options for teaching microscopy skills and the concepts of cytology and histology. An anonymous online survey was administered through the Colorado Veterinary Medical Association to Colorado veterinarians working in private practice. It was designed to assess their current usage of microscopes for cytological and histological evaluation of specimens and their perceptions of microscope use in their veterinary education. The first part of the survey was answered by 183 veterinarians, with 104 indicating they had an onsite diagnostic lab. Analysis pertaining to the use of the microscope in practice and in veterinary programs was conducted on this subset. Most respondents felt the amount of time spent in the curriculum using a microscope was just right for basic microscope use and using the microscope for viewing and learning about normal and abnormal histological sections and clinical cytology. Participants felt more emphasis could be placed on clinical and diagnostic cytology. Study results suggest that practicing veterinarians frequently use microscopes for a wide variety of cytological diagnostics. However, only two respondents indicated they prepared samples for histological evaluation. Veterinary schools should consider these results against the backdrop of pressure to implement innovative teaching techniques to meet the changing needs of the profession.

  3. Australian Government Information Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Bert

    2017-01-01

    Provides an overview of Australian Government information resources. Features content from Australian Government agency websites such as the Department of Environment and Energy, Department of Defence, Australian National Maritime Museum, ANZAC Memorial in Sydney, Department of Immigration & Border Protection, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Dept. of Agriculture and Water Resources, Australian Parliament, Australian Treasury, Australian Transport Safety Board, and Australian Parl...

  4. Assessing junk food consumption among Australian children: trends and associated characteristics from a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Boylan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ubiquitous supply of junk foods in our food environment has been partly blamed for the increased rates in overweight and obesity. However, consumption of these foods has generally been examined individually perhaps obscuring the true extent of their combined consumption and impact on health. An overall measure of children’s junk food consumption may prove useful in the development of child obesity prevention strategies. We describe the development of a children’s Junk Food Intake Measure (JFIM to summarise temporal change in junk food consumption and examine the association between the JFIM and health-related behaviours. Methods Cross-sectional population surveillance survey of Australian children age 5–16 years collected in 2010 and 2015. Data were collected by questionnaire with parent’s proxy reporting for children in years K, 2 and 4 and children in years 6, 8 and 10 by self-report. Information on diet, screen-time and physical activity was collected using validated questionnaires. The JFIM comprised consumption of fried potato products, potato crisps/salty snacks, sweet and savoury biscuits/cakes/doughnuts, confectionary and, ice cream/ice blocks. Results A total of 7565 (missing = 493, 6.1% and 6944 (missing n = 611, 8.1% children had complete data on consumption of junk foods, in 2010 and 2015, respectively. The 2015 survey data showed that among students from high socio-economic status neighbourhoods, there were fewer high junk food consumers than low junk food consumers. Children from Middle Eastern cultural backgrounds had higher junk food consumption. High junk food consumers were more likely to consume take-away ≥3/week, eat dinner in front of the television, receive sweet rewards, be allowed to consume snacks anytime, have soft drinks available at home and a TV in their bedroom. There was a lower proportion of high junk food consumers in 2015 compared to 2010. Conclusion This is the first study

  5. Assessing junk food consumption among Australian children: trends and associated characteristics from a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, S; Hardy, L L; Drayton, B A; Grunseit, A; Mihrshahi, S

    2017-04-05

    The ubiquitous supply of junk foods in our food environment has been partly blamed for the increased rates in overweight and obesity. However, consumption of these foods has generally been examined individually perhaps obscuring the true extent of their combined consumption and impact on health. An overall measure of children's junk food consumption may prove useful in the development of child obesity prevention strategies. We describe the development of a children's Junk Food Intake Measure (JFIM) to summarise temporal change in junk food consumption and examine the association between the JFIM and health-related behaviours. Cross-sectional population surveillance survey of Australian children age 5-16 years collected in 2010 and 2015. Data were collected by questionnaire with parent's proxy reporting for children in years K, 2 and 4 and children in years 6, 8 and 10 by self-report. Information on diet, screen-time and physical activity was collected using validated questionnaires. The JFIM comprised consumption of fried potato products, potato crisps/salty snacks, sweet and savoury biscuits/cakes/doughnuts, confectionary and, ice cream/ice blocks. A total of 7565 (missing = 493, 6.1%) and 6944 (missing n = 611, 8.1%) children had complete data on consumption of junk foods, in 2010 and 2015, respectively. The 2015 survey data showed that among students from high socio-economic status neighbourhoods, there were fewer high junk food consumers than low junk food consumers. Children from Middle Eastern cultural backgrounds had higher junk food consumption. High junk food consumers were more likely to consume take-away ≥3/week, eat dinner in front of the television, receive sweet rewards, be allowed to consume snacks anytime, have soft drinks available at home and a TV in their bedroom. There was a lower proportion of high junk food consumers in 2015 compared to 2010. This is the first study to provide and examine a summary measure of overall junk food

  6. Dietary patterns, nutrition knowledge and lifestyle: associations with blood pressure in a sample of Australian adults (the Food BP study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalesi, S; Sharma, S; Irwin, C; Sun, J

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the association between dietary patterns, nutrition knowledge and lifestyle with blood pressure (BP) in a sample of Australian adults. Adults with normal and high BP were included in a cross-sectional study. Dietary intake data was collected using a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Nutrition knowledge and lifestyle surveys were included in the questionnaire. Dietary patterns were extracted using factor analysis followed by cluster analysis. Associations were analysed using logistic regression. Four hundred and seven participants were included. Three dietary patterns were identified: Western; Snack and alcohol; and Balanced. Participants with high BP had a higher intake of Western and a lower intake of Balanced dietary pattern. A significant and higher frequency of discretionary foods and oils consumption, as well as lower nutrition knowledge score and activity frequency, were observed in the high BP group. Regression analysis indicated that the intake of Western and Snack and alcohol dietary patterns increases the likelihood of having high BP by 2.40 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.28-4.49) and 2.76 (95% CI: 1.52-5.00), respectively, when nutrition knowledge and lifestyle were controlled for as moderator variables. The likelihood of high BP was not associated with nutrition knowledge, but increased with physical inactivity. This study indicates that poor dietary patterns and inactivity are associated with increases in the likelihood of high BP, and the association is not influenced by nutrition knowledge. These findings indicate the importance of developing public health strategies with an emphasis on improving the dietary patterns of individuals to prevent and control high BP in Australian adults.

  7. Allergens in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R S; Janda, J; Jensen-Jarolim, E; Rhyner, C; Marti, E

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases in animals are increasingly gaining importance in veterinary practice and as research models. For intradermal testing and allergen immunotherapy, a good knowledge of relevant allergens for the individual species is of great importance. Currently, the knowledge about relevant veterinary allergens is based on sensitization rates identified by intradermal testing or serum testing for allergen-specific IgE; crude extracts are the basis for most evaluations. Only a few studies provide evidence about the molecular structure of (particularly) dust mite, insect and mould allergens in dogs and horses, respectively. In those species, some major allergens differ from those in humans. This position paper summarizes the current knowledge about relevant allergens in dogs, cats and horses. © 2015 The Authors Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Veterinary medicine professor receives national honor

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, Jeffrey S.

    2005-01-01

    Marie-Suthers-McCabe, of Riner, Va., associate professor of small animal clinical sciences at the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, has been awarded the highest honor in the nation for work in the area of the "human/animal bond."

  9. European veterinary specialists denounce alternative medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horzinek, M.C.; Venker-van Haagen, Anjop

    On November 19, the Federation of Veterinarians in Europe (FVE) issued a policy statement urging its 200,000 members "to work only on the basis of scientifically proven and evidence-based methods and to stay away from non-evidence-based methods." The Swedish Veterinary Association banned its members

  10. Laser In Veterinary Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Carlton; Jaggar, David H.

    1982-12-01

    Lasers have been used for some time now on animals for experimental purposes prior to their use in human medical and surgical fields. However the use of lasers in veterinary medicine and surgery per se is a recent development. We describe the application of high and low intensity laser technology in a general overview of the current uses, some limitations to its use and future needs for future inquiry and development.

  11. Nanoscience in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, N R

    2007-08-01

    Nanotechnology, as an enabling technology, has the potential to revolutionize veterinary medicine. Examples of potential applications in animal agriculture and veterinary medicine include disease diagnosis and treatment delivery systems, new tools for molecular and cellular breeding, identity preservation of animal history from birth to a consumer's table, the security of animal food products, major impact on animal nutrition scenarios ranging from the diet to nutrient uptake and utilization, modification of animal waste as expelled from the animal, pathogen detection, and many more. Existing research has demonstrated the feasibility of introducing nanoshells and nanotubes into animals to seek and destroy targeted cells. Thus, building blocks do exist and are expected to be integrated into systems over the next couple of decades on a commercial basis. While it is reasonable to presume that nanobiotechnology industries and unique developments will revolutionize veterinary medicine in the future, there is a huge concern, among some persons and organizations, about food safety and health as well as social and ethical issues which can delay or derail technological advancements.

  12. Malaria-Associated Mortality in the Australian Defence Force during the Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, G Dennis

    2017-08-01

    Malaria has been a military problem throughout history capable of causing epidemics that stop military operations. Individual mortality was examined from records of the three major wars of the 20th century that involved Australia in which 133 (1914-1919), 92 (1943-1945), and two (1965-1967) soldiers are known to have died with malaria. Those dying were predominately enlisted soldiers with a mean age of 29 years often complicated by other infections such as influenza, pneumonia or scrub typhus. Lethal epidemics of falciparum malaria occurred in Palestine/Syria in October 1918 and New Guinea in September 1943 to March 1944. Although no Australian soldier has died in nearly 50 years from malaria, there were three serious falciparum infections in soldiers in East Timor 1999-2000 who might have died if intensive care had not been provided. Recent military deployments into Africa including United Nations contingents still show falciparum malaria's lethality despite the availability of effective malaria chemoprophylaxis.

  13. The potential to reconstruct broadscale climate indices associated with southeast Australian droughts from Athrotaxis species, Tasmania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, K.J.; Baker, P.J. [Monash University, School of Biological Sciences, Clayton, VIC (Australia); Ogden, J. [University of Auckland, School of Geography and Environmental Science, Auckland (New Zealand); Buckley, B.M.; Cook, E.R. [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Tree Ring Laboratory, Palisades, NY (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Occurrence of drought and dry periods in southeastern Australia has been linked to broad scale climate phenomena including the Southern Oscillation, Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO), Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), Southern Annular Mode (SAM) and persistence of blocking high pressure in the Tasman Sea. We examine relationships between Athrotaxis tree ring chronologies from southern Australia extending over much of the past millennia and these broad scale indices. We also examine relationships between the chronologies, temperature, precipitation and a standardised precipitation and evapotranspiration index. Timing of significant correlations with maximum temperature varies between species. The responses of the species with broadscale indices vary with location: northern Athrotaxis cupressoides (Pencil Pine) are more strongly related to the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) and Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) than southern sites. As an exception to this, a site in the far south had significant correlations with both the SOI and IPO, opposite in sign to those observed for the northern sites. Significant spectral power at frequencies consistent with the SOI and IPO occur in all chronologies. Western and southern sites are more strongly related to a seasonalised index of SAM. These three systems have played important roles in determining moisture conditions in southeastern Australia over the past millennium. Results suggest that reconstructions of the SOI, IPO or SAM are unlikely based solely on this Athrotaxis network. The Athrotaxis network of tree ring sites, is however, likely to be an important input to multi-proxy models reconstructing the SOI, IPO or SAM in the Australian sector. The Athrotaxis network of sites is also an important extension of the existing network of Australian tree ring sites that could be used to reconstruct historical drought in southeastern Australia. (orig.)

  14. Evaluating veterinary practitioner perceptions of communication skills and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, M P; Cobb, M A; Tischler, V A; Robbé, I J; Dean, R S

    2017-03-25

    A survey was conducted among veterinary practitioners in the UK and the USA in 2012/2013. Thematic analysis was used to identify underlying reasons behind answers to questions about the importance of communication skills and the desire to participate in postgraduate communication skills training. Lack of training among more experienced veterinary surgeons, incomplete preparation of younger practitioners and differences in ability to communicate all contribute to gaps in communication competency. Barriers to participating in further communication training include time, cost and doubts in the ability of training to provide value. To help enhance communication ability, communication skills should be assessed in veterinary school applicants, and communication skills training should be more thoroughly integrated into veterinary curricula. Continuing education/professional development in communication should be part of all postgraduate education and should be targeted to learning style preferences and communication needs and challenges through an entire career in practice. British Veterinary Association.

  15. Association of Veterinary Third-Generation Cephalosporin Use with the Risk of Emergence of Extended-Spectrum-Cephalosporin Resistance in Escherichia coli from Dairy Cattle in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Toyotaka; Okubo, Torahiko; Usui, Masaru; Yokota, Shin-ichi; Izumiyama, Satoshi; Tamura, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    The use of extended-spectrum cephalosporins in food animals has been suggested to increase the risk of spread of Enterobacteriaceae carrying extended-spectrum β-lactamases to humans. However, evidence that selection of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant bacteria owing to the actual veterinary use of these drugs according to criteria established in cattle has not been demonstrated. In this study, we investigated the natural occurrence of cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli in dairy...

  16. How is veterinary parasitology taught in China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Yi; Wang, Ming; Suo, Xun; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2006-12-01

    Many parasites of domestic animals in China are of major socioeconomic and medical importance. Hence, veterinary parasitology is one of the core subjects for undergraduate and postgraduate students of veterinary science. Here, we review the teaching of veterinary parasitology in Chinese universities, including a description of the veterinary science curricula and measures to improve the quality of veterinary parasitology teaching in China.

  17. About veterinary education in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathalla, M

    2003-01-01

    The cons and pros of veterinary education in Iraq are described. Started as a small institution, with few students and with foreign staffs, then expanded to enroll more than hundred students each year, with all Iraqi staff. The graduates of the Veterinary College played an important role in monitoring animal health, supervising research projects involving animal welfare, some served as educators of various veterinary science specializations, others worked as private practitioners or recruited in the army. Veterinary education was very vital, as other sciences for progress of the country.

  18. What is the veterinary professional identity? Preliminary findings from web-based continuing professional development in veterinary professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage-Chan, E; Maddison, J; May, S A

    2016-03-26

    Professionalism and professional skills are increasingly being incorporated into veterinary curricula; however, lack of clarity in defining veterinary professionalism presents a potential challenge for directing course outcomes that are of benefit to the veterinary professional. An online continuing education course in veterinary professionalism was designed to address a deficit in postgraduate support in this area; as part of this course, delegates of varying practice backgrounds participated in online discussions reflecting on the implications of professional skills for their clinical practice. The discussions surrounding the role of the veterinary professional and reflecting on strengths and weaknesses in professional skills were analysed using narrative methodology, which provided an understanding of the defining skills and attributes of the veterinary professional, from the perspectives of those involved (i.e. how vets understood their own career identity). The veterinary surgeon was understood to be an interprofessional team member, who makes clinical decisions in the face of competing stakeholder needs and works in a complex environment comprising multiple and diverse challenges (stress, high emotions, financial issues, work-life balance). It was identified that strategies for accepting fallibility, and those necessary for establishing reasonable expectations of professional behaviour and clinical ability, are poorly developed. British Veterinary Association.

  19. Response of Australian veterinarians to the announcement of a Hendra virus vaccine becoming available.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, D; Büttner, P; Speare, R

    2013-08-01

    A cross-sectional study of private veterinarians providing equine services in Queensland. The study revealed that a majority of veterinarians would support the introduction of a Hendra virus (HeV) vaccine. Moreover, almost half of the respondents intended to make vaccination a prerequisite to horse patient presentation. However, participants also responded that a vaccine would not reduce the risk sufficiently to cease or downgrade their HeV management plan and infection control measures. When devising promoting and marketing campaigns, government agencies and manufacturers should consider private veterinarians' intentions as a significant driver for the uptake of the HeV vaccine. © 2013 Australian Veterinary Association.

  20. Water fluoridation and the association of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and dental caries in Australian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armfield, Jason M; Spencer, A John; Roberts-Thomson, Kaye F; Plastow, Katrina

    2013-03-01

    We examined demographic and socioeconomic differences in the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), its association with dental caries in children, and whether exposure to water fluoridation modifies this association. In a cross-sectional study, we used a stratified, clustered sampling design to obtain information on 16 508 children aged 5 to 16 years enrolled in Australian school dental services in 2002 to 2005. Dental staff assessed dental caries, and parents completed a questionnaire about their child's residential history, sources of drinking water, toothbrushing frequency, socioeconomic status (SES), and SSB consumption. Children who brushed their teeth less often and were older, male, of low SES, from rural or remote areas consumed significantly more SSBs. Caries was significantly associated with greater SSB consumption after controlling for potential confounders. Finally, greater exposure to fluoridated water significantly reduced the association between children's SSB consumption and dental caries. Consumption of SSBs should be considered a major risk factor for dental caries. However, increased exposure to fluoridated public water helped ameliorate the association between SSB consumption and dental decay. These results reconfirm the benefits of community water fluoridation for oral health.

  1. The impact of drought on the association between food security and mental health in a nationally representative Australian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Sharon; Berry, Helen; Dinh, Huong; O'Brien, Léan; Walls, Helen L

    2014-10-24

    The association between food insecurity and mental health is established. Increasingly, associations between drought and mental health and drought and food insecurity have been observed in a number of countries. The impact of drought on the association between food insecurity and mental health has received little attention. Population-based study using data from a nationally representative panel survey of Australian adults in which participants report behaviour, health, social, economic and demographic information annually. Exposure to drought was modelled using annual rainfall data during Australia's 'Big Dry'. Regression modelling examined associations between drought and three indicative measures of food insecurity and mental health, controlling for confounding factors. People who reported missing meals due to financial stress reported borderline moderate/high distress levels. People who consumed below-average levels of core foods reported more distress than those who consumed above the average level, while people consuming discretionary foods above the average level reported greater distress than those consuming below the threshold. In all drought exposure categories, people missing meals due to cost reported higher psychological distress than those not missing meals. Compared to drought-unadjusted psychological distress levels, in most drought categories, people consuming higher-than-average discretionary food levels reported higher levels of distress. Exposure to drought moderates the association between measures of food insecurity and psychological distress, generally increasing the distress level. Climate adaptation strategies that consider social, nutrition and health impacts are needed.

  2. Holistic pediatric veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, Lisa

    2014-03-01

    Holistic veterinary medicine treats the whole patient including all physical and behavioral signs. The root cause of disease is treated at the same time as accompanying clinical signs. Herbal and nutritional supplements can help support tissue healing and proper organ functioning, thereby reducing the tendency of disease progression over time. Proper selection of homeopathic remedies is based on detailed evaluation of clinical signs. Herbal medicines are selected based on organ(s) affected and the physiologic nature of the imbalance. Many herbal and nutraceutical companies provide support for veterinarians, assisting with proper formula selection, dosing, drug interactions, and contraindications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Association between diet quality, dietary patterns and cardiometabolic health in Australian adults: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Katherine M; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2018-02-12

    Diet quality indices score dietary intakes against recommendations, whereas dietary patterns consider the pattern and combination of dietary intakes. Studies evaluating both methodologies in relation to cardiometabolic health in a nationally representative sample are limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between diet quality, dietary patterns and markers of cardiometabolic health in Australian adults. Dietary data, using two 24-h dietary recalls, were collected from adults in the cross-sectional Australian Health Survey 2011-2013 (n = 2121; 46.4 (SE 0.48) years). Diet quality was estimated using the Dietary Guideline Index (DGI). Dietary patterns (DPs), derived using reduced rank regression, were estimated using fiber density, SFA: PUFA and total sugars intake as intermediate markers. Multi-variable adjusted linear regression analyses were used to examine associations between diet quality and DPs and blood biomarkers, body mass index, waist circumference, diastolic and systolic blood pressure and an overall cardiometabolic risk score. DGI was associated with lower glucose (coef - 0.009, SE 0.004; P-trend = 0.033), body mass index (coef - 0.017, SE 0.007; P-trend = 0.019) and waist circumference (coef - 0.014, SE 0.005; P-trend = 0.008). Two dietary patterns were derived: dietary pattern-1 was characterized by higher intakes of pome fruit and wholegrain bread, while dietary pattern-2 was characterized by higher intakes of added sugars and tropical fruit. Dietary pattern-1 was associated with lower body mass index (coef - 0.028, SE 0.007; P-trendDietary pattern-2 was associated with lower HDL-cholesterol (coef - 0.026, SE 0.012; P-trend = 0.028). There was a trend towards lower diastolic blood pressure. No associations with other markers were observed. Better diet quality and healthier dietary patterns were primarily associated with favorable anthropometric markers of cardiometabolic health. Findings

  4. Lifetime and current prevalence of common DSM-IV mental disorders, their demographic correlates, and association with service utilisation and disability in older Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Matthew; Anderson, Tracy M; Sachdev, Perminder S; Titov, Nickolai; Andrews, Gavin

    2015-02-01

    To describe lifetime and 12 month prevalence of common DSM-IV mental disorders, their demographic correlates, and association with service utilisation and disability in Australians aged 65-85 years of age. The sample included Australian residents aged 65-85 years who participated in the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Well-being (n=1905). The prevalence of DSM-IV mental disorders was estimated using the lay-interviewer administered World Mental Health version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Eight percent had experienced an affective disorder, 10% an anxiety disorder, and 12% a substance use disorder at some point in their life. Sex, age, and marital status were significant correlates of any lifetime mental disorder. Approximately, 2%, 4%, and 1% of old age respondents met criteria for mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders in the past 12 months, respectively. The presence of physical disorder, disability, and greater treatment service use were associated with any mental disorder in the past 12 months. Prevalence of lifetime and 12 month disorders by age band revealed a decrease as age increased. A substantial number of community dwelling old age Australians have experienced a mental disorder in their lifetime. Demographic correlates of mental disorder were relatively consistent between lifetime and 12 month prevalence of disorders, although sex made less of an impact and the presence of physical disorders more of an impact in recent disorders. Twelve month prevalence data suggest that a high proportion of old age Australians still experience mental disorders, predominantly anxiety and major depression. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.

  5. Veterinary medical education in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamas, Wael A; Nour, Abdelfattah

    2004-01-01

    Iraq is an agricultural country with a large population of animals: sheep, goats, cattle, water buffaloes, horses, donkeys, mules, and camels. In the 1980s, the successful poultry industry managed to produce enough table eggs and meat to satisfy the needs of the entire population; at one time, the thriving fish industry produced different types of fish for Iraqis' yearly fish consumption. There are four veterinary colleges in Iraq, which have been destroyed along with the veterinary services infrastructure. Understandably, improvements to the quality of veterinary education and services in Iraq will be reflected in a healthy and productive animal industry, better food quality and quantity, fewer zoonotic diseases, and more income-generating activities in rural areas. Thus, if undergraduate, graduate, and continuing education programs are improved, the veterinary medical profession will attract more competent students. This will satisfy the country's increased demand for competent veterinarians in both public and private sectors. Although Iraq has an estimated 5,000-7,000 veterinarians, there is a need for quality veterinary services and for more veterinarians. In addition, there is a need for the improvement of veterinary diagnostic facilities, as zoonotic diseases are always highly probable in this region. This article provides insight into the status of veterinary medical education and veterinary services in Iraq before and after the 1991 Gulf War and gives suggestions for improvement and implementation of new programs. Suggestions are also offered for improving veterinary diagnostic facilities and the quality of veterinary services. Improving diagnostic facilities and the quality of veterinary services will enhance animal health and production in Iraq and will also decrease the likelihood of disease transmission to and from Iraq. Threats of disease transmission and introduction into the country have been observed and reported by several international

  6. What factors are associated with frequent unhealthy snack-food consumption among Australian secondary-school students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niven, Philippa; Scully, Maree; Morley, Belinda; Baur, Louise; Crawford, David; Pratt, Iain S; Wakefield, Melanie

    2015-08-01

    To examine demographic and behavioural correlates of unhealthy snack-food consumption among Australian secondary-school students and the association between their perceptions of availability, convenience and intake with consumption. Cross-sectional survey of students' eating, physical activity and sedentary behaviours using validated instruments administered via an online questionnaire. Australian secondary schools across all states/territories. Secondary-school students aged 12-17 years participating in the 2009-10 National Secondary Students' Diet and Activity (NaSSDA) survey (n 12 188). Approximately one in five students (21 %) reported consuming unhealthy snack foods ≥14 times/week ('frequent snackers'). After adjusting for all covariates, older students and those with a BMI of ≥25 kg/m² were less likely to be frequent snackers, while students who reported high fast-food and high sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and those who watched television for >2 h/d were more likely to snack frequently. Furthermore, after adjusting for all covariates and demographic factors, students who agreed that snack foods are usually available at home, convenient to buy and that they eat too many snack foods were more likely to be snacking frequently. Conversely, students who agreed that fruit is a convenient snack were less likely to be frequent snackers. Frequent unhealthy snack-food consumption appears to cluster with other poor health behaviours. Perceptions of availability and convenience are factors most readily amenable to change, and findings suggest interventions should focus on decreasing the availability of unhealthy snack foods in the home and promoting healthier options such as fruit as convenient snacks.

  7. Piloting interprofessional education interventions with veterinary and veterinary nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnison, Tierney; Lumbis, Rachel; Orpet, Hilary; Welsh, Perdi; Gregory, Sue; Baillie, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Interprofessional education (IPE) has received little attention in veterinary education even though members of the veterinary and nursing professions work closely together. The present study investigates veterinary and veterinary nursing students' and practitioners' experiences with interprofessional issues and the potential benefits of IPE. Based on stakeholder consultations, two teaching interventions were modified or developed for use with veterinary and veterinary nursing students: Talking Walls, which aimed to increase individuals' understanding of each other's roles, and an Emergency-Case Role-Play Scenario, which aimed to improve teamwork. These interventions were piloted with volunteer veterinary and veterinary nursing students who were recruited through convenience sampling. A questionnaire (the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale [RIPLS]) was modified for use in veterinary education and used to investigate changes in attitudes toward IPE over time (pre-intervention, immediately post-intervention, and four to five months afterward). The results showed an immediate and significant positive change in attitude after the intervention, highlighting the students' willingness to learn collaboratively, their ability to recognize the benefits of IPE, a decreased sense of professional isolation, and reduced hierarchical views. Although nearly half of the students felt concerned about learning with students from another profession before the intervention, the majority (97%) enjoyed learning together. However, the positive change in attitude was not evident four to five months after the intervention, though attitudes remained above pre-intervention levels. The results of the pilot study were encouraging and emphasize the relevance and importance of veterinary IPE as well as the need for further investigation to explore methods of sustaining a change in attitude over time.

  8. Use of social networking sites and associations with skin tone dissatisfaction, sun exposure, and sun protection in a sample of Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingoia, John; Hutchinson, Amanda D; Gleaves, David H; Corsini, Nadia; Wilson, Carlene

    2017-12-01

    Previous research has indicated that greater exposure to traditional media (i.e. television, film, and print) predicted skin cancer risk factors in adolescents; however, the relationship between social media usage and these outcomes remains unexplored. We examined whether social networking site (SNS) usage, and the particular manner of this use, was associated with skin tone dissatisfaction, sun exposure and sun protection among Australian adolescents. We also explored sex differences in SNS usage related to tanning. A total of 1856 South Australian secondary school students completed the Australian School Students Alcohol and Drug 2014 survey. SNS usage related to tanning comprised posting pictures, posting text, viewing pictures, viewing text and liking or sharing posts. Adolescents spent 214.56 minutes, on average, per day using SNSs. Behaviours related to tanning that involved pictures (i.e. viewing pictures, posting pictures, and liking or sharing content) were significantly associated with more skin tone dissatisfaction, more sun exposure and less sun protection. Females performed all SNS-linked behaviours more frequently than did males, with the exception of posting text. Australian adolescents spend a considerable amount of time using SNSs, and their behaviours related to tanning on these SNSs are significantly associated with skin cancer risk factors.

  9. Factors associated with childbirth self-efficacy in Australian childbearing women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Lianne; Toohill, Jocelyn; Creedy, Debra K; Baird, Kathleen; Gamble, Jenny; Fenwick, Jennifer

    2015-02-13

    Childbirth confidence is an important marker of women's coping abilities during labour and birth. This study investigated socio-demographic, obstetric and psychological factors affecting self-efficacy in childbearing women. This paper presents a secondary analysis of data collected as part of the BELIEF study (Birth Emotions - Looking to Improve Expectant Fear). Women (n = 1410) were recruited during pregnancy (≤24 weeks gestation). The survey included socio-demographic details (such as age and partner support); obstetric details including parity, birth preference, and pain; and standardised psychological measures: CBSEI (Childbirth Self-efficacy Inventory), W-DEQ A (childbirth fear) and EPDS (depressive symptoms). Variables were tested against CBSEI first stage of labour sub-scales (outcome expectancy and self-efficacy expectancy) according to parity. CBSEI total mean score was 443 (SD = 112.2). CBSEI, W-DEQ, EPDS scores were highly correlated. Regardless of parity, women who reported low childbirth knowledge, who preferred a caesarean section, and had high W-DEQ and EPDS scores reported lower self-efficacy. There were no differences for nulliparous or multiparous women on outcome expectancy, but multiparous women had higher self-efficacy scores (p childbirth self-efficacy. Few studies have investigated childbirth self-efficacy according to parity. Although multiparous women reported higher birth confidence significant obstetric and psychological differences were found. Addressing women's physical and emotional wellbeing and perceptions of the upcoming birth may highlight their level of self-efficacy for birth. Australian New Zealand Controlled Trials Registry ACTRN12612000526875 , 17(th) May 2012.

  10. Strategy for an Australian research program into possible health issues associated with exposure to communications radiofrequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, C.R.; Barnett, S.B.; Lokan, K.H.; Kossoff, G.; Anderson, H.

    1998-01-01

    Telecommunications in Australia has expanded rapidly in recent years. Growth in personal and mobile telecommunications has resulted in the construction of numerous base station antennae. These antennae are highly visible and are often sited in public or high traffic areas. There has also been an increase in the number of mobile phone handsets-the small, low power transmitters held close to the head during use. In the last 2-3 years there has been considerable public concern and media coverage about the possible health effects resulting from exposure to radiofrequency fields or radiofrequency radiation (RFR) which is used for communicating between handsets and base stations. National and international scientific opinion is that at the present time there is no substantiated evidence that exposure to RFR at levels typically found in the community results in adverse health effects but there is a need for further study. Although considerable research has been undertaken on exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) 50/60 Hz fields, limited information is available on human exposure to RFR in the frequency range 100 kHz to 300 GHz. The frequency bands used for the mobile phone networks are mainly in the 800-900 MHz spectrum region with developing technology using the 1.8-2.2 GHz band. In the digital GSM system pulse modulation occurs at 217 Hz. Radio and television broadcasts are in the 0.3-600 MHz range. Other sources include paging systems, personal communication systems and industrial sources. The discussion paper outlines possible priority areas and makes recommendation for further study under the Australian Research Program

  11. Tanzania Veterinary Journal: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Tanzania Veterinary Journal (The Tropical Veterinarian) is a biannual Journal, which publishes original contribution to knowledge on Veterinary Science, Animal Science and Production, and allied sciences including new techniques and ... Checked Open Submissions, Checked Indexed, Checked Peer Reviewed ...

  12. Open Veterinary Journal: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Open Veterinary Journal is a peer reviewed international open access online and printed journal that publishes high-quality original research articles, reviews, short communications and case reports dedicated to all aspects of veterinary sciences and its related subjects.

  13. Veterinary dentistry: a clinician's viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Colin

    2013-06-01

    This is a clinician's view of the current state of veterinary dentistry at the level of the general practitioner across the different species. An indication of the work done and the hazards commonly encountered are covered. To increase awareness within the dental profession of the current state of veterinary dentistry.

  14. Surgical Lasers In Veterinary Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, H. C.

    1987-03-01

    Veterinary medicine is a latecomer in benefiting from the advent of surgical lasers. It is ironic that although most of the basic work in lasers is carried out in animal species with which we are most conversant, veterinary medicine as a profession has not been very extensively involved.

  15. Radiation protection in veterinary radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hone, C.P.

    1989-06-01

    This Code of Practice is designed to give guidance to veterinary surgeons in ensuring that workers and members of the public are adequately protected from the hazards of ionising radiation arising from the use of x-ray equipment in veterinary practice. (author)

  16. Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Homepage Image. The Journal publishes original research articles related to veterinary sciences, including livestock health and production, diseases of wild life and fish, preventive veterinary medicine and zoonoses among others. Case reports, review articles and editorials are also accepted. Other sites related to ...

  17. Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    um chafe

    1Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Agriculture Makurdi, Nigeria. .... The reaction was considered to be negative if the increase in skin thickness at the bovine site of injection was less than or equal to the increase in the skin reaction at the avian site.

  18. Perspectives on academic veterinary administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelberg, H B; Gelberg, S

    2001-09-15

    It is important for veterinary administrators to apply knowledge bases from other fields to their own unique administrative needs. For example, although some resources are written for business managers, the discussions of four key management competency areas, guidelines for mastering these skills, organizational assessment tools, and other self-help tools may provide interesting food-for-thought for veterinary administrators.(76) In developing their own administrative styles, administrators should seek to apply those principles that seem to intuitively fit with their personal research styles, work situations, managerial styles, administrative preferences, and unique organizational culture. Through strengthening their liaisons with community and university business programs, counseling agencies, employee assistance programs, and psychology researchers, administrators can continue to be exposed to and benefit from new paradigms for consideration in veterinary medical environments. Through these liaisons, the unique needs of veterinary medical environments are also communicated to individuals within the fields of psychology and business, thus stimulating new research that specifically targets veterinary medical environment leadership issues. Each field has unique contributions to help veterinary administrators work toward creating veterinary medical environments that are creative, energetic, visionary, pragmatic, and highly marketable in order to help administrators recruit and nurture the best and brightest veterinary researchers, teachers, and clinicians.

  19. Association between self-efficacy, career interest and rural career intent in Australian medical students with rural clinical school experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Vivian; Walters, Lucie; McLachlan, Craig S

    2015-12-15

    To investigate medical student's self-efficacy at the time of finishing their rural clinical school (RCS) placement and factors associated with self-efficacy. Secondary aims are to explore whether interest levels or self-efficacy are associated with rural or remote career intentions. A cross-sectional study of medical students who had completed their RCS term in 17 Australian universities. Data were derived from the 2013 Federation of Rural Australian Medical Educators (FRAME) evaluation survey. Questionnaire responses were analysed from 653 medical students from regional Australia. All 732 students who completed their RCS term in 2013 were invited to participate. Rural self-efficacy: Six questions to measure self-efficacy beliefs in rural medical practice, based on the sources of self-efficacy described by Bandura. Rural career intention: Students were asked to identify their preferred location for future practice. The options were, Capital or Major City; Inner regional city or large town; Smaller town and very remote area. Questionnaire responses were analysed from 653 medical students from regional Australia (response rate 89.2%). 83.8% of all students recalled an increase in their interest levels for rural medicine as a result of their RCS experience. Actual career intention to work in a regional area or rural area was 60.2%. Bivariate analyses showed female gender (p=0.003), rural background (pself-efficacy. Logistic regression analyses showed that self-efficacy was independently associated with increased interest in rural medicine (OR 1.4 (95% CI 1.3 to 1.5)) and rural career intent (OR 1.2 (95% CI 1.1 to 1.3)). (Model included gender, rural background, preference for RCS, generalist intent, rural practice interest and self-efficacy). Self-efficacy is associated with increased interest levels for rural medicine and rural medical career intent. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence

  20. Using reduced rank regression methods to identify dietary patterns associated with obesity: a cross-country study among European and Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybrechts, Inge; Lioret, Sandrine; Mouratidou, Theodora; Gunter, Marc J; Manios, Yannis; Kersting, Mathilde; Gottrand, Frederic; Kafatos, Anthony; De Henauw, Stefaan; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; Widhalm, Kurt; Gonzales-Gross, Marcela; Molnar, Denes; Moreno, Luis A; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine repeatability of reduced rank regression (RRR) methods in calculating dietary patterns (DP) and cross-sectional associations with overweight (OW)/obesity across European and Australian samples of adolescents. Data from two cross-sectional surveys in Europe (2006/2007 Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study, including 1954 adolescents, 12-17 years) and Australia (2007 National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, including 1498 adolescents, 12-16 years) were used. Dietary intake was measured using two non-consecutive, 24-h recalls. RRR was used to identify DP using dietary energy density, fibre density and percentage of energy intake from fat as the intermediate variables. Associations between DP scores and body mass/fat were examined using multivariable linear and logistic regression as appropriate, stratified by sex. The first DP extracted (labelled 'energy dense, high fat, low fibre') explained 47 and 31 % of the response variation in Australian and European adolescents, respectively. It was similar for European and Australian adolescents and characterised by higher consumption of biscuits/cakes, chocolate/confectionery, crisps/savoury snacks, sugar-sweetened beverages, and lower consumption of yogurt, high-fibre bread, vegetables and fresh fruit. DP scores were inversely associated with BMI z-scores in Australian adolescent boys and borderline inverse in European adolescent boys (so as with %BF). Similarly, a lower likelihood for OW in boys was observed with higher DP scores in both surveys. No such relationships were observed in adolescent girls. In conclusion, the DP identified in this cross-country study was comparable for European and Australian adolescents, demonstrating robustness of the RRR method in calculating DP among populations. However, longitudinal designs are more relevant when studying diet-obesity associations, to prevent reverse causality.

  1. Reaching beyond our walls: library outreach to veterinary practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, Robin R; Funkhouser, Norma F; Foster, Christine L

    2011-01-01

    The Texas A&M University Medical Sciences Library (MSL) supports lifelong learning for Texas veterinarians and College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences (CVMBS) alumni through several ongoing outreach efforts. The MSL provides free document delivery and literature search services to practicing veterinarians in support of patient care. The MSL also responded to unique opportunities to expand services and increase its visibility through collaborations with the American Association of Equine Practitioners and CABI, provider of VetMed Resource. The MSL continues to explore ways to expand its mission-critical veterinary outreach work and market library services to veterinarians through participation in continuing education, regional meetings, and veterinary student instruction.

  2. Repeat pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in Indigenous Australian adults is associated with decreased immune responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moberley, Sarah; Licciardi, Paul V; Balloch, Anne; Andrews, Ross; Leach, Amanda J; Kirkwood, Marie; Binks, Paula; Mulholland, Kim; Carapetis, Jonathan; Tang, Mimi L K; Skull, Sue

    2017-05-19

    non-Indigenous counterparts, with lower IgG following a second 23vPPV dose. These findings highlight the critical need to evaluate the efficacy of future pneumococcal vaccine programs in the Australian Indigenous populations that recommend repeated doses of 23vPPV. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Whole-genome sequencing of veterinary pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronco, Troels

    using whole-genome sequencing. The results showed that NELoc-1 and -3 and the two virulence genes netB and cnaA were significantly more associated with NE isolates from chickens compared to NE isolates from turkeys. Only NELoc-2 was associated with NE isolates from both turkeys and chickens. A putative......-electrophoresis and single-locus sequencing has been widely used to characterize such types of veterinary pathogens. However, DNA sequencing techniques have become fast and cost effective in recent years and whole-genome sequencing data provide a much higher discriminative power and reproducibility than any...... of the traditional molecular techniques. In this PhD project three important veterinary pathogens (Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus) were investigated using whole-genome sequencing. This was done in five different scientific papers which all have been published. Paper I and II...

  4. Association of low race performance with mtDNA haplogroup L3b of Australian thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiang; Zheng, Hong-Xiang; Davie, Allan; Zhou, Shi; Wen, Li; Meng, Jun; Zhang, Yong; Aladaer, Qimude; Liu, Bin; Liu, Wu-Jun; Yao, Xin-Kui

    2018-03-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encodes the genes for respiratory chain sub-units that determine the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria. The aim of this study was to determine if there were any haplogroups and variants in mtDNA that could be associated with athletic performance of Thoroughbred horses. The whole mitochondrial genomes of 53 maternally unrelated Australian Thoroughbred horses were sequenced and an association study was performed with the competition histories of 1123 horses within their maternal lineages. A horse mtDNA phylogenetic tree was constructed based on a total of 195 sequences (including 142 from previous reports). The association analysis showed that the sample groups with poor racing performance history were enriched in haplogroup L3b (p = .0003) and its sub-haplogroup L3b1a (p = .0007), while those that had elite performance appeared to be not significantly associated with haplogroups G2 and L3a1a1a (p > .05). Haplogroup L3b and L3b1a bear two and five specific variants of which variant T1458C (site 345 in 16s rRNA) is the only potential functional variant. Furthermore, secondary reconstruction of 16s RNA showed considerable differences between two types of 16s RNA molecules (with and without T1458C), indicating a potential functional effect. The results suggested that haplogroup L3b, could have a negative association with elite performance. The T1458C mutation harboured in haplogroup L3b could have a functional effect that is related to poor athletic performance.

  5. The lost history of American veterinary medicine: the need for preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, C Trenton

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to survey holdings of ephemeral veterinary literature. World Cat OCLC catalog, the Library of Congress online catalog, the US National Agricultural Library online catalog, and the Dictionary Catalog of the National Agricultural Library, 1862-1965, were used to determine current library holdings of materials published by veterinary schools that are no longer in existence and veterinary associations that are defunct, veterinary supply catalogs, veterinary house organs, patent medicine publications, and veterinary advertisements. Individual library catalogs were also consulted. In addition, the practice of removing advertisements from bound volumes was examined. There are many gaps in the cataloged library holdings of primary source materials relating to the history of the education of veterinarians in the United States. A proactive action plan needs to be designed and activated to locate, catalog, and preserve this primary source material of veterinary medicine for posterity.

  6. The lost history of American veterinary medicine: the need for preservation*†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, C. Trenton

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to survey holdings of ephemeral veterinary literature. Methods: WorldCat OCLC catalog, the Library of Congress online catalog, the US National Agricultural Library online catalog, and the Dictionary Catalog of the National Agricultural Library, 1862–1965, were used to determine current library holdings of materials published by veterinary schools that are no longer in existence and veterinary associations that are defunct, veterinary supply catalogs, veterinary house organs, patent medicine publications, and veterinary advertisements. Individual library catalogs were also consulted. In addition, the practice of removing advertisements from bound volumes was examined. Results: There are many gaps in the cataloged library holdings of primary source materials relating to the history of the education of veterinarians in the United States. Conclusions: A proactive action plan needs to be designed and activated to locate, catalog, and preserve this primary source material of veterinary medicine for posterity. PMID:21243050

  7. Evaluating the association between keratoconus and the corneal thickness genes in an independent Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahebjada, Srujana; Schache, Maria; Richardson, Andrea J; Snibson, Grant; MacGregor, Stuart; Daniell, Mark; Baird, Paul N

    2013-12-17

    A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified six loci associated with central corneal thickness that also conferred associated risk of keratoconus (KC). We aimed to assess whether genetic associations existed for these loci with KC or corneal curvature in an independent cohort of European ancestry. In total, 157 patients with KC were recruited from public and private clinics in Melbourne, Australia, and 673 individuals without KC were identified through the Genes in Myopia study from Australia. The following six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that showed a statistically significant association with KC in a recent GWAS study were selected for genotyping in our cohort: rs4894535 (FNDC3B), rs1324183 (MPDZ-NF1B), rs1536482 (RXRA-COL5A1), rs7044529 (COL5A), rs2721051 (FOXO1), and rs9938149 (BANP-ZNF469). The SNPs were assessed for their association with KC or corneal curvature using logistic or linear regression methods, with age and sex included as covariates. Bonferroni corrections were applied to account for multiple testing. Genotyping data were available for five of the SNPs. Statistically significant associations with KC were found for the SNPs rs1324183 (P = 0.001; odds ratio [OR], 1.68) and rs9938149 (P = 0.010; OR, 1.47). Meta-analysis of previous studies yielded genome-wide significant evidence of an association for rs1324183, firmly establishing it as a KC risk variant. None of the SNPs were significantly associated with corneal curvature. The SNPs rs1324183 in the MPDZ-NF1B gene and rs9938149 (between BANP and ZNF4659) were associated with KC in this independent cohort, but their association was via a non-corneal curvature route.

  8. Dental Education in Veterinary Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana L. Eubanks

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease is among the most prevalent canine dis-eases affecting over 75% of dogs. Strengthening of the human-animal bond and the increasing education of the aver-age pet owner, have fostered a heightened awareness of periodontal care in dogs and cats. Industry support has further assisted the small animal veterinarian in providing quality dental treatments and prevention. As recently as the 1990’s, veterinary curriculums contained little or no dental training. That trend is changing as nearly every one of the 28 US Colleges of Veterinary Medicine offers some level of small animal dentistry during the four-year curriculum. Primary areas of focus are on client education, the treatment of periodontal disease, dental prophylaxis, dental radiology, endodontics, exodontics and pain control. Students receive instruction in dental anatomy during their di-dactic curriculum and later experience clinical cases. Graduate DVMs can attend a variety of continuing education courses and even choose to specialize in veterinary dentistry in both small animals and horses. Through the efforts of organizations such as the American Veterinary Dental So-ciety, The American Veterinary Dental College and The Academy of Veterinary Dentistry, many veterinarians have been able to advance their skills in dentistry and improve animal welfare. Increasing ex-pectations of the pet-owning public coupled with the recent advancements of training opportunities available for vete-rinary students, graduate DVMs and certified veterinary technicians make veterinary dentistry an emerging practice-builder among the most successful small animal hospitals.

  9. Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus causing orbital cellulitis in Australian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaska, Vikram L; Grimwood, Keith; Gole, Glen A; Nimmo, Graeme R; Paterson, David L; Nissen, Michael D

    2011-11-01

    Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has only emerged recently as a cause of serious ocular infections in several different countries. At a tertiary pediatric hospital in Brisbane, Australia, community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus orbital cellulitis was first noted in 2009. Since then, it has caused 4 of 9 such infections.

  10. Exploring cross-sectional associations between common childhood illness, housing and social conditions in remote Australian Aboriginal communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brewster David

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited epidemiological research that provides insight into the complex web of causative and moderating factors that links housing conditions to a variety of poor health outcomes. This study explores the relationship between housing conditions (with a primary focus on the functional state of infrastructure and common childhood illness in remote Australian Aboriginal communities for the purpose of informing development of housing interventions to improve child health. Methods Hierarchical multi-level analysis of association between carer report of common childhood illnesses and functional and hygienic state of housing infrastructure, socio-economic, psychosocial and health related behaviours using baseline survey data from a housing intervention study. Results Multivariate analysis showed a strong independent association between report of respiratory infection and overall functional condition of the house (Odds Ratio (OR 3.00; 95%CI 1.36-6.63, but no significant association between report of other illnesses and the overall functional condition or the functional condition of infrastructure required for specific healthy living practices. Associations between report of child illness and secondary explanatory variables which showed an OR of 2 or more included: for skin infection - evidence of poor temperature control in the house (OR 3.25; 95%CI 1.06-9.94, evidence of pests and vermin in the house (OR 2.88; 95%CI 1.25-6.60; for respiratory infection - breastfeeding in infancy (OR 0.27; 95%CI 0.14-0.49; for diarrhoea/vomiting - hygienic state of food preparation and storage areas (OR 2.10; 95%CI 1.10-4.00; for ear infection - child care attendance (OR 2.25; 95%CI 1.26-3.99. Conclusion These findings add to other evidence that building programs need to be supported by a range of other social and behavioural interventions for potential health gains to be more fully realised.

  11. Poor quality of life in Australian men: Cross-sectional associations with obesity, mobility, lifestyle and psychiatric symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan-Olsen, Sharon L; Pasco, Julie A; Hosking, Sarah M; Dobbins, Amelia G; Williams, Lana J

    2017-09-01

    Despite their public health importance, little is known about associations between modifiable lifestyles, quality of life (QOL), and psychiatric symptoms in men. We investigated relationships between QOL, obesity, mobility and lifestyle in Australian men, including whether associations were mediated by anxiety and depression. A cross-sectional study of 893 men (aged 24-92 yrs) participating in the Geelong Osteoporosis Study: an age-stratified, population-based sample of men randomly recruited from the Barwon Statistical Division (BSD), in south-eastern Australia. Using a validated tool, QOL was measured in the domains of physical health, psychological health, social relationships and the environment. Anxiety and depression were ascertained using the Hospital Anxiety and Depressive Scale. Models were adjusted for age, clinical measures of obesity and mobility, and self-reported lifestyles, with adjustment made for anxiety and depression. Associations were observed between low mobility and lower psychological-related QOL (OR 0.70, 95%CI 0.53-0.93), and for smoking and low mobility with lower environment-related QOL (OR 0.48, 95%CI 0.27-0.84; OR 0.67, 95%CI 0.50-0.90, respectively). Age, anxiety and depression were independently associated with QOL in each domain. Independent of age, anxiety and depression, smoking and low mobility showed particularly strong effects on the likelihood of men reporting a lower satisfaction with their QOL. This information will inform the design of effective and equitable health policies, the allocation of resources toward unmet needs, and the development of strategic health-related plans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Computer automation in veterinary hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, H

    1996-05-01

    Computers have been used to automate complex and repetitive tasks in veterinary hospitals since the 1960s. Early systems were expensive, but their use was justified because they performed jobs which would have been impossible or which would have required greater resources in terms of time and personnel had they been performed by other methods. Systems found in most veterinary hospitals today are less costly, magnitudes more capable, and often underused. Modern multitasking operating systems and graphical interfaces bring many opportunities for automation. Commercial and custom programs developed and used in a typical multidoctor mixed species veterinary practice are described.

  13. Association of veterinary third-generation cephalosporin use with the risk of emergence of extended-spectrum-cephalosporin resistance in Escherichia coli from dairy cattle in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Toyotaka; Okubo, Torahiko; Usui, Masaru; Yokota, Shin-Ichi; Izumiyama, Satoshi; Tamura, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    The use of extended-spectrum cephalosporins in food animals has been suggested to increase the risk of spread of Enterobacteriaceae carrying extended-spectrum β-lactamases to humans. However, evidence that selection of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant bacteria owing to the actual veterinary use of these drugs according to criteria established in cattle has not been demonstrated. In this study, we investigated the natural occurrence of cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli in dairy cattle following clinical application of ceftiofur. E. coli isolates were obtained from rectal samples of treated and untreated cattle (n = 20/group) cultured on deoxycholate-hydrogen sulfide-lactose agar in the presence or absence of ceftiofur. Eleven cefazoline-resistant isolates were obtained from two of the ceftiofur-treated cattle; no cefazoline-resistant isolates were found in untreated cattle. The cefazoline-resistant isolates had mutations in the chromosomal ampC promoter region and remained susceptible to ceftiofur. Eighteen extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant isolates from two ceftiofur-treated cows were obtained on ceftiofur-supplemented agar; no extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant isolates were obtained from untreated cattle. These extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant isolates possessed plasmid-mediated β-lactamase genes, including bla(CTX-M-2) (9 isolates), bla(CTX-M-14) (8 isolates), or bla(CMY-2) (1 isolate); isolates possessing bla(CTX-M-2) and bla(CTX-M-14) were clonally related. These genes were located on self-transmissible plasmids. Our results suggest that appropriate veterinary use of ceftiofur did not trigger growth extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant E. coli in the bovine rectal flora; however, ceftiofur selection in vitro suggested that additional ceftiofur exposure enhanced selection for specific extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant β-lactamase-expressing E. coli clones.

  14. Association of veterinary third-generation cephalosporin use with the risk of emergence of extended-spectrum-cephalosporin resistance in Escherichia coli from dairy cattle in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyotaka Sato

    Full Text Available The use of extended-spectrum cephalosporins in food animals has been suggested to increase the risk of spread of Enterobacteriaceae carrying extended-spectrum β-lactamases to humans. However, evidence that selection of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant bacteria owing to the actual veterinary use of these drugs according to criteria established in cattle has not been demonstrated. In this study, we investigated the natural occurrence of cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli in dairy cattle following clinical application of ceftiofur. E. coli isolates were obtained from rectal samples of treated and untreated cattle (n = 20/group cultured on deoxycholate-hydrogen sulfide-lactose agar in the presence or absence of ceftiofur. Eleven cefazoline-resistant isolates were obtained from two of the ceftiofur-treated cattle; no cefazoline-resistant isolates were found in untreated cattle. The cefazoline-resistant isolates had mutations in the chromosomal ampC promoter region and remained susceptible to ceftiofur. Eighteen extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant isolates from two ceftiofur-treated cows were obtained on ceftiofur-supplemented agar; no extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant isolates were obtained from untreated cattle. These extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant isolates possessed plasmid-mediated β-lactamase genes, including bla(CTX-M-2 (9 isolates, bla(CTX-M-14 (8 isolates, or bla(CMY-2 (1 isolate; isolates possessing bla(CTX-M-2 and bla(CTX-M-14 were clonally related. These genes were located on self-transmissible plasmids. Our results suggest that appropriate veterinary use of ceftiofur did not trigger growth extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant E. coli in the bovine rectal flora; however, ceftiofur selection in vitro suggested that additional ceftiofur exposure enhanced selection for specific extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant β-lactamase-expressing E. coli clones.

  15. The association between MC1R genotype and BRAF mutation status in cutaneous melanoma: findings from an Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Elke; Hayward, Nicholas K; Dumenil, Troy; James, Michael R; Whiteman, David C

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing epidemiological and molecular evidence that cutaneous melanomas arise through multiple causal pathways. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between germline and somatic mutations in a population-based series of melanoma patients to reshape and refine the divergent pathway model for melanoma. Melanomas collected from 123 Australian patients were analyzed for melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) variants and mutations in the BRAF and NRAS genes. Detailed phenotypic and sun exposure data were systematically collected from all patients. We found that BRAF-mutant melanomas were significantly more likely from younger patients and those with high nevus counts, and were more likely in melanomas with adjacent neval remnants. Conversely, BRAF-mutant melanomas were significantly less likely in people with high levels of lifetime sun exposure. We observed no association between germline MC1R status and somatic BRAF mutations in melanomas from this population. BRAF-mutant melanomas have different origins from other cutaneous melanomas. These data support the divergent pathways hypothesis for melanoma, which may require a reappraisal of targeted cancer prevention activities.

  16. Ankylosing Spondylitis Patients Commencing Biologic Therapy Have High Baseline Levels of Comorbidity: A Report from the Australian Rheumatology Association Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldroyd, John; Schachna, Lionel; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Staples, Margaret; Murphy, Bridie; Bond, Molly; Briggs, Andrew; Lassere, Marissa; March, Lyn

    2009-01-01

    Aims. To compare the baseline characteristics of a population-based cohort of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) commencing biological therapy to the reported characteristics of bDMARD randomised controlled trials (RCTs) participants. Methods. Descriptive analysis of AS participants in the Australian Rheumatology Association Database (ARAD) who were commencing bDMARD therapy. Results. Up to December 2008, 389 patients with AS were enrolled in ARAD. 354 (91.0%) had taken bDMARDs at some time, and 198 (55.9%) completed their entry questionnaire prior to or within 6 months of commencing bDMARDs. 131 (66.1%) had at least one comorbid condition, and 24 (6.8%) had a previous malignancy (15 nonmelanoma skin, 4 melanoma, 2 prostate, 1 breast, cervix, and bowel). Compared with RCT participants, ARAD participants were older, had longer disease duration and higher baseline disease activity. Conclusions. AS patients commencing bDMARDs in routine care are significantly different to RCT participants and have significant baseline comorbidities. PMID:20107564

  17. Possible Association of High Urinary Magnesium and Taurine to Creatinine Ratios with Metabolic Syndrome Risk Reduction in Australian Aboriginals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsumi Hamada

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Because of the epidemic of metabolic syndrome (MS in Australian Aboriginals known for their higher cardiovascular mortality and shorter life expectancy, we analyzed the possible relationship of their MS risks with the current dietary custom. Methods. The subjects were 84 people aged 16–79 years. The health examination was conducted according to the basic protocol of WHO-CARDIAC (Cardiovascular Diseases and Alimentary Comparison Study. Results. The highest prevalence among MS risks was abdominal obesity (over 60%. After controlling for age and sex, the odds of obesity decreased significantly with high level of urinary magnesium/creatinine ratio (Mg/cre (OR, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.02–0.57; P<.05. The significant inverse associations of fat intake with Mg/cre and of fast food intake with urinary taurine/creatinine ratio were revealed. Conclusions. The high prevalence of obesity in the Aboriginal people of this area may partly be due to the reduction of beneficial nutrients intake including Mg and taurine.

  18. An assessment of the association between soil pH and ovine Johne's disease using Australian abattoir surveillance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowled, Brendan D; Stevenson, Mark A; Madin, Ben

    2016-04-01

    There has long been discussion in the literature about the role of soil on ovine Johnes disease (OJD). This is especially true of soil pH, however there is very little research to support an association between pH and OJD prevalence. The primary objective of this study was to examine the hypothesis that there is an association between soil pH and OJD. Several additional hypotheses were also assessed. Sheep properties that were surveyed by the Australian National Sheep Health Monitoring Project where classified as OJD reactor positive or otherwise. A variety of explanatory variables such as soil (especially soil pH), environmental and management factors were examined. Spatial regression models were assessed using information theory to examine support for various hypotheses and to examine associations; especially that soil pH is associated with OJD. A total of 1213 properties from 10,578 were classified as OJD positive (11.5%, 95% CI: 10.9-12.1). Within the limitations of the study, only modest support was found for an association between soil pH and the presence or absence of OJD. Instead, OJD prevalence was affected by several factors concurrently, a so called multi-factorial model (hypothesis). In this supported multifactorial hypothesis soil pH was marginally associated with OJD (p=0.04) and had a relatively weak effect (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.00). OJD was strongly associated with a number of biosecurity and environmental factors such as the time since infection arrived in a region, absence of biosecurity programs (such as regional biosecurity programs or state based programs) and, to a lesser extent, solar irradiation. Soil pH may play a relatively small role in explaining OJD prevalence when evaluated as part of a multifactorial model. Biosecurity and other environmental factors appear to be more strongly associated with the presence of OJD in Australia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Teaching veterinary internal medicine in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiakui; Guo, Dingzong; Zhou, Donghai; Wu, Xiaoxiong

    2011-01-01

    Veterinary internal medicine (VIM) is a core subject and important clinical discipline for undergraduate students of veterinary science. The present paper reviews current information about the teaching of VIM, presents a description of the veterinary science curriculum, suggests methods to improve the quality of VIM teaching in China, and describes difficulties, problems, and trends in veterinary education in China.

  20. Neck Posture Clusters and Their Association With Biopsychosocial Factors and Neck Pain in Australian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Karen V; Beales, Darren J; Smith, Anne J; O'Sullivan, Peter B; Straker, Leon M

    2016-10-01

    There is conflicting evidence on the association between sagittal neck posture and neck pain. The purposes of this study were: (1) to determine the existence of clusters of neck posture in a cohort of 17-year-olds and (2) to establish whether identified subgroups were associated with biopsychosocial factors and neck pain. This was a cross-sectional study. The adolescents (N=1,108) underwent 2-dimensional photographic postural assessment in a sitting position. One distance and 4 angular measurements of the head, neck, and thorax were calculated from photo-reflective markers placed on bony landmarks. Subgroups of sagittal sitting neck posture were determined by cluster analysis. Height and weight were measured, and lifestyle and psychological factors, neck pain, and headache were assessed by questionnaire. The associations among posture subgroups, neck pain, and other factors were evaluated using logistic regression. Four distinct clusters of sitting neck posture were identified: upright, intermediate, slumped thorax/forward head, and erect thorax/forward head. Significant associations between cluster and sex, weight, and height were found. Participants classified as having slumped thorax/forward head posture were at higher odds of mild, moderate, or severe depression. Participants classified as having upright posture exercised more frequently. There was no significant difference in the odds of neck pain or headache across the clusters. The results are specific to 17-year-olds and may not be applicable to adults. Meaningful sagittal sitting neck posture clusters were identified in 17-year-olds who demonstrated some differences with biopsychosocial profiling. The finding of no association between cluster membership and neck pain and headaches challenges widely held beliefs about the role of posture in adolescent neck pain. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  1. Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 13, No 1 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  2. Medical Services: Veterinary Health Services

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1994-01-01

    ... fiscal guidance, establishes guidance on the veterinary role in the human-animal bond, prescribes new and revised forms used to record animal medical information and allows for the use of computers...

  3. Radiology for the veterinary practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeffler, K.

    1980-01-01

    The course gives general veterinarians an outline of the apparative and diagnostic possibilities in veterinary radiology. Legal prescriptions (X-ray Ordinance, Radiation Protection Ordinance) and sources of failures in X-ray imaging are discussed. (HP) [de

  4. Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — As seen on the center's logo, the mission statement for FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) reads: "Protecting Human and Animal Health." To achieve this broad...

  5. Current human-animal bond course offerings in veterinary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Alan M; Martin, François

    2008-01-01

    The human-animal bond (HAB) is viewed as growing in importance for practicing veterinarians, veterinary students, and society in general. The fields and activities concerning the HAB are interdisciplinary and varied. There is widespread belief that HAB programs are important for veterinarians, although many practitioners feel that their instruction on this topic was not as complete as desired. Most activities associated with the HAB are conducted in specific centers, but only about half of the veterinary schools in North America have such centers, and the instructional programs they offer to students show much variation. The purpose of this study was to survey North American veterinary schools and to document the activities related to the HAB and HAB centers that are available to veterinary students.

  6. The feral horse foot. Part B: radiographic, gross visual and histopathological parameters of foot health in 100 Australian feral horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, B A; de Laat, M A; Mills, P C; Walsh, D M; Pollitt, C C

    2013-01-01

    It has been proposed that the feral horse foot is a benchmark model for foot health in horses. However, the foot health of feral horses has not been formally investigated. To investigate the foot health of Australian feral horses and determine if foot health is affected by environmental factors, such as substrate properties and distance travelled. Twenty adult feral horses from five populations (n = 100) were investigated. Populations were selected on the basis of substrate hardness and the amount of travel typical for the population. Feet were radiographed and photographed, and digital images were surveyed by two experienced assessors blinded to each other's assessment and to the population origin. Lamellar samples from 15 feet from three populations were investigated histologically for evidence of laminitis. There was a total of 377 gross foot abnormalities identified in 100 left forefeet. There were no abnormalities detected in three of the feet surveyed. Each population had a comparable prevalence of foot abnormalities, although the type and severity of abnormality varied among populations. Of the three populations surveyed by histopathology, the prevalence of chronic laminitis ranged between 40% and 93%. Foot health appeared to be affected by the environment inhabited by the horses. The observed chronic laminitis may be attributable to either nutritional or traumatic causes. Given the overwhelming evidence of suboptimal foot health, it may not be appropriate for the feral horse foot to be the benchmark model for equine foot health. © 2013 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2013 Australian Veterinary Association.

  7. Added sugar intake that exceeds current recommendations is associated with nutrient dilution in older Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshtaghian, Hanieh; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Charlton, Karen E; Probst, Yasmine C; Gopinath, Bamini; Mitchell, Paul; Flood, Victoria M

    2016-09-01

    A nutrient dilution effect of diets high in added sugar has been reported in some older populations, but the evidence is inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between added sugar intakes (according to recommended guidelines) and nutrient intake, food consumption, and body mass index (BMI). A cross-sectional analysis of data collected between 2007 and 2009 from participants of the Blue Mountains Eye study 4 was performed (n = 879). Dietary intake was assessed using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Added sugar content of foods was determined by applying a systematic step-wise method. BMI was calculated from measured weight and height. Food and nutrient intakes and BMI were assessed according to categories of percentage energy from added sugar (EAS% 10%) using analysis of covariance for multivariate analysis. Micronutrient intake including retinol equivalents, vitamins B6, B12, C, E, and D, and minerals including calcium, iron, and magnesium showed a significant inverse association with EAS% intakes (Ptrend intake of added sugars (intake of alcohol, fruits, and vegetables were higher and intake of sugar sweetened beverages was lower compared to other participants (all Ptrend intake from added sugar greater than the recommended level of 10% is associated with lower micronutrient intakes, indicating micronutrient dilution. Conversely, added sugar intakes intake are associated with higher micronutrient intakes. This information may inform dietary messages targeted at optimizing diet quality in older adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The association between hospital overcrowding and mortality among patients admitted via Western Australian emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprivulis, Peter C; Da Silva, Julie-Ann; Jacobs, Ian G; Frazer, Amanda R L; Jelinek, George A

    2006-03-06

    To examine the relationship between hospital and emergency department (ED) occupancy, as indicators of hospital overcrowding, and mortality after emergency admission. Retrospective analysis of 62 495 probabilistically linked emergency hospital admissions and death records. Three tertiary metropolitan hospitals between July 2000 and June 2003. All patients 18 years or older whose first ED attendance resulted in hospital admission during the study period. Deaths on days 2, 7 and 30 were evaluated against an Overcrowding Hazard Scale based on hospital and ED occupancy, after adjusting for age, diagnosis, referral source, urgency and mode of transport to hospital. There was a linear relationship between the Overcrowding Hazard Scale and deaths on Day 7 (r=0.98; 95% CI, 0.79-1.00). An Overcrowding Hazard Scale>2 was associated with an increased Day 2, Day 7 and Day 30 hazard ratio for death of 1.3 (95% CI, 1.1-1.6), 1.3 (95% CI, 1.2-1.5) and 1.2 (95% CI, 1.1-1.3), respectively. Deaths at 30 days associated with an Overcrowding Hazard Scale>2 compared with one of overcrowding is associated with increased mortality. The Overcrowding Hazard Scale may be used to assess the hazard associated with hospital and ED overcrowding. Reducing overcrowding may improve outcomes for patients requiring emergency hospital admission.

  9. Sex-dependent association between omega-3 index and body weight status in older Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwina Mingay

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: Omega-3 status was associated with weight status, particularly in older women but not in men. These results suggest the need for sex-based intervention trials to examine the role of dietary intake and/or supplementation of LCn-3PUFA in weight management of older adults.

  10. Associations between Teacher Emotional Support and Depressive Symptoms in Australian Adolescents: A 5-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pössel, Patrick; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Sawyer, Michael G.; Spence, Susan H.; Bjerg, Annie C.

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 1/5 of adolescents develop depressive symptoms. Given that youths spend a good deal of their lives at school, it seems plausible that supportive relationships with teachers could benefit their emotional well-being. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine the association between emotionally supportive teacher relationships and…

  11. Associations between gross motor skills and physical activity in Australian toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldman, Sanne L C; Jones, Rachel A; Santos, Rute; Sousa-Sá, Eduarda; Pereira, João R; Zhang, Zhiguang; Okely, Anthony D

    2017-12-20

    Physical activity can be promoted by high levels of gross motor skills. A systematic review found a positive relationship in children (3-18 years) but only few studies examined this in younger children. The aim of this study was to examine the association between gross motor skills and physical activity in children aged 11-29 months. Cross-sectional study. This study involved 284 children from 30 childcare services in NSW, Australia (Mean age=19.77±4.18months, 53.2% boys). Physical activity was measured using accelerometers (Actigraph GT3X+). Gross motor skills were assessed using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales Second Edition (PDMS-2). Multilevel linear regression analyses were computed to assess associations between gross motor skills and physical activity, adjusting for sex, age and BMI. Children spent 53.08% of their time in physical activity and 10.39% in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Boys had higher total physical activity (pskills score was 96.16. Boys scored higher than girls in object manipulation (pskills and total physical activity or MVPA. Although gross motor skills were not associated with physical activity in this sample, stronger associations are apparent in older children. This study therefore highlights a potential important age to promote gross motor skills. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Young Australians' use of pornography and associations with sexual risk behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Megan S C; Agius, Paul A; Carrotte, Elise R; Vella, Alyce M; Hellard, Margaret E

    2017-08-01

    Amid public health concern that rising pornography use may have a negative impact on young people's health and wellbeing, we report prevalence of pornography viewing and explore factors associated with viewing frequency and age at first viewing. Cross-sectional online survey in a convenience sample of Victorians aged 15 to 29 years recruited via social media. Ever viewing pornography was reported by 815 of 941 (87%) participants. The median age at first pornography viewing was 13 years for men and 16 years for women. More frequent pornography viewing was associated with male gender, younger age, higher education, non-heterosexual identity, ever having anal intercourse and recent mental health problems. Younger age at first pornography viewing was associated with male gender, younger current age, higher education, non-heterosexual identity, younger age at first sexual contact and recent mental health problems. Pornography use is common and associated with some health and behavioural outcomes. Longitudinal research is needed to determine the causal impact of pornography on these factors. Implications for public health: Viewing pornography is common and frequent among young people from a young age and this needs to be considered in sexuality education. © 2017 The Authors.

  13. Concurrent and prospective associations between bullying victimization and substance use among Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Erin V; Newton, Nicola C; Stapinski, Lexine A; Slade, Tim; Barrett, Emma L; Conrod, Patricia J; Teesson, Maree

    2015-09-01

    Adolescence is a vulnerable time for both substance use and bullying involvement; however, there is limited research on substance use among adolescent victims of bullying. This study aimed to examine concurrent and prospective associations between bullying and substance use, differentiating between passive-victims, bully-victims and 'pure' bullies. Associations between bullying involvement and substance use at baseline and 24 months post-baseline were examined in a cohort of adolescents in Australia. Bullying victims were divided into passive-victims (those who get bullied and do not bully others) and bully-victims (those who both get bullied and bully others). Perpetrators of bullying were divided into 'pure' bullies (those who bully others but do not get bullied), and bully-victims (as above). Outcomes examined were past six month use of alcohol (any drinking; risky drinking), tobacco, and cannabis. While there was no evidence of an association between bullying victimization and/or perpetration and substance use at baseline, there was evidence of an association between bullying and substance use 24 months post-baseline. Specifically, there was evidence of increased odds of risky drinking and cannabis use for the bully-victim group. Bully-victim status at age 13 was associated with substance use at age 15, controlling for concurrent bullying involvement at age 15. Bully-victims are a particularly high-risk group that could benefit from targeted substance use preventive interventions. Reducing bullying is of great importance in reducing substance use and other harms among adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Governance, veterinary legislation and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitclerc, M

    2012-08-01

    This review of governance distinguishes between ends and means and, by highlighting the complexity and differing definitions of the concept, defines its scope and focuses discussion on its characteristics in order to establish an interrelationship between veterinary legislation and governance. Good governance must be backed by legislation, and good legislation must incorporate the principles and instruments of good governance. This article lists some of the main characteristics of governance and then reviews them in parallel with the methodology used to draft veterinary legislation, emphasising the importance of goal-setting and stakeholder participation. This article describes the criteria developed by the Veterinary Legislation Support Programme (VLSP) of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) for assessing the quality of veterinary legislation. It then makes a comparison between the quality assurance process and the good governance process in order to demonstrate that the introduction and proper use of the tools for developing veterinary legislation offered by the OIE VLSP leads to a virtuous circle linking legislation with good governance. Ultimately, the most important point remains the implementation of legislation. Consequently, the author points out that satisfactory implementation relies not only on legislation that is technically and legally appropriate, acceptable, applicable, sustainable, correctly drafted, well thought through and designed for the long term, but also on the physical and legal capacity of official Veterinary Services to perform their administrative and enforcement duties, and on there being the means available for all those involved to discharge their responsibilities.

  15. An examination of US consumer pet-related and veterinary service expenditures, 1980--2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Christopher A; Lloyd, James W; Black, J Roy

    2008-08-01

    To evaluate US consumer expenditures for veterinary services, pets-pet supplies, and pet-related services. Retrospective economic analysis. US consumers from 1980 through 2005. Descriptive statistics and probit regressions were calculated. From 1980 to 2005, total inflation-adjusted expenditures on pet-related and veterinary services increased, as did the percentage of households with a pet-related expenditure. The percentage of households with veterinary service expenditures was fairly constant. Among households with a pet-related expenditure, the percentage purchasing veterinary services decreased. The probability for pet-related and veterinary service expenditures increased with income, education, and family size and was higher for household heads who were white, were married, owned their residence, and lived in a rural area. Overall spending on veterinary services increased substantially, providing no indication that successful practices should change strategy. Households that spent money on veterinary services increased their spending sufficiently to exceed the loss of income for veterinarians associated with the increasing proportion of pet-owning households that did not spend anything on veterinary services. Because the probability of veterinary service expenditures was strongly related to household income, caution is suggested in planning provision of veterinary services when incomes are constrained. Among households with pet-related expenditures, the decreasing percentage of households with veterinary service expenditures suggests a growing proportion of pet owners who are not having their veterinary service needs met. Because non-white households were less likely to purchase veterinary services, the veterinary profession cannot afford to delay efforts to enhance diversity and cultural competence.

  16. Neighbourhood Environmental Attributes Associated with Walking in South Australian Adults: Differences between Urban and Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Narelle M; Coffee, Neil T; Nolan, Rebecca; Dollman, James; Sugiyama, Takemi

    2017-08-26

    Although the health benefits of walking are well established, participation is lower in rural areas compared to urban areas. Most studies on walkability and walking have been conducted in urban areas, thus little is known about the relevance of walkability to rural areas. A computer-assisted telephone survey of 2402 adults (aged ≥18 years) was conducted to determine walking behaviour and perceptions of neighbourhood walkability. Data were stratified by urban (n = 1738) and rural (n = 664). A greater proportion of respondents reported no walking in rural (25.8%) compared to urban areas (18.5%). Compared to urban areas, rural areas had lower walkability scores and urban residents reported higher frequency of walking. The association of perceived walkability with walking was significant only in urban areas. These results suggest that environmental factors associated with walking in urban areas may not be relevant in rural areas. Appropriate walkability measures specific to rural areas should be further researched.

  17. The association between alcohol outlet density and alcohol use among urban and regional Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azar, Denise; White, Victoria; Coomber, Kerri; Faulkner, Agatha; Livingston, Michael; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Room, Robin; Wakefield, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    While recent evidence suggests that higher alcohol outlet density is associated with greater alcohol use among adolescents, influence of the four main outlet types on youth drinking within urban and regional communities is unknown. This study provides the first investigation of this relationship. Repeated cross-sectional surveys with random samples of secondary students clustered by school. Mixed-effects logistic regression analyses examined the association between each outlet type and the drinking outcomes, with interaction terms used to test urban/regional differences. Australia, 2002-11. Respondents participating in a triennial survey (aged 12-17 years); 44 897 from urban settings, 23 311 from regional settings. The key outcome measures were past month alcohol use, risky drinking among all students and risky drinking among past week drinkers. For each survey year, students were assigned a postcode-level outlet density (number of licences per 1000 population) for each outlet type (general, on-premise, off-premise, clubs). Interaction terms revealed a significant association between off-premises outlet density and risky drinking among all adolescents in urban (odds ratio = 1.36, 95% confidence interval CI = 1.05-1.75, P alcohol use and risky drinking among all adolescents. Higher densities of general, on- and off-premises outlets in an adolescent's immediate neighbourhood are related to increased likelihood of alcohol consumption among all adolescents. The density of licensed clubs is associated more strongly with drinking for urban than for regional adolescents. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Predictors of Vitamin D-Containing Supplement Use in the Australian Population and Associations between Dose and Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda J. Black

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite concerns about vitamin D deficiency in the Australian population, little is known about the prevalence and predictors of vitamin D-containing supplement use. We described the use of vitamin D-containing supplements, and investigated associations between supplemental vitamin D intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD concentrations, using a single 24-h dietary recall from the 2011–2013 Australian Health Survey (n = 12,153; ages ≥ 2 years. Multiple regression models were used to investigate predictors of vitamin D-containing supplement use in adults, and associations between dose and serum 25(OHD concentrations/vitamin D sufficiency (≥50 nmol/L, adjusting for potential confounders. The prevalence of vitamin D-containing supplement use was 10%, 6% and 19% in children, adolescents and adults, respectively. Predictors of vitamin D-containing supplement use in adults included being female, advancing age, higher educational attainment, higher socio-economic status, not smoking, and greater physical activity. After adjusting for potential confounders, a 40 IU (1 µg increase in vitamin D intake from supplements was associated with an increase of 0.41 nmol/L in serum 25(OHD concentrations (95% CI 0.35, 0.47; p < 0.001. However, the prevalence of vitamin D-containing supplement use was generally low in the Australian population, particularly for single vitamin D supplements, with most supplement users obtaining only low levels of vitamin D from other supplement types.

  19. Discretionary food and beverage consumption and its association with demographic characteristics, weight status, and fruit and vegetable intakes in Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Zhixian; Wong, Weng Kei; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Rangan, Anna

    2017-02-01

    Excessive consumption of discretionary foods/beverages in the Australian population has been identified, increasing the risk of obesity and chronic disease. The present study aimed to examine the associations between demographic, anthropometric and dietary factors and the consumption of discretionary foods, discretionary beverages and discretionary foods/beverages combined. Discretionary food/beverage consumption reported in two 24 h recalls was analysed, stratified by gender, age, socio-economic status, country of birth, BMI, waist circumference, and fruit and vegetable intakes. 2011-12 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. Australian adults (n 7873) aged 19 years or above. Mean discretionary food and beverage consumption was 631 g (28 % by weight from foods; 72 % from beverages), providing 2721 kJ of energy intake (72 % from foods; 28 % from beverages). Total discretionary food/beverage consumption was higher in younger age groups (Pbeverage consumption (β=6·6, Pfood consumption (β=0·5, P=0·01). Total discretionary food/beverage consumption as well as discretionary foods alone and discretionary beverages alone were associated with BMI in Australian adults. In addition, high intakes were associated with younger age, lower socio-economic status, and lower consumption of fruit and vegetables.

  20. Higher maternal protectiveness is associated with higher odds of child overweight and obesity: a longitudinal Australian study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten J Hancock

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been an increasing interest in overprotective parenting and the potential role it plays in child development. While some have argued that a trend towards increased parental fear and reduced opportunity for independent mobility may be linked to increasing rates of child overweight and obesity, there is limited empirical information available to support this claim. Using data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, this study aimed to examine the longitudinal relationships between maternal protectiveness and child overweight and obesity. A cohort of 4-5 year old children was followed up at 6-7, 8-9 and 10-11 years of age (n  =  2596. Measures included a protective parenting scale administered when children were 6-7 and 8-9 years of age, child body mass index (BMI, family characteristics including household income, neighbourhood disadvantage, child's position amongst siblings, and maternal BMI, education, employment, mental health and age at first birth. International Obesity Taskforce age- and sex-specific BMI cut points were used to determine if children were in the normal, overweight or obese BMI range. There was no association between maternal protectiveness and the odds of children being overweight or obese at age 4-5, 6-7 or 8-9 years. However at age 10-11 years, a 1 standard deviation increase in maternal protectiveness was associated with a 13% increase in the odds of children being overweight or obese. The results provide evidence of a relationship between maternal protectiveness and child overweight and obesity, however further research is required to understand the mechanism(s that links the two concepts.

  1. Higher Maternal Protectiveness Is Associated with Higher Odds of Child Overweight and Obesity: A Longitudinal Australian Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Kirsten J.; Lawrence, David; Zubrick, Stephen R.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing interest in overprotective parenting and the potential role it plays in child development. While some have argued that a trend towards increased parental fear and reduced opportunity for independent mobility may be linked to increasing rates of child overweight and obesity, there is limited empirical information available to support this claim. Using data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, this study aimed to examine the longitudinal relationships between maternal protectiveness and child overweight and obesity. A cohort of 4–5 year old children was followed up at 6–7, 8–9 and 10–11 years of age (n  =  2596). Measures included a protective parenting scale administered when children were 6–7 and 8–9 years of age, child body mass index (BMI), family characteristics including household income, neighbourhood disadvantage, child's position amongst siblings, and maternal BMI, education, employment, mental health and age at first birth. International Obesity Taskforce age- and sex-specific BMI cut points were used to determine if children were in the normal, overweight or obese BMI range. There was no association between maternal protectiveness and the odds of children being overweight or obese at age 4–5, 6–7 or 8–9 years. However at age 10–11 years, a 1 standard deviation increase in maternal protectiveness was associated with a 13% increase in the odds of children being overweight or obese. The results provide evidence of a relationship between maternal protectiveness and child overweight and obesity, however further research is required to understand the mechanism(s) that links the two concepts. PMID:24955586

  2. Higher maternal protectiveness is associated with higher odds of child overweight and obesity: a longitudinal Australian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Kirsten J; Lawrence, David; Zubrick, Stephen R

    2014-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing interest in overprotective parenting and the potential role it plays in child development. While some have argued that a trend towards increased parental fear and reduced opportunity for independent mobility may be linked to increasing rates of child overweight and obesity, there is limited empirical information available to support this claim. Using data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, this study aimed to examine the longitudinal relationships between maternal protectiveness and child overweight and obesity. A cohort of 4-5 year old children was followed up at 6-7, 8-9 and 10-11 years of age (n  =  2596). Measures included a protective parenting scale administered when children were 6-7 and 8-9 years of age, child body mass index (BMI), family characteristics including household income, neighbourhood disadvantage, child's position amongst siblings, and maternal BMI, education, employment, mental health and age at first birth. International Obesity Taskforce age- and sex-specific BMI cut points were used to determine if children were in the normal, overweight or obese BMI range. There was no association between maternal protectiveness and the odds of children being overweight or obese at age 4-5, 6-7 or 8-9 years. However at age 10-11 years, a 1 standard deviation increase in maternal protectiveness was associated with a 13% increase in the odds of children being overweight or obese. The results provide evidence of a relationship between maternal protectiveness and child overweight and obesity, however further research is required to understand the mechanism(s) that links the two concepts.

  3. Factors associated with breastfeeding at six months postpartum in a group of Australian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLachlan Helen L

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite high levels of breastfeeding initiation in Australia, only 47 percent of women are breastfeeding (exclusively or partially six months later, with marked differences between social groups. It is important to identify women who are at increased risk of early cessation of breastfeeding. Methods Data from the three arms of a randomised controlled trial were pooled and analysed as a cohort using logistic regression to identify which factors predicted women continuing to feed any breast milk at six months postpartum. The original trial included 981 primiparous women attending a public, tertiary, women's hospital in Melbourne, Australia in 1999–2001. The trial evaluated the effect of two mid-pregnancy educational interventions on breastfeeding initiation and duration. In the 889 women with six month outcomes available, neither intervention increased breastfeeding initiation nor duration compared to standard care. Independent variables were included in the predictive model based on the literature and discussion with peers and were each tested individually against the dependent variable (any breastfeeding at six months. Results Thirty-three independent variables of interest were identified, of which 25 qualified for inclusion in the preliminary regression model; 764 observations had complete data available. Factors remaining in the final model that were positively associated with breastfeeding any breast milk at six months were: a very strong desire to breastfeed; having been breastfed oneself as a baby; being born in an Asian country; and older maternal age. There was an increasing association with increasing age. Factors negatively associated with feeding any breast milk at six months were: a woman having no intention to breastfeed six months or more; smoking 20 or more cigarettes per day pre-pregnancy; not attending childbirth education; maternal obesity; having self-reported depression in the six months after birth; and

  4. Associations between religious behavior and attitude to Christianity among Australian Catholic adolescents: scale validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, J P

    2001-10-01

    In a sample of 1,166 Catholic high school students (age = 13-18 years), the author used confirmatory factor analysis to validate a 30-item instrument that assesses 6 dimensions of attitude to Christianity (viz., attitude to prayer, attitude to God, attitude to Jesus, attitude to the Bible, attitude to Christian practice, attitude to social justice). Goodness-of-fit indices for the proposed measurement model revealed that the model fitted the data very well, thus confirming the instrument's structure. A correlation analysis revealed associations between religious behavior and attitude to Christianity.

  5. Outcomes of myringoplasty in Australian Aboriginal children and factors associated with success: a prospective case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, D; MacKendrick, A; Bulsara, M; Coates, H; Lannigan, F; Lehmann, D; Leidwinger, L; Weeks, S

    2004-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the outcomes of myringoplasties in Aboriginal children and to identify factors associated with a successful outcome with the use of prospective case series from primary health care clinics and hospitals in four rural and remote regions of Western Australia. All 58 Aboriginal children, aged 5-15 years, who underwent 78 myringoplasties between 1 January 2000 and 30 June 2001 were included in the study. Complete postoperative (post-op) follow-up was achieved following 78% of myringoplasties. The main outcome measures were (a) success, i.e. an intact tympanic membrane and normal hearing six or more months post-op in the operated ear, (b) closure of the perforation, (c) Post-op hearing improvement. Forty-nine per cent of myringoplasties were successful, 72% resulted in closure or reduction in the size of the perforation and 51% resulted in hearing improvement. After controlling for age, sex, clustering and number of previous myringoplasties, no association was observed between success or hearing improvement and perforation size, or the presence of serous aural discharge at the time of surgery. Myringoplasty resulted in hearing improvement and/or perforation closure in a significant proportion of children. Thus, primary school-aged Aboriginal children in whom conservative management of chronic suppurative otitis media has been unsuccessful should have access to myringoplasty because of the positive impact on their socialization, language and learning that results from improved hearing.

  6. Cone beam computed tomography in veterinary dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Thielen, Bert; Siguenza, Francis; Hassan, Bassam

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in imaging dogs and cats for diagnostic dental veterinary applications. CBCT scans of heads of six dogs and two cats were made. Dental panoramic and multi-planar reformatted (MPR) para-sagittal reconstructions were created using specialized software. Image quality and visibility of anatomical landmarks were subjectively assessed by two observers. Good image quality was obtained for the MPR para-sagittal reconstructions through multiple teeth. The image quality of the panoramic reconstructions of dogs was moderate while the panoramic reconstructions of cats were poor since the images were associated with an increased noise level. Segmental panoramic reconstructions of the mouth seem to be useful for studying the dental anatomy especially in dogs. The results of this study using human dental CBCT technology demonstrate the potential of this scanning technology in veterinary medicine. Unfortunately, the moderate image quality obtained with the CBCT technique reported here seems to be inferior to the diagnostic image quality obtained from 2-dimensional dental radiographs. Further research is required to optimize scanning and reconstruction protocols for veterinary applications.

  7. The role of veterinary medicine regulatory agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M V

    2013-08-01

    An effective animal medicine regulatory programme includes a systematic, evidence-based means of documenting the safety and effectiveness of products before they are produced, marketed or used in a particular country or region. The programme must also include adequate monitoring and controls over the use of these substances. It is clearthat such programmes provide veterinarians, farmers and other animal medicine users with greater assurance that veterinary drugs and biologicals will be safe and effective in preventing and mitigating disease. It is important that these regulatory controls include programmes to ensure that human food obtained from treated animals is safe and that all potential toxicological and microbiological hazards that may be associated with the use of veterinary medicines have been adequately evaluated. There is a great need worldwide for veterinary medicines that provide needed therapies for vast numbers of animals and animal species and, in the case of food-producing animals, for medicinal products that enhance the productivity and efficiency of food production and ensure food safety when they are used in accordance with their approval specifications. The public health mission of regulatory agencies succeeds when they are able to put into the hands of the user an approved, safe and effective, well-manufactured and appropriately labelled medicine, and when there are adequate controls in place to assure proper compliance.

  8. Recruiting Research Higher Degree Students into Veterinary Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Michelle; Phillips, Clive

    2018-02-02

    Research at veterinary schools is usually driven by post-graduate students, yet there has been little or no study of how these students are selected. We undertook a review of the challenges faced in enlisting research higher degree (RHD) students at a long-established veterinary school, the School of Veterinary Science at the University of Queensland. Our aim was to identify the best methods of developing a strategic recruitment program that would enhance veterinary research in the school. A total of 21 academic research supervisors completed a quantitative survey assessing the associated importance placed on a variety of selection criteria and the level of potential challenges presented in recruiting suitable RHD students. Thirteen of these respondents completed a semi-structured qualitative interview to obtain further information. Respondents rated the motivation levels of potential students as the most important area of concern with regard to the assessment of student suitability, followed by their academic strength and English competency levels. The biggest challenge reported was that of obtaining sufficient funding for research projects and matching that funding to suitable students, followed by the geographical and student culture challenges of a rural campus. During the interviews, interviewees drew attention to the importance of developing a strong research culture in veterinary schools, and there was some concern centered on taking students with diverse cultural backgrounds. These constraints are discussed in light of the development of a broad-ranging strategy for developing an active and effective RHD program within veterinary schools.

  9. Exercise bra discomfort is associated with insufficient exercise levels among Australian women treated for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gho, Sheridan A; Munro, Bridget J; Jones, Sandra C; Steele, Julie R

    2014-03-01

    Although participating in exercise is beneficial for breast cancer survivors, not being able to find a comfortable exercise bra can be a barrier to exercise. It is likely that side effects specific to breast cancer treatment exacerbate exercise bra discomfort. This study aimed to determine the relationship between patient characteristics, physical side effects, exercise bra discomfort and exercise behaviours. Four hundred thirty-two breast cancer survivors completed an online survey related to their treatment and demographic background, current exercise levels, reported exercise bra discomfort and breast cancer treatment side effects. Patient characteristics and exercise levels were considered in a binary logistic regression against reporting bra discomfort to ascertain significant relationships (p bra discomfort. Eight out of nine physical side effects were significantly related to reporting exercise bra discomfort. Reporting exercise bra discomfort was significantly related to not achieving a minimal recommended level of exercise. This is the first study in the scientific literature that systematically links the reporting of exercise bra discomfort to not achieving recommended levels of exercise. This effect of bra discomfort on exercise was found after controlling for age, surgery type and current treatment among a large cohort of women treated for breast cancer. Furthermore, results from this study suggest that physical side effects, as a result of surgery and treatment associated with breast cancer, are linked to experiencing bra discomfort during exercise.

  10. Associations between teacher emotional support and depressive symptoms in Australian adolescents: a 5-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pössel, Patrick; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Sawyer, Michael G; Spence, Susan H; Bjerg, Annie C

    2013-11-01

    Approximately 1/5 of adolescents develop depressive symptoms. Given that youths spend a good deal of their lives at school, it seems plausible that supportive relationships with teachers could benefit their emotional well-being. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine the association between emotionally supportive teacher relationships and depression in adolescence. The so-called principle-effect and stress-buffer models could explain relationships between teacher emotional support and depressive symptoms, yet no study has used both models to test bidirectional relationships between teacher support and depressive symptoms in students separately by sex. Four-thousand three-hundred forty-one students (boys: n = 2,063; girls: n = 2,278) from Grades 8 to 12 completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), List of Threatening Experiences Questionnaire (LTEQ), and an instrument developed for the study to measure teacher support annually for 5 years. Results support neither of the 2 proposed models. Instead, they indicate that in the 1st years of high school, students of both sexes with average and high numbers of stressful events benefit from teacher support, while teacher support might have iatrogenic effects on students experiencing low numbers of stressful events. Possible explanations for the findings and future research are discussed.

  11. Bullying in school and cyberspace: Associations with depressive symptoms in Swiss and Australian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw Thérèse

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyber-bullying (i.e., bullying via electronic means has emerged as a new form of bullying that presents unique challenges to those victimised. Recent studies have demonstrated that there is a significant conceptual and practical overlap between both types of bullying such that most young people who are cyber-bullied also tend to be bullied by more traditional methods. Despite the overlap between traditional and cyber forms of bullying, it remains unclear if being a victim of cyber-bullying has the same negative consequences as being a victim of traditional bullying. Method The current study investigated associations between cyber versus traditional bullying and depressive symptoms in 374 and 1320 students from Switzerland and Australia respectively (52% female; Age: M = 13.8, SD = 1.0. All participants completed a bullying questionnaire (assessing perpetration and victimisation of traditional and cyber forms of bullying behaviour in addition to scales on depressive symptoms. Results Across both samples, traditional victims and bully-victims reported more depressive symptoms than bullies and non-involved children. Importantly, victims of cyber-bullying reported significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms, even when controlling for the involvement in traditional bullying/victimisation. Conclusions Overall, cyber-victimisation emerged as an additional risk factor for depressive symptoms in adolescents involved in bullying.

  12. Bullying in school and cyberspace: Associations with depressive symptoms in Swiss and Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perren, Sonja; Dooley, Julian; Shaw, Thérèse; Cross, Donna

    2010-11-23

    Cyber-bullying (i.e., bullying via electronic means) has emerged as a new form of bullying that presents unique challenges to those victimised. Recent studies have demonstrated that there is a significant conceptual and practical overlap between both types of bullying such that most young people who are cyber-bullied also tend to be bullied by more traditional methods. Despite the overlap between traditional and cyber forms of bullying, it remains unclear if being a victim of cyber-bullying has the same negative consequences as being a victim of traditional bullying. The current study investigated associations between cyber versus traditional bullying and depressive symptoms in 374 and 1320 students from Switzerland and Australia respectively (52% female; Age: M = 13.8, SD = 1.0). All participants completed a bullying questionnaire (assessing perpetration and victimisation of traditional and cyber forms of bullying behaviour) in addition to scales on depressive symptoms. Across both samples, traditional victims and bully-victims reported more depressive symptoms than bullies and non-involved children. Importantly, victims of cyber-bullying reported significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms, even when controlling for the involvement in traditional bullying/victimisation. Overall, cyber-victimisation emerged as an additional risk factor for depressive symptoms in adolescents involved in bullying.

  13. Radiation doses and associated parameters in the Western Australian mineral sand industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshman, I.W.; Hewson, G.S.

    1994-01-01

    Since 1983 companies involved in the mining and processing of mineral sands in Western Australia have been required to comply with radiation protection provisions contained within codes of practice adopted under the Mines Regulation Act (1976). Since 1986 the Department of Minerals and Energy of Western Australia has been directly administering the provisions of the Commonwealth of Australia publication: Code of Practice on Radiation Protection in the Mining and Milling of Radioactive Ores (1987). This Code requires monitoring, assessment and reporting of the radiation doses received by workers. Reports of the results of monitoring and association radiation protection activities are submitted on an annual basis to the Department of Minerals and Energy. This paper summarises those monitoring results and identifies any trends in radiological conditions in the mineral sands industry work environment since 1986. Over the last seven years the number of employees in the industry has increased by 73%; the number of designated employees has decreased by 20% and the collective effective dose equivalent to the designated employee workforce has decreased by 74%. Reasons for this improvement will be described. The parameters and assumptions used in determining radiation doses for employees in this industry are reviewed and the implications of the recently adopted ICRP Task Group Lung Model for intake of thorium dust will be discussed. 16 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs

  14. Australian association for exercise and sports science position statement on exercise and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Alan R; Fitch, Kenneth D

    2011-07-01

    Asthma, a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways is associated with variable obstruction to the airways and is provoked by many triggers including exercise. The management of asthma is primarily pharmacological, but exercise, despite causing bronchoconstriction in almost all asthmatics, is an important adjunct to treatment. With adequate control of the hyperresponsive airways obtained with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and inhaled beta 2 agonists (IBA), used as both a pre-exercise preventive agent and a reliever if necessary, all asthmatics should benefit from an exercise program. Some have realised this benefit with such success as to become Olympic and world champions in many sports. Exercise programs should be individually tailored, follow established guidelines and result in similar benefits to those obtained by non-asthmatics. However asthmatics must try to avoid or minimise triggers whenever possible. A specific benefit of a physical training program is that it allows asthmatics to exercise with less bronchoconstriction at the same exercise stress, although it does not abolish or reduce airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Copyright © 2011 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Syncope associated with swallowing in two British Bulldogs with unilateral carotid body tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, A; Yates, G D; Nimmo, J; Holloway, S A

    2013-01-01

    Carotid body tumours were diagnosed in two British Bulldogs that each had a history of syncopal episodes induced by eating, drinking or pulling on the leash. In both dogs, a cervical mass was identified using computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging, with carotid body tumour (CBT) being the histopathological diagnosis. A heart base mass was also identified in one dog by both CT and echocardiography. Swallowing syncope has been reported in the human literature in association with cervical mass lesions, but this is the first report in dogs. The present cases emphasise the value of advanced imaging of the head and neck in dogs presenting with clinical signs of syncope associated with swallowing and the importance of careful manipulation of the neck in patients with CBTs. © 2013 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2013 Australian Veterinary Association.

  16. Association of positive fluid balance and mortality in sepsis and septic shock in an Australian cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittard, M G; Huang, S J; McLean, A S; Orde, S R

    2017-11-01

    In patients with septic shock, a correlation between positive fluid balance and worsened outcomes has been reported in multiple observational studies worldwide. No published data exists in an Australasian cohort. We set out to explore this association in our institution. We conducted a retrospective audit of patient records from August 2012 to May 2015 in a single-centre, 24-bed surgical and medical intensive care unit (ICU) in Sydney, Australia. All patients with septic shock were included. Exclusion criteria included length of stay less than 24 hours or vasopressors needed for less than six hours. Data was gathered on fluid balance for the first seven days of ICU admission, biochemical data and other clinical indices. The primary outcome measure was survival to hospital discharge. One hundred and eighty-six patients with septic shock were included, with an overall hospital mortality of 23.7%. Seventy-five percent of patients required mechanical ventilation, and 27.4% required haemodialysis. The mean daily fluid balance on the first day of admission was positive 1,424 ml and 1,394 ml for ICU and hospital survivors, respectively. On average, the daily fluid balance for non-survivors was higher than the survivors: ICU non-survivors were 602 (95% confidence intervals 230, 974) ml (P=0.0015) and hospital non-survivors were 530 [95% confidence intervals 197, 863] ml (P=0.0017) more than the survivors. In line with other recently published data, after adjustment for confounders (severity of illness based on the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation score) we found a correlation between positive fluid balance and worsened hospital mortality in critically ill patients with sepsis and septic shock. Further research investigating rational use of fluids in this patient group is needed.

  17. Veterinary education as leader: which alternatives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldau, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This article suggests that veterinary medicine has a leadership role to play in our society on ethical matters involving non-human animals. The article contrasts two trends within veterinary medicine; the first trend is a continuation of the avowedly utilitarian attitude toward non-humans that has its roots in Western veterinary medicine's eighteenth-century origins, and the second is the implicit view in veterinary practice that animals matter in and of themselves. Using the idea of alternatives in research and teaching, the article suggests that, in the years to come, veterinary medicine's answers to the relationships of these two trends will shape not only the soul of veterinary medicine, veterinary education, and the veterinary profession but, just as importantly, the larger society and culture themselves. This text is based on the keynote address delivered at the AAVMC Education Symposium in Washington, DC, on March 9, 2006, under the title "Ethical Issues Impacting Animal Use in Veterinary Medical Teaching."

  18. The association between gastroesophageal reflux disease with sleep quality, depression, and anxiety in a cohort study of Australian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    On, Zhi Xiang; Grant, Janet; Shi, Zumin; Taylor, Anne W; Wittert, Gary A; Tully, Phillip J; Hayley, Amie C; Martin, Sean

    2017-06-01

    Previous clinical studies have demonstrated a relationship between gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) with anxiety and depression; however, few population-based studies have controlled for sleep disorders. The current study aimed to assess the relationship between GERD and anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders in a community-based sample of Australian men. Participants comprised a subset of 1612 men (mean age: 60.7 years, range: 35-80) who participated in the Men Androgen Inflammation Lifestyle Environment and Stress Study during the years 2001-2012, who had complete GERD measures (Gastresophageal Reflux Disease Questionnaire), and were not taking medications known to impact gastrointestinal function (excluding drugs taken for acid-related disorders). Current depression and anxiety were defined by (i) physician diagnosis, (ii) symptoms of depression (Beck Depression Inventory and Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale) or anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7), and/or current depressive or anxiolytic medication use. Previous depression was indicated by past depressive diagnoses/medication use. Data on sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, and obstructive sleep apnea were collected along with several health, lifestyle, and medical factors, and these were systematically evaluated in both univariate and multivariable analyses. Overall, 13.7% (n = 221) men had clinically significant GERD symptoms. In the adjusted models, an association between GERD and anxiety (odds ratio [OR] 2.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0-6.8) and poor sleep quality (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.2-2.9) was observed; however, no effect was observed for current depression (OR 1.5; 95% CI 0.8-2.7). After removing poor sleep quality from the model, an independent association between current depression (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.7-3.8) and current anxiety (OR 3.2; 95% CI 1.8-6.0) and GERD was observed, but not for previous depression (OR 1.4; 95% CI 0.7-2.8). In this sample of urban-dwelling men

  19. Longitudinal Associations Between Vitamin D Metabolites and Sarcopenia in Older Australian men: The Concord Health and Aging in Men Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirani, Vasant; Cumming, Robert G; Naganathan, Vasi; Blyth, Fiona; Le Couteur, David G; Hsu, Benjumin; Handelsman, David J; Waite, Louise M; Seibel, Markus J

    2017-12-12

    To explore the associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D) levels at baseline and incidence of sarcopenia over time in older Australian community-dwelling older men. Of the 1,705 men aged ≥70 years (2005-2007) participating in the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project, those without sarcopenia at baseline (n = 1,312 for 25D and n = 1,231 for 1,25D), 2 years (n = 1,024 for 25D and n = 956 for 1,25D), and 5-year follow-up (n = 709 for 25D and n = 663 for 1,25D) were included in the study. The main outcome measurement was the incidence of sarcopenia defined as appendicular lean mass adjusted for body mass index sarcopenia was 3.9% in men at the 2-year follow-up and 8.6% at the 5-year follow-up. In adjusted analysis, men with vitamin D levels in the lowest quartiles (25D sarcopenia compared to those with vitamin D levels in the highest quartiles over 5 years. [25D: odds ratio (OR) 2.53 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14, 5.64) p = .02; 1,25D: OR 2.67 (95% CI 1.28, 5.60) p = .01]. After further adjustments for the respective other serum vitamin D measure, (either 25D or 1,25D), the association remained significant [25D: OR 2.40 (95% CI 1.02, 5.64) p = .04; 1,25D: OR 2.23 (95% CI 1.04, 4.80) p = .04]. Low serum 1,25D and 25D concentrations at baseline are independently associated with the incidence of sarcopenia over the subsequent 5 years. Although our data do not prove any causal relationship, it is conceivable that maintaining vitamin D sufficiency may reduce the incidence of sarcopenia in ageing men. © Crown copyright 2017

  20. Clonality and α-a Recombination in the Australian Cryptococcus gattii VGII Population - An Emerging Outbreak in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriconde, Fabian; Gilgado, Félix; Arthur, Ian; Ellis, David; Malik, Richard; van de Wiele, Nathalie; Robert, Vincent; Currie, Bart J.; Meyer, Wieland

    2011-01-01

    Background Cryptococcus gattii is a basidiomycetous yeast that causes life-threatening disease in humans and animals. Within C. gattii, four molecular types are recognized (VGI to VGIV). The Australian VGII population has been in the spotlight since 2005, when it was suggested as the possible origin for the ongoing outbreak at Vancouver Island (British Columbia, Canada), with same-sex mating being suggested as the driving force behind the emergence of this outbreak, and is nowadays hypothesized as a widespread phenomenon in C. gattii. However, an in-depth characterization of the Australian VGII population is still lacking. The present work aimed to define the genetic variability within the Australian VGII population and determine processes shaping its population structure. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 54 clinical, veterinary and environmental VGII isolates from different parts of the Australian continent were studied. To place the Australian population in a global context, 17 isolates from North America, Europe, Asia and South America were included. Genetic variability was assessed using the newly adopted international consensus multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) scheme, including seven genetic loci: CAP59, GPD1, LAC1, PLB1, SOD1, URA5 and IGS1. Despite the overall clonality observed, the presence of MATa VGII isolates in Australia was demonstrated for the first time in association with recombination in MATα-MATa populations. Our results also support the hypothesis of a “smouldering” outbreak throughout the Australian continent, involving a limited number of VGII genotypes, which is possibly caused by a founder effect followed by a clonal expansion. Conclusions/Significance The detection of sexual recombination in MATα-MATa population in Australia is in accordance with the natural life cycle of C. gattii involving opposite mating types and presents an alternative to the same-sex mating strategy suggested elsewhere. The potential for an Australian

  1. Clonality and α-a recombination in the Australian Cryptococcus gattii VGII population--an emerging outbreak in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Carriconde

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cryptococcus gattii is a basidiomycetous yeast that causes life-threatening disease in humans and animals. Within C. gattii, four molecular types are recognized (VGI to VGIV. The Australian VGII population has been in the spotlight since 2005, when it was suggested as the possible origin for the ongoing outbreak at Vancouver Island (British Columbia, Canada, with same-sex mating being suggested as the driving force behind the emergence of this outbreak, and is nowadays hypothesized as a widespread phenomenon in C. gattii. However, an in-depth characterization of the Australian VGII population is still lacking. The present work aimed to define the genetic variability within the Australian VGII population and determine processes shaping its population structure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 54 clinical, veterinary and environmental VGII isolates from different parts of the Australian continent were studied. To place the Australian population in a global context, 17 isolates from North America, Europe, Asia and South America were included. Genetic variability was assessed using the newly adopted international consensus multi-locus sequence typing (MLST scheme, including seven genetic loci: CAP59, GPD1, LAC1, PLB1, SOD1, URA5 and IGS1. Despite the overall clonality observed, the presence of MATa VGII isolates in Australia was demonstrated for the first time in association with recombination in MATα-MATa populations. Our results also support the hypothesis of a "smouldering" outbreak throughout the Australian continent, involving a limited number of VGII genotypes, which is possibly caused by a founder effect followed by a clonal expansion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The detection of sexual recombination in MATα-MATa population in Australia is in accordance with the natural life cycle of C. gattii involving opposite mating types and presents an alternative to the same-sex mating strategy suggested elsewhere. The potential

  2. Clonality and α-a recombination in the Australian Cryptococcus gattii VGII population--an emerging outbreak in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriconde, Fabian; Gilgado, Félix; Arthur, Ian; Ellis, David; Malik, Richard; van de Wiele, Nathalie; Robert, Vincent; Currie, Bart J; Meyer, Wieland

    2011-02-24

    Cryptococcus gattii is a basidiomycetous yeast that causes life-threatening disease in humans and animals. Within C. gattii, four molecular types are recognized (VGI to VGIV). The Australian VGII population has been in the spotlight since 2005, when it was suggested as the possible origin for the ongoing outbreak at Vancouver Island (British Columbia, Canada), with same-sex mating being suggested as the driving force behind the emergence of this outbreak, and is nowadays hypothesized as a widespread phenomenon in C. gattii. However, an in-depth characterization of the Australian VGII population is still lacking. The present work aimed to define the genetic variability within the Australian VGII population and determine processes shaping its population structure. A total of 54 clinical, veterinary and environmental VGII isolates from different parts of the Australian continent were studied. To place the Australian population in a global context, 17 isolates from North America, Europe, Asia and South America were included. Genetic variability was assessed using the newly adopted international consensus multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) scheme, including seven genetic loci: CAP59, GPD1, LAC1, PLB1, SOD1, URA5 and IGS1. Despite the overall clonality observed, the presence of MATa VGII isolates in Australia was demonstrated for the first time in association with recombination in MATα-MATa populations. Our results also support the hypothesis of a "smouldering" outbreak throughout the Australian continent, involving a limited number of VGII genotypes, which is possibly caused by a founder effect followed by a clonal expansion. The detection of sexual recombination in MATα-MATa population in Australia is in accordance with the natural life cycle of C. gattii involving opposite mating types and presents an alternative to the same-sex mating strategy suggested elsewhere. The potential for an Australian wide outbreak highlights the crucial issue to develop active

  3. Problem Gambling Among Australian Male Prisoners: Lifetime Prevalence, Help-Seeking, and Association With Incarceration and Aboriginality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Ben J; Larsen, Amii; Battersby, Malcolm; Harvey, Peter

    2017-11-01

    Prisoners represent a group containing the highest problem gambling (PG) rate found in any population. PG is of particular concern among Indigenous Australians. Little data exist concerning PG rates among Indigenous Australian prisoners. The present study aimed to address this gap in the literature by examining the lifetime prevalence of PG among male prisoners, whilst identifying prisoners of Aboriginal background. The EIGHT Gambling Screen (Early Intervention Gambling Health Test) was administered to 296 prisoners across three male prisons in South Australia. Previous help-seeking behaviour and forms of gambling were also examined. Sixty percent of prisoners indicated a lifetime prevalence of PG with 18% reporting they were incarcerated due to offending relating to their gambling problem. Indigenous Australian prisoners indicated a significantly higher prevalence of PG (75%) than non-Indigenous prisoners (57%) and reported less than half the rate of help-seeking. Given the high levels of PG and overall low rates of help-seeking among prisoners, prisons may provide an important opportunity to engage this high-risk population with effective treatment programs, in particular culturally appropriate targeted interventions for Australian Indigenous prisoners.

  4. The Australian public׳s beliefs about the causes of schizophrenia: associated factors and change over 16 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reavley, Nicola J; Jorm, Anthony F

    2014-12-15

    This study investigated the Australian public׳s beliefs about the causes of schizophrenia and whether these beliefs have changed over a 16-year period. Data came from the 2011 Australian National Survey of Mental Health Literacy and Stigma which involved telephone interviews with 1995 Australians aged 15 or over. The survey interview used the same questions as those of the 2003/4 and 1995 national mental health literacy surveys, in which participants were presented with a case vignette describing either early or chronic schizophrenia. Questions were asked about recognition of, exposure to and causal beliefs about these disorders, including those relating to psychosocial, biogenetic and personality factors. Results showed that most Australians believe in multifactorial causes of schizophrenia and that, between 1995 and 2011, belief in problems from childhood and inherited or genetic causes of early schizophrenia increased while belief in weakness of character decreased. Overall, the findings are consistent with evidence that mental health literacy in Australia has improved over a 16-year period. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Resilience amongst Australian aboriginal youth: an ecological analysis of factors associated with psychosocial functioning in high and low family risk contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Katrina D; Zubrick, Stephen R; Taylor, Catherine L

    2014-01-01

    We investigate whether the profile of factors protecting psychosocial functioning of high risk exposed Australian Aboriginal youth are the same as those promoting psychosocial functioning in low risk exposed youth. Data on 1,021 youth aged 12-17 years were drawn from the Western Australian Aboriginal Child Health Survey (WAACHS 2000-2002), a population representative survey of the health and well-being of Aboriginal children, their families and community contexts. A person-centered approach was used to define four groups of youth cross-classified according to level of risk exposure (high/low) and psychosocial functioning (good/poor). Multivariate logistic regression was used to model the influence of individual, family, cultural and community factors on psychosocial outcomes separately for youth in high and low family-risk contexts. Results showed that in high family risk contexts, prosocial friendship and low area-level socioeconomic status uniquely protected psychosocial functioning. However, in low family risk contexts the perception of racism increased the likelihood of poor psychosocial functioning. For youth in both high and low risk contexts, higher self-esteem and self-regulation were associated with good psychosocial functioning although the relationship was non-linear. These findings demonstrate that an empirical resilience framework of analysis can identify potent protective processes operating uniquely in contexts of high risk and is the first to describe distinct profiles of risk, protective and promotive factors within high and low risk exposed Australian Aboriginal youth.

  6. Resilience amongst Australian Aboriginal Youth: An Ecological Analysis of Factors Associated with Psychosocial Functioning in High and Low Family Risk Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Katrina D.; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Taylor, Catherine L.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate whether the profile of factors protecting psychosocial functioning of high risk exposed Australian Aboriginal youth are the same as those promoting psychosocial functioning in low risk exposed youth. Data on 1,021 youth aged 12–17 years were drawn from the Western Australian Aboriginal Child Health Survey (WAACHS 2000–2002), a population representative survey of the health and well-being of Aboriginal children, their families and community contexts. A person-centered approach was used to define four groups of youth cross-classified according to level of risk exposure (high/low) and psychosocial functioning (good/poor). Multivariate logistic regression was used to model the influence of individual, family, cultural and community factors on psychosocial outcomes separately for youth in high and low family-risk contexts. Results showed that in high family risk contexts, prosocial friendship and low area-level socioeconomic status uniquely protected psychosocial functioning. However, in low family risk contexts the perception of racism increased the likelihood of poor psychosocial functioning. For youth in both high and low risk contexts, higher self-esteem and self-regulation were associated with good psychosocial functioning although the relationship was non-linear. These findings demonstrate that an empirical resilience framework of analysis can identify potent protective processes operating uniquely in contexts of high risk and is the first to describe distinct profiles of risk, protective and promotive factors within high and low risk exposed Australian Aboriginal youth. PMID:25068434

  7. What Factors are Associated with Electronic Cigarette, Shisha-Tobacco and Conventional Cigarette Use? Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey of Australian Adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tahlia; White, Victoria

    2018-01-16

    Adolescents' use of electronic cigarettes and shisha-tobacco increased in several countries during the 2000s, including in the United States, United Kingdom and Canada. Few studies have examined the factors associated with exclusive e-cigarette or shisha-tobacco use and whether adolescents using these substances exclusively differ from those using traditional cigarettes. To examine the socio-demographic and behavioural correlates of exclusive e-cigarette and exclusive shisha-tobacco use to those found for users of tobacco cigarettes and multiple nicotine products in Australian adolescents. Cross-sectional survey of smoking behaviours of a random sample of 4,576 students in the Australian state of Victoria aged 12-17 conducted between June 2014 and December 2014. Overall, 14% of students had used an e-cigarette with 3% using e-cigarettes exclusively. 13% had used shisha-tobacco, with 2% using shisha-tobacco exclusively. Most students (65%) using e-cigarette and shisha-tobacco (67%) had also used tobacco cigarettes. After adjusting for demographic factors, students using e-cigarettes only were more likely to have never used cannabis or drink alcohol in the past year compared to tobacco cigarette users. Compared to tobacco cigarette users, students using only shisha-tobacco were younger, less likely to use cannabis or alcohol or have friends or parents who smoke. Most Australian adolescents who use alternative nicotine and tobacco-related products do so in conjunction with tobacco cigarettes. Students using e-cigarettes or shisha-tobacco exclusively were less likely to use other substances. Australian longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether this group of students are on a pathway to traditional tobacco use.

  8. Physical ergonomics in veterinary dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeForge, Donald H

    2002-12-01

    Ergonomics is the application of a body of knowledge addressing the interactions between man and the total working environment, such as atmosphere, heat, light and sound, as well as all tools and equipment of the workplace. Work related musculoskeletal injuries, caused by poor posture, have been discussed in human dentistry for several years. Veterinary dentistry, as a relatively new specialty within veterinary medicine, should address the ergonomics of poor posture without further delay to prevent work-related injuries. The generalist, as well as the specialist and their technicians, are subject to various neck and back disorders if proper ergonomic recommendations are not followed. This review article highlights basic ergonomic design principles for illumination and posture in veterinary dentistry.

  9. Antimicrobial drug use in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Paul S; Apley, Michael D; Besser, Thomas E; Burney, Derek P; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J; Papich, Mark G; Traub-Dargatz, Josie L; Weese, J Scott

    2005-01-01

    Recognizing the importance of antimicrobial resistance and the need for veterinarians to aid in efforts for maintaining the usefulness of antimicrobial drugs in animals and humans, the Board of Regents of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine charged a special committee with responsibility for drafting this position statement regarding antimicrobial drug use in veterinary medicine. The Committee believes that veterinarians are obligated to balance the well-being of animals under their care with the protection of other animals and public health. Therefore, if an animal's medical condition can be reasonably expected to improve as a result of treatment with antimicrobial drugs, and the animal is under a veterinarian's care with an appropriate veterinarian-client-patient relationship, veterinarians have an obligation to offer antimicrobial treatment as a therapeutic option. Veterinarians also have an obligation to actively promote disease prevention efforts, to treat as conservatively as possible, and to explain the potential consequences associated with antimicrobial treatment to animal owners and managers, including the possibility of promoting selection of resistant bacteria. However, the consequences of losing usefulness of an antimicrobial drug that is used as a last resort in humans or animals with resistant bacterial infections might be unacceptable from a public or population health perspective. Veterinarians could therefore face the difficult choice of treating animals with a drug that is less likely to be successful, possibly resulting in prolonged or exacerbated morbidity, to protect the good of society. The Committee recommends that voluntary actions be taken by the veterinary profession to promote conservative use of antimicrobial drugs to minimize the potential adverse effects on animal or human health. The veterinary profession must work to educate all veterinarians about issues related to conservative antimicrobial drug use and

  10. Investigating laparoscopic psychomotor skills in veterinarians and veterinary technicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilkenny, Jessica; Santarossa, Amanda; Mrotz, Victoria; Walker, Meagan; Monaghan, Dominique; Singh, Ameet

    2017-04-01

    To determine the influence of age, year of graduation, and video game experience on baseline laparoscopic psychomotor skills. Cross-sectional. Licensed veterinarians (n = 38) and registered veterinary technicians (VTs) (n = 49). A laparoscopic box trainer was set up at the 2016 Ontario Veterinary Medical Association (OVMA) and the 2016 Ontario Association of Veterinary Technicians (OAVT) conferences held in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Participants volunteered to perform a single repetition of a peg transfer (PT) exercise. Participants were given a short demonstration of the PT task prior to testing. A Spearman's rank correlation (r s ) was used to identify associations between baseline psychomotor skills and self-reported surgical and non-surgical experiences collected via survey. Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare PT scores in veterinarians and VTs. A P-value of  .05). Veterinary technicians that frequently used chopsticks scored higher than those without chopstick experience (P = .04). Age and year of graduation correlated inversely, while self-reported VG experience correlated positively with laparoscopic psychomotor skills of veterinarians, when assessed on a simulator. The use of chopsticks may contribute to the acquisition of psychomotor skills in VTs. © 2017 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  11. Integrative veterinary medical education and consensus guidelines for an integrative veterinary medicine curriculum within veterinary colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, M A; Shmalberg, J; Adair, H S; Allweiler, S; Bryan, J N; Cantwell, S; Carr, E; Chrisman, C; Egger, C M; Greene, S; Haussler, K K; Hershey, B; Holyoak, G R; Johnson, M; Jeune, S Le; Looney, A; McConnico, R S; Medina, C; Morton, A J; Munsterman, A; Nie, G J; Park, N; Parsons-Doherty, M; Perdrizet, J A; Peyton, J L; Raditic, D; Ramirez, H P; Saik, J; Robertson, S; Sleeper, M; Dyke, J Van; Wakshlag, J

    2016-01-01

    Integrative veterinary medicine (IVM) describes the combination of complementary and alternative therapies with conventional care and is guided by the best available evidence. Veterinarians frequently encounter questions about complementary and alternative veterinary medicine (CAVM) in practice, and the general public has demonstrated increased interest in these areas for both human and animal health. Consequently, veterinary students should receive adequate exposure to the principles, theories, and current knowledge supporting or refuting such techniques. A proposed curriculum guideline would broadly introduce students to the objective evaluation of new veterinary treatments while increasing their preparation for responding to questions about IVM in clinical practice. Such a course should be evidence-based, unbiased, and unaffiliated with any particular CAVM advocacy or training group. All IVM courses require routine updating as new information becomes available. Controversies regarding IVM and CAVM must be addressed within the course and throughout the entire curriculum. Instructional honesty regarding the uncertainties in this emerging field is critical. Increased training of future veterinary professionals in IVM may produce an openness to new ideas that characterizes the scientific method and a willingness to pursue and incorporate evidence-based medicine in clinical practice with all therapies, including those presently regarded as integrative, complementary, or alternative.

  12. Veterinary applications of infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekant, Steven I; Lyons, Mark A; Pacheco, Juan M; Arzt, Jonathan; Rodriguez, Luis L

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal body temperature is a major indicator of disease; infrared thermography (IRT) can assess changes in body surface temperature quickly and remotely. This technology can be applied to a myriad of diseases of various etiologies across a wide range of host species in veterinary medicine. It is used to monitor the physiologic status of individual animals, such as measuring feed efficiency or diagnosing pregnancy. Infrared thermography has applications in the assessment of animal welfare, and has been used to detect soring in horses and monitor stress responses. This review addresses the variety of uses for IRT in veterinary medicine, including disease detection, physiologic monitoring, welfare assessment, and potential future applications.

  13. Laser use in veterinary dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellows, Jan

    2002-05-01

    Lasers have been used in human dentistry since the 1960's. Lasers can provide a veterinary dentist access to difficult to reach areas with a relatively bloodless surgical field. Due to vaporization of nerve endings, human patients undergoing laser dental treatment reveal less pain compared to scalpel driven procedures. Dental applications for the commonly used lasers are discussed, as are special safety precautions. Many dental procedures enhanced by a carbon dioxide laser are covered. Future applications for the laser in veterinary dentistry are also discussed.

  14. Renal scintigraphy in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Reid; Daniel, Gregory B

    2014-01-01

    Renal scintigraphy is performed commonly in dogs and cats and has been used in a variety of other species. In a 2012 survey of the members of the Society of Veterinary Nuclear Medicine, 95% of the respondents indicated they perform renal scintigraphy in their practice. Renal scintigraphy is primarily used to assess renal function and to evaluate postrenal obstruction. This article reviews how renal scintigraphy is used in veterinary medicine and describes the methods of analysis. Species variation is also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Emotions in veterinary surgical students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eika, Berit; Langebæk, Rikke; Tanggaard, L.

    2012-01-01

    A surgical educational environment is potentially stressful and can negatively affect students' learning. The aim of the present study was to investigate the emotions experienced by veterinary students in relation to their first encounter with live-animal surgery and to identify possible sources...... of positive and negative emotions, respectively. During a Basic Surgical Skills course, 155 veterinary fourth-year students completed a survey. Of these, 26 students additionally participated in individual semi-structured interviews. The results of the study show that students often experienced a combination...

  16. Gamma rays application in veterinary immunology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulkhanov, R.U.; Butaev, M.K.; Mirzaev, B.Sh.; Ryasnyanskiy, I.V.; Yuldashev, R.Yu.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The process based on stimulated action of ionized radiation, change of quality of agricultural goods and row materials, biocides including bactericide action of ionized radiation are among the methods of radiation biotechnology, which can be applied in agriculture. We used the bactericide action of ionized radiation in technological process for creation of fundamentally new preparation possessed by by immunogenic properties and named as 'radio vaccine'. This term is well known and frequently used in scientific papers in the field of applied radiobiology. It is well known that physical (thermal) and chemical actions are used for preparation of vaccine for veterinary. It was noted that this process resulted in destruction of antigenic structure of bacteria cells, with are responsible for immunity creation. The possibility of virulence reduction at constant immunogenic properties of microorganism and keeping its antigenic structure can be achieved by using ionized radiation as one of the factor, which influences on bacteria. Taking into account the necessity of vaccine improvement and increase of quantity of associated vaccine one of the most important problems of veterinary science and particle is creation of vaccines of new generation which are characterized by the ability to form immunity against several diseases of agricultural animals. As a result of many-years investigations using gamma rays radiations in UzSRIV (laboratory of radiobiology) the radiation biotechnology of vaccine preparation was developed. These vaccines are necessary for practical application. Radiation biotechnology allows to prepare high-effective mono-, associated and polyvalent radio vaccines against widespread infection diseases of agricultural animals especially cubs (calves, lambs, young pigs). On the basis of developed radiation biotechnology there were prepared the following vaccines: 'Associated radio vaccine against colibacteriosis and salmonellosis of small horned cattle

  17. Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  18. Sahel Journal of Veterinary Sciences: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sahel Journal of Veterinary Sciences: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > Sahel Journal of Veterinary Sciences: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  19. Subjective Beliefs, Memory and Functional Health: Change and Associations over 12 Years in the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luszcz, Mary A; Anstey, Kaarin J; Ghisletta, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Neither subjective memory beliefs, nor remembering itself, can be isolated from the overall context in which one is aging, nor are the drivers of memory complaints well specified. Sense of control is an important self-regulatory resource that drives cognitive and physical health over the lifespan. Existing findings are equivocal concerning both the extent of stability or change in control beliefs over time as well as their contribution to changes in behavior. Subjective beliefs may play a role when engaging memory processes or identifying memory complaints, and it has been argued that self-regulatory potential in general may be limited by age-related changes in the domains of health and cognition. We aimed to examine trajectories of change and shed light on relationships among subjective beliefs and indicators of memory and functional health. Participants' data were drawn from four measurement occasions over up to a 12-year period (1992-2004) from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ALSA), a population-based study of older adults [age 65-100 years; mean age(SD) at the first and final occasion 78.2 (6.7) and 84.9 (4.9) years, respectively]. Participants completed three questionnaires assessing subjective beliefs concerning (1) memory knowledge and control, (2) health control, and (3) expectancy of control over a range of lifestyle situations. Memory comprised a recall composite. Functional health tapped mobility and disability. Latent growth curve models incorporated informative covariates (baseline age, gender, self-rated health, education, and chronic conditions). While subjective memory control beliefs, but not subjective knowledge of memory tasks, improved over 12 years, neither was associated with level of memory performance. Knowledge of memory tasks was linked to a significant memory decline. Beliefs about memory, health, and lifestyle were interrelated. Declines in remembering and health were also coupled; moreover, changes in both were coupled with

  20. Veterinary dentistry in senior canines and felines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmstrom, Steven E

    2012-07-01

    When you have completed this article, you will be able to (1) understand and grade patients with periodontal disease and prescribe proper treatment for them; (2) describe the AVDC Stages of Tooth resorption and the treatment; (3) describe the non-clinically aggressive and aggressive oral tumors; (4) be knowledgeable of the American Animal Hospital Association Guidelines on Veterinary Dental Procedures and how to obtain them; and (5) understand the disadvantage of Non-Professional Dental Scaling (NPDS) and why it should not be performed.

  1. Veterinary Compounding: Regulation, Challenges, and Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Gigi Davidson

    2017-01-01

    The spectrum of therapeutic need in veterinary medicine is large, and the availability of approved drug products for all veterinary species and indications is relatively small. For this reason, extemporaneous preparation, or compounding, of drugs is commonly employed to provide veterinary medical therapies. The scope of veterinary compounding is broad and focused primarily on meeting the therapeutic needs of companion animals and not food-producing animals in order to avoid human exposure to ...

  2. Veterinary Microbiology, 3rd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veterinary Microbiology, Third Edition is organized into four sections and begins with an updated and expanded introductory section on infectious disease pathogenesis, diagnosis and clinical management. The second section covers bacterial and fungal pathogens, and the third section describes viral d...

  3. The future of veterinary parasitology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, G C

    2001-07-12

    Current evidence suggests research in veterinary parasitology is in decline despite its importance. This is particularly true in the UK where research funds have been diverted into BSE. Decline in interest in veterinary parasitology is at least in part due to the success of major pharmaceutical companies in producing a range of effective and safe anti-parasitic drugs. Research is needed because of the effects of parasites on animal welfare and the economic costs of parasites. However, there is little information on the actual costs of animal parasites. Another major reason for research is the development of drug resistance in protozoa, helminths and arthropods of veterinary importance. This is a serious problem particularly for sheep and goats in the southern hemisphere. A prioritised list of research requirements is suggested: (i) new drugs; (ii) resistance management; (iii) vaccines; (iv) breeding for resistance; (v) improved diagnostics; (vi) zoonoses; (vii) global warming and parasites. There is a major political challenge to raise the profile of veterinary parasitology and thus the funding essential for its advancement and the continued welfare and productivity of animals.

  4. Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal contains original and review papers on all aspects of animal health in Zimbabwe and SADC countries, including articles by non-veterinarians. Section Policies. Articles. Checked Open Submissions, Checked Indexed, Checked Peer Reviewed. Publication Frequency.

  5. Possible Association of High Urinary Magnesium and Taurine to Creatinine Ratios with Metabolic Syndrome Risk Reduction in Australian Aboriginals

    OpenAIRE

    Hamada, Atsumi; Taguchi, Takashi; Mori, Hideki; Thorpe, Marjorie; Yamori, Yukio; Mori, Mari

    2011-01-01

    Background. Because of the epidemic of metabolic syndrome (MS) in Australian Aboriginals known for their higher cardiovascular mortality and shorter life expectancy, we analyzed the possible relationship of their MS risks with the current dietary custom. Methods. The subjects were 84 people aged 16–79 years. The health examination was conducted according to the basic protocol of WHO-CARDIAC (Cardiovascular Diseases and Alimentary Comparison) Study. Results. The highest prevalence among MS ris...

  6. The Literature of Veterinary Medicine. CE 60.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerker, Ann E.; Malamud, Judie

    This course guide outlines the objectives and content for a professional continuing education course on the literature of veterinary medicine. Topics covered include: (1) an introduction to veterinary medicine as a discipline, including comparison with other medical sciences, veterinary medicine education, licensure, animal models, veterinary…

  7. Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences publishes original research articles related to veterinary sciences, including livestock health and production, diseases of wild life and fish, preventive veterinary medicine and zoonoses among others. Case reports, review articles and editorials are also accepted.

  8. Risk factors of Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) seropositivity in veterinary medicine students.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rooij, M.M.T.; Schimmer, B; Versteeg, B.; Schneeberger, P.; Berends, B.R.; Heederik, D.; van der Hoek, W; Wouters, I.M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Q fever is an occupational risk for veterinarians, however little is known about the risk for veterinary medicine students. This study aimed to assess the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii among veterinary medicine students and to identify associated risk factors. METHODS: A

  9. Probabilistic risk assessment of veterinary medicines applied to four major aquaculture species produced in ASIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rico, A.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Aquaculture production constitutes one of the main sources of pollution with veterinary medicines into the environment. About 90% of the global aquaculture production is produced in Asia and the potential environmental risks associated with the use of veterinary medicines in Asian aquaculture have

  10. Veterinary Homeopathy: The Implications of Its History for Unorthodox Veterinary Concepts and Veterinary Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Dwight B.

    1979-01-01

    The history of veterinary homeopathy, its future and implications are discussed. The need for investigation into the validity of both allopathic and homeopathic claims is stressed and it is suggested that maintenance of quality is the key factor in any approach. (BH)

  11. Quality commitment and management in veterinary education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Heriberto

    2006-01-01

    This article provides an overview of how quality assurance is developing as a major component of the evaluation of establishments of veterinary education in Europe and, hence, of the evaluation of the veterinary training provided. Also discussed are the ways in which education in veterinary medicine in Europe is currently regulated and assessed and how this assessment is evolving. Major attention is paid to quality indicators, quality-assurance implementation, the development of a culture of quality in veterinary education within Europe, quality assurance for certification or accreditation of such schools, and promoting the development of a global network of evaluation of veterinary education.

  12. Manual of Standard Operating Procedures for Veterinary Drug Residue Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Laboratories are crucial to national veterinary drug residue monitoring programmes. However, one of the main challenges laboratories encounter is obtaining access to relevant methods of analysis. Thus, in addition to training, providing technical advice and transferring technology, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has resolved to develop clear and practical manuals to support Member State laboratories. The Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Development of Radiometric and Allied Analytical Methods to Strengthen Residue Control Programs for Antibiotic and Anthelmintic Veterinary Drug Residues has developed a number of analytical methods as standard operating procedures (SOPs), which are now compiled here. This publication contains SOPs on chromatographic and spectrometric techniques, as well as radioimmunoassay and associated screening techniques, for various anthelmintic and antimicrobial veterinary drug residue analysis. Some analytical method validation protocols are also included. The publication is primarily aimed at food and environmental safety laboratories involved in testing veterinary drug residues, including under organized national residue monitoring programmes. It is expected to enhance laboratory capacity building and competence through the use of radiometric and complementary tools and techniques. The publication is also relevant for applied research on residues of veterinary drugs in food and environmental samples

  13. Fear-related behaviour of dogs in veterinary practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döring, Dorothea; Roscher, Anita; Scheipl, Fabian; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Erhard, Michael H

    2009-10-01

    To investigate further the occurrence of fear-related behaviour in dogs in veterinary practice and to evaluate associated factors, 135 dogs were observed under practice conditions within the framework of a standardised test examination and the owners interviewed using a questionnaire. Most dogs exhibited fear reactions, particularly on the examination table, with 78.5% (106/135) categorised as 'fearful' based on their behaviour. Unlike weight and castration, age, gender and previous experience were significantly (Pbehaviour. Male dogs were significantly less 'fearful' than females and animals under dogs. Those with only positive previous experiences in veterinary surgeries were significantly less 'fearful' than dogs that had a previous negative experience. Fear-related behaviour in veterinary practice is an issue of importance.

  14. Interventional urology: endourology in small animal veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berent, Allyson C

    2015-07-01

    The use of novel image-guided techniques in veterinary medicine has become more widespread, especially in urologic diseases. With the common incidence of urinary tract obstructions, stones disease, renal disease, and urothelial malignancies, combined with the recognized invasiveness and morbidity associated with traditional surgical techniques, the use of minimally invasive alternatives using interventional radiology and interventional endoscopy techniques has become incredibly appealing to owners and clinicians. This article provides a brief overview of some of the most common procedures done in endourology in veterinary medicine to date, providing as much evidence-based medicine as possible when comparing with traditional surgical alternatives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Health and lifestyle factors associated with sexual difficulties in men – results from a study of Australian men aged 18 to 55 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Schlichthorst

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual difficulties (SD are common among men of all ages and can have considerable impact on quality of life and indications for future health. SD are associated with mental and physical wellbeing and with relationship satisfaction, yet they are rarely discussed with medical professionals who are often ill equipped to assess and manage them. This paper provides an updated overview on the status of SD in Australian men from 18 to 55 years of age and will form a baseline comparison for future analyses of SD based on Ten to Men data. Methods We used data from Ten to Men, the Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health. SD was measured using eight items capturing specific sexual difficulties. We examined associations of a range of health and lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, illicit drug use, obesity and new sexual partners, self-rated health status, disability, pain medication, diagnosed physical and mental health conditions with each SD using logistic regression. The sample included 12,636 adult males who had previously been sexually active. Analysis was stratified by age (18–34 years versus 35–55 years. Results This paper shows that experiencing SD is relatively common among Australian men – overall half the sample (54 %; 95 % CI: 0.53–0.55 experienced at least one SD for more than 3 months over the past 12 months. While more common in older men aged 45 to 55 years, almost half the 18 to 24 year old men (48 % also reported at least one SD highlighting that SD affects men of all ages. We found that SDs were associated with both lifestyle and health factors, although the strongest associations were observed for health factors in both age groups, in particular poor self-rated health, having a disability and at least one mental health condition. Lifestyle factors associated with SDs in men of all ages included smoking, harmful alcohol consumption and drug use in the past 12 months. Obesity was

  16. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    human and animal bacterial pathogens has been associated with ... animals, and thus bacterial resistance to antibiotics is of public ..... endocarditis and metastatic infection in an immune compromised host. Transpl. Infect. Dis., 9: 336–338. MAGIORAKOS, A.P., SRINIVASAN, A.,. CAREY, R.B., CARMELI, Y.,. FALAGAS, M.E. ...

  17. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    The strength of association between risk factors and seropositivity to brucellosis was measured using logistic regression analysis. Out of the 479 sera examined, 1.0%. (5/479) and 3.6% (18/479) were positive for B. abortus antibodies using RBPT and cELISA respectively. The herd prevalences were 10.3% (4/39) and 38.5% ...

  18. The Cross-Sectional Association between Consumption of the Recommended Five Food Group “Grain (Cereal)”, Dietary Fibre and Anthropometric Measures among Australian Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia; Petocz, Peter; McConnell, Andrew; Tuck, Kate; Mansour, Marie

    2017-01-01

    The Australian Dietary Guidelines recommended “grain (cereal)” core food group includes both refined and whole grain foods, but excludes those that are discretionary (i.e., cakes). We investigated the association between daily serves from the “grain (cereal)” group and its effect on fibre and adiposity. Data from Australian adults in the 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey were used (n = 9341). Participants were categorised by serves of core grain foods and general linear models were used to investigate the effect of demographic, socioeconomic, and dietary covariates on waist circumference, body mass index (BMI) and fibre intake. Compared to core grain avoiders (0 serves), high consumers (6+ serves/day) were: more likely male and socially advantaged, had a healthier dietary pattern, less likely dieting, overweight or obese, and were at lower risk of metabolic complications. After adjustment for age, sex and energy intake, there was an inverse relationship between core grain serves intake and BMI (p < 0.001), waist circumference (p = 0.001) and a positive relationship with fibre (p < 0.001). Model adjustments for diet and lifestyle factors resulted in a smaller difference in waist circumference (p = 0.006) and BMI (p = 0.006). Core grain serves was significantly associated with higher fibre, but marginally clinically significant for lower adiposity. PMID:28218715

  19. The Cross-Sectional Association between Consumption of the Recommended Five Food Group "Grain (Cereal)", Dietary Fibre and Anthropometric Measures among Australian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia; Petocz, Peter; McConnell, Andrew; Tuck, Kate; Mansour, Marie

    2017-02-18

    The Australian Dietary Guidelines recommended "grain (cereal)" core food group includes both refined and whole grain foods, but excludes those that are discretionary (i.e., cakes). We investigated the association between daily serves from the "grain (cereal)" group and its effect on fibre and adiposity. Data from Australian adults in the 2011-2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey were used ( n = 9341). Participants were categorised by serves of core grain foods and general linear models were used to investigate the effect of demographic, socioeconomic, and dietary covariates on waist circumference, body mass index (BMI) and fibre intake. Compared to core grain avoiders (0 serves), high consumers (6+ serves/day) were: more likely male and socially advantaged, had a healthier dietary pattern, less likely dieting, overweight or obese, and were at lower risk of metabolic complications. After adjustment for age, sex and energy intake, there was an inverse relationship between core grain serves intake and BMI ( p < 0.001), waist circumference ( p = 0.001) and a positive relationship with fibre ( p < 0.001). Model adjustments for diet and lifestyle factors resulted in a smaller difference in waist circumference ( p = 0.006) and BMI ( p = 0.006). Core grain serves was significantly associated with higher fibre, but marginally clinically significant for lower adiposity.

  20. Review of psittacine beak and feather disease and its effect on Australian endangered species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raidal, S R; Sarker, S; Peters, A

    2015-12-01

    Since it was first described in the early 1980s, psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD) has become recognised as the dominant viral pathogen of psittacine birds in Australia. Our aim was to evaluate and review the effect of PBFD and its position as a key threatening process to Australian psittacine bird species. We review the origin/evolutionary pathways and potential threat of PBFD to endangered psittacine bird populations and captive-breeding flocks. The most recent beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) phylogenetic analyses indicate that all endangered Australian psittacine bird species are susceptible to, and equally likely to be infected by, BFDV genotypes from a range of host psittacine species. Management of the disease in captive-breeding programs has relied on testing and culling, which has proven costly. The risk of PBFD should be considered very carefully by management teams contemplating the establishment of captive-breeding flocks for endangered species. Alternative disease prevention tools, including vaccination, which are increasingly being used in wildlife health, should be considered more seriously for managing and preventing PBFD in captive flocks of critically endangered species. © 2015 Australian Veterinary Association.

  1. Increased risk of attempted suicide in Australian veterans is associated with total and permanent incapacitation, unemployment and posttraumatic stress disorder severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Katelyn; Romaniuk, Madeline; McLeay, Sarah; Khoo, Andrew; Dent, Michael T; Boshen, Mark

    2017-07-01

    Military veterans have higher rates of suicidality and completed suicides compared to the general population. Previous research has demonstrated suicidal behaviour is higher in US combat veterans who are younger, suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder, depression and anxiety and score lower on measures of health. However, research on predictors of suicide for Australian veterans is limited. The aim of this study was to identify significant demographic and psychological differences between veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder who had attempted suicide and those with posttraumatic stress disorder who had not, as well as determine predictors of suicide attempts within an Australian cohort. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 229 ex-service personnel diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder who had attended a Military Service Trauma Recovery Day Program as outpatients at Toowong Private Hospital from 2007 to 2014. Patients completed a battery of mental health self-report questionnaires assessing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, alcohol use, anger, depression, anxiety and quality of life. Demographic information and self-reported history of suicide attempts were also recorded. Results indicated the average age was significantly lower, and the rates of posttraumatic stress disorder, anger, anxiety and depression symptoms were significantly higher in those veterans with history of a suicide attempt. Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity, unemployment or total and permanent incapacity pension status significantly predicted suicide attempt history. Among a cohort of Australian veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder, psychopathology severity, unemployment and total and permanent incapacity status are significantly associated with suicidality. This study highlights the importance of early identification of posttraumatic stress disorder and psychopathology, therapeutic and social

  2. Evaluation of ergonomic risk factors among veterinary ultrasonographers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Elissa; Hansen, Chad; Gilkey, David; Patil, Anuja; Bachand, Annette; Rosecrance, John; Douphrate, David

    2012-01-01

    Between 65% and 91% of human-patient sonographers report musculoskeletal symptoms related to their work activities. Ergonomic risk factors associated with musculoskeletal symptoms and musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) include force, repetition, and awkward postures of the upper extremities. We hypothesized that veterinary sonographers experience similar risk factor exposures as their colleagues in human-patient sonography, and that work-related exposures may lead to similar prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms and disorders. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration and Society of Diagnostic Medical Sonography published MSD prevention guidelines in 2003. Similar guidance for sonographers examining animal patients does not exist. This cross-sectional study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms among veterinary sonographers and identify reported risk factors. A 59-item survey questionnaire was administered via email to veterinary specialists likely to perform ultrasound. Musculoskeletal pain related to performing ultrasound exams was reported by 62% of the respondents. Musculoskeletal symptoms were significantly associated with female gender (odds ratio [OR], 4.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.04-10.19), age (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.01, 1.10), previous work-related trauma (OR, 6.86; 95% CI, 1.71, 27.40), not consistently using a normal height chair (OR, 2.63; 95% CI, 1.19, 5.80), and 15°-45° abduction of shoulder (OR, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.11, 4.92) . It was concluded that the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms among veterinary sonographers was similar to that occurring in human-patient sonographers. © 2012 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound. © 2012 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  3. Anxiety in veterinary surgical students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eika, Berit; Langebæk, Rikke; Jensen, A.L.

    2012-01-01

    The surgical educational environment is potentially stressful and this can negatively affect students' learning. The aim of this study was to investigate whether veterinary students' level of anxiety is higher in a surgical course than in a non-surgical course and if pre-surgical training...... in a Surgical Skills Lab (SSL) has an anxiety reducing effect. Investigations were carried out as a comparative study and a parallel group study. Potential participants were fourth-year veterinary students who attended a surgical course (Basic Surgical Skills) and a non-surgical course (Clinical Examination...... Skills); both courses were offered in multiple classes (with a total of 171 students in 2009 and 156 students in 2010). All classes in 2009 participated in the SSL stage of the Basic Surgical Skills course before performing live-animal surgery, and one class (28 students) in 2010 did not. Two validated...

  4. Assessment of veterinary services in central Ethiopia: A case study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inadequate budget, logistic problems, shortage of manpower and fewer working days were found to be the main causes for the weakness of government veterinary services, and black-market drug dealers were found to be challengers associated with the private sector. Keywords: Ada'a district, Drug, Private, Public, Vaccine ...

  5. Dental Education in Veterinary Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Diana L. Eubanks

    2011-01-01

    Periodontal disease is among the most prevalent canine dis-eases affecting over 75% of dogs. Strengthening of the human-animal bond and the increasing education of the aver-age pet owner, have fostered a heightened awareness of periodontal care in dogs and cats. Industry support has further assisted the small animal veterinarian in providing quality dental treatments and prevention. As recently as the 1990’s, veterinary curriculums contained little or no dental training. That trend is changin...

  6. Milestone Educational Planning Initiatives in Veterinary Medical Education: Progress and Pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Elizabeth A; Reimann, Jessica; Greenhill, Lisa M; Dewey, Cate E

    2017-11-29

    Three milestone educational planning initiatives engaged the veterinary medical profession in the United States and Canada between 1987 and 2011, namely the Pew National Veterinary Education Program, the Foresight Project, and the North American Veterinary Medical Education Consortium. In a quantitative study, we investigated the impact of these initiatives on veterinary medical education through a survey of academic leaders (deans, previous deans, and associate deans for academics from veterinary medical schools that are members of the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges) to assess their perspectives on the initiatives and eight recommendations that were common to all three initiatives. Two of the recommendations have in effect been implemented: enable students to elect in-depth instruction and experience within a practice theme or discipline area (tracking), and increase the number of graduating veterinarians. For three of the recommendations, awareness of the issues has increased but substantial progress has not been made: promote diversity in the veterinary profession, develop a plan to reduce student debt, and develop a North American strategic plan. Lastly, three recommendations have not been accomplished: emphasize use of information more than fact recall, share educational resources to enable a cost-effective education, and standardize core admissions requirements. The educational planning initiatives did provide collaborative opportunities to discuss and determine what needs to change within veterinary medical education. Future initiatives should explore how to avoid and overcome obstacles to successful implementation.

  7. Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) associated with Staphylococcus spp. bacteremia, responsive to potassium arsenite 0.5% in a veterinary surgeon and his coworking wife, handling with CFS animal cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarello, W

    2001-10-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in human patients remain a controversial and perplexing condition with emerging zoonotic aspects. Recent advances in human medicine seem to indicate a bacterial etiology and the condition has already been described in horses, dogs, cats and birds of prey in association with micrococci-like organisms in the blood. To evaluate the possibility of a chronic bacteremia, a veterinary surgeon (the author) and his coworking wife, both diagnosed with CFS and meeting the CDC working case definition, were submitted to rapid blood cultures and fresh blood smears investigations. Blood cultures proved Staph-positive and micrococci-like organisms in the blood were repeatedly observed in the 3-year period preceding the arsenical therapy, during which several medicaments, including antibiotics, proved unsuccessful. Following treatment with a low dosage arsenical drug (potassium arsenite 0.5%, im., 1 ml/12 h, for 10 days) both patients experienced complete remission. At the post-treatment control made 1 month later, micrococci had disappeared from the blood, and the CD4/CD8 ratio was raising.

  8. Liver scintigraphy in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, Federica

    2014-01-01

    The most common veterinary application of liver scintigraphy is for the diagnosis of portosystemic shunts (PSSs). There has been a continual evolution of nuclear medicine techniques for diagnosis of PSS, starting in the early 1980s. Currently, transplenic portal scintigraphy using pertechnetate or (99m)Tc-mebrofenin is the technique of choice. This technique provides both anatomical and functional information about the nature of the PSS, with high sensitivity and specificity. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy has also been used in veterinary medicine for the evaluation of liver function and biliary patency. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy provides information about biliary patency that complements finding in ultrasound, which may not be able to differentiate between biliary ductal dilation from previous obstruction vs current obstruction. Hepatocellular function can also be determined by deconvolutional analysis of hepatic uptake or by measuring the clearance of the radiopharmaceutical from the plasma. Plasma clearance of the radiopharmaceutical can be directly measured from serial plasma samples, as in the horse, or by measuring changes in cardiac blood pool activity by region of interest analysis of images. The objective of this paper is to present a summary of the reported applications of hepatobiliary scintigraphy in veterinary medicine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative Associations Between Achieved Bicultural Identity, Achieved Ego Identity, and Achieved Religious Identity and Adaptation Among Australian Adolescent Muslims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Rayya, Hisham M; Abu-Rayya, Maram H; White, Fiona A; Walker, Richard

    2018-04-01

    This study examined the comparative roles of biculturalism, ego identity, and religious identity in the adaptation of Australian adolescent Muslims. A total of 504 high school Muslim students studying at high schools in metropolitan Sydney and Melbourne, Australia, took part in this study which required them to complete a self-report questionnaire. Analyses indicated that adolescent Muslims' achieved religious identity seems to play a more important role in shaping their psychological and socio-cultural adaptation compared to adolescents' achieved bicultural identity. Adolescents' achieved ego identity tended also to play a greater role in their psychological and socio-cultural adaptation than achieved bicultural identity. The relationships between the three identities and negative indicators of psychological adaptation were consistently indifferent. Based on these findings, we propose that the three identity-based forces-bicultural identity development, religious identity attainment, and ego identity formation-be amalgamated into one framework in order for researchers to more accurately examine the adaptation of Australian adolescent Muslims.

  10. Reducing the stigma associated with anorexia nervosa: An evaluation of a social consensus intervention among Australian and Chinese young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yuwen; Rieger, Elizabeth; Shou, Yiyun

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a social consensus intervention in reducing stigma toward individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) among women from Australia and mainland China. Moreover, the different predictions of informational/normative social influence theory and the social identity approach in terms of the effectiveness of the social consensus intervention were investigated. Participants were female students from the Australian National University (n = 97) and Central China Normal University (n = 76) who reported their levels of stigma toward a fictional character with AN before and after receiving normative information regarding the attitudes of others toward people with AN. Three experimental conditions of normative information were utilized: in-group, out-group, and neutral. Chinese participants reported higher levels of baseline stigma across all measures than Australian participants. Social consensus was effective in reducing most types of AN stigma, and supported the social identity approach in that improvements in attitudinal, affective, and behavioral aspects of stigma were significantly greater for participants in the in-group (but not the out-group) versus the neutral condition. The effectiveness of the social consensus approach was not moderated by nationality. A social consensus approach holds potential as an additional strategy for reducing AN stigma, with its benefits extending across diverse cultural settings. Such an approach would entail ensuring that positive messages regarding people with AN are delivered by members of a valued in-group. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Skipping breakfast in early childhood and its associations with maternal and child BMI: a study of 2-5-year-old Australian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsharairi, N A; Somerset, S M

    2016-04-01

    Evidence supporting the association between skipping breakfast and children's body mass index (BMI) has been widely reported, and some consideration has been given to children aged 2-5 years. However, no evidence has considered an association between children skipping breakfast and mother's BMI. This study therefore investigated associations between skipping breakfast, child's BMI and mother's BMI in a large cohort of Australian children. Data were drawn from wave 2 (2-3 years, n=4601) and wave 3 (4-5 years, n=4381) of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. The primary outcome was skipping breakfast. Child's and mother's BMI was assessed by trained professionals. Girls at 4-5 years were significantly more likely to skip breakfast compared with boys (56.9% versus 43.1%; P=0.031). In cross-sectional data analysis, obese boys at 2-3 years (odds ratio (OR) 2.38; P=0.039) and at 4-5 years (OR 2.32; P=0.046), and also obese girls at 4-5 years (OR 2.26; P=0.018), were more likely to skip breakfast. Skipping breakfast was positively associated with boys at 2-3 years (OR 2.04; P=0.042) whose mothers were overweight and with girls at 4-5 years (OR 2.60; P=0.001) whose mothers were obese. In longitudinal cross-lagged analysis, boys at 2-3 years whose mothers were obese were more likely to skip breakfast 2 years later at age 4-5 years (OR 2.36; P=0.045). Skipping breakfast was associated with higher BMI in children and mothers. Future interventions should target obese mothers to promote breakfast intake among children. The interventions may involve changes to dietary and lifestyle habits and provision of education on the benefits of breakfast intake.

  12. Survival analysis to evaluate associations between periodontal disease and the risk of development of chronic azotemic kidney disease in cats evaluated at primary care veterinary hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevejo, Rosalie T; Lefebvre, Sandra L; Yang, Mingyin; Rhoads, Catherine; Goldstein, Gary; Lund, Elizabeth M

    2018-03-15

    OBJECTIVE To examine potential associations between periodontal disease (PD) and the risk of development of chronic azotemic kidney disease (CKD) among cats and determine whether the risk of CKD increases with severity of PD. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. ANIMALS 169, 242 cats. PROCEDURES Cats were evaluated ≥ 3 times at any of 829 hospitals from January 1, 2002, through June 30, 2013. Cats with an initial diagnosis of PD of any stage (n = 56,414) were frequency matched with cats that had no history or evidence of PD (112,828) by age and year of study entry. Data on signalment, PD, and other conditions potentially related to CKD were extracted from electronic medical records. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to estimate the association of PD with CKD after controlling for covariates. RESULTS PD was associated with increased risk of CKD; risk was highest for cats with stage 3 or 4 PD. Risk of CKD increased with age. Purebred cats had greater risk of CKD than mixed-breed cats. General anesthesia within the year before study exit and diagnosis of cystitis at any point prior to study exit (including prior to study entry) were each associated with increased CKD risk. Diagnosis of diabetes mellitus or hepatic lipidosis at any point prior to study exit was associated with decreased CKD risk. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The findings supported the benefit of maintaining good oral health and can be useful to veterinarians for educating owners on the importance of preventing PD in cats.

  13. Getting out of (self-) harm's way: A study of factors associated with self-harm among asylum seekers in Australian immigration detention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Kyli

    2017-07-01

    The monitoring of self-harm among asylum seekers in Australian immigration detention has not occurred routinely or transparently. Thus whilst concerns regarding rates of self-harm among asylum seekers have been frequently raised, a paucity of systematic information regarding key factors associated with self-harm among asylum seekers exists. The present study was designed therefore to fill a number of gaps in government monitoring by examining the government's own archived self-harm data. Via a descriptive analysis of self-harm incident reports from all operational Australian immigration detention facilities over a 20-month period to May 2011, obtained under Freedom of Information, the present study identified that 959 incidents of self-harm occurred during this period. A gender bias towards men was also found. In addition to this, 10 different methods of self-harm were identified, the four most common being: cutting (47%), attempted hanging (19%), head hitting (12%) and self-poisoning by medication (6%). Seven different precipitating factors for self-harm were also identified, the four most common were: detention conditions (39%), processing arrangements (27%), negative decisions (24%) and family separation (3%). These findings point strongly to the health benefits of considering alternatives to held immigration detention, such as community based processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  14. Issues of reporting in observational studies in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, Jan M; O'Connor, Annette M

    2014-02-15

    Observational studies are common in veterinary medicine; the results may be used to inform decision-making, future research, or as inputs to systematic reviews or risk assessment. To be of use, the results must be published, all of the outcomes that were assessed must be included in the publication, and the research (methods and results) must be reported in sufficient detail that the reader can evaluate the internal and external validity. In human healthcare, concerns about the completeness of reporting - and evidence that poor reporting is associated with study results - have led to the creation of reporting guidelines; these include the STROBE statement for observational studies. There is evidence from a limited body of research that there also are reporting inadequacies in veterinary observational studies. There are differences between human and veterinary observational studies that might be relevant to recommendations for reporting. Such differences include: the use of observational studies in animal populations for simultaneously estimating disease frequency and risk-factor identification; the distinction between the animal owners who consent to participate and the animals that are the study subjects; and the complexity of organizational levels inherent in animal research (in particular, for studies in livestock species). In veterinary medicine, it is common to have clustering within outcomes (due to animal grouping) and clustering of predictor variables. We argue that there is a compelling need for the scientific community involved in veterinary observational studies to use the STROBE statement, use an amended version of STROBE, or to develop and use reporting guidelines that are specific to veterinary medicine to improve reporting of these studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Completeness of handwritten preanaesthetic records at two veterinary referral institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, Alastair; Mathis, Alessandra

    2018-03-01

    2017 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Review of hazards to female reproductive health in veterinary practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheftel, Joni M; Elchos, Brigid L; Rubin, Carol S; Decker, John A

    2017-04-15

    OBJECTIVE To review publications that address female reproductive health hazards in veterinary practice, summarize best practices to mitigate reproductive risks, and identify current knowledge gaps. DESIGN Systematized review. SAMPLE English-language articles describing chemical, biological, and physical hazards present in the veterinary workplace and associations with adverse reproductive outcomes or recommendations for minimizing risks to female reproductive health. PROCEDURES Searches of the CAB abstracts database were performed in July 2012 and in May 2015 with the following search terms: veterinarians AND occupational hazards and vets.id AND occupational hazards.sh. Searches of the PubMed database were conducted in November 2012 and in May 2015 with the following medical subject heading terms: occupational exposure AND veterinarians; anesthetics, inhalation/adverse effects AND veterinarians; risk factors AND pregnancy AND veterinarians; pregnancy outcome AND veterinarians; and animal technicians AND occupational exposure. Two additional PubMed searches were completed in January 2016 with the terms disinfectants/toxicity AND female AND fertility/drug effects and veterinarians/psychology AND stress, psychological. No date limits were applied to searches. RESULTS 4 sources supporting demographic trends in veterinary medicine and 118 resources reporting potential hazards to female reproductive health were identified. Reported hazards included exposure to anesthetic gases, radiation, antineoplastic drugs, and reproductive hormones; physically demanding work; prolonged standing; and zoonoses. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Demographic information suggested that an increasing number of women of reproductive age will be exposed to chemical, biological, and physical hazards in veterinary practice. Information on reproductive health hazards and minimizing risk, with emphasis on developing a safety-focused work culture for all personnel, should be discussed starting

  17. Mapping discussion of canine obesity between veterinary surgeons and dog owners: a provisional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns-Haylor, Theodora; Fordyce, Peter

    2017-02-11

    This study maps communication between veterinary surgeons and dog owners on obesity management in four first-opinion practices in the UK. A total of 74 dog owners who met the study's inclusion criteria and 24 veterinary surgeons were interviewed using oral questionnaires between November 2013 and May 2014. The dog owner questionnaire was based on potential discussion areas that could influence an owner's intention to act (initiate a weight loss regime) based on Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour. The veterinary surgeons' questionnaires assessed perception of canine obesity, their personal communication strategies and current practice-level interventions. The findings identify opportunities for more proactive approaches to obesity management by veterinary surgeons and their practices. British Veterinary Association.

  18. Driving Success over the Past 50 Years-The Faculty in Academic Veterinary Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Daryl D

    2015-01-01

    The faculty at member schools and colleges of the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC) are critical for continued progress in veterinary medicine. The success of those faculty members over the past 50 years has positioned veterinary medicine to engage an ever-widening array of opportunities, responsibilities, and societal needs. Yet the array of skills and accomplishments of faculty in academic veterinary medicine are not always visible to the public, or even within our profession. The quality and the wide range of their scholarship are reflected, in part, through the according of national and international awards and honors from organizations relevant to their particular areas of expertise. The goal of this study was to illustrate the breadth of expertise and the quality of the faculty at 34 schools/colleges of veterinary medicine by examining the diversity of organizations that have recognized excellence in faculty achievements through a variety of awards.

  19. Comparison of veterinary drugs and veterinary homeopathy: part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, P.; Pelligand, L.; Whiting, M.; Chambers, D.; Toutain, P-L.; Whitehead, M. L.

    2017-01-01

    Part 2 of this narrative review outlines the theoretical and practical bases for assessing the efficacy and effectiveness of conventional medicines and homeopathic products. Known and postulated mechanisms of action are critically reviewed. The evidence for clinical efficacy of products in both categories, in the form of practitioner experience, meta-analysis and systematic reviews of clinical trial results, is discussed. The review also addresses problems and pitfalls in assessing data, and the ethical and negative aspects of pharmacology and homeopathy in veterinary medicine. PMID:28821700

  20. [Veterinary medicine of the GDR in strained relations between technical instructions and political guidelines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prange, H; Azar, J

    2003-01-01

    The development of Veterinary Medicine in the Soviet Occupation Zone in Germany and the former German Democratic Republic (GDR) is sketched in highlights. After the collectivization of agriculture (1960) a centralistically controlled national veterinary system was established. It was suited to the requirements of the industrially organized animal production. The successive classification of socialistic veterinary administration was associated with the following matters: the extension of veterinary subject matters, a vertical division of work with the aid of newly created technical veterinary professions, and a penetration of the profession with political guidelines. As the professional level of the veterinary system in the GDR was relatively high the reflection in retrospective needs to be evaluated in a differentiated way considering the textual and social conditions. In spite of centralism and indoctrination the veterinary system remained professionally autonomous with islands of political independence, which sustained the identity of this profession. The latter formed the base for self renewal of the East German veterinary system at the end of the socialistic area 1989/1990.

  1. Increased virulence of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus associated with genetic resistance in wild Australian rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsworth, Peter; Cooke, Brian D; Kovaliski, John; Sinclair, Ronald; Holmes, Edward C; Strive, Tanja

    2014-09-01

    The release of myxoma virus (MYXV) and Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) in Australia with the aim of controlling overabundant rabbits has provided a unique opportunity to study the initial spread and establishment of emerging pathogens, as well as their co-evolution with their mammalian hosts. In contrast to MYXV, which attenuated shortly after its introduction, rapid attenuation of RHDV has not been observed. By studying the change in virulence of recent field isolates at a single field site we show, for the first time, that RHDV virulence has increased through time, likely because of selection to overcome developing genetic resistance in Australian wild rabbits. High virulence also appears to be favoured as rabbit carcasses, rather than diseased animals, are the likely source of mechanical insect transmission. These findings not only help elucidate the co-evolutionary interaction between rabbits and RHDV, but reveal some of the key factors shaping virulence evolution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Possible association of high urinary magnesium and taurine to creatinine ratios with metabolic syndrome risk reduction in Australian aboriginals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Atsumi; Taguchi, Takashi; Mori, Hideki; Thorpe, Marjorie; Yamori, Yukio; Mori, Mari

    2011-01-01

    Background. Because of the epidemic of metabolic syndrome (MS) in Australian Aboriginals known for their higher cardiovascular mortality and shorter life expectancy, we analyzed the possible relationship of their MS risks with the current dietary custom. Methods. The subjects were 84 people aged 16-79 years. The health examination was conducted according to the basic protocol of WHO-CARDIAC (Cardiovascular Diseases and Alimentary Comparison) Study. Results. The highest prevalence among MS risks was abdominal obesity (over 60%). After controlling for age and sex, the odds of obesity decreased significantly with high level of urinary magnesium/creatinine ratio (Mg/cre) (OR, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.02-0.57; P creatinine ratio were revealed. Conclusions. The high prevalence of obesity in the Aboriginal people of this area may partly be due to the reduction of beneficial nutrients intake including Mg and taurine.

  3. Faculty perspectives regarding the importance and place of nontechnical competencies in veterinary medical education at five North American colleges of veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, India F; Bogue, E Grady

    2010-07-01

    To explore perceptions of faculty educators regarding the importance of nontechnical competencies in veterinary graduates and the placement of nontechnical competency development in veterinary education. Survey. All faculty members at 5 North American veterinary medical institutions. Participants rated the importance of 14 nontechnical competencies and indicated in which phase or phases of veterinary education such competencies should be developed (ie, curriculum placement). Differences in mean ratings were statistically evaluated, as were associations between ratings or curriculum placement and respondent institution, gender, experience, and discipline. Mean ratings of importance were above neutral for all competencies and were highest for ethical, critical thinking, and interpersonal and intrapersonal competencies; development of these competencies was favored in preveterinary and veterinary training. Ratings were lower for management and business competencies; development of these and other competencies was placed primarily in the clinical phase of the veterinary curriculum. Basic science, nonveterinarian, and junior faculty appeared to more strongly appreciate the importance of nontechnical skills, whereas large animal and midcareer faculty reported a more reserved degree of support. Female faculty were more likely to place nontechnical competency development throughout the educational process. Participants agreed nontechnical competencies are important for veterinary graduates; however, faculty perceptions differed from previously published findings regarding the relative importance of business and management skills. Those involved in faculty hiring, faculty development, and curricular planning should also be aware of disciplinary and career stage differences affecting faculty perspectives.

  4. The association between C-reactive protein levels and the risk for chronic kidney disease hospitalizations in adults of a remote Indigenous Australian community - A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Luke W; Hoy, Wendy E; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2017-09-01

    Indigenous Australians are significantly burdened by chronic kidney disease (CKD). Elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) have been associated with diabetes and cardiovascular incidence in previous studies. Elevated CRP has been associated with albuminuria and reduced eGFR in cross-sectional studies. This study investigated the long-term predictive association between CRP measured at a baseline exam and the incidence of a CKD-related hospitalization. Health screening examinations were conducted in individuals of a remote indigenous Australian community between 1992 and 1998. The risk of subsequent CKD hospitalisations, documented through Northern Territory hospital records up to 2010, was estimated with Cox proportional hazard models in people aged over 18 years at the baseline screen and who had albumin-creatinine ratios (ACRs) less than 34g/mol. 546 participants were eligible for our study. Individuals in the highest CRP tertile at baseline had increased levels of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. They also had almost 4 times the risk of a CKD-related hospitalisation compared with participants in the lowest CRP tertile (HR=3.91, 95%CI 1.01-15.20, P=0.049) after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Participants with CRP concentrations greater than 3mg/L had almost 3 times the risk of CKD hospitalisations than those ≤3mg/L (HR=2.84, 95%CI 1.00-8.00, P=0.049). Furthermore, risk of CKD hospitalisations increased 34% per doubling of baseline CRP (HR=1.34, 95%CI 1.04-1.74, P=0.024). In individuals in this remote indigenous community without overt albuminuria at baseline the risk for incident CKD related hospitalisations was predicted by elevated C-reactive protein levels almost a decade earlier. Further research is needed to understand the roles that CRP and systemic inflammation play in CKD risk. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  5. Is the practice of yoga or meditation associated with a healthy lifestyle? Results of a national cross-sectional survey of 28,695 Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Holger; Sibbritt, David; Park, Crystal L; Adams, Jon; Lauche, Romy

    2017-10-01

    To examine the relationship between yoga/meditation practice and health behavior in Australian women. Women aged 19-25years, 31-36years, and 62-67years from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH) were surveyed regarding smoking, alcohol or drug use, physical activity and dietary behavior; and whether they practiced yoga/meditation on a regular basis. Associations of health behaviors with yoga/meditation practice were analyzed using multiple logistic regression modelling. 11,344, 8200, and 9151 women aged 19-25years, 31-36years, and 62-67years, respectively, were included of which 29.0%, 21.7%, and 20.7%, respectively, practiced yoga/meditation. Women practicing yoga/meditation were significantly more likely to report at least moderate physical activity levels (OR=1.50-2.79), to follow a vegetarian (OR=1.67-3.22) or vegan (OR=2.26-3.68) diet, and to report the use of marijuana (OR=1.28-1.89) and illicit drugs in the last 12 months (OR=1.23-1.98). Yoga/meditation practice was associated with higher physical activity levels, a higher likelihood of vegetarian or vegan diet use, and a higher likelihood of drug use. While health professionals should keep the potential vulnerability of yoga/meditation practitioners to drug use in mind, the positive associations of yoga/meditation with a variety of positive health behaviors warrant its consideration in preventive medicine and healthcare. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Privatizing community animal health worker based veterinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Privatizing community animal health worker based veterinary services delivery system in West Kordofan, Southern Sudan; The needed roles of community animal health assistant (CAHA) and Pastoral unions.

  7. Characteristics of Religious Knowledge among Australian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Philip

    2007-01-01

    Drawing on the Spirit of Generation Y project and extensions of that project undertaken in 25 Australian schools by the Christian Research Association, it is argued that the approach to religious knowledge by Australian students can be contrasted with their approach to other forms of knowledge by four features. These are diversity of opinion in…

  8. Alcohol, cannabis and tobacco use among Australians: a comparison of their associations with other drug use and use disorders, affective and anxiety disorders, and psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenhardt, L; Hall, W; Lynskey, M

    2001-11-01

    To compare relationships between alcohol, cannabis and tobacco and indicators of mental health problems in the general population. A survey of a nationally representative sample of 10 641 Australian adults (the National Survey of Mental Health and Well-Being (NSMHWB)) provided data on alcohol, cannabis and tobacco use and mental health (DSM-IV anxiety disorders, affective disorders, other substance use disorders and screening positively for psychosis). Alcohol showed a "J-shaped" relationship with DSM-IV affective and anxiety disorders: alcohol users had lower rates of these problems than non-users of alcohol, while those meeting criteria for alcohol dependence had the highest rates. Tobacco and cannabis use were both associated with increased rates of all mental health problems examined. However, after controlling for demographics, neuroticism and other drug use, cannabis was not associated with anxiety or affective disorders. Alcohol dependence and tobacco use remained associated with both of these indicators of mental health. All three types of drug use were associated with higher rates of other substance use problems, with cannabis having the strongest association. The use of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis are associated with different patterns of co-morbidity in the general population.

  9. Therapeutic laser in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Brian; Millis, Darryl L

    2015-01-01

    Laser therapy is an increasingly studied modality that can be a valuable tool for veterinary practitioners. Mechanisms of action have been studied and identified for the reduction of pain and inflammation and healing of tissue. Understanding the basics of light penetration into tissue allows evaluation of the correct dosage to deliver for the appropriate condition, and for a particular patient based on physical properties. New applications are being studied for some of the most challenging health conditions and this field will continue to grow. Additional clinical studies are still needed and collaboration is encouraged for all practitioners using this technology. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Introduction to veterinary clinical oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    Veterinary clinical oncology involves a multidisciplinary approach to the recognition and management of spontaneously occurring neoplasms of domestic animals. This requires some knowledge of the causes, incidence, and natural course of malignant disease as it occurs in domestic species. The purpose of this course is to acquaint you with the more common neoplastic problems you will encounter in practice, so that you can offer your clients an informed opinion regarding prognosis and possible therapeutic modalities. A major thrust will be directed toward discussing and encouraging treatment/management of malignant disease. Multimodality therapy will be stressed. 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  11. The association between self-reported diet quality and health-related quality of life in rural and urban Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Kristy A; Jacka, Felice; Allender, Steven; Kremer, Peter; Gibbs, Lisa; Waters, Elizabeth; de Silva, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    This study examines the relationship between diet quality and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in rural and urban Australian adolescents, and gender differences. Cross-sectional. Secondary schools. 722 rural and 422 urban students from 19 secondary schools. Self-report dietary-related behaviours, demographic information, HRQoL (AQoL-6D) were collected. Healthy and unhealthy diet quality scores were calculated; multiple linear regression investigated associations between diet quality and HRQoL. Compared to urban students, rural students had higher HRQoL, higher healthy diet score, lower unhealthy diet score, consumed less soft drink and less frequently, less takeaway and a higher proportion consumed breakfast (P health problems. Such interventions should consider gender and locality. © 2016 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  12. Prevalence and factors associated with the use of acupuncture and Chinese medicine: results of a nationally representative survey of 17161 Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lu; Adams, Jon; Sibbritt, David

    2017-06-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine has considerable public support in Australia and elsewhere around the world; the literature suggests Chinese medicine (CM) and acupuncture are particularly popular. To examine factors associated with CM/acupuncture use among young/middle-aged Australian women. This research formed part of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH), a population-based cohort study. Data were obtained from the 'young' (34-39 years; n=8010) and 'middle-aged' (62-67 years; n=9151) ALSWH cohorts, who completed survey 6 (in 2012) and survey 7 (in 2013), respectively. Outcome measures included use of CM and visits to an acupuncturist in the previous 12 months. Predictive factors included demographic characteristics, and measures of health status (diagnosed chronic medical conditions) and health service utilisation. Statistical analyses included bivariate χ 2 tests, two proportions Z-tests and backward stepwise multiple logistic regression modelling. In total, 9.5% and 6.2% of women in the young and middle-aged cohorts, respectively, had consulted an acupuncturist, and 5.7% and 4.0%, respectively, had used CM. Young women with low iron levels and/or endometriosis were more likely to use CM and/or acupuncture. Middle-aged women with low iron levels and/or chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) were more likely to use CM, while middle-aged women with arthritis and/or CFS were more likely to use acupuncture. Women with chronic conditions (including arthritis, low iron, CFS and endometriosis) were associated with higher odds of CM/acupuncture use. There is a need for further research to examine the potential benefits of CM/acupuncture for these chronic illnesses. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Associations between yoga/meditation use, body satisfaction, and weight management methods: Results of a national cross-sectional survey of 8009 Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauche, Romy; Sibbritt, David; Ostermann, Thomas; Fuller, Nicholas R; Adams, Jon; Cramer, Holger

    2017-02-01

    To analyze whether yoga or meditation use is associated with body (dis)satisfaction and weight control methods in Australian women. Women ages 34 to 39 y from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health were surveyed regarding body satisfaction, weight control behaviors, and yoga and meditation practice. Associations of body satisfaction and weight control methods with yoga/meditation practice were analyzed using chi-squared tests and multiple logistic regression modelling. Of the 8009 women, 49% were overweight or obese. Sixty-five percent of women with normal body mass index (BMI) and approximately 95% of women with overweight/obesity wanted to lose weight. At least one in four women with normal BMI was dissatisfied with body weight and shape, as were more than two in three women with overweight/obesity. The most common weight control methods included exercising (82.7%), cutting down meal sizes (76.8%), and cutting down sugars or fats (71.9%). Yoga/meditation was practiced frequently by 688 women (8.6%) and occasionally by 1176 women (14.7%). Yoga/meditation users with normal BMI were less likely dissatisfied with body weight and shape. All yoga/meditation users more likely exercised and followed a low glycemic diet or diet books; and women with obesity occasionally using yoga/meditation also more likely used fasting or smoking to lose weight. Yoga/meditation users with normal BMI appear to be more satisfied with their body weight and shape than non-yoga/meditation users. While women with normal BMI or overweight tend to rely on healthy weight control methods, women with obesity occasional using yoga/meditation may more likely utilize unhealthy weight control methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Is higher formula intake and limited dietary diversity in Australian children at 14 months of age associated with dietary quality at 24 months?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Rebecca; Yeo, Mei En Joy; Mallan, Kimberley; Magarey, Anthea; Daniels, Lynne

    2018-01-01

    A varied and diverse diet in childhood supports optimum long-term preferences and growth. Previous analysis from 14-month-old Australian children in the NOURISH and South Australian Infants Dietary Intake (SAIDI) studies found higher formula intake was associated with lower dietary diversity. This analysis investigated whether formula intake and dietary diversity at 14 months of age is associated with dietary quality at 24 months. This is a secondary analysis of intake data from NOURISH and SAIDI cohorts. Scores for dietary diversity, fruit variety, vegetable variety and meat/alternative variety were combined using structural equation modelling to form the latent variable 'Dietary quality' (DQ) at age 24 months. A longitudinal model examined influence of formula (grams), cow's milk (grams) and dietary diversity at 14 months and covariates, on DQ. At age 24 months (n = 337) 27% of children obtained a maximum dietary diversity score (5/5). Variety scores were relatively low - with mean variety scores (and possible range) being four for fruit (0-30); five for vegetables (0-36); and three for meat/alternatives (0-8). Dietary diversity at 14 months (β = 0.19, p = 0.001), maternal age (β = 0.24, p diversity at 14 months, but not DQ at 24. Diversity and variety were limited despite sociodemographic advantage of the sample. Diversity at 14 months, degree of neophobia and sociodemographic factors predicted DQ at 24 months. There is an ongoing need to emphasise the importance of repeated early exposure to healthy foods, such that children have the opportunity to learn to like a range of tastes and texture, thereby maximising dietary diversity and quality in infancy and early toddlerhood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pain in veterinary medicine in the new millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passantino, Annamaria; Fazio, Alessandra; Quartatone, Valeria

    2012-01-01

    The practice of veterinary medicine has changed radically over the past two decades, new technology and scientific breakthroughs have occurred, in close association with the field of human medicine. This progress has not only increased the capacity of veterinarians to provide high-quality care, it has also served to increase client awareness and expectations regarding animal care. On the legal front, it has finally given a "voice" to animals, now defined as sentient beings, thus imposing a series of duties upon veterinarians to promote their welfare. Preventing and managing pain has become a fundamental element of patient care quality in veterinary medicine, and pharmacotherapy is the basis of pain management. This paper takes this as a starting point to clarify the concept of pain in veterinary medicine and explores the relevance of an ethic to the clinical setting which gives the animal patient a strong right to freedom from unnecessary pain and thus creating moral obligations towards patients on the part of veterinary professionals. There is the duty not to inflict pain and suffering beyond what is necessary for effective diagnosis and treatment on the one hand and a duty to do all that can be done to relieve all the pain and suffering which can be alleviated on the other.

  16. Imaging of primary bone tumors in veterinary medicine: Which differences?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanel, Maïa, E-mail: maiavanel@yahoo.fr [Diagnostic Imaging Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Montreal, 3200 Rue Sicotte, PO Box 5000, Saint-Hyacinthe, QC (Canada); Blond, Laurent [Diagnostic Imaging Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Montreal, 3200 Rue Sicotte, PO Box 5000, Saint-Hyacinthe, QC (Canada); Vanel, Daniel [The Rizzoli Institute, Via del Barbiano 1-10, 40136, Bologna (Italy)

    2013-12-01

    Veterinary medicine is most often a mysterious world for the human doctors. However, animals are important for human medicine thanks to the numerous biological similarities. Primary bone tumors are not uncommon in veterinary medicine and especially in small domestic animals as dogs and cats. As in human medicine, osteosarcoma is the most common one and especially in the long bones extremities. In the malignant bone tumor family, chondrosarcoma, fibrosarcoma and hemangiosarcoma are following. Benign bone tumors as osteoma, osteochondroma and bone cysts do exist but are rare and of little clinical significance. Diagnostic modalities used depend widely on the owner willing to treat his animal. Radiographs and bone biopsy are the standard to make a diagnosis but CT, nuclear medicine and MRI are more an more used. As amputation is treatment number one in appendicular bone tumor in veterinary medicine, this explains on the one hand why more recent imaging modalities are not always necessary and on the other hand, that pronostic on large animals is so poor that it is not much studied. Chemotherapy is sometimes associated with the surgery procedure, depending on the agressivity of the tumor. Although, the strakes differs a lot between veterinary and human medicine, biological behavior are almost the same and should led to a beneficial team work between all.

  17. Imaging of primary bone tumors in veterinary medicine: Which differences?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanel, Maïa; Blond, Laurent; Vanel, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Veterinary medicine is most often a mysterious world for the human doctors. However, animals are important for human medicine thanks to the numerous biological similarities. Primary bone tumors are not uncommon in veterinary medicine and especially in small domestic animals as dogs and cats. As in human medicine, osteosarcoma is the most common one and especially in the long bones extremities. In the malignant bone tumor family, chondrosarcoma, fibrosarcoma and hemangiosarcoma are following. Benign bone tumors as osteoma, osteochondroma and bone cysts do exist but are rare and of little clinical significance. Diagnostic modalities used depend widely on the owner willing to treat his animal. Radiographs and bone biopsy are the standard to make a diagnosis but CT, nuclear medicine and MRI are more an more used. As amputation is treatment number one in appendicular bone tumor in veterinary medicine, this explains on the one hand why more recent imaging modalities are not always necessary and on the other hand, that pronostic on large animals is so poor that it is not much studied. Chemotherapy is sometimes associated with the surgery procedure, depending on the agressivity of the tumor. Although, the strakes differs a lot between veterinary and human medicine, biological behavior are almost the same and should led to a beneficial team work between all

  18. Imaging of primary bone tumors in veterinary medicine: which differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanel, Maïa; Blond, Laurent; Vanel, Daniel

    2013-12-01

    Veterinary medicine is most often a mysterious world for the human doctors. However, animals are important for human medicine thanks to the numerous biological similarities. Primary bone tumors are not uncommon in veterinary medicine and especially in small domestic animals as dogs and cats. As in human medicine, osteosarcoma is the most common one and especially in the long bones extremities. In the malignant bone tumor family, chondrosarcoma, fibrosarcoma and hemangiosarcoma are following. Benign bone tumors as osteoma, osteochondroma and bone cysts do exist but are rare and of little clinical significance. Diagnostic modalities used depend widely on the owner willing to treat his animal. Radiographs and bone biopsy are the standard to make a diagnosis but CT, nuclear medicine and MRI are more an more used. As amputation is treatment number one in appendicular bone tumor in veterinary medicine, this explains on the one hand why more recent imaging modalities are not always necessary and on the other hand, that prognostic on large animals is so poor that it is not much studied. Chemotherapy is sometimes associated with the surgery procedure, depending on the aggressivity of the tumor. Although, the strakes differs a lot between veterinary and human medicine, biological behavior are almost the same and should led to a beneficial team work between all. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Detection of the Canine Parvovirus 2c Subtype in Australian Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolford, Lucy; Crocker, Paul; Bobrowski, Hannah; Baker, Trevor; Hemmatzadeh, Farhid

    2017-06-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV-2) is an important cause of hemorrhagic enteritis in dogs. In Australia the disease has been associated with CPV-2a and CPV-2b variants. A third more recently emerged variant overseas, CPV-2c, has not been detected in surveys of the Australian dog population. In this study, we report three cases of canine parvoviral enteritis associated with CPV-2c infection; case 1 occurred in an 8-week-old puppy that died following acute hemorrhagic enteritis. Cases 2 and 3 were an 11-month-old female entire Saint Bernard and a 9-month-old male entire Siberian husky, respectively, both which had completed vaccination schedules and presented with vomiting or mild diarrhea only. Full genomic sequencing of parvoviral DNA from cases 1, 2, and 3 revealed greater than 99% homology to known CPV-2c variants and predicted protein sequences from the VP2 region of viral DNA from all three cases identified; glutamic acid residues at the 426 amino acid residue, characteristic of the CPV-2c variant. Veterinary professionals should be aware that CPV-2c is now present in Australia, detected in a puppy and vaccinated young adult dogs in this study. Further characterization of CPV-2c-associated disease and its prevalence in Australian dogs requires additional research.

  20. Veterinary Preventive Medicine Curriculum Development at Louisiana State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbert, William T.

    1976-01-01

    The program aims at training veterinarians, with interdepartmental faculty participation the rule rather than the exception. Included in the curriculum are: avian medicine, herd health management, veterinary public health, veterinary food hygiene, and regulatory veterinary medicine. (LBH)

  1. The veterinary profession and one medicine: some considerations, with particular reference to Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battelli, Giorgio; Mantovani, Adriano

    2011-01-01

    The concept of 'one medicine' and its evolution are discussed and some considerations on the relationship between 'one medicine' and veterinary profession are made, with particular reference to Italy. The concept of 'one medicine' is mainly associated with public health and has its roots in the Italian tradition and health organisation. In a future which is already with us, the veterinary profession will be called upon to deal with many problems at worldwide level (e.g. the emergence/re-emergence of new/old zoonotic pathogens, biological and chemical contaminants in food, bacterial resistance to antibiotics, non-epidemic emergencies associated with natural or man-made disasters, animal well-being, etc.), integrating with other professions. In Italy, most of these problems find the Veterinary Services prepared, but not homogeneously throughout the country. At the present time, doubts are expressed on maintaining and improving these services, mainly due to the lack of students interested in veterinary public health (VPH) training. The globalisation of the veterinary profession imposes changes, in both culture and training. The expertise required for 'one medicine' must be considered and aspects of veterinary training should be changed to promote sharing expertise with other professionals, mainly within the Italian Health Service. The public should be informed about professional competence and activities of veterinarians, in both the private and public sectors, in order to offer a true picture of the profession, one that is not limited to the conventional model which the public generally has of veterinary medicine.

  2. A new era in veterinary immunology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halliwell, R.E.W.; Goudswaard, J.

    1979-01-01

    The importance of the creation of a new international journal of “Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology” is apparent following the emergence of veterinary immunology as an identifiable discipline and the vital part played by investigations of animal models of immunological diseases of

  3. The ninth international veterinary immunology symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Introduction to the special issue of Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology summarizes the Proceedings of the 9th International Veterinary Immunology Symposium (9th IVIS) held August, 2010, in Tokyo, Japan. Over 340 delegates from 30 countries discussed research progress analyzing the immune...

  4. Graduate Program Organization in Clinical Veterinary Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    Graduate training in clinical veterinary medicine is discussed. The options available to the student and problems that must be dealt with are presented, along with the requirements to accomplish a finely structured program that satisfies the needs of both the trainee and clinical veterinary medicine. (Author/MLW)

  5. Assessment of Veterinary Pharmaceutical Products Registered in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Registered veterinary products were first categorized by route of administration and then sub-categorized by the dosage form. Veterinary pharmaceuticals delivered by oral and parenteral routes were the most common, collectively accounting for 87.7% of all registered products. Topical, intramammary, intrauterine and ...

  6. 21 CFR 201.105 - Veterinary drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Veterinary drugs. 201.105 Section 201.105 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions for Use § 201.105 Veterinary drugs. A drug subject to the...

  7. Veterinary Safety's Conflicts in the EAEU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalymbek, Bakytzhan; Shulanbekova, Gulmira K.; Madiyarova, Ainur S.; Mirambaeva, Gulnaz Zh.

    2016-01-01

    This article is devoted to the problem of veterinary safety of the countries under the Eurasian Economic Union. Animal health's measures are provided in order to prevent the entry and spread of infectious animal diseases, including common to humans and animals, as well as goods not conforming to the common veterinary and sanitary requirements.…

  8. Integrative veterinary medical education and consensus guidelines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Integrative veterinary medicine (IVM) describes the combination of complementary and alternative therapies with conventional care and is guided by the best available evidence. Veterinarians frequently encounter questions about complementary and alternative veterinary medicine (CAVM) in practice, and the general ...

  9. Perceptions of veterinary admissions committee members of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Veterinary admission committees are asked to create and implement a fair, reliable, and valid system to select the candidates most likely to succeed in veterinary school from a large pool of applicants. Although numerous studies have explored grade point average (GPA) as a predictive value of later academic success, ...

  10. Stress and Depression among Veterinary Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killinger, Stacy L; Flanagan, Sean; Castine, Eleanor; Howard, Kimberly A S

    While existing literature suggests that professional students (e.g., medical, dental, law, nursing, etc.) experience high levels of stress and depression, the experiences of veterinary medical students have been less well examined. The purpose of this study was to explore the levels of stress and depression among veterinary medical students and to examine the relationship between these variables. Study participants were 1,245 veterinary medical students from North America. The findings provide support for the assertion that veterinary medical students experience high levels of stress and depression. Results also indicated that there is a correlation between stress and depression for veterinary medical students and that female students experience higher levels of stress and depression than their male counterparts.

  11. Identifying veterinary students' capacity for moral behavior concerning animal ethics issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrinder, Joy M; Phillips, Clive J C

    2014-01-01

    Veterinarians face unique animal ethics challenges as practitioners and policy advisors to government and industry. Changing societal attitudes, cultural diversity, and the often conflicting needs and interests of patients and clients contribute to moral distress. Yet little has been done to identify veterinarians' capacity to address these animal ethics issues. In this study, first-year and final-year veterinary students in an Australian university were surveyed to explore moral sensitivity, moral motivation, and moral character and their relationship with moral reasoning. The majority of students were concerned about animal ethics issues and had experienced moral distress in relation to the treatment of animals. Most believed that veterinarians should address the wider social issues of animal protection and that veterinary medicine should require a commitment to animals' interests over owners'/caregivers' interests. There was less agreement that the veterinary profession was sufficiently involved in addressing animal ethics issues. The principal motivators for studying veterinary medicine were, in declining importance, enjoyment in working with animals, helping sick and injured animals, and improving the way animals are treated. However, most students had taken little or no action to address animal ethics issues. These results suggest that both first- and fifth-year veterinary students are sensitive to animal ethics issues and are motivated to prioritize the interests of animals but have little experience in taking action to address these issues. Further research is needed to determine ways to identify and assess these moral behavior components in veterinary education to develop veterinarians' capacity to address animal ethics issues.

  12. The Association of Vitamin D Status with Dyslipidaemia and Biomarkers of Endothelial Cell Activation in Older Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali M. Alyami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Vitamin D has been investigated for many non-skeletal effects. The objective of this study was to determine whether circulating lipids, systemic inflammation, and biomarkers of endothelial cell activation varied with the vitamin D status of older Australians. Methods: One hundred and one participants were proportionately and randomly sampled across tertiles of 25 hydroxy vitamin D (25(OHD from a larger cohort of free living older adults (T1 median = 97; T2 median = 74.5; T3 median = 56.8 nmol/L. Overnight fasting blood samples were assayed for 25(OHD, parathyroid hormone (PTH, insulin, triacylglycerol (TAG, total cholesterol (TC, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C. Markers of systemic inflammation (high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and endothelial activation (hepatocyte growth factor (HGF, P-selectin and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM, soluble intracellular adhesion molecule (sICAM were determined. A general linear model multivariate analysis with a backward elimination procedure was performed. Results: Eighty-three participants (48 women, 35 men, aged 65 ± 7.7 years, BMI 28 ± 4.5 kg/m2, with complete data were analyzed. The final parsimonious model controlled for age, gender, BMI, and McAuley’s index, but excluded season, medications, and PTH. There were significant differences across 25(OHD tertiles in TC (T1 < T3, p = 0.003; T2 < T3, p = 0.001, LDL-C (T1 < T3, p = 0.005; T2 < T3, p = 0.001, TAG (T2 < T3, p = 0.026, HGF (T1 > T3, p = 0.009 and sVCAM (T1 > T3, P = 0.04. Conclusions: Higher vitamin D status may protect the endothelium through reduced dyslipidaemia and increased HGF.

  13. The application of nuclear-medicine methods in veterinary medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpraga, M.; Kraljevic, P.; Dodig, D.

    1996-01-01

    X-radiography and ultrasound imaging are well established and widely used in veterinary practice, but it is not the same situation with radioisotope imaging. In veterinary practice the above mentioned methods of nuclear medicine are developed only in two countries in Europe. That is not doubt due, so bar, to the difficulties in obtaining satisfactory supply of radioisotopes and to the relatively high cost of scanning equipment. However, in collaboration with the Department of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Medicine of the Medical Faculty in Zagreb, Croatia, we have chance to develop the use of those methods in clinical veterinary practice in Zagreb. That is way in this paper an overview of the application of radioisotopes imaging in veterinary medicine is given. In small animals skeletal changes, lung perusions, brain lesions, space occupying lesions in the liver and its function and hearth function can be usefully searched by a gamma camera and its associated computer. In equine practice scintigraphy of bones, liver, hearth, pulmonary circulation and ventilation is described. The largest amount of radioactive material is used during gamma camera scanning of the skeletons of horses. In this cases the radiation dose 1-2 m from the animal is approximately 3 μSv/h. That is why the protection of personal involved in radioisotope scanning in veterinary medicine must be also regulated by low of radiation protection. Also, the animals should be confined to a controlled area for 2-3 days after scanning before being returned to their owners. After this period the area must be cleaned. (author)

  14. Co-morbid depression is associated with poor work outcomes in persons with cardiovascular disease (CVD: A large, nationally representative survey in the Australian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Neil Adrienne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Co-morbid major depressive disorder (MDD and cardiovascular disease (CVD is associated with poor clinical and psychological outcomes. However, the full extent of the burden of, and interaction between, this co-morbidity on important vocational outcomes remains less clear, particularly at the population level. We examine the association of co-morbid MDD with work outcomes in persons with and without CVD. Methods This study utilised cross-sectional, population-based data from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing (n = 8841 to compare work outcomes of individuals with diagnostically-defined MDD and CVD, MDD but not CVD, CVD but not MDD, with a reference group of "healthy" Australians. Workforce participation was defined as being in full- or part-time employment. Work functioning was measured using a WHO Disability Assessment Schedule item. Absenteeism was assessed using the 'days out of role' item. Results Of the four groups, those with co-morbid MDD and CVD were least likely to report workforce participation (adj OR:0.4, 95% CI: 0.3-0.6. Those with MDD only (adj OR:0.8, 95% CI:0.7-0.9 and CVD only (adj OR:0.8, 95% CI: 0.6-0.9 also reported significantly reduced odds of participation. Employed individuals with co-morbid MDD and CVD were 8 times as likely to experience impairments in work functioning (adj OR:8.1, 95% CI: 3.8- 17.3 compared with the reference group. MDD was associated with a four-fold increase in impaired functioning. Further, individuals with co-morbid MDD and CVD reported greatest likelihood of workplace absenteeism (adj. OR:3.0, 95% CI: 1.4-6.6. Simultaneous exposure to MDD and CVD conferred an even greater likelihood of poorer work functioning. Conclusions Co-morbid MDD and CVD is associated with significantly poorer work outcomes. Specifically, the effects of these conditions on work functioning are synergistic. The development of specialised treatment programs for those with co

  15. Adherence to 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years and associations with social-cognitive development among Australian preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff, Dylan P; McNeill, Jade; Vella, Stewart A; Howard, Steven J; Santos, Rute; Batterham, Marijka; Melhuish, Edward; Okely, Anthony D; de Rosnay, Marc

    2017-11-20

    The new Australian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years recommend that, for preschoolers, a healthy 24-h includes: i) ≥180 min of physical activity, including ≥60 min of energetic play, ii) ≤1 h of sedentary screen time, and iii) 10-13 h of good quality sleep. Using an Australian sample, this study reports the proportion of preschool children meeting these guidelines and investigates associations with social-cognitive development. Data from 248 preschool children (mean age = 4.2 ± 0.6 years, 57% boys) participating in the PATH-ABC study were analyzed. Children completed direct assessments of physical activity (accelerometry) and social cognition (the Test of Emotional Comprehension (TEC) and Theory of Mind (ToM)). Parents reported on children's screen time and sleep. Children were categorised as meeting/not meeting: i) individual guidelines, ii) combinations of two guidelines, or iii) all three guidelines. Associations were examined using linear regression adjusting for child age, sex, vocabulary, area level socio-economic status and childcare level clustering. High proportions of children met the physical activity (93.1%) and sleep (88.7%) guidelines, whereas fewer met the screen time guideline (17.3%). Overall, 14.9% of children met all three guidelines. Children meeting the sleep guideline performed better on TEC than those who did not (mean difference [MD] = 1.41; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.36, 2.47). Children meeting the sleep and physical activity or sleep and screen time guidelines also performed better on TEC (MD = 1.36; 95% CI = 0.31, 2.41) and ToM (MD = 0.25; 95% CI = -0.002, 0.50; p = 0.05), respectively, than those who did not. Meeting all three guidelines was associated with better ToM performance (MD = 0.28; 95% CI = -0.002, 0.48, p = 0.05), while meeting a larger number of guidelines was associated with better TEC (3 or 2 vs. 1/none, p children are warranted. Supporting preschool children to meet

  16. Co-morbid depression is associated with poor work outcomes in persons with cardiovascular disease (CVD): a large, nationally representative survey in the Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Adrienne; Williams, Emily D; Stevenson, Christopher E; Oldenburg, Brian; Sanderson, Kristy

    2012-01-18

    Co-morbid major depressive disorder (MDD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is associated with poor clinical and psychological outcomes. However, the full extent of the burden of, and interaction between, this co-morbidity on important vocational outcomes remains less clear, particularly at the population level. We examine the association of co-morbid MDD with work outcomes in persons with and without CVD. This study utilised cross-sectional, population-based data from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing (n = 8841) to compare work outcomes of individuals with diagnostically-defined MDD and CVD, MDD but not CVD, CVD but not MDD, with a reference group of "healthy" Australians. Workforce participation was defined as being in full- or part-time employment. Work functioning was measured using a WHO Disability Assessment Schedule item. Absenteeism was assessed using the 'days out of role' item. Of the four groups, those with co-morbid MDD and CVD were least likely to report workforce participation (adj OR:0.4, 95% CI: 0.3-0.6). Those with MDD only (adj OR:0.8, 95% CI:0.7-0.9) and CVD only (adj OR:0.8, 95% CI: 0.6-0.9) also reported significantly reduced odds of participation. Employed individuals with co-morbid MDD and CVD were 8 times as likely to experience impairments in work functioning (adj OR:8.1, 95% CI: 3.8- 17.3) compared with the reference group. MDD was associated with a four-fold increase in impaired functioning. Further, individuals with co-morbid MDD and CVD reported greatest likelihood of workplace absenteeism (adj. OR:3.0, 95% CI: 1.4-6.6). Simultaneous exposure to MDD and CVD conferred an even greater likelihood of poorer work functioning. Co-morbid MDD and CVD is associated with significantly poorer work outcomes. Specifically, the effects of these conditions on work functioning are synergistic. The development of specialised treatment programs for those with co-morbid MDD and CVD is required.

  17. Demographic and Substance Use Factors Associated with Non-Violent Alcohol-Related Injuries among Patrons of Australian Night-Time Entertainment Districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerri Coomber

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between patron demographics, substance use, and experience of recent alcohol-related accidents and injuries that were not due to interpersonal violence in night-time entertainment districts. Cross-sectional interviews (n = 4016 were conducted around licensed venues in entertainment districts of five Australian cities. Demographic factors associated with non-violent alcohol-related injuries were examined, including gender, age, and occupation. The association between substance use on the night of interview; blood alcohol concentration (BAC, pre-drinking, energy drink consumption, and illicit drug use; and experience of injury was also explored. Thirteen percent of participants reported an alcohol-related injury within the past three months. Respondents aged younger than 25 years were significantly more likely to report an alcohol-related injury. Further, a significant occupation effect was found indicating the rate of alcohol-related injury was lower in managers/professionals compared to non-office workers. The likelihood of prior alcohol-related injury significantly increased with BAC, and self-reported pre-drinking, energy drink, or illicit drug consumption on the night of interview. These findings provide an indication of the demographic and substance use-related associations with alcohol-related injuries and, therefore, potential avenues of population-level policy intervention. Policy responses to alcohol-related harm must also account for an assessment and costing of non-violent injuries.

  18. Demographic and Substance Use Factors Associated with Non-Violent Alcohol-Related Injuries among Patrons of Australian Night-Time Entertainment Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coomber, Kerri; Mayshak, Richelle; Hyder, Shannon; Droste, Nicolas; Curtis, Ashlee; Pennay, Amy; Gilmore, William; Lam, Tina; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Miller, Peter G

    2017-01-12

    This study examined the relationship between patron demographics, substance use, and experience of recent alcohol-related accidents and injuries that were not due to interpersonal violence in night-time entertainment districts. Cross-sectional interviews ( n = 4016) were conducted around licensed venues in entertainment districts of five Australian cities. Demographic factors associated with non-violent alcohol-related injuries were examined, including gender, age, and occupation. The association between substance use on the night of interview; blood alcohol concentration (BAC), pre-drinking, energy drink consumption, and illicit drug use; and experience of injury was also explored. Thirteen percent of participants reported an alcohol-related injury within the past three months. Respondents aged younger than 25 years were significantly more likely to report an alcohol-related injury. Further, a significant occupation effect was found indicating the rate of alcohol-related injury was lower in managers/professionals compared to non-office workers. The likelihood of prior alcohol-related injury significantly increased with BAC, and self-reported pre-drinking, energy drink, or illicit drug consumption on the night of interview. These findings provide an indication of the demographic and substance use-related associations with alcohol-related injuries and, therefore, potential avenues of population-level policy intervention. Policy responses to alcohol-related harm must also account for an assessment and costing of non-violent injuries.

  19. Determinants of permanent first incisor eruption in grazing Australian Angora goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, B A; Butler, K L

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the effects of live weight, sex and other factors on deciduous (first incisor) loss and permanent first incisor development in Angora goats. Goats were part of a pen study on the effects of energy intake in Angora does during pregnancy and lactation on kid growth and development. The design was three levels of nutrition in mid-pregnancy × two levels of postnatal nutrition in 17 randomised blocks. Conception times were calculated by using artificial insemination, with ultrasound examination 43 days after insemination. Does were fed different amounts of a formulated diet in their pens. After weaning, goats were grazed in sex groups. Deciduous first incisor loss and permanent first incisor development were recorded at 11 time points from 14 to 20 months of age. For each sex, the time for visible eruption and full development of permanent first incisor declined linearly with increased live weight by 5.9 and 5.4 days/kg live weight, respectively. The time to reach similar development stages for first permanent incisors eruption was 3 months longer for the lightest animals compared with the heaviest animals. Date of birth, birth weight, doe age, growth rates, mid-pregnancy and postnatal nutrition, parity, day of weaning and weaning weight had no detectable effect. The results explain much of the substantial range in reported first permanent incisor eruption dates for small ruminants and have application in ageing of goats, marketing of kids for meat, in the selection of animals for breeding flocks and in educational material. © 2011 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2011 Australian Veterinary Association.

  20. The global public good concept: a means of promoting good veterinary governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloit, M

    2012-08-01

    At the outset, the concept of a 'public good' was associated with economic policies. However, it has now evolved not only from a national to a global concept (global public good), but also from a concept applying solely to the production of goods to one encompassing societal issues (education, environment, etc.) and fundamental rights, including the right to health and food. Through their actions, Veterinary Services, as defined by the Terrestrial Animal Health Code (Terrestrial Code) of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), help to improve animal health and reduce production losses. In this way they contribute directly and indirectly to food security and to safeguarding human health and economic resources. The organisation and operating procedures of Veterinary Services are therefore key to the efficient governance required to achieve these objectives. The OIE is a major player in global cooperation and governance in the fields of animal and public health through the implementation of its strategic standardisation mission and other programmes for the benefit of Veterinary Services and OIE Member Countries. Thus, the actions of Veterinary Services and the OIE deserve to be recognised as a global public good, backed by public investment to ensure that all Veterinary Services are in a position to apply the principles of good governance and to comply with the international standards for the quality of Veterinary Services set out in the OIE Terrestrial Code (Section 3 on Quality of Veterinary Services) and Aquatic Animal Health Code (Section 3 on Quality of Aquatic Animal Health Services).

  1. Understanding the primary care paradigm: an experiential learning focus of the early veterinary graduate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, William H R; Kinnison, Tierney; May, Stephen A

    2017-11-01

    At a time where high levels of stress are reported in the veterinary profession, this study explores the challenges that veterinary graduates encounter when they enter general (first opinion) practice. Participants had written reflective accounts of their 'Most Puzzling Cases' for the postgraduate Professional Key Skills module of the Certificate in Advanced Veterinary Practice, offered by the Royal Veterinary College. Reasons that a case was puzzling, or became challenging, were thematically analysed. Fifteen summaries were analysed. Three core themes were identified: 'clinical reasoning', centred on the limitations of pattern recognition and the methods used to overcome this; the 'veterinary healthcare system', focusing on the need for continuity of care, time pressure and support in the transition to practice; and the 'owner', looking at the broader clinical skills needed to succeed in general practice. Clinical reasoning was raised as an issue; discussion of when pattern recognition is not appropriate and what to do in these cases was common. A lack of experience in general practice case types, and how to best operate in the resource-constrained environment in which they present, is the likely cause of this, suggesting that a greater focus on the primary care paradigm is needed within veterinary education. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Prevalence of onychectomy in cats presented for veterinary care near Raleigh, NC and educational attitudes toward the procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Laura E; Motsinger-Reif, Alison A; Simpson, Wendy M; Posner, Lysa P

    2014-01-01

    The current prevalence of onychectomy (declawing) in cats is unknown, and education regarding the procedure appears to vary greatly among veterinary schools. The purpose of this project was to determine the prevalence of onychectomized cats near Raleigh, NC and to document the frequency and style (laboratory or lecture) with which the procedure is taught in USA veterinary schools. One thousand seven hundred ninety four cats ranging in age from 8 days to 21 years, of which 938 (52.3%) were female and 1719 (95.8%) were sterilized. Data were collected over a 10-week period regarding cats seen for appointments in five veterinary facilities (two cat-only, two general, and one tertiary). Data collection included signalment and onychectomy status. During this time, 28 veterinary schools were polled regarding education of veterinary students in onychectomy. Three hundred and seventy four (20.8%) cats had undergone onychectomy. A significantly higher percentage of declawed cats were seen in the general practices compared with the other practice types (p declawed. Less than 50% of veterinary schools in the USA include a mandatory lecture or laboratory to teach the procedure. There appears to be a discrepancy between the popularity of the onychectomy procedure and the emphasis placed on relevant instruction in veterinary schools in the USA. © 2013 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  3. Methodological issues associated with collecting sensitive information over the telephone--experience from an Australian non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) prevalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Anne W; Martin, Graham; Dal Grande, Eleonora; Swannell, Sarah; Fullerton, Simon; Hazell, Philip; Harrison, James E

    2011-02-17

    Collecting population data on sensitive issues such as non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is problematic. Case note audits or hospital/clinic based presentations only record severe cases and do not distinguish between suicidal and non-suicidal intent. Community surveys have largely been limited to school and university students, resulting in little much needed population-based data on NSSI. Collecting these data via a large scale population survey presents challenges to survey methodologists. This paper addresses the methodological issues associated with collecting this type of data via CATI. An Australia-wide population survey was funded by the Australian Government to determine prevalence estimates of NSSI and associations, predictors, relationships to suicide attempts and suicide ideation, and outcomes. Computer assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) on a random sample of the Australian population aged 10+ years of age from randomly selected households, was undertaken. Overall, from 31,216 eligible households, 12,006 interviews were undertaken (response rate 38.5%). The 4-week prevalence of NSSI was 1.1% (95% ci 0.9-1.3%) and lifetime prevalence was 8.1% (95% ci 7.6-8.6).Methodological concerns and challenges in regard to collection of these data included extensive interviewer training and post interview counselling. Ethical considerations, especially with children as young as 10 years of age being asked sensitive questions, were addressed prior to data collection. The solution required a large amount of information to be sent to each selected household prior to the telephone interview which contributed to a lower than expected response rate. Non-coverage error caused by the population of interest being highly mobile, homeless or institutionalised was also a suspected issue in this low prevalence condition. In many circumstances the numbers missing from the sampling frame are small enough to not cause worry, especially when compared with the population as a whole

  4. Methodological issues associated with collecting sensitive information over the telephone - experience from an Australian non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI prevalence study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fullerton Simon

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Collecting population data on sensitive issues such as non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI is problematic. Case note audits or hospital/clinic based presentations only record severe cases and do not distinguish between suicidal and non-suicidal intent. Community surveys have largely been limited to school and university students, resulting in little much needed population-based data on NSSI. Collecting these data via a large scale population survey presents challenges to survey methodologists. This paper addresses the methodological issues associated with collecting this type of data via CATI. Methods An Australia-wide population survey was funded by the Australian Government to determine prevalence estimates of NSSI and associations, predictors, relationships to suicide attempts and suicide ideation, and outcomes. Computer assisted telephone interviewing (CATI on a random sample of the Australian population aged 10+ years of age from randomly selected households, was undertaken. Results Overall, from 31,216 eligible households, 12,006 interviews were undertaken (response rate 38.5%. The 4-week prevalence of NSSI was 1.1% (95% ci 0.9-1.3% and lifetime prevalence was 8.1% (95% ci 7.6-8.6. Methodological concerns and challenges in regard to collection of these data included extensive interviewer training and post interview counselling. Ethical considerations, especially with children as young as 10 years of age being asked sensitive questions, were addressed prior to data collection. The solution required a large amount of information to be sent to each selected household prior to the telephone interview which contributed to a lower than expected response rate. Non-coverage error caused by the population of interest being highly mobile, homeless or institutionalised was also a suspected issue in this low prevalence condition. In many circumstances the numbers missing from the sampling frame are small enough to not cause worry

  5. A Decade of Counseling Services in One College of Veterinary Medicine: Veterinary Medical Students' Psychological Distress and Help-Seeking Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Adryanna A S; Hafen, McArthur; Rush, Bonnie R

    Much has been discussed about the high prevalence of psychological distress among veterinary medical students. Studies investigating general samples of veterinary medical students indicate that, on average, depression and anxiety symptoms are present at higher rates than in comparison samples. However, little is known about veterinary medical students who seek counseling. This study intends to expand the literature on veterinary student well-being, as the first to examine a sample of veterinary medical students seeking counseling services. It offers an overview of student distress and help-seeking trends from a decade of counseling services provided in one College of Veterinary Medicine (CVM) in the US. The sample includes data from 279 participants. Results indicate a steady increase in students seeking counseling over the last decade. First-year students sought services at higher rates but second-year students experienced the greatest distress when compared to other cohorts. Students seeking counseling services experienced levels of overall distress, symptoms of anxiety and depression, and social role concerns that were, on average, above cut-off scores. Physical health was significantly associated with student distress, suggesting opportunities for intervention.

  6. Compliance with Corporate Governance Principles: Australian Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Safari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the association between the level of compliance of Australian listed companies with Australian corporate governance principles, in aggregate, and the level of discretionary accruals using the modified Jones model. It is hypothesised that higher levels of compliance would be associated with lower levels of discretionary accruals. Data from a random sample of 214 Australian listed companies for the years 2009 and 2010 were used to test the hypothesis. The results demonstrate a significant negative relationship indicating that companies with higher levels of compliance engage in lower levels of earnings management via discretionary accruals.

  7. The feral horse foot. Part A: observational study of the effect of environment on the morphometrics of the feet of 100 Australian feral horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, B A; de Laat, M A; Mills, P C; Pollitt, C C

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the morphology of, and the effect of different travel patterns and varying substrate environments on, the feral horse foot to better manage the feet of domestic horses. The left forefeet of 20 adult feral horses from each of five geographically separated populations in Australia (n = 100) were investigated. Populations were selected on the basis of substrate hardness under foot and the amount of travel typical for the population. Feet were radiographed and photographed and 40 morphometric measurements of each foot were obtained. Of the 40 parameters, 37 differed significantly (P horses. The morphology of the feral horse foot appeared to be affected by the distance travelled and by the abrasive qualities and mechanical properties of the substrate under foot. There were marked differences in some conformation parameters between the feral horses in the current study and domestic horses in previous studies. Although the conformation of the feral horse foot may have some prescriptive value, concerns regarding abnormal foot anatomy warrant further investigation. © 2012 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2012 Australian Veterinary Association.

  8. The need for veterinary nursing in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funmilayo A. Okanlawon, RN, PhD, FWACN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, nursing care has been identified as an integral part of human medicine but is not well recognised in veterinary medicine as practised in Nigeria. In caring for human beings, a nurse is expected to have the fundamental understanding of disease aetiology, manifestations, diagnosis, manage-ment, rehabilitation, prevention and control. This is equally applicable to the care of animals. The role of veterinary nursing in veterinary medicine is significant considering the multitude of issues involved in the care of animals. The keeping of domestic animals is becoming popular and consequently the spread of infectious diseases from animals to human beings is on the increase. It is vital for human beings and animals to coexist in a healthy environment. The authors examine the importance of nursing care in veterinary medicine, the current situation in Nigeria, the role of veterinary nurses, the inter-professional approach to veterinary medicine, preparedness for the emergence of infectious diseases and career opportunities for veterinary nurses. This premise falls within the context of the ‘One Health’ concept.

  9. Information technology in veterinary pharmacology instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochevar, Deborah T

    2003-01-01

    Veterinary clinical pharmacology encompasses all interactions between drugs and animals and applies basic and clinical knowledge to improve rational drug use and patient outcomes. Veterinary pharmacology instructors set educational goals and objectives that, when mastered by students, lead to improved animal health. The special needs of pharmacology instruction include establishing a functional interface between basic and clinical knowledge, managing a large quantity of information, and mastering quantitative skills essential to successful drug administration and analysis of drug action. In the present study, a survey was conducted to determine the extent to which veterinary pharmacology instructors utilize information technology (IT) in their teaching. Several IT categories were investigated, including Web-based instructional aids, stand-alone pharmacology software, interactive videoconferencing, databases, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and e-book applications. Currently IT plays a largely ancillary role in pharmacology instruction. IT use is being expanded primarily through the efforts of two veterinary professional pharmacology groups, the American College of Veterinary Clinical Pharmacology (ACVCP) and the American Academy of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics (AAVPT). The long-term outcome of improved IT use in pharmacology instruction should be to support the larger educational mission of active learning and problem solving. Creation of high-quality IT resources that promote this goal has the potential to improve veterinary pharmacology instruction within and across institutions.

  10. Bibliometric analysis of multi-language veterinary journals

    OpenAIRE

    KRAUSKOPF, Erwin; GARCIA, Fernanda; FUNK, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between language and total number of citations found among documents in journals written in English and other languages. We selected all the journals clustered together in the Journal Citation Reports 2014 under the subject category “Veterinary Sciences” and downloaded all the data registered between 1994-2013 by Web of Science for the journals that stated publishing documents in languages other than English. We classified ...

  11. Antimicrobial resistance genes in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and Pasteurella multocida isolated from Australian pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayao, Dae; Gibson, J S; Blackall, P J; Turni, C

    2016-07-01

    To identify genes associated with the observed antimicrobial resistance in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and Pasteurella multocida isolated from Australian pigs. Isolates with known phenotypic resistance to β-lactams, macrolides and tetracycline were screened for the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes. A total of 68 A. pleuropneumoniae, 62 H. parasuis and 20 P. multocida isolates exhibiting phenotypic antimicrobial resistance (A. pleuropneumoniae and P. multocida) or elevated minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) (H. parasuis) to any of the following antimicrobial agents - ampicillin, erythromycin, penicillin, tetracycline, tilmicosin and tulathromycin - were screened for a total of 19 associated antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) by PCR. The gene bla ROB-1 was found in all ampicillin- and penicillin-resistant isolates, but none harboured the bla TEM-1 gene. The tetB gene was found in 76% (74/97) of tetracycline-resistant isolates, 49/53 A. pleuropneumoniae, 17/30 H. parasuis and 8/14 P. multocida. One A. pleuropneumoniae isolate harboured the tetH gene, but none of the 97 isolates had tetA, tetC, tetD, tetE, tetL, tetM or tetO. A total of 92 isolates were screened for the presence of macrolide resistance genes. None was found to have ermA, ermB, ermC, erm42, mphE, mefA, msrA or msrE. The current study has provided a genetic explanation for the resistance or elevated MIC of the majority of isolates of Australian porcine respiratory pathogens to ampicillin, penicillin and tetracycline. However, the macrolide resistance observed by phenotypic testing remains genetically unexplained and further studies are required. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  12. Applications of Nanotechnology in Veterinary Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrama Chakravarthi. P and Sri N. Balaji

    Full Text Available In the recent years the application of nanotechnology in human and veterinary medicine has shown a great progress. Scientists foresee that this progress in the field of nanotechnology could represent a major breakthrough in addressing some of the technical challenges faced by human and veterinary profession. While the great hopes of nanomedicine are disease detection and new pharmaceuticals for humans, veterinary applications of nanotechnology may become the proving ground for untried and more controversial techniques from nanocapsule vaccines to sex selection in breeding. Nanotechnology has the potential to impact not only the way we live, but also the way we practice veterinary medicine. Examples of potential applications in animal agriculture and veterinary medicine include disease diagnosis and treatment delivery systems, new tools for molecular and cellular breeding, the security of animal food products, modification of animal waste, pathogen detection, and many more. Existing research has demonstrated the feasibility of introducing nanoshells and nanotubes into animals to seek and destroy targeted cells. These building blocks of nanotechnology are expected to be integrated into systems over the next couple of decades on a commercial basis. This article describes some of the principal areas of nanotechnology currently being undertaken in the world of medicine.The main purposes of this article are to trigger the interest of discoveries of veterinary profession in the field of nanotechnology and to provide a glimpse at potential important targets for nanotechnology in the field of veterinary medicine. Also it is important to mention that because nanotechnology is at a very early stage of development, it may take several years to perform the necessary research and conduct clinical trials for obtaining meaningful results. This tool as it develops over the next several decades will have major implications in veterinary and animal science

  13. An Australian cohort of 210 patients with multiple invasive squamous cell carcinomas: risk factors and associated increased risk of melanoma and internal malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banan, Parastoo; Marvi, Salman K; McMeniman, Erin; De'Ambrosis, Brian

    2016-02-01

    Patients with a history of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) have a 50% risk of developing subsequent NMSC.(13) Currently there are limited data on the association between multiple squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and the risk of other cancers, including melanomas. To assess the risk factors in a cohort of 210 Australians with a history of multiple invasive SCC, focusing on the association between multiple SCC and other cancers. Data were collected from patients of a private practice in south-east Queensland. A fair complexion and childhood sun exposure were found to be common in this cohort. Approximately half the patients who had their first SCC at or before the age of 30 years subsequently developed a melanoma. There was also an increased risk of internal cancer, prostate cancer being the commonest, followed by bowel and breast cancer. Patients with a history of multiple invasive SCC should be aware of their increased risk of future NMSC and of melanomas. The results of thisstudy suggest such patients and their care providers should also consider an appropriate screening for internal malignancies. © 2015 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  14. Veterinary medicine books recommended for academic libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawley-Low, Jill

    2004-10-01

    This bibliography of in-print veterinary medical books published in English may be used as an acquisitions or evaluation tool for developing the monograph component of new veterinary medicine collections or existing science, technology, and medicine collections where veterinary medicine is in the scope of the collection. The bibliography is divided into 34 categories and consists of bibliographic information for 419 titles. The appendix contains an author/editor index. Prices for all entries are in US dollars, except where another currency is noted. The total cost of all books in the bibliography is $43,602.13 (US).

  15. Chemotherapy safety in clinical veterinary oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klahn, Shawna

    2014-09-01

    Exposure to chemotherapy is a health hazard for all personnel in facilities that store, prepare, or administer antineoplastic agents. Contamination levels have been measured as much as 15 times higher in the veterinary medicine sector than in human facilities. Recent publications in human and veterinary medicine indicate that exposure extends beyond the clinic walls to affect the patient's home and family. This article provides an update on the advances in chemotherapy safety, the current issues, and the impact on cancer management in veterinary medicine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Customer service in equine veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blach, Edward L

    2009-12-01

    This article explores customer service in equine veterinary medicine. It begins with a discussion about the differences between customers and clients in veterinary medicine. An overview of the nature of the veterinary-client-patient relationship and its effects on the veterinarian's services sheds light on how to evaluate your customer service. The author reviews a study performed in 2007 that evaluated 24 attributes of customer service and their importance to clients of equine veterinarians in their decision to select a specific veterinarian or hospital. The article concludes with an overview of how to evaluate your customer service in an effort to optimize your service to achieve customer loyalty.

  17. Veterinary medicine books recommended for academic libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawley-Low, Jill

    2004-01-01

    This bibliography of in-print veterinary medical books published in English may be used as an acquisitions or evaluation tool for developing the monograph component of new veterinary medicine collections or existing science, technology, and medicine collections where veterinary medicine is in the scope of the collection. The bibliography is divided into 34 categories and consists of bibliographic information for 419 titles. The appendix contains an author/editor index. Prices for all entries are in US dollars, except where another currency is noted. The total cost of all books in the bibliography is $43,602.13 (US). PMID:15494763

  18. Vaccines for veterinary, made with the help of radiative technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulkhanov, R.U.; Butaev, M.K.; Mirsaev, B.Sh.; Ryasnaynskiy, I.V.; Yuldashev, R.Yu.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: In applied radiology scientists usually use stimulating, mutagenic and inactivating effects of gamma-radiation. In this report there are the results of gamma-radiation inactivating effect for radiovaccine making biotechnology development for veterinary. Inactivation with hamma-irradiation gives us opportunity to make highly immunogenic vaccines, which cause minimum damage of antigenic contaminants structure. With the help of radiative biotechnology we can produce highly effective monoassociated and polyvalented radiovaccines against the most wide-spread infections disease in agricultural animals, young animals in particular (calves, lambs, sucking-pigs). These diseases include such infection diseases as colibacterioses, salmonellosis, pasterellosis, which cause much economic damage to stockbreeding i.e. loss of cattle, slow growth of young animal, lack of offsprings, decrease of reproduction properties. Monovaccines are used for these disease prophylaxis as well as associated and polyvalented vaccines. Taking into consideration the necessity of vaccine improvement and great amount of associated vaccines, one of the main problems of veterinary is the development of vaccines of new generation, which can induce immunity against several diseases in agricultural animals. That is why, radiative biotechnology of radiovaccines creation was developed and is used in radiative laboratory of Uzbek Scientific Veterinary Institute (Bulkhanov R.U., 1999, 2001), A ssociated radiovaccine against colibacteriosis, salmonellosis of calves, kids , 'Associated radiovaccine against colibacteriosis and salmonellosis of calves', 'Polyvalented radiovaccine against pasterellosis, salmonellosis and colibacteriosis in agricultural animals' were developed with the help of radiative biotechnology and are successfully used in veterinary practice. The advantage of these radiovaccines is that they produce one year immunity and you need twice less dosage and revaccinations. More than

  19. Small prey species' behaviour and welfare: implications for veterinary professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, E Anne

    2017-08-01

    People have obligations to ensure the welfare of animals under their care. Offences under the UK Animal Welfare Act are acts, or failures of action, causing unnecessary suffering. Veterinary professionals need to be able to provide current, scientifically based prophylactic advice, and respect the limits of their expertise. The ethical concept of a life worth living and the Five Freedoms are core to welfare. Behaviour is a central component, both influencing and influenced by physical health. Owners frequently misunderstand the behaviour of small prey mammals and how to meet their needs. This review provides insight into the physical-social (external) and the cognitive-emotional (internal) environments of small prey mammals, contextualised within an evolutionary perspective. This is extrapolated to captivity and practical suggestions given for meeting behavioural freedoms and enhancing client understanding and enjoyment of their animals, thereby improving welfare. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  20. Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Prof. B. M. Agaie Editor-in-Chief Usmanu Danfodiyo University. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, UDUS City Campus. P. M. B. 2346. Sokoto- Nigeria. Phone: +2348035073563. Email: agaie1992@gmail.com ...

  1. Sleep hygiene among veterinary medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, Kenneth D; Hunt, Suzanne A; Borst, Luke B; Gerard, Mathew

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to better understand veterinary medical students' sleep hygiene and identify the extent to which sleep hygiene behaviors may result in consequences (either positive or negative) for students. A total of 187 doctor of veterinary medicine (DVM) program students at a large College of Veterinary Medicine in the United States. The Epworth Sleep Scale and Daytime Sleepiness Scale were administered to 393 students enrolled in the DVM program. About 55.1% of students reported sleep per night, 28.9% reported having trouble sleeping, and 50.3% reported feeling sleepy all day. With respect to sleep quality, 5.3% described it as excellent, 52.4% as good, 34.2% as fair, and 8.0% as poor. A significant percentage of veterinary medical students exhibit poor sleep hygiene habits that may be detrimental to both their health and academic endeavors.

  2. Endowed Professorship In Veterinary College Honors Young

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, Jeffrey S.

    2003-01-01

    One of the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine's leading infectious diseases specialists has been named to a recently created endowed professorship that honors a veterinarian who studied at Virginia Tech almost 60 years ago.

  3. The human-animal bond in veterinary medical education: accessing web-based information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Lynette A; Wood, Mary W

    2008-01-01

    Various aspects of the field known as the human-animal bond (HAB), or human-animal interactions, have expanded within veterinary medical education over the past quarter of a century. Using a variety of databases and informed search strategies, relevant information can be accessed, including recent articles, databases, journals, academic centers, societies and associations, programs, and key references. In this paper, methods for accessing resources supporting veterinary education on the HAB are organized into four subject areas: the HAB in veterinary school curricula; social work and support services for veterinary clients; the benefits of the HAB for human well-being, with applications of animal-assisted therapies, activities, and education; and companion animal behavior and welfare concerns. A related Web site can be accessed at http://www.vetmed.ucdavis.edu/CCAB/humananimalinteractions.html.

  4. Independent and joint associations of TV viewing time and snack food consumption with the metabolic syndrome and its components; a cross-sectional study in Australian adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Television (TV) viewing time is positively associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adults. However, the mechanisms through which TV viewing time is associated with MetS risk remain unclear. There is evidence that the consumption of energy-dense, nutrient poor snack foods increases during TV viewing time among adults, suggesting that these behaviors may jointly contribute towards MetS risk. While the association between TV viewing time and the MetS has previously been shown to be independent of adult’s overall dietary intake, the specific influence of snack food consumption on the relationship is yet to be investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the independent and joint associations of daily TV viewing time and snack food consumption with the MetS and its components in a sample of Australian adults. Methods Population-based, cross-sectional study of 3,110 women and 2,572 men (>35 years) without diabetes or cardiovascular disease. Participants were recruited between May 1999 and Dec 2000 in the six states and the Northern Territory of Australia. Participants were categorised according to self-reported TV viewing time (low: 0-2 hr/d; high: >2 hr/d) and/or consumption of snack foods (low: 0-3 serves/d; high: >3 serves/d). Multivariate odds ratios [95% CI] for the MetS and its components were estimated using gender-specific, forced entry logistic regression. Results OR [95% CI] for the MetS was 3.59 [2.25, 5.74] (p≤0.001) in women and 1.45 [1.02, 3.45] (p = 0.04) in men who jointly reported high TV viewing time and high snack food consumption. Obesity, insulin resistance and hypertension (women only) were also jointly associated with high TV viewing time and high snack food consumption. Further adjustment for diet quality and central adiposity maintained the associations in women. High snack food consumption was also shown to be independently associated with MetS risk [OR: 1.94 (95% CI: 1.45, 2.60), p TV viewing time was

  5. Number, causes and destinations of horses leaving the Australian Thoroughbred and Standardbred racing industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, P C; Hayek, A R; Jones, B; Evans, D L; McGreevy, P D

    2014-08-01

    Significant proportions of horses leave the Australian Thoroughbred and Standardbred racing industries, which has ramifications for both the economic sustainability and the public perception of racing. The aim of this study was to quantify potential horse wastage, describe the destinations of exiting horses and identify risk factors for horses going to these destinations. Questionnaires were sent to 1258 selected Thoroughbred and 981 Standardbred trainers, with response rates of 30% and 32%, respectively. The survey investigated the role of various risk factors for wastage, including horse age, sex and number of years in training. The destination of departing horses was also examined in relation to these risk factors. Total horse exit rates for the 2002-03 official race year were 39.7% and 38.7% for the Thoroughbred and Standardbred racing industries, respectively. Reasons for leaving included 'poor performance/slow' (36.5% Thoroughbreds, 35.2% Standardbreds), 'illness/injury' (31.0%, 27.1%), 'to breed' (9.4%, 10.1%), 'unsuitable temperament/behaviour' (6.4%, 6.4%) and 'other' (16.8%, 21.2%). Statistically significant (P Thoroughbred and Standardbred racing horses included whether the trainer owned the horses, sex, age and reasons for leaving. In addition, some factors were specific to one breed or the other. Improved behaviour training and early identification of the causes of poor performance could assist in reducing wastage. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  6. Good veterinary governance: definition, measurement and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msellati, L; Commault, J; Dehove, A

    2012-08-01

    Good veterinary governance assumes the provision of veterinary services that are sustainably financed, universally available, and provided efficiently without waste or duplication, in a manner that is transparent and free of fraud or corruption. Good veterinary governance is a necessary condition for sustainable economic development insomuch as it promotes the effective delivery of services and improves the overall performance of animal health systems. This article defines governance in Veterinary Services and proposes a framework for its measurement. It also discusses the role of Veterinary Services and analyses the governance dimensions of the performance-assessment tools developed by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). These tools (OIE PVS Tool and PVS Gap Analysis) track the performance of Veterinary Services across countries (a harmonised tool) and over time (the PVS Pathway). The article shows the usefulness of the OIE PVS Tool for measuring governance, but also points to two shortcomings, namely (i) the lack of clear outcome indicators, which is an impediment to a comprehensive assessment of the performance of Veterinary Services, and (ii) the lack of specific measures for assessing the extent of corruption within Veterinary Services and the extent to which demand for better governance is being strengthened within the animal health system. A discussion follows on the drivers of corruption and instruments for perception-based assessments of country governance and corruption. Similarly, the article introduces the concept of social accountability, which is an approach to enhancing government transparency and accountability, and shows how supply-side and demand-side mechanisms complement each other in improving the governance of service delivery. It further elaborates on two instruments--citizen report card surveys and grievance redress mechanisms--because of their wider relevance and their possible applications in many settings, including Veterinary

  7. Multiple sclerosis susceptibility-associated SNPs do not influence disease severity measures in a cohort of Australian MS patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy J Jensen

    Full Text Available Recent association studies in multiple sclerosis (MS have identified and replicated several single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP susceptibility loci including CLEC16A, IL2RA, IL7R, RPL5, CD58, CD40 and chromosome 12q13-14 in addition to the well established allele HLA-DR15. There is potential that these genetic susceptibility factors could also modulate MS disease severity, as demonstrated previously for the MS risk allele HLA-DR15. We investigated this hypothesis in a cohort of 1006 well characterised MS patients from South-Eastern Australia. We tested the MS-associated SNPs for association with five measures of disease severity incorporating disability, age of onset, cognition and brain atrophy. We observed trends towards association between the RPL5 risk SNP and time between first demyelinating event and relapse, and between the CD40 risk SNP and symbol digit test score. No associations were significant after correction for multiple testing. We found no evidence for the hypothesis that these new MS disease risk-associated SNPs influence disease severity.

  8. Lasers in veterinary medicine: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Kenneth E.

    1994-09-01

    As in other facets of medical science, the use of lasers in veterinary medicine is a relatively new phenomenon. Economic aspects of the profession as well as questionable returns on investment have limited laser applications primarily to the academic community, research institutions, and specialty practices. As technology improves and efficacy is proven, costs should decrease and allow further introduction of laser surgical and diagnostic devices into the mainstream of clinical veterinary medicine.

  9. Low education levels are associated with early age of sexual debut, drug use and risky sexual behaviours among young Indigenous Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wand, Handan; Bryant, Joanne; Worth, Heather; Pitts, Marian; Kaldor, John M; Delaney-Thiele, Dea; Ward, James

    2018-02-01

    Background Earlier age at sexual debut is associated with drug and alcohol use, risky sexual behaviours and sexually transmissible infections (STI). In the present study, 2320 young Indigenous Australians were surveyed. Most study participants had sex for the first time when they were 14 years or younger (79% and 67% for males and females respectively). More than 80% of participants were categorised as being in the high-risk category for the combined sexual risk factors (i.e. not using condoms, drunk or high at last sexual act, or three or more sexual partners in the past year). There was a linear decreasing trend between the proportion of males and females who had less than high school education and age at first sex (Ptrendsex education and STI prevention should start early when targeting Indigenous young people, with age-appropriate messages. Sex education should be comprehensive and address individual risk behaviours, sexual agency and societal vulnerability to not only delay sexual debut, but also to emphasise the importance of STI prevention through condom use, which clearly already works to a certain extent with this group.

  10. The association between dairy food intake and the incidence of diabetes in Australia: the Australian Diabetes Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantham, Narelle M; Magliano, Dianna J; Hodge, Allison; Jowett, Jeremy; Meikle, Peter; Shaw, Jonathan E

    2013-02-01

    Several studies have suggested that dairy food may reduce the risk of obesity and metabolic abnormalities but few have been able to conclusively demonstrate that it reduces the risk of diabetes. The aim of the present analysis was to investigate if dairy food intake independently reduces the risk of diabetes. The Australian Diabetes Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab) is a national, population-based, prospective survey conducted over 5 years. Baseline measurements included a 121-item FFQ, anthropometrics and an oral glucose tolerance test. Forty-two randomly selected clusters across Australia. Adults aged ≥25 years who participated in the baseline survey and returned to follow-up 5 years later. A total of 5582 participants with complete data were eligible for analysis, 209 of whom had incident diabetes. Compared with men in the first tertile of dairy food intake, men in the third tertile had a significantly reduced risk of developing diabetes after adjustment for age, sex, total energy intake, family history of diabetes, education, physical activity, smoking status, fasting serum TAG and HDL cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, waist circumference and hip circumference (OR = 0·53, 95 % CI 0·29, 0·96; P = 0·033). A similar non-significant association was observed in women. Dietary patterns that incorporate high intakes of dairy food may reduce the risk of diabetes among men. Further investigation into the relationship between dairy food intake and diabetes needs to be undertaken to fully understand the potential mechanism of this observation.

  11. The T687G SNP in a P-glycoprotein gene of Fasciola hepatica is not associated with resistance to triclabendazole in two resistant Australian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Timothy P; Spithill, Terry W

    2014-11-01

    Triclabendazole (TCBZ) is widely used for control of Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke) in animals and humans and resistance to this drug is now widespread. However, the mechanism of resistance to TCBZ is not known. A T687G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in a P-glycoprotein gene was proposed as a molecular marker for TCBZ resistance in F. hepatica (Wilkinson et al., 2012). We analyzed this Pgp gene from TCBZ-susceptible and TCBZ-resistant populations from Australia to determine if the SNP was a marker for TCBZ resistance. From the 21 parasites studied we observed 27 individual haplotypes in the Pgp sequences which comprised seven haplotypic groups (A-G), with haplotypes A and B representing 81% of the total observed. The T687G SNP was not observed in either of the resistant or susceptible populations. We conclude that the T687G SNP in this Pgp gene is not associated with TCBZ resistance in these Australian F. hepatica populations and therefore unlikely to be a universal molecular marker for TCBZ resistance. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Independent and joint associations of TV viewing time and snack food consumption with the metabolic syndrome and its components; a cross-sectional study in Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorp, Alicia A; McNaughton, Sarah A; Owen, Neville; Dunstan, David W

    2013-08-09

    Television (TV) viewing time is positively associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adults. However, the mechanisms through which TV viewing time is associated with MetS risk remain unclear. There is evidence that the consumption of energy-dense, nutrient poor snack foods increases during TV viewing time among adults, suggesting that these behaviors may jointly contribute towards MetS risk. While the association between TV viewing time and the MetS has previously been shown to be independent of adult's overall dietary intake, the specific influence of snack food consumption on the relationship is yet to be investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the independent and joint associations of daily TV viewing time and snack food consumption with the MetS and its components in a sample of Australian adults. Population-based, cross-sectional study of 3,110 women and 2,572 men (>35 years) without diabetes or cardiovascular disease. Participants were recruited between May 1999 and Dec 2000 in the six states and the Northern Territory of Australia. Participants were categorised according to self-reported TV viewing time (low: 0-2 hr/d; high: >2 hr/d) and/or consumption of snack foods (low: 0-3 serves/d; high: >3 serves/d). Multivariate odds ratios [95% CI] for the MetS and its components were estimated using gender-specific, forced entry logistic regression. OR [95% CI] for the MetS was 3.59 [2.25, 5.74] (p≤0.001) in women and 1.45 [1.02, 3.45] (p = 0.04) in men who jointly reported high TV viewing time and high snack food consumption. Obesity, insulin resistance and hypertension (women only) were also jointly associated with high TV viewing time and high snack food consumption. Further adjustment for diet quality and central adiposity maintained the associations in women. High snack food consumption was also shown to be independently associated with MetS risk [OR: 1.94 (95% CI: 1.45, 2.60), p snack food consumption are independently and

  13. Research data services in veterinary medicine libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerby, Erin E

    2016-10-01

    The study investigated veterinary medicine librarians' experience with and perceptions of research data services. Many academic libraries have begun to offer research data services in response to researchers' increased need for data management support. To date, such services have typically been generic, rather than discipline-specific, to appeal to a wide variety of researchers. An online survey was deployed to identify trends regarding research data services in veterinary medicine libraries. Participants were identified from a list of contacts from the MLA Veterinary Medical Libraries Section. Although many respondents indicated that they have a professional interest in research data services, the majority of veterinary medicine librarians only rarely or occasionally provide data management support as part of their regular job responsibilities. There was little consensus as to whether research data services should be core to a library's mission despite their perceived importance to the advancement of veterinary research. Furthermore, most respondents stated that research data services are just as or somewhat less important than the other services that they provide and feel only slightly or somewhat prepared to offer such services. Lacking a standard definition of "research data" and a common understanding of precisely what research data services encompass, it is difficult for veterinary medicine librarians and libraries to define and understand their roles in research data services. Nonetheless, they appear to have an interest in learning more about and providing research data services.

  14. FORENSIC RADIOLOGY AND IMAGING FOR VETERINARY RADIOLOGISTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Elizabeth; Heng, Hock Gan

    2017-05-01

    Imaging studies are often of evidentiary value in medicolegal investigations involving animals and the role of the veterinary radiologist is to interpret those images for courts as an expert or opinion witness. With progressing interest in prosecuting animal crimes and strengthening of penalties for crimes against animals, the participation of veterinary radiologists in medicolegal investigations is expected to increase. Veterinary radiologists who are aware of radiographic and imaging signs that result in animal suffering, abuse, or neglect; knowledgeable in ways radiology and imaging may support cause of death determinations; conversant in postmortem imaging; comfortable discussing mechanisms and timing of blunt or sharp force and projectile trauma in imaging; and prepared to identify mimics of abuse can assist court participants in understanding imaging evidence. The goal of this commentary review is to familiarize veterinary radiologists with the forensic radiology and imaging literature and with the advantages and disadvantages of various imaging modalities utilized in forensic investigations. Another goal is to provide background information for future research studies in veterinary forensic radiology and imaging. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  15. Appetitive traits associated with higher and lower body mass index: evaluating the validity of the adult eating behaviour questionnaire in an Australian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallan, Kimberley M; Fildes, Alison; de la Piedad Garcia, Xochitl; Drzezdzon, Jayne; Sampson, Matthew; Llewellyn, Clare

    2017-09-22

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the factor structure of the newly developed Adult Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (AEBQ) (Hunot et al., Appetite 105:356-63, 2016) in an Australian sample, and examine associations between the four food approach and four food avoidance appetitive traits with body mass index (BMI). Participants (N = 998) recruited between May and October 2016 via a university research participation scheme and online social network sites completed an online version of the AEBQ and self-reported demographic and anthropometric data. Of the sample, 84.8% were females, 29.6% had completed a university degree and the overall mean age was 24.32 years (SD = 8.32). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test three alternative factor structures (derived from issues raised in the original development study): the original 8 factor model, a 7 factor model with Food Responsiveness and Hunger scales combined, and a 7 factor model with the Hunger scale removed. The CFA revealed that the original 8 factor model was a better fit to the data than the 7 factor model in which Food Responsiveness and Hunger scales were combined. However, while reliability estimates for 7 of the 8 scales were good (Cronbach's α between 0.70-0.86), the reliability of the Hunger scale was modest (0.67) and dropping this factor resulted in a good fitting model. All food avoidance scales (except Food Fussiness) were negatively associated with body mass index (BMI) whereas Emotional Overeating was the only food approach scale positively associated with BMI. The study supports the use of the AEBQ as a reliable and valid measure of food approach and avoidance appetitive traits in adults. Longitudinal studies that examine continuity and stability of appetitive traits across the lifespan will be facilitated by the addition of this measurement tool to the literature.

  16. Consumer attitudes and misperceptions associated with trends in self-reported cereal foods consumption: cross-sectional study of Western Australian adults, 1995 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Christina Mary; Pulker, Claire Elizabeth; Meng, Xingqiong; Scott, Jane Anne; Denham, Felicity Claire; Solah, Vicky Anne; Kerr, Deborah Anne

    2017-06-26

    The reasons for low adherence to cereal dietary guidelines are not well understood but may be related to knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and perceived barriers. This study aims to assess trends in cereal foods consumption, intention to change and factors associated with intake among Western Australian (WA) adults 18 to 64 years. Cross-sectional data from the 1995, 1998, 2001, 2004, 2009, and 2012 Nutrition Monitoring Survey Series involving 7044 adults were pooled. types and amount of cereals (bread, rice, pasta, and breakfast cereal) eaten the day prior. Attitudes, knowledge, intentions, weight status and sociodemographic characteristics were measured. Descriptive statistics, multiple binary logistic and multinomial logistic regressions assess factors associated with consumption. Bread (78%) was the most commonly consumed cereal food. The proportion eating bread decreased across survey years (Odds Ratio OR = 0.31; 95% Confidence Interval; 0.24-0.40 in 2012 versus 1995), as did the amount (4.1 slices of bread in 1995 to 2.4 in 2012). The odds of consuming whole-grain cereal foods increased since 2009 (OR = 1.27; 1.02-1.58 versus 1995 p cereal food in the past year was greater in 2012 compared to 1995 (Relative Risk Ratio RRR 10.88; 6.81-17.4). Knowledge of cereal recommendations decreased over time (OR = 0.20; 0.15-0.27 in 2012 versus 1995 p cereals (RRR 1.65; 1.22-2.24 and 1.88; 1.35-2.63 respectively). 'I already eat enough' was the main barrier (75% in 1995 to 84% in 2012 (p cereal foods they eat and intake is associated with a misperception of adequacy of intake. Nutrition intervention is needed to increase awareness of the health benefits of cereal foods, particularly whole-grains, and to address barriers to incorporating them daily. Not applicable.

  17. The Association between Cannabis Use and Motivation and Intentions to Quit Tobacco within a Sample of Australian Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twyman, Laura; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine; Kay-Lambkin, Frances J.; Bryant, Jamie; Oldmeadow, C.; Palazzi, K.; Guillaumier, A.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to (i) describe concurrent and simultaneous tobacco and cannabis use and (ii) investigate the association between cannabis use and motivation and intentions to quit tobacco in a sample of socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2013 and 2014 with current tobacco smokers receiving aid from…

  18. Associations between education and personal income with body mass index among Australian women residing in disadvantaged neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lauren K; Andrianopoulos, Nick; Cleland, Verity; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the current study were to (1) determine the association between personal income and body mass index (BMI) and between individual education and BMI, and (2) examine the association between education and BMI across strata of personal income among women. The design of the study was a quantitative analysis of data from self-report questionnaires. The study setting was socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods in Victoria, Australia. The study included 4065 nonpregnant women (ages 18-45 years) living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. The study used a self-report questionnaire measuring sociodemographic characteristics known to be associated with BMI. Multiple linear regressions with imputation were used to assess the association between education level, personal income, and BMI, while controlling for covariates. Mean (SD) observed BMI was 26.0 (6.1) kg/m2. Compared with women with low education, women with medium (b = -0.81; 95% confidence interval, -1.30 to -0.27; p = .004) and high (b = -1.71; 95% confidence interval, -2.34 to -1.09; p education had statistically significantly lower BMI values. No differences in BMI were observed between income categories. Stratified analyses suggested that the education-BMI association may be stronger in low-income than higher-income women. Our data show that among women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas, high education level rather than personal income may be protective against overweight/obesity. High personal income, however, may buffer the effects of low education on BMI. Obesity prevention efforts should target women with amplified disadvantage.

  19. Adherence to 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years and associations with social-cognitive development among Australian preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan P. Cliff

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The new Australian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years recommend that, for preschoolers, a healthy 24-h includes: i ≥180 min of physical activity, including ≥60 min of energetic play, ii ≤1 h of sedentary screen time, and iii 10–13 h of good quality sleep. Using an Australian sample, this study reports the proportion of preschool children meeting these guidelines and investigates associations with social-cognitive development. Methods Data from 248 preschool children (mean age = 4.2 ± 0.6 years, 57% boys participating in the PATH-ABC study were analyzed. Children completed direct assessments of physical activity (accelerometry and social cognition (the Test of Emotional Comprehension (TEC and Theory of Mind (ToM. Parents reported on children’s screen time and sleep. Children were categorised as meeting/not meeting: i individual guidelines, ii combinations of two guidelines, or iii all three guidelines. Associations were examined using linear regression adjusting for child age, sex, vocabulary, area level socio-economic status and childcare level clustering. Results High proportions of children met the physical activity (93.1% and sleep (88.7% guidelines, whereas fewer met the screen time guideline (17.3%. Overall, 14.9% of children met all three guidelines. Children meeting the sleep guideline performed better on TEC than those who did not (mean difference [MD] = 1.41; 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.36, 2.47. Children meeting the sleep and physical activity or sleep and screen time guidelines also performed better on TEC (MD = 1.36; 95% CI = 0.31, 2.41 and ToM (MD = 0.25; 95% CI = −0.002, 0.50; p = 0.05, respectively, than those who did not. Meeting all three guidelines was associated with better ToM performance (MD = 0.28; 95% CI = −0.002, 0.48, p = 0.05, while meeting a larger number of guidelines was associated with better TEC (3 or 2 vs. 1/none, p < 0.02 and To

  20. Dietary Patterns, Nutrition Knowledge, Lifestyle, and Health-Related Quality of Life: Associations with Anti-Hypertension Medication Adherence in a Sample of Australian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalesi, Saman; Irwin, Christopher; Sun, Jing

    2017-12-01

    Poor anti-hypertension medication (AHT) adherence can increase disease costs and adverse outcomes. Hypertensive individuals who have a better nutrition knowledge may lead a healthier lifestyle, have a better health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and greater confidence to change behaviour. On this basis, they may have better treatment adherence. To explore the association between the above-mentioned variables and AHT adherence in a group of Australian adults with high blood pressure (BP) in a cross-sectional clinical and community-based study. Adults with high BP (n = 270) completed a questionnaire including: food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), nutrition knowledge, HRQoL, self-efficacy of diet and exercise, lifestyle and AHT adherence sections. Bivariate analysis and hierarchical logistic regression were used to explore the data. Three dietary patterns were identified from the FFQ, using factor and cluster analyses (Western, Snack and Alcohol, and Balanced). We observed that following a Western dietary pattern, having lower exercise self-efficacy and shorter sleep duration were more dominant in the poor AHT adherence individuals compared to their counterparts. A positive association was observed between self-efficacy and sleep duration with AHT adherence. A Western dietary pattern was prevalent in high BP participants which slightly reduced the likelihood of good adherence. A healthier dietary pattern, better exercise self-efficacy and adequate sleep (more than six hours a night) may increase the likelihood of AHT adherence in individuals with high BP. Interventions focusing on improving these variables are required to confirm the findings of this study.

  1. Intergenerational educational mobility is associated with cardiovascular disease risk behaviours in a cohort of young Australian adults: The Childhood Determinants of Adult Health (CDAH Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwyer Terence

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although educational disparity has been linked to single risk behaviours, it has not previously been studied as a predictor of overall lifestyle. We examined if current education, parental education or educational mobility between generations was associated with healthy lifestyles in young Australian adults. Methods In 2004-06, participant and parental education (high [bachelor degree or higher], intermediate [vocational training], low [secondary school only] were assessed. Educational mobility was defined as: stable high (participant and parent in high group, stable intermediate (participant and parent in intermediate group, stable low (participant and parent in low group, downwardly (lower group than parent and upwardly (higher group than parent mobile. We derived a lifestyle score from 10 healthy behaviours (BMI, non-smoking, alcohol consumption, leisure time physical activity and six components of diet. Scores >4 indicated a high healthy lifestyle score. We estimated the likelihood of having a high healthy lifestyle score by education (participant and parent and educational mobility. Results Complete data were available for 1973 participants (53% female, age range 26 to 36 years. Those with lower education were less likely to have healthy lifestyles. Parental education was not associated with having a high healthy lifestyle score after adjustment for participant's education. Those who moved upward or downward were as likely to have a high healthy lifestyle score as those in the group they attained. Conclusions We found clear disparities in health behaviour by participant education and intergenerational educational mobility. People attaining a higher level of education than their parents appeared protected from developing an unhealthy lifestyle suggesting that population-wide improvements in education may be important for health.

  2. Estimation of nasal shedding and seroprevalence of organisms known to be associated with bovine respiratory disease in Australian live export cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, S Jo; O'Dea, Mark A; Perkins, Nigel; O'Hara, Amanda J

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of organisms known to be associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) was investigated in cattle prior to export. A quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay was used to detect nucleic acids from the following viruses and bacteria in nasal swab samples: Bovine coronavirus (BoCV; Betacoronavirus 1), Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), Bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3), Histophilus somni, Mycoplasma bovis, Mannheimia haemolytica, and Pasteurella multocida. Between 2010 and 2012, nasal swabs were collected from 1,484 apparently healthy cattle destined for export to the Middle East and Russian Federation. In addition, whole blood samples from 334 animals were tested for antibodies to BoHV-1, BRSV, BVDV-1, and BPIV-3 using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The nasal prevalence of BoCV at the individual animal level was 40.1%. The nasal and seroprevalence of BoHV-1, BRSV, BVDV-1, and BPIV-3 was 1.0% and 39%, 1.2% and 46%, 3.0% and 56%, and 1.4% and 87%, respectively. The nasal prevalence of H. somni, M. bovis, M. haemolytica, and P. multocida was 42%, 4.8%, 13.4%, and 26%, respectively. Significant differences in nasal and seroprevalence were detected between groups of animals from different geographical locations. The results of the current study provide baseline data on the prevalence of organisms associated with BRD in Australian live export cattle in the preassembly period. This data could be used to develop strategies for BRD prevention and control prior to loading. © 2014 The Author(s).

  3. History of the Journal of Veterinary Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Oscar J; Hooper, Billy E; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina

    2015-01-01

    The Journal of Veterinary Medical Education (JVME), with the leadership of seven editors and two interim editors, grew from 33 pages of mostly news and commentary to become the premier source for information exchange in veterinary medical education. The first national publication of the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC) was a 21-page newsletter published in December 1973. This one-time newsletter was followed by volume 1, issue 1 of JVME, published in spring 1974 and edited by William W. Armistead. Richard Talbot was the second and longest serving editor, and under his leadership, JVME grew in the number and quality of papers. Lester Crawford and John Hubbell served as interim editors, maintaining quality and keeping JVME on track until a new editor was in place. Robert Wilson, Billy Hooper, Donal Walsh, Henry Baker, and the current editor, Daryl Buss, are major contributors to the success of JVME. The early history of the journal is described by Billy Hooper and followed by a brief history of the periods of each of the editors. This history concludes with objective and subjective evaluations of the impacts of JVME.

  4. ANSTO: Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization conducts or is engaged in collaborative research and development in the application of nuclear science and associated technology. Through its Australian radio-isotopes unit, it markets radioisotopes, their products and other services for nuclear medicine industry and research. It also operates national nuclear facilities ( HIFAR and Moata research reactors), promote training, provide advice and disseminates information on nuclear science and technology. The booklet briefly outlines these activities. ills

  5. SPECIAL ISSUE VETERINARY IMMUNOLOGY IMMUNOPATHOLOGY: PROCEEDINGS 8TH INTERNATIONAL VETERINARY IMMUNOLOGY SYMPOSIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the Special Issue of Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. that summarizes the 8th International Veterinary Immunology Symposium (8 th IVIS) held August 15th-19th, 2007, in Ouro Preto, Brazil. The 8 th IVIS highlighted the importance of veterinary immunology for animal health, vaccinology, reproducti...

  6. 76 FR 80878 - Solicitation of Veterinary Shortage Situation Nominations for the Veterinary Medicine Loan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... shortage situation will be characterized by a different array of subjective and objective supportive..., specialties and responsibilities, and is defined as the full range of veterinary medical practices...-sponsored studies was objective confirmation that insufficient numbers of veterinary students are selecting...

  7. Ethnography in the Danish Veterinary Learning Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Kirketerp Nielsen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The overall objective of this project is research-based development, implementation and evaluation of a game-based learning concept to be used in the veterinary education. Herd visits and animal contact are essential for the development of veterinary competences and skills during education. Yet veterinary students have little occasion to reach/attain a proper level of confidence in their own skills/abilities, as they have limited “training-facilities” (Kneebone & Baillie, 2008. One possible solution mightbe to provide a safe, virtual environment (game-based where students could practise interdisciplinary clinical skills in an easily-accessible, interactive setting. A playable demo using Classical Swine Fever in a pig herd as an example has been produced for this purpose. In order totailor the game concept to the specific veterinary learning environment and to ensure compliance with both learning objectives and the actual learning processes/procedures of the veterinary students, the project contains both a developmental aspect (game development and an exploration of the academic (scholastic and profession (practice oriented learning context. The initial phase of the project was a preliminary exploration of the actual learning context, providing an important starting point for the upcoming phase in which I will concentrate on research-based development, implementation and evaluation of a game-based virtual environment in this course context. In the academic (scholastic and profession (practice oriented learning context of a veterinary course in Herd Health Management (Pig module,ethnographic studies have been conducted by using multiple data collection methods; participant observation, spontaneous dialogues and interviews (Borgnakke, 1996; Hammersley & Atkinson, 2007. All courserelated activities in the different learning spaces (commercial pig herds, auditoriums, post-mortem examinations, independent group work were followed.This paper will

  8. Australian uranium mining policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisk, B.

    1985-01-01

    Australian government policy is explained in terms of adherence to the Non-Proliferation Treaty. Two alleged uncertainties are discussed: the future of Australian mining industry as a whole -on which it is said that Australian uranium mines will continue to be developed; and detailed commercial policy of the Australian government - on which it is suggested that the three-mines policy of limited expansion of the industry would continue. Various aspects of policy, applying the principles of the NPT, are listed. (U.K.)

  9. Drug-induced Liver Injury is Frequently Associated with Severe Cutaneous Adverse Drug Reactions: Experience from Two Australian Tertiary Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wendy C; Adler, Nikki R; Graudins, Linda V; Goldblatt, Caitlin; Goh, Michelle Sy; Roberts, Stuart K; Trubiano, Jason A; Aung, Ar Kar

    2018-01-08

    Drug-induced liver injury can be associated with certain cutaneous adverse drug reactions. We aim to demonstrate the prevalence of drug-induced liver injury in patients with cutaneous adverse drug reactions. Severity and patterns of liver injury, risk factors, causal medications and outcomes are also examined. A retrospective cohort study of patients with cutaneous adverse drug reactions was conducted across two hospitals in Australia. Patients were identified through cross-linkage of multiple databases. 104 patients with cutaneous adverse drug reactions were identified. Of these, 33 (31.7%) had liver injury, representing 50% of patients with drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, and 30.2% of patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis. Most cases of liver injury (69.7%) were of a cholestatic/mixed pattern with severe disease in 18.2%. No significant risk factors for development of liver injury were noted, but peripheral lymphocytosis may represent a risk in patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome (OR=6.0, 95% CI:1.8-19.7, p=0.003). Antimicrobials were the most common class to be implicated in drug-induced liver injury. The median length of inpatient stay was longer in patients with liver injury compared to those without (19 vs. 11 days, p=0.002). The mortality rate in those with liver injury was 15.2% and 9.9% in those without. No patients required liver transplantation. Drug-induced liver injury commonly occurs in patients with cutaneous adverse drug reactions and is associated with longer inpatient stay. Patients with Stevens-Johnson/toxic epidermal necrolysis and peripheral lymphocytosis appear to be at higher risk for developing associated liver injury. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Associations between behavioural risk factors and smoking, heavy smoking and future smoking among an Australian population-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iredale, Jaimi M; Clare, Philip J; Courtney, Ryan J; Martire, Kristy A; Bonevski, Billie; Borland, Ron; Siahpush, Mohammad; Mattick, Richard P

    2016-02-01

    Tobacco smoking co-occurs with behavioural risk factors including diet, alcohol use and obesity. However, the association between behavioural risk factors and heavy smoking (>20cig/day) compared to light-moderate smoking is unknown. The link between behavioural risk factors and future smoking for both ex and current smokers is also unknown. This study sought to examine these relationships. It is hypothesised that behavioural risk factors will be more strongly associated with heavy smoking. Data from Wave 7 (2007) of the Household and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey was analysed using logistic regression to determine relationships between diet (fruit and vegetable consumption, and unhealthy diet choices), alcohol consumption, obesity and physical activity with light-moderate smoking and heavy smoking. The association between these risk factors and future smoking (2008) was assessed for current and ex-smokers (2007). Obese respondents were less likely to be light/moderate smokers (RRR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.43, 0.66) but not heavy smokers. Those who consume confectionary weekly were less likely to be light/moderate smokers (RRR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.61, 0.87), but not heavy smokers. Smokers in 2007 were more likely to continue smoking in 2008 if they consumed 1-4 drinks per occasion (OR: 2.52; 95% CI: 1.13, 5.62). Ex-smokers in 2007 were less likely to relapse in 2008 if they consumed recommended levels of both fruit and vegetables (OR: 0.31; CI: 0.10, 0.91). The relationships between heavy smoking and behavioural risk factors differ from moderate-light smoking. Future primary care interventions would benefit from targeting multiple risk factors, particularly for heavy smokers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A snapshot of patients' awareness of radiation dose and risks associated with medical imaging examinations at an Australian radiology clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N; Mohacsy, A; Connell, D A; Schneider, M E

    2017-05-01

    Cumulative radiation exposure is linked to increasing the lifetime attributable risk of cancer. To avoid unnecessary radiation exposure and facilitate shared decision making, patients should be aware of these issues. This paper examines patients' awareness of radiation dose and risks associated with medical imaging examinations. Consecutive patients attending a private radiology clinic over a nine week period in 2014 in Metropolitan Melbourne were surveyed while waiting to undergo an imaging examination. Patients who were under 18 years of age, did not speak English and/or were referred for interventional imaging procedures were excluded from participation. Survey questions addressed patients' awareness of radiation dose associated with various imaging modalities' and patients' experience and preferences regarding communication of information about radiation. Data was analysed using SPSS (Ver 20.1). A total of 242 surveys were completed. Most participants were male (143/239, 59.8%) and aged between 33 and 52 years (109/242, 45%). Over half of participants were not concerned about radiation from medical imaging (130/238, 54.6%). Only a third of participants (80/234, 34.2%) correctly reported that CT has a higher radiation dose than X-ray. Very few participants correctly identified mammography, DEXA, PET and PET/CT as radiation emitting examinations. The majority of participants (202/236, 85.6%) indicated that they were not informed about radiation dose and risks by their referring doctor in advance. This paper provides information relevant to a single private radiology clinic in Australia. Nevertheless, our results have shown that patients presenting for medical imaging have little awareness of radiation dose and risks associated with these examinations and received little information by their referring physicians or staff at the radiology clinic. Copyright © 2016 The College of Radiographers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Association of social determinants of health with self-rated health among Australian gay and bisexual men living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelmeyer, Rachel; English, Dallas R; Smith, Anthony; Grierson, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Despite a vast improvement in the survival of people living with HIV (PLHIV) since the introduction of combination antiretroviral treatment (cART), little change in the self-rated health of PLHIV has been observed since the introduction of cART in Australia. Difficulties with attaining employment or achieving financial security have been noted as some of the key challenges still facing PLHIV in the post-cART era. As a result, we investigated the independent association of a number of key social determinants of health with self-rated health among HIV-positive gay and bisexual men in Australia. Data from two recent national, cross-sectional surveys of PLHIV (the HIV Futures 5 and 6 surveys) were used. Logistic regression was used to assess the independent association of ethnicity, region of residence, education level, employment status, after-tax income, experience of HIV-related discrimination, level of social support, relationship status and recent sexual activity with reporting good-excellent self-rated health, after adjusting for clinical factors and other social determinants of health. Multiple imputation was used to estimate missing data for variables with >5% missing data. Of the 1713 HIV-positive gay/bisexual men who responded to the HIV Futures 5 and 6 surveys, information on self-rated health was available for 99.3%. Close to three-quarters of these respondents (72.1%) reported their self-rated health as good or excellent; the remainder (27.9%) reported their self-rated health as poor or fair. In multivariable analysis involving 89.3% of respondents, being employed, reporting recent sexual activity, a greater number of sources of social support and a higher weekly after-tax income were found to be independently associated with reporting good-excellent self-rated health. Despite the inability of this study to detect causal associations, addressing barriers to employment and sexual activity, and mechanisms to increase social support, is likely to have

  13. An evaluation of the experiences of guide dog owners visiting Scottish veterinary practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, M; Girling, S J

    2016-09-10

    Guide dogs and their owners will visit a veterinary practice at least twice a year. The aim of this study was to evaluate what guide dog owners thought about these visits, in order to identify areas of good practice which could be incorporated into the undergraduate curriculum. Nine guide dog owners volunteered to take part in the study and were interviewed by the primary researcher. Thematic analysis was carried out and several themes were identified: good experiences were highlighted where staff had an understanding of visual impairment and the work of a guide dog; the importance of good communication skills involving the owner in the consultation; the need for veterinary professionals to understand the bond between an owner and guide dog; how medication and information could be provided in a user-friendly format for someone affected by a visual impairment and concerns about costs and decision making for veterinary treatment. This work highlights the importance for veterinary staff to talk to, empathise with and understand the individual circumstances of their clients and identifies areas that should be included in veterinary education to better prepare students for the workplace. British Veterinary Association.

  14. Attitudes of veterinary students at one US college toward factors relating to farm animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Emily D; Mills, Daniel S; Houpt, Katherine A

    2005-01-01

    The American Veterinary Medical Association's policy states that veterinarians are obliged to promote good animal welfare. In order to establish how compatible the attitudes of future veterinarians in one North American Veterinary College were with the promotion of good animal welfare, students were surveyed with respect to their opinions about the humaneness of commonly employed agricultural procedures (e.g., hot branding) and their beliefs about the cognitive ability of various domesticated species. A Web-based questionnaire was made available to all veterinary students at Cornell University. Descriptive summary data were collected with regards to students' perceptions of the cognitive abilities of six different domesticated species. Students were also asked if they considered certain agricultural procedures to be humane for each of these species. The data were analyzed with respect to students' future career goals. Chi-squared tests and nonparametric statistical techniques were used to examine differences between species and desired career goals. Veterinary students were more likely to believe that dogs and cats had cognitive abilities than farm animals did. Students considered various procedures to be more humane for farm mammals than for dogs and cats. Students aspiring to work with food animals considered more procedures to be humane for all species than did students aspiring to work with small animals. The inconsistency of students' attitudes for different species has implications for veterinary education and animal welfare. Scientific fields integral to understanding animal welfare may need to be emphasized within the veterinary educational curriculum.

  15. Clinical Trials in Veterinary Medicine: A New Era Brings New Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, M A; Ellenberg, S S; Shaw, P A

    2017-07-01

    Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are among the most rigorous ways to determine the causal relationship between an intervention and important clinical outcome. Their use in veterinary medicine has become increasingly common, and as is often the case, with progress comes new challenges. Randomized clinical trials yield important answers, but results from these studies can be unhelpful or even misleading unless the study design and reporting are carried out with care. Herein, we offer some perspective on several emerging challenges associated with RCTs, including use of composite endpoints, the reporting of different forms of risk, analysis in the presence of missing data, and issues of reporting and safety assessment. These topics are explored in the context of previously reported veterinary internal medicine studies as well as through illustrative examples with hypothetical data sets. Moreover, many insights germane to RCTs in veterinary internal medicine can be drawn from the wealth of experience with RCTs in the human medical field. A better understanding of the issues presented here can help improve the design, interpretation, and reporting of veterinary RCTs. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  16. Corporate influence and conflicts of interest: assessment of veterinary medical curricular changes and student perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowers, Kristy L; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina M; Hellyer, Peter W; Kogan, Lori R

    2015-01-01

    The ethics document of the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges provides guiding principles for veterinary schools to develop conflict of interest policies. These policies regulate faculty and student interactions with industry, potentially reducing the influence companies have on students' perceptions and future prescribing practices. This paper examines the implementation of a conflict of interest policy and related instructional activities at one veterinary college in the US. To inform policy and curricular development, survey data were collected regarding veterinary students' attitudes toward pharmaceutical marketing, including their perceptions of their own susceptibility to bias in therapeutic decisions. Responses from this group of students later served as control data for assessing the effectiveness of educational programs in the content area. A conflict of interest policy was then implemented and presented to subsequent classes of entering students. Classroom instruction and relevant readings were provided on ethics, ethical decision making, corporate influences, and the issue of corporate influence in medical student training. Within seven days of completing a learning program on conflict of interest issues, another cohort of veterinary students (the treatment group) were administered the same survey that had been administered to the control group. When compared with the control group who received no instruction, survey results for the treatment group showed moderate shifts in opinion, with more students questioning the practice of industry-sponsored events and use of corporate funds to reduce tuition. However, many veterinary students in the treatment group still reported they would not be personally influenced by corporate gifts.

  17. Associations Between Statin Use and Physical Function in Older Adults from The Netherlands and Australia: Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam and Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boheemen, Laurette; Tett, Susan E; Sohl, Evelien; Hugtenburg, Jacqueline G; van Schoor, Natasja M; Peeters, G M E E

    2016-06-01

    Statin therapy may cause myopathy, but long-term effects on physical function are unclear. We investigated whether statin use is associated with poorer physical function in two population-based cohorts of older adults. Data were from 691 men and women (aged 69-102 years in 2005/2006) in the LASA (Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam) and 5912 women (aged 79-84 years in 2005) in the ALSWH (Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health). Statin use and dose were sourced from containers (LASA) and administrative databases (ALSWH). Physical function was assessed using performance tests, questionnaires on functional limitations and the SF-12 (LASA) and SF-36 (ALSWH) questionnaires. Cross-sectional (both studies) and 3-year prospective associations (ALSWH) were analysed for different statin dosage using linear and logistic regression. In total, 25 % of participants in LASA and 61 % in ALSWH used statins. In the cross-sectional models in LASA, statin users were less likely to have functional limitations (percentage of subjects with at least 1 limitation 63.9 vs. 64.2; odds ratio [OR] 0.6; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.3-0.9) and had better SF-12 physical component scores (mean [adjusted] 47.3 vs. 44.5; beta [B] = 2.8; 95 % CI 1.1-4.5); in ALSWH, statin users had better SF-36 physical component scores (mean [adjusted] 37.4 vs. 36.5; B = 0.9; 95 % CI 0.3-1.5) and physical functioning subscale scores (mean [adjusted] 55.1 vs. 52.6; B = 2.4; 95 % CI 1.1-3.8) than non-users. Similar associations were found for low- and high-dose users and in the prospective models. In contrast, no significant associations were found with performance tests. Two databases from longitudinal population studies in older adults gave comparable results, even though different outcome measures were used. In these two large cohorts, statin use was associated with better self-perceived physical function.

  18. Longitudinal associations between cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization and problem behavior and mental health problems in young Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A; Kotevski, Aneta; Heerde, Jessica A

    2015-02-01

    To investigate associations between Grade 9 and 10 cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization and Grade 11 problem behavior and mental health problems after controlling for risk factors for these outcomes in the analyses. The sample comprised 927 students from Victoria, Australia who completed a modified version of the self-report Communities That Care Youth Survey in Grades 9-11 to report on risk factors, traditional and cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization, problem behavior, and mental health. Complete data on over 650 participants were analyzed. Five per cent of Grade 9 and 10 students reported cyber-bullying perpetration only, 6-8% reported victimization only, and 8-9% both cyber-bullied others and were cyber-bullied. Results showed that cyber-bullying others in Grade 10 was associated with theft in Grade 11, cyber-victimization in Grade 10 was linked with Grade 11 depressive symptoms, and Grade 10 cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization combined predicted Grade 11 school suspension and binge drinking. Prevention approaches that target traditional and cyber-bullying, and established risk factors are necessary. Such multi-faceted programs may also reduce problem behavior and mental health problems.

  19. Kinematic and kinetic improvements associated with action observation facilitated learning of the power clean in Australian footballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakadjian, Alex; Panchuk, Derek; Pearce, Alan J

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of action observation (AO) on facilitating learning of the power clean technique (kinematics) compared with traditional strength coaching methods and whether improvements in performance (kinetics) were associated with an improvement in lifting technique. Fifteen subjects (age, 20.9 ± 2.3 years) with no experience in performing the power clean exercise attended 12 training and testing sessions over a 4-week period. Subjects were assigned to 2 matched groups, based on preintervention power clean performance and performed 3 sets of 5 repetitions of the power clean exercise at each training session. Subjects in the traditional coaching group (TC; n = 7) received the standard coaching feedback (verbal cues and physical practice), whereas subjects in the AO group (n = 8) received similar verbal coaching cues and physical practice but also observed a video of a skilled model before performing each set. Kinematic data were collected from video recordings of subjects who were fitted with joint center markings during testing, whereas kinetic data were collected from a weightlifting analyzer attached to the barbell. Subjects were tested before intervention, at the end of weeks 2 and 3, and at after intervention at the end of week 4. Faster improvements (3%) were observed in power clean technique with AO-facilitated learning in the first week and performance improvements (mean peak power of the subject's 15 repetitions) over time were significant (p < 0.001). In addition, performance improvement was significantly associated (R = 0.215) with technique improvements. In conclusion, AO combined with verbal coaching and physical practice of the power clean exercise resulted in significantly faster technique improvements and improvement in performance compared with traditional coaching methods.

  20. Good governance of national veterinary services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, H

    2011-04-01

    The beginning of the 21st Century has been characterised by changed political and economic realities affecting the prevention, control and eradication of animal diseases and zoonoses and presenting new challenges to the veterinary profession. Veterinary Services (VS) need to have the capacity and capabilities to face these challenges and be able to detect, prevent, control and eradicate disease threats. Animal health and VS, being a public good, require global initiatives and collective international action to be able to implement global animal disease eradication. The application of the 'One World, One Health' strategy at the animal-human interface will strengthen veterinary capacity to meet this challenge. Good governance of VS at the national, regional and global level is at the heart of such a strategy. In this paper, the author lists the key elements comprising good veterinary governance and discusses the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) standards for the quality of VS. The OIE Tool for the Evaluation of the Performance of Veterinary Services (OIE PVS Tool) is introduced and its relevance in assessing compliance with OIE standards to prevent the spread of pathogens through trade is highlighted. A firm political commitment at the national, regional and international level, with provision of the necessary funding at all levels, is an absolute necessity in establishing good governance of VS to meet the ever-increasing threats posed by animal and human pathogens.

  1. Veterinary surveillance laboratories: developing the training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Staci L; McCline, Katasha T; Hanfelt, Margery M

    2010-01-01

    The increased need and demand for onsite, frequent, rapid, and portable food and bottled water testing for indicators of microbiological and chemical agents led to the deployment of 2 laboratory veterinary equipment sets. A Surveillance Food Laboratory Program (SFLP) was developed to allow Veterinary Corps commanders to establish targeted testing programs to enhance food safety and wholesomeness, along with faster responses to food defense, suspected foodborne illness, and food/water risk assessment missions. To support the deployment of the veterinary equipment sets and the SFLP, 2 new functional courses were developed by the Department of Veterinary Science. The Surveillance Food Laboratory Technician Course teaches essential technical skills that include sample processing, assay methodologies, results review, and interpretation of results produced by these laboratories. The Surveillance Food Laboratory Manager Course, developed for designated managers of the laboratories and laboratory programs, teaches the skills critical to ensuring proper surveillance laboratory oversight, testing, evaluation of results, risk communication, and response to presumptive positive results produced by the laboratories. Together, the courses allowed for the successful deployment of the unique veterinary equipment sets, resulting in development of fully operational surveillance laboratories in support of food protection missions in every major theater of operations.

  2. Use of veterinary services by Latino dog and cat owners with various degrees of English-language proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Ruth E; Beck, Alan; Glickman, Larry T; Litster, Annette; Widmar, Nicole J Olynk; Moore, George E

    2016-03-15

    To characterize patterns of dog and cat ownership and veterinary service use among Latino dog and cat owners with various degrees of English-language proficiency. DESIGN :Cross-sectional telephone survey. Data from 393 Latino pet owners. Telephone surveys were conducted with Latino dog and cat owners from a random sample of US households to determine the number of dogs and cats owned, factors associated with veterinary service use, and satisfaction with veterinary care. 393 of 1,026 (38.3%) respondents were pet owners. Two hundred fifty-nine of 330 (78.5%) dog owners and 70 of 115 (60.9%) cat owners reported taking their pet to the veterinarian in the past 12 months, most commonly for vaccination or examination or because of illness. Respondents were most satisfied with veterinary care provided, least satisfied with cost, and moderately satisfied with quality of communication. English-language proficiency was not significantly associated with whether owners sought veterinary care. A large proportion of respondents who wanted to receive pet health information in Spanish described themselves as speaking English well or very well. Although having limited proficiency in English was not associated with Latino pet owners seeking veterinary care, opportunities exist for veterinary personnel to improve communications with these clients. Personnel can assess their clients' language needs by asking each about the language in which they would prefer to receive their pet's health information.

  3. The associations between TV viewing, food intake, and BMI. A prospective analysis of data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Skouteris, Helen; Hardy, Louise L; Halse, Christine

    2012-12-01

    Despite cross-sectional evidence of a link between TV viewing and BMI in early childhood, there has been limited longitudinal exploration of this relationship. The aim of the present study was to explore the potential bi-directionality of the relationship between TV viewing and child BMI. A secondary aim was to evaluate whether this relationship is mediated by dietary intake. Parents of 9064 children (4724 recruited at birth, 4340 recruited at age 4) from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC) completed measures of their child's dietary intake and TV viewing habits at three equidistant time points, separated by 2years. Objective measures of height and weight were also obtained at each time point to calculate BMI. Cross-lagged panel analyses were conducted to evaluate potential bi-directional associations between TV viewing and child BMI, and to evaluate mediation effects of dietary intake for this relationship. Our longitudinal findings suggest that the relationship between TV viewing and BMI is bi-directional: Individuals who watch TV are more likely to gain weight, and individuals who are heavier are also more likely to watch TV. Interestingly, dietary intake mediated the BMI-TV viewing relationship for the older children, but not for the birth cohort. Present findings suggest that sedentary behaviours, particularly when coupled with unhealthy dietary habits, constitute a significant risk factor for excessive weight gain in early childhood. Interventions targeted at helping parents to develop healthy TV viewing and eating habits in their young children are clearly warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Australian black field crickets show changes in neural gene expression associated with socially-induced morphological, life-history, and behavioral plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasumovic, Michael M; Chen, Zhiliang; Wilkins, Marc R

    2016-10-24

    Ecological and evolutionary model organisms have provided extensive insight into the ecological triggers, adaptive benefits, and evolution of life-history driven developmental plasticity. Despite this, we still have a poor understanding of the underlying genetic changes that occur during shifts towards different developmental trajectories. The goal of this study is to determine whether we can identify underlying gene expression patterns that can describe the different life-history trajectories individuals follow in response to social cues of competition. To do this, we use the Australian black field cricket (Teleogryllus commodus), a species with sex-specific developmental trajectories moderated by the density and quality of calls heard during immaturity. In this study, we manipulated the social information males and females could hear by rearing individuals in either calling or silent treatments. We next used RNA-Seq to develop a reference transcriptome to study changes in brain gene expression at two points prior to sexual maturation. We show accelerated development in both sexes when exposed to calling; changes were also seen in growth, lifespan, and reproductive effort. Functional relationships between genes and phenotypes were apparent from ontological enrichment analysis. We demonstrate that increased investment towards traits such as growth and reproductive effort were often associated with the expression of a greater number of genes with similar effect, thus providing a suite of candidate genes for future research in this and other invertebrate organisms. Our results provide interesting insight into the genomic underpinnings of developmental plasticity and highlight the potential of a genomic exploration of other evolutionary theories such as condition dependence and sex-specific developmental strategies.

  5. Childhood sexual abuse and its association with adult physical and mental health: results from a national cohort of young Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Jan; Lee, Adeline; Taft, Angela; Mazza, Danielle; Loxton, Deborah

    2015-07-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) occurs across the world, with a prevalence of 20% internationally. Our aim was to investigate the associations between CSA, CSA plus adult violence experiences, and selected self-reported physical and mental health in a community sample of women. Data from 7,700 women aged 28-33 years from the 1973-1978 cohort who completed Survey 4 of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH) were analyzed. Questions about prior abuse experience such as child sexual abuse, IPV, adult physical and sexual assaults, andphysical and mental health. Women who experienced CSA were 1.4 times more likely to experience bodily pain (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.37, confidence interval [CI] = [1.19, 1.58]), 1.3 times more likely to have poorer general health (AOR = 1.33, CI = [1.15, 1.54]), and 1.4 times more likely to be depressed in the past 3 years (AOR = 1.44, CI = [1.22, 1.71]) compared with those without abuse.. Women who experienced both CSA and adult violence were 2.4 to 3.1 times more likely to experience poor general (AOR = 2.35, CI = [1.76, 3.14]) and mental health (AOR = 2.69, CI = [1.98, 3.64]), and suffer from depression (AOR = 2.84, CI = [2.13, 3.78]) and anxiety (AOR = 3.10, CI = [2.12, 4.53]) compared with women with no abuse. This study demonstrates the importance of CSA in pain and poorer long-term mental and physical health.. It emphasizes how prior CSA may amplify pain and poorer long-term mental and physical health among women who are again exposed to violence in adulthood. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Exposure to stress across the life course and its association with anxiety and depressive symptoms: Results from the Australian Women's Wellness After Cancer Program (WWACP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seib, Charrlotte; McCarthy, Alexandra; McGuire, Amanda; Porter-Steele, Janine; Balaam, Sarah; Ware, Robert S; Anderson, Debra

    2017-11-01

    Earlier life stressors can increase the risk of persistent anxiety and depressive symptoms in women after cancer, though our understanding of the underlying mechanisms is limited. In this study, we tested alternative life course models to determine which best described associations between exposure to stressors in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, and self-reported health in women previously treated for breast, gynaecological, and blood cancer. Data were drawn from 351 Australian women within 2 years of completing active cancer treatment who were participating in the Women's Wellness After Cancer Program (WWACP) randomised controlled trial. A model-building framework compared "accumulative risk" and "sensitive period" stress exposure hypotheses with the saturated model to determine best fit. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Zung Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS). Participants with the greatest number of stressful life events (SLEs) reported higher anxiety scores and more depressive symptoms. Alternative life course models for psychological distress (measured through the CES-D and SAS) and stress were compared with the saturated model (i.e., the accumulative risk). The more restrictive "sensitive period" models were the best fit for depressive symptoms though none was significantly better than another. In contrast, an "early sensitive" model provided the best fit for anxiety data. Anxiety scores were higher in women with early life stressors. This study highlights the need for whole-of-life supportive care approaches for women previously treated for cancer, which should include targeted strategies for effective management of stress, anxiety and depression. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Exploring the views and experiences of callers to the PANDA Post and Antenatal Depression Association Australian National Perinatal Depression Helpline: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Laura J; Shafiei, Touran; Forster, Della A; Small, Rhonda; McLachlan, Helen L

    2015-09-07

    Anxiety and depression are common in the perinatal period. Telephone interventions, including telephone peer support and counselling, have been developed to support those experiencing perinatal mental illness. PANDA Post and Antenatal Depression Association provides support to women and men experiencing perinatal mental illness via the Australian National Perinatal Depression Helpline, encompassing both volunteer peer support and professional counselling. This study aimed to explore the experiences of callers to the Helpline. A cross-sectional survey design was used. All new callers from 1(st) May to 30(th) September 2013 were invited to participate. The survey, adapted from a previous survey of PANDA callers, included 23 questions using Likert-type scales, demographic and open-ended questions. Thematic network analysis was undertaken for responses to open-ended questions. 124 responses were received (124/405; 30% response). The majority of callers had called the Helpline regarding themselves (90%), with over one third (33%) of all callers seeking crisis support and help. Ninety-nine per cent of respondents 'agreed' or 'strongly agreed' that staff and/or volunteers understood their concerns, and 97% 'agreed' or 'strongly agreed' that overall PANDA had helped them. Callers described the PANDA service as uniquely tailored to the perinatal period, providing accessible, non-judgemental understanding and support, with a global theme from open-ended comments describing PANDA as 'a safe space to be heard and receive support without judgement'. Recommendations for service changes included increased hours of availability. Callers reported positive experiences of accessing support from the PANDA National Perinatal Depression Helpline. The Helpline was described as an accessible and acceptable telephone support for individuals experiencing perinatal mental illness. Recommendations for changes to the service included an increase in hours of operation to enable greater

  8. Serological survey for antibodies against bovine viral diarrhoea virus and Neospora caninum in a population of South Australian alpacas (Vicugna pacos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockcroft, P D; Dornin, L E; Lambert, R C; Perry, J; Reichel, M P

    2015-12-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and Neospora caninum may cause clinical disease in alpacas. Both diseases are present in the Australian cattle population. The objective of this study was to perform a serological prevalence survey for BVDV and N. caninum exposure in a regional alpaca population of South Australia. Serum samples were taken from 182 alpacas on 10 farms, which had a combined population of 1308 alpacas. Serological analysis for BVD antibodies was performed using a competitive BVDV antibody ELISA kit. Serological analysis for N. caninum was performed using an anti-Neospora ELISA with a protein G conjugate. Of the 182 alpacas sampled, 5 animals located on three properties were positive for BVDV antibodies, constituting a prevalence of 2.7% (95% confidence interval 1-6%). All samples tested negative for N. caninum antibodies. There is a low BVDV seroprevalence and N. caninum is currently either absent or present at a very low prevalence in this population of alpacas in South Australia. There is serological evidence for the presence of both organisms in South Australian beef and dairy cattle herds. Appropriate biosecurity protocols to minimise the risk of introduction and exposure should be a high priority to maintain this favourable status. © 2015 Australian Veterinary Association.

  9. Early Australian Pronunciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, John S.

    Comparative research indicates that almost without exception, late eighteenth century non-standard English pronunciation was very close to what is called Broad Australian. Present Australian English is closely akin to the blended, popular colloquial London English, spoken by the largest group of Australia's first settlers. This pronunciation…

  10. Australian Asian Options

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Moreno; Javier F. Navas

    2003-01-01

    We study European options on the ratio of the stock price to its average and viceversa. Some of these options are traded in the Australian Stock Exchange since 1992, thus we call them Australian Asian options. For geometric averages, we obtain closed-form expressions for option prices. For arithmetic means, we use different approximations that produce very similar results.

  11. Why Psychology Matters in Veterinary Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siess, Samantha; Marziliano, Allison; Sarma, Elizabeth A; Sikorski, Lauren E; Moyer, Anne

    2015-06-01

    As companion animals become more central to individuals and families, there are countless ways that veterinary medical practice can benefit from understanding human psychology. This article highlights how insights from the fields of health psychology and behavioral medicine might hold the potential to improve veterinary practice. We focus on key areas of care for companion animals that are integrally linked to their human caregivers׳ psychological reactions and behavior, including health maintenance, managing illness, and end-of-life care. We also note ways in which the challenges of skillfully negotiating interactions with companion animal caregivers and other stressful aspects of the veterinary profession may be informed by psychological and behavioral science expertise. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The development of the canadian veterinary profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, J F

    1985-05-01

    A proposal for the development of Canadian veterinary education and of the organization of the profession is described. There should be one veterinary school with four branches (the current colleges). A student would train at any college in comparative medicine for two and one-half years and then train for 12 months or more in a specialty taught at one or more colleges. These specialties are general veterinary practice, poultry practice, public health and regulatory medicine, ruminant practice, swine practice, equine practice, small animal practice, fish medicine, fur-bearing and exotic animal medicine and research. After graduation in the chosen area there would be a period (six months or longer) of probationary licensing while field experience was gained before a final examination in the specialty was taken. The advantages and disadvantages of this proposal are discussed.

  13. Database on veterinary clinical research in homeopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Jürgen; Albrecht, Henning

    2010-07-01

    The aim of the present report is to provide an overview of the first database on clinical research in veterinary homeopathy. Detailed searches in the database 'Veterinary Clinical Research-Database in Homeopathy' (http://www.carstens-stiftung.de/clinresvet/index.php). The database contains about 200 entries of randomised clinical trials, non-randomised clinical trials, observational studies, drug provings, case reports and case series. Twenty-two clinical fields are covered and eight different groups of species are included. The database is free of charge and open to all interested veterinarians and researchers. The database enables researchers and veterinarians, sceptics and supporters to get a quick overview of the status of veterinary clinical research in homeopathy and alleviates the preparation of systematical reviews or may stimulate reproductions or even new studies. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Thermoluminescent dosimetry in veterinary diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández-Ruiz, L.; Jimenez-Flores, Y.; Rivera-Montalvo, T.; Arias-Cisneros, L.; Méndez-Aguilar, R.E.; Uribe-Izquierdo, P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of Environmental and Personnel Dosimetry made in a radiology area of a veterinary hospital. Dosimetry was realized using thermoluminescent (TL) materials. Environmental Dosimetry results show that areas closer to the X-ray equipment are safe. Personnel Dosimetry shows important measurements of daily workday in some persons near to the limit established by ICRP. TL results of radiation measurement suggest TLDs are good candidates as a dosimeter to radiation dosimetry in veterinary radiology. - Highlights: ► Personnel dosimetry in laboratory veterinary diagnostic was determined. ► Student workplaces are safe against radiation. ► Efficiency value of apron lead was determined. ► X-ray beams distribution into veterinarian laboratory was measured.

  15. Views on equine-related research in Australia from the Australian equestrian community: perceived outputs and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, K; Clarkson, L

    2016-04-01

    The extension of research into public practice is enhanced by communication and behaviour change strategies that are consistent with consumer needs and perspectives. To gain support for equine research (or to appreciate the perspectives contributing to disagreement), it is necessary to determine how aware consumers are of research, what research means to them, how they perceive its benefits (if at all) and how they engage with (or resist) it. Because of a surprising dearth of research evaluating consumer perceptions of research in any sector, our aim was to identify the perceived outputs and benefits of research from the perspective of the Australian horse owner. We analysed the data for 930 participants in an online survey. Participants' understanding of research was associated with a broad terminology. Slightly more than half were aware of equine research that had taken place in Australia, with almost half reporting gaining some benefit, notably in relation to equine health. Although comments demonstrated an awareness of the collective benefit of research, research was made meaningful in relation to local conditions and participants' own equestrian disciplines. There is a significant opportunity for increasing awareness of Australia-based equine research and its value to owners of horses. The critical engagement with research by some owners suggests the need for communicators to present research in terms suitable for an intelligent lay audience, with clear identification of the personal and collective benefits for owners, horses and the equestrian community. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  16. Consumer attitudes and misperceptions associated with trends in self-reported cereal foods consumption: cross-sectional study of Western Australian adults, 1995 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Mary Pollard

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The reasons for low adherence to cereal dietary guidelines are not well understood but may be related to knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and perceived barriers. This study aims to assess trends in cereal foods consumption, intention to change and factors associated with intake among Western Australian (WA adults 18 to 64 years. Method Cross-sectional data from the 1995, 1998, 2001, 2004, 2009, and 2012 Nutrition Monitoring Survey Series involving 7044 adults were pooled. Outcome variables: types and amount of cereals (bread, rice, pasta, and breakfast cereal eaten the day prior. Attitudes, knowledge, intentions, weight status and sociodemographic characteristics were measured. Descriptive statistics, multiple binary logistic and multinomial logistic regressions assess factors associated with consumption. Results Bread (78% was the most commonly consumed cereal food. The proportion eating bread decreased across survey years (Odds Ratio OR = 0.31; 95% Confidence Interval; 0.24–0.40 in 2012 versus 1995, as did the amount (4.1 slices of bread in 1995 to 2.4 in 2012. The odds of consuming whole-grain cereal foods increased since 2009 (OR = 1.27; 1.02–1.58 versus 1995 p < 0.05. The likelihood of trying to eat less cereal food in the past year was greater in 2012 compared to 1995 (Relative Risk Ratio RRR 10.88; 6.81–17.4. Knowledge of cereal recommendations decreased over time (OR = 0.20; 0.15–0.27 in 2012 versus 1995 p < 0.001. Overweight and obese respondents were more likely than healthy weight respondents to have tried to eat less cereals (RRR 1.65; 1.22–2.24 and 1.88; 1.35–2.63 respectively. ‘I already eat enough’ was the main barrier (75% in 1995 to 84% in 2012 (p < 0.001. Conclusions WA adults are actively reducing the amount of cereal foods they eat and intake is associated with a misperception of adequacy of intake. Nutrition intervention is needed to increase awareness of the health benefits of

  17. The veterinary profession and one medicine: some considerations, with particular reference to Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Battelli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of ‘one medicine’ and its evolution are discussed and some considerations on the relationship between ‘one medicine’ and veterinary profession are made, with particular reference to Italy. The concept of ‘one medicine’ is mainly associated with public health and has its roots in the Italian tradition and health organisation. In a future which is already with us, the veterinary profession will be called upon to deal with many problems at worldwide level (e.g. the emergence/re-emergence of new/old zoonotic pathogens, biological and chemical contaminants in food, bacterial resistance to antibiotics, non-epidemic emergencies associated with natural or man-made disasters, animal well-being, etc., integrating with other professions. In Italy, most of these problems find the Veterinary Services prepared, but not homogeneously throughout the country. At the present time, doubts are expressed on maintaining and improving these services, mainly due to the lack of students interested in veterinary public health (VPH training. The globalisation of the veterinary profession imposes changes, in both culture and training. The expertise required for ‘one medicine’ must be considered and aspects of veterinary training should be changed to promote sharing expertise with other professionals, mainly within the Italian Health Service. The public should be informed about professional competence and activities of veterinarians, in both the private and public sectors, in order to offer a true picture of the profession, one that is not limited to the conventional model which the public generally has of veterinary medicine.

  18. Professional and veterinary competencies: addressing human relations and the human-animal bond in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Cindy L; Conlon, Peter D; Long, Kendra C

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the nature and degree of coverage of human relations and the human-animal bond in veterinary curricula across North America. The attitudes and opinions of a cohort of veterinary students and alumni about human relations skills and human-animal bond training in the veterinary program was also investigated. Twenty veterinary schools across North America were contacted and data were collected regarding their coverage of human relations and the human-animal bond in the curriculum. A survey was developed to measure attitudes and opinions about this type of training. The survey was disseminated to students in years 1 to 4 and alumni from the Ontario Veterinary College (OVC). Data were analyzed descriptively. Based on availability of contact people, 20 schools in North America were contacted, and all participated in the study. Each of the veterinary schools surveyed has incorporated strategies for teaching human relations skills through required courses, electives, guest speakers, and/or community service programs. The overall participation rate for OVC students was 53%. Ninety-nine percent of all students surveyed agreed that their ability to deal with people using effective human relations skills was a concern, and all students said they would like to receive more training in this area. There was a 41% participation rate for OVC alumni. Fifty-five percent of alumni said they had learned enough in the veterinary program to employ effective human relations skills in practice, yet 65% felt they had not received enough instruction in addressing the human-animal bond specifically. It is apparent that veterinary schools recognize the need to prepare entry-level practitioners to deal with the human-animal bond and with human relations. It is also evident that students and practitioners value receiving information of this nature in the curriculum and desire further training. Specific learning objectives for veterinary curricula have

  19. Graduate Training in Toxicology in Colleges of Veterinary Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robens, J. F.; Buck, W. B.

    1979-01-01

    Presented are an American Board of Veterinary Toxicology survey and evaluation of the training resources available in graduate programs in toxicology located in colleges of veterinary medicine. Regulatory toxicology, number of toxicologists needed, and curriculum are also discussed. (JMD)

  20. Veterinary Teaching Hospital to launch small animal outpatient imaging service

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Christy

    2009-01-01

    Beginning in June 2009, the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine at Virginia Tech's Veterinary Teaching Hospital will introduce a new outpatient advanced imaging service for surrounding small animal veterinarian practices.

  1. Chapter 5. Assessing the Aquatic Hazards of Veterinary Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, there has been increasing awareness of the widespread distribution of low concentrations of veterinary medicine products and other pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. While aquatic hazard for a select group of veterinary medicines has received previous s...

  2. Thirtieth Annual Congress on Veterinary Acupuncture: IVAS Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Kaphle

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available More than 155 participants from 25 countries attended the 30th Annual IVAS Congress, September 8–11, 2004 in Oostende, Belgium. The focus was on veterinary acupuncture (AP and immunology, and the event was sponsored by the International Veterinary Acupuncture Society (IVAS. IVAS is a non-profit organization dedicated to promoting excellence in the practice of veterinary AP as an integral part of the total veterinary health care delivery system. The Society endeavors to establish uniformly high standards of veterinary AP through its educational programs and accreditation examination. IVAS seeks to integrate veterinary AP and the practice of Western veterinary science, while also noting that the science of veterinary AP does not overlook allied health systems, such as homeopathy, herbology, nutrition, chiropractic, kinesiology, etc. (www.ivas.org.

  3. Outcomes Assessment at Tufts University School of Veterinary Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleine, Lawrence J.; Terkla, Dawn Geronimo; Kimball, Grayson

    2002-01-01

    Using a survey, compared relative values assigned by Tufts veterinary alumni to questions about skills, training, attitudes, and behaviors with those of veterinary employers and faculty. Also assessed their perceptions of future employment opportunities. (EV)

  4. Competency-based veterinary education - An integrative approach to learning and assessment in the clinical workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bok, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    When graduating from veterinary school, veterinary professionals must be ready to enter the complex veterinary profession. Therefore, one of the major responsibilities of any veterinary school is to develop training programmes that support students’ competency development on the trajectory from

  5. Feedlot Pharmaceutical Documentation: Protocols, Prescriptions, and Veterinary Feed Directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apley, Michael D

    2015-07-01

    The days of oral treatment instructions and loosely associated authorizations for the use of drugs in food animals are gone. Treatment protocols should include case definitions for treatment eligibility, detailed regimens, case definitions for treatment success and failure, directions for animal disposition, and mechanisms to prevent animals entering the food chain with violative residues. Prescriptions and veterinary feed directives (VFDs) will soon be necessary for almost all uses of antimicrobials in food animals. Although VFDs have a regulatory format, prescriptions may vary, but there are basic inclusions that should be present in any prescription. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Recommended guidelines for the conduct and evaluation of prognostic studies in veterinary oncology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webster, J.D.; Dennis, M.; Dervisis, N.; Heller, J.; Bacon, N.J.; Bergman, P.J.; Bienzle, D.; Cassali, G.; Castagnaro, M.; Cullen, J.; Esplin, D.G.; Peña, L.; Goldschmidt, M.H.; Hahn, K.A.; Henry, C.; Hellmén, E.; Kamstock, D.; Kirpensteijn, J.; Kitschell, B.E.; Amorim, R.L.; Lenz, S.D.; Lipscomb, T.P.; McEntee, M.; McGill, L.D.; McKnight, C.A.; McManus, P.M.; Moore, A.S.; Moroff, S.D.; Nakayama, H.; Northrup, N.C.; Sarli, G.; Scase, T.; Sorenmo, K.; Schulman, F.Y.; Shoieb, A.M.; Smedley, R.C.; Spangler, W.L.; Teske, E.; Thamm, D.H.; Valli, V.E.; Vernau, W.; Euler, H. von; Withrow, S.J.; Weisbrode, S.E.; Yager, J.; Kiupel, M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract There is an increasing need for more accurate prognostic and predictive markers in veterinary oncology because of an increasing number of treatment options, the increased financial costs associated with treatment, and the emotional stress experienced by owners in association with the

  7. The Australian National Seismograph Network

    OpenAIRE

    Jepsen, D.

    1994-01-01

    The Australian Seismological Centre of the Australian Geological Survey Organisation, operates and co-operates a national seismograph network consisting of 24 analogue and 8 digitally telemetred (3 broadband) stations (see fig. 1 and table 1). The network covers the Australian continent and the Australian Antarctic Territory.

  8. The Australian National Seismograph Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Jepsen

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Seismological Centre of the Australian Geological Survey Organisation, operates and co-operates a national seismograph network consisting of 24 analogue and 8 digitally telemetred (3 broadband stations (see fig. 1 and table 1. The network covers the Australian continent and the Australian Antarctic Territory.

  9. Improvement for equipment in the practices of basic veterinary medicine

    OpenAIRE

    市原, 伸恒

    2009-01-01

    The practices (veterinary anatomy laboratory, veterinarian physiology laboratory I, veterinarian physiology laboratory II, and veterinarian physiology chemistry laboratory) in the area of basic veterinary medicine are important subjects for acquiring knowledge and the technique by the process of shifting from the liberal arts subject to a specialized subjects for the area of applied veterinary medicine and clinical veterinary medicine. The number of equipment is insufficient to practice effec...

  10. The human-animal bond in academic veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Andrew N

    2008-01-01

    This article outlines the development of academic veterinary interest in the human-animal bond (HAB) and provides short summaries of the various centers currently studying the HAB at North American universities. Although most of these centers are at veterinary schools, the level of involvement by veterinarians is surprisingly low, considering how important a strong HAB is for the average veterinary practitioner (the stronger the bond, the more the client will be willing to pay for veterinary services).

  11. Massive open online courses (MOOCs) as a window into the veterinary profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, J; Hughes, K; Steer, L; Das Gupta, M; Boyd, S; Bell, C; Rhind, S

    2017-02-18

    Massive open online courses (MOOCs) are freely available online courses open to anyone who registers and typically are associated with thousands or hundreds of thousands of participants. Using an established online platform, the authors created and delivered a five-week MOOC aimed primarily at prospective veterinary students, but open to anyone with an interest in finding out more about the veterinary profession in general. 11,911 people signed up for the course, and of these, 8137 interacted in some way with the course and 1716 received a certificate of completion. The majority of participants (84 per cent) were female, and there was a wide age range (under 18 to over 65). Most participants were from North America or the UK. 65 per cent of those completing the entry survey were hoping or intending to work in the vet profession in the future, while 33 per cent were not. Qualitative data indicated that the course was helpful in aiding those undecided as to whether they wanted to be a veterinarian or not to decide one way or another whether they want to pursue veterinary medicine as a career. Furthermore, the course was seen as being a useful introduction to the veterinary profession even for those who had no intention of working in the field. British Veterinary Association.

  12. Toward harmonization of the European food hygiene/veterinary public health curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smulders, Frans J M; Buncic, Sava; Fehlhaber, Karsten; Huey, Robert J; Korkeala, Hannu; Prieto, Miguel; Steinhauserova, Iva

    2012-01-01

    Prompted by developments in the agri-food industry and associated recent changes in European legislation, the responsibilities of veterinarians professionally active in veterinary public health (VPH), and particularly in food hygiene (FH), have increasingly shifted from the traditional end-product control toward longitudinally integrated safety assurance. This necessitates the restructuring of university training programs to provide starting competence in this area for veterinary graduates or a sub-population of them. To date, there are substantial differences in Europe in the way in which graduate programs in FH/VPH are structured and in the time allocated to this important curricular group of subjects. Having recognized this, the European Association of Establishments for Veterinary Education (EAEVE) recently instituted a working group to analyze the current situation, with a view to produce standard operating procedures allowing fair and transparent evaluations of universities/faculties constituting its membership and in concurrence with explicit European legislation on the professional qualifications deemed necessary for this veterinary discipline. This article summarizes the main conclusions and recommendations of the working group and seeks to contribute to the international efforts to optimize veterinary training in FH/VPH.

  13. Clinical and social characteristics associated with reduced visual acuity at presentation in Australian patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration: a prospective study from a long-term observational data set. The Fight Retinal Blindness! Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Vuong; Daien, Vincent; Guymer, Robyn H; McAllister, Ian L; Morlet, Nigel; Barthelmes, Daniel; Gillies, Mark C

    2018-04-01

    Identifying variables that influence presenting visual acuity (VA) in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) is important because it is a strong predictor of long-term outcomes. To assess the clinical and social characteristics associated with low presenting VA in nAMD patients. The present study is a cross-sectional analysis from a prospective, observational database. We identified 3242 treatment-naïve patients from 54 Australian practices in the Fight Retinal Blindness! registry. Age, gender, ethnicity and VA were recorded at the baseline visit. Socio-economic status was determined using the Australian Bureau of Statistics socio-economic indexes for areas. Association between clinical and socio-economic characteristics with presenting VA was identified. Poor VA (≤35 letters) in the presenting eye was associated with older age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.33 for patients aged ≥80 years vs. <80 years [95% confidence interval, CI: 1.04, 1.71]), treatment at a public practice (AOR: 1.91 for public vs. private practices [95% CI: 1.46, 2.50]) and intermediate (36-69 letters) VA in the fellow eye (AOR: 0.67 [95% CI: 0.47, 0.95] and 0.64 [95% CI: 0.48, 0.85] for poor [≤35 letters] and good [≥70 letters] VA vs. intermediate VA in the fellow eye). Gender, ethnicity and socio-economic status were not independently associated with VA at presentation. Poor presenting vision is detrimental to the long-term outcomes of nAMD. Poor presentation of nAMD in Australia may not be related to socio-economic circumstances, but due to systems of care. Further research is warranted to determine why patients at public practices present with worse vision compared with private practices in Australia. © 2017 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  14. Registration of veterinary products in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, E; Cané, B G

    1995-12-01

    A scheme for registering pharmaceutical and biological products for veterinary use was introduced in Argentina in 1994, as part of a joint scheme for countries of the Common Market of the South (Mercado Común del Sur: "Mercosur'). The authors describe the main features of these regulations, and the process which led to their development.

  15. Mergers and acquisitions involving equine veterinary practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Brad R; McCafferty, Owen E

    2009-12-01

    This article discusses mergers and acquisitions involving equine veterinary practices. Combining practices can be professionally and economically advantageous but requires a great deal of thought, planning, and implementation. If due diligence is performed and true business teamwork is undertaken, the benefits can be enormous and rewarding.

  16. 9 CFR 3.110 - Veterinary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.110 Veterinary care. (a) Newly acquired marine mammals must be isolated from resident marine mammals. Animals with a known medical history must be isolated... sanitizing procedures. Any marine mammal exposed to a contagious animal must be evaluated by the attending...

  17. 78 FR 75515 - Veterinary Feed Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ... (ADAA) (Pub. L. 104-250) to facilitate the approval and marketing of new animal drugs and medicated... enacted the ADAA to facilitate the approval and marketing of new animal drugs and medicated feeds. As part...) and its Principles of Veterinary Medical Ethics,\\1\\ which acts as a unifying standard for all...

  18. Natural and Synthetic Colloids in Veterinary Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Aimee; Thomovsky, Elizabeth; Johnson, Paula

    2016-06-01

    This review article covers basic physiology underlying the clinical use of natural and artificial colloids as well as provide practice recommendations. It also touches on the recent scrutiny of these products in human medicine and how this may have an effect on their use in veterinary medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Nanotechnology applications in veterinary diagnostics and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the search for improved diagnostic methodologies, livestock disease diagnostics and therapeutics have moved from the traditional methods to molecular and currently nanotechnology. In this contribution, the authors identified the importance of nanotechnology in veterinary diagnostics and therapeutics and suggest that ...

  20. Veterinary paraprofessionals and community animal health workers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To address the economic hardships of the 1980‟s, Tanzania under pressure from its development partners both bilateral and multilateral embarked on structural adjustment program. In the case of veterinary services delivery systems reforms were advocated founded on privatisation and liberalisation. The government ...