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Sample records for australian synchrotron radiation

  1. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper on Synchrotron Radiation contains the appendix to the Daresbury Annual Report 1987/88. The appendix is mainly devoted to the scientific progress reports on the work at the Synchrotron Radiation Source in 1987/8. The parameters of the Experimental Stations and the index to the Scientific Reports are also included in the appendix. (U.K.)

  2. The Australian synchrotron; Le synchrotron australien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhi, R

    2005-06-15

    This document recalls the historical aspects of the Australian Synchrotron which will be implemented in 2007. It presents then the objectives of this program, the specifications of the ring and the light lines. (A.L.B.)

  3. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed account of the research work associated with the Synchrotron Radiation Source at Daresbury Laboratory, United Kingdom, in 1984/85, is presented in the Appendix to the Laboratory's Annual Report. (U.K.)

  4. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report is given on the work involving the Synchrotron Radiation Division of the Daresbury Laboratory during the period January 1981 - March 1982. Development of the source, beamlines and experimental stations is described. Progress reports from individual investigators are presented which reveal the general diversity and interdisciplinary nature of the research which benefits from access to synchrotron radiation and the associated facilities. Information is given on the organisation of the Division and publications written by the staff are listed. (U.K.)

  5. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper on synchrotron radiation is the appendix to the Daresbury (United Kingdom) annual report, 1985/86. The bulk of the volume is made up of the progress reports for the work carried out during the year under review using the Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS) at Daresbury. The Appendix also contains: the scientific programmes at the the SRS, progress on beamlines, instrumentation and computing developments, and activities connected with accelerator development. (U.K.)

  6. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report details the activities in synchrotron radiation and related areas at Daresbury Laboratory during 1989/90. The number and scope of the scientific reports submitted by external users and in-house staff is a reflection of the large amount of scheduled beamtime and high operating efficiency achieved at the Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS) during the past year. Over 4000 hours of user beam were available, equivalent to about 80% of the total scheduled time. Many of the reports collected here illustrate the increasing technical complexity of the experiments now being carried out at Daresbury. Provision of the appropriate technical and scientific infrastructure and support is a continuing challenge. The development of the Materials Science Laboratory together with the existing Biological Support Laboratory will extend the range of experiments which can be carried out on the SRS. This will particularly facilitate work in which the sample must be prepared or characterised immediately before or during an experiment. The year 1989/90 has also seen a substantial upgrade of several stations, especially in the area of x-ray optics. Many of the advantages of the High Brightness Lattice can only be exploited effectively with the use of focusing optics. As the performance of these stations improves, the range of experiments which are feasible on the SRS will be extended significantly. (author)

  7. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work at the Daresbury SRS has of necessity been interrupted this year (1991/92) due to the incorporation of Wiggler II. However, considerable beamtime was awarded before the shutdown and the major part of this appendix is concerned with the progress reports of the research undertaken then. The reports have been organised under the following broad headings: Molecular Science (19 papers), Surface and Materials Science (169 papers), Biological Science (85 papers), Instrumental and Technique Developments (13 papers) and Accelerator Physics (3 papers). It is hoped that in time the number of contributions on accelerator physics will grow to reflect the in-house activity on, for example, accelerator improvement and design. The research reports are preceded by the Annual Report of the Synchrotron Radiation Facilities Committee, which outlines the research highlights identified by that Committee (also included are details of the current membership of the SRFC and the chairmen of the Beamtime Allocation Panels). Following the reports are the specifications for the beamlines and stations. This year Section 3 contains 289 reports (nearly 100 more than last year) and the number of publications, generated by scientists and engineers who have used or are associated with Daresbury Laboratory facilities, has topped 500 for the first time. (author)

  8. Synchrotron radiation facilities

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    Particularly in the past few years, interest in using the synchrotron radiation emanating from high energy, circular electron machines has grown considerably. In our February issue we included an article on the synchrotron radiation facility at Frascati. This month we are spreading the net wider — saying something about the properties of the radiation, listing the centres where synchrotron radiation facilities exist, adding a brief description of three of them and mentioning areas of physics in which the facilities are used.

  9. Synchrotron radiation: science & applications

    OpenAIRE

    Aranda, Miguel A. G.

    2015-01-01

    This general talk is devoted to briefly introduce the main uses and applications of synchrotron radiation. An initial introduction will be dedicated to describe a synchrotron as a Large Facility devoted to produce photons that will be used to carry out excellent science. The five outstanding main characteristics of synchrotron radiation are: i) High brilliance and collimation ii) Wavelength tunability iii) Beamsize tunability iv) Defined polarization v) Time structure vi)...

  10. Future Synchrotron Radiation Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Winick, Herman

    2003-01-01

    Sources of synchrotron radiation (also called synchrotron light) and their associated research facilities have experienced a spectacular growth in number, performance, and breadth of application in the past two to three decades. In 1978 there were eleven electron storage rings used as light sources. Three of these were small rings, all below 500 mega-electron volts (MeV), dedicated to this purpose; the others, with energy up to 5 giga-electron volts (GeV), were used parasitically during the operation of the ring for high energy physics research. In addition, at that time synchrotron radiation from nine cyclic electron synchrotrons, with energy up to 5 GeV, was also used parasitically. At present no cyclic synchrotrons are used, while about 50 electron storage rings are in operation around the world as fully dedicated light sources for basic and applied research in a wide variety of fields. Among these fields are structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, materials, analytic chemistry, micr...

  11. Engineering application of synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synchrotron radiation which is generated when the circular motion of fast electrons is carried out in vacuum has been studied as the source of X-ray and ultraviolet ray for physical property research, but recently attention has been paid to its industrial application. In this report, from the viewpoint of how to utilize the properties of synchrotron radiation to electronic industries, the recent trend of research is explained. Synchrotron radiation is the electromagnetic waves radiated in the tangential direction to their track when the electrons at the velocity close to light velocity carry out acceleration motion. The synchrotron radiation generator is an electron storage ring. Synchrotron radiation is the beam having good parallelism, concentrating in the orbit plane of electrons, and is led to respective experimental devices with beam lines. Synchrotron radiation lithography has become the start of its industrial application. The process technology being excited by synchrotron radiation, the evaluation of materials using synchrotron radiation, small synchrotron radiation generators and the new sources of light are reported. Synchrotron radiation is the important technological field developed by the joint work of physics and engineering in the latter half of 20th century, following semiconductors, lasers and superconductivity. (K.I.)

  12. The synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synchrotron Radiation is a fantastic source of electromagnetic radiation the energy spectrum of which spreads continuously from the far infrared to hard X-rays. For this reason a wide part of the scientific community, fundamentalists as well as industry, is concerned by its use. We shall describe here the main properties of this light source and give two examples of application in the field of characterization of materials: EXAFS (Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure) and X-ray fluorescence. (author). 8 figs., 21 refs

  13. Synchrotron radiation source Indus-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indus-1 is a 450 MeV electron storage ring for the production of the synchrotron radiation in VUV range with a critical wavelength of 61 A. In this paper we discuss the synchrotron radiation source Indus-1 and report some results of its present performance. Besides, results of beam lifetime studies are also reported. (author)

  14. Injection Efficiency Monitor for the Australian Synchrotron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rassool R. P.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Synchrotron AS is moving towards a continuous injection mode called top-up. During top-up the linac and booster synchrotron injection system will be in continuous operation rather than usedevery eight hours the way they are used at present. In order to monitor the performance of the injection system areal-time injection efficiency monitoring system has been developed. The system consists of several Fast CurrentTransformers [1] and matching digitisers [2] and is designed to count every beam pulse and measure the transmission efficiency through the whole accelerator complex. After calibrating the system using a properly matchedFaraday Cup at the electron gun, a transmission efficiency is then calculated at each stage of transferring the beamfrom 90 keV out of the gun to 3 GeV in the storage ring. The system is used to optimise the injection process inorder to maximise the injection efficiency and as an early warning system when equipment starts to fail and theinjection efficiency decreases.

  15. Operation of the Australian Store.Synchrotron for macromolecular crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Grischa R. [Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Aragão, David; Mudie, Nathan J.; Caradoc-Davies, Tom T. [Australian Synchrotron, 800 Blackburn Road, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); McGowan, Sheena; Bertling, Philip J.; Groenewegen, David; Quenette, Stevan M. [Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Bond, Charles S. [The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley 6009, Western Australia (Australia); Buckle, Ashley M. [Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Androulakis, Steve, E-mail: steve.androulakis@monash.edu [Monash Bioinformatics Platform, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2014-10-01

    The Store.Synchrotron service, a fully functional, cloud computing-based solution to raw X-ray data archiving and dissemination at the Australian Synchrotron, is described. The Store.Synchrotron service, a fully functional, cloud computing-based solution to raw X-ray data archiving and dissemination at the Australian Synchrotron, is described. The service automatically receives and archives raw diffraction data, related metadata and preliminary results of automated data-processing workflows. Data are able to be shared with collaborators and opened to the public. In the nine months since its deployment in August 2013, the service has handled over 22.4 TB of raw data (∼1.7 million diffraction images). Several real examples from the Australian crystallographic community are described that illustrate the advantages of the approach, which include real-time online data access and fully redundant, secure storage. Discoveries in biological sciences increasingly require multidisciplinary approaches. With this in mind, Store.Synchrotron has been developed as a component within a greater service that can combine data from other instruments at the Australian Synchrotron, as well as instruments at the Australian neutron source ANSTO. It is therefore envisaged that this will serve as a model implementation of raw data archiving and dissemination within the structural biology research community.

  16. Measurement of Beam Loss at the Australian Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Holzer, EB; Kastriotou, M; Boland, MJ; Jackson, PD; Rasool, RP; Schmidt, J; Welsch, CP

    2014-01-01

    The unprecedented requirements that new machines are setting on their diagnostic systems is leading to the development of new generation of devices with large dynamic range, sensitivity and time resolution. Beam loss detection is particularly challenging due to the large extension of new facilities that need to be covered with localized detector. Candidates to mitigate this problem consist of systems in which the sensitive part of the radiation detectors can be extended over long distance of beam lines. In this document we study the feasibility of a BLM system based on optical fiber as an active detector for an electron storage ring. The Australian Synchrotron (AS) comprises a 216m ring that stores electrons up to 3GeV. The Accelerator has recently claimed the world record ultra low transverse emittance (below pm rad) and its surroundings are rich in synchrotron radiation. Therefore, the AS provides beam conditions very similar to those expected in the CLIC/ILC damping rings. A qualitative benchmark of beam l...

  17. Contact microscopy with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soft x-ray contact microscopy with synchrotron radiation offers the biologist and especially the microscopist, a way to morphologically study specimens that could not be imaged by conventional TEM, STEM or SEM methods (i.e. hydrated samples, samples easily damaged by an electron beam, electron dense samples, thick specimens, unstained low contrast specimens) at spatial resolutions approaching those of the TEM, with the additional possibility to obtain compositional (elemental) information about the sample as well. Although flash x-ray sources offer faster exposure times, synchrotron radiation provides a highly collimated, intense radiation that can be tuned to select specific discrete ranges of x-ray wavelengths or specific individual wavelengths which optimize imaging or microanalysis of a specific sample. This paper presents an overview of the applications of x-ray contact microscopy to biological research and some current research results using monochromatic synchrotron radiation to image biological samples. 24 refs., 10 figs

  18. Contact microscopy with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panessa-Warren, B.J.

    1985-10-01

    Soft x-ray contact microscopy with synchrotron radiation offers the biologist and especially the microscopist, a way to morphologically study specimens that could not be imaged by conventional TEM, STEM or SEM methods (i.e. hydrated samples, samples easily damaged by an electron beam, electron dense samples, thick specimens, unstained low contrast specimens) at spatial resolutions approaching those of the TEM, with the additional possibility to obtain compositional (elemental) information about the sample as well. Although flash x-ray sources offer faster exposure times, synchrotron radiation provides a highly collimated, intense radiation that can be tuned to select specific discrete ranges of x-ray wavelengths or specific individual wavelengths which optimize imaging or microanalysis of a specific sample. This paper presents an overview of the applications of x-ray contact microscopy to biological research and some current research results using monochromatic synchrotron radiation to image biological samples. 24 refs., 10 figs.

  19. Synchrotron radiation and structural proteomics

    CERN Document Server

    Pechkova, Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the current state of research in both synchrotron radiation and structural proteomics from different laboratories worldwide. The book presents recent research results in the most advanced methods of synchrotron radiation analysis, protein micro- and nano crystallography, X-ray scattering and X-ray optics, coherent X-Ray diffraction, and laser cutting and contactless sample manipulation are described in details. The book focuses on biological applications and highlights important aspects such as radiation damage and molecular modeling.

  20. Synchrotron radiation in biosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinkovic, Nebojsa S.; Gupta, Sayan; Zhan, Chenyang; Chance, Mark R.

    2005-12-01

    The Center for Synchrotron Biosciences (CSB) operates five beamlines at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). Infrared (IR) micro-spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, structural proteomics and macromolecular footprinting are among the major technologies available through the Center. IR micro-spectroscopy is used to examine protein-folding in the microsecond time regime, image bone, neurons, seeds and other biological tissues, as well as image samples of interest in the chemical and environmental sciences. Structural proteomics research of New York Structural Genomics Research Consortium (NYSGRC) is steadily increasing the number of solved protein structures, with a goal to solve 100-200 structures per year. To speed up the research, a high-throughput method called 'metallomics' was implemented for NYSGRC crystallographers to detect intrinsic anomalous scatterers using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Hydroxyl radical mediated X-ray footprinting is capable of resolving folding events of RNA, at single base resolution on millisecond timescales using a synchrotron white beam. The high brightness of synchrotron source is essential for CSB projects as it permits the use of smaller sample sizes and/or concentration, and allows studies of more complicated biological systems than with conventional sources.

  1. Synchrotron radiation in biosciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinkovic, Nebojsa S. [Center for Synchrotron Biosciences, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Ullman 315, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States)]. E-mail: marinkov@bnl.gov; Gupta, Sayan [Center for Synchrotron Biosciences, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Ullman 315, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States); Zhan, Chenyang [Center for Synchrotron Biosciences, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Ullman 315, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States); Chance, Mark R. [Center for Synchrotron Biosciences, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Ullman 315, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States)

    2005-12-15

    The Center for Synchrotron Biosciences (CSB) operates five beamlines at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). Infrared (IR) micro-spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, structural proteomics and macromolecular footprinting are among the major technologies available through the Center. IR micro-spectroscopy is used to examine protein-folding in the microsecond time regime, image bone, neurons, seeds and other biological tissues, as well as image samples of interest in the chemical and environmental sciences. Structural proteomics research of New York Structural Genomics Research Consortium (NYSGRC) is steadily increasing the number of solved protein structures, with a goal to solve 100-200 structures per year. To speed up the research, a high-throughput method called 'metallomics' was implemented for NYSGRC crystallographers to detect intrinsic anomalous scatterers using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Hydroxyl radical mediated X-ray footprinting is capable of resolving folding events of RNA, at single base resolution on millisecond timescales using a synchrotron white beam. The high brightness of synchrotron source is essential for CSB projects as it permits the use of smaller sample sizes and/or concentration, and allows studies of more complicated biological systems than with conventional sources.

  2. Biological physics and synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filhol, J.M.; Chavanne, J. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 38 - Grenoble (France); Weckert, E. [Hasylab at Desy, Hamburg (Germany)] [and others

    2001-07-01

    This conference deals with the applications of synchrotron radiation to current problems in biology and medicine. Seven sessions take stock on the subject: sources and detectors; inelastic scattering and dynamics; muscle diffraction; reaction mechanisms; macromolecular assemblies; medical applications; imaging and spectroscopy. The document presents the papers abstracts. (A.L.B.)

  3. Biological physics and synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference deals with the applications of synchrotron radiation to current problems in biology and medicine. Seven sessions take stock on the subject: sources and detectors; inelastic scattering and dynamics; muscle diffraction; reaction mechanisms; macromolecular assemblies; medical applications; imaging and spectroscopy. The document presents the papers abstracts. (A.L.B.)

  4. Synchrotron radiation in material science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review on the several experimental techniques (XRD, SAXS, EXAFS, IRRS, etc...) which, utilizing of synchrotron radiation can be applied in glass structural studies, is presented. The major part of these techniques can be also used for studies of other materials such as polymers, metals, etc... (L.C.)

  5. Synchrotron radiation and biomedical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this lecture we describe the characteristics of Synchrotron radiation as a source of X rays. We discuss the properties of SR arc sources, wigglers, undulators and the use of backscattering of laser light. Applications to angiography, X ray microscopy and tomography are reviewed. 16 refs., 23 figs

  6. Medical applications of synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ever since the first diagnostic x-ray was done in the United States on February 3, 1896, the application of ionizing radiation to the field of medicine has become increasingly important. Both in clinical medicine and basic research the use of x-rays for diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy is now widespread. Radiography, angiography, CAT and PETT scanning, mammography, and nuclear medicine are all examples of technologies developed to image the human anatomy. In therapeutic applications, both external and internal sources of radiation are applied to the battle against cancer. The development of dedicated synchrotron radiation sources has allowed exciting advances to take place in many of these applications. The new sources provide tunable, high-intensity monochromatic beams over a wide range of energies which can be tailored to specific programmatic needs. This paper surveys those areas of medical research in which synchrotron radiation facilities are actively involved

  7. Medical Applications of Synchrotron Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1991-10-01

    Ever since the first diagnostic x-ray was done in the United States on February 3, 1896, the application of ionizing radiation to the field of medicine has become increasingly important. Both in clinical medicine and basic research the use of x-rays for diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy is now widespread. Radiography, angiography, CAT and PETT scanning, mammography, and nuclear medicine are all examples of technologies developed to image the human anatomy. In therapeutic applications, both external and internal sources of radiation are applied to the battle against cancer. The development of dedicated synchrotron radiation sources has allowed exciting advances to take place in many of these applications. The new sources provide tunable, high-intensity monochromatic beams over a wide range of energies which can be tailored to specific programmatic needs. This paper surveys those areas of medical research in which synchrotron radiation facilities are actively involved.

  8. Beam diagnostics with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synchrotron radiation is often used to measure the dimensions of an electron beam. The transverse size is obtained from an image of the beam cross section formed by means of the emitted synchrotron radiation. Because of the small natural opening angle the resolution is limited by diffraction. The angular spread of the particles in the beam can be measured by observing the radiation directly. Here, the resolution is limited by the natural opening angle of the emitted light. Measuring both beam cross section and angular spread gives the emittance of the beam. However, in most cases only one of these two parameters is observed and the other deduced from the known particle beam optics at the source of the radiation. Usually one observes radiation emitted in long bending magnets. However, short magnets and undulators are also useful sources for these measurements. For practical reasons the beam diagnostics is carried out using visible or ultraviolet light. This part of the spectrum is usually far below the critical frequency, and corresponding approximations can be applied. Synchrotron radiation is an extremely useful tool for diagnostics in electron (or positron) rings. In some cases it has also served in proton rings using special magnets. (author)

  9. Threedimensional microfabrication using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For fabricating microstructures with extreme structural heights a technology has been developed which is based on deep-etch lithography and subsequent replication processes. A particularly high precision is achieved if the lithographic process is carried out by means of synchrotron radiation. Electroforming and molding processes are used for the replication of microstructures from a large variety of materials. The field of application comprises sensors, electrical and optical microconnectors, components for fluid technology, microfiltration systems and novel composite materials. (author)

  10. Breast tomography with synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Silvia; Arfelli, Fulvia; Dreossi, Diego; Montanari, Francesco; Longo, Renata; Olivo, Alessandro; Poropat, Paolo; Zanconati, Fabrizio; Palma, Ludovico D.; Castelli, Edoardo

    2002-05-01

    A feasibility study of breast CT with synchrotron radiation is currently being carried on at Elettra, the Trieste synchrotron radiation facility. Breast CT cannot be implemented easily with conventional radiographic tubes, due to the high dose that would be delivered to the breast by a polychromatic X-ray spectrum. The possibility of tuning the beam energy, available at a synchrotron radiation beamline, allows a significant reduction in the delivered dose, and at the same time the use of monochromatic beams avoids beam hardening artifacts on the reconstructed image. Images of in vitro breast tissue samples have been acquired by means of a high efficiency linear array detector coupled to a VLSI single photon counting readout electronics. The pixel width, determining the pixel size of the reconstructed image, is 200 micrometers , while the pixel height, determining the CT slice thickness, is 300 micrometers . Tomograms have been reconstructed by means of standard filtered backprojection algorithms. Images of normal and pathologic breast tissue samples show a good visibility of glandular structure. The delivered dose was in all cases comparable to the one delivered in clinical planar mammography. Due to the promising results we obtained, in vivo studies are under evaluation.

  11. Rising dough and baking bread at the Australian synchrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, S. C.; McCann, T.; Day, L.; Favaro, J.; Tuhumury, H.; Thompson, D.; Maksimenko, A.

    2016-01-01

    Wheat protein quality and the amount of common salt added in dough formulation can have a significant effect on the microstructure and loaf volume of bread. High-speed synchrotron micro-CT provides an ideal tool for observing the three dimensional structure of bread dough in situ during proving (rising) and baking. In this work, the synchrotron micro-CT technique was used to observe the structure and time evolution of doughs made from high and low protein flour and three different salt additives. These experiments showed that, as expected, high protein flour produces a higher volume loaf compared to low protein flour regardless of salt additives. Furthermore the results show that KCl in particular has a very negative effect on dough properties resulting in much reduced porosity. The hundreds of datasets produced and analysed during this experiment also provided a valuable test case for handling large quantities of data using tools on the Australian Synchrotron's MASSIVE cluster.

  12. On the feasibility of establishing the provenance of Australian Aboriginal artefacts using synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction and proton-induced X-ray emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creagh, D. C.; Kubik, M. E.; Sterns, M.

    2007-09-01

    Museums and galleries in Australia have extensive collections of Aboriginal artefacts in their custody. In particular, the National Museum of Australia and the National Gallery of Australia are custodians of works of very considerable significance, in both cultural and financial terms. Art fraud can occur, documentation relating to artefacts can be mislaid, or the artefacts can be incorrectly filed. Because of this, it has become essential to establish protocols for the objective determination of the provenance of artefacts through scientific tests. For the work reported here we are concerned with the comparison of very small quantities of materials, paint scrapings from artefacts. Scrapings from artefacts of unknown provenance are compared with those from artefacts of known provenance, and the database established using an extended set of analytical techniques by Kubik. We describe here our use of synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction (SR-XRD) to determine the mineral phase compositions of very small amounts of pigment material (<50 μg), and the use of PIXE to give their atomic compositions to a threshold level of 1 ppm for similar masses of material.

  13. High-Intensity Synchrotron Radiation Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Suetsugu, Y

    2016-01-01

    Various effects of intense synchrotron radiation on the performance of particle accelerators, especially for storage rings, are discussed. Following a brief introduction to synchrotron radiation, the basic concepts of heat load, gas load, electron emission, and the countermeasures against these effects are discussed.

  14. Wakefields in Coherent Synchrotron Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billinghurst, Brant E.; Bergstrom, J. C.; Baribeau, C.; Batten, T.; Dallin, L.; May, Tim E.; Vogt, J. M.; Wurtz, Ward A.; Warnock, Robert L.; Bizzozero, D. A.; Kramer, S.; Michaelian, K. H.

    2016-06-01

    When the electron bunches in a storage ring are sufficiently short the electrons act coherently producing radiation several orders of magnitude more intense than normal synchrotron radiation. This is referred to as Coherent Syncrotron Radiation (CSR). Due to the potential of CSR to provide a good source of Terahertz radiation for our users, the Canadian Light Source (CLS) has been researching the production and application of CSR. CSR has been produced at the CLS for many years, and has been used for a number of applications. However, resonances that permeate the spectrum at wavenumber intervals of 0.074 cm-1, and are highly stable under changes in the machine setup, have hampered some experiments. Analogous resonances were predicted long ago in an idealized theory. Through experiments and further calculations we elucidate the resonance and wakefield mechanisms in the CLS vacuum chamber. The wakefield is observed directly in the 30-110 GHz range by rf diodes. These results are consistent with observations made by the interferometer in the THz range. Also discussed will be some practical examples of the application of CSR for the study of condensed phase samples using both transmission and Photoacoustic techniques.

  15. Applications of synchrotron radiation in Biophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short introduction to the generation of the synchrotron radiation is made. Following, the applications of such a radiation in biophysics with emphasis to the study of the hemoglobin molecule are presented. (L.C.)

  16. Carbyne formation by synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Kaito, C; Hanamoto, K; Sasaki, M; Kimura, S; Nakada, Tatsuya; Saitô, Y; Koike, C; Nakayama, Y

    2001-01-01

    Thin carbon films prepared by vacuum evaporation using the arc method were mounted on a standard electron microscope copper grid. They were irradiated by white synchrotron radiation (SR) beam by the use of cylindrical and toroidal mirrors. The irradiated film was examined using a high-resolution electron microscope. alpha and alpha+beta mixture carbyne crystals were grown in round and the elongated shapes. The round crystals were composed of 5-10 nm crystallites of a carbyne form. The elongated crystal grew into a single crystal 100 nm in size. The c-axes of both grown crystals were oblique to the film. The growth of the carbynes was discussed as being the result of nucleation due to graphite microcrystallites formed by SR beam irradiation.

  17. Synchrotron radiation - Applications in the earth sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, W. A.; Brown, G. E., Jr.

    Synchrotron-radiation sources and their characteristics are overviewed along with recent synchrotron-based research on earth materials and future earth-science applications utilizing the next generation of synchrotron-radiation sources presently under construction. Focus is placed on X-ray scattering studies of earth materials (crystalline and noncrystalline) under ambient conditions, diffraction studies of earth materials at high pressures and/or temperatures, spectroscopic studies, primarily X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and spatially resolved X-ray fluorescence studies of compositional variations in earth materials. It is noted that other synchrotron-based methods, such as X-ray tomography and topography may become important in characterizing earth materials, while soft X-ray/vacuum ultraviolet radiation from synchrotron sources can be applied to problems involving the structural environments of low-atomic-number elements and the characterization of surface reactions of minerals with liquids and gases.

  18. Report of the Synchrotron Radiation Vacuum Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, R.T.

    1984-06-01

    The Synchrotron Radiation Vacuum Workshop was held to consider two vacuum-related problems that bear on the design of storage rings and beam lines for synchrotron radiation facilities. These problems are gas desorption from the vacuum chamber walls and carbon deposition on optical components. Participants surveyed existing knowledge on these topics and recommended studies that should be performed as soon as possible to provide more definitive experimental data on these topics. This data will permit optimization of the final design of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) and its associated beam lines. It also should prove useful for other synchrotron radiation facilities as well.

  19. Report of the Synchrotron Radiation Vacuum Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Synchrotron Radiation Vacuum Workshop was held to consider two vacuum-related problems that bear on the design of storage rings and beam lines for synchrotron radiation facilities. These problems are gas desorption from the vacuum chamber walls and carbon deposition on optical components. Participants surveyed existing knowledge on these topics and recommended studies that should be performed as soon as possible to provide more definitive experimental data on these topics. This data will permit optimization of the final design of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) and its associated beam lines. It also should prove useful for other synchrotron radiation facilities as well

  20. High pressure and synchrotron radiation satellite workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, J.; Guignot, N.; Morard, G.; Mezouar, M.; Andrault, D.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.; Sturhahn, W.; Daniel, I.; Reynard, B.; Simionovici, A.; Sanchez Valle, C.; Martinez, I.; Kantor, I.; Dubrovinsky, I.; Mccammon, C.; Dubrovinskaia, N.; Kurnosiv, A.; Kuznetsov, A.; Goncharenko, I.; Loubeyre, P.; Desgreniers, S.; Weck, G.; Yoo, C.S.; Iota, V.; Park, J.; Cynn, H.; Gorelli, F.; Toulemonde, P.; Machon, D.; Merlen, A.; San Miguel, A.; Amboage, M.; Aquilanti, G.; Mathon, O.; Pascarelli, S.; Itie, J.P.; Mcmillan, P.F.; Trapananti, A.; Di Cicco, A.; Panfilis, S. de; Filipponi, A.; Kreisel, J.; Bouvier, P.; Dkhil, B.; Chaabane, B.; Rosner, H.; Koudela, D.; Schwarz, U.; Handestein, A.; Hanfland, M.; Opahle, I.; Koepernik, K.; Kuzmin, M.; Mueller, K.H.; Mydosh, J.; Richter, M.; Hejny, C.; Falconi, S.; Lundegaard, L.F.; Mcmahon, M.I; Loa, I.; Syassen, K.; Wang, X.; Roth, H.; Lorenz, T.; Farber Daniel, I.; Antonangeli Daniele, I.; Krisch, M.; Badro, J.; Fiquet, G.; Occelli, F.; Mao, W.L.; Mao, H.K.; Eng, P.; Kao, C.C.; Shu, J.F.; Hemley, R.J.; Tse, J.S.; Yao, Y.; Deen, P.P.; Paolasini, I.; Braithwaite, D.; Kernavanois, N.; Lapertot, G.; Rupprecht, K.; Leupold, O.; Ponkratz, U.; Wortmann, G.; Beraud, A.; Krisch, M.; Farber, D.; Antonangeli, D.; Aracne, C.; Zarestky, J.L.; Mcqueeney, R.; Mathon, O.; Baudelet, F.; Decremps, F.; Itie, J.P.; Nataf, I.; Pascarelli, S.; Polian, A

    2006-07-01

    The workshop is dedicated to recent advances on science at high pressure at third generation synchrotron sources. A variety of experiments using synchrotron radiation techniques including X-ray diffraction, EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure), inelastic X-ray scattering, Compton scattering and Moessbauer spectroscopy of crystalline, liquid or amorphous samples, are reported. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations.

  1. High pressure and synchrotron radiation satellite workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The workshop is dedicated to recent advances on science at high pressure at third generation synchrotron sources. A variety of experiments using synchrotron radiation techniques including X-ray diffraction, EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure), inelastic X-ray scattering, Compton scattering and Moessbauer spectroscopy of crystalline, liquid or amorphous samples, are reported. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations

  2. Study of radioactive materials with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synchrotron radiation brings 3 major improvements compared to other X-ray sources usually used in laboratories. Its high brilliance permits the study of size-reduced samples, the low divergency of the beam gives the possibility to increase the angular resolution of the diffractometer and the spectrum of the X-photons which is continuous, allows the experimenter to chose a particular wavelength. Synchrotron radiation is becoming an important tool to investigate radioactive materials particularly burnt nuclear fuels. Zircon is the corrosion product that appears on fuel clad during irradiation, the use of synchrotron radiation with the right wavelength and a discerning incidence angle has clearly shown a crystallographic change of the zircon induced by heavy ion irradiation. X-ray fluorescence induced by synchrotron radiation can give information on fission products which were till then undetected because of the lack of sensibility of previous methods. (A.C.)

  3. Molecular photoemission studies using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The angular distributions of photoelectrons and Auger electrons were measured by electron spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation. The experimental results are compared with theoretical calculations to interpret the electronic behavior of photoionization for molecular systems

  4. Molecular photoemission studies using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truesdale, C.M.

    1983-04-01

    The angular distributions of photoelectrons and Auger electrons were measured by electron spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation. The experimental results are compared with theoretical calculations to interpret the electronic behavior of photoionization for molecular systems.

  5. Research Team for Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The research team has accomplished the largestin-history scientific facility and platform for multidisciplinary research in China, the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF), which is one of the leading third generation intermediate-energy synchrotron radiation light sources in the world. On the basis of ten years' R&D of key technologies and timely optimization of the overall design, the team fulfilled the

  6. Workshop on detectors for synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Arthur L.

    2000-11-22

    Forefront experiments in many scientific areas for which synchrotron sources provide sufficient flux are nonetheless hindered because detectors cannot collect data fast enough, do not cover sufficiently solid angle, or do no have adequate resolution. Overall, the synchrotron facilities, each of which represents collective investments from funding agencies and user institutions ranging from many hundreds of millions to more than a billion dollars, are effectively significantly underutilized. While this chronic and growing problem plagues facilities around the world, it is particularly acute in the United States, where detector research often has to ride on the coat tails of explicitly science-oriented projects. As a first step toward moving out of this predicament, scientists from the U.S. synchrotron facilities held a national workshop in Washington, DC, on October 30-31, 2000. The Workshop on Detectors for Synchrotron Research aimed to create a national ''roadmap'' for development of synchrotron-radiation detectors.

  7. The Imaging and Medical Beam Line at the Australian Synchrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausermann, Daniel; Hall, Chris; Maksimenko, Anton; Campbell, Colin

    2010-07-01

    As a result of the enthusiastic support from the Australian biomedical, medical and clinical communities, the Australian Synchrotron is constructing a world-class facility for medical research, the `Imaging and Medical Beamline'. The IMBL began phased commissioning in late 2008 and is scheduled to commence the first clinical research programs with patients in 2011. It will provide unrivalled x-ray facilities for imaging and radiotherapy for a wide range of research applications in diseases, treatments and understanding of physiological processes. The main clinical research drivers are currently high resolution and sensitivity cardiac and breast imaging, cell tracking applied to regenerative and stem cell medicine and cancer therapies. The beam line has a maximum source to sample distance of 136 m and will deliver a 60 cm by 4 cm x-ray beam1—monochromatic and white—to a three storey satellite building fully equipped for pre-clinical and clinical research. Currently operating with a 1.4 Tesla multi-pole wiggler, it will upgrade to a 4.2 Tesla device which requires the ability to handle up to 21 kW of x-ray power at any point along the beam line. The applications envisaged for this facility include imaging thick objects encompassing materials, humans and animals. Imaging can be performed in the range 15-150 keV. Radiotherapy research typically requires energies between 30 and 120 keV, for both monochromatic and broad beam.

  8. Fifth school on Magnetism and Synchrotron Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Beaurepaire, Eric; Scheurer, Fabrice; Kappler, Jean-Paul; Magnetism and Synchrotron Radiation : New Trends

    2010-01-01

    Advances in the synthesis of new materials with often complex, nano-scaled structures require increasingly sophisticated experimental techniques that can probe the electronic states, the atomic magnetic moments and the magnetic microstructures responsible for the properties of these materials. At the same time, progress in synchrotron radiation techniques has ensured that these light sources remain a key tool of investigation, e.g. synchrotron radiation sources of the third generation are able to support magnetic imaging on a sub-micrometer scale. With the Fifth Mittelwihr School on Magnetism and Synchrotron Radiation the tradition of teaching the state-of-the-art on modern research developments continues and is expressed through the present set of extensive lectures provided in this volume. While primarily aimed at postgraduate students and newcomers to the field, this volume will also benefit researchers and lecturers actively working in the field.

  9. Paraxial Green's functions in Synchrotron Radiation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Geloni, G; Schneidmiller, E; Yurkov, M; Geloni, Gianluca; Saldin, Evgeni; Schneidmiller, Evgeni; Yurkov, Mikhail

    2005-01-01

    This work contains a systematic treatment of single particle Synchrotron Radiation and some application to realistic beams with given cross section area, divergence and energy spread. Standard theory relies on several approximations whose applicability limits and accuracy are often forgotten. We begin remarking that on the one hand, a paraxial approximation can always be applied without loss of generality and with ultra relativistic accuracy. On the other hand, dominance of the acceleration field over the velocity part in the Lienard-Wiechert expressions is not always granted and constitutes a separate assumption, whose applicability is discussed. Treating Synchrotron Radiation in paraxial approximation we derive the equation for the slow varying envelope function of the Fourier components of the electric field vector. Calculations of Synchrotron Radiation properties performed by others showed that the phase of the Fourier components of the electric field vector differs from the phase of a virtual point sourc...

  10. Synchrotron radiation of a relativistic magneton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordovitsyn, V.A.; Torres, R.

    1986-11-01

    The classical theory of synchrotron radiation of an electrically neutral relativistic particle with a large intrinsic magnetic moment is considered (g-factor much greater than unit). The spectral-angular composition and polarization of the radiation are studied. The magneton radiation self-polarization time is calculated. It is shown that identical results follow from the Ternov-Bagrov-Khapaev quantum theory constructed on the basis of the Dirac-Pauli equation for a neutron.

  11. Spatial distribution of magnetic and nonmagnetic phases in nuclear forward scattering of synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear forward scattering of synchrotron radiation has been demonstrated to permit conclusions on the spatial distribution of scattering centres. An outline of the method is given and implications for samples exhibiting domain structure are discussed. Copyright (1998) Australian Journal of Physics

  12. Phase contrast portal imaging using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbeam radiation therapy is an experimental form of radiation treatment with great potential to improve the treatment of many types of cancer. We applied a synchrotron radiation phase contrast technique to portal imaging to improve targeting accuracy for microbeam radiation therapy in experiments using small animals. An X-ray imaging detector was installed 6.0 m downstream from an object to produce a high-contrast edge enhancement effect in propagation-based phase contrast imaging. Images of a mouse head sample were obtained using therapeutic white synchrotron radiation with a mean beam energy of 130 keV. Compared to conventional portal images, remarkably clear images of bones surrounding the cerebrum were acquired in an air environment for positioning brain lesions with respect to the skull structure without confusion with overlapping surface structures

  13. Chemical applications of synchrotron radiation: Workshop report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most recent in a series of topical meetings for Advanced Photon Source user subgroups, the Workshop on Chemical Applications of Synchrotron Radiation (held at Argonne National Laboratory, October 3-4, 1988) dealt with surfaces and kinetics, spectroscopy, small-angle scattering, diffraction, and topography and imaging. The primary objectives were to provide an educational resource for the chemistry community on the scientific research being conducted at existing synchrotron sources and to indicate some of the unique opportunities that will be made available with the Advanced Photon Source. The workshop organizers were also interested in gauging the interest of chemists in the field of synchrotron radiation. Interest expressed at the meeting has led to initial steps toward formation of a Chemistry Users Group at the APS. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases

  14. Chemical applications of synchrotron radiation: Workshop report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-04-01

    The most recent in a series of topical meetings for Advanced Photon Source user subgroups, the Workshop on Chemical Applications of Synchrotron Radiation (held at Argonne National Laboratory, October 3-4, 1988) dealt with surfaces and kinetics, spectroscopy, small-angle scattering, diffraction, and topography and imaging. The primary objectives were to provide an educational resource for the chemistry community on the scientific research being conducted at existing synchrotron sources and to indicate some of the unique opportunities that will be made available with the Advanced Photon Source. The workshop organizers were also interested in gauging the interest of chemists in the field of synchrotron radiation. Interest expressed at the meeting has led to initial steps toward formation of a Chemistry Users Group at the APS. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  15. Preliminar plan of a machine for the synchrotron radiation production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminar plan, with all the technical specifications, for the construction of a machine for the synchrotron radiation production to be done by the National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory in Brazil is presented. (L.C.)

  16. Atomic physics research with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applications of synchrotron radiation to research in high-energy atomic physics are summarized. These lie in the areas of photoelectron spectrometry, photon scattering, x-ray absorption spectroscopy, time-resolved measurements, resonance spectroscopy and threshold excitation, and future, yet undefined studies

  17. Synchrotron radiation applications in medical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The medical projects employing synchrotron radiation as discussed in this paper are, for the most part, still in their infancies and no one can predict the direction in which they will develop. Both the basic research and applied medical programs are sure to be advanced at the new facilities coming on line, especially the ESRF and Spring- 8. However, success is not guaranteed. There is a lot of competition from advances in conventional imaging with the development of digital angiography, computed tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound. The synchrotron programs will have to provide significant advantages over these modalities in order to be accepted by the medical profession. Advances in image processing and potentially the development of compact sources will be required in order to move the synchrotron developed imaging technologies into the clinical world. In any event, it can be expected that the images produced by the synchrotron technologies will establish ''gold standards'' to be targeted by conventional modalities. A lot more work needs to be done in order to bring synchrotron radiation therapy and surgery to the level of human studies and, subsequently, to clinical applications

  18. Coherent Synchrotron Radiation for Laminar Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Lovelace, B S S R V E

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the effect of shear in the flow of charged particle equilibria that are unstable to the Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) instability. Shear may act to quench this instability because it acts to limit the size of the region with a fixed phase relation between emitters. The results are important for the understanding of astrophysical sources of coherent radiation where shear in the flow is likely.

  19. Handbook on synchrotron radiation, v.2

    CERN Document Server

    1987-01-01

    Volume 2 of this series concentrates on the use of synchrotron radiation which covers that region of the electromagnetic spectrum which extends from about 10eV to 3keV in photon energy and is essentially the region where the radiation is strongly absorbed by atmospheric gases. It therefore has to make extensive use of a high vacuum to transport the radiation to the workstation where the presence of hard X-rays can cause extensive damage to both the optics and the targets used in the experimental rigs. The topics chosen for this volume have been limited to the disciplines of physics and chemi

  20. Discussion on spin-flip synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Bordovitsyn, V A; Myagkii, A N

    1998-01-01

    Quantum spin-flip transitions are of great importance in the synchrotron radiation theory. For better understanding of the nature of this phenomenon, it is necessary to except the effects connected with the electric charge radiation from observation. This fact explains the suggested choice of the spin-flip radiation model in the form of radiation of the electric neutral Dirac-Pauli particle moving in the homogeneous magnetic field. It is known that in this case, the total radiation in the quantum theory is conditioned by spin-flip transitions. The idea is that spin-flip radiation is represented as a nonstationary process connected with spin precession. We shall shown how to construct a solution of the classical equation of the spin precession in the BMT theory having the exact solution of the Dirac-Pauli equation.Thus, one will find the connection of the quantum spin-flip transitions with classical spin precession.

  1. Physics design of SSRF synchrotron radiation security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yi; DAI Zhi-Min; LIU Gui-Min

    2009-01-01

    High brightness of SSRF brings about synchrotron radiation security problems,which will be solved in physics design.The main radiations are generated from bending magnets and insertion devices.Since the fact that radiation power and radiating area are different in these two kinds of synchrotron radiation,the arrangements of photon absorbers,diaphragms and other vacuum components need to be treated distinctively.In addition.SSRF interlock protection threshold is defined and the beam orbit in the straight line is limited.Hence.beam orbit in the bending magnets and IDs are also restricted by the threshold.The orbit restriction is calculated and helps us to arrange the vacuum components.In this paper,beam orbit distortion restricted by interlock protection threshold,radiation power,radiation angle and illuminating area are calculated.From the calculation results,the physics designs in manufacture and installation vacuum components are put forward.By commissioning,it is shown that physics requirements are met rigidly in the engineering process.

  2. Structural analysis with high brilliance synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohno, Hideo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kamigori, Hyogo (Japan). Kansai Research Establishment

    1997-11-01

    The research subjects in diffraction and scattering of materials with high brilliance synchrotron radiation such as SPring-8 (Super Photon ring 8 GeV) are summarized. The SPring-8 project is going well and 10 public beamlines will be opened for all users in October, 1997. Three JAERI beamlines are also under construction for researches of heavy element science, physical and structural properties under extreme conditions such as high temperature and high pressure. (author)

  3. The Synchrotron Radiation for Steel Research

    OpenAIRE

    Piyada Suwanpinij

    2016-01-01

    The synchrotron X-ray radiation is a great tool in materials characterization with several advantageous features. The high intensity allows clear interaction signals and high energy of X-ray yields higher sampling volume. The samples do not need extra preparation and the microstructure is therefore not affected. With the tunability of the X-ray energy, a large range of elements and features in the samples can be investigated by different techniques, which is a significant difference between a...

  4. New synchrotron radiation facility project. Panel on new synchrotron radiation facility project

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, S; Kimura, Y

    2003-01-01

    The project for constructing a new synchrotron radiation facility dedicated to the science in VUV (or EUV) and Soft X-ray (SX) region has been discussed for these two years at the Panel on New Synchrotron Radiation Facility Project. The Panel together with the Accelerator Design Working Group (WG), Beamline Design WG and Research Program WG suggested to the Ministry of Education, Science, Culture and Sports the construction of a 1.8 GeV electron storage ring suitable for 'Top-Up' operation and beamlines and monochromators designed for undulator radiation. The scientific programs proposed by nationwide scientists are summarized with their requirements of the characteristics of the beam. (author)

  5. A novel approach to synchrotron radiation simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Trad, G; Goldblatt, A; Mazzoni, S; Roncarolo, F

    2014-01-01

    At the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, synchrotron radiation (SR) is used to continuously monitor the transverse properties of the beams. Unfortunately the machine and beam parameters are such that the useful radiation emitted inside a separation dipole, chosen as source, is diffraction limited heavily affecting the accuracy of the measurement. In order to deconvolve the diffraction effects from the acquired beam images and in order to design an alternative monitor based on a double slit interferometer an extensive study of the synchrotron light source and of the optical propagation has been made. This study is based on simulations combining together several existing tools: SRW for the source, ZEMAX for the transport and MATLAB for the “glue” and analysis of the results. The resulting tool is very powerful and can be easily adapted to other synchrotron radiation problems. In this paper the simulation package and the way it is used will be described as well as the results obtained for the LHC and SPS.

  6. Laser synchrotron radiation and beam cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esarey, E.; Sprangle, P.; Ting, A. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The interaction of intense {approx_gt} 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}, short pulse ({approx_lt} 1 ps) lasers with electron beams and plasmas can lead to the generation of harmonic radiation by several mechanisms. Laser synchrotron radiation may provide a practical method for generating tunable, near monochromatic, well collimated, short pulse x-rays in compact, relatively inexpensive source. The mechanism for the generation of laser synchrotron radiation is nonlinear Thomson scattering. Short wavelengths can be generated via Thomson scattering by two methods, (i) backscattering from relativistic electron beams, in which the radiation frequency is upshifted by the relativistic factor 4{gamma}{sup 2}, and (ii) harmonic scattering, in which a multitude of harmonics are generated with harmonic numbers extending out to the critical harmonic number nc{approx_equal}a{sub 0}{sup 3} {much_gt} 1, where a{sub 0} {approx_equal}10{sup -9}{lambda}I{sup 1/2}, {lambda} is the laser wavelength in {mu}m and I is the laser intensity in W/cm{sup 2}. Laser synchrotron sources are capable of generating short ({approx_lt} ps) x-ray pulses with high peak flux ({approx_gt} 10{sup 21} photons/s) and brightness ({approx_gt}{sup 19} photons/s-mm{sup 2}-mrad{sup 2} 0.1%BW. As the electron beam radiates via Thomson scattering, it can subsequently be cooled, i.e., the beam emittance and energy spread can be reduced. This cooling can occur on rapid ({approximately} ps) time scales. In addition, electron distributions with sufficiently small axial energy spreads can be used to generate coherent XUV radiation via a laser-pumped FEL mechanism.

  7. The Synchrotron Radiation for Steel Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyada Suwanpinij

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The synchrotron X-ray radiation is a great tool in materials characterization with several advantageous features. The high intensity allows clear interaction signals and high energy of X-ray yields higher sampling volume. The samples do not need extra preparation and the microstructure is therefore not affected. With the tunability of the X-ray energy, a large range of elements and features in the samples can be investigated by different techniques, which is a significant difference between a stand-alone X-ray tube and synchrotron X-ray. Moreover, any experimental equipment can be installed through which the synchrotron beam travels. This facilitates the so-called in situ characterization such as during heat treatment, hot deformation, chemical reaction or welding. Although steel which possesses rather high density requires very high energy X-ray for large interaction volume, lower energy is still effective for the investigation of local structure of nanoconstituents. This work picks up a couple examples employing synchrotron X-ray for the characterization of high strength steels. The first case is the quantification of precipitates in high strength low alloyed (HSLA steel by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The other case is the in situ X-ray diffraction for phase fraction and carbon partitioning in multiphase steels such as transformation induced plasticity (TRIP steel.

  8. Biological effects of synchrotron radiation on crops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐掌雄; 董保中; 等

    1996-01-01

    The sensitivity of germinating seeds of barley,winter wheat and spring one to synchrotron ultraviolet radiation is barley>winter wheat and spring one.But when dry seeds of the three crops are irradiated by 3.5-22keV X-rays,the sequence of their sensitivity to radiation can be changed.for irradiation of 0.6-3keV ultra soft X-rays,0.40-0.90 of the seedlings of the first generation appear mutation of striped chlorophyll defect.This biological effect has never been found for irradiation of other rays.

  9. Resonant diffraction of synchrotron radiation: New possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovchinnikova, E. N.; Mukhamedzhanov, E. Kh.

    2016-09-01

    Resonant diffraction of synchrotron radiation (SR) is a modern method of studying the structure and properties of condensed matter that can be implemented on third-generation synchrotrons. This method allows one to investigate local properties of media (including magnetic and electronic ones) and observe thermal vibrations, defects, and orbital and charge orderings. A brief review of the advance provided by SR resonant diffraction is presented, and the capabilities of this method for analyzing phase transitions are considered in more detail by the example of potassium dihydrogen phosphate and rubidium dihydrogen phosphate crystals. It is shown that the investigation of the temperature dependence of forbidden reflections not only makes it possible to observe the transition from para- to ferroelectric phase, but also gives information about the proton distribution at hydrogen bonds.

  10. MICROANALYSIS OF MATERIALS USING SYNCHROTRON RADIATION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JONES,K.W.; FENG,H.

    2000-12-01

    High intensity synchrotron radiation produces photons with wavelengths that extend from the infrared to hard x rays with energies of hundreds of keV with uniquely high photon intensities that can be used to determine the composition and properties of materials using a variety of techniques. Most of these techniques represent extensions of earlier work performed with ordinary tube-type x-ray sources. The properties of the synchrotron source such as the continuous range of energy, high degree of photon polarization, pulsed beams, and photon flux many orders of magnitude higher than from x-ray tubes have made possible major advances in the possible chemical applications. We describe here ways that materials analyses can be made using the high intensity beams for measurements with small beam sizes and/or high detection sensitivity. The relevant characteristics of synchrotron x-ray sources are briefly summarized to give an idea of the x-ray parameters to be exploited. The experimental techniques considered include x-ray fluorescence, absorption, and diffraction. Examples of typical experimental apparatus used in these experiments are considered together with descriptions of actual applications.

  11. Time-resolved spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poliakoff, E.D.

    1979-08-01

    Work performed at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) is reported. The timing characteristics of the SPEAR beam (pulse width less than or equal to 0.4 nsec, pulse repetition period = 780 nsec) were exploited to determine dynamic behavior of atomic, molecular, excimeric, and photodissociative gas-phase species excited by vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) radiation. Fast fluorescence timing measurements were done to determine excited-state lifetimes of Kr and Xe. Pressure-dependent timing studies on Xe gas at higher concentrations demonstrated some of the problems associated with previous kinetic modeling of the Xe/sub 2/ system. It was found that even qualitative agreement of observed Xe/sub 2/ lifetimes as a function of pressure required the assumption that the radiative lifetime was a strong function of internuclear separation. The radiative decays of chemically unstable fragments, CN* (B/sup 2/..sigma../sup +/) and XeF* (B/sup 2/..sigma../sup +/ and C/sup 2/ Pi/sub 3/2//), were studied by pulsed photodissociation of stable parent compounds, ICN and XeF/sub 2/. When the polarization of the CN* (B/sup 2/..sigma../sup +/) fragment fluorescence was measured, it was found to be non-zero and strongly dependent on excitation wavelength. This polarization is related to the symmetry of the photodissociative surface via a classical model, and the variations in the polarization with wavelength is attributed to symmetry and lifetime effects of a predissociating parent molecule. Despite the drawbacks of limited availability and low radiation flux, synchrotron radiation is definitely a useful spectroscopic tool for VUV studies of gas-phase systems.

  12. Time-resolved spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work performed at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) is reported. The timing characteristics of the SPEAR beam (pulse width less than or equal to 0.4 nsec, pulse repetition period = 780 nsec) were exploited to determine dynamic behavior of atomic, molecular, excimeric, and photodissociative gas-phase species excited by vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) radiation. Fast fluorescence timing measurements were done to determine excited-state lifetimes of Kr and Xe. Pressure-dependent timing studies on Xe gas at higher concentrations demonstrated some of the problems associated with previous kinetic modeling of the Xe2 system. It was found that even qualitative agreement of observed Xe2 lifetimes as a function of pressure required the assumption that the radiative lifetime was a strong function of internuclear separation. The radiative decays of chemically unstable fragments, CN* (B2Σ+) and XeF* (B2Σ+ and C2 Pi/sub 3/2//), were studied by pulsed photodissociation of stable parent compounds, ICN and XeF2. When the polarization of the CN* (B2Σ+) fragment fluorescence was measured, it was found to be non-zero and strongly dependent on excitation wavelength. This polarization is related to the symmetry of the photodissociative surface via a classical model, and the variations in the polarization with wavelength is attributed to symmetry and lifetime effects of a predissociating parent molecule. Despite the drawbacks of limited availability and low radiation flux, synchrotron radiation is definitely a useful spectroscopic tool for VUV studies of gas-phase systems

  13. Spherical quartz crystals investigated with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, N. R. [Ecopulse, Inc., 7844 Vervain Ct., Springfield, Virginia 22152 (United States); Macrander, A. T. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Hill, K. W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08536 (United States); Baronova, E. O. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); George, K. M.; Kotick, J. [The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    The quality of x-ray spectra and images obtained from plasmas with spherically bent crystals depends in part on the crystal’s x-ray diffraction across the entire crystal surface. We employ the energy selectivity and high intensity of synchrotron radiation to examine typical spherical crystals from alpha-quartz for their diffraction quality, in a perpendicular geometry that is particularly convenient to examine sagittal focusing. The crystal’s local diffraction is not ideal: the most noticeable problems come from isolated regions that so far have failed to correlate with visible imperfections. Excluding diffraction from such problem spots has little effect on the focus beyond a decrease in background.

  14. Spherical quartz crystals investigated with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quality of x-ray spectra and images obtained from plasmas with spherically bent crystals depends in part on the crystal’s x-ray diffraction across the entire crystal surface. We employ the energy selectivity and high intensity of synchrotron radiation to examine typical spherical crystals from alpha-quartz for their diffraction quality, in a perpendicular geometry that is particularly convenient to examine sagittal focusing. The crystal’s local diffraction is not ideal: the most noticeable problems come from isolated regions that so far have failed to correlate with visible imperfections. Excluding diffraction from such problem spots has little effect on the focus beyond a decrease in background

  15. Spherical quartz crystals investigated with synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, N. R.; Macrander, A. T.; Hill, K. W.; Baronova, E. O.; George, K. M.; Kotick, J.

    2015-10-01

    The quality of x-ray spectra and images obtained from plasmas with spherically bent crystals depends in part on the crystal's x-ray diffraction across the entire crystal surface. We employ the energy selectivity and high intensity of synchrotron radiation to examine typical spherical crystals from alpha-quartz for their diffraction quality, in a perpendicular geometry that is particularly convenient to examine sagittal focusing. The crystal's local diffraction is not ideal: the most noticeable problems come from isolated regions that so far have failed to correlate with visible imperfections. Excluding diffraction from such problem spots has little effect on the focus beyond a decrease in background.

  16. Synchrotron radiation facilities in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decker, G.

    1996-07-01

    With the successful commissioning and achievement of significant milestones at both the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS) and the 1.5- GeV Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, synchrotron radiation research capability in the United States holds the promise of many important discoveries in the decade to come. An overview of current accelerator commissioning performance at the American third-generation light sources, state-of-the-art developments at first- and second-generation sources, and a preview of fourth-generation source progress is presented.

  17. Looking Back at International Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Gwyn

    2012-03-01

    With the 11th International Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation coming up in July 2012 in Lyons, France, we thought it might be of interest to our readers to review all the past meetings in this series. We thank Denny Mills of the APS, Argonne for putting the list together. Prior to these larger meetings, and in the early days, facilities held their own meetings similar to the user meetings of today. However, the meeting held at ACO in Orsay, France in 1977 was the first such meeting with an international flavor and so it is on the list. However it is not counted as number 1 since it was agreed way back to start the numbering with the 1982 DESY meeting. The 2005 USA National Meeting scheduled at CAMD in Baton Rouge had to be canceled due to Hurricane Katrina. It was ultimately held in 2007, with the CLS hosted meeting the following year. And a personal note from the magazine - Synchrotron Radiation News was born at the 1987 meeting in Madison, Wisconsin with a proposal that was put to a special session of the meeting organized by Susan Lord. Initial proposals were to model it after the CERN Courier, but it soon adopted its own distinct flavor.

  18. A guide to synchrotron radiation science

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, Shigeru; Munro, Ian; Lodha, G S

    2015-01-01

    Synchrotron Radiation (SR), as a light source is now in use around the world to provide brilliant radiation from the infrared into the soft and hard X-ray regions. It is an indispensible and essential tool to establish the physic-chemical characteristics of materials and surfaces from an atomic and molecular view point. It is being applied to topics which range from mineralogy to protein crystallography, embracing research in areas from the physical to the life sciences. This new guide is a concise yet comprehensive and easily readable introduction to an expanding area of science. It presents in a readily assimilable form the basic concepts of SR science from its generation principles, through source design and operation to the principles of instruments for SR exploitation followed by a survey of its actual applications in selected research fields, including spectroscopy, diffractometry, microanalysis and chemical processing.

  19. A synchrotron radiation facility for x-ray astronomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, C.J.; Lewis, R.A.; Christensen, Finn Erland;

    1997-01-01

    A proposal for an x-ray optics test facility based at a synchrotron radiation source is presented. The facility would incorporate a clean preparation area, and a large evacuable test area. The advantages of using a synchrotron as the source of the test radiation are discussed. These include the a...

  20. Synchrotron radiation in art and archaeology SRA 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollard, A.M.; Janssens, K.; Artioli, G.; Young, M.L.; Casadio, F.; Schnepp, S.; Marvin, J.; Dunand, D.C.; Almer, J.; Fezzaa, K.; Lee, W.K.; Haeffner, D.R.; Reguer, S.; Dillmann, Ph.; Mirambet, F.; Susini, J.; Lagarde, P.; Pradell, T.; Molera, J.; Brunetti, B.; D' acapito, F.; Maurizio, C.; Mazzoldi, P.; Padovani, S.; Sgamellotti, A.; Garges, F.; Etcheverry, M.P.; Flank, A.M.; Lagarde, P.; Marcus, M.A.; Scheidegger, A.M.; Grolimund, D.; Pallot-Frossard, I.; Smith, A.D.; Jones, M.; Gliozzo, E.; Memmi-Turbanti, I.; Molera, J.; Vendrell, M.; Mcconachie, G.; Skinner, T.; Kirkman, I.W.; Pantos, E.; Wallert, A.; Kanngiesser, B.; Hahn, O.; Wilke, M.; NekaT, B.; Malzer, W.; Erko, A.; Chalmin, E.; Vignaud, C.; Farges, F.; Susini, J.; Menu, M.; Sandstrom, M.; Cotte, M.; Kennedy, C.J.; Wess, T.J.; Muller, M.; Murphy, B.; Roberts, M.A.; Burghammer, M.; Riekel, C.; Gunneweg, J.; Pantos, E.; Dik, J.; Tafforeau, P.; Boistel, R.; Boller, E.; Bravin, A.; Brunet, M.; Chaimanee, Y.; Cloetens, P.; Feist, M.; Hoszowska, J.; Jaeger, J.J.; Kay, R.F.; Lazzari, V.; Marivaux, L.; Nel, A.; Nemoz, C.; Thibault, X.; Vignaud, P.; Zabler, S.; Sciau, P.; Goudeau, P.; Tamura, N.; Doormee, E.; Kockelmann, W.; Adriaens, A.; Ryck, I. de; Leyssens, K.; Hochleitner, B.; Schreiner, M.; Drakopoulos, M.; Snigireva, I.; Snigirev, A.; Sanchez Del Rio, M.; Martinetto, P.; Dooryhee, E.; Suarez, M.; Sodo, A.; Reyes-Valerio, C.; Haro Poniatowski, E.; Picquart, M.; Lima, E.; Reguera, E.; Gunneweg, J.; Reiche, I.; Berger, A.; Bevers, H.; Duval, A

    2005-07-01

    Materials - bones, artifacts, artwork,.... - lie at the heart of both archaeology and art conservation. Synchrotron radiation techniques provide powerful ways to interrogate these records of our physical and cultural past. In this workshop we will discuss and explore the current and potential applications of synchrotron radiation science to problems in archaeology and art conservation. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations.

  1. Synchrotron radiation in art and archaeology SRA 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materials - bones, artifacts, artwork,.... - lie at the heart of both archaeology and art conservation. Synchrotron radiation techniques provide powerful ways to interrogate these records of our physical and cultural past. In this workshop we will discuss and explore the current and potential applications of synchrotron radiation science to problems in archaeology and art conservation. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations

  2. Activity report of Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the spring of 2000, the Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SRL) moved from Tanashi to Kashiwa Campus. Now, most important for SRL is to promote the future project of High-brilliance Light Source, Super SOR project, in cooperation with the nationwide user group as well as with the users of the University of Tokyo. The Super SOR will be one of the most brilliant light sources in vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray regimes. In order to continue extensive efforts on research and developments (R and D) of the light source and beamlines, the SRL Experimental Building has been built at Kashiwa Campus, which acts as the Super SOR Project Office of the University of Tokyo. On the other hand, the SRL has a branch laboratory in the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) at Tsukuba. The branch laboratory maintains an undulator called Revolver, two beamlines and three experimental stations (BL-18A, 19A and 19B); they are installed in the Photon Factory (PF) and fully opened to outside users. The in-house staffs not only serve the outside users with technical support and advices, but also carry out their own research works on advanced solid state spectroscopy as well as instrumentation. In the fiscal year of 2000, the operation time of the beamlines wag more than 5000 hours and the number of the users was more than 200. The main scientific interests and activities in the SRL at KEK-PF are directed to the electronic structures of new materials with new transport and optical properties. The electronic structures of solid surfaces and interfaces are also intensively studied. The study of the behavior of electrons in a synchrotron radiation source is indispensable as a part of accelerator physics for developing electron accelerators. The SRL is carrying out research works of the accelerator physics and developing the accelerator-related technology, many parts of which will be directly applied to the Super SOR light source. This report contains the activities of the SRL

  3. A new high-pressure research facility at the Australian Synchrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, S.; Rushmer, T. A.; Glover, C.; Turner, S.; Garrett, R.; Wang, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The development of large volume, multi-anvil experimental techniques in the United States and their use with synchrotron sources has brought new technology to the experimental community. These facilities have allowed us to significantly improve our understanding of the physical properties of Earth and planetary materials under high pressures and temperatures. In 2011-2012, this technology is being brought to the Australian Synchrotron, and will provide the Australian scientific community an opportunity to significantly improve understanding of materials under extreme conditions. The high-pressure deformation system located at the Australian Synchrotron is comprised of a D-DIA deformation apparatus and a 250T hydraulic press together with the necessary x-ray definition and detection systems. The development of a synchrotron-based, high-pressure and temperature deformation facility is an exciting new opportunity and a major advance in experimental capability for Australia. We will build into the facility a unique addition, the accompanying AC conductivity system that will allow conductivity measurements at the same time as x-ray diffraction and imaging. This is important for the projects where interconnectivity of fluids is being investigated; as it will provide us with an in-situ measure of melt connectivity. In this presentation we will describe the new facility, include details of installation and commissioning progress and outline the initial science program.

  4. Brightness of synchrotron radiation from wigglers

    CERN Document Server

    Geloni, Gianluca; Saldin, Evgeni

    2014-01-01

    According to literature, while calculating the brightness of synchrotron radiation from wigglers, one needs to account for the so called `depth-of-field' effects. In fact, the particle beam cross section varies along the wiggler. It is usually stated that the effective photon source size increases accordingly, while the brightness is reduced. Here we claim that this is a misconception originating from an analysis of the wiggler source based on geometrical arguments, regarded as almost self-evident. According to electrodynamics, depth-of-field effects do not exist: we demonstrate this statement both theoretically and numerically, using a well-known first-principle computer code. This fact shows that under the usually accepted approximations, the description of the wiggler brightness turns out to be inconsistent even qualitatively. Therefore, there is a need for a well-defined procedure for computing the brightness from a wiggler source. We accomplish this task based on the use of a Wigner function formalism. I...

  5. Synchrotron radiation techniques. Extension to magnetism research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently developed techniques using synchrotron radiation for the study of magnetism are reviewed. These techniques are based on X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and they exhibit significant advantages in element specificity. This is very important since the most attractive magnetic materials contain many magnetic elements, and those with small magnetic moments often play an essential role in the magnetic properties. Circularly polarized X-rays emitted from bending magnets or helical undulators allow us to perform magnetic circular dichroism measurements to reveal microscopic magnetic properties of various kinds of magnetic materials. X-ray absorption magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) is discussed in detail. This technique provides unique information on orbital magnetic moments as well as spin magnetic moments, which are useful for the study of magnetic anisotropy. X-ray magnetic linear dichroism (XMLD) and X-ray resonant magnetic reflectometry (XRMR) techniques are also described. (author)

  6. Helical magnetized wiggler for synchrotron radiation laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A helical magnetized iron wiggler has been built for a novel infrared synchrotron radiation laser (SRL) experiment. The wiggler consists of four periods of helical iron structure immersed in a solenoid field. This wiggler is to impart transverse velocity to a prebunched 6 MeV electron beam, and thus to obtain a desired high orbit pitch ratio for the SRL. Field tapering at beam entrance is considered and tested on a similar wiggler. Analytic and simulated characteristics of wigglers of this type are discussed and the performance of the fabricated wigglers is demonstrated experimentally. A 4.7 kG peak field was measured for a 6.4 mm air gap and a 5.4 cm wiggler period at a 20 kG solenoid field. The measured helical fields compare favorably with the analytical solution. This type of helical iron wigglers has the potential to be scaled to small periods with strong field amplitude

  7. Helical magnetized wiggler for synchrotron radiation laser

    CERN Document Server

    Wang Mei; Hirshfield, J L

    1999-01-01

    A helical magnetized iron wiggler has been built for a novel infrared synchrotron radiation laser (SRL) experiment. The wiggler consists of four periods of helical iron structure immersed in a solenoid field. This wiggler is to impart transverse velocity to a prebunched 6 MeV electron beam, and thus to obtain a desired high orbit pitch ratio for the SRL. Field tapering at beam entrance is considered and tested on a similar wiggler. Analytic and simulated characteristics of wigglers of this type are discussed and the performance of the fabricated wigglers is demonstrated experimentally. A 4.7 kG peak field was measured for a 6.4 mm air gap and a 5.4 cm wiggler period at a 20 kG solenoid field. The measured helical fields compare favorably with the analytical solution. This type of helical iron wigglers has the potential to be scaled to small periods with strong field amplitude.

  8. Optical substrate materials for synchrotron radiation beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors consider the materials choices available for making optical substrates for synchrotron radiation beam lines. They find that currently the optical surfaces can only be polished to the required finish in fused silica and other glasses, silicon, CVD silicon carbide, electroless nickel and 17-4 PH stainless steel. Substrates must therefore be made of one of these materials or of a metal that can be coated with electroless nickel. In the context of material choices for mirrors they explore the issues of dimensional stability, polishing, bending, cooling, and manufacturing strategy. They conclude that metals are best from an engineering and cost standpoint while the ceramics are best from a polishing standpoint. They then give discussions of specific materials as follows: silicon carbide, silicon, electroless nickel, Glidcop trademark, aluminum, precipitation-hardening stainless steel, mild steel, invar and superinvar. Finally they summarize conclusions and propose ideas for further research

  9. Coherent synchrotron radiation experiments for the LCLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors describe a coherent synchrotron radiation experiment planned at Los Alamos to support the design of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) x-ray FEL. Preliminary simulations of the LCLS compressors show that a clever tuning strategy can be used to minimize the electron's beam emittance growth due to noninertial space-charge forces by employing a delicate cancellation of these forces. The purpose of the Los Alamos experiment, using a sub-picosecond chicane compressor, is to benchmark these simulations tools. In this paper, the authors present detailed numerical simulations of the experiment, and point out unique signatures of this effect that are measurable. As predicted previously, the largest emittance growths and induced energy spreads result from the nonradiative components of this space-charge force

  10. European synchrotron radiation facility at Risoe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the feasibility study on a potential European Synchrotron Radiation Facility site at Risoe, Denmark, can be summarized as follows: The site is located in a geologically stable area. The ground is fairly flat, free from vibrations and earth movements, and the foundation properties are considered generally good. The study is based upon the machine concept and main geometry as presented in the ESF feasibility study of May 1979. However, the proposed site could accomodate a larger machine (e.g. 900 m of circumference) or a multi-facility centre. The site is located in the vicinity of Risoe National Laboratory, a R and D establishment with 850 employees and a well-developed technical and scientific infrastructure, which can provide support to the ESRF during the plant construction and operation. In particular the possible combination of synchrotron radiation with the existing neutron scattering facilities in DR 3 is emphasized. The site is located 35 km west of Copenhagen with easy access to the scientific, technological and industrial organizations in the metropolitan area. The regional infrastructure ensures easy and fast communication between the ESRF and locations in the host country as well as abroad. The site is located 35 minutes drive from Copenhagen International Airport and on a main communication route out of Copenhagen. The estimated time duration for the design, construction and commissioning of ESRF phase 1 - taking into account national regulatory procedures - is consistent with that of the ESF feasibility study, i.e. approx. 6 years. The estimated captal costs associated with site-specific structures are consistent with those of the ESF feasibility study, taking into account price increase between 1979 and 1981. It should be emphasized that the study is based upon technical and scientific assessments only, and does not reflect any official position or approval from appropriate authorities. (author)

  11. Impact of synchrotron radiation on macromolecular crystallography: a personal view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article, largely based on personal experiences of the authors, reviews the early history of the application of synchrotron radiation to structural biology, and particularly protein crystallography, to show the tremendous impact that this experimental innovation has had on these disciplines. The introduction of synchrotron radiation sources almost four decades ago has led to a revolutionary change in the way that diffraction data from macromolecular crystals are being collected. Here a brief history of the development of methodologies that took advantage of the availability of synchrotron sources are presented, and some personal experiences with the utilization of synchrotrons in the early days are recalled

  12. Visualization of angiogenic vessels by synchrotron radiation microangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The usefulness of synchrotron radiation microangiography for evaluating angiogenic vessels in regenerative therapy is illustrated. In a rabbit model of microvascular myocardial ischemia, angiogenic vessels in the heart were well visualized. In a rabbit model of hindlimb ischemia, vessel-regenerative therapy with fibroblast growth factor 4-gene incorporated to gelatin hydrogel well ameliorated muscle necrosis. Synchrotron radiation microangiography confirmed significant blood flow increase to adenosine administration in these treated rabbits (vascular responsiveness), but not in the control. Thus, synchrotron radiation microangiography is shown to be useful for the depiction, quantification and evaluation of angiogenic vessels in reproductive therapy. (author)

  13. Potential applications of synchrotron radiation to the treatment of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although conventional radiotherapy remains to be one of the most useful treatments for cancer, it is not the best strategy to maximize the effects on the tumors and minimize the damage to the surrounding tissues due to its physical and biological characteristics. Synchrotron radiation (SR) with uniquely physical and biological advantages may represent an innovative approach for cancer treatment. In recent years, SR-based photon activation therapy, stereotactic synchrotron radiation therapy and micro-beam radiation treatment have been developed, and the results of in vitro and in vivo experiments are very promising. It is necessary to understand the physical and radiobiological principle of those novel strategies before the approach is applied to the clinic. In this paper, we summarize the advances of SR in terms of physical, radiobiological advantages and its potential clinical applications. With the successful operation of shanghai synchrotron radiation, good opportunities in China have been provided for investigations on the treatment of cancer with synchrotron radiation. (authors)

  14. Nuclear dynamical diffraction using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.E.

    1993-05-01

    The scattering of synchrotron radiation by nuclei is extensively explored in this thesis. From the multipole electric field expansion resulting from time-dependent nonrelativistic perturbation theory, a dynamical scattering theory is constructed. This theory is shown, in the many particle limit, to be equivalent to the semi-classical approach where a quantum mechanical scattering amplitude is used in the Maxwell inhomogeneous wave equation. The Moessbauer specimen whose low-lying energy levels were probed is a ferromagnetic lattice of {sup 57}Fe embedded in a yttrium iron garnet (YIG) crystal matrix. The hyperfine fields in YIG thin films were studied at low and room temperature using time-resolved quantum beat spectroscopy. Nuclear hyperfine structure quantum beats were measured using a fast plastic scintillator coincidence photodetector and associated electronics having a time resolution of 2.5 nsec. The variation of the quantum beat patterns near the Bragg [0 0 2] diffraction peak gave a Lamb-Moessbauer factor of 8.2{plus_minus}0.4. Exploring characteristic dynamical features in the higher order YIG [0 0 10] reflection revealed that one of the YIG crystals had bifurcated into two different layers. The dynamics of nuclear superradiance was explored. This phenomenon includes the radiative speedup exhibited by a collective state of particles, and, in striking concurrence, resonance frequency shifts. A speedup of a factor of 4 in the total decay rate and a beat frequency shift of 1{1/2} natural resonance linewidths were observed. Nuclear resonance scattering was also found to be a useful way of performing angular interferometry experiments, and it was used to observe the phase shift of a rotated quantum state. On the whole, nuclear dynamical diffraction theory has superbly explained many of the fascinating features of resonant magnetic dipole radiation scattered by a lattice of nuclei.

  15. Nuclear dynamical diffraction using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scattering of synchrotron radiation by nuclei is extensively explored in this thesis. From the multipole electric field expansion resulting from time-dependent nonrelativistic perturbation theory, a dynamical scattering theory is constructed. This theory is shown, in the many particle limit, to be equivalent to the semi-classical approach where a quantum mechanical scattering amplitude is used in the Maxwell inhomogeneous wave equation. The Moessbauer specimen whose low-lying energy levels were probed is a ferromagnetic lattice of 57Fe embedded in a yttrium iron garnet (YIG) crystal matrix. The hyperfine fields in YIG thin films were studied at low and room temperature using time-resolved quantum beat spectroscopy. Nuclear hyperfine structure quantum beats were measured using a fast plastic scintillator coincidence photodetector and associated electronics having a time resolution of 2.5 nsec. The variation of the quantum beat patterns near the Bragg [0 0 2] diffraction peak gave a Lamb-Moessbauer factor of 8.2±0.4. Exploring characteristic dynamical features in the higher order YIG [0 0 10] reflection revealed that one of the YIG crystals had bifurcated into two different layers. The dynamics of nuclear superradiance was explored. This phenomenon includes the radiative speedup exhibited by a collective state of particles, and, in striking concurrence, resonance frequency shifts. A speedup of a factor of 4 in the total decay rate and a beat frequency shift of 1 1/2 natural resonance linewidths were observed. Nuclear resonance scattering was also found to be a useful way of performing angular interferometry experiments, and it was used to observe the phase shift of a rotated quantum state. On the whole, nuclear dynamical diffraction theory has superbly explained many of the fascinating features of resonant magnetic dipole radiation scattered by a lattice of nuclei

  16. Activity report of Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After moved from Tanashi to Kashiwa Campus in the spring of 2000, the Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SRL) has been promoting the High-brilliance Light Source project, Super SOR project, in cooperation with the nationwide user group as well as with the users of the University of Tokyo. In May of 2001, the project has met with a dramatic progress. The Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture organized the Advisory Board and started to discuss the future synchrotron radiation facilities in EUV and SX regime in Japan. Based on extensive discussion, they proposed the new facility consisting of a 1.8 GeV storage ring of 3rd generation type. The University of Tokyo approved to construct the proposed facility in the Kashiwa campus. The plan is supported not only by researchers in academic institutions but also bio- and chemical-industries. We strongly hope the plan will be realized in near future. On the other hand, SRL maintains a branch laboratory in the Photon Factory (PF) High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) at Tsukuba with a Revolver undulator, two beamlines and three experimental stations (BL-18A, 19A and 19B), which are and fully opened to the outside users. In the fiscal year of 2001, the operation time of the beamlines was more than 5000 hours and the number of the users was about 200. The main scientific interests and activities in the SRL at KEK-PF are directed to the electronic structures of new materials with new transport, magnetic and optical properties. The electronic structures of solid surfaces and interfaces are also intensively studied by photoelectron spectroscopy and photoelectron microscopy. The accelerator group of SRL is carrying out research works of the accelerator physics and developing the accelerator-related technology, many parts of which will be directly applied to the new light source project. This report contains the activities of the staff members of SRL and users of the three beamlines in FY2001. The status of

  17. Brightness of synchrotron radiation from wigglers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2016-01-01

    According to the literature, while calculating the brightness of synchrotron radiation from wigglers, one needs to account for the so-called 'depth-of-field' effects. In fact, the particle beam cross-section varies along the wiggler. It is usually stated that the effective photon source size increases accordingly, while the brightness is reduced. Here we claim that this is a misconception originating from an analysis of the wiggler source based on geometrical arguments, regarded as almost self-evident. According to electrodynamics, depth-of-field effects do not exist: we demonstrate this statement both theoretically and numerically, using a well-known first-principle computer code. This fact shows that under the usually accepted approximations, the description of the wiggler brightness turns out to be inconsistent even qualitatively. Therefore, there is a need for a well-defined procedure for computing the brightness from a wiggler source. We accomplish this task based on the use of a Wigner function formalism. We exemplify this formalism in simple limiting cases. We consider the problem of the calculation of the wiggler source size by means of numerical simulations alone, which play the same role of an experiment. We report a significant numerical disagreement between exact calculations and approximations currently used in the literature.

  18. Synchrotron radiation studies of supported metal catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metallic clusters supported on refractory oxides have been used extensively for several decades in the production of chemicals and petroleum derived transportation fuels. Catalysts containing more than one metal component are of particular interest since the addition of a second metal provides a method of controlling the selectivity of the catalyst. That is, the second metal can alter the rates of competing reactions in a complex reaction sequence and thus alter the final product distribution of the reaction. In this work the reactions of cyclohexane in hydrogen over silica supported ruthenium and osmium catalysts were studied. Bimetallic catalysts represent an important class of materials that are of interest both scientifically and technologically. Despite the importance and long-standing use of supported metal catalysts, detailed information on the structure of the metal clusters has been difficult to obtain. The development of x-ray absorption spectroscopy with the increasing availability of synchrotron radiation, however, has provided a powerful and versatile tool for studying the structure of these complex systems. Using the Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) technique, it is possible to obtain information on the local atomic structure of supported monometallic catalytic metals and their interaction with the support. In the discussion that follows the authors will focus on results that have been obtained on the structure of supported bimetallic cluster catalysts

  19. Synchrotron Radiation Studies of Environmental Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, Daniel; Terry, Jeff

    2009-11-01

    In the case of environmental contaminants, the mobility of elements changes depending on oxidation state. Remediation techniques often focus on changing the oxidation state in order to immobilize, by forming an insoluble species, or removing by binding a soluble species to an insoluble material. In order to accomplish this immobilization one has to understand all the possible reactions that can change the oxidation state. One of the techniques that can be used to determine the oxidation state and local atomic structure of environmental contaminants under aqueous conditions is x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Synchrotron radiation was used to excite the absorption edges of As, Tc, and Pu, in order to characterize their oxidation states and structures under environmentally relevant conditions. Granular activated carbon treated with iron has shown promise for the removal of arsenic from contaminated ground water, where XAS measurements have determined that the arsenic bound to iron oxide as AsO4^3-. Pertechnetate (TcO4^-) was found to be reduced to TcO2 in a reaction with amorphous iron sulfide (FeS). Bio-reduction of plutonium has also been studied using bacteria that may be found in nuclear waste repositories resulting in an end product of Pu(III).

  20. METROLOGICAL CHALLENGES OF SYNCHROTRON RADIATION OPTICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern third generation storage rings, require state-of-the-art grazing incidence x-ray optics, in order to monochromate the Synchrotrons Radiation (SR) source photons, and focus them into the experimental stations. Slope error tolerances in the order of 0.5 microRad RMS, and surface roughness well below 5 angstrom RMS, are frequently specified for mirrors and gratings exceeding 300 mm in length. Non-contact scanning instruments were developed, in order to characterize SR optical surfaces, of spherical and aspherical shape. Among these, the Long Trace Profiler (LTP), a double pencil slope measuring interferometer, has proved to be particularly reliable, and was adopted by several SR optics metrology laboratories. The ELETTRA soft x-rays and optics metrology laboratory, has operated an LTP since 1992. We review the basic operating principles of this instrument, and some major instrumental and environmental improvements, that were developed in order to detect slope errors lower than 1 microRad RMS on optical surfaces up to one metre in length. A comparison among measurements made on the same reference flat, by different interferometers (most of them were LTPs) can give some helpful indications in order to optimize the quality of measurement

  1. METROLOGICAL CHALLENGES OF SYNCHROTRON RADIATION OPTICS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SOSTERO,G.

    1999-05-25

    Modern third generation storage rings, require state-of-the-art grazing incidence x-ray optics, in order to monochromate the Synchrotrons Radiation (SR) source photons, and focus them into the experimental stations. Slope error tolerances in the order of 0.5 {micro}Rad RMS, and surface roughness well below 5 {angstrom} RMS, are frequently specified for mirrors and gratings exceeding 300 mm in length. Non-contact scanning instruments were developed, in order to characterize SR optical surfaces, of spherical and aspherical shape. Among these, the Long Trace Profiler (LTP), a double pencil slope measuring interferometer, has proved to be particularly reliable, and was adopted by several SR optics metrology laboratories. The ELETTRA soft x-rays and optics metrology laboratory, has operated an LTP since 1992. We review the basic operating principles of this instrument, and some major instrumental and environmental improvements, that were developed in order to detect slope errors lower than 1 {micro}Rad RMS on optical surfaces up to one metre in length. A comparison among measurements made on the same reference flat, by different interferometers (most of them were LTPs) can give some helpful indications in order to optimize the quality of measurement.

  2. 1994 activity report: Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SSRL facility delivered 89% of the scheduled user beam to 25 experimental stations during 6.5 months of user running. Users from private industry were involved in 31% of these experiments. The SPEAR accelerator ran very well with no major component failures and an unscheduled down time of only 2.9%. In addition to this increased reliability, there was a significant improvement in the stability of the beam. The enhancements to the SPEAR orbit as part of a concerted three-year program were particularly noticeable to users. The standard deviation of beam movement (both planes) in the last part of the run was 80 microns, major progress toward the ultimate goal of 50-micron stability. This was a significant improvement from the previous year when the movement was 400 microns in the horizontal and 200 microns in the vertical. A new accelerator Personal Protection System (PPS), built with full redundancy and providing protection from both radiation exposure and electrical hazards, was installed in 1994. It is not possible to describe in this summary all of the scientific experimentation which was performed during the run. However, the flavor of current research projects and the many significant accomplishments can be realized by the following highlights: A multinational collaboration performed several experiments involving x-ray scattering from nuclear resonances; Studies related to nuclear waste remediation by groups from Los Alamos National Laboratory and Pacific Northwest Laboratories continued in 1994; Diffraction data sets for a number of important protein crystals were obtained; During the past two years a collaboration consisting of groups from Hewlett Packard, Intel, Fisons Instruments and SSRL has been exploring the utility of synchrotron radiation for total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TRXRF); and High-resolution angle-resolved photoemission experiments have continued to generate exciting new results from highly correlated and magnetic materials

  3. Stability of high-brilliance synchrotron radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the following topics: characteristics of synchrotron radiation sources; stability of the orbits; orbit control; nonlinear dynamic stability; and coherent stability and control. 1 ref., 5 figs., 1 tab

  4. Plans for use of synchrotron radiation from the Tristan rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soon after the first success of storing electrons at PF in 1982, some preliminary experiments using synchrotron radiation were started. Since then the rumber of experiments and associated experiences using synchrotron x-radiation has grown so much taht requirements for the beam characteristics of synchrotron x-radiation are now much clearer. Following are some of the requirements: high intensity in the current energy region, higher brightness, more photons in the higher energy region, and sometimes a larger beam size. In order to meet some of these requirements the Tristan rings, the Accumulation and the Main Ring seem to be very suitable in the higher energy region so that plans for use of those rings are under way as a joint project between the Photon Factory and the users' community. The following material has been collected for discussion on the above mentioned use of synchrotron radiation. Further details will be published as proceedings of the planned meetings. (author)

  5. Operation of INDUS-1, India's first synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    INDUS-1 is a 450 MeV electron storage ring for the production of Synchrotron Radiation in Visible Ultra Violet (VUV) range with a critical wavelength of 61 A deg. The ring was commissioned in June 1999. Since then it is in regular operation. This Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS) facility consists of a 20 MeV injector microtron, a 450 MeV booster synchrotron and a storage ring. In this paper operation aspects of INDUS-1 SRS facility will be presented. (author)

  6. Synchrotron radiation for direct analysis of metalloproteins on electrophoresis gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Richard

    2009-03-01

    Metalloproteomics requires analytical techniques able to assess and quantify the inorganic species in metalloproteins. The most widely used methods are hyphenated techniques, based on the coupling of a high resolution chromatographic method with a high sensitivity method for metal analysis in solution. An alternative approach is the use of methods for solid sample analysis, combining metalloprotein separation by gel electrophoresis and direct analysis of the gels. Direct methods are based on beam analysis, such as lasers, ion beams or synchrotron radiation beams. The aim of this review article is to present the main features of synchrotron radiation based methods and their applications for metalloprotein analysis directly on electrophoresis gels. Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence has been successfully employed for sensitive metal identification, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy for metal local structure speciation in proteins. Synchrotron based methods will be compared to ion beam and mass spectrometry for direct analysis of metalloproteins in electrophoresis gels.

  7. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Light Source (SSRL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The SSRL at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory was built in 1974 to take and use for synchrotron studies the intense x-ray beams from the SPEAR storage ring that...

  8. Aharonov-Bohm Effect in Cyclotron and Synchrotron Radiations

    CERN Document Server

    Bagrov, V G; Levin, A; Tlyachev, V B

    2000-01-01

    We study the impact of Aharonov-Bohm solenoid on the radiation of a charged particle moving in a constant uniform magnetic field. With this aim in view, exact solutions of Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations are found in the magnetic-solenoid field. Using such solutions, we calculate exactly all the characteristics of one-photon spontaneous radiation both for spinless and spinning particle. Considering non-relativistic and relativistic approximations, we analyze cyclotron and synchrotron radiations in detail. Radiation peculiarities caused by the presence of the solenoid may be considered as a manifestation of Aharonov-Bohm effect in the radiation. In particular, it is shown that new spectral lines appear in the radiation spectrum. Due to angular distribution peculiarities of the radiation intensity, these lines can in principle be isolated from basic cyclotron and synchrotron radiation spectra

  9. Synchrotron radiation sources INDUS-1 and INDUS-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synchrotron radiation sources, INDUS-1 and INDUS-2 are electron storage rings of 450 MeV and 2 GeV beam energies respectively. INDUS-1 is designed to produce VUV radiation whereas INDUS-2 will be mainly used to produce x-rays. INDUS-1 is presently undergoing commissioning whereas INDUS-2 is under construction. Both these rings have a common injector system comprising of a microtron and a synchrotron. Basic design features of these sources and their injector system are discussed in this paper. The radiation beamlines to be set up on these sources are also described. (author)

  10. Synchrotron radiation from a curved plasma channel laser wakefield accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Palastro, J P; Hafizi, B; Chen, Y -H; Johnson, L A; Penano, J R; Helle, M H; Mamonau, A A

    2016-01-01

    A laser pulse guided in a curved plasma channel can excite wakefields that steer electrons along an arched trajectory. As the electrons are accelerated along the curved channel, they emit synchrotron radiation. We present simple analytical models and simulations examining laser pulse guiding, wakefield generation, electron steering, and synchrotron emission in curved plasma channels. For experimentally realizable parameters, a ~2 GeV electron emits 0.1 photons per cm with an average photon energy of multiple keV.

  11. Characterizing THz Coherent Synchrotron Radiation at Femtosecond Linear Accelerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Xu-Ling; ZHANG Jian-Bing; LU YU; LUO Feng; LU Shan-Liang; YU Tie-Min; DAI Zhi-Min

    2009-01-01

    The generation and observation of coherent THz synchrotron radiation from femtosecond electron bunches in the Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics femtosecond accelerator device is reported.We describe the experiment setup and present the first result of THz radiation properties such as power and spectrum.

  12. Industrial Use of Synchrotron Radiation:. Love at Second Sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormes, Josef; Warner, Jeffrey

    2012-06-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) has become one of the most valuable tools for many areas of basic and applied research. In some cases, techniques have been developed that rely completely on the specific properties of synchrotron radiation; in many other cases, using synchrotron radiation has opened completely new and exciting opportunities for conventional techniques. In this chapter, the challenges, problems, and advantages of the industrial use of synchrotron radiation will be highlighted, in an admittedly subjective way, based on the experience of the authors at various synchrotron radiation facilities. "Typical" examples of industrial use of SR will be discussed for all areas of industrial activities, i.e., production, quality control and control of regulatory requirements, and research and development. Emphasis will be put on examples from R&D as this is the most intensively used area. Because this field is much too broad for a complete review here, examples will focus on applications from just three major sectors: biotechnology, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, and automotive and mining. Environmental research is a fourth area that will be partly covered in the section on regulatory requirements.

  13. Modelisation of synchrotron radiation losses in realistic tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albajar, F.; Johner, J.; Granata, G

    2000-08-01

    Synchrotron radiation losses become significant in the power balance of high-temperature plasmas envisaged for next step tokamaks. Due to the complexity of the exact calculation, these losses are usually roughly estimated with expressions derived from a plasma description using simplifying assumptions on the geometry, radiation absorption, and density and temperature profiles. In the present article, the complete formulation of the transport of synchrotron radiation is performed for realistic conditions of toroidal plasma geometry with elongated cross-section, using an exact method for the calculation of the absorption coefficient, and for arbitrary shapes of density and temperature profiles. The effects of toroidicity and temperature profile on synchrotron radiation losses are analyzed in detail. In particular, when the electron temperature profile is almost flat in the plasma center, as for example in ITB confinement regimes, synchrotron losses are found to be much stronger than in the case where the profile is represented by its best generalized parabolic approximation, though both cases give approximately the same thermal energy contents. Such an effect is not included in present approximate expressions. Finally, we propose a seven-variable fit for the fast calculation of synchrotron radiation losses. This fit is derived from a large database, which has been generated using a code implementing the complete formulation and optimized for massively parallel computing. (author)

  14. The profile of the electron beam in the PTB synchrotron, and its influence on radiometric measurements with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple method is described to determine the beam profile in an electron synchrotron; the measured results are compared with calculated values. Moreover, the influence of synchrotron- and betatron-oscillations on synchrotron radiation measurements is discussed, and a method is given to correct this. (orig.)

  15. Electron beam energy stabilization using a neural network hybrid controller at the Australian Synchrotron Linac.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, E.; Morgan, M. J.; Biedron, S. G.; LeBlanc, G.; Wu, J. (OTD-ESE); (Monash Univ.); (Australian Synchrotron Project); (SLAC National Accelerator Lab.)

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a neural network hybrid controller for energy stabilization at the Australian Synchrotron Linac. The structure of the controller consists of a neural network (NNET) feed forward control, augmented by a conventional Proportional-Integral (PI) feedback controller to ensure stability of the system. The system is provided with past states of the machine in order to predict its future state, and therefore apply appropriate feed forward control. The NNET is able to cancel multiple frequency jitter in real-time. When it is not performing optimally due to jitter changes, the system can successfully be augmented by the PI controller to attenuate the remaining perturbations. With a view to control the energy and bunch length at the FERMI{at}Elettra Free Electron Laser (FEL), the present study considers a neural network hybrid feed forward-feedback type of control to rectify limitations related to feedback systems, such as poor response for high jitter frequencies or limited bandwidth, while ensuring robustness of control. The Australian Synchrotron Linac is equipped with a beam position monitor (BPM), that was provided by Sincrotrone Trieste from a former transport line thus allowing energy measurements and energy control experiments. The present study will consequently focus on correcting energy jitter induced by variations in klystron phase and voltage.

  16. Transfiguration of extracting mirror in synchrotron radiation system at SSRF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The first extracting mirror is very important for synchrotron radiation monitor (SRM). The SRM system of SSRF (Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility) should extract the visible light with low optical distortion. The analysis of SR power spectrum and heat transfiguration based on Matlab is introduced in this paper, which will be used in calibration. One beryllium mirror with water-cooling is used to transmit X-ray and reflect visible light to satisfy the measurement request. The existing system suffers from a dynamic problem in some beam physics study. The system includes optics, image acquisition and interferometers. One of the instruments is a digital camera providing the image of the beam transverse profile. The hardware configuration will be summarized. The synchrotron radiation measurement system has been in operation in SSRF for more than one year.

  17. 6th International School “Synchrotron Radiation and Magnetism”

    CERN Document Server

    Bulou, Hervé; Joly, Loic; Scheurer, Fabrice; Magnetism and Synchrotron Radiation : Towards the Fourth Generation Light Sources

    2013-01-01

     Advances in the synthesis of new materials with often complex, nano-scaled structures require increasingly sophisticated experimental techniques that can probe the electronic states, the atomic magnetic moments and the magnetic microstructures responsible for the properties of these materials. At the same time, progress in synchrotron radiation techniques has ensured that these light sources remain a key tool of investigation, e.g. synchrotron radiation sources of the third generation are able to support magnetic imaging on a sub-micrometer scale. With the Sixth Mittelwihr School on Magnetism and Synchrotron Radiation the tradition of teaching the state-of-the-art on modern research developments continues and is expressed through the present set of extensive lectures provided in this volume. While primarily aimed at postgraduate students and newcomers to the field, this volume will also benefit researchers and lecturers actively working in the field.

  18. Initial scientific uses of coherent synchrotron radiation inelectron storage rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basov, D.N.; Feikes, J.; Fried, D.; Holldack, K.; Hubers, H.W.; Kuske, P.; Martin, M.C.; Pavlov, S.G.; Schade, U.; Singley, E.J.; Wustefeld, G.

    2004-11-23

    The production of stable, high power, coherent synchrotron radiation at sub-terahertz frequency at the electron storage ring BESSY opens a new region in the electromagnetic spectrum to explore physical properties of materials. Just as conventional synchrotron radiation has been a boon to x-ray science, coherent synchrotron radiation may lead to many new innovations and discoveries in THz physics. With this new accelerator-based radiation source we have been able to extend traditional infrared measurements down into the experimentally poorly accessible sub-THz frequency range. The feasibility of using the coherent synchrotron radiation in scientific applications was demonstrated in a series of experiments: We investigated shallow single acceptor transitions in stressed and unstressed Ge:Ga by means of photoconductance measurements below 1 THz. We have directly measured the Josephson plasma resonance in optimally doped Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} for the first time and finally we succeeded to confine the sub-THz radiation for spectral near-field imaging on biological samples such as leaves and human teeth.

  19. SYNCHROTRON RADIATION XRF MICROPROBE STUDY OF HUMAN BONE TUMOR SLICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The experimental apparatus of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microprobe analysis at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF) is described Using the bovine liver as the standard reference.the minimum detection limit(MDL) of trace element was measured to determine the capability of biological sample analysis by synchrotron radiation XRF microprobe.The relative change of the content of the major or trace element in the normal and tumor part of human bone tissue slice was investigated The experimental result relation to the clinical medicine was also discussed.

  20. Extended 1D Method for Coherent Synchrotron Radiation including Shielding

    CERN Document Server

    Sagan, David; Mayes, Christopher; Sae-Ueng, Udom

    2008-01-01

    Coherent Synchrotron Radiation can severely limit the performance of accelerators designed for high brightness and short bunch length. Examples include light sources based on ERLs or FELs, and bunch compressors for linear colliders. In order to better simulate Coherent Synchrotron Radiation, the established 1-dimensional formalism is extended to work at lower energies, at shorter bunch lengths, and for an arbitrary configuration of multiple bends. Wide vacuum chambers are simulated by means of vertical image charges. This formalism has been implemented in the general beam dynamics code "Bmad" and its results are here compared to analytical approximations, to numerical solutions of the Maxwell equations, and to the simulation code "elegant".

  1. Combustion study with synchrotron radiation single photon ionization technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Rui; WANG Jing; HUANG Chaoqun; YANG Bin; WEI Lixia; SHAN Xiaobin; SHENG Liusi; ZHANG Yunwu; QI Fei

    2005-01-01

    Here we report a combustion endstation at National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) and some primary experimental results. Synchrotron radiation can provide the tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photon with the high intensity and the good collimation. VUV photoionization is a single-photon ionization process. Combined with molecular-beam mass spectrometry (MBMS), the VUV single-photon ionization can be applied to detect the combustion products, especially the intermediates and free radicals produced from combustion process. This method is proved to be a powerful tool for combustion study, which could be helpful for developing combustion kinetic models and understanding the mechanism of combustion reactions.

  2. Detection and spectral measurements of coherent synchrotron radiation at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, Christopher

    2010-02-15

    The operation of high-gain free-electron laser (FEL) underlies tremendous demands on high quality electron beams with high peak currents. At the Free-Electron-Laser in Hamburg (FLASH), two magnetic bunch compressors are used to compress the electron bunches longitudinally. In the bunch compressor magnets, these short electron bunches generate coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). This CSR contains information on the longitudinal bunch profile, which is relevant for driving an FEL. In order to investigate coherent synchrotron radiation at the second bunch compressor BC3 at FLASH, a new setup behind the last dipole was installed. For the detection of coherent synchrotron radiation, which is emitted in the infrared regime, pyroelectric detectors were used. These pyroelectric detectors have been calibrated at the free-electron laser FELIX in the wavelength range from 5 {mu}m to 110 {mu}m. For characterisation of the emitted radiation, a transverse scanning device was used to measure the transverse intensity distribution. Various transmission filters were used to obtain additional information about the spectral content. In order to get spectral information with high resolution over a wide wavelength range, a rotating mirror spectrometer using reflective blazed gratings was installed. Using this spectrometer, the first spectral measurements of coherent synchrotron radiation at FLASH in a wavelength range from 10 {mu}m to 160 {mu}m were done. (orig.)

  3. Synchrotron radiation of higher order soliton

    OpenAIRE

    Driben, Rodislav; Yulin, Alexey; Efimov, Anatoly

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate radiation mechanism exhibited by higher order soliton. In a course of its evolution higher order soliton emits polychromatic radiation resulting in appearance of multipeak frequency comb like spectral band. The shape and spectral position of this band can be effectively controlled by the relative strength of the third order dispersion. An analytical description is completely corroborated by numerical simulations. An analogy between this radiation and the radiation of moving cha...

  4. HSC5: synchrotron radiation and neutrons for cultural heritage studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synchrotron and neutron sources offer recent and additional insight into the records of our cultural past. Over the last years, there has been an increasing demand for access to synchrotron radiation- and neutron-based techniques, and their applications in the fields of archaeological science and cultural heritage. The purpose of this Hercules Specialized Course is to give the participants an introduction to the basic principles of synchrotron radiation and neutron techniques (imaging, microscopy, diffraction, absorption and fluorescence, IR spectroscopy). The school provides cross-disciplinary examples illustrating the abilities of these techniques in a representative range of scientific cases concerning painting, archaeological artefacts, inks, pigments, fossils and the Dead Sea scrolls. This document gathers only the resumes of the lectures

  5. HSC5: synchrotron radiation and neutrons for cultural heritage studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, Anne [Institut Neel - CNRS, 38 - Grenoble (France); Artioli, G. [Padova Univ. (Italy); Bleuet, P.; Cotte, M.; Tafforeau, P.; Susini, J. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 38 - Grenoble (France); Dumas, P.; Somogyl, A. [SOLEIL Synchrotron, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Cotte, M. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France, UMR171, 75 - Paris (France)]|[European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 38 - Grenoble (France); Kockelmann, W. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Lab. (United Kingdom); Kolar, J. [Ljubljana Univ., Morana RTD, Slovenia, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology (Slovenia); Areon, I. [Nova Gorica Univ. (Slovenia); Meden, A.; Strlie, M. [Ljubljana Univ., Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology (Slovenia); Pantos, M. [Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington (United Kingdom); Vendrell, M. [Barcelona Univ., dept. of Crystallography and Mineralogy (Spain); Wess, T. [Cardiff Univ., School of Optometry and Institute of Vision (Ireland); Gunneweg, J. [Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel)

    2007-07-01

    Synchrotron and neutron sources offer recent and additional insight into the records of our cultural past. Over the last years, there has been an increasing demand for access to synchrotron radiation- and neutron-based techniques, and their applications in the fields of archaeological science and cultural heritage. The purpose of this Hercules Specialized Course is to give the participants an introduction to the basic principles of synchrotron radiation and neutron techniques (imaging, microscopy, diffraction, absorption and fluorescence, IR spectroscopy). The school provides cross-disciplinary examples illustrating the abilities of these techniques in a representative range of scientific cases concerning painting, archaeological artefacts, inks, pigments, fossils and the Dead Sea scrolls. This document gathers only the resumes of the lectures.

  6. India's first synchrotron radiation source Indus-1: a historical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first Indian synchrotron radiation source Indus-l was commissioned in May 1999. This article briefs the development of accelerator based research programme in India and discusses the historical perspectives starting from the year 1953 at and goes to the development of Indus-1 and Indus-2 at Centre for Advanced Technology at Indore

  7. Synchrotron radiation, neutron, and mass spectrometry techniques at user facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Sutton, S. R.; Caffee, M. W.; Dove, M. T.

    2006-01-01

    User research facilities around the world offer tremendous opportunities for scientific experimentation by members of the Earth science community. Synchrotron radiation sources, neutron sources, mass spectrometers, and others represent a powerful force in tackling complex scientific problems. In these techniques, Earth materials are bombarded with beams of ions, subatomic particles and/or photons to learn the secr...

  8. Synchrotron Radiation in eRHIC Interaction Region

    CERN Document Server

    Beebe-Wang, Joanne; Montag, Christoph; Rondeau, Daniel J; Surrow, Bernd

    2005-01-01

    The eRHIC currently under study at BNL consists of an electron storage ring added to the existing RHIC complex. The interaction region of this facility has to provide the required low-beta focusing while accommodating the synchrotron radiation generated by beam separation close to the interaction point. In the current design, the synchrotron radiation caused by 10GeV electrons bent by low-beta triplet magnets will be guided through the interaction region and dumped 5m downstream. However, it is unavoidable to stop a fraction of the photons at the septum where the electron and ion vacuum system are separated. In order to protect the septum and minimize the backward scattering of the synchrotron radiation, an absorber and collimation system will be employed. In this paper, we first present the overview of the current design of the eRHIC interaction region with special emphasis on the synchrotron radiation. Then the initial design of the absorber and collimation system, including their geometrical and physical p...

  9. Synchrotron radiation based beam diagnostics at the Fermilab Tevatron

    CERN Document Server

    Thurman-Keup, R; Hahn, A; Hurh, P; Lorman, E; Lundberg, C; Meyer, T; Miller, D; Pordes, S; Valishev, A

    2011-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation has been used for many years as a beam diagnostic at electron accelerators. It is not normally associated with proton accelerators as the intensity of the radiation is too weak to make detection practical. However, if one utilizes the radiation originating near the edge of a bending magnet, or from a short magnet, the rapidly changing magnetic field serves to enhance the wavelengths shorter than the cutoff wavelength, which for more recent high energy proton accelerators such as Fermilab's Tevatron, tends to be visible light. This paper discusses the implementation at the Tevatron of two devices. A transverse beam profile monitor images the synchrotron radiation coming from the proton and antiproton beams separately and provides profile data for each bunch. A second monitor measures the low-level intensity of beam in the abort gaps which poses a danger to both the accelerator's superconducting magnets and the silicon detectors of the high energy physics experiments. Comparisons of measur...

  10. A feasibility study of X-ray phase-contrast mammographic tomography at the Imaging and Medical beamline of the Australian Synchrotron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterets, Yakov I; Gureyev, Timur E; Mayo, Sheridan C; Stevenson, Andrew W; Thompson, Darren; Brown, Jeremy M C; Kitchen, Marcus J; Pavlov, Konstantin M; Lockie, Darren; Brun, Francesco; Tromba, Giuliana

    2015-11-01

    Results are presented of a recent experiment at the Imaging and Medical beamline of the Australian Synchrotron intended to contribute to the implementation of low-dose high-sensitivity three-dimensional mammographic phase-contrast imaging, initially at synchrotrons and subsequently in hospitals and medical imaging clinics. The effect of such imaging parameters as X-ray energy, source size, detector resolution, sample-to-detector distance, scanning and data processing strategies in the case of propagation-based phase-contrast computed tomography (CT) have been tested, quantified, evaluated and optimized using a plastic phantom simulating relevant breast-tissue characteristics. Analysis of the data collected using a Hamamatsu CMOS Flat Panel Sensor, with a pixel size of 100 µm, revealed the presence of propagation-based phase contrast and demonstrated significant improvement of the quality of phase-contrast CT imaging compared with conventional (absorption-based) CT, at medically acceptable radiation doses. PMID:26524316

  11. Applications of synchrotron radiation to Chemical Engineering Science: Workshop report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains extended abstracts that summarize presentations made at the Workshop on Applications of Synchrotron Radiation to Chemical Engineering Science held at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL, on April 22--23, 1991. The talks emphasized the application of techniques involving absorption fluorescence, diffraction, and reflection of synchrotron x-rays, with a focus on problems in applied chemistry and chemical engineering, as well as on the use of x-rays in topographic, tomographic, and lithographic procedures. The attendees at the workshop included experts in the field of synchrotron science, scientists and engineers from ANL, other national laboratories, industry, and universities; and graduate and undergraduate students who were enrolled in ANL educational programs at the time of the workshop. Talks in the Plenary and Overview Session described the status of and special capabilities to be offered by the Advanced Photon Source (APS), as well as strategies and opportunities for utilization of synchrotron radiation to solve science and engineering problems. Invited talks given in subsequent sessions covered the use of intense infrared, ultraviolet, and x-ray photon beams (as provided by synchrotrons) in traditional and nontraditional areas of chemical engineering research related to electrochemical and corrosion science, catalyst development and characterization, lithography and imaging techniques, and microanalysis

  12. Synchrotron radiation of higher order soliton

    CERN Document Server

    Driben, Rodislav; Efimov, Anatoly

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate radiation mechanism exhibited by higher order soliton. In a course of its evolution higher order soliton emits polychromatic radiation resulting in appearance of multipeak frequency comb like spectral band. The shape and spectral position of this band can be effectively controlled by the relative strength of the third order dispersion. An analytical description is completely corroborated by numerical simulations. An analogy between this radiation and the radiation of moving charges is presented. For longer pulses the described effect persists also under the action of higher order perturbations such as Raman and self-steepening.

  13. Synchrotron radiation sources- INDUS-1 and INDUS-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design features of INDUS-1 and INDUS-2 and their radiation characteristics such as variation of flux and brightness with wavelength are discussed. The construction of INDUS-1 and the injector system has reached an advanced stage and the design of INDUS-2 is in a final stage of optimization. The status of the synchrotron radiation facility is discussed briefly. (author). 4 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Energy dispersive spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation: intensity considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed considerations are given to the reliability of energy dependent integrated intensity data collected from the pressure cavity of a diamond-anvil pressure cell illuminated with heterochromatic radiation from a synchrotron storage ring. It is demonstrated that at least in one run, the electron beam current cannot be used to correct for energy-intensity variations of the incident beam. Rather there appears to be an additional linear relationship between the decay of the synchrotron beam and the magnitude of the background intensity. 13 refs., 7 figs

  15. Transvenous coronary angiography in humans with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transvenous coronary angiography project at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) is presently undergoing a significant upgrade to the hardware and software in the synchrotron medical facility. When completed, the project will have reached a level of maturity in the imaging technology which will allow the research team to begin to concentrate on medical research programs. This paper will review the status of the project and imaging technology and will discuss the current upgrades and future advanced technology initiatives. The advantages of using the radiation from a synchrotron, over that from a standard x-ray source, were the motivation for the project. A total of 23 human imaging sessions have been carried out with in the project. The primary goals have been to establish the imaging parameters and protocol necessary to obtain clinically useful images

  16. Characterization of Medipix3 With Synchrotron Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Gimenez, E N; Marchal, J; Turecek, D; Ballabriga, R; Tartoni, N; Campbell, M; Llopart, X; Sawhney, K J S

    2011-01-01

    Medipix3 is the latest generation of photon counting readout chips of the Medipix family. With the same dimensions as Medipix2 (256 x 256 pixels of 55 mu m x 55 mu m pitch each), Medipix3 is however implemented in an 8-layer metallization 0.13 mu m CMOS technology which leads to an increase in the functionality associated with each pixel over Medipix2. One of the new operational modes implemented in the front-end architecture is the Charge Summing Mode (CSM). This mode consists of a charge reconstruction and hit allocation algorithm which eliminates event-by-event the low energy counts produced by charge-shared events between adjacent pixels. The present work focuses on the study of the CSM mode and compares it to the Single Pixel Mode (SPM) which is the conventional readout method for these kind of detectors and it is also implemented in Medipix3. Tests of a Medipix3 chip bump-bonded to a 300 mu m thick silicon photodiode sensor were performed at the Diamond Light Source synchrotron to evaluate the performan...

  17. Producing terahertz coherent synchrotron radiation at the Hefei Light Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU De-Rong; XU Hong-Liang; SHAO Yan

    2015-01-01

    This paper theoretically proves that an electron storage ring can generate coherent radiation in the THz region using a quick kicker magnet and an AC sextupole magnet.When the vertical chromaticity is modulated by the AC sextupole magnet,the vertical beam collective motion excited by the kicker produces a wavy spatial structure after a number of longitudinal oscillation periods.The radiation spectral distribution was calculated from the wavy bunch parameters at the Hefei Light Source (HLS).When the electron energy is reduced to 400 MeV,extremely strong coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) at 0.115 THz should be produced.

  18. Producing Terahertz Conherent Synchrotron Radiation Based On Hefei Light Source

    CERN Document Server

    De-Rong, Xu; Yan, Shao

    2014-01-01

    This paper theoretically proves that an electron storage ring can generate coherent radiation in THz region using a quick kicker magnet and an ac sextupole magnet. When the vertical chromaticity is modulated by the ac sextupole magnet, the vertical beam collective motion excited by the kicker produces a wavy spatial structure after a number of longitudinal oscillation periods. We calculate the radiation spectral distribution from the wavy bunch in Hefei Light Source(HLS). If we reduce electron energy to 400MeV, it can produce extremely strong coherent synchrotron radiation(CSR) at 0.115THz.

  19. Synchrotron-Radiation Induced X-Ray Emission (SRIXE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Keith W.

    1999-09-01

    Elemental analysis using emission of characteristic x rays is a well-established scientific method. The success of this analytical method is highly dependent on the properties of the source used to produce the x rays. X-ray tubes have long existed as a principal excitation source, but electron and proton beams have also been employed extensively. The development of the synchrotron radiation x-ray source that has taken place during the past 40 years has had a major impact on the general field of x-ray analysis. Even tier 40 years, science of x-ray analysis with synchrotron x-ray beams is by no means mature. Improvements being made to existing synchrotron facilities and the design and construction of new facilities promise to accelerate the development of the general scientific use of synchrotron x-ray sources for at least the next ten years. The effective use of the synchrotron source technology depends heavily on the use of high-performance computers for analysis and theoretical interpretation of the experimental data. Fortunately, computer technology has advanced at least as rapidly as the x-ray technology during the past 40 years and should continue to do so during the next decade. The combination of these technologies should bring about dramatic advances in many fields where synchrotron x-ray science is applied. It is interesting also to compare the growth and rate of acceptance of this particular research endeavor to the rates for other technological endeavors. Griibler [1997] cataloged the time required for introduction, diffusion,and acceptance of technological, economic, and social change and found mean values of 40 to 50 years. The introduction of the synchrotron source depends on both technical and non-technical factors, and the time scale at which this seems to be occurring is quite compatible with what is seen for other major innovations such as the railroad or the telegraph. It will be interesting to see how long the present rate of technological change

  20. Materials science research at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Kvick, A

    2003-01-01

    The Materials Science Beamline ID11 at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble, France is dedicated to research in materials science notably employing diffraction and scattering techniques. Either an in-vacuum undulator with a minimum gap of 5 mm or a 10 kW wiggler giving high-flux monochromatic X-rays generates the synchrotron radiation in the energy range 5-100 keV. The dominant research is in the area of time-resolved diffraction, powder diffraction, stress/strain studies of bulk material, 3D mapping of grains and grain interfaces with a measuring gauge down approx 5x5x50 mu m, and microcrystal diffraction. A variety of CCD detectors are used to give time-resolution down to the millisecond time regime.

  1. Precision mirror mounting system for UHV compatible synchrotron radiation beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A ultra high vacuum compatible system for precision adjustment of the orientation and location of a mirror with respect to incident synchrotron radiation beam has been designed. This will be used for the upcoming photoelectron spectroscopy beamline to be installed on Indus-1. Our ray tracing calculations indicate that positioning of mirror with respect to synchrotron radiation beam direction and other beam line optical components is very critical for good resolution and photon flux. This requires the mirror to have various motions with a precision control over these motions of the order of millidegree for angular and five micron for linear motions. Based on these calculations, design of mirror mount system having various kinematic motions in ultra high vacuum has been worked out and incorporated in the mechanical design of the system. (author). 7 refs., 4 figs

  2. Surface modification of fluorocarbon polymers by synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Kanda, K; Matsui, S; Ideta, T; Ishigaki, H

    2003-01-01

    The surface modification of a poly (tetrafluoroethylene) sheet was carried out by synchrotron radiation in the soft X-ray region. The poly (tetrafluoroethylene) substrate was exposed to synchrotron radiation while varying the substrate temperature from room temperature to 200degC. The contact angle of the modified surfaces with a water drop decreased from 96deg to 72deg by the irradiation at room temperature, while the contact angle increased to 143deg by the irradiation at the substrate temperature of 200degC. Scanning electron microscopy suggested that this repellence was ascribable to the microstructure of the poly (tetrafluoroethylene) surface. We succeeded in controlling the wettability of the poly (tetrafluoroethylene) surface from hydrophobic to hydrophilic by irradiation of the soft X-ray light. (author)

  3. Study on Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry Excited by Synchrotron Radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-jia Guo; Wu-er Gan; Guo-bin Zhang; Qing-de Su

    2008-01-01

    A novel analysis approach using atomic fluorescence excited by synchrotron radiation is presented. A system for synchrotron radiation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry is developed, and experimental conditions such as flow rate, analyte acidity, concentration of pre-reducing and hydrogenation system are optimized. The proposed method is successfully applied to get an excitation spectrum of arsenic. Seven of ten primary spectral lines, four of which have never been reported by means of atomic fluorescence spectrometry, agree well with the existing reports. The other three are proposed for the first time. Excitation potentials and possible transitions are investigated. Especially for the prominent line at 234.99 nm, the mechanism of generation is discussed and a model of energy transition processes is proposed.

  4. Synchrotron radiation in transactinium research report of the workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains viewgraphs on the following topics. The advanced light source U8 undulator beamline, 20--300 eV; gas-phase actinide studies with synchrotron radiation; atomic structure calculations for heavy atoms; flux growth of single crystal uranium intermetallics: Extension to transuranics; x-ray absorption near-edge structure studies of actinide compounds; surface as a new stage for studying actinides: Theoretical study of the surface electronic structure of uranium; magnetic x-ray scattering experiments at resonant energies; beamline instruments for radioactive materials; the search for x-ray absorption magnetic circular dichroism in actinide materials: preliminary experiments using UFe2 and U-S; the laser plasma laboratory light source: a source of preliminary transuranic data; electron spectroscopy of heavy fermion actinide materials; study of thin layers of actinides. Present status and future use of synchrotron radiation; electronic structure and correlated-electron theory for actinide materials; and heavy fermion and kondo phenomena in actinide materials

  5. Estimation of presampling modulation transfer function in synchrotron radiation microtomography

    CERN Document Server

    Mizutani, Ryuta; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Uesugi, Kentaro; Suzuki, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    The spatial resolution achieved by recent synchrotron radiation microtomographs should be estimated from the modulation transfer function (MTF) on the micrometer scale. Step response functions of a synchrotron radiation microtomograph were determined by the slanted edge method by using high-precision surfaces of diamond crystal and ion-milled aluminum wire. Tilted reconstruction was introduced to enable any edge to be used as the slanted edge by defining the reconstruction pixel matrix in an arbitrary orientation. MTFs were estimated from the step response functions of the slanted edges. The obtained MTFs coincided with MTF values estimated from square-wave patterns milled on the aluminum surface. Although x-ray refraction influences should be taken into account to evaluate MTFs, any flat surfaces with nanometer roughness can be used to determine the spatial resolutions of microtomographs.

  6. Lung cancer and angiogenesis imaging using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xiaoxia; Zhao Jun; Xu, Lisa X [Biomedical Engineering, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Sun Jianqi; Gu Xiang; Liu Ping [Med-X Research Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Xiao Tiqiao [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai (China)], E-mail: pingliu@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: lisaxu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2010-04-21

    Early detection of lung cancer is the key to a cure, but a difficult task using conventional x-ray imaging. In the present study, synchrotron radiation in-line phase-contrast imaging was used to study lung cancer. Lewis lung cancer and 4T1 breast tumor metastasis in the lung were imaged, and the differences were clearly shown in comparison to normal lung tissue. The effect of the object-detector distance and the energy level on the phase-contrast difference was investigated and found to be in good agreement with the theory of in-line phase-contrast imaging. Moreover, 3D image reconstruction of lung tumor angiogenesis was obtained for the first time using a contrast agent, demonstrating the feasibility of micro-angiography with synchrotron radiation for imaging tumor angiogenesis deep inside the body.

  7. Time- and frequency domain spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rettig, W.; Wiggenhauser, H.; Herbert, T.; Ding, A.

    1989-05-01

    Time-correlated single photon counting experiments show that the time structure of the synchrotron radiation from BESSY can be usefully applied for subnanosecond and nanosecond time-resolved experiments both in the single-bunch (4.8 MHz) and multibunch (500 MHz, 62.5 MHz) operation modes. Also experiments without the need for time resolution can profit by application of these correlation techniques. The possible use of transformation methods using Hadamard sequences is discussed.

  8. Control of synchrotron radiation effects during recirculation with bunch compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of beam quality during recirculation have been extended to an arc providing bunch compression with positive momentum compaction. It controls both incoherent and coherent synchrotron radiation (ISR and CSR) using methods including optics balance and generates little microbunching gain. We detail the dynamical basis for the design, discuss the design process, give an example, and provide simulations of ISR and CSR effects. Reference will be made to a complete analysis of microbunching effects.

  9. Micro-irradiation experiments in MOS transistors using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spatially-resolved total-dose degradation has been performed in MOS transistors by focusing x-ray synchrotron radiation on the gate electrode with micrometer resolution. The influence of the resulting permanent degradation on device electrical properties has been analyzed using current-voltage and charge pumping measurements, in concert with optical characterization (hot-carrier luminescence) and one-dimensional device simulation. (authors)

  10. Control of synchrotron radiation effects during recirculation with bunch compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, David [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Benson, Stephen [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Li, Rui [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Roblin, Yves [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Tennant, Christopher [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Krafft, Geoffrey [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Terzic, Balsa [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Tsai, Cheng [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Studies of beam quality during recirculation have been extended to an arc providing bunch compression with positive momentum compaction. It controls both incoherent and coherent synchrotron radiation (ISR and CSR) using methods including optics balance and generates little microbunching gain. We detail the dynamical basis for the design, discuss the design process, give an example, and provide simulations of ISR and CSR effects. Reference will be made to a complete analysis of microbunching effects.

  11. Separated high-energy electron beams using synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Farley, F J M; Picasso, Emilio

    1972-01-01

    Electrons with kinetic energy in the 100 GeV range may be separated from other particles by using their energy-loss due to synchrotron radiation in a high-field magnet. In this paper the associated fluctuations in energy and angle are shown to be small enough for the method to be useful. Detailed design formulae are presented for several magnet configurations. (7 refs).

  12. Photoionization of atoms and small molecules using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combination of synchrotron radiation and time-of-flight electron spectroscopy has been used to study the photoionization dynamics of atoms (Li) and small molecules (SF6, SiF4, and SO2). Partial cross sections and angular distribution asymmetry parameters have been measured for Auger electrons and photoelectrons as functions of photon energy. Emphasis is on the basic understanding of electron correlation and resonant effects as manifested in the photoemission spectra for these systems. 254 refs., 46 figs., 10 tabs

  13. Polymer research at synchrotron radiation sources: symposium proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, T.P.; Goland, A.N. (eds.)

    1985-01-01

    The twenty-two papers are arranged into eleven sessions entitled: general overviews; time-resolved x-ray scattering; studies using fluorescence, ion-containing polymers; time-resolved x-ray scattering; novel applications of synchrotron radiation; phase transitions in polymers; x-ray diffraction on polymers; recent detector advances; complementary light, x-ray and neutron studies; and neutron scattering studies. Seven of the papers are processed separately; three of the remainder have been previously processed. (DLC)

  14. FLUX – Software to Calculate the Synchrotron Radiation Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.I. Gladkikh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the main characteristics of quantum flow of synchrotron radiation (SR of relativistic electron beam in the storage ring NSC KIPT with maximal energy of 225 MeV are represented. Analytical expressions for quantum flow intensity of SR with given wavelength and the geometry of registration are obtained. The algorithms for calculation of the last ones are proposed. The dependences which characterize the intensity and spectrally-angular properties of photon flux of SR are shown.

  15. Polymer research at synchrotron radiation sources: symposium proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The twenty-two papers are arranged into eleven sessions entitled: general overviews; time-resolved x-ray scattering; studies using fluorescence, ion-containing polymers; time-resolved x-ray scattering; novel applications of synchrotron radiation; phase transitions in polymers; x-ray diffraction on polymers; recent detector advances; complementary light, x-ray and neutron studies; and neutron scattering studies. Seven of the papers are processed separately; three of the remainder have been previously processed

  16. Synchrotron Radiation Lithography and MEMS Technique at NSRL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Two beamlines and stations for soft X-ray lithography and hard X-ray lithography at NSRL are presented. Synchrotron radiation lithography (SRL) and mask techniques are developed, and the micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) techniques are also investigated at NSRL. In this paper, some results based on SRL and MEMS techniques are reported, and sub-micron and high aspect ratio microstructures are given. Some micro-devices, such as microreactors are fabricated at NSRL.

  17. Crossed undulator system for a variable polarization synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A crossed undulator system can produce synchrotron radiation whose polarization is arbitrary and adjustable. The polarization can be linear and modulated between two mutually perpendicular directions, or it can be circular and can be modulated between right and left circular polarizations. The system works on low emittance electron storage rings and can cover a wide spectral range. Topics discussed include the basic principle of the system, the design equations and the limitations in performance

  18. Experiments planned to be made with the synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For this working meeting, various research groups from the Land Sachsen and from the neighbouring countries Poland and the Czech Republic have been invited in order to present their materials research programmes or task-specific experiments intended to be carried out with the synchrotron radiation source to be installed in the near future. The proceedings volume in hand presents the discussion papers, which have been directly reproduced from the original foils. (orig.)

  19. Report of meeting on monochromator technology for MR synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This meeting was held on June 12, 1996 at the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics. The MR was reconstructed so as to be used for synchrotron radiation in the summer of the last year, and has been stably operated at 8-10 GeV. The synchrotron radiation of ultrahigh luminance was taken out, and by using this light, the experiments of 14 subjects were carried out, and a number of the data which have the highest quality in the world were obtained. By having carried out the researches, the perspective for future was able to be slightly obtained. As the technologies which supported these activities, there were many such as accelerators, beam lines and others, but especially the splendid working of the monochromator must be remembered. The monochromator is composed of the vacuum tanks for first crystal and second crystal, the bellows connecting both crystals and the translating table, and is cooled with liquid nitrogen. At the meeting, lectures were given on MR synchrotron radiation project, the concept of design of the monochromator, the precision control of goniometers, the detailed design, the table for first crystal, the assembling and installation, control software, the adjustment of light paths and others. (K.I.)

  20. Quantitative X-ray microtomography with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synchrotron-radiation-based computed microtomography (SRμCT) is an established method for the examination of volume structures. It allows to measure the x-ray attenuation coefficient of a specimen three-dimensionally with a spatial resolution of about one micrometer. In contrast to conventional x-ray sources (x-ray tubes), the unique properties of synchrotron radiation enable quantitative measurements that do not suffer from beam-hardening artifacts. During this work the capabilities for quantitative SRμCT measurements have been further improved by enhancements that were made to the SRμCT apparatus and to the reconstruction chain. For high-resolution SRμCT an x-ray camera consisting of luminescent screen (x-ray phosphor), lens system, and CCD camera was used. A significant suppression of blur that is caused by reflections inside the luminescent screen could be achieved by application of an absorbing optical coating to the screen surface. It is shown that blur and ring artifacts in the tomographic reconstructions are thereby drastically reduced. Furthermore, a robust and objective method for the determination of the center of rotation in projection data (sinograms) is presented that achieves sub-pixel precision. By implementation of this method into the reconstruction chain, complete automation of the reconstruction process has been achieved. Examples of quantitative SRμCT studies conducted at the Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor HASYLAB at the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY are presented and used for the demonstration of the achieved enhancements. (orig.)

  1. X-ray diffraction microtomography using synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Barroso, R C; Jesus, E F O; Oliveira, L F

    2001-01-01

    The X-ray diffraction computed tomography technique is based on the interference phenomena of the coherent scatter. For low-momentum transfer, it is most probable that the scattering interaction will be coherent. A selective discrimination of a given element in a scanned specimen can be realized by fixing the Bragg angle which produces an interference peak and then, to carry out the computed tomography in the standard mode. The image reconstructed exalts the presence of this element with respect to other ones in a sample. This work reports the feasibility of a non-destructive synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction imaging technique. This research was performed at the X-ray Diffraction beam line of the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS) in Brazil. The coherent scattering properties of different tissue and bone substitute materials were evaluated. Furthermore, diffraction patterns of some polycrystalline solids were studied due to industrial and environmental human exposure to these metals. The obtai...

  2. Optical Synchrotron Radiation Beam Imaging with a Digital Mask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorito, R. B. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Zhang, H. D. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Corbett, W. J. [SLAC, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fisher, A. S. [SLAC, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Mok, W. Y. [SLAC, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Tian, K. [SLAC, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Douglas, D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Wilson, F. G. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Zhang, S. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Mitsuhashi, T. M. [KEK, Tsukuba (Japan); Shkvarunets, A. G. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2012-11-01

    We have applied a new imaging/optical masking technique, which employs a digital micro-mirror device (DMD) and optical synchrotron radiation (OSR), to perform high dynamic range (DR) beam imaging at the JLAB Energy Recovery Linac and the SLAC/SPEAR3 Synchrotron Light Source. The OSR from the beam is first focused onto the DMD to produce a primary image; selected areas of this image are spatially filtered by controlling the state of individual micro-mirrors; and finally, the filtered image is refocused onto a CCD camera. At JLAB this technique has been used successfully to view the beam halo with a DR ~ 105. At SPEAR3 the DMD was used to filter out the bright core of the stored beam to study the turn-by-turn dynamics of the 10-3 weaker injected beam. We describe the optical performance, present limitations and our plans to improve the DR of both experimental systems.

  3. Measurement of the real time fill-pattern at the Australian Synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes the development, commissioning and operation of a Fill-Pattern Monitor (FPM) for the Australian Synchrotron that measures the real-time intensity distribution of the electron bunches in the storage ring. Using a combination of an ultra-fast photodiode and a high-speed digitiser, real-time measurement of the fill-pattern at bunch-by-bunch resolution was achieved. The results compare very well with current methods of measuring the fill-pattern, such as a pick-up style detector. In addition, the FPM is fully integrated into the EPICS control system. The data provided by the FPM gives accurate RF bucket position and relative bunch currents over a wide range of stored beam currents, from 0.01 mA in a single bunch to 200 mA total beam current. The FPM monitors the success of an injection attempt into the storage ring and is used in a feedback loop to determine where to target the next injection. Using the FPM a beam top-up mode was successfully tested, resulting in a near constant beam current by periodic targeted injections over an 8 h shift. Results are presented for dynamically topped up real-time injection, where the beam pattern was squared using an intensity-dependent injection algorithm

  4. Millimeter wave coherent synchrotron radiation in a compact storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Installation of a 2,856 MHz RF system into the XLS compact electron storage ring would allow the generation of millimeter wave coherent synchrotron radiation. Operating at 150 MeV, one could produce bunches containing on the order of 2 x 107 electrons with a bunch length σL0 = 0.3 mm, resulting in coherent emission at wavelengths above 0.8 mm. The characteristics of the source and the emitted radiation are discussed. In the case of 100 mrad horizontal collection angle, the average power radiated in the wavelength band 1 mm ≤ λ ≤ 2 mm is 0.3 mW for single bunch operation and 24 mW for 80 bunch operation. The peak power in a single pulse of a few picosecond duration is on the order of one watt. By reducing the momentum compaction, the bunch length could be reduced to σL0 = 0.15 mm, resulting in coherent synchrotron radiation down to 500 microm

  5. Room-temperature macromolecular serial crystallography using synchrotron radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellato, Francesco; Oberthür, Dominik; Liang, Mengning; Bean, Richard; Gati, Cornelius; Yefanov, Oleksandr; Barty, Anton; Burkhardt, Anja; Fischer, Pontus; Galli, Lorenzo; Kirian, Richard A; Meyer, Jan; Panneerselvam, Saravanan; Yoon, Chun Hong; Chervinskii, Fedor; Speller, Emily; White, Thomas A; Betzel, Christian; Meents, Alke; Chapman, Henry N

    2014-07-01

    A new approach for collecting data from many hundreds of thousands of microcrystals using X-ray pulses from a free-electron laser has recently been developed. Referred to as serial crystallography, diffraction patterns are recorded at a constant rate as a suspension of protein crystals flows across the path of an X-ray beam. Events that by chance contain single-crystal diffraction patterns are retained, then indexed and merged to form a three-dimensional set of reflection intensities for structure determination. This approach relies upon several innovations: an intense X-ray beam; a fast detector system; a means to rapidly flow a suspension of crystals across the X-ray beam; and the computational infrastructure to process the large volume of data. Originally conceived for radiation-damage-free measurements with ultrafast X-ray pulses, the same methods can be employed with synchrotron radiation. As in powder diffraction, the averaging of thousands of observations per Bragg peak may improve the ratio of signal to noise of low-dose exposures. Here, it is shown that this paradigm can be implemented for room-temperature data collection using synchrotron radiation and exposure times of less than 3 ms. Using lysozyme microcrystals as a model system, over 40 000 single-crystal diffraction patterns were obtained and merged to produce a structural model that could be refined to 2.1 Å resolution. The resulting electron density is in excellent agreement with that obtained using standard X-ray data collection techniques. With further improvements the method is well suited for even shorter exposures at future and upgraded synchrotron radiation facilities that may deliver beams with 1000 times higher brightness than they currently produce. PMID:25075341

  6. Room-temperature macromolecular serial crystallography using synchrotron radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Stellato

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A new approach for collecting data from many hundreds of thousands of microcrystals using X-ray pulses from a free-electron laser has recently been developed. Referred to as serial crystallography, diffraction patterns are recorded at a constant rate as a suspension of protein crystals flows across the path of an X-ray beam. Events that by chance contain single-crystal diffraction patterns are retained, then indexed and merged to form a three-dimensional set of reflection intensities for structure determination. This approach relies upon several innovations: an intense X-ray beam; a fast detector system; a means to rapidly flow a suspension of crystals across the X-ray beam; and the computational infrastructure to process the large volume of data. Originally conceived for radiation-damage-free measurements with ultrafast X-ray pulses, the same methods can be employed with synchrotron radiation. As in powder diffraction, the averaging of thousands of observations per Bragg peak may improve the ratio of signal to noise of low-dose exposures. Here, it is shown that this paradigm can be implemented for room-temperature data collection using synchrotron radiation and exposure times of less than 3 ms. Using lysozyme microcrystals as a model system, over 40 000 single-crystal diffraction patterns were obtained and merged to produce a structural model that could be refined to 2.1 Å resolution. The resulting electron density is in excellent agreement with that obtained using standard X-ray data collection techniques. With further improvements the method is well suited for even shorter exposures at future and upgraded synchrotron radiation facilities that may deliver beams with 1000 times higher brightness than they currently produce.

  7. Characteristics of radiation safety for synchrotron radiation and X-ray free electron laser facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Yoshihiro

    2011-07-01

    Radiation safety problems are discussed for typical electron accelerators, synchrotron radiation (SR) facilities and X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) facilities. The radiation sources at the beamline of the facilities are SR, including XFEL, gas bremsstrahlung and high-energy gamma ray and photo-neutrons due to electron beam loss. The radiation safety problems for each source are compared by using 8 GeV class SR and XFEL facilities as an example.

  8. Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Regulations 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    This document contains statutory rules made under the Australian Radiation and Nuclear Safety Act 1998 defining how specified standards to be observed, practices and procedures to be followed and measures to be taken by controlled persons in relation to activities relating to controlled facilities, as well as in relation to dealings with controlled apparatus or controlled material

  9. Finite element analysis of osteoporosis models based on synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With growing pressure of social aging, China has to face the increasing population of osteoporosis patients as well as the whole world. Recently synchrotron radiation has become an essential tool for biomedical exploration with advantage of high resolution and high stability. In order to study characteristic changes in different stages of primary osteoporosis, this research focused on the different periods of osteoporosis of rats based on synchrotron radiation. Both bone histomorphometry analysis and finite element analysis were then carried on according to the reconstructed three dimensional models. Finally, the changes of bone tissue in different periods were compared quantitatively. Histomorphometry analysis showed that the structure of the trabecular in osteoporosis degraded as the bone volume decreased. For femurs, the bone volume fraction (Bone volume/ Total volume, BV/TV) decreased from 69% to 43%. That led to the increase of the thickness of trabecular separation (from 45.05μ m to 97.09μ m) and the reduction of the number of trabecular (from 7.99 mm-1 to 5.97mm-1). Simulation of various mechanical tests with finite element analysis (FEA) indicated that, with the exacerbation of osteoporosis, the bones' ability of resistance to compression, bending and torsion gradually became weaker. The compression stiffness of femurs decreased from 1770.96 Fμ m−1 to 697.41 Fμ m−1, the bending and torsion stiffness were from 1390.80 Fμ m−1 to 566.11 Fμ m−1 and from 2957.28N.m/o to 691.31 N.m/o respectively, indicated the decrease of bone strength, and it matched the histomorphometry analysis. This study suggested that FEA and synchrotron radiation were excellent methods for analysing bone strength conbined with histomorphometry analysis

  10. Finite element analysis of osteoporosis models based on synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, W.; Xu, J.; Zhao, J.; Sun, J.

    2016-04-01

    With growing pressure of social aging, China has to face the increasing population of osteoporosis patients as well as the whole world. Recently synchrotron radiation has become an essential tool for biomedical exploration with advantage of high resolution and high stability. In order to study characteristic changes in different stages of primary osteoporosis, this research focused on the different periods of osteoporosis of rats based on synchrotron radiation. Both bone histomorphometry analysis and finite element analysis were then carried on according to the reconstructed three dimensional models. Finally, the changes of bone tissue in different periods were compared quantitatively. Histomorphometry analysis showed that the structure of the trabecular in osteoporosis degraded as the bone volume decreased. For femurs, the bone volume fraction (Bone volume/ Total volume, BV/TV) decreased from 69% to 43%. That led to the increase of the thickness of trabecular separation (from 45.05μ m to 97.09μ m) and the reduction of the number of trabecular (from 7.99 mm-1 to 5.97mm-1). Simulation of various mechanical tests with finite element analysis (FEA) indicated that, with the exacerbation of osteoporosis, the bones' ability of resistance to compression, bending and torsion gradually became weaker. The compression stiffness of femurs decreased from 1770.96 Fμ m-1 to 697.41 Fμ m-1, the bending and torsion stiffness were from 1390.80 Fμ m-1 to 566.11 Fμ m-1 and from 2957.28N.m/o to 691.31 N.m/o respectively, indicated the decrease of bone strength, and it matched the histomorphometry analysis. This study suggested that FEA and synchrotron radiation were excellent methods for analysing bone strength conbined with histomorphometry analysis.

  11. Synchrotron radiation XRF imaging techniques at the Brazil-LNLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis is a well-established method for quantitative multi-elemental bulk analysis. The use of a synchrotron radiation source allows constructing effective x-ray microprobes for study trace elements in small (nanogram) samples or their distributions with high spatial resolution. Since its operation, the XRF fluorescence beamline of the LNLS has offered to the user community several hard x-ray microprobes configurations to develop microscopic x-ray fluorescence analysis. The initially developed setup consisted of a fine conical monocapillary that allows condensing the polychromatic synchrotron beam down to an area of 20 microns in diameter. Novel strategies are now routinely in use or being installed at several synchrotron laboratories that require determining the 3D compositional structure of minor and trace elements in specific samples. These experimental setups take advantages of the high penetration depth of the x-rays (several orders of magnitude higher than the microbeam size). These alternative (microanalytical) methods are called x-ray fluorescence microtomography and confocal micro-XRF. This lecture intends to give a general description of all above configurations, showing their advantages/disadvantages and also pretends to show some specific applications carried out at the XRF Fluorescence beamline of the LNLS. (author)

  12. Synchrotron radiation XRF imaging techniques at the Brazil-LNLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Carlos A., E-mail: perez@lnls.br [X-ray Fluorescence and Absorption Group, Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: The X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis is a well-established method for quantitative multi-elemental bulk analysis. The use of a synchrotron radiation source allows constructing effective x-ray microprobes for study trace elements in small (nanogram) samples or their distributions with high spatial resolution. Since its operation, the XRF fluorescence beamline of the LNLS has offered to the user community several hard x-ray microprobes configurations to develop microscopic x-ray fluorescence analysis. The initially developed setup consisted of a fine conical monocapillary that allows condensing the polychromatic synchrotron beam down to an area of 20 microns in diameter. Novel strategies are now routinely in use or being installed at several synchrotron laboratories that require determining the 3D compositional structure of minor and trace elements in specific samples. These experimental setups take advantages of the high penetration depth of the x-rays (several orders of magnitude higher than the microbeam size). These alternative (microanalytical) methods are called x-ray fluorescence microtomography and confocal micro-XRF. This lecture intends to give a general description of all above configurations, showing their advantages/disadvantages and also pretends to show some specific applications carried out at the XRF Fluorescence beamline of the LNLS. (author)

  13. Accelerator system for the Central Japan Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accelerator system for Central Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Facility that consists of 50MeV electron S-band linac, 1.2GeV full energy booster synchrotron and 1.2GeV storage ring, has been constructed. Eight 1.4T bending magnets and four 5T superconducting magnet with compact refrigerator system provide beam lines. For top-up operation, the 1ns single bunch electron beam from 50MeV injector linac is injected by on-axis injection scheme and accelerated up to 1.2GeV at booster synchrotron. The timing system is designed for injection from booster ring is possible for any bunch position of storage ring. To improve efficiency of booster injection, the electron gun trigger and RF frequency of 2856MHz is synchronized with storage ring frequency of 499.654MHz. The EPICS control system is used with timing control system for linac, pulse magnet and also for booster pattern memory system. The beam commissioning for 1.2GeV storage ring has been progressing. (author)

  14. Longitudinal bunch dynamics study with coherent synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billinghurst, B. E.; Bergstrom, J. C.; Baribeau, C.; Batten, T.; May, T. E.; Vogt, J. M.; Wurtz, W. A.

    2016-02-01

    An electron bunch circulating in a storage ring constitutes a dynamical system with both longitudinal and transverse degrees of freedom. Through a self-interaction with the wakefields created by the bunch, certain of these degrees may get excited, defining a set of eigenmodes analogous to a spectroscopic series. The present study focuses on the longitudinal modes of a single bunch. The excitation of a mode appears as an amplitude modulation at the mode frequency of the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) emitted by the bunch. The modulations are superimposed on a much larger continuum from CSR emission in the continuous mode. A given eigenmode is classified by the integer m which is the ratio of the mode frequency to the synchrotron frequency. The present measurements extend up to m =8 and focus on the region near the instability thresholds. At threshold the modes are excited sequentially, resembling a staircase when the mode frequencies are plotted as a function of bunch length or synchrotron frequency. Adjacent modes are observed to coexist at the boundaries between the modes. An energy-independent correlation is observed between the threshold current for an instability and the corresponding zero-current bunch length. Measurements were made at five beam energies between 1.0 and 2.9 GeV at the Canadian Light Source. The CSR was measured in the time domain using an unbiased Schottky diode spanning 50-75 GHz.

  15. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory activity report for 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, S.; Cantwell, K. [eds.

    1988-12-31

    During 1987, SSRL achieved many significant advances and reached several major milestones utilizing both SPEAR and PEP as synchrotron radiation sources as described in this report. Perhaps the following two are worthy of particular mention: (1) SPEAR reached an all time high of 4,190 delivered user-shifts during calendar year 1987, highlights of the many scientific results are given; (2) during a 12 day run in December of 1987, PEP was operated in a low emittance mode (calculated emittance 6.4 nanometer-radians) at 7.1 GeV with currents up to 33 mA. A second undulator beam line on PEP was commissioned during this run and used to record many spectra showing the extremely high brightness of the radiation. PEP is now by far the highest brightness synchrotron radiation source in the world. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) laboratory operations; (2) accelerator physics programs; (3) experimental facilities; (4) engineering division; (5) conferences and workshops; (6) SSRL organization; (7) experimental progress reports; (8) active proposals; (9) SSRL experiments and proposals by institution; and (10) SSRL publications.

  16. Synchrotron-Radiation Photon Distribution for Highest Energy Circular Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Maury Cuna, GHI; Dugan, G; Zimmermann, F

    2013-01-01

    At high energies, beam-induced synchrotron radiation is an important source of heating, beam-related vacuum pressure increase, and primary photoelectrons, which can give rise to an electron cloud. The photon distribution along the beam pipe wall is a key input to codes such as ECLOUD and PyECLOUD, which model the electron cloud build-up. For future high-energy colliders, like TLEP or SHE-LHC, photon stops and antechambers are considered in order to facilitate cooling and vacuum pressure control. We use the Synrad3D code developed at Cornell to simulate the photon distribution for the LHC.

  17. Synchrotron-Radiation Photon Distributions for Highest Energy Circular Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Maury Cuna, G H I; Dugan, G; Zimmermann, F

    2013-01-01

    At high energies, beam-induced synchrotron radiation is an important source of heating, beam-related vacuum pressure increase, and primary photoelectrons, which can give rise to an electron cloud. The photon distribution along the beam pipe wall is a key input to codes such as ECLOUD and PyECLOUD, which model the electron cloud build-up. For future high-energy colliders, like TLEP or SHE-LHC, photon stops and antechambers are considered in order to facilitate cooling and vacuum pressure control. We use the Synrad3D code developed at Cornell to simulate the photon distribution for the LHC.

  18. Measurement of parameters in Indus-2 synchrotron radiation source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghodke, A. D.; Husain, Riyasat; Kumar, Pradeep; Yadav, Surendra; Puntambekar, T. A. [Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, 452013, Indore (India)

    2012-10-15

    The paper presents the measurement of optics parameters in Indus-2 synchrotron radiation source, which include betatron tune, beta function, dispersion function, natural chromaticity, corrected chromaticity, central RF frequency, momentum compaction factor, and linear betatron coupling. Two methods were used for beta function measurement; a conventional quadrupole scan method and a method using the fitting of the orbit response matrix. A robust Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was used for nonlinear least square fitting of the orbit response matrix. In this paper, detailed methods for the parameter measurements are described. The measured results are discussed and compared with the theoretical values obtained using accelerator simulation code Accelerator Toolbox in MATLAB.

  19. Opportunities for atomic physics with hard synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction of third-generation synchrotron radiation facilities places atomic and molecular scientists at the threshold of extraordinary opportunities. Areas of potential interest for the APS in atomic physics are: (1) exploration of relativistic and QED effects which become prominent in inner shells and at high Z; (2) total photon interaction cross sections; (3) scattering; (4) fluorescence; (5) photo- and Auger-electron spectrometries; and (6) ion spectrometry. A special regime in which the APS will lend access to unprecedented exploration is atomic inner-shell phenomena

  20. Measurement of parameters in Indus-2 synchrotron radiation source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodke, A D; Husain, Riyasat; Kumar, Pradeep; Yadav, Surendra; Puntambekar, T A

    2012-10-01

    The paper presents the measurement of optics parameters in Indus-2 synchrotron radiation source, which include betatron tune, beta function, dispersion function, natural chromaticity, corrected chromaticity, central RF frequency, momentum compaction factor, and linear betatron coupling. Two methods were used for beta function measurement; a conventional quadrupole scan method and a method using the fitting of the orbit response matrix. A robust Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was used for nonlinear least square fitting of the orbit response matrix. In this paper, detailed methods for the parameter measurements are described. The measured results are discussed and compared with the theoretical values obtained using accelerator simulation code Accelerator Toolbox in MATLAB.

  1. Synchrotron radiation induced fluorescence spectroscopy of gas phase molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Ruiz, Jesús

    2004-01-01

    A new experimental set-up for gas phase fluorescence studies using synchrotron radiation has been designed and constructed to perform simultaneously total and dispersed fluorescence measurements. Neutral photodissociation of CO has been investigated after excitation with 19-26 eV photons. Fluorescence from 3p 3P, 3p 3S and 3p 1D excited states in carbon was recorded and interpreted by ab initio calculations. The population and dissociation of states belonging to the C and D Rydberg series in ...

  2. Quantitative X-ray microtomography with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donath, T. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Materialforschung

    2007-07-01

    Synchrotron-radiation-based computed microtomography (SR{sub {mu}}CT) is an established method for the examination of volume structures. It allows to measure the x-ray attenuation coefficient of a specimen three-dimensionally with a spatial resolution of about one micrometer. In contrast to conventional x-ray sources (x-ray tubes), the unique properties of synchrotron radiation enable quantitative measurements that do not suffer from beam-hardening artifacts. During this work the capabilities for quantitative SR{sub {mu}}CT measurements have been further improved by enhancements that were made to the SR{sub {mu}}CT apparatus and to the reconstruction chain. For high-resolution SR{sub {mu}}CT an x-ray camera consisting of luminescent screen (x-ray phosphor), lens system, and CCD camera was used. A significant suppression of blur that is caused by reflections inside the luminescent screen could be achieved by application of an absorbing optical coating to the screen surface. It is shown that blur and ring artifacts in the tomographic reconstructions are thereby drastically reduced. Furthermore, a robust and objective method for the determination of the center of rotation in projection data (sinograms) is presented that achieves sub-pixel precision. By implementation of this method into the reconstruction chain, complete automation of the reconstruction process has been achieved. Examples of quantitative SR{sub {mu}}CT studies conducted at the Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor HASYLAB at the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY are presented and used for the demonstration of the achieved enhancements. (orig.)

  3. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory activity report for 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantwell, K. [ed.

    1987-12-31

    1986 was another year of major advances for SSRL as the ultimate capabilities of PEP as a synchrotron radiation source became more apparent and a second PEP beam line was initiated, while effective development and utilization of SPEAR proceeded. Given these various PEP developments, SSRL abandoned its plans for a separate diffraction limited ring, as they abandoned their plans for a 6--7 GeV ring of the APS type last year. It has become increasingly apparent that SSRL should concentrate on developing SPEAR and PEP as synchrotron radiation sources. Consequently, initial planning for a 3 GeV booster synchrotron injector for SPEAR was performed in 1986, with a proposal to the Department of Energy resulting. As described in Chapter 2, the New Rings Group and the Machine Physics Group were combined into one Accelerator Physics Group. This group is focusing mainly on the improvement of SPEAR`s operating conditions and on planning for the conversion of PEP into a fourth generation x-ray source. Considerable emphasis is also being given to the training of accelerator physics graduate students. At the same time, several improvements of SSRL`s existing facilities were made. These are described in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 describes new SSRL beam lines being commissioned. Chapter 5 discusses SSRL`s present construction projects. Chapter 6 discusses a number of projects presently underway in the engineering division. Chapter 7 describes SSRL`s advisory panels while Chapter 8 discusses SSRL`s overall organization. Chapter 9 describes the experimental progress reports.

  4. Study of silicon pixel sensor for synchrotron radiation detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen-Jie; Jia, Yun-Cong; Hu, Ling-Fei; Liu, Peng; Yin, Hua-Xiang

    2016-03-01

    The silicon pixel sensor (SPS) is one of the key components of hybrid pixel single-photon-counting detectors for synchrotron radiation X-ray detection (SRD). In this paper, the design, fabrication, and characterization of SPSs for single beam X-ray photon detection is reported. The designed pixel sensor is a p+-in-n structure with guard-ring structures operated in full-depletion mode and is fabricated on 4-inch, N type, 320 μm thick, high-resistivity silicon wafers by a general Si planar process. To achieve high energy resolution of X-rays and obtain low dark current and high breakdown voltage as well as appropriate depletion voltage of the SPS, a series of technical optimizations of device structure and fabrication process are explored. With optimized device structure and fabrication process, excellent SPS characteristics with dark current of 2 nA/cm2, full depletion voltage 150 V are achieved. The fabricated SPSs are wire bonded to ASIC circuits and tested for the performance of X-ray response to the 1W2B synchrotron beam line of the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The measured S-curves for SRD demonstrate a high discrimination for different energy X-rays. The extracted energy resolution is high (10 keV) and the linear properties between input photo energy and the equivalent generator amplitude are well established. It confirmed that the fabricated SPSs have a good energy linearity and high count rate with the optimized technologies. The technology is expected to have a promising application in the development of a large scale SRD system for the Beijing Advanced Photon Source. Supported by Prefabrication Research of Beijing Advanced Photon Source (R&D for BAPS) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11335010)

  5. Scaling Behavior of Circular Colliders Dominated by Synchrotron Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Talman, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The quite low Higgs particle mass makes it natural for the next high energy facility to be a circular e+e- Higgs factory and, after that, a next-generation p,p collider in the same tunnel. Surveying the luminosity-limiting phenomena of synchrotron radiation power loss, beam-beam interaction limitations, and beamstrahlung, scaling laws are established that fix all parameters of the Higgs factory, as functions of assumed radius $r$, and RF power $P$. at least to a first approximation. Historically the accelerator formalisms of electron and hadron rings have been distinguished largely by the importance of synchrotron radiation for electrons, and its unimportance for protons. While electron beams equilibrate within seconds, proton beam distributions have survived largely intact for extended periods. For future hadron colliders, this distinction will no longer be valid. This will have a large impact on the design of the future FCC-pp proton collider whose parameters can be extrapolated using formulas previously ap...

  6. Infrared synchrotron radiation: from condensed matter to biology researches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The infrared spectroscopy is probably the oldest spectroscopic method applied to investigate materials and physico-chemical phenomena. Nowadays, infrared spectroscopy represents the characterization technique most applied in the industry and in many technological processes. In the last decades a significant progress has been achieved in the use of intense and brillant infrared emission from electron storage rings previously used only as VUV and X-ray sources. In the infrared range the low energy of the electron beam does not affect the synchrotron radiation spectral distribution, while high current will make storage rings the most brillant infrared sources to be used for infrared spectroscopy and micro-spectroscopy. Infrared micro-spectroscopy is a unique technique that combines microscopy and spectroscopy for purposes of micro-analysis. Spatial resolution, within a microscopic field of view, is the goal of the modern infrared micro-spectroscopy applied to condensed matter physics, material science, biophysics, and now to medicine. Although limited in spatial resolution, infrared is able to resolve chemistry using the contrast of the absorption lines. Fourier transform-infrared micro-spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation is now able to collect data with 2-4 cm-1 resolution on the scale of 10-100 seconds up to an area of a few microns opening a new scenario: infrared spectroscopy of entire the cells and tissue. Moreover, distributions of functional groups such as proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids can be achieved inside a single living cell with a spatial resolution of a few microns. (author)

  7. Research on atmospheric corrosion of steel using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correlation between local structure around Cr in the protective rust layer on weathering steel and protective performance of the rust layer is presented as an example of corrosion research using synchrotron radiation which has recently been applied in various research fields as a useful tool. In addition, in situ observation of initial process of rust formation on steel is also mentioned. It was pointed out by considering the X-ray absorption fine structure spectra that the nanostructure of the protective rust layer on weathering steel primarily comprises of small Cr-goethite crystals containing surface adsorbed and/or intergranular CrOx3-2X complex anions. This CrOx3-2X explains the protective performance of the rust layer originated by dense aggregation of fine crystals with cation selectivity of the Cr-goethite. It is very advantageous to employ white X-rays for in situ observation of rusting process of a carbon steel covered with electrolyte thin films because rust structure might change very quickly. This in situ observation revealed the effect of ion species on the change in rust phase during wet/dry repeating. It can be said that application of synchrotron radiation on corrosion research is so useful to understand the nanostructure of surface oxides which closely relate to corrosion behavior of metals and alloys. (author)

  8. Synchrotron radiation in transactinium research report of the workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on the following topics. The advanced light source U8 undulator beamline, 20--300 eV; gas-phase actinide studies with synchrotron radiation; atomic structure calculations for heavy atoms; flux growth of single crystal uranium intermetallics: Extension to transuranics; x-ray absorption near-edge structure studies of actinide compounds; surface as a new stage for studying actinides: Theoretical study of the surface electronic structure of uranium; magnetic x-ray scattering experiments at resonant energies; beamline instruments for radioactive materials; the search for x-ray absorption magnetic circular dichroism in actinide materials: preliminary experiments using UFe{sub 2} and U-S; the laser plasma laboratory light source: a source of preliminary transuranic data; electron spectroscopy of heavy fermion actinide materials; study of thin layers of actinides. Present status and future use of synchrotron radiation; electronic structure and correlated-electron theory for actinide materials; and heavy fermion and kondo phenomena in actinide materials.

  9. Synchrotron radiation in transactinium research report of the workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on the following topics. The advanced light source U8 undulator beamline, 20--300 eV; gas-phase actinide studies with synchrotron radiation; atomic structure calculations for heavy atoms; flux growth of single crystal uranium intermetallics: Extension to transuranics; x-ray absorption near-edge structure studies of actinide compounds; surface as a new stage for studying actinides: Theoretical study of the surface electronic structure of uranium; magnetic x-ray scattering experiments at resonant energies; beamline instruments for radioactive materials; the search for x-ray absorption magnetic circular dichroism in actinide materials: preliminary experiments using UFe[sub 2] and U-S; the laser plasma laboratory light source: a source of preliminary transuranic data; electron spectroscopy of heavy fermion actinide materials; study of thin layers of actinides. Present status and future use of synchrotron radiation; electronic structure and correlated-electron theory for actinide materials; and heavy fermion and kondo phenomena in actinide materials.

  10. High pressure x-ray diffraction techniques with synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Liu

    2016-07-01

    This article summarizes the developments of experimental techniques for high pressure x-ray diffraction (XRD) in diamond anvil cells (DACs) using synchrotron radiation. Basic principles and experimental methods for various diffraction geometry are described, including powder diffraction, single crystal diffraction, radial diffraction, as well as coupling with laser heating system. Resolution in d-spacing of different diffraction modes is discussed. More recent progress, such as extended application of single crystal diffraction for measurements of multigrain and electron density distribution, time-resolved diffraction with dynamic DAC and development of modulated heating techniques are briefly introduced. The current status of the high pressure beamline at BSRF (Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility) and some results are also presented. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 10875142, 11079040, and 11075175). The 4W2 beamline of BSRF was supported by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant Nos. KJCX2-SW-N20, KJCX2-SW-N03, and SYGNS04).

  11. A phase-space beam position monitor for synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samadi, Nazanin, E-mail: nazanin.samadi@usask.ca [University of Saskatchewan, 107 Wiggins Road, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Bassey, Bassey; Martinson, Mercedes [University of Saskatchewan, 116 Science Place, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Belev, George; Dallin, Les; Jong, Mark de [Canadian Light Source, 44 Innovation Boulevard, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Chapman, Dean [University of Saskatchewan, 107 Wiggins Road, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2015-06-25

    A system has been developed to measure the vertical position and angle of the electron beam at a single location from a synchrotron source. The system uses a monochromator tuned to the absorption edge of a contrast material and has a sensitivity comparable with other beam position monitors. The stability of the photon beam position on synchrotron beamlines is critical for most if not all synchrotron radiation experiments. The position of the beam at the experiment or optical element location is set by the position and angle of the electron beam source as it traverses the magnetic field of the bend-magnet or insertion device. Thus an ideal photon beam monitor would be able to simultaneously measure the photon beam’s position and angle, and thus infer the electron beam’s position in phase space. X-ray diffraction is commonly used to prepare monochromatic beams on X-ray beamlines usually in the form of a double-crystal monochromator. Diffraction couples the photon wavelength or energy to the incident angle on the lattice planes within the crystal. The beam from such a monochromator will contain a spread of energies due to the vertical divergence of the photon beam from the source. This range of energies can easily cover the absorption edge of a filter element such as iodine at 33.17 keV. A vertical profile measurement of the photon beam footprint with and without the filter can be used to determine the vertical centroid position and angle of the photon beam. In the measurements described here an imaging detector is used to measure these vertical profiles with an iodine filter that horizontally covers part of the monochromatic beam. The goal was to investigate the use of a combined monochromator, filter and detector as a phase-space beam position monitor. The system was tested for sensitivity to position and angle under a number of synchrotron operating conditions, such as normal operations and special operating modes where the photon beam is intentionally altered

  12. Application of Synchrotron Radiation in the Geological and Environmental Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Keith W.

    1999-09-01

    A survey of some of the different ways that synchrotrons x-ray beams can be used to study geological materials is presented here. This field developed over a period of about 30 years, and it is clear that the geological community has made major use of the many synchrotrons facilities operating around the world during this time period. This was a time of rapid change in the operational performance of the synchrotrons facilities and this in itself has made it possible for geologists to develop new and more refined types of experiments that have yielded many important results. The advance in experimental techniques has proceeded in parallel with a revolution in computing techniques that has made it possible to cope with the great amount of data accumulated in the experiments. It is reasonable, although risky, to speculate about what might be expected to develop in the field during the next five- to ten-year period. It does seem plausible that the rate of change in the performance of what might now be called conventional x-ray storage rings will slow. There are no new facilities that are superior to the ESRF, ALS, APS, or SPring8 facilities under construction or about to come into operation. Thus, performance increments in the characteristics of the x-ray sources may come through the introduction of specialized devices in existing storage rings. The free electron laser is one example of a developing new technology that should take us into new regions of performance for radiation sources and stimulate new types of experimental applications. It is also likely that major advances will come through the introduction of more sophisticated experimental devices developed for use with the very recently operational undulator or wiggler sources at the newer rings. Improved x-ray optics and x-ray detectors and more powerful computation and high-speed data transmission can bring about more refined experiments and make the synchrotrons facilities more widely available to the

  13. Proceedings of the Meeting on Techniques and Applications of Synchrotron Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several techniques and applications of the synchrotron radiation used in Physics, Biophysics and Chemistry are extensively discussed. The major part of the subjects of the works treat with the possible implantation of a national synchrotron radiation laboratory in Brazil. (L.C.)

  14. The 2009 nobel prize in chemistry and the importance of synchrotron radiation technology in biochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of the structure of prokaryote ribosome, which was awarded the 2009 Nobel price in Chemistry, is reviewed. In the 20-year long history of this effort, synchrotron radiation facilities played an essential role. Such large scale scientific facilities are now indispensable in frontier research. Through the example of ribosome, the regional features of the support provided by synchrotron radiation is described. (authors)

  15. Theory of electromagnetic insertion devices and the corresponding synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumail, Muhammad; Tantawi, Sami G.

    2016-07-01

    Permanent magnet insertion devices (IDs), which are the main radiation generating devices in synchrotron light sources and free-electron lasers, use a time-invariant but space-periodic magnetic field to wiggle relativistic electrons for short-wavelength radiation generation. Recently, a high power microwave based undulator has also been successfully demonstrated at SLAC which promises the advantage of dynamic tunability of radiation spectrum and polarization. Such IDs employ transverse elecromagnetic fields which are periodic in both space and time to undulate the electrons. In this paper we develop a detailed theory of the principle of electromagnetic IDs from first principles for both linear and circular polarization modes. The electromagnetic equivalent definitions of undulator period (λu) and undulator deflection parameter (K ) are derived. In the inertial frame where the average momentum of the electron is zero, we obtain the figure-8-like trajectory for the linear polarization mode and the circular trajectory for the circular polarization mode. The corresponding radiation spectra and the intensity of harmonics is also calculated.

  16. Brightness and coherence of synchrotron radiation and high-gain free electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics of synchrotron radiation are reviewed with particular attention to its phase-space properties and coherence. The transition of the simple undulator radiation to more intense, more coherent high-gain free electron lasers, is discussed

  17. Study of Silicon Pixel Sensors for Synchrotron Radiation Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhen-Jie; Hu, Ling-Fei; Liu, Peng; Yin, Hua-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid pixel single-photon-counting detectors have been successfully employed and widely used in Synchrotron radiation X-ray detection. In this paper, the silicon pixel sensors for single X-ray photon detection, which operate in full-depletion mode have been studied. The pixel sensors were fabricated on 4-inch, N type, 320{\\mu}m thick, high-resistivity silicon wafers. The pixel sensors has a p+-in-n structure with varies of pixel size and gap size including guard-ring structures. Later, the pixel sensor was wire bonded to the ASIC circuits and tested for the performance of X-ray response in the synchrotron beam line (BSRF, 1W2B). From the S-curve scan, we could get the energy resolution and the linear properties between input energy and the equivalent generator amplitude. The pixel sensors we fabricated have a good energy linear and high count rate depending on the ASIC readout circuit. We get the 20% energy resolution above 10 keV photon energy via wire bonding. The energy resolution would get better if we b...

  18. Spin analysis of photoelectrons by using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the proceedings of a workshop on ''Spin analysis of photoelectrons by using synchrotron radiation'' held at National Laboratory for High Energy Physics on October 21, 1982. The purpose of this workshop was to examine the feasibility of the experiment on the spin analysis of photoelectrons at the photon factory which has started the operation in 1982. The workshop covered the following subjects on the spin analysis of photoelectrons and on the detectors for spin polarization; the experiment and the theory on the spin analysis of photoelectrons emitted from gas and solid, the detectors for measuring the spin polarization of electron beam, the test experiment on a Mott detector, and further problems. The proceedings contain five papers related to the above subjects. (Asami, T.)

  19. Measurement and analysis of coherent synchrotron radiation effects at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beutner, B.

    2007-12-15

    The vacuum-ultra-violet Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) is a linac driven SASE-FEL. High peak currents are produced using magnetic bunch compression chicanes. In these magnetic chicanes, the energy distribution along an electron bunch is changed by eff ects of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR). Energy changes in dispersive bunch compressor chicanes lead to transverse displacements along the bunch. These CSR induced displacements are studied using a transverse deflecting RF-structure. Experiments and simulations concerning the charge dependence of such transverse displacements are presented and analysed. In these experiments an over-compression scheme is used which reduces the peak current downstream the bunch compressor chicanes. Therefore other self interactions like space charge forces which might complicate the measurements are suppressed. Numerical simulations are used to analyse the beam dynamics under the influence of CSR forces. The results of these numerical simulations are compared with the data obtained in the over-compression experiments at FLASH. (orig.)

  20. Probing slow diffusion by nuclear reflectivity of synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Up to now, the radio-tracer technique has been used to study mesoscopic and macroscopic diffusion dynamics. The resolution of diffusion depths is limited by the detector efficiencies and sputtering resolving power. On the other hand scattering methods with atomic resolution like QMS, NRS and QNS have very limited range of accessible diffusion coefficients. We used a new method for grazing incidence nuclear resonant scattering of synchrotron radiation for investigations of iron self-diffusion in L10-FePt thin films and B2-FeSi metastable films. The method is highly sensitive. The Investigations are non-destructive and non-contaminating. It is possible to measure very low rates of diffusion of about 10-23m2s-1 to 10-25m2s-1. (author)

  1. Synchrotron radiation studies of inorganic-organic semiconductor interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, D A; Vearey-Roberts, A R; Bushell, A; Cabailh, G; O'Brien, S; Wells, J W; McGovern, I T; Dhanak, V R; Kampen, T U; Zahn, D R T; Batchelor, D

    2003-01-01

    Organic semiconductors (polymers and small molecules) are widely used in electronic and optoelectronic technologies. Many devices are based on multilayer structures where interfaces play a central role in device performance and where inorganic semiconductor models are inadequate. Synchrotron radiation techniques such as photoelectron spectroscopy (PES), near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) and X-ray standing wave spectroscopy (XSW) provide a powerful means of probing the structural, electronic and chemical properties of these interfaces. The surface-specificity of these techniques allows key properties to be monitored as the heterostructure is fabricated. This methodology has been directed at the growth of hybrid organic-inorganic semiconductor interfaces involving copper phthalocyanine as the model organic material and InSb and GaAs as the model inorganic semiconductor substrates. Core level PES has revealed that these interfaces are abrupt and chemically inert due to the weak bonding between t...

  2. Laser-heating-based active optics for synchrotron radiation applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Fugui; Zhang, Xiaowei

    2016-01-01

    Active optics has attracted considerable interest from researchers in synchrotron radiation facilities, because of its capacity for x-ray wavefront correction. Here, we report a novel and efficient technique for correcting or modulating a mirror surface profile based on laser-heating-induced thermal expansion. An experimental study of the characteristics of the surface thermal deformation response indicates that the power of a milliwatt laser yields a bump height as low as sub-nanometer scale, and that variation of the spot size modulates the response function width effectively. In addition, the capacity of the laser-heating technique for free-form surface modulation is demonstrated via a surface correction experiment. The developed method is a promising new approach towards effective x-ray active optics coupled with at-wavelength metrology techniques.

  3. Physics and dosimetry aspects of synchrotron radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today there is a growing need in the use of accelerators for various applications in the field of medicine, industry, defense, environmental sciences, food processing and in basic and applied research. Electron accelerators are widely used nowadays in the field of diagnosis, therapy, radiography, basic research, production of synchrotron radiation etc. For applications in medicine, industry and food processing, the energy of the accelerated electrons is usually less than about 10 MeV whereas it may extend to several TeV for research applications. Most of the high energy accelerators use radio-frequency for the acceleration and hence the particle beam is bunched or pulsed. The increase in the use of such machines with higher accelerated energy and pulsed in nature raises several safety issues

  4. Quantitative x-ray fluorescence analysis using monochromatic synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of high-intensity, tunable monochromatic x-rays for the quantitative analysis of biological and geochemical specimens at the 10-8 g level is described. Incident x-rays were obtained from the new LBL-EXXON permanent magnet wiggler beamline at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. The sample detector geometry was designed to make optimal use of polarization advantages for background reduction. Questions regarding the sensitivity and accuracy of the measurements were studied with particular emphasis on the advantages of tuning the x-ray energies for optimum excitation for specific elements. The implications of these measurements with respect to the use of x-ray microprobe beams will be discussed

  5. High density THz frequency comb produced by coherent synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Tammaro, S; Roy, P; Lampin, J -F; Ducournau, G; Cuisset, A; Hindle, F; Mouret, G

    2014-01-01

    Frequency combs (FC) have radically changed the landscape of frequency metrology and high-resolution spectroscopy investigations extending tremendously the achievable resolution while increasing signal to noise ratio. Initially developed in the visible and near-IR spectral regions, the use of FC has been expanded to mid-IR, extreme ultra-violet and X-ray. Significant effort is presently dedicated to the generation of FC at THz frequencies. One solution based on converting a stabilized optical frequency comb using a photoconductive terahertz emitter, remains hampered by the low available THz power. Another approach is based on active mode locked THz quantum-cascade-lasers providing intense FC over a relatively limited spectral extension. Alternatively, here we show that dense powerful THz FC is generated over one decade of frequency by coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). In this mode, the entire ring behaves in a similar fashion to a THz resonator wherein electron bunches emit powerful THz pulses quasi-synch...

  6. Possible applications of synchrotron radiation to x-ray astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the instrumentation for observations in high energy astrophysics has grown increasingly sophisticated, so too has the need developed for improved calibration techniques and facilities. Contemporary satellite-borne observatories contain high resolution spectrometers, polarimeters and x-ray image-forming optics focussed on position sensitive detectors. The Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility, a planned free-flying, shuttle-launched x-ray telescope (1.2 m diameter, 10 m focal length), will provide 0.5 arcsecond imagery over a several arcminute field and spectrometry with E/ΔE > 1000 in the energy range 0.1 to 8 keV. Other telescopes in the planning stage include the possibility of approx. 0.5 arcminute imagery at energies in excess of 100 keV. A few examples from the long list of calibration needs of inidvidual detectors and subsystems are listed as applications of synchrotron radiation

  7. Glass transition near the free surface studied by synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikorski, M.

    2008-06-15

    A comprehensive picture of the glass transition near the liquid/vapor interface of the model organic glass former dibutyl phthalate is presented in this work. Several surface-sensitive techniques using x-ray synchrotron radiation were applied to investigate the static and dynamic aspects of the formation of the glassy state from the supercooled liquid. The amorphous nature of dibutyl phthalate close to the free surface was confirmed by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction studies. Results from X-ray reflectivity measurements indicate a uniform electron density distribution close to the interface excluding the possibility of surface freezing down to 175 K. Dynamics on sub-{mu}m length-scales at the surface was studied with coherent synchrotron radiation via x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy. From the analysis of the dispersion relation of the surface modes, viscoelastic properties of the dibutyl phthalate are deduced. The Kelvin-Voigt model of viscoelastic media was found to describe well the properties of the liquid/vapor interface below room temperature. The data show that the viscosity at the interface matches the values reported for bulk dibutyl phthalate. The scaled relaxation rate at the surface agrees with the bulk data above 210 K. Upon approaching the glass transition temperature the free surface was observed to relax considerably faster close to the liquid/vapor interface than in bulk. The concept of higher relaxation rate at the free surface is also supported by the results of the quasielastic nuclear forward scattering experiment, during which dynamics on molecular length scales around the calorimetric glass transition temperature is studied. The data were analyzed using mode-coupling theory of the glass transition and the model of the liquid(glass)/vapor interface, predicting inhomogeneous dynamics near the surface. The quasielastic nuclear forward scattering data can be explained when the molecular mobility is assumed to decrease with the increasing

  8. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Activity report for 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The April, 1990 SPEAR synchrotron radiation run was one of the two or three best in SSRL's history. High currents were accumulated, ramping went easily, lifetimes were long, beam dumps were infrequent and the average current was 42.9 milliamps. In the one month of operation, 63 different experiments involving 208 scientists from 50 institutions received beam. The end-of-run summary forms completed by the experimenters indicated high levels of user satisfaction with the beam quality and with the outstanding support received from the SSRL technical and scientific staffs. These fine experimental conditions result largely from the SPEAR repairs and improvements performed during the past year and described in Section I. Also quite significant was Max Cornacchia's leadership of the SLAG staff. SPEAR's performance this past April stands in marked contrast to that of the January-March, 1989 run which is also described in Section I. It is, we hope, a harbinger of the operation which will be provided in FY '91, when the SPEAR injector project is completed and SPEAR is fully dedicated to synchrotron radiation research. Over the coming years, SSRL intends to give highest priority to increasing the effectiveness of SPEAR and its various beam lines. The beam line and facility improvements performed during 1989 are described in Section III. In order to concentrate effort on SSRL's three highest priorities prior to the March-April run: (1) to have a successful run, (2) to complete and commission the injector, and (3) to prepare to operate, maintain and improve the SPEAR/injector system, SSRL was reorganized. In the new organization, all the technical staff is contained in three groups: Accelerator Research and Operations Division, Injector Project and Photon Research and Operations Division, as described in Section IV. In spite of the limited effectiveness of the January-March, 1989 run, SSRL's users made significant scientific progress, as described in Section V of this report

  9. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Activity report for 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The April, 1990 SPEAR synchrotron radiation run was one of the two or three best in SSRL`s history. High currents were accumulated, ramping went easily, lifetimes were long, beam dumps were infrequent and the average current was 42.9 milliamps. In the one month of operation, 63 different experiments involving 208 scientists from 50 institutions received beam. The end-of-run summary forms completed by the experimenters indicated high levels of user satisfaction with the beam quality and with the outstanding support received from the SSRL technical and scientific staffs. These fine experimental conditions result largely from the SPEAR repairs and improvements performed during the past year and described in Section I. Also quite significant was Max Cornacchia`s leadership of the SLAG staff. SPEAR`s performance this past April stands in marked contrast to that of the January-March, 1989 run which is also described in Section I. It is, we hope, a harbinger of the operation which will be provided in FY `91, when the SPEAR injector project is completed and SPEAR is fully dedicated to synchrotron radiation research. Over the coming years, SSRL intends to give highest priority to increasing the effectiveness of SPEAR and its various beam lines. The beam line and facility improvements performed during 1989 are described in Section III. In order to concentrate effort on SSRL`s three highest priorities prior to the March-April run: (1) to have a successful run, (2) to complete and commission the injector, and (3) to prepare to operate, maintain and improve the SPEAR/injector system, SSRL was reorganized. In the new organization, all the technical staff is contained in three groups: Accelerator Research and Operations Division, Injector Project and Photon Research and Operations Division, as described in Section IV. In spite of the limited effectiveness of the January-March, 1989 run, SSRL`s users made significant scientific progress, as described in Section V of this report.

  10. Glass transition near the free surface studied by synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive picture of the glass transition near the liquid/vapor interface of the model organic glass former dibutyl phthalate is presented in this work. Several surface-sensitive techniques using x-ray synchrotron radiation were applied to investigate the static and dynamic aspects of the formation of the glassy state from the supercooled liquid. The amorphous nature of dibutyl phthalate close to the free surface was confirmed by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction studies. Results from X-ray reflectivity measurements indicate a uniform electron density distribution close to the interface excluding the possibility of surface freezing down to 175 K. Dynamics on sub-μm length-scales at the surface was studied with coherent synchrotron radiation via x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy. From the analysis of the dispersion relation of the surface modes, viscoelastic properties of the dibutyl phthalate are deduced. The Kelvin-Voigt model of viscoelastic media was found to describe well the properties of the liquid/vapor interface below room temperature. The data show that the viscosity at the interface matches the values reported for bulk dibutyl phthalate. The scaled relaxation rate at the surface agrees with the bulk data above 210 K. Upon approaching the glass transition temperature the free surface was observed to relax considerably faster close to the liquid/vapor interface than in bulk. The concept of higher relaxation rate at the free surface is also supported by the results of the quasielastic nuclear forward scattering experiment, during which dynamics on molecular length scales around the calorimetric glass transition temperature is studied. The data were analyzed using mode-coupling theory of the glass transition and the model of the liquid(glass)/vapor interface, predicting inhomogeneous dynamics near the surface. The quasielastic nuclear forward scattering data can be explained when the molecular mobility is assumed to decrease with the increasing

  11. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Activity report for 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For SSRL operations, 1988 was a year of stark contrasts. The first extended PEP parasitic running since the construction of our two beam lines on that storage ring took place in November and December. Four experiments discussed below, were performed and detailed operational procedures which allowed synchrotron radiation an high energy users to coexist were established. SSRL anticipates that there will be significant amounts of beam time when PEP is run again for high energy physics. On the other hand, activity on SPEAR consisted of brief parasitic running on the VUV lines in December when the ring was operated at 1.85 GeV for colliding beam experiments. There was no dedicated SPEAR running throughout the entire calendar year. This is the first time since dedicated SPEAR operation was initiated in 1980 that there was no such running. The decision was motivated by both cost and performance factors, as discussed in Section 1 of this report. Fortunately, SLAC and SSRL have reached an agreement on SPEAR and PEP dedicated time charges which eliminates the cost volatility which was so important in the cancellation of the June-July dedicated SPEAR run. As discussed in Section 2, the 3 GeV SPEAR injector construction is proceeding on budget and on schedule. The injector will overcome the difficulties associated with the SLC-era constraint of only two injections per day. SSR and SLAC have also embarked on a program to upgrade SPEAR to achieve high reliability and performance. As a consequence, SSRL's users may anticipate a highly effective SPEAR by 1991, at the latest. At that time, SPEAR is expected to be fully dedicated to synchrotron radiation research and operated by SSRL. Also contained in this report is a discussion of the improvements to SSRL's experimental facilities and highlights of the experiments of the past year

  12. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Activity report for 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantwell, K. [ed.

    1996-01-01

    For SSRL operations, 1988 was a year of stark contrasts. The first extended PEP parasitic running since the construction of our two beam lines on that storage ring took place in November and December. Four experiments discussed below, were performed and detailed operational procedures which allowed synchrotron radiation an high energy users to coexist were established. SSRL anticipates that there will be significant amounts of beam time when PEP is run again for high energy physics. On the other hand, activity on SPEAR consisted of brief parasitic running on the VUV lines in December when the ring was operated at 1.85 GeV for colliding beam experiments. There was no dedicated SPEAR running throughout the entire calendar year. This is the first time since dedicated SPEAR operation was initiated in 1980 that there was no such running. The decision was motivated by both cost and performance factors, as discussed in Section 1 of this report. Fortunately, SLAC and SSRL have reached an agreement on SPEAR and PEP dedicated time charges which eliminates the cost volatility which was so important in the cancellation of the June-July dedicated SPEAR run. As discussed in Section 2, the 3 GeV SPEAR injector construction is proceeding on budget and on schedule. The injector will overcome the difficulties associated with the SLC-era constraint of only two injections per day. SSR and SLAC have also embarked on a program to upgrade SPEAR to achieve high reliability and performance. As a consequence, SSRL`s users may anticipate a highly effective SPEAR by 1991, at the latest. At that time, SPEAR is expected to be fully dedicated to synchrotron radiation research and operated by SSRL. Also contained in this report is a discussion of the improvements to SSRL`s experimental facilities and highlights of the experiments of the past year.

  13. Efficient computation of coherent synchrotron radiation in a rectangular chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, Robert L.; Bizzozero, David A.

    2016-09-01

    We study coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in a perfectly conducting vacuum chamber of rectangular cross section, in a formalism allowing an arbitrary sequence of bends and straight sections. We apply the paraxial method in the frequency domain, with a Fourier development in the vertical coordinate but with no other mode expansions. A line charge source is handled numerically by a new method that rids the equations of singularities through a change of dependent variable. The resulting algorithm is fast compared to earlier methods, works for short bunches with complicated structure, and yields all six field components at any space-time point. As an example we compute the tangential magnetic field at the walls. From that one can make a perturbative treatment of the Poynting flux to estimate the energy deposited in resistive walls. The calculation was motivated by a design issue for LCLS-II, the question of how much wall heating from CSR occurs in the last bend of a bunch compressor and the following straight section. Working with a realistic longitudinal bunch form of r.m.s. length 10.4 μ m and a charge of 100 pC we conclude that the radiated power is quite small (28 W at a 1 MHz repetition rate), and all radiated energy is absorbed in the walls within 7 m along the straight section.

  14. The radiation measurement applied to beam lifetime study on the synchrotron radiation facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuxiong; Li, Juexin; Liu, Zuping; Cui, Yonggang; Gong, Guanghua; Shao, Beibei

    2003-06-01

    To collect beam loss information from an accelerator radiation field is helpful to machine study and operation. For a synchrotron radiation storage ring, shower electrons give a distinct clue to loss location and a BLM-XS model detector is suitable to detect them. Recently, we set up a new beam loss monitoring system by this method for National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) storage ring. It does not interfere with the vacuum chamber and machine operation. Different from other systems, the detectors are used in pairs, fixed on opposite sides of the chamber separately. Some interesting phenomena about beam lifetime were observed. We located exactly where an excessive beam loss took place during ramping process and solved the problem. It was proved that gas accumulated at the front ends of photo-beam lines strongly impacted the electron beam and led to beam lifetime decreases. The cause of beam lifetime decrease because of superconducting wiggler is discussed.

  15. Ionising radiation safety training in the Australian defence organisation (ADO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Training personnel in ionising radiation safety within the Australian Defence Organisation (ADO) requires addressing some unique features of an organisation employing both military and civilian personnel. Activities may include those of a civil nature (such as industrial and medical radiography), specific military requirements (for training and emergency response) and scientific research and development. Some personnel may be assigned to full-time duties associated with radiation, while others may be designated as radiation protection officers in remote units with few duties to perform in this role. A further complication is that most military personnel are subjected to postings at regular intervals. The ADO's Directorate of Defence Occupational Health and Safety has established an Ionising Radiation Safety Subcommittee to monitor not only the adequacy of the internal Ionising Radiation Safety Manual but also the training requirements. A training course, responding to these requirements, has been developed to emphasise: basic radiation theory and protection; operation of radiation monitors available in the ADO; an understanding of the Safety Manual; day-to-day radiation safety in units and establishments; and appropriate responses to radiation accidents and emergencies. In addition, students are briefed on a limited number of peripheral topics and participate in some site visits. Currently, two Courses are held annually, each with about twenty students. Most of the material is presented by ADO personnel with external contractor support. The three Courses held to date have proved sufficiently successful, both for the students and the ADO generally, to seek national accreditation through the Australian National Training Authority and, as a first step, competency standards have been identified

  16. Formation of relativistic jets. Magnetohydrodynamics and synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis, the formation of relativistic jets is investigated by means of special relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations and synchrotron radiative transfer. Our results show that the magnetohydrodynamic jet self-collimation paradigm can also be applied to the relativistic case. In the first part, jets launched from rotating hot accretion disk coronae are explored, leading to well collimated, but only mildly relativistic flows. Beyond the light-cylinder, the electric charge separation force balances the classical trans-field Lorentz force almost entirely, resulting in a decreased efficiency of acceleration and collimation in comparison to non-relativistic disk winds. In the second part, we examine Poynting dominated flows of various electric current distributions. By following the outflow for over 3000 Schwarzschild radii, highly relativistic jets of Lorentz factor Γ>or similar 8 and half-opening angles below 1 are obtained, providing dynamical models for the parsec scale jets of active galactic nuclei. Applying the magnetohydrodynamic structure of the quasi-stationary simulation models, we solve the relativistically beamed synchrotron radiation transport. This yields synthetic radiation maps and polarization patterns that can be used to confront high resolution radio and (sub-) mm observations of nearby active galactic nuclei. Relativistic motion together with the helical magnetic fields of the jet formation site imprint a clear signature on the observed polarization and Faraday rotation. In particular, asymmetries in the polarization direction across the jet can disclose the handedness of the magnetic helix and thus the spin direction of the central engine. Finally, we show first results from fully three-dimensional, high resolution adaptive mesh refinement simulations of jet formation from a rotating magnetosphere and examine the jet stability. Relativistic field-line rotation leads to an electric charge separation force that opposes the magnetic

  17. Synchrotron X-radiation studies of C-reactive proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myles, D.A.A.

    1992-01-01

    C-reactive proteins (CRP) constitute a ubiquitous and highly conserved family of calcium binding, pentameric plasma proteins. Although the precise biological function of CRP is uncertain, known properties suggest a role in host defence. The structure determination aims to elucidate key structural aspects of the interaction of CRP with specific biological ligands, leading towards the ultimate determination of the biological function. The initial and often rate limiting step in biological crystallography is the reproducible growth of well ordered crystals. Human CRP has been crystallised in two tetragonal forms (P4[sub 1]22 (form I) and P4[sub 2]22 (form II)) with closely similar unit cells, often twinned together. Heterogeneity due to dissociation of the oligomer is identified as a major factor limiting reproducible crystal growth. Other problems, of the large unit cell (>300[angstrom]), weak diffraction and extreme sensitivity to X-rays, have been overcome using the intense Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS) at the S.E.R.C. Daresbury Laboratory. X-ray data sets to 3.1[angstrom] and 3.75[angstrom] resolution have been collected from the form I and form II crystals, respectively. Rotation function studies identify a pentamer in almost identical orientations in both crystal forms, and an artefactual 52 molecular pseudo-symmetry at low resolution. Despite extensive screening, structure determination has been delayed by the lack of suitable heavy atom derivatives. The analogous CRP from the invertebrate Limulus polyphemus has been crystallised in six polymorphic forms, two of which are suitable for structure analysis. Synchrotron X-ray data extending to 3.1[angstrom] have been collected from small crystals ([approximately]0.1mm) of one form. Rotation function analyses corroborate the 222 molecular point group symmetry prescribe by the crystal packing.

  18. Serial crystallography on in vivo grown microcrystals using synchrotron radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius Gati

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Crystal structure determinations of biological macromolecules are limited by the availability of sufficiently sized crystals and by the fact that crystal quality deteriorates during data collection owing to radiation damage. Exploiting a micrometre-sized X-ray beam, high-precision diffractometry and shutterless data acquisition with a pixel-array detector, a strategy for collecting data from many micrometre-sized crystals presented to an X-ray beam in a vitrified suspension is demonstrated. By combining diffraction data from 80 Trypanosoma brucei procathepsin B crystals with an average volume of 9 µm3, a complete data set to 3.0 Å resolution has been assembled. The data allowed the refinement of a structural model that is consistent with that previously obtained using free-electron laser radiation, providing mutual validation. Further improvements of the serial synchrotron crystallography technique and its combination with serial femtosecond crystallography are discussed that may allow the determination of high-resolution structures of micrometre-sized crystals.

  19. Polycapillary X-ray lens for the secondary focusing Beijing synchrotron radiation source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yu-De; Lin Xiao-Yan; Liu Shi-Gang; He Jin-Long; Guo Fei; Sun Tian-Xi; Liu Peng

    2013-01-01

    According to intensity distribution of the synchrotron radiation source focused by a toroidal mirror at the Beijing synchrotron radiation biological macromolecule station,theoretical modeling of the Beijing synchrotron radiation source is developed for capillary optics.Using this theoretical modeling,the influences of the configuration curve of the polycapillary X-ray lens on transmission efficiency and working distance are analyzed.The experimental results of the transmission efficiency and working distance at the biological macromolecule station are in good agreement with the theoretical results.

  20. A Method for Ultrashort Electron Pulse Shape-Measurement Using Coherent Synchrotron Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Geloni, G A; Schneidmiller, E A; Yurkov, M V

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a method for nondestructive measurements of the longitudinal profile of sub-picosecond electron bunches for X-Ray Free Electron Lasers (XFELs). The method is based on the detection of the Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) spectrum produced by a bunch passing a dipole magnet system. This work also contains a systematic treatment of synchrotron radiation theory which lies at the basis of CSR. Standard theory of synchrotron radiation uses several approximations whose applicability limits are often forgotten: here we present a systematic discussion about these assumptions. Properties of coherent synchrotron radiation from an electron moving along an arc of a circle are then derived and discussed. We describe also an effective and practical diagnostic technique based on the utilization of an electromagnetic undulator to record the energy of the coherent radiation pulse into the central cone. This measurement must be repeated many times with different undulator resonant frequencies in or...

  1. Indus-2 Synchrotron Radiation Source: current status and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indus Synchrotron Radiation complex at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology at Indore, India houses two synchrotron radiation sources: Indus-1 and Indus-2. Indus-1 is a 450 MeV source emitting in VUV/ soft x-ray region and operating at 100 mA since 1999. Indus-2 is designed for 2.5 GeV, 300 mA operation and is operating at 2 GeV and 100 mA since March 2010 in 24x7 mode and a beam lifetime of about 22 hrs has been achieved. Operation at 2.5 GeV and 100 mA has recently been demonstrated with the addition of in-house developed solid state RF amplifiers. Indus-2 can accommodate 21 bending magnet (BM) and 5 insertion device (ID) beamlines. Sixteen BM beamlines have been planned and six BM beamlines namely i) Angle Dispersive XRD ii) Energy dispersive XRD iii) Energy dispersive EXAFS iv) Soft and deep x-ray lithography v) X-ray fluorescence micro-probe and vi) X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy beamlines have been commissioned. These are being used by researchers from different universities, national institutes and laboratories for carrying out several investigations. Two more beamlines namely 'Grazing incidence x-ray scattering' and 'Protein crystallography' are nearing commissioning. A number of materials research related problems have been investigated using these beamlines and several papers have already been published. Here we will report on the current status of the source, details of the beamlines already operational, beamlines to be commissioned soon and several up-gradation schemes that are being planned. Five IDs consisting of two soft x-ray planar undulators, one superconducting wavelength shifter / wiggler, one APPLE II soft x-ray helical undulator and one hard x-ray undulator will be installed during the next few years. Three new ID based beamli-nes for Atomic and Molecular physics, Angle integrated / Angle resolved PES and Magnetic Circular Dichroism experiments will be commissioned.

  2. Image quality evaluation of breast tomosynthesis with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malliori, A.; Bliznakova, K.; Speller, R. D.; Horrocks, J. A.; Rigon, L.; Tromba, G.; Pallikarakis, N. [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Patras, Patras 26500 (Greece); Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, London WVC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Clinical Physics CAU, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, London EC1A 7BE (United Kingdom); INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste 34127 (Italy); ELETTRA, Basovizza, Trieste 34012 (Italy); Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Patras, Patras 26500 (Greece)

    2012-09-15

    Purpose: This study investigates the image quality of tomosynthesis slices obtained from several acquisition sets with synchrotron radiation using a breast phantom incorporating details that mimic various breast lesions, in a heterogeneous background. Methods: A complex Breast phantom (MAMMAX) with a heterogeneous background and thickness that corresponds to 4.5 cm compressed breast with an average composition of 50% adipose and 50% glandular tissue was assembled using two commercial phantoms. Projection images using acquisition arcs of 24 Degree-Sign , 32 Degree-Sign , 40 Degree-Sign , 48 Degree-Sign , and 56 Degree-Sign at incident energy of 17 keV were obtained from the phantom with the synchrotron radiation for medical physics beamline at ELETTRA Synchrotron Light Laboratory. The total mean glandular dose was set equal to 2.5 mGy. Tomograms were reconstructed with simple multiple projection algorithm (MPA) and filtered MPA. In the latter case, a median filter, a sinc filter, and a combination of those two filters were applied on the experimental data prior to MPA reconstruction. Visual inspection, contrast to noise ratio, contrast, and artifact spread function were the figures of merit used in the evaluation of the visualisation and detection of low- and high-contrast breast features, as a function of the reconstruction algorithm and acquisition arc. To study the benefits of using monochromatic beams, single projection images at incident energies ranging from 14 to 27 keV were acquired with the same phantom and weighted to synthesize polychromatic images at a typical incident x-ray spectrum with W target. Results: Filters were optimised to reconstruct features with different attenuation characteristics and dimensions. In the case of 6 mm low-contrast details, improved visual appearance as well as higher contrast to noise ratio and contrast values were observed for the two filtered MPA algorithms that exploit the sinc filter. These features are better visualized

  3. Phase transitions of materials studied by synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synchrotron radiation is an excellent tool for studies of structural phase transitions. Among others it enables to follow the transition as a function of the parameter inducing the transition (e.g. pressure, temperature) and time. The latter possibility is due to the short recording times resulting from the high intensity of S.R. For these studies simultaneous recording of the whole diffraction pattern is of great importance. This is achieved either by using a monochromatic beam and a position sensitive detector (PSD) or by using X-ray energy dispersive diffraction (XED). The first method is described only briefly because of its analogy to the conventional method. In the XED method one uses a polychromatic 'white' incident beam, a fixed scattering angle and an energy dispersive detector. The main characteristics of the method is the simultaneous recording of the whole diffraction pattern and the fixed scattering angle. The XED method is discussed in some detail. (orig.) With 2 tabs., 15 figs., 23 refs

  4. Residual gas analysis system of synchrotron radiation source Indus-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indus-2 is a 2.5 GeV e- storage ring dedicated for its application as Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS) in the X-ray wavelength region. The beam lifetime is expected to be nearly 20 hours at 300 mA beam current with 2.5 GeV energy. The beam lifetime of 2.5 GeV storage ring is mainly dependent on the vacuum in the storage ring and on the species of gas molecules therein. The residual gas analysis provides the information about gas species present in the Indus-2 vacuum envelope. Eleven Residual Gas Analyzers (RGAs) were installed to know about the residual gas species present inside the Indus-2 vacuum system. A short overview of the installed RGA system is given in detail. During Indus-2 operation residual gas analysis is carried out with RGAs at the important locations. RGAs are also used for in-situ leak detection. This paper outlines the present status of Residual Gas Analysis (RGA) System on Indus-2, its performance over the last few years and their application as leak detector in Indus-2. (author)

  5. Quantitative analysis of biomedical samples using synchrotron radiation microbeams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ektessabi, Ali; Shikine, Shunsuke; Yoshida, Sohei

    2001-07-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) using a synchrotron radiation (SR) microbeam was applied to investigate distributions and concentrations of elements in single neurons of patients with neurodegenerative diseases. In this paper we introduce a computer code that has been developed to quantify the trace elements and matrix elements at the single cell level. This computer code has been used in studies of several important neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and parkinsonism-dementia complex (PDC), as well as in basic biological experiments to determine the elemental changes in cells due to incorporation of foreign metal elements. The substantial nigra (SN) tissue obtained from the autopsy specimens of patients with Guamanian parkinsonism-dementia complex (PDC) and control cases were examined. Quantitative XRF analysis showed that neuromelanin granules of Parkinsonian SN contained higher levels of Fe than those of the control. The concentrations were in the ranges of 2300-3100 ppm and 2000-2400 ppm respectively. On the contrary, Zn and Ni in neuromelanin granules of SN tissue from the PDC case were lower than those of the control. Especially Zn was less than 40 ppm in SN tissue from the PDC case while it was 560-810 ppm in the control. These changes are considered to be closely related to the neuro-degeneration and cell death.

  6. Cancellation of coherent synchrotron radiation kicks with optics balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mitri, S; Cornacchia, M; Spampinati, S

    2013-01-01

    Minimizing transverse emittance is essential in linear accelerators designed to deliver very high brightness electron beams. Emission of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR), as a contributing factor to emittance degradation, is an important phenomenon to this respect. A manner in which to cancel this perturbation by imposing certain symmetric conditions on the electron transport system has been suggested.We first expand on this idea by quantitatively relating the beam Courant-Snyder parameters to the emittance growth and by providing a general scheme of CSR suppression with asymmetric optics, provided it is properly balanced along the line. We present the first experimental evidence of this cancellation with the resultant optics balance of multiple CSR kicks: the transverse emittance of a 500 pC, sub-picosecond, high brightness electron beam is being preserved after the passage through the achromatic transfer line of the FERMI@Elettra free electron laser, and emittance growth is observed when the optics balance is intentionally broken. We finally show the agreement between the theoretical model and the experimental results. This study holds the promise of compact dispersive lines with relatively large bending angles, thus reducing costs for future electron facilities.

  7. Study of structural model of biological membranes by synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Cavalcanti, L P

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this work has been to study, from the structural point of view, the process of incorporation of various types of hydrophobic compounds into the lamellar phase of liposomes and multilayers of the zwitterionic phospholipid DPPC. X-ray diffraction and scattering techniques using synchrotron radiation, have been used to monitor changes of several bilayer systems. Thermotropic phase transitions as well as the order of the lamellar packing were studied in situ experiments. The behavior of the L beta' and L alpha phases was followed as a function of the water content in dispersions of DPPC multi lamellar vesicles with the addition of the alkaloid Ellipticine in several concentrations. The results showed a decrease in the temperature of the pre-transition as well as that of the main transition (P beta' ->L alpha). The decrease of the lamellar spacing as a function of temperature in the liquid crystalline phase leads to the description of the thermal compression coefficient in the L alpha phase. It wa...

  8. Synchrotron radiation macromolecular crystallography: science and spin-offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Helliwell

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A current overview of synchrotron radiation (SR in macromolecular crystallography (MX instrumentation, methods and applications is presented. Automation has been and remains a central development in the last decade, as have the rise of remote access and of industrial service provision. Results include a high number of Protein Data Bank depositions, with an increasing emphasis on the successful use of microcrystals. One future emphasis involves pushing the frontiers of using higher and lower photon energies. With the advent of X-ray free-electron lasers, closely linked to SR developments, the use of ever smaller samples such as nanocrystals, nanoclusters and single molecules is anticipated, as well as the opening up of femtosecond time-resolved diffraction structural studies. At SR sources, a very high-throughput assessment for the best crystal samples and the ability to tackle just a few micron and sub-micron crystals will become widespread. With higher speeds and larger detectors, diffraction data volumes are becoming long-term storage and archiving issues; the implications for today and the future are discussed. Together with the rise of the storage ring to its current pre-eminence in MX data provision, the growing tendency of central facility sites to offer other centralized facilities complementary to crystallography, such as cryo-electron microscopy and NMR, is a welcome development.

  9. Instrumentation at national facilities for synchrotron radiation topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synchrotron Radiation (SR) Topography is, like most SR experiments, small science carried out on a big science machine. This is a relatively new phenomenon in applied science and causes some disorientation in both the users and the funding agencies. The users are inconvenienced by the necessity to travel, sometimes very great distances, to perform their work, by the need to work 16 or 24 hour shifts when they arrive and by the probable unreliability of very large and complex machines compared to laboratory equipment. The government agencies, on the other hand, look at the cost of a large facility and fail to understand why solid-state and materials scientists are reluctant to accept the constraints of big science. These conflicts will doubtless continue. However, the users (and especially the new users) need to know how to best plan their experiments, which means that they require to know how well matched the system at each of the major facilities is to their experiments. We therefore discuss both the storage ring and the instrumentation characteristics at each of these SR x-ray facilities

  10. Photolithography by synchrotron radiation from Indus-1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lithography by Synchrotron Radiation (SR) requires high vacuum conditions because of strong absorption of SR by air. The direct removal of resist materials by SR results in substantial increase in pressure in the vacuum chamber during SR irradiation. Fundamental aspects of resist decomposition by SR from Indus-1 and 2 will be studied by means of mass spectroscopy of related gas as well as energy analyser, fixing the optimum parameters for energy exposure and annealing the resist structure. The experimental system, for the above studies, is a SS 316L+N multiport UHV chamber. It is connected through a gate valve to the UHV system. Working pressure is 1x10-6Pa. The chamber consists of 14 CF ports with various dimensions and are fitted with gauge heads, quadrupole mass analyser, appendage pumps and rotary manipulator to hold Si chips. A Hanovia UV source (110V, 600W) is used for simulation studies of resist decomposition. A highly sensitive semiconductor thermopile is incorporated to measure the irradiated energy on the resist coated Si wafers. This system is well suited to study chemical reactions induced by UV, soft x-ray exposure of Novolac-based photoresists, from Indus-1. The x-ray resists are investigated in the UHV chamber which will be at the output of beam line of SRS to control process latitude, as resist and resin normally outgass significant quantities of sensitizer by way of gaseous byproducts. (author). 4 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  11. Soft X-ray diffractometer for synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Gau, T S; Liu, K Y; Chung, C H; Chen, C K; Lai, S C; Shu, C H; Huang, Y S; Chao, C H; Lee, Y R; Chen, C T; Chang, S L

    2001-01-01

    An ultra-high vacuum soft X-ray diffractometer has been constructed and commissioned at the Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (SRRC) to investigate materials structures in mesoscale. The diffractometer, housed in a UHV tank, consists of a 6-circle goniometer, together with the systems for beam-collimation, signal detection, vacuum, and control panels. The kappa-phi (cursive,open) Greek-psi goniostat is adopted for the sample orientation. Crystal samples can be rotated along a given reciprocal lattice vector by using psi scan. Two orthogonal axes, gamma (or 2 theta) and delta, are used to move the detector. The detector is a semiconductor pin diode, which can be used in UHV ambient. This 6-circle goniometer allows for sample scanning of a wide range in the momentum space. The motors used for goniometer rotation and slit selection are UHV compatible. The UHV tank is placed on an XYZ table capable of positioning the center of the goniometer onto the incident beam. Test experiments have been carried on the 1-...

  12. Quantitative study of osteoporosis model based on synchrotron radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wangyang; Xu, Jun; Zhao, Jun; Sun, Jianqi

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the changes of different periods of primary osteoporosis, we made quantitative analysis of osteoporosis using synchrotron radiation computed tomography (SRCT), together with histomorphometry analysis and finite element analysis (FEA). Tibias, femurs and lumbar vertebras were dissected from sham-ovariectomy rats and ovariectomized rats suffering from osteoporosis at certain time points. The samples were scanned by SRCT and then FEA was applied based on reconstructed slices. Histomorphometry analysis showed that the structure of some trabecular in osteoporosis degraded as the bone volume decreased, for femurs, the bone volume fraction (BV/TV) decreased from 69% to 43%. That led to the increase of the thickness of trabecular separation (from 45.05μm to 97.09μm) and the reduction of the number of trabecular (from 7.99 mm(-1) to 5.97mm(-1)). Simulation of various mechanical tests indicated that, with the exacerbation of osteoporosis, the bones' ability of resistance to compression, bending and torsion gradually became weaker. The compression stiffness decreased from 1770.96 Fμm(-1) to 697.41 Fμm(-1), and it matched the histomorphometry analysis. This study suggested that the combination of both analysis could quantitatively analyze the bone strength in good accuracy. PMID:26737752

  13. Observation of Wakefields and Resonances in Coherent Synchrotron Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Billinghurst, B E; Baribeau, C; Batten, T; Dallin, L; May, T E; Vogt, J M; Wurtz, W A; Warnock, R; Bizzizero, D A; Kramer, S

    2015-01-01

    We report on high resolution measurements of resonances in the spectrum of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) at the Canadian Light Source (CLS). The resonances permeate the spectrum at wavenumber intervals of $0.074 ~\\textrm{cm}^{-1}$, and are highly stable under changes in the machine setup (energy, bucket filling pattern, CSR in bursting or continuous mode). Analogous resonances were predicted long ago in an idealized theory as eigenmodes of a smooth toroidal vacuum chamber driven by a bunched beam moving on a circular orbit. A corollary of peaks in the spectrum is the presence of pulses in the wakefield of the bunch at well defined spatial intervals. Through experiments and further calculations we elucidate the resonance and wakefield mechanisms in the CLS vacuum chamber, which has a fluted form much different from a smooth torus. The wakefield is observed directly in the 30-110 GHz range by RF diodes, and indirectly by an interferometer in the THz range. The wake pulse sequence found by diodes is less ...

  14. Observation of relativistic runaway electrons by synchrotron radiation in TEXTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaspers, R.; Lopes Cardozo, N.J.; Schueller, F.C. (FOM-Instituut voor Plasmafysica, Rijnhuizen (Netherlands)); Finken, K.H.; Mank, G.; Rusbueldt, D.; Hoenen, F. (Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik); Boedo, J. (California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Inst. of Plasma and Fusion Research)

    1992-01-01

    Runaway electrons are a promising tool to study magnetic turbulence in tokamak plasma. Recently, several studies have been devoted to this issue. In these studies hard X-rays, created when runaways hit the limiter, have been analysed. This paper also addresses the question of confinement of runaways. Here, however, not the runaways leaving the plasma are studied, but the runaways in the interior. They were diagnosed by means of the infrared synchrotron radiation which relativistic runaways (> 10 MeV) emit, as shown by Finken et al. With this tool information can be obtained about runaway - confinement times, energy, birth-rate, dimensions of the runaway beam and perhaps about their energy distribution. In this paper, at first a presentation of the measurements is given and the energy and pitch angle is deduced from the data. Then a comparison of the runaway confinement in low density plasmas (n[sub e](0) < 0.8 10[sup 19] m[sup -3]) is made for three different conditions; normal ohmic discharge, discharge with a gas puff and one with neutral beam injection (NBI). (author) 7 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Synchrotron radiation VUV double photoionization of some small molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Yu-Jie; Shan Xiao-Bin; Sheng Liu-Si; Wang Zhen-Ya; Zhang Jie; Yu Chun-Ri

    2011-01-01

    The VUV double photoionizations of small molecules(NO, CO, CO2, CS2, OSC and NH3)were investigated with photoionization mass spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation. The double ionization energies of molecules were determined with photoionization efficiency spectroscopy. The total energies of these molecules and their parent dications (NO2+, CO2+, CO2+2,CS2+2,OS2+C and NH2+3)were calculated using the Gaussian 03 program and Gaussian 2calculations. Then, the adiabatic double ionization energies of the molecules were predicated by using high accuracy energy mode. The experimental double ionization energies of these small molecules were all in reasonable agreement with their respective calculated adiabatic double ionization energies. The mechanisms of double photoionization of these molecules were discussed based on a comparison of our experimental results with those predicted theoretically. The equilibrium geometries and harmonic vibrational frequencies of molecules and their parent dications were calculated by using the MP2(full)method. The differences in configurations between these molecules and their parent dications were also discussed on the basis of theoretical calculations.

  16. Synchrotron radiation and structure biology. From the instrumentation view point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakabe, N. [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Applied Biochemistry

    1996-12-31

    Structure Biology is based on a three dimensional macromolecule structures, the most of which are studied by x-ray crystal structure analysis. Synchrotron radiation X-rays are quite strong, tunable, very parallel and pico-second order bunch and are very suitable for diffraction data collection of macromolecular crystals. To collect accurate data at high resolution from large unit cell protein crystals using SR, we made screenless large Weissenberg cameras with imaging plates at the PF. 146 research projects using this data collection system were running in 1995. They include 51 projects from 11 overseas countries. Recently we have developed user-friendly type Weissenberg camera for the structure biology project of TARA (Tsukuba Advanced Research Alliance), and installed it at BL6B of the PF. Cylindrical cassette radius of this new camera is 575.7mm and two large format (400x800mm) imaging plates (IP) can be fixed into the cassette by suction from back side. However, the system is not automatic and manual tasks to be performed are heavy. Therefore an automation of the system is very urgent to maintain accuracy and resolution. We are now developing a high accuracy, high resolution and high speed automated data collection system. This fully automated system consists of a camera, an IP reader equipped with 8 reading heads, an IP eraser, and a cassette transportation mechanism. In the new system, one imaging plate is fixed inside of a movable cylindrical cassette. The cassette presenting 16 rectangular holes, direct beam injection of i.e. 1.0A X-rays would produce 8 images of data at 2.6A resolutions. As 2 cassettes can be used simultaneously on the cassette transportation system, one cassette is being read while the other one is being exposed, therefore completely removing the reading bottleneck problem. This system therefore permits to use the radiation with the maximum of efficiency, and reduce the manpower necessary for data recording. (author)

  17. Estimations of neutron yield from beryllium target irradiated by SPring-8 hard synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Gryaznykh, D A; Plokhoi, V V

    2000-01-01

    The possibility of creating a neutron source based on ''SPring-8'' synchrotron radiation interaction with beryllium targets is discussed. The possible neutron yield is estimated to be of order 10 sup 1 sup 2 s sup - sup 1 .

  18. Recent trends of X-ray detectors in synchrotron radiation science

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, M

    2003-01-01

    This article attempts to describe the recent trends of X-ray detectors in synchrotron radiation science in the light of not only the advance but also the stagnation of which are seriously dependent upon the current semiconductor technology. (author)

  19. Residual stress evaluation by neutron and synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This lecture is dedicated to the residual stress evaluation using neutron and X ray synchrotron radiation. Residual stress evaluation is an important step for the improvement or the performance of materials, the control of the deformation of the components and the understanding of industrial process. In general, residual stress has various origins: mechanical, thermal, thermomechanical or thermochemical. In general, these residual stresses are caused by plastic deformation, or some source of local incompatibilities and are generated by three fundamental physical origins: plastic flow, volume change and thermal dilatation. These incompatibilities are compensated for partly by the elastic deformation that generates some internal stresses. In the solid, these local incompatibilities are caused by crystal defects. The exact origin of a stress is going to depend on the scale of observation. A classification of the residual stresses in three orders, related to the scale on which one considers materials, is proposed. The diffraction method for determination of macrostresses is based on the measurement of interplanar spacing for various direction in a diffraction experiment. Different examples are proposed. Polycrystalline grains or composite have different physical and elastic properties hence the stress for a particular grains or phase differs from the average value (value of macrostress). This difference is defined as the second order stress. The second order stresses occur because of small scale anisotropy or inhomogeneity in the material : for example, due to mismatch in coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic constants or plastic flow. However, the second order stress averaged over all grains or phase is not equal to zero and this average is called the mismatch stress. Using the experimental macro stress it is possible to calculate the mismatch stresses. More recently, this technique of diffraction has also been applied for the determination of microstrain (third

  20. The uses of synchrotron radiation sources for elemental and chemical microanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.R.; Chao, E.C.T.; Minkin, J.A.; Back, J.M.; Jones, K.W.; Rivers, M.L.; Sutton, S.R.

    1990-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation sources offer important features for the analysis of a material. Among these features is the ability to determine both the elemental composition of the material and the chemical state of its elements. For microscopic analysis synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microprobes now offer spatial resolutions of 10 ??m with minimum detection limits in the 1-10 ppm range depending on the nature of the sample and the synchrotron source used. This paper describes the properties of synchrotron radiation and their importance for elemental analysis, existing synchrotron facilities and those under construction that are optimum for SXRF microanalysis, and a number of applications including the high energy excitation of the K lines of heavy elements, microtomography, and XANES and EXAFS spectroscopies. ?? 1990.

  1. Quantification estimate methods for synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bewer, Brian, E-mail: brian.bewer@lightsource.ca

    2015-03-15

    Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy is a method which allows low elemental concentrations to be measured within a sample. To maintain biological or medical relevance increased importance is being placed on quantifying these in situ localized elemental concentrations. For third generation synchrotron light sources, which have the potential for high sample throughput, a rapid method of obtaining a quantification estimate is needed. Non-destructive transmission and surface analysis techniques for first transition metals, or elements of higher atomic number, using reference standards are examined for different sample property regimes to elucidate methods of quantitative synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy.

  2. An Evaluation of Dose Equivalence between Synchrotron Microbeam Radiation Therapy and Conventional Broadbeam Radiation Using Clonogenic and Cell Impedance Assays

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Johari Ibahim; Crosbie, Jeffrey C.; Yuqing Yang; Marina Zaitseva; Andrew W Stevenson; Rogers, Peter A. W.; Premila Paiva

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High-dose synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) has shown the potential to deliver improved outcomes over conventional broadbeam (BB) radiation therapy. To implement synchrotron MRT clinically for cancer treatment, it is necessary to undertake dose equivalence studies to identify MRT doses that give similar outcomes to BB treatments. AIM: To develop an in vitro approach to determine biological dose equivalence between MRT and BB using two different cell-based assays. METHO...

  3. Medical applications of synchrotron radiation at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overriding features of the synchrotron beams which make them applicable to medical research are their extremely high intensity and broadband energy spectrum. Several orders of magnitude separate the smooth, continuous spectrum of the synchrotron from the sharply peaked characteristic emission spectrum of a conventional source. Basically, the high intensity and tunability allow monochromatic beams to be generated at virtually any energy. The standard problem of beam hardening in both medical imaging and therapy is eliminated by the monochromatic beams since the energy spectrum does not change with passage through tissue. The tunable spectrum allows enhancement of images and therapeutic dose by selection of the most effective energy for a given procedure

  4. Tetrode bias power supply for Indus-1, synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An AC regulator based 7 kV, 3 A high voltage DC power supply is designed, fabricated and tested on dummy load for BEL make Tetrode type 15000CX, used in the high power RF amplifier at 31.613 MHz employed with INDUS-1, Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS). Various protections features like over voltage, under voltage, over current, phase failure and phase reversal are incorporated in this power supply and presented in this paper. As Tetrode amplifier requires various other power supplies in addition to this bias power supply and they are operated in a particular sequence for its healthy operation, suitable interlock arrangements have been incorporated and also presented in this paper. The reliable operation of protection and interlock features incorporated in this power supply has been checked with dummy load under simulated conditions. Three numbers of series limiting inductors, one in each phase, have been incorporated in this power supply to limit fault currents under unfavourable conditions and there by increasing the overall life of this power supply. It will replace existing 7 kV, 3 A HVDC power supply, which is in operation for more than fifteen years with Indus-1 SRS and is likely to be helpful in reducing the down time of Indus-1 SRS. It has better performance features than the existing power supply. The long term voltage stability better than 0.3 % and output ripple less than 0.3 % have been achieved for this Tetrode bias power supply. This power supply is likely to be integrated with INDUS-1 SRS soon. (author)

  5. Electronic Structure of Germanium Nanocrystal Films Probed with Synchrotron Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostedt, C

    2002-05-01

    The fundamental structure--property relationship of semiconductor quantum dots has been investigated. For deposited germanium nanocrystals strong quantum confinement effects have been determined with synchrotron radiation based x-ray absorption and photoemission techniques. The nanocrystals are condensed out of the gas phase with a narrow size distribution and subsequently deposited in situ onto various substrates. The particles are crystalline in the cubic phase with a structurally disordered surface shell and the resulting film morphology depends strongly on the substrate material and condition. The disordered surface region has an impact on the overall electronic structure of the particles. In a size-dependent study, the conduction and valence band edge of germanium nanocrystals have been measured for the first time and compared to the bulk crystal. The band edges move to higher energies as the particle size is decreased, consistent with quantum confinement theory. To obtain a more accurate analysis of confinement effects in the empty states, a novel analysis method utilizing an effective particle size for the x-ray absorption experiment, which allows a deconvolution of absorption edge broadening effects, has been introduced. Comparison of the present study to earlier studies on silicon reveals that germanium exhibits stronger quantum confinement effects than silicon. Below a critical particle size of 2.3 {+-} 0.7 nm, the band gap of germanium becomes larger than that of silicon--even if it is the opposite for bulk materials. This result agrees phenomenologically with effective mass and tight binding theories but contradicts the findings of recent pseudopotential calculations. The discrepancy between theory and experiments is attributed to the differences in the theoretical models and experimental systems. The experimentally observed structural disorder of the particle surface has to be included in the theoretical models.

  6. Characterization of thin films with synchrotron radiation in SPring-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many studies about thin films by using synchrotron radiation in SPring-8 were reviewed. Structural analyses and assessment of thin films used for electronics, and also assessment of insulating films for the gate used in LSI were carried out. Film thickness, unevenness, and density of SiO2 films in order of nanomer thickness were determined by interference fringes of x-ray reflection curves. The interface structure of (SiO2/Si) films was studied by x-ray crystal truncation rod scattering, and the correlation between leakage character depending on nitrogen concentration and interface structure was clarified on SiON film. The oxygen concentration in HfO films in nanometer thickness was determined by x-ray fluorescence analysis, and the interface reaction for HfO2/SiO2 was clearly observed by electron spectroscopy. The structure of amorphous thin films with large dielectric constant was analyzed by x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectrum. Devices fabricated from multi-layer films showing giant magnetic resistance were developed for hard disk with a large memory. The character of giant magnetic resistance was governed by multi-layer thin film structure piled up by magnetic and nonmagnetic polycrystalline thin metals. For the multi-layer structure, the concentration distribution of constituent elements was determined to the direction of film thickness by x-ray reflection analysis and grazing incident x-ray fluorescence analysis. In the semiconductor laser source, Ga1-xInxN, used for DVD, the local structure around In ions was studied by XAFS since constituent instability, especially overpopulation of In element, caused the deterioration of lifetime and light emission of the laser. The lattice constant of the light emission layer in InGaAs was measured by x-ray micro-beams. (author)

  7. X-ray studies of multilayer semiconductors using synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shiwen

    X-ray scattering and absorption techniques utilizing synchrotron radiation have been used to study a variety of multilayer semiconductors. The angular-dependent x-ray scattering at grazing incidence angles (grazing incidence x-ray scattering, GIXS) provides structural information of interfaces in these materials, such as rms interfacial roughness, cross- and lateral-correlation lengths, etc. Long-range order structures in material are probed by large-angle scattering (x-ray diffraction), in which strain and lattice constant as well as crystallinity of the epilayers are measured. Local structural variations in materials including local bond length, coordination number, and local disorder are obtained quantitatively by examining the modulation in the x-ray absorption spectrum some 40 eV above the absorption edge (extended x-ray absorption fine structure, EXAFS). Materials studied in the present work are SiGe/Si heterostructures, MnAs/GaAs ferromagnetic-semiconductor films, solar cell films, ZnSe-based II-VI semiconductor thin films, InGaAs/GaAs and GaAs/AlAs superlattices. Results obtained have shown (i) evidence for strain-induced surface/interface morphology variations in SiGe/Si heterostructures, (ii) template-dependent microstructures in MnAs/GaAs, (iii) changes in interface structures for films of different formations in solar cell films, (iv) differences between samples prepared by different epitaxial growth methods in II-VI semiconductor films, (v) observation of lateral structural ordering in one of the InGaAs/GaAs superlattices, (vi) differences in interfacial microstructures between MBE-grown samples with different interrupts in GaAs/AlAs superlattices. Most of all, x- rays are found to be a very useful nondestructive tool for probing microscopic structures in various multilayer semiconductor materials.

  8. Grazing incidence synchrotron radiation optics: correlation of performance with metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Image distortions produced by a cylinder mirror at the National Synchrotron Light Source are compared with performance predictions based on measurements of surface slope errors in the millimeter spatial period regime made with an optical surface profiler

  9. Atomic modifications by synchrotron radiation at the calcite-ethanol interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasarín, I. S.; Bovet, Nicolas Emile; Glyvradal, Magni;

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on studies of the chemical alterations induced by synchrotron radiation at the calcite-ethanol interface, a simple model system for interfaces between minerals and more complex organic molecules containing OH groups. A combination of X-ray reflectivity and X-ray photoelectron...... by hydrogen bonds almost doubles. Comparison between radiated and non-radiated areas of the same samples demonstrate that these effects are induced only by radiation and not caused by aging. These observations contribute to establishing a time limit for synchrotron experiments involving fluid...

  10. An introduction to synchrotron radiation techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Willmott, Philip

    2011-01-01

    This book introduces the reader to the basic concepts of the generation and manipulation of synchrotron light, its interaction with matter, and the application of synchrotron light in the “classical” techniques, while including some of the most modern technological developments. As much as possible, complicated mathematical derivations and formulas are avoided. A more heuristic approach is adopted, whereby the general physical reasoning behind the equations is highlighted.

  11. Proton Synchrotron Radiation from Extended Jets of PKS 0637-752 and 3C 273

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharyya, Wrijupan

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the IC/CMB X-ray mechanism has been strongly disfavoured for 3C 273 and PKS 0637-752 since the anomalously hard and steady gamma-ray emission predicted by such models violates the observational results from Fermi-LAT. Here we propose the proton synchrotron origin of the X ray-gamma ray flux from the knots of PKS 0637-752 with a reasonable budget in luminosity, by considering synchrotron radiation from an accelerated proton population. Moreover, for the source 3C 273, some of the optical data points could not be explained by electron synchrotron (Meyer et al. 2015), which we have included in our updated proton synchrotron model. We also show that TeV emission from large scale quasar jets in principle, can arise from proton synchrotron, which we discuss in the context of knot wk8.9 of PKS 0637-752.

  12. A study on radiation shielding and safety analysis for a synchrotron radiation beamline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asano, Yoshihiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kansai Research Establishment, Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Mikazuhi, Hyogo (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    Methods of shielding design and safety analysis are presented for a beam-line of synchrotron radiation. This paper consists of the shielding and safety study of synchrotron radiation with extremely intense and low energy photon below several hundreds keV, and the study for the behavior of remarkable high-energy photons up to 8 GeV, which can creep into beam-lines. A new shielding design code, STAC8 was developed to estimate the leakage dose outside the beam line hutch (an enclosure of the beam, optical elements or experimental instruments) easily and quickly with satisfactory accuracy. The code can calculate consistently from sources of synchrotron radiation to dose equivalent outside hutches with considering the build up effect and polarization effect. Validity of the code was verified by comparing its calculations with those of Monte Carlo simulations and measurement results of the doses inside the hutch of the BL14C of Photon Factory in the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), showing good agreements. The shielding design calculations using STAC8 were carried out to apply to the practical beam-lines with the considering polarization effect and clarified the characteristics of the typical beam-line of the third generation synchrotron radiation facility, SPring-8. In addition, the shielding calculations were compared with the measurement outside the shield wall of the bending magnet beam-line of SPring-8, and showed fairly good agreement. The new shielding problems, which have usually been neglected in shielding designs for existing synchrotron radiation facilities, are clarified through the analysis of the beam-line shielding of SPring-8. The synchrotron radiation from the SPring-8 has such extremely high-intensity involving high energy photons that the scattered synchrotron radiation from the concrete floor of the hutch, the ground shine, causes a seriously high dose. The method of effective shielding is presented. For the estimation of the gas

  13. FT-IR microscopical analysis with synchrotron radiation: The microscope optics and system performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectrometer was first interfaced with the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) in September 1993, there was an instant realization that the performance at the diffraction limit had increased 40-100 times. The synchrotron source transformed the IR microspectrometer into a true IR microprobe, providing high-quality IR spectra for probe diameters at the diffraction limit. The combination of IR microspectroscopy and synchrotron radiation provides a powerful new tool for molecular spectroscopy. The ability to perform IR microspectroscopy with synchrotron radiation is still under development at Brookhaven National Laboratory, but several initial studies have been completed that demonstrate the broad-ranging applications of this technology and its potential for materials characterization

  14. Solid cancer risks from radiation exposure for the Australian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimates are made of the risks to the Australian population as a function of age and gender for mortality or morbidity for all solid cancers after exposure to radiation. Excess relative risk (ERR) and excess absolute risk (EAR) models are used. The model coefficients are re-evaluated for radiation doses expressed as effective dose using data from the Japanese Life Span Study. Life-table methods are used throughout and the risk measures studied are: the risk of exposure related death, RERD and the risk of exposure related cancer, RERC. Australian life-table data and the age-specific cancer incidence and mortality rates of Australian males and females are taken from recent published tables. No dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor is applied. Sources of uncertainty used to calculate the confidence regions for the estimated risks include the statistical uncertainties of the model parameters and of the extrapolation of the risks beyond the period supported by the epidemiological data. Summary values of the risks are reported as averages of those calculated from the ERR and the EAR models. For males, the mortality risks per sievert range from 14% for 0-9 year age group, 7% at 30-39 years and 4% at 50-59 years. Corresponding values for females are 20%, 10% and 6%. Incidence risks are higher: for males the estimates are 32% for the 0-9 year group, 12% at 30-39 and 5% at 50-59. Corresponding values for females are 56%, 20% and 8%. The 90% confidence regions are about ± 50% of these values. Estimates are given for the risks from CT whole-body scanning or virtual colonoscopy which could be used for cancer screening. If used at 3 year intervals and the effective dose per procedure is 10 mSv, then the RERD for males beginning screening at 40, 50 and 60 years is 0.4%, 0.3% and 0.1%, respectively and for females, 0.6%, 0.4% and 0.2%, respectively. RERD estimates for a 5 year interval between screens are about one-third smaller. Copyright (2003) Australasian College of

  15. Characterization of Zircaloy-4 corrosion films using microbeam synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spengler, David J., E-mail: dspen5106@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Motta, Arthur T. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Bajaj, Ram; Seidensticker, John R. [Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, 814 Pittsburgh-McKeesport Blvd., West Mifflin, PA 15122 (United States); Cai, Zhonghou [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    A study of the oxide layers formed in 360 °C and 316 °C water on Zircaloy-4 samples has been performed in an attempt to help answer fundamental questions about oxide protectiveness, growth mechanisms, and the nature of oxide growth during autoclave corrosion. Two different oxide thicknesses – 12 and 39.5 μm – were investigated. Microbeam synchrotron radiation diffraction and fluorescence techniques with an X-ray beam size of 0.2 μm were used to characterize oxide in cross sections to determine the oxide phase content, grain size, texture, and orientation relationships as a function of through-thickness from the oxide–metal interface. The results confirm that the oxide is comprised primarily of monoclinic ZrO{sub 2}, with tetragonal ZrO{sub 2} present in small amounts. The observed diffraction peaks are consistent with monoclinic phases having a strong fiber texture with the 200{sub m} plane aligned with the oxide–metal interface, and with the 011{sub m} plane closely aligned with the transverse-normal (T) plane. The fraction of bulk tetragonal phase increased in the region located within one transition thickness near the oxide–metal interface. A strong periodicity was seen in oxide intensity from both the monoclinic and tetragonal phases corresponding to an oxide transition thickness of 1.8–1.9 μm. The grain size of the tetragonal phase was determined to be smaller than the monoclinic phase, and the grain size for the monoclinic phase decreased starting at a distance of approximately one transition layer from the oxide–metal interface. The relative amounts of monoclinic peak broadening due to strain and grain size were calculated, the former being approximately constant, while the latter decreased with increasing distance from the oxide–metal interface, corresponding to an increase in grain size. These findings are compared to previously performed microbeam diffraction experiments on Zircaloy-4 and other Zr-based alloys.

  16. Unexpected methyl migrations of ethanol dimer under synchrotron VUV radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Weizhan; Hu, Yongjun, E-mail: yjhu@scnu.edu.cn, E-mail: lssheng@ustc.edu.cn; Li, Weixing; Guan, Jiwen [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China); Liu, Fuyi; Shan, Xiaobin; Sheng, Liusi, E-mail: yjhu@scnu.edu.cn, E-mail: lssheng@ustc.edu.cn [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230029 (China)

    2015-01-14

    While methyl transfer is well known to occur in the enzyme- and metal-catalyzed reactions, the methyl transfer in the metal-free organic molecules induced by the photon ionization has been less concerned. Herein, vacuum ultraviolet single photon ionization and dissociation of ethanol dimer are investigated with synchrotron radiation photoionization mass spectroscopy and theoretical methods. Besides the protonated clusters cation (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH) ⋅ H{sup +} (m/z = 47) and the β-carbon-carbon bond cleavage fragment CH{sub 2}O ⋅ (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH)H{sup +} (m/z = 77), the measured mass spectra revealed that a new fragment (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH) ⋅ (CH{sub 3}){sup +} (m/z = 61) appeared at the photon energy of 12.1 and 15.0 eV, where the neutral dimer could be vertically ionized to higher ionic state. Thereafter, the generated carbonium ions are followed by a Wagner-Meerwein rearrangement and then dissociate to produce this new fragment, which is considered to generate after surmounting a few barriers including intra- and inter-molecular methyl migrations by the aid of theoretical calculations. The appearance energy of this new fragment is measured as 11.55 ± 0.05 eV by scanning photoionization efficiency curve. While the signal intensity of fragment m/z = 61 starts to increase, the fragments m/z = 47 and 77 tend to slowly incline around 11.55 eV photon energy. This suggests that the additional fragment channels other than (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH) ⋅ H{sup +} and CH{sub 2}O ⋅ (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH)H{sup +} have also been opened, which consume some dimer cations. The present report provides a clear description of the photoionization and dissociation processes of the ethanol dimer in the range of the photon energy 12-15 eV.

  17. Verification of terahertz-wave spectrophotometry by Compton backscattering of coherent synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sei, Norihiro; Takahashi, Toshiharu

    2014-01-01

    We developed a continuous-spectrum light beam from Compton backscattering by using coherent synchrotron radiation in an L-band linac at the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute. The ratio of Compton backscattered photons to background photons when coherent synchrotron radiation was used was three times larger than when coherent transition radiation was used. The transmission spectrum of a polystyrene film in the terahertz-wave region was evaluated by measuring the spectrum of the Compton backscattered photons and it roughly agreed with that measured by a Martin-Puplett-type interferometer. The spectrophotometry using Compton backscattering shows promise as a new tool for investigations in terahertz-wave science.

  18. Network-based real-time radiation monitoring system in Synchrotron Radiation Research Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, R J; Wang, J P; Chen, C R; Liu, J; Chang, F D; Jiang, S H

    2003-10-01

    The real-time radiation monitoring system (RMS) in the Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (SRRC) has been upgraded significantly during the past years. The new framework of the RMS is built on the popular network technology, including Ethernet hardware connections and Web-based software interfaces. It features virtually no distance limitations, flexible and scalable equipment connections, faster response time, remote diagnosis, easy maintenance, as well as many graphic user interface software tools. This paper briefly describes the radiation environment in SRRC and presents the system configuration, basic functions, and some operational results of this real-time RMS. Besides the control of radiation exposures, it has been demonstrated that a variety of valuable information or correlations could be extracted from the measured radiation levels delivered by the RMS, including the changes of operating conditions, beam loss pattern, radiation skyshine, and so on. The real-time RMS can be conveniently accessed either using the dedicated client program or World Wide Web interface. The address of the Web site is http:// www-rms.srrc.gov.tw.

  19. Characteristics of synchrotron radiation and of its sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synchrotron light emission and the classical relativistic electromagnetic theory describing it are reviewed. The electron optics of storage rings are considered in some detail, beginning with the ideal electron orbit and the distribution which electrons take around it. This is folded with the process of synchrotron light emission itself to define the effective photon source. The predictions of classical relativistic theory are compared with experiment, and one finds agreement within the experimental uncertainties. Further refinements, such as wiggler magnets and free electron lasers are also considered

  20. X-ray intensity interferometer for synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose to measure the transverse coherence of an x-ray beam, for the first time, by Hanbury Brown intensity interferometry. Our approach is to use an intensity interferometer adapted to the soft x-ray region. The X1 or X13 soft x-ray undulator at the National Synchrotron Light Source will supply the partially coherent x-rays. We are developing this technique to characterize the coherence properties of x-ray beams from high brilliance insertion devices at third-generation synchrotron light facilities such as the Advanced Photon Source

  1. Synchrotron radiation as a light source in confocal microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Oord, C.J.R.; Gerritsen, H.C.; Levine, Y.K. (University of Utrecht, P.O. Box 80.000, 3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands)); Myring, W.J.; Jones, G.R.; Munro, I.H. (Daresbury Laboratory (United Kingdom))

    1992-01-01

    The optical properties of a confocal scanning microscope that was designed to utilize a synchrotron as light source are presented. The usable spectral range is from 200 nm up to 700 nm. Using 325-nm laser light, it is shown that the lateral resolution is about 125 nm, and the axial resolution better than 250 nm. After transport of the microscope from Utrecht to the Daresbury Synchrotron Source, 200-nm excitation can be applied, and the lateral resolution will drop to below 100 nm.

  2. Reference dosimetry at the Australian Synchrotron's imaging and medical beamline using free-air ionization chamber measurements and theoretical predictions of air kerma rate and half value layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosbie, Jeffrey C.; Rogers, Peter A. W. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Melbourne, The Royal Women' s Hospital, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Stevenson, Andrew W. [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, Clayton, Victoria 3169 (Australia); Hall, Christopher J. [Imaging and Medical Beamline, Australian Synchrotron, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); Lye, Jessica E. [Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency, Yallambie, Victoria 3085 (Australia); Nordstroem, Terese [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm SE-100 44 (Sweden); Midgley, Stewart M. [School of Physics, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Lewis, Robert A. [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: Novel, preclinical radiotherapy modalities are being developed at synchrotrons around the world, most notably stereotactic synchrotron radiation therapy and microbeam radiotherapy at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble, France. The imaging and medical beamline (IMBL) at the Australian Synchrotron has recently become available for preclinical radiotherapy and imaging research with clinical trials, a distinct possibility in the coming years. The aim of this present study was to accurately characterize the synchrotron-generated x-ray beam for the purposes of air kerma-based absolute dosimetry. Methods: The authors used a theoretical model of the energy spectrum from the wiggler source and validated this model by comparing the transmission through copper absorbers (0.1-3.0 mm) against real measurements conducted at the beamline. The authors used a low energy free air ionization chamber (LEFAC) from the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency and a commercially available free air chamber (ADC-105) for the measurements. The dimensions of these two chambers are different from one another requiring careful consideration of correction factors. Results: Measured and calculated half value layer (HVL) and air kerma rates differed by less than 3% for the LEFAC when the ion chamber readings were corrected for electron energy loss and ion recombination. The agreement between measured and predicted air kerma rates was less satisfactory for the ADC-105 chamber, however. The LEFAC and ADC measurements produced a first half value layer of 0.405 {+-} 0.015 and 0.412 {+-} 0.016 mm Cu, respectively, compared to the theoretical prediction of 0.427 {+-} 0.012 mm Cu. The theoretical model based upon a spectrum calculator derived a mean beam energy of 61.4 keV with a first half value layer of approximately 30 mm in water. Conclusions: The authors showed in this study their ability to verify the predicted air kerma rate and x-ray attenuation

  3. BOOMERANG - the Australian light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A proposal has been prepared for the installation in Australia of a national high performance synchrotron light facility called Boomerang. The Boomerang proposal had its origin in the establishment of the Australian Synchrotron Research Program (ASRP) which was one of the seven Major National Research Facilities announced by the Federal Government in December 1995. The ASRP provides the opportunity and funding for Australian researchers to access international synchrotron facilities, specifically two consortia at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at the Argonne National Laboratory, USA and continued interaction with the Photon Factory at the KEK Laboratory in Japan. The ASRP was the successor to the Australian National Beamline Facility project (ANBF) which began in 1991 following the ASTEC inquiry titled 'Small Country - Big Science'. The Federal Government also provided funding for a Feasibility Study to determine the value of establishing an Australian-based synchrotron radiation facility. The Feasibility Study was completed in August 1998 and endorsed by the institutional members of the ASRP and the research community in general. The study concluded that, on the data available in Australia, there was a strong case for the installation of an Australian-based facility. The study considered several options for an Australian-based facility and recommended that these options and the data supporting the general conclusions receive further investigation. A mission was arranged to a select group of overseas laboratories to explore these questions in detail. The review team included a mix of scientific and industrial experience and also represented the interests of the ASRP and an Industrial Synchrotron Consortium based in Victoria. Based on the conclusions of the overseas mission and incorporating the advice of all international specialists in the design and use of synchrotron facilities consulted during the mission, the most cost-effective option was an extended

  4. APPLICATION OF SYNCHROTRON RADIATION TO HIGH PRESSURE X-RAY DIFFRACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Hatton, P.

    1984-01-01

    The availability of dedicated, high brightness synchrotron radiation sources is leading to many improvements in x-ray diffraction techniques. In addition to the widely discussed polychromatic energy dispersive techniques, significant advances can be made by the use of monochromatic radiation in either angle- or wavelength-scanning. The application of these techniques, being developed at Daresbury, for high pressure investigations is outlined.

  5. Simulation of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation Emission from Rotating Relativistic Electron Layers

    CERN Document Server

    Schmekel, B S

    2004-01-01

    The electromagnetic radiation of a rotating relativistic electron layers is studied numerically using particle-in-cell simulation. The results of the simulation confirm all relevant scaling properties predicted by theoretical models. These models may turn out to be important for the understanding of the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) instability that may occur in systems as diverse as particle accelerators radio pulsars.

  6. Near-field imaging and nano-Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy using broadband synchrotron radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Peter; Hoehl, Arne; Patoka, Piotr; Huth, Florian; Rühl, Eckart; Ulm, Gerhard

    2013-02-11

    We demonstrate scanning near-field optical microscopy with a spatial resolution below 100 nm by using low intensity broadband synchrotron radiation in the IR regime. The use of such a broadband radiation source opens up the possibility to perform nano-Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy over a wide spectral range. PMID:23481749

  7. Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act 1998. Guide to the Australian radiation protection and nuclear safety licensing framework. 1. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this guide is to provide information to Commonwealth entities who may require a license under the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (ARPANS) Act 1998 to enable them to posses, have control of, use, operate or dispose of radiation sources. The guide describes to which agencies and what activities require licensing. It also addresses general administrative and legal matters such as appeal procedures, ongoing licensing requirements, monitoring and compliance. Applicants are advised to consult the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act 1998 and accompanying Regulations when submitting applications

  8. An assessment of research opportunities and the need for synchrotron radiation facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The workshop focused on six topics, all of which are areas of active research: (1) speciation, reactivity and mobility of contaminants in aqueous systems, (2) the role of surfaces and interfaces in molecular environmental science, (3) the role of solid phases in molecular environmental science, (4) molecular biological processes affecting speciation, reactivity, and mobility of contaminants in the environment, (5) molecular constraints on macroscopic- and field-scale processes, and (6) synchrotron radiation facilities and molecular environmental sciences. These topics span a range of important issues in molecular environmental science. They focus on the basic knowledge required for understanding contaminant transport and fate and for the development of science-based remediation and waste management technologies. Each topic was assigned to a working group charged with discussing recent research accomplishments, significant research opportunities, methods required for obtaining molecular-scale information on environmental contaminants and processes, and the value of synchrotron x-ray methods relative to other methods in providing this information. A special working group on synchrotron radiation facilities was convened to provide technical information about experimental facilities at the four DOE-supported synchrotron radiation sources in the US (NSLS, SSRL, AS and UPS) and synchrotron- based methods available for molecular environmental science research. Similar information on the NSF-funded Cornell High Energy synchrotron Source (CHESS) was obtained after the workshop was held.

  9. An assessment of research opportunities and the need for synchrotron radiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The workshop focused on six topics, all of which are areas of active research: (1) speciation, reactivity and mobility of contaminants in aqueous systems, (2) the role of surfaces and interfaces in molecular environmental science, (3) the role of solid phases in molecular environmental science, (4) molecular biological processes affecting speciation, reactivity, and mobility of contaminants in the environment, (5) molecular constraints on macroscopic- and field-scale processes, and (6) synchrotron radiation facilities and molecular environmental sciences. These topics span a range of important issues in molecular environmental science. They focus on the basic knowledge required for understanding contaminant transport and fate and for the development of science-based remediation and waste management technologies. Each topic was assigned to a working group charged with discussing recent research accomplishments, significant research opportunities, methods required for obtaining molecular-scale information on environmental contaminants and processes, and the value of synchrotron x-ray methods relative to other methods in providing this information. A special working group on synchrotron radiation facilities was convened to provide technical information about experimental facilities at the four DOE-supported synchrotron radiation sources in the US (NSLS, SSRL, AS and UPS) and synchrotron- based methods available for molecular environmental science research. Similar information on the NSF-funded Cornell High Energy synchrotron Source (CHESS) was obtained after the workshop was held

  10. Dazzling new light source opens at Stanford synchrotron radiation laboratory

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    SPEAR3, the Stanford Positron Electron Asymmetric Ring, was formally opened at a dedication ceremony at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center on Jan. 29. It incorporates the latest technology to make it competitive with the best synchrotron sources in the world (1/2 page)

  11. Synchrotron radiation: appendix to the Daresbury annual report 1990/91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Appendix to the Annual Report of the Daresbury Laboratory of the United Kingdom Science and Engineering Research Council contains the 1990 Annual Report of the Synchrotron Radiation Facilities Committee, specifications for the beamlines and stations, the index for the synchrotron radiation user reports, the reports themselves and the list of publications detailing work performed on the Synchrotron Radiation Source. By far the largest part of the Appendix is taken up with the user reports for the period 1990 to 1991. They include reports on structural determination of sodium methyl, an investigation of DNA-Binding Proteins, monitoring of vital processes in live cells, the structure of semiconductor interfaces, the structure and properties of glasses and soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy of liquid samples. (author)

  12. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory 1991 activity report. Facility developments January 1991--March 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SSRL is a national facility supported primarily by the Department of Energy for the utilization of synchrotron radiation for basic and applied research in the natural sciences and engineering. It is a user-oriented facility which welcomes proposals for experiments from all researchers. The synchrotron radiation is produced by the 3.5 GeV storage ring, SPEAR, located at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). SPEAR is a fully dedicated synchrotron radiation facility which operates for user experiments 7 to 9 months per year. SSRL currently has 24 experimental stations on the SPEAR storage ring. There are 145 active proposals for experimental work from 81 institutions involving approximately 500 scientists. There is normally no charge for use of beam time by experimenters. This report summarizes the activity at SSRL for the period January 1, 1991 to December 31, 1991 for research. Facility development through March 1992 is included

  13. Measurement, analysis and correction of the closed orbit distortion in Indus-2 synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the measurement, analysis and correction of closed orbit distortion (COD) in Indus-2 at 550 MeV injection energy and 2 GeV synchrotron radiation user run energy. The measured COD was analysed and fitted to understand major sources of errors in terms of the effective quadrupole misalignments. The rms COD was corrected down to less than 0.6 mm in both horizontal and vertical planes. A golden orbit was set for the operative synchrotron radiation beamlines. With COD correction, the injection efficiency at 550 MeV was improved by ∼ 8 h. In this paper, the method of global COD correction based on singular value decomposition (SVD) of the orbit response matrix is described. Results for the COD correction in both horizontal and vertical planes at 550 MeV injection energy and at 2 GeV synchrotron radiation user run energy are discussed. (author)

  14. Applications of Synchrotron Radiation Micro Beams in Cell Micro Biology and Medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Ide-Ektessabi, Ari

    2007-01-01

    This book demonstrates the applications of synchrotron radiation in certain aspects of cell microbiology, specifically non-destructive elemental analyses, chemical-state analyses and imaging (distribution) of the elements within a cell. The basics for understanding and applications of synchrotron radiation are also described to make the contents easier to be understood for a wide group of researchers in medical and biological sciences who might not be familiar with the physics of synchrotron radiation. The two main techniques that are discussed in this book are the x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) and the x-ray fine structure analysis (XAFS). Application of these techniques in investigations of several important scientific fields, such as neurodegeneration and other diseases related to cell malfunctioning, are demonstrated in this book.

  15. A single-photon counting 'edge-on' silicon detector for synchrotron radiation mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigon, L. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy)], E-mail: luigi.rigon@ts.infn.it; Arfelli, F. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Physics Department, University of Trieste, Via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Astolfo, A. [Physics Department, University of Trieste, Via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Bergamaschi, A. [Paul Scherrer Institut, PSI 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Dreossi, D. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Sincrotrone Trieste SCpA, S.S. 14 km 163.5, 34012 Basovizza (Italy); Longo, R. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Physics Department, University of Trieste, Via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Menk, R.-H. [Sincrotrone Trieste SCpA, S.S. 14 km 163.5, 34012 Basovizza (Italy); Schmitt, B. [Paul Scherrer Institut, PSI 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Vallazza, E. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Castelli, E. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Physics Department, University of Trieste, Via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy)

    2009-09-01

    The Phase Imaging for Clinical Application with Silicon detector and Synchrotron radiatiOn (PICASSO) project is developing an 'edge-on' silicon microstrip detector for mammography with synchrotron radiation. The sensor is equipped with a fast single-photon counting electronics based on the Mythen-II application-specific integrated circuit. A first prototype has been assembled and tested at the SYnchrotron Radiation for MEdical Physics (SYRMEP) beamline at Elettra in Trieste, Italy. The first results are presented in this study including evidence of high-rate single-photon counting with negligible losses up to 1.2x10{sup 6} incident photons per pixel per second; spatial resolution consistent with the pixel aperture (0.3 mmx0.05 mm); high-quality imaging of test-objects, obtained with a dose comparable to the one delivered in modern full-field digital mammographic systems.

  16. Synchrotron radiation based microtomography (SR{mu}CT) and neutron tomography (NCT) for materials science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckmann, Felix; Herzen, Julia; Donath, Tilman; Haibel, Astrid; Dose, Thomas; Vollbrandt, Juergen; Schmitz, Heinz-Werner; Pranzas, Philipp Klaus; Schreyer, Andreas [GKSS-Research Centre, Geesthacht (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The GKSS-Research Centre Geesthacht, Germany, is operating the user experiment for microtomography using synchrotron radiation at the storage ring DORIS 3 at DESY Hamburg. In the recents years the beamline W2 was rebuilt. The outstanding feature of this synchrotron radiation beamline HARWI II is the use of high energy X-rays from 20 to 250 keV for materials science experiments. The features for microtomography at HARWI II and new enhancements and applications using lower photon energies at the wiggler beamline BW2 are presented. Furthermore at the research reactor FRG-1 the neutron radiography facility GENRA 3 was extended by a setup for neutron tomography. Results performing SR{mu}CT at HARWI 2 and NCT at GENRA 3 are presented. The combination of neutron and synchrotron radiation techniques will give new insight into the three-dimensional behavior of samples in materials science.

  17. Applications of synchrotron radiation. Micro beams in cell micro biology and medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ide-Ektessabi, A. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Bio System Electronics

    2007-07-01

    This book demonstrates the applications of synchrotron radiation in certain aspects of cell microbiology, specifically non-destructive elemental analyses, chemical-state analyses and imaging (distribution) of the elements within a cell. The basics for understanding and applications of synchrotron radiation are also described to make the contents easier to be understood for a wide group of researchers in medical and biological sciences who might not be familiar with the physics of synchrotron radiation. The two main techniques that are discussed in this book are the x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) and the x-ray fine structure analysis (XAFS). Application of these techniques in investigations of several important scientific fields, such as neurodegeneration and other diseases related to cell malfunctioning, are demonstrated in this book. (orig.)

  18. Monte Carlo simulations of ultra high vacuum and synchrotron radiation for particle accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2082330; Leonid, Rivkin

    With preparation of Hi-Lumi LHC fully underway, and the FCC machines under study, accelerators will reach unprecedented energies and along with it very large amount of synchrotron radiation (SR). This will desorb photoelectrons and molecules from accelerator walls, which contribute to electron cloud buildup and increase the residual pressure - both effects reducing the beam lifetime. In current accelerators these two effects are among the principal limiting factors, therefore precise calculation of synchrotron radiation and pressure properties are very important, desirably in the early design phase. This PhD project shows the modernization and a major upgrade of two codes, Molflow and Synrad, originally written by R. Kersevan in the 1990s, which are based on the test-particle Monte Carlo method and allow ultra-high vacuum and synchrotron radiation calculations. The new versions contain new physics, and are built as an all-in-one package - available to the public. Existing vacuum calculation methods are overvi...

  19. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory 1991 activity report. Facility developments January 1991--March 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantwell, K.; St. Pierre, M. [eds.

    1992-12-31

    SSRL is a national facility supported primarily by the Department of Energy for the utilization of synchrotron radiation for basic and applied research in the natural sciences and engineering. It is a user-oriented facility which welcomes proposals for experiments from all researchers. The synchrotron radiation is produced by the 3.5 GeV storage ring, SPEAR, located at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). SPEAR is a fully dedicated synchrotron radiation facility which operates for user experiments 7 to 9 months per year. SSRL currently has 24 experimental stations on the SPEAR storage ring. There are 145 active proposals for experimental work from 81 institutions involving approximately 500 scientists. There is normally no charge for use of beam time by experimenters. This report summarizes the activity at SSRL for the period January 1, 1991 to December 31, 1991 for research. Facility development through March 1992 is included.

  20. Plan and present status of synchrotron radiation applications at HESYRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An 800 MeV electron storage ring is being constructed at Hefei, China. It is a dedicated UV synchrotron light source from which 27 beam lines could be extracted to accommodate about 50 experimental stations. Four beam lines and five stations are planned and some instruments have been designed and are under construction for the first five-year plan. The proposed experiments include x-ray lithography, soft x-ray microscopy, photoelectron spectroscopy, time-resolved spectroscopy and photochemistry

  1. Workshop on performance optimization of synchrotron radiation storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this workshop was to provide a forum, with user participation, for accelerator physicists working in the synchrotron light source field to discuss current and planned state-of-the-art techniques to optimize storage ring performance. The scope of the workshop focused on two areas: lattice characterization and measurement, and fundamental limitations on low frequency beam stability. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  2. Prospects for studying vacuum polarisation using dipole and synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Ilderton, Anton

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of vacuum polarisation effects, in particular vacuum birefringence, using combined optical and x-ray laser pulses is now actively pursued. Here we briefly examine the feasibility of two alternative setups. The first utilises an alternative target, namely a converging dipole pulse, and the second uses an alternative probe, namely the synchrotron-like emission from highly energetic particles, themselves interacting with a laser pulse. The latter setup has been proposed for experiments at ELI-NP.

  3. Prospects for studying vacuum polarisation using dipole and synchrotron radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Ilderton, Anton; Marklund, Mattias

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of vacuum polarisation effects, in particular vacuum birefringence, using combined optical and x-ray laser pulses is now actively pursued. Here we briefly examine the feasibility of two alternative setups. The first utilises an alternative target, namely a converging dipole pulse, and the second uses an alternative probe, namely the synchrotron-like emission from highly energetic particles, themselves interacting with a laser pulse. The latter setup has been proposed for exper...

  4. Current advances in synchrotron radiation instrumentation for MX experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Robin L; Juanhuix, Jordi; Fuchs, Martin

    2016-07-15

    Following pioneering work 40 years ago, synchrotron beamlines dedicated to macromolecular crystallography (MX) have improved in almost every aspect as instrumentation has evolved. Beam sizes and crystal dimensions are now on the single micron scale while data can be collected from proteins with molecular weights over 10 MDa and from crystals with unit cell dimensions over 1000 Å. Furthermore it is possible to collect a complete data set in seconds, and obtain the resulting structure in minutes. The impact of MX synchrotron beamlines and their evolution is reflected in their scientific output, and MX is now the method of choice for a variety of aims from ligand binding to structure determination of membrane proteins, viruses and ribosomes, resulting in a much deeper understanding of the machinery of life. A main driving force of beamline evolution have been advances in almost every aspect of the instrumentation comprising a synchrotron beamline. In this review we aim to provide an overview of the current status of instrumentation at modern MX experiments. The most critical optical components are discussed, as are aspects of endstation design, sample delivery, visualisation and positioning, the sample environment, beam shaping, detectors and data acquisition and processing. PMID:27046341

  5. Transverse beam size measurement system using visible synchrotron radiation at HLS II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kai; Sun, Bao-Gen; Yang, Yong-Liang; Lu, Ping; Tang, Lei-Lei; Wu, Fang-Fang; Cheng, Chao-Cai; Zheng, Jia-Jun; Li, Hao

    2016-09-01

    An interferometer system and an imaging system using visible synchrotron radiation (SR) have been installed in the Hefei Light Source (HLS) II storage ring. Simulations of these two systems are given using Synchrotron Radiation Workshop (SRW) code. With these two systems, the beam energy spread and the beam emittance can be measured. A detailed description of these two systems and the measurement method is given in this paper. The measurement results of beam size, emittance and energy spread are given at the end. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11105141, 11175173) and Upgrade Project of Hefei Light Source

  6. Is photocleavage of DNA by YOYO-1 using a synchrotron radiation light source sequence dependent?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilroy, Emma L.; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning; Jones, Nykola C.;

    2011-01-01

    The photocleavage of double-stranded and single-stranded DNA by the fluorescent dye YOYO-1 was investigated in real time by using the synchrotron radiation light source ASTRID (ISA, Denmark) both to initiate the reaction and to monitor its progress using Couette flow linear dichroism (LD) through......The photocleavage of double-stranded and single-stranded DNA by the fluorescent dye YOYO-1 was investigated in real time by using the synchrotron radiation light source ASTRID (ISA, Denmark) both to initiate the reaction and to monitor its progress using Couette flow linear dichroism (LD...

  7. Analyses of materials such as magnetic recording media using the synchrotron radiation of SPring-8

    CERN Document Server

    Ohsawa, M

    2002-01-01

    Fuji Electric has been analyzing materials using the industrial consortium beamlines of SPring-8, the largest synchrotron radiation facility in the world. Crystallographic structures of HDD-use magnetic recording media fabricated with a non-heating process and having an Ru intermediate layer were studied by in-plane X-ray diffraction that utilizes high brilliance synchrotron radiation. It was verified that the Ru intermediate layer plays an important role in controlling the crystalline orientation of the magnetic layer. In addition, there are ongoing efforts to study the analysis of fuel cell catalysts, analysis of impurities doped in ferroelectric films, and strain analysis of Si. (author)

  8. Inner-shell photoemission from atoms and molecules using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photoelectron spectroscopy, in conjunction with synchrotron radiation, has been used to study inner-shell photoemission from atoms and molecules. The time structure of the synchrotron radiation permits the measurements of time-of-flight (TOF) spectra of Auger and photoelectrons, thereby increasing the electron collection efficiency. The double-angle TOF method yielded angle-resolved photoelectron intensities, which were used to determine photoionization cross sections and photoelectron angular distributions in several cases. Comparison to theoretical calculations has been made where possible to help explain observed phenomena in terms of the electronic structure and photoionization dynamics of the systems studied. 154 references, 23 figures, 7 tables

  9. Radio galaxies radiation transfer, dynamics, stability and evolution of a synchrotron plasmon

    CERN Document Server

    Pacholczyk, A G

    1977-01-01

    Radio Galaxies: Radiation Transfer, Dynamics, Stability and Evolution of a Synchrotron Plasmon deals with the physics of a region in space containing magnetic field and thermal and relativistic particles (a plasmon). The synchrotron emission and absorption of this region are discussed, along with the properties of its spectrum; its linear and circular polarization; transfer of radiation through such a region; its dynamics and expansion; and interaction with external medium.Comprised of eight chapters, this volume explores the stability, turbulence, and acceleration of particles in a synchrotro

  10. Coherent emission of $\\gamma $ quanta by synchrotron radiation excited nuclei: geometry of nearly backward scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnov, G V

    2013-01-01

    A possibility of further development of Synchrotron M\\"{o}ssbauer Source (SMS) of $^{57}$Fe 14.4 keV radiation is considered. The principles and detailed description of the SMS device is given in Refs. Phys. Rev. A 84, 053851 (2011) G. V. Smirnov et al, J. Synchrotron Rad., v. 19, 559 (2012) V. Potapkin et al. The perfect crystal of Iron Borate, FeBO$_{3}$, is the central element of this device. The coherent nuclear fluorescence of IB crystal illuminated by synchrotron radiation produces the sharply directed beam of 14.4 keV M\\"{o}ssbauer radiation from the crystal set at the pure nuclear Bragg reflection. Up to now the low angle scattering geometry was used for generation of the coherent $\\gamma $ radiation. The analysis performed in the present paper shows that the source of about two times larger power can be obtained when nearly backward scattering geometry is employed. This result can be efficiently applied in development of high resolution spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation.

  11. Analysis of cortical bone porosity using synchrotron radiation microtomography to evaluate the effects of chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessio, R.; Nogueira, L. P.; Salata, C.; Mantuano, A.; Almeida, A. P.; Braz, D.; de Almeida, C. E.; Tromba, G.; Barroso, R. C.

    2015-11-01

    Microporosities play important biologic and mechanical roles on health. One of the side effects caused by some chemotherapy drugs is the induction of amenorrhea, temporary or not, in premenopausal women, with a consequent decrease in estrogen production, which can lead to cortical bone changes. In the present work, the femur diaphysis of rats treated with chemotherapy drugs were evaluated by 3D morphometric parameters using synchrotron radiation microtomography. Control animals were also evaluated for comparison. The 3D tomographic images were obtained at the SYRMEP (SYnchrotron Radiation for MEdical Physics) beamline at the ELETTRA Synchrotron Laboratory in Trieste, Italy. Results showed significant differences in morphometric parameters measured from the 3D images of femur diaphysis of rats.

  12. Infrared synchrotron radiation spectroscopy and microspectroscopy: new tools for interdisciplinary applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation sources, whose number is steadily increasing, are undoubtedly the most powerful and brilliant sources in the X-ray range. Although the synchrotron emission covers with high brilliance also the infrared region, its use in this energy range has developed at a much slower rate. Nowadays, after a couple of decades of attempts, the aim of extending the unique performances of the synchrotron source to the infrared domain is achieved by several dedicated beamlines in different countries. With their high-brilliance, polarized and broad-band radiation one may perform experiments that are out of the range of conventional sources from the near-IR up to the far-IR range.

  13. Synchrotron X-Ray Radiation and Deformation Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fæster Nielsen, Søren

    machining. The conical slit has six 25µm thick conically shaped openings matching six of the Debye-Scherrer cones from a fcc powder. By combining the conical slit with a micro-focused incoming beam of hard X-rays an embedded gauge volume is defined. Using a 2D detector, fast and complete information can...... in combination with synchrotron X-ray tomography in order to gain new in-formation on the wetting kinetics of liquid gallium in aluminium grain boundaries. Finally, an electron microscopy investigation was carried out in order to describe the lattice rotations and texture evolution in uniaxially compressed...... aluminium single crystals and polycrystals....

  14. Microprobe analysis of teeth by synchrotron radiation: environmental contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An X-ray fluorescence set-up with microprobe capabilities, installed at the Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation du Rayonnement Electromagnetique (LURE) synchrotron (France) was used for elemental determination in teeth. To evaluate the influence of living habits in dental elemental composition nine teeth collected post-mortem were analysed, five from a miner and four from a fisherman. All teeth from the fisherman were healthy. From the miner some teeth were carious and one of them was filled with metallic amalgam. Teeth were sliced under the vertical plane and each slice was scanned from the root to the enamel for elemental profile determination. The synchrotron microprobe resolution was of 100 μm and incident photons of 18 keV energy were used. The elemental concentration values found suggest heterogeneity of the teeth material. Moreover, the distinct profiles for Mn, Sr, Br and Pb were found when teeth from the miner and from the fisherman are compared which can be associated with dietary habits and environmental influence. Higher concentrations of Mn and Sr were found for the fisherman teeth. In addition, Br was only observed in this group of teeth. Pb levels are higher for the miner teeth in particular for dentine regions. The influence of amalgam, such as, increase of Zn and Hg contents in the teeth material, is only noticed for the immediate surroundings of the treated cavity

  15. Microprobe analysis of teeth by synchrotron radiation: environmental contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, T. E-mail: murmur@itn1.itn.pt; Carvalho, M.L.; Casaca, C.; Barreiros, M.A.; Cunha, A.S.; Chevallier, P

    1999-09-02

    An X-ray fluorescence set-up with microprobe capabilities, installed at the Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation du Rayonnement Electromagnetique (LURE) synchrotron (France) was used for elemental determination in teeth. To evaluate the influence of living habits in dental elemental composition nine teeth collected post-mortem were analysed, five from a miner and four from a fisherman. All teeth from the fisherman were healthy. From the miner some teeth were carious and one of them was filled with metallic amalgam. Teeth were sliced under the vertical plane and each slice was scanned from the root to the enamel for elemental profile determination. The synchrotron microprobe resolution was of 100 {mu}m and incident photons of 18 keV energy were used. The elemental concentration values found suggest heterogeneity of the teeth material. Moreover, the distinct profiles for Mn, Sr, Br and Pb were found when teeth from the miner and from the fisherman are compared which can be associated with dietary habits and environmental influence. Higher concentrations of Mn and Sr were found for the fisherman teeth. In addition, Br was only observed in this group of teeth. Pb levels are higher for the miner teeth in particular for dentine regions. The influence of amalgam, such as, increase of Zn and Hg contents in the teeth material, is only noticed for the immediate surroundings of the treated cavity.

  16. The pitch angle paradox and radiative life times in a synchrotron source

    CERN Document Server

    Singal, Ashok K

    2016-01-01

    In synchrotron radiation there is a paradox whether or not the pitch angle of a radiating charge varies. The conventional wisdom is that the pitch angle does not change during the radiation process. The argument is based on Larmor's radiation formula, where in a synchrotron case the radiation power is along the instantaneous direction of motion of the charge. Then the momentum loss will also be parallel to that direction and therefore the pitch angle of the charge would remain unaffected. The accordingly derived formulas for energy losses of synchrotron electrons in radio galaxies are the standard text-book material for the last 50 years. However, if we use the momentum transformation laws from special relativity, then we find that the pitch angle of a radiating charge varies. While the velocity component parallel to the magnetic field remains unaffected, the perpendicular component does reduce in magnitude due to radiative losses, implying a change in the pitch angle. This apparent paradox is resolved when e...

  17. Surface photo reaction processes using synchrotron radiation; Hoshako reiki ni yoru hyomenko hanno process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imaizumi, Y. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Materials Research; Yoshigoe, A. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Urisu, T. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan). Institute for Molecular Science

    1997-08-20

    This paper introduces the surface photo reaction processes using synchrotron radiation, and its application. A synchrotron radiation process using soft X-rays contained in electron synchrotron radiated light as an excited light source has a possibility of high-resolution processing because of its short wave length. The radiated light can excite efficiently the electronic state of a substance, and can induce a variety of photochemical reactions. In addition, it can excite inner shell electrons efficiently. In the aspect of its application, it has been found that, if radiated light is irradiated on surfaces of solids under fluorine-based reaction gas or Cl2, the surfaces can be etched. This technology is utilized practically. With regard to radiated light excited CVD process, it may be said that anything that can be deposited by the ordinary plasma CVD process can be deposited. Its application to epitaxial crystal growth may be said a nano processing application in thickness direction, such as forming an ultra-lattice structure, the application being subjected to expectation. In micromachine fabricating technologies, a possibility is searched on application of a photo reaction process of the radiated light. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  18. 6th international conference on biophysics and synchrotron radiation. Program/Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pittroff, Connie; Strasser, Susan Barr [lead editors

    1999-08-03

    This STI product consists of the Program/Abstracts book that was prepared for the participants in the Sixth International Conference on Biophysics and Synchrotron Radiation that was held August 4-8, 1998, at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. This book contains the full conference program and abstracts of the scientific presentations.

  19. Determination of tin equilibrium isotope fractionation factors from synchrotron radiation experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polyakov, VB; Mineev, SD; Clayton, RN; Hu, G; Mineev, KS

    2005-01-01

    A method of determination of the reduced isotopic partition function ratio (beta-factor) from the partial density of state (PDOS) obtained by inelastic nuclear resonant X-ray scattering (INRXS) in synchrotron radiation experiments has been established. The method has been demonstrated by the example

  20. In situ study on dendrite growth of metallic alloy by a synchrotron radiation imaging technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This study was trying to observe the real-time dendrite growth of Sn-Bi and Sn-Pb binary alloys by a synchrotron radiation imaging technology.The imaging system includes an intense and high brightness synchrotron radiation source,a high-resolution and fast-readout charge coupled device camera,an alloy sample and a Bridgman solidification system.The imaging experiments were done at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility with an updated synchrotron radiation imaging technique,diffraction-enhanced imaging,which was firstly used to study the dendrite growth of metallic alloy.A series of growth behavior and morphology evolution of dendrite have been in situ observed,such as columnar-to-equiaxed transition,dendrite competition,dendrite fragmentation and floating,etc.,which can offer the direct proofs to verify or improve the solidification theories of metallic alloy.This research opens a novel window for the study of alloy solidification and enables the unambiguous understanding of solidification processes in optically opaque,metallic alloys.

  1. Multipurpose furnace for in situ studies of polycrystalline materials using synchrotron radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, H.; Wattjes, A.C.; Amirthalingam, M.; Zuidwijk, T.; Geerlofs, N.; Offerman, S.E.

    2009-01-01

    We report a multipurpose furnace designed for studies using synchrotron radiation on polycrystalline materials, namely, metals, ceramics, and (semi)crystalline polymers. The furnace has been designed to carry out three-dimensional (3D) x-ray diffraction measurements but can also be used for other ty

  2. Characterization of dry globular proteins and protein fibrils by synchrotron radiation vacuum UV circular dichroism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nesgaard, Lise W.; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning; Andersen, Christian Beyschau;

    2008-01-01

    Circular dichroism using synchrotron radiation (SRCD) can extend the spectral range down to approximately 130 nm for dry proteins, potentially providing new structural information. Using a selection of dried model proteins, including alpha-helical, beta-sheet, and mixed-structure proteins, we obs...

  3. Plastique: A synchrotron radiation beamline for time resolved fluorescence in the frequency domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stasio, Gelsomina; Zema, N.; Antonangeli, F.; Savoia, A.; Parasassi, T.; Rosato, N.

    1991-06-01

    PLASTIQUE is the only synchrotron radiation beamline in the world that performs time resolved fluorescence experiments in frequency domain. These experiments are extremely valuable sources of information on the structure and dynamics of molecules. We describe the beamline and some initial data.

  4. Imaging Plate, a two dimensional detector, in modern protein crystallography using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proteins have two major structural aspects: one is static structure and the other is dynamic structure which is related with their reactions. Research on their dynamic structure started only recently as strong white X-ray became available from synchrotron radiation. Synchrotron radiation is a dream come true for protein crystallography. Theoretically, stronger rays permit the analysis of smaller structural changes. Synchrotron radiation has many good features which are useful for data collection by protein crystallography. Imaging Plate, a film-type large two-dimensional detector developed by Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd., is very suitable for structural analysis of proteins by means of synchrotron radiation. A Weissenberg camera for macromolecules, which was developed by the author, has many advantages for data collection when used in combination with Imaging Plate. Some study results obtained by using them are outlined briefly focusing on the structure of ω-amino acid. Results of trigger experiments using a time resolved Laue camera and laser are also described. (N.K.)

  5. A novel DC Magnetron sputtering facility for space research and synchrotron radiation optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, A.M.; Christensen, Finn Erland; Pareschi, G.;

    1998-01-01

    A new DC magnetron sputtering facility has been build up at the Danish Space Research Institute (DSRI), specially designed to enable uniform coatings of large area curved optics, such as Wolter-I mirror optics used in space telescopes and curved optics used in synchrotron radiation facilities...

  6. 6th international conference on biophysics and synchrotron radiation. Program/Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This STI product consists of the Program/Abstracts book that was prepared for the participants in the Sixth International Conference on Biophysics and Synchrotron Radiation that was held August 4-8, 1998, at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. This book contains the full conference program and abstracts of the scientific presentations

  7. Determination of Arsenic Poisoning and Metabolism in Hair by Synchrotron Radiation: The Case of Phar Lap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempson, Ivan M.; Henry, Dermot A. (Museum Vic.); (U. South Australia)

    2010-08-26

    Fresh physical evidence about the demise of the racehorse Phar Lap (see photograph) has been gathered from the study of mane hair samples by synchrotron radiation analysis with high resolution X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analyses. The results are indicative of arsenic ingestion and metabolism, and show that the racing champion died from arsenic poisoning.

  8. Progress in high pressure EDXD system and research at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The synchrotron radiation from a new wiggler of BEPC has been used to high pressure research. Upgraded DAC apparatus and EDXD system have been operated to determine the pressure-induced phase transition of materials at BSRF since June 1998. The improved performance of the system and the preliminary results of the research were described.

  9. Radiation doses on the ring magnet of the 70 GeV proton synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results on measurement and calculation of radiation doses on the blocks of the ring magnet of the IHEP 70 GeV proton synchrotron and regimes of its operation from 1976 to 1990 are presented. 22 refs.; 201 figs.; 1 tab

  10. International workshop on the 'Physics of interfaces by synchrotron radiation and other high energy probes'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present 'book of abstracts' consists of the abstracts of 23 lectures, held at the international workshop on the 'Physics of interfaces by synchrotron radiation and other high energy probes', April 1986, Bad Honnef, FRG. The subjects are: The use of photoemission in the study of interfaces and adsorbates, EEL spectroscopy applications, spin polarization, photoionization processes and EXAFS. (BHO)

  11. Study of Synchrotron Radiation for the Electron Beam Polarimeter for the MEIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-08-06

    This is a look at the synchrotron radiation coming from the chicane in the electron beam line for the MEIC design. The power density on the beam pipe as well as transmission through the beam pipe is studied. The optics design is version 12.

  12. Nuclear resonant scattering of Synchrotron radiation from nuclei in the Browninan motion

    OpenAIRE

    Razdan, Ashok

    2001-01-01

    The time evolution of the coherent forward scattering of Synchrotron radiation for resonant nuclei in Brownian motion is studied . Apart from target thickness, the appearance of dynamical beats also depends on $\\alpha$ which is the ratio of harmonic force constant to the damping force constant of a harmonic oscillator undergoing Brownian motion.

  13. Environmental Remediation Science at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural Mn oxide colloids and grain coatings are ubiquitous in the environment and have extremely high sorptive capacities for heavy metals, including U(VI). Mn(II) is a common ground water solute, which is bacterially oxidized to Mn(VI) oxide under microaerophilic conditions. In-situ stimulation of Mn oxide production provides a potential route to enhanced attenuation of ground water U(VI). We have used extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and synchrotron-based in-situ x-ray diffraction (SR-XRD) to probe the structural mechanisms of uranium binding by manganese oxides produced by Bacillus sp., strain SG-1. These results indicate that U(VI) is structurally bound within tunnel-structured Mn oxides

  14. Experiments in atomic and applied physics using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A diverse program in atomic and applied physics using x rays produced at the X-26 beam line at the Brookhaven National Synchrotron Light Source is in progress. The atomic physics program studies the properties of multiply-ionized atoms using the x rays for photo-excitation and ionization of neutral atoms and ion beams. The applied physics program builds on the techniques and results of the atomic physics work to develop new analytical techniques for elemental and chemical characterization of materials. The results are then used for a general experimental program in biomedical sciences, geo- and cosmochemistry, and materials sciences. The present status of the program is illustrated by describing selected experiments. Prospects for development of new experimental capabilities are discussed in terms of a heavy ion storage ring for atomic physics experiments and the feasibility of photoelectron microscopy for high spatial resolution analytical work. 21 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Acquisition of powder diffraction data with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, D.E.; Toby, B.H.; Eddy, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    During the past year, a dedicated triple-axis powder diffractometer has been in routine operation at the Brookhaven National Synchrotron Light Source as a user-oriented facility. The diffractometer is designed to allow easy interchange between energy-dispersive and monochromatic beam experiments. In the latter mode of operation, high resolution data have been collected for a variety of samples with the use of the crystal-analyzer technique, and in several cases these data sets have been used successfully for structure solution and Rietveld refinement. Several aspects of data acquisition at a synchrotron beam-line are described, and some of the different types of scattering geometry which have been used are discussed. Simple expressions are given for the instrumental resolution function expressed as the angular variation of peak widths for each of these. The peak shapes observed for a reference sample of Si on the present triple-axis instrument are well-described by the convolution of Gaussian and Lorentzian functions, and the angular dependence of the Gaussian component is in excellent agreement with the corresponding calculated instrumental function. One of the most important considerations for each type of experiment is the necessary compromise between intensity and resolution over a wide range of scattering angles, and some of the available options will be discussed. In particular, the use of Ge(440) and LiF(400) analyzer crystals gives a focussing minimum at relatively high angles (2 THETA approx. = 50/sup 0/ at 1.54A), a highly desirable feature for Rietveld analysis of complex structures. Absolute intensities from reference samples of Si and CeO/sub 2/ are calculated for these and several other scattering configurations involving both flat-plate and capillary geometry to illustrate this compromise. 26 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. A critical experimental test of synchrotron radiation theory with 3rd generation light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    A recent ''beam splitting'' experiment at LCLS apparently demonstrated that after a microbunched electron beam is kicked on a large angle compared to the divergence of the FEL radiation, the microbunching wave front is readjusted along the new direction of motion of the kicked beam. Therefore, coherent radiation from an undulator placed after the kicker is emitted along the kicked direction without suppression. This strong emission of coherent undulator radiation in the kicked direction cannot be explained in the framework of conventional synchrotron radiation theory. In a previous paper we explained this puzzle. We demonstrated that, in accelerator physics, the coupling of fields and particles is based, on the one hand, on the use of results from particle dynamics treated according to the absolute time convention and, on the other hand, on the use of Maxwell equations treated according to the standard (Einstein) synchronization convention. Here lies the misconception which led to the strong qualitative disagreement between theory and experiment. After the ''beam splitting'' experiment at LCLS, it became clear that the conventional theory of synchrotron radiation cannot ensure the correct description of coherent and spontaneous emission from a kicked electron beam, nor the emission from a beam with finite angular divergence, in an undulator or a bending magnet. However, this result requires further experimental confirmation. In this publication we propose an uncomplicated and inexpensive experiment to test synchrotron radiation theory at 3rd generation light sources.

  17. Australian radiation therapy – Part two: Reflections of the past, the present, the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merchant, Susan [Radiation Oncology Department, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, SA (Australia); Curtin Health Innovative Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, WA (Australia); Halkett, Georgia [Curtin Health Innovative Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, WA (Australia); Sale, Charlotte [Radiation Oncology, Andrew Love Cancer Centre, Barwon Health, Geelong, Vic. (Australia); Radiation Oncology Department, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, SA (Australia); Collaboration: Grad Cert Grief & Pall Care Counselling, MIR

    2014-02-15

    Introduction: Documentation on the history of Australian radiotherapy is limited. This study provides radiation therapists' (RTs) perspectives of the people, workplace, and work practices in Australian radiotherapy centres from 1960 onwards. It provides a follow-up to our previous study: Australian radiation therapy: An overview – Part one, which outlines the history and development of radiotherapy from conception until present day. Methods: Four focus groups were conducted on separate occasions in 2010, one in South Australia and three in Victoria, Australia. Participants who worked in radiotherapy were purposively selected to ensure a range of experience, age, and years of work. Results: From a RT perspective, radiotherapy has evolved from a physically demanding ‘hands-on’ work environment, often with unpleasant sights and smells of disease, to a more technology-driven workplace. Conclusion: Understanding these changes and their subsequent effects on the role of Australian RTs will assist future directions in advanced role development.

  18. Australian radiation therapy – Part two: Reflections of the past, the present, the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Documentation on the history of Australian radiotherapy is limited. This study provides radiation therapists' (RTs) perspectives of the people, workplace, and work practices in Australian radiotherapy centres from 1960 onwards. It provides a follow-up to our previous study: Australian radiation therapy: An overview – Part one, which outlines the history and development of radiotherapy from conception until present day. Methods: Four focus groups were conducted on separate occasions in 2010, one in South Australia and three in Victoria, Australia. Participants who worked in radiotherapy were purposively selected to ensure a range of experience, age, and years of work. Results: From a RT perspective, radiotherapy has evolved from a physically demanding ‘hands-on’ work environment, often with unpleasant sights and smells of disease, to a more technology-driven workplace. Conclusion: Understanding these changes and their subsequent effects on the role of Australian RTs will assist future directions in advanced role development

  19. Beaming of particles and synchrotron radiation in relativistic magnetic reconnection

    CERN Document Server

    Kagan, Daniel; Piran, Tsvi

    2016-01-01

    Relativistic reconnection has been invoked as a mechanism for particle acceleration in numerous astrophysical systems. According to idealised analytical models reconnection produces a bulk relativistic outflow emerging from the reconnection sites (X-points). The resulting radiation is therefore highly beamed. Using two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, we investigate particle and radiation beaming, finding a very different picture. Instead of having a relativistic average bulk motion with isotropic electron velocity distribution in its rest frame, we find that the bulk motion of particles in X-points is similar to their Lorentz factor gamma, and the particles are beamed within about 5/gamma. On the way from the X-point to the magnetic islands, particles turn in the magnetic field, forming a fan confined to the current sheet. Once they reach the islands they isotropise after completing a full Larmor gyration and their radiation is not strongly beamed anymore. The radiation pattern at a given freq...

  20. Beaming of Particles and Synchrotron Radiation in Relativistic Magnetic Reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Daniel; Nakar, Ehud; Piran, Tsvi

    2016-08-01

    Relativistic reconnection has been invoked as a mechanism for particle acceleration in numerous astrophysical systems. According to idealized analytical models, reconnection produces a bulk relativistic outflow emerging from the reconnection sites (X-points). The resulting radiation is therefore highly beamed. Using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we investigate particle and radiation beaming, finding a very different picture. Instead of having a relativistic average bulk motion with an isotropic electron velocity distribution in its rest frame, we find that the bulk motion of the particles in X-points is similar to their Lorentz factor γ, and the particles are beamed within ˜ 5/γ . On the way from the X-point to the magnetic islands, particles turn in the magnetic field, forming a fan confined to the current sheet. Once they reach the islands they isotropize after completing a full Larmor gyration and their radiation is no longer strongly beamed. The radiation pattern at a given frequency depends on where the corresponding emitting electrons radiate their energy. Lower-energy particles that cool slowly spend most of their time in the islands and their radiation is not highly beamed. Only particles that quickly cool at the edge of the X-points generate a highly beamed fan-like radiation pattern. The radiation emerging from these fast cooling particles is above the burn-off limit (˜100 MeV in the overall rest frame of the reconnecting plasma). This has significant implications for models of gamma-ray bursts and active galactic nuclei that invoke beaming in that frame at much lower energies.

  1. X-ray Synchrotron Radiation in a Plasma Wiggler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shuoquin; /UCLA /SLAC, SSRL

    2005-09-27

    A relativistic electron beam can radiate due to its betatron motion inside an ion channel. The ion channel is induced by the electron bunch as it propagates through an underdense plasma. In the theory section of this thesis the formation of the ion channel, the trajectories of beam electrons inside the ion channel, the radiation power and the radiation spectrum of the spontaneous emission are studied. The comparison between different plasma wiggler schemes is made. The difficulties in realizing stimulated emission as the beam traverses the ion channel are investigated, with particular emphasis on the bunching mechanism, which is important for the ion channel free electron laser. This thesis reports an experiment conducted at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) to measure the betatron X-ray radiations for the first time. They first describe the construction and characterization of the lithium plasma source. In the experiment, the transverse oscillations of the SLAC 28.5 GeV electron beam traversing through a 1.4 meter long lithium plasma source are clearly seen. These oscillations lead to a quadratic density dependence of the spontaneously emitted betatron X-ray radiation. The divergence angle of the X-ray radiation is measured. The absolute photon yield and the spectral brightness at 14.2 KeV photon energy are estimated and seen to be in reasonable agreement with theory.

  2. CAS CERN Accelerator School. Synchrotron radiation and free electron lasers. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings present the lectures given at the tenth specialised course organised by the CERN Accelerator School (CAS), the topic this time being 'Synchrotron Radiation and Free-electron Lasers'. A similar course was already given at Chester, UK in 1989 and whose proceedings were published as CERN 90-03. However, recent progress in this field has been so rapid that it became urgent to present a revised version of the course. Starting with a review of the characteristics of synchrotron radiation there follows introductory lectures on electron dynamics in storage rings, beam insertion devices, and beam current and radiation brightness limits. These themes are then developed with more detailed lectures on lattices and emittance, wigglers and undulators, current limitations, beam lifetime and quality, diagnostics and beam stability. Finally lectures are presented on linac and storage ring free-electron lasers. (orig.)

  3. Synchrotron and Smith-Purcell radiations from a charge rotating around a cylindrical grating

    CERN Document Server

    Saharian, A A; Mkrtchyan, A R; Khachatryan, B V

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the radiation from a charge rotating around conductors with cylindrical symmetry. First the problem is considered with a charge rotating around a conducting cylinder immersed in a homogeneous medium. The surface charge and current densities induced on the cylinder surface are evaluated. A formula is derived for the spectral-angular density of the radiation intensity. In the second part, we study the radiation for a charge rotating around a diffraction grating on a cylindrical surface with metallic strips parallel to the cylinder axis. The effect of the grating on the radiation intensity is approximated by the surface currents induced on the strips by the field of the rotating charge. The expressions are derived for the electric and magnetic fields and for the angular density of the radiation intensity on a given harmonic. We show that the interference between the synchrotron and Smith-Purcell radiations may lead to interesting features. In particular, the behavior of the radiation intensity on ...

  4. Hierarchical radioscopy using polychromatic and partially coherent hard synchrotron radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rack, Alexander; García-Moreno, Francisco; Helfen, Lukas; Mukherjee, Manas; Jiménez, Catalina; Rack, Tatjana; Cloetens, Peter; Banhart, John

    2013-11-20

    Pushing synchrotron x-ray radiography to increasingly higher image-acquisition rates (currently up to 100,000 fps) while maintaining spatial resolutions in the micrometer range implies drastically reduced fields of view. As a consequence, either imaging a small subregion of the sample with high spatial resolution or only the complete specimen with moderate resolution is applicable. We introduce a concept to overcome this limitation by making use of a semi-transparent x-ray detector positioned close to the investigated sample. The hard x-rays that pass through the sample either create an image on the first detector or keep on propagating until they are captured by a second x-ray detector located further downstream. In this way, a process can be imaged simultaneously in a hierarchical manner within a single exposure and a projection of the complete object with moderate resolution as well as a subregion with high resolution are obtained. As a proof-of-concept experiment, image sequences of an evolving liquid-metal foam are shown, employing frame rates of 1000  images/s (1.2 μm pixel size) and 15,000  images/s (18.1 μm pixel size) for the first and second detector, respectively. PMID:24513767

  5. Comparison of Design and Practices for Radiation Safety among Five Synchrotron Radiation Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, James C.; Rokni, Sayed H.; /SLAC; Asano, Yoshihiro; /JAERI-RIKEN, Hyogo; Casey, William R.; /Brookhaven; Donahue, Richard J.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2005-06-29

    There are more and more third-generation synchrotron radiation (SR) facilities in the world that utilize low emittance electron (or positron) beam circulating in a storage ring to generate synchrotron light for various types of experiments. A storage ring based SR facility consists of an injector, a storage ring, and many SR beamlines. When compared to other types of accelerator facilities, the design and practices for radiation safety of storage ring and SR beamlines are unique to SR facilities. Unlike many other accelerator facilities, the storage ring and beamlines of a SR facility are generally above ground with users and workers occupying the experimental floor frequently. The users are generally non-radiation workers and do not wear dosimeters, though basic facility safety training is required. Thus, the shielding design typically aims for an annual dose limit of 100 mrem over 2000 h without the need for administrative control for radiation hazards. On the other hand, for operational and cost considerations, the concrete ring wall (both lateral and ratchet walls) is often desired to be no more than a few feet thick (with an even thinner roof). Most SR facilities have similar operation modes and beam parameters (both injection and stored) for storage ring and SR beamlines. The facility typically operates almost full year with one-month start-up period, 10-month science program for experiments (with short accelerator physics studies and routine maintenance during the period of science program), and a month-long shutdown period. A typical operational mode for science program consists of long periods of circulating stored beam (which decays with a lifetime in tens of hours), interposed with short injection events (in minutes) to fill the stored current. The stored beam energy ranges from a few hundreds MeV to 10 GeV with a low injection beam power (generally less than 10 watts). The injection beam energy can be the same as, or lower than, the stored beam energy

  6. Probing droplets with biological colloidal suspensions on smart surfaces by synchrotron radiation micro- and nano-beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinaro, G.; Accardo, A.; Benseny-Cases, N.; Burghammer, M.; Castillo-Michel, H.; Cotte, M.; Dante, S.; De Angelis, F.; Di Cola, E.; Di Fabrizio, E.; Hauser, C.; Riekel, C.

    2016-01-01

    Droplets with colloidal biological suspensions evaporating on substrates with defined wetting properties generate confined environments for initiating aggregation and self-assembly processes. We describe smart micro- and nanostructured surfaces, optimized for probing single droplets and residues by synchrotron radiation micro- and nanobeam diffraction techniques. Applications are presented for Ac-IVD and β-amyloid (1-42) peptides capable of forming cross-β sheet structures. Complementary synchrotron radiation FTIR microspectroscopy addresses secondary structure formation. The high synchrotron radiation source brilliance enables fast raster-scan experiments.

  7. Probing droplets with biological colloidal suspensions on smart surfaces by synchrotron radiation micro- and nano-beams

    KAUST Repository

    Marinaro, Giovanni

    2015-03-01

    Droplets with colloidal biological suspensions evaporating on substrates with defined wetting properties generate confined environments for initiating aggregation and self-assembly processes. We describe smart micro- and nanostructured surfaces, optimized for probing single droplets and residues by synchrotron radiation micro- and nanobeam diffraction techniques. Applications are presented for Ac-IVD and β-amyloid (1-42) peptides capable of forming cross-β sheet structures. Complementary synchrotron radiation FTIR microspectroscopy addresses secondary structure formation. The high synchrotron radiation source brilliance enables fast raster-scan experiments. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act 1998. Act No 133

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of legislation consisting of three Acts in the field of radiation protection and nuclear safety was passed by both Houses of Parliament on 10 December 1998 and was proclaimed on 5 February 1999. Act No. 133 - Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act, which is a framework Law, established the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) as the regulatory body for radiation protection and nuclear safety, in place of the Nuclear Safety Bureau. The Chief Executive Officer of ARPANSA, who is appointed by the Governor-General for a term of up to 5 years, is obliged to submit annual and quarterly reports to the Minister on the operations of the Chief Executive Officer, ARPANSA, the Council, the Radiation Health Committee and the Nuclear Safety Committee. The Council is a consultative body which examines issues relating to radiation protection and nuclear safety and advises the Chief Executive Officer on these issues as well as on the adoption of recommendations, policies and codes. The Radiation Health Committee and the Nuclear Safety Committee are to be established as advisory committees to the Chief Executive Officer or the Council. Both committees should draft national policies, codes and standards in their respective fields and review their effectiveness periodically. The second in this series of legislation, Act No. 134, Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (License Charges) Act requires holders of both facility and source licenses to pay an annual charge, to be prescribed by the regulations. The third, Act No. 135 , Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (Consequential Amendments) Act repeals those provisions of the 1987 Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation Act which concern the Nuclear Safety Bureau, and the 1978 Environment Protection Act as a whole

  9. Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act 1998. Act No 133

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    A set of legislation consisting of three Acts in the field of radiation protection and nuclear safety was passed by both Houses of Parliament on 10 December 1998 and was proclaimed on 5 February 1999. Act No. 133 - Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act, which is a framework Law, established the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) as the regulatory body for radiation protection and nuclear safety, in place of the Nuclear Safety Bureau. The Chief Executive Officer of ARPANSA, who is appointed by the Governor-General for a term of up to 5 years, is obliged to submit annual and quarterly reports to the Minister on the operations of the Chief Executive Officer, ARPANSA, the Council, the Radiation Health Committee and the Nuclear Safety Committee. The Council is a consultative body which examines issues relating to radiation protection and nuclear safety and advises the Chief Executive Officer on these issues as well as on the adoption of recommendations, policies and codes. The Radiation Health Committee and the Nuclear Safety Committee are to be established as advisory committees to the Chief Executive Officer or the Council. Both committees should draft national policies, codes and standards in their respective fields and review their effectiveness periodically. The second in this series of legislation, Act No. 134, Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (License Charges) Act requires holders of both facility and source licenses to pay an annual charge, to be prescribed by the regulations. The third, Act No. 135 , Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (Consequential Amendments) Act repeals those provisions of the 1987 Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation Act which concern the Nuclear Safety Bureau, and the 1978 Environment Protection Act as a whole

  10. Powder diffractometry on polychromatic synchrotron radiation (approach to a problem)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of the determination of interplanar spaces and relative intensities for polycrystalline samples from the X-ray patterns that have been taken in polychromatic radiation is offered. The method is based on the construction of a model X-ray pattern and minimization of the difference between it and the experimental curve. It is shown by model experiments for SrO2, Cu and Al that the method is proof against experimental errors and that errors of definition of parameters are of the same order as those for X-rays pattern obtained in monochromatic radiation. The influence of absorption edges of elements being a part of the sample on the X-ray pattern and the possibility of using them for improvement of experiment quality are discussed

  11. Powder diffractometry on polychromatic synchrotron radiation (approach to a problem)

    CERN Document Server

    Matjushin, A M

    2001-01-01

    The method of the determination of interplanar spaces and relative intensities for polycrystalline samples from the X-ray patterns that have been taken in polychromatic radiation is offered. The method is based on the construction of a model X-ray pattern and minimization of the difference between it and the experimental curve. It is shown by model experiments for SrO sub 2 , Cu and Al that the method is proof against experimental errors and that errors of definition of parameters are of the same order as those for X-rays pattern obtained in monochromatic radiation. The influence of absorption edges of elements being a part of the sample on the X-ray pattern and the possibility of using them for improvement of experiment quality are discussed.

  12. Radiation reaction and the pitch angle changes for a charge undergoing synchrotron losses

    CERN Document Server

    Singal, Ashok K

    2015-01-01

    In synchrotron radiation formulas it is always assumed that the pitch angle of a charged particle remains constant during the radiation process. The argument employed is that as the radiation is beamed along the instantaneous direction of motion of the charge, the momentum loss will also be along the direction of motion. Accordingly radiation reaction should not cause any change in the direction of the velocity vector, and the pitch angle of the charge would therefore remain constant during the radiation process. However, it turns out that this picture is not relativistically covariant and that in the case of synchrotron losses, the pitch angle in general varies. While the component of the velocity vector perpendicular to the magnetic field does reduce in magnitude due to radiative losses, the parallel component does not undergo any change during radiation. Therefore there is a change in the ratio of the two components, implying a change in the pitch angle. This apparent paradox gets resolved and one gets a c...

  13. Adiabatic calorimeter for measuring absorbed dose of IHEP synchrotron secondary radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An adiabatic calorimeter for measuring the value of absorbed dose of mixed radiation generated by 70 GeV proton synchrotron is described. The calorimetric system consists of a working body (a core) and a shell (a screen). The calorimeter adiabaticity is provided by the absence of the core-shell heat exchange by maintaining the shell temperature equal to the core temperature and, consequently, the whole energy generated in the core goes for its heating. The work showed the possibility of carrying out the adiabatic calorimetric measurements of absorbed dose of secondary radiation generated by un accelerated proton beam under the conditions of alternating magnetic and electric fields at the IHEP proton synchrotron at the average dose rate not less than 5x10-3 Wxkg-1

  14. Atomic and molecular photoelectron and Auger-electron-spectroscopy studies using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron spectroscopy, combined with synchrotron radiation, was used to measure the angular distributions of photoelectrons and Auger electrons from atoms and molecules as functions of photon energy. The branching ratios and partial cross sections were also measured in certain cases. By comparison with theoretical calculations, the experimental results are interpreted in terms of the characteristic electronic structure and ionization dynamics of the atomic or molecular sample. The time structure of the synchrotron radiation source was used to record time-of-flight (TOF) spectra of the ejected electrons. The double-angle-TOF method for the measurement of photoelectron angular distributions is discussed. This technique offers the advantages of increased electron collection efficiency and the elimination of certain systematic errors. An electron spectroscopy study of inner-shell photoexcitation and ionization of Xe, photoelectron angular distributions from H2 and D2, and photoionization cross sections and photoelectron asymmetries of the valence orbitals of NO are reported

  15. Assessment of the national need for facilities dedicated to the production of synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    The report begins with an introduction, followed by conclusions and recommendations. The scientific and technological impact of synchrotron radiation is described; a broad and significant impact is documented. An estimate of the present and future utilization of synchrotron radiation is made; it is shown that current U.S. facilities are not adequate to meet future needs. In an effort to lay the groundwork for decisions about existing and future storage ring sources, a review of the capabilities, design, and operation of storage rings is provided. It is recommended that an immediate commitment be made to construct new dedicated national facilities and to expand existing facilities so that optimized XUV and x-ray capabilities are provided. 13 figures, 6 tables. (RWR)

  16. Evaluation and optimization of the structural parameter of diesel nozzle basing on synchrotron radiation imaging techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z.; Gao, Y.; Gong, H.; Li, L.

    2016-04-01

    Lacking of efficient methods, industry currently uses one only parameter—fuel flow rate—to evaluate the nozzle quality, which is far from satisfying the current emission regulations worldwide. By utilizing synchrotron radiation high energy X-ray in Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF), together with the imaging techniques, the 3D models of two nozzles with the same design dimensions were established, and the influence of parameters fluctuation in the azimuthal direction were analyzed in detail. Results indicate that, due to the orifice misalignment, even with the same design dimension, the inlet rounding radius of orifices differs greatly, and its fluctuation in azimuthal direction is also large. This difference will cause variation in the flow characteristics at orifice outlet and then further affect the spray characteristics. The study also indicates that, more precise investigation and insight into the evaluation and optimization of diesel nozzle structural parameter are needed.

  17. High-resolution texture imaging with hard synchrotron radiation in the moving area detector technique

    CERN Document Server

    Wcislak, L; Klein, H; Garbe, U; Schneider, J R

    2003-01-01

    The orientation distribution of crystallites in polycrystalline materials (called texture) is usually measured by polycrystal X-ray diffraction by 'step-scanning' the sample in angular intervals in the order of 1 deg. This technique is not suited to fully exploit the low angular divergence of hard synchrotron radiation in the order of 'milliradian'. Hence, step-scanning was replaced by a continuous 'sweeping' technique using a continuously shifted area detector. In order to avoid overlapping from different reflections (hkl) a Bragg-angle slit was introduced. The 'moving-detector' technique can be applied to obtain images of orientation as well as of location distributions of crystallites in polycrystalline samples. It is suitable for imaging continuous 'orientation density' distribution functions as well as of 'grain-resolved' textures. The excellent features of high-energy synchrotron radiation combined with the moving area detector technique will be illustrated with several examples including very sharp def...

  18. Identifying combustion intermediates in premixed MTBE/gasoline/oxygen flame probed via synchrotron radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Chunde; QI Fei; LI Jing; LI Qi; JI Qing; HUANG Chaoqun; WEI Lixia; WANG Jing; TIAN Zhenyu; LI Yuyang

    2007-01-01

    Molecular-beam sampling mass spectrometry (MBMS) combined with tunable synchrotron radiation photoionization technique offers obvious advantages for the study of flame chemistry over other techniques because of the precision measurement of the combustion intermediates and products in flame.In this paper,the results to identify combustion intermediates in low-pressure premixed gasoline/oxygen flame with the synchrotron radiation were reported.Based on the results obtained,the formation process of five products and the difference between gasoline/oxygen and MTBE/gasoline/oxygen flame were emphatically analyzed.The results achieved provide data basis for the analysis of intermediates and radicals in flame,and are helpful to establish the kinetic modeling of gasoline/oxygen and MTBE/gasoline/oxygen flames.

  19. Multilayer-based soft X-ray polarimeter at the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Li-Juan; CUI Ming-Qi; ZHU Jie; ZHAO Yi-Dong; ZHENG Lei; WANG Zhan-Shan; ZHU Jing-Tao

    2013-01-01

    A compact high precision eight-axis automatism and two-axis manual soft-ray polarimeter with a multilayer has been designed,constructed,and installed in 3WlB at the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF).Four operational modes in the same device,which are double-reflection,double-transmission,front-reflection-behindtransmission and front-transmission-behind-reflection,have been realized.It can be used for the polarization analysis of synchrotron radiation.It also can be used to characterize the polarization properties of the optical elements in the soft X-ray energy range.Some experiments with Mo/Si and Cr/C multilayers have been performed by using this polarimeter with good results obtained.

  20. Photoelectron and photodissociation studies of free atoms and molecules, using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medhurst, L.J.

    1991-11-01

    High resolution synchrotron radiation and Zero-Kinetic-Energy Photoelectron spectroscopy were used to study two-electron transitions in atomic systems at their ionization thresholds. Using this same technique the core-ionized mainline and satellite states of N{sub 2} and CO were studied with vibrational resolution. Vibrationally resolved synchrotron radiation was used to study the dissociation of N{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, and CH{sub 3}Cl near the N 1s and C 1s thresholds. The photoelectron satellites of the argon 3s, krypton 4s and xenon 4d subshells were studied with zero kinetic energy photoelectron spectroscopy at their ionization thresholds. In all of these cases, satellites with lower binding energies are enhanced at their thresholds while those closer to the double ionization threshold are suppressed relative to their intensities at high incident light energies.

  1. Synchrotron radiation applied to the study of heterogeneous model catalyst surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of synchrotron radiation-based experimental techniques for the characterization of model catalyst surfaces is reviewed. The planar model systems considered are distinguished by their heterogeneous surface character. Prototypical examples are discussed to illustrate various aspects of model catalyst surfaces and they include oxide thin films on metal single crystal substrates, metal nanoparticles deposited on ordered oxide films, thin layers of oxides on oxide substrates, heterogeneous bimetallic surfaces and metal single crystal surfaces decorated by oxide nanoparticles. (author)

  2. François Garin: Pioneer work in catalysis through synchrotron radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Bazin, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Progress in the kinetics and mechanisms of chemical reactions at the atomic and molecular levels. Dedicated to the scientific work of François Garin International audience Starting from the late seventies, the progressively increased availability of beamlines dedicated to X-ray absorption spectroscopy allowed the execution of experiments in chemistry. In this manuscript, I describe the contribution of François Garin at the frontier of heterogeneous catalysis and synchrotron radiation. W...

  3. N-Z-Pro-D-Leu using synchrotron radiation data from a very small crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkedal, H; Schwarzenbach, D; Pattison, P

    2001-08-01

    The crystal structure of the neuroactive artificial dipeptide N-benzyloxycarbonylprolyl-D-leucine, C(19)H(26)N(2)O(5), was solved using synchrotron radiation data collected on a very small crystal (20 x 20 x 380 microm). The molecules form hydrogen-bonded 2(1) helices. The acid carbonyl group does not participate in strong hydrogen bonds. This is interpreted as a consequence of close-packing requirements. PMID:11498632

  4. Growth Defects in Langasite Crystals Observed with White Beam Synchrotron Radiation Topography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Langasite single crystal was grown by the Czochralski method and its perfection was assessed by white beam synchrotron radiation topography. It is found that the growth core and the growth striations are the primary growth defects and they show strong X-ray kinematical contrast in the topographs. Another typical defect in LGS crystal is dislocation. The formation mechanisms of these growth defects in LGS crystals were discussed.

  5. Synchrotron Vacuum Ultraviolet Light and Soft X-Ray Radiation Effects on Aluminized Teflon FEP Investigated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dever, Joyce A.; Townsend, Jacqueline A.; Gaier, James R.; Jalics, Alice I.

    1999-01-01

    Since the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was deployed in low Earth orbit in April 1990, two servicing missions have been conducted to upgrade its scientific capabilities. Minor cracking of second-surface metalized Teflon FEP (DuPont; fluorinated ethylene propylene) surfaces from multilayer insulation (MLI) was first observed upon close examination of samples with high solar exposure retrieved during the first servicing mission, which was conducted 3.6 years after deployment. During the second HST servicing mission, 6.8 years after deployment, astronaut observations and photographic documentation revealed significant cracks in the Teflon FEP layer of the MLI on both the solar- and anti-solar-facing surfaces of the telescope. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center directed the efforts of the Hubble Space Telescope MLI Failure Review Board, whose goals included identifying the low-Earth-orbit environmental constituent(s) responsible for the cracking and embrittling of Teflon FEP which was observed during the second servicing mission. The NASA Lewis Research Center provided significant support to this effort. Because soft x-ray radiation from solar flares had been considered as a possible cause for the degradation of the mechanical properties of Teflon FEP (ref. 1), the effects of soft xray radiation and vacuum ultraviolet light on Teflon FEP were investigated. In this Lewisled effort, samples of Teflon FEP with a 100-nm layer of vapor-deposited aluminum (VDA) on the backside were exposed to synchrotron radiation of various vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray wavelengths between 18 nm (69 eV) and 0.65 nm (1900 eV). Synchrotron radiation exposures were conducted using the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Samples of FEP/VDA were exposed with the FEP surface facing the synchrotron beam. Doses and fluences were compared with those estimated for the 20-yr Hubble Space Telescope mission.

  6. Observation of Allende and Antarctic meteorites by monochromatic X-ray CT based on synchrotron radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Hirano,Tatsumi/Funaki,Minoru/Nagata,Takesi/Taguchi,Isamu/ Hamada,Hiroki/Usami,Katsuhisa/Hayakawa,Kazunobu

    1990-01-01

    Three-dimensional CT images of the Allende meteorite with a high resolution of 10μm have been obtained nondestructively by a monochromatic X-ray computed tomography (CT) based on synchrotron radiation (SR). The metallic minerals, matrix and chondrules can be clearly observed in the CT images. The CT values, which express the image intensity, allow a quantitative elemental analysis including such as difference in the metallic minerals, i. e., pentlandite and troilite, using the comparison of C...

  7. Reduction of energy chirp by the wake of coherent synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, R. A.

    2010-11-01

    When an energy-chirped bunch is undercompressed in a magnetic chicane, the compressed bunch also has an energy chirp. The chirp may be decreased by sending the bunch through bending magnets, since the largest energy loss from the wake of coherent synchrotron radiation occurs in the tail of a typical bunch. We obtain formulas for the dechirping of a rectangular bunch by short magnets, and apply this dechirping technique in a design for a free-electron laser.

  8. On the Light Speed Anisotropy vs Cosmic Microwave Background Dipole: European Synchrotron Radiation Facility Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Gurzadyan, V G; Kashin, A; Margarian, A T; Bartalini, O; Bellini, V; Castoldi, M; D'Angelo, A; Didelez, J P; Salvo, R D; Fantini, A; Gervino, G; Ghio, F; Girolami, B; Giusa, A; Guidal, M; Hourany, E; Knyazyan, S; Kouznetsov, V; Kunne, Ronald Alexander; Lapik, A; Levi-Sandri, P; Llères, A; Mehrabyan, S S; Moricciani, D; Nedorezov, V; Perrin, C; Rebreyend, D; Russo, G; Rudnev, N; Schärf, C; Sperduto, M L; Sutera, M C; Turinge, A

    2007-01-01

    The measurement of the Compton edge of the scattered electrons in GRAAL facility in European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in Grenoble with respect to the Cosmic Microwave Background dipole reveals up to 10 sigma variations larger than the statistical errors. We now show that the variations are not due to the frequency variations of the accelerator. The nature of Compton edge variations remains unclear, thus outlining the imperative of dedicated studies of light speed anisotropy.

  9. Characteristics and development of the coherent synchrotron radiation sources for THz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, J.; Evain, C.; Roussel, E.; Manceron, L.; Brubach, J.-B.; Tordeux, M.-A.; Couprie, M.-E.; Bielawski, S.; Szwaj, C.; Labat, M.; Roy, P.

    2015-09-01

    We report on the characteristics of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) as a source for spectroscopy. The optimization of the source and the resulting figures of merits in terms of flux, signal to noise, spatial distribution and spectral and temporal distribution are presented together with a spectroscopic application. The emission of THz during the slicing operation is also described. The conclusion opens up perspectives made possible by the availability of this intense and stable THz source.

  10. Computer simulation of the photoluminescence of nanostructured aluminum oxide excited with pulsed synchrotron radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Kortov, V. S.; Spiridonova, T. V.; Zvonarev, S. V.

    2013-01-01

    An algorithm and a program are developed to calculate the photoluminescence (PL) parameters for bulk single-crystal and nanoscale dielectrics excited with pulsed synchrotron radiation. The luminescence spectra of F and F+centers and the PL decay kinetics in single-crystal and nanoscale aluminum-oxide samples containing oxygen anion vacancies are calculated for various nanoparticle sizes. It is shown that a noticeable broadening of the bands and a decrease in the afterglow time is observed for...

  11. Study of thin oxide films by electron, ion and synchrotron radiation beams

    CERN Document Server

    Sammelselg, V; Tarre, A; Asari, J; Rauhala, E; Arstila, K; Seppaelae, A; Zakharov, A; Aarik, J; Karlis, J; Martinson, Indrek

    2002-01-01

    Titanium oxide and zirconium oxide thin films deposited on silicon substrates were characterized using electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis (TOF-ERDA) and scanning photoelectron microscopy (SPEM). The composition and mass thickness of the films were determined and the results of different methods compared. lt was revealed that the synchrotron radiation used for SPEM studies caused considerable modification of zirconia films grown at low temperatures. (author)

  12. Synchrotron radiation phase-contrast X-ray CT imaging of acupuncture points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Dongming; Yan, Xiaohui; Zhang, Xinyi [Fudan University, Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics and Department of Physics, Shanghai (China); Liu, Chenglin [Physics Department of Yancheng Teachers' College, Yancheng (China); Dang, Ruishan [The Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Xiao, Tiqiao [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Shanghai (China); Zhu, Peiping [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China)

    2011-08-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) topographic structures of acupuncture points were investigated by using synchrotron radiation in-line X-ray phase contrast computerized tomography. Two acupuncture points, named Zhongji (RN3) and Zusanli (ST36), were studied. We found an accumulation of microvessels at each acupuncture point region. Images of the tissues surrounding the acupuncture points do not show such kinds of structure. This is the first time that 3D images have revealed the specific structures of acupuncture points. (orig.)

  13. Synchrotron Radiation from Outer Space and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2006-01-01

    The universe provides numerous extremely interesting astrophysical sources of synchrotron X radiation. The Chandra X-ray Observatory and other X-ray missions provide powerful probes of these and other cosmic X-ray sources. Chandra is the X-ray component of NASA's Great Observatory Program which also includes the Hubble Space telescope, the Spitzer Infrared Telescope Facility, and the now defunct Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory. The Chandra X-Ray Observatory provides the best angular resolution ...

  14. Nondestructive analysis by combined X-ray tomography on a synchrotron radiation facility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Biao; YU Xiaohan; LI Aiguo; XU Hongjie

    2007-01-01

    A nondestructive X-ray analysis technique combining transmission tomography, fluorescence tomography and Compton tomography based on synchrotron radiation is described. This novel technique will be an optional experimental technique at SSRF's hard X-ray micro-focusing beamline under construction at present. An experimental result of combined X-ray tomography is obtained in NE-5A station of PF. The reconstructed images of test objects are given.

  15. Experimental investigations of synchrotron radiation at the onset of the quantum regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristoffer; Uggerhøj, Ulrik Ingerslev

    The classical description of synchrotron radiation fails at large Lorentz factors for relativistic electrons crossing strong transverse magnetic fields. In the rest frame of the electron this field is comparable to the so-called critical field of 4.414*109 T. When the Lorentz factor times the mag......-field quantum electrodynamics, the experimental results are also relevant for the design of future linear colliders where beamstrahlung - a closely related process - may limit the achievable luminosity....

  16. Experimental investigations of synchrotron radiation at the onset of the quantum regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristoffer; Knudsen, Helge; Uggerhøj, Ulrik Ingerslev;

    2012-01-01

    The classical description of synchrotron radiation fails at large Lorentz factors, $\\gamma$, for relativistic electrons crossing strong transverse magnetic fields $B$. In the rest frame of the electron this field is comparable to the so-called critical field $B_0 = 4.414\\cdot10^9$ T. For $\\chi = ......-field quantum electrodynamics, the experimental results are also relevant for the design of future linear colliders where beamstrahlung - a closely related process - may limit the achievable luminosity....

  17. X-ray spectrometry with synchrotron radiation; Roentgenspektrometrie mit Synchrotronstrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Matthias [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe ' Roentgen- und IR-Spektrometrie' ; Gerlach, Martin; Holfelder, Ina; Hoenicke, Philipp; Lubeck, Janin; Nutsch, Andreas; Pollakowski, Beatrix; Streeck, Cornelia; Unterumsberger, Rainer; Weser, Jan; Beckhoff, Burkhard

    2014-12-15

    The X-ray spectrometry of the PTB at the BESSY II storage ring with radiation in the range from 78 eV to 10.5 keV is described. After a description of the instrumentation development reference-sample free X-ray fluorescence analysis, the determination of fundamental atomic parameters, X-ray fluorescence analysis under glance-angle incidence, highly-resolving absorption spectrometry, and emission spectrometry are considered. Finally liquid cells and in-situ measurement techniques are described. (HSI)

  18. Investigation of drug loading behavior of dendrimers nano-vectors with synchrotron radiation hard X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Synchrotron Radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis is an advanced method of quantitative elemental analysis. It is a scientific platform for life science, material science, and environmental science. Purpose: In this present study, the drug loading behavior of dendrimers nano-vectors was investigated by using the method of Synchrotron Radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis. Methods: The copper (Ⅱ) ions were loaded into acetyl-modified generation 5(G5) PAMAM dendrimers. We monitored and imaged the distribution of copper in A549 cell by Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) to observe the cellular uptake of copper-dendrimers conjugates. Results: The results of hard X-ray fluorescence mapping showed a stronger fluorescence of Cu in the cells treated with G5-Ac-Cu than that of control. Conclusions: This investigation provided a method of using synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis to study the drug loading behavior of dendrimers. (authors)

  19. Studies and construction of an optical klystron for synchrotron radiation FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study and construction of an optical klystron is reported. The optical klystron will be installed at the store ring of National Laboratory of Synchrotron Radiation in University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) for carrying out the studies of synchrotron radiation free electron laser. This device has two working modes: (1) optical klystron, (2) normal SR undulator. For the first mode the coherent light can be got during the UV, VUV and soft X wave band. For the second mode, the device severs as a normal undulator and the synchrotron radiation of high brightness can be got. The optical klystron consists of three sections: modulation section, dispersive section and gain section. When gap = 40 mm, the average peak field is B0 0.30 T in modulation and gain section, B0 = 0.70 T in dispersive section. The RMS deviation of peak fields is within 1.0%. The 1st and 2nd fields integral at the exit of the optical klystron is 0.005 T·cm and 0.04 T·cm2. (7 refs., 11 figs.)

  20. Multipurpose furnace for in situ studies of polycrystalline materials using synchrotron radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Hemant; Wattjes, Alix C; Amirthalingam, Murugaiyan; Zuidwijk, Thim; Geerlofs, Nico; Offerman, S Erik

    2009-12-01

    We report a multipurpose furnace designed for studies using synchrotron radiation on polycrystalline materials, namely, metals, ceramics, and (semi)crystalline polymers. The furnace has been designed to carry out three-dimensional (3D) x-ray diffraction measurements but can also be used for other types of synchrotron radiation research. The furnace has a very low thermal gradient across the specimen (welding a thermocouple to the specimen. The furnace can be rotated over an angle of 90 degrees in order to determine the crystallographic orientation of each individual grain. It is possible to follow growth kinetics of all grains in the illuminated volume of the specimen. The specimen environment can be controlled varying from vacuum (up to 10(-5) mbar) to gas or air filled. The maximum temperature of operation is 1500 degrees C, with the possibility of achieving high heating (up to 20 degrees C/s) and cooling rates (up to 30 degrees C/s without quenching gas). 3D maps of the microstructure of the specimen can be generated at elevated temperatures by bringing the high-resolution detector close to the specimen. We show an example of a simulation of the heat affected zone during the thermal cycle of a weld in a transformation-induced plasticity steel carried out using the furnace. The unique characteristics of the furnace open possibility of new fields in materials research using synchrotron radiation.

  1. Measurement, analysis and correction of the closed orbit distortion in Indus-2 synchrotron radiation source

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Riyasat Husain; A D Ghodke; Surendra Yadav; A C Holikatti; R P Yadav; P Fatnani; T A Puntambekar; P R Hannurkar

    2013-02-01

    The paper presents the measurement, analysis and correction of closed orbit distortion (COD) in Indus-2 at 550 MeV injection energy and 2 GeV synchrotron radiation user run energy. The measured COD was analysed and fitted to understand major sources of errors in terms of the effective quadrupole misalignments. The rms COD was corrected down to less than 0.6 mm in both horizontal and vertical planes. A golden orbit was set for the operating synchrotron radiation beamlines. With COD correction, the injection efficiency at 550 MeV was improved by ∼ 50% and the beam lifetime at 2 GeV was increased by ∼8 h. In this paper, the method of global COD correction based on singular value decomposition (SVD) of the orbit response matrix is described. Results for the COD correction in both horizontal and vertical planes at 550 MeV injection energy and at 2 GeV synchrotron radiation user run energy are discussed.

  2. Combining measurements of synchrotron radiation and neutrons from liquids at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigation of condensed matter by combining synchrotron radiation and neutrons characterization constitute a powerful structural tool in high temperature material science. We have developed a new type of high temperature analysis chamber for performing synchrotron radiation measurements (quasi simultaneous X-ray absorption and X-ray diffraction) as well as neutron analysis. Measurements on solids and liquids are performed by using a laser heating system and aerodynamic levitation. This high temperature device presents several advantage: the sample is neither physically nor chemically perturbed by the container, heterogeneous nucleation during cooling is suppressed and pollution by the container is removed. This cell can operate under various gas conditions from room temperature up to 3000degC obtained by a sealed 125 W CO2 laser. Various experiments have been performed at synchrotron radiation facility of LURE (Orsay, France) and ESRF (Grenoble, France) and also at the neutron source of ISIS (Didcot, UK). We have studied the local structure around cations in some liquid and solid oxides. We have shown that combined X-ray and neutron data contain valuable information on disorder in liquids at high temperature. (author)

  3. MULTIPLE FUNCTIONS LONG TRACE PROFILER (LTP-MF) FOR NATIONAL SYNCHROTRON RADIATION LABORATORY OF CHINA.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    QIAN, S.; WANG, Q.; HONG, Y.; TAKACS, P.

    2005-07-31

    The Long Trace Profiler (LTP) is a useful optical metrology instrument for measuring the figure and slope error of cylindrical aspheres commonly used as synchrotron radiation (SR) optics. It is used extensively at a number of synchrotron radiation laboratories around the world. In order to improve SR beam line quality and resolution, the National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) of China is developing a versatile LTP that can be used to measure both SR optics and more conventional ''normal'' optical surfaces. The optical metrology laboratories at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and NSRL are collaborating in developing a multiple functions LTP (LTP-MF). Characteristics of the LTP-MF are: a very compact and lightweight optical head, a large angular test range ({+-} 16 mad) and high accuracy. The LTP-MF can be used in various configurations: as a laboratory-based LTP, an in-situ LTP or penta-prism LTP, as an angle monitor, a portable LTP, and a small radius of curvature test instrument. The schematic design of the compact optical head and a new compact slide are introduced. Analysis of different measurements modes and systematic error correction methods are introduced.

  4. How Can Synchrotron Radiation Techniques Be Applied for Detecting Microstructures in Amorphous Alloys?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu-Qing Guo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, how synchrotron radiation techniques can be applied for detecting the microstructure in metallic glass (MG is studied. The unit cells are the basic structural units in crystals, though it has been suggested that the co-existence of various clusters may be the universal structural feature in MG. Therefore, it is a challenge to detect microstructures of MG even at the short-range scale by directly using synchrotron radiation techniques, such as X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption methods. Here, a feasible scheme is developed where some state-of-the-art synchrotron radiation-based experiments can be combined with simulations to investigate the microstructure in MG. By studying a typical MG composition (Zr70Pd30, it is found that various clusters do co-exist in its microstructure, and icosahedral-like clusters are the popular structural units. This is the structural origin where there is precipitation of an icosahedral quasicrystalline phase prior to phase transformation from glass to crystal when heating Zr70Pd30 MG.

  5. Application of partially coherent wavefront propagation calculations for design of coherence-preserving synchrotron radiation beamlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubar, Oleg; Chu, Yong S.; Kaznatcheev, Konstantine; Yan, Hanfei

    2011-09-01

    Ultra-low emittance third-generation synchrotron radiation (SR) sources, such as NSLS-II and MAX-IV, will offer excellent opportunities for further development of experimental techniques exploiting X-ray coherence. However, even in these new SR sources, the radiation produced by relativistic electrons (in undulators, wigglers and bending magnets) will remain only partially coherent in the X-ray spectral range. "Extraction" of "coherent portion" of the radiation flux and its transport to sample without loss of coherence must be performed by dedicated SR beamlines, optimized for particular types of experiments. Detailed quantitative prediction of partially coherent X-ray beam properties at propagation through optical elements, which is required for the optimization of such beamlines, can only be obtained from accurate and efficient physical-optics based numerical simulations. Examples of such simulations, made for NSLS-II beamlines, using "Synchrotron Radiation Workshop" (SRW) computer code, are presented. Special attention is paid to the numerical analysis of the basic properties of partially coherent undulator radiation beam and its distinctions from the Gaussian beam. Performance characteristics of importance for particular beamlines, such as radiation spot size and flux at sample vs size of secondary source aperture for high-resolution microscopy beamlines, are predicted by the simulations.

  6. Terahertz Coherent Synchrotron Radiation from Femtosecond Laser Modulation of the Electron Beam at the Advanced Light Source

    OpenAIRE

    Byrd, John M.; Hao, Zhao; Martin, Michael C.; Robin, David S.; Sannibale, Fernando; Schoenlein, Robert W.; Zholents, Alexander A.; Zolotorev, Max S.

    2005-01-01

    At the Advanced Light Source (ALS), the 'femtoslicing' beamline is in operation since 1999 for the production of x-ray synchrotron radiation pulses with femtosecond duration. The mechanism used for generating the short x-ray pulses induces at the same time temporary structures in the electron bunch longitudinal distribution with very short characteristic length. Such structures emit intense coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in the terahertz frequency range. These CSR pulses were first...

  7. A fast method for computing 1-D wakefields due to coherent synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Chad E., E-mail: ChadMitchell@lbl.gov; Qiang, Ji; Ryne, Robert D.

    2013-07-01

    A method for computing the free-space longitudinal wakefield due to coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in a one-dimensional model is developed using a fast integrated Green function approach. This approach accurately captures the short-range behavior of the CSR interaction and does not require the numerical differentiation of a noisy longitudinal charge density. The transient wakefields that occur near bend entry and exit are included. This method can also be generalized to include the effect of upstream radiation that propagates through multiple lattice elements before interacting with the bunch.

  8. A Monitor and Control System for the Synchrotron Radiation Beam Lines at DAΦNE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Three synchrotron radiation beam lines have been built on DAΦNE,the Frascati electron-positron accelerator.It is Possible to monitor and control all the elements on the beam lines using a modular network distributed I/O system by National Instrunments (FieldPoint) with Bridge VIEW/Lab VIEW programs,Two of these beam lines have radiation safety problems solved by two independent and redundant systems,using mechanical switches ,and S7-200 PLC's by Siemens.In this article our solution will be described in details.

  9. Analytical theory of coherent synchrotron radiation wakefield of short bunches shielded by conducting parallel plates

    CERN Document Server

    Stupakov, Gennady

    2016-01-01

    We develop a general model of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) impedance with shielding provided by two parallel conducting plates. This model allows us to easily reproduce all previously known analytical CSR wakes and to expand the analysis to the situations not explored before. It reduces calculations of the impedance to taking integrals along the trajectory of the beam. New analytical results are derived for the radiation impedance with shielding for the following orbits: a kink, a bending magnet, a wiggler of finite length, and an infinitely long wiggler. All our formulas are benchmarked agains numerical simulations with the CSRZ computer code.

  10. Experimental study of coherent synchrotron radiation in the emittance exchange line at the A0-photoinjector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thangaraj, Jayakar C.T.; Thurman-Keup, R.; Johnson, A.; Lumpkin, A.H.; Edwards, H.; Ruan, J.; Santucci, J.; Sun, Y.E.-; Church, M.; /Fermilab; Piot, P.; /Fermilab /Northern Illinois U.

    2010-08-01

    Next generation accelerators will require a high current, low emittance beam with a low energy spread. Such accelerators will employ advanced beam conditioning systems such as emittance exchanger to manipulate high brightness beams. One of the goals of the Fermilab A0 photoinjector is to investigate the transverse to longitudinal emittance exchange principle. Coherent synchrotron radiation could limit high current operation of the emittance exchanger. In this paper, we report on the preliminary experimental and simulation study of the coherent synchroton radiation (CSR) in the emittance exchange line at A0 photoinjector.

  11. Common characteristics of synchrotron radiation and light leaking from a bent optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artru, X.; Ray, C.

    2016-07-01

    Light leaking from a bent optical fiber shares many properties with synchrotron radiation : in ray optics, both lights are emitted tangentially to a light cylinder; in wave optics, the emission mechanism involves a tunnel effect. The angular distributions of these two radiations are studied in parallel and found to be similar. The same is done for the impact parameter distributions. The latter show interference fringes of the Airy function type. The far field escaped from the fiber is calculated with the Volume Current Method. An optical system observing the impact parameter profile is proposed.

  12. Analytical theory of coherent synchrotron radiation wakefield of short bunches shielded by conducting parallel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupakov, Gennady; Zhou, Demin

    2016-04-01

    We develop a general model of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) impedance with shielding provided by two parallel conducting plates. This model allows us to easily reproduce all previously known analytical CSR wakes and to expand the analysis to situations not explored before. It reduces calculations of the impedance to taking integrals along the trajectory of the beam. New analytical results are derived for the radiation impedance with shielding for the following orbits: a kink, a bending magnet, a wiggler of finite length, and an infinitely long wiggler. All our formulas are benchmarked against numerical simulations with the CSRZ computer code.

  13. Experimental study of coherent synchrotron radiation in the emittance exchange line at the A0-photoinjector

    CERN Document Server

    Thangaraj, Jayakar C T; Johnson, A; Lumpkin, A H; Edwards, H; Ruan, J; Santucci, J; Sun, Y E -; Church, M; Piot, P

    2012-01-01

    Next generation accelerators will require a high current, low emittance beam with a low energy spread. Such accelerators will employ advanced beam conditioning systems such as emittance exchangers to manipulate high brightness beams. One of the goals of the Fermilab A0 photoinjector is to investigate the transverse to longitudinal emittance exchange principle. Coherent synchrotron radiation could limit high current operation of the emittance exchanger. In this paper, we report on the preliminary experimental and simulation study of the coherent synchroton radiation (CSR) in the emittance exchange line at the A0 photoinjector.

  14. Space charge effect measurements for a multi-channel ionization chamber used for synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasr, Amgad

    2012-07-18

    In vivo coronary angiography is one of the techniques used to investigate the heart diseases, by using catheter to inject a contrast medium of a given absorption coefficient into the heart vessels. Taking X-ray images produced by X-ray tube or synchrotron radiation for visualizing the blood in the coronary arteries. As the synchrotron radiation generated by the relativistic charged particle at the bending magnets, which emits high intensity photons in comparison with the X-ray tube. The intensity of the synchrotron radiation is varies with time. However for medical imaging it's necessary to measure the incoming intensity with the integrated time. The thesis work includes building a Multi-channel ionization chamber which can be filled with noble gases N{sub 2}, Ar and Xe with controlled inner pressure up to 30 bar. This affects the better absorption efficiency in measuring the high intensity synchrotron beam fluctuation. The detector is a part of the experimental setup used in the k-edge digital subtraction angiography project, which will be used for correcting the angiography images taken by another detector at the same time. The Multi-channel ionization chamber calibration characteristics are measured using 2 kW X-ray tube with molybdenum anode with characteristic energy of 17.44 keV. According to the fast drift velocity of the electrons relative to the positive ions, the electrons will be collected faster at the anode and will induce current signals, while the positive ions is still drifting towards the cathode. However the accumulation of the slow ions inside the detector disturbs the homogeneous applied electric field and leads to what is known a space charge effect. In this work the space charge effect is measured with very high synchrotron photons intensity from EDR beam line at BESSYII. The strong attenuation in the measured amplitude signal occurs when operating the chamber in the recombination region. A plateau is observed at the amplitude signal when

  15. Histomorphometric quantification of human pathological bones from synchrotron radiation 3D computed microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional bone histomorphometry is an important method for quantitative evaluation of bone microstructure. X-ray computed microtomography is a noninvasive technique, which can be used to evaluate histomorphometric indices in trabecular bones (BV/TV, BS/BV, Tb.N, Tb.Th, Tb.Sp). In this technique, the output 3D images are used to quantify the whole sample, differently from the conventional one, in which the quantification is performed in 2D slices and extrapolated for 3D case. In this work, histomorphometric quantification using synchrotron 3D X-ray computed microtomography was performed to quantify pathological samples of human bone. Samples of human bones were cut into small blocks (8 mm x 8 mm x 10 mm) with a precision saw and then imaged. The computed microtomographies were obtained at SYRMEP (Synchrotron Radiation for MEdical Physics) beamline, at ELETTRA synchrotron radiation facility (Italy). The obtained 3D images yielded excellent resolution and details of intra-trabecular bone structures, including marrow present inside trabeculae. Histomorphometric quantification was compared to literature as well. (author)

  16. Windowless transition between atmospheric pressure and high vacuum via differential pumping for synchrotron radiation applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gog, T; Casa, D M; Kuzmenko, I; Krakora, R J; Bolin, T B

    2007-07-01

    A differential pump assembly is introduced which can provide a windowless transition between the full atmospheric pressure of an in-air sample environment and the high-vacuum region of a synchrotron radiation beamline, while providing a clear aperture of approximately 1 mm to pass through the X-ray beam from a modern third-generation synchrotron radiation source. This novel pump assembly is meant to be used as a substitute for an exit vacuum window on synchrotron beamlines, where the existence of such a window would negatively impact the coherent nature of the X-ray beam or would introduce parasitic scattering, distorting weak scattering signals from samples under study. It is found that the length of beam pipe necessary to reduce atmospheric pressure to below 10 mbar is only about 130 mm, making the expected photon transmission for hard X-rays through this pipe competitive with that of a regular Be beamline window. This result is due to turbulent flow dominating the first pumping stage, providing a mechanism of strong gas conductance limitation, which is further enhanced by introducing artificial surface roughness in the pipe. Successive reduction of pressure through the transitional flow regime into the high-vacuum region is accomplished over a length of several meters, using beam pipes of increasing diameter. While the pump assembly has not been tested with X-rays, possible applications are discussed in the context of coherent and small-angle scattering. PMID:17587659

  17. UV-CD12: synchrotron radiation circular dichroism beamline at ANKA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bürck, Jochen, E-mail: jochen.buerck@kit.edu; Roth, Siegmar; Windisch, Dirk; Wadhwani, Parvesh; Moss, David [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), POB 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Ulrich, Anne S., E-mail: jochen.buerck@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), POB 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Fritz-Haber-Weg 6, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-04-11

    UV-CD12 at ANKA and its current end-station are described, with a standard module for vacuum-UV synchrotron radiation circular dichroism of bio-macromolecules in the liquid state, and a unique module for macroscopically oriented lipid membranes (oriented circular dichroism). Synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) is a rapidly growing technique for structure analysis of proteins and other chiral biomaterials. UV-CD12 is a high-flux SRCD beamline installed at the ANKA synchrotron, to which it had been transferred after the closure of the SRS Daresbury. The beamline covers an extended vacuum-UV to near-UV spectral range and has been open for users since October 2011. The current end-station allows for temperature-controlled steady-state SRCD spectroscopy, including routine automated thermal scans of microlitre volumes of water-soluble proteins down to 170 nm. It offers an excellent signal-to-noise ratio over the whole accessible spectral range. The technique of oriented circular dichroism (OCD) was recently implemented for determining the membrane alignment of α-helical peptides and proteins in macroscopically oriented lipid bilayers as mimics of cellular membranes. It offers improved spectral quality <200 nm compared with an OCD setup adapted to a bench-top instrument, and accelerated data collection by a factor of ∼3. In addition, it permits investigations of low hydrated protein films down to 130 nm using a rotatable sample cell that avoids linear dichroism artifacts.

  18. Development and validation of Monte Carlo dose computations for contrast-enhanced stereotactic synchrotron radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contrast-enhanced stereotactic synchrotron radiation therapy (SSRT) is an innovative technique based on localized dose-enhancement effects obtained by reinforced photoelectric absorption in the tumor. Medium energy monochromatic X-rays (50 - 100 keV) are used for irradiating tumors previously loaded with a high-Z element. Clinical trials of SSRT are being prepared at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), an iodinated contrast agent will be used. In order to compute the energy deposited in the patient (dose), a dedicated treatment planning system (TPS) has been developed for the clinical trials, based on the ISOgray TPS. This work focuses on the SSRT specific modifications of the TPS, especially to the PENELOPE-based Monte Carlo dose engine. The TPS uses a dedicated Monte Carlo simulation of medium energy polarized photons to compute the deposited energy in the patient. Simulations are performed considering the synchrotron source, the modeled beamline geometry and finally the patient. Specific materials were also implemented in the voxelized geometry of the patient, to consider iodine concentrations in the tumor. The computation process has been optimized and parallelized. Finally a specific computation of absolute doses and associated irradiation times (instead of monitor units) was implemented. The dedicated TPS was validated with depth dose curves, dose profiles and absolute dose measurements performed at the ESRF in a water tank and solid water phantoms with or without bone slabs. (author)

  19. Light flux density threshold at which protein denaturation is induced by synchrotron radiation circular dichroism beamlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, A J; Janes, Robert W; Brown, A; Clarke, D T; Sutherland, J C; Tao, Y; Wallace, B A; Hoffmann, S V

    2008-07-01

    New high-flux synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) beamlines are providing important information for structural biology, but can potentially cause denaturation of the protein samples under investigation. This effect has been studied at the new CD1 dedicated SRCD beamline at ISA in Denmark, where radiation-induced thermal damage effects were observed, depending not only on the radiation flux but also on the focal spot size of the light. Comparisons with similar studies at other SRCD facilities worldwide has lead to the estimation of a flux density threshold under which SRCD beamlines should be operated when samples are to be exposed to low-wavelength vacuum ultraviolet radiation for extended periods of time.

  20. A Critical Experimental Test of Synchrotron Radiation Theory with 3rd Generation Light Source

    CERN Document Server

    Geloni, Gianluca; Saldin, Evgeni

    2016-01-01

    A recent "beam splitting" experiment at LCLS apparently demonstrated that after a microbunched electron beam is kicked on a large angle compared to the divergence of the FEL radiation, the microbunching wave front is readjusted along the new direction of motion of the kicked beam. Therefore, coherent radiation from an undulator placed after the kicker is emitted along the kicked direction without suppression. This strong emission of coherent undulator radiation in the kicked direction cannot be explained in the framework of conventional synchrotron radiation theory. In a previous paper we explained this puzzle. We demonstrated that, in accelerator physics, the coupling of fields and particles is based, on the one hand, on the use of results from particle dynamics treated according to the absolute time convention and, on the other hand, on the use of Maxwell equations treated according to the standard (Einstein) synchronization convention. Here lies the misconception which led to the strong qualitative disagre...

  1. A Far-infrared Undulator for Coherent Synchrotron Radiation and Free Electron Laser at Tohoku University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hama, Hiroyuki; Hinode, Fujio; Kawai, Masayuki; Nanbu, Kenichi; Miyahara, Fusashi; Yasuda, Mafuyu

    2010-06-01

    In order to develop an intense far-infrared radiation source, a high quality electron beam has been studied at Tohoku University, Sendai. The bunch length of the beam expected is very much shorter than terahertz (THz) wavelength, so that coherent spontaneous emission of synchrotron radiation will be a promising high brilliant far-infrared source. An undulator consisting of permanent magnets has been designed in which optional free electron laser (FEL) will be operated in free space mode. Consequently the minimum gap of the undulator is decided to be 54 mm for 0.36 mm radiation to avoid diffraction loss, and then the period length of 10 cm is employed. The undulator may cover a wavelength range from 0.18 to 0.36 mm with the beam energy of 17 MeV. Property of coherent THz radiation from the undulator and possibility of novel pre-bunched THz FEL is discussed.

  2. Influence of ion mass on laser-energy absorption and synchrotron radiation at ultrahigh laser intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of ions in the energy absorption of a short and ultra intense laser pulse and in the synchrotron radiation generated by accelerated electrons is revisited. For laser intensities above 1022 W/cm2 and plasma densities more than 10 times the critical density, the ion-to-electron mass ratio strongly affects the energy repartition between the electrons, ions, and radiation. This phenomenon is studied with a one dimensional relativistic particle-in-cell code, taking into account the radiation reaction force. The choice of the ion mass strongly affects the energy and angular distribution of the photon emission and the electron energy distribution. This effect may be important for laboratory modeling of radiation dominated relativistic astrophysical events. It can be verified in experiments with solid hydrogen targets. (authors)

  3. Orbit correction using an eigenvector method with constraints for synchrotron radiation sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kentaro; Obina, Takashi; Kobayashi, Yukinori; Nakamura, Norio; Takaki, Hiroyuki; Sakai, Hiroshi

    2009-06-01

    An eigenvector method with constraints (EVC) is proposed as a new orbit correction scheme for synchrotron light sources. EVC efficiently corrects the global orbit in a storage ring, and can simultaneously perform exact correction of local orbits without deterioration of the global orbit. To demonstrate the advantages of EVC over the ordinary eigenvector method (EV), we carried out experimental studies at the Photon Factory storage ring (PF-ring) and the Photon Factory Advanced Ring (PF-AR) at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK). The performance of EVC was systematically examined at PF-ring and PF-AR. The experimental results agreed well with the simulated ones. Consequently, we confirmed that EVC easily realized orbit correction for both global and local orbits, and that it was very effective for the beam stabilization of synchrotron radiation (SR) sources.

  4. Orbit correction using an eigenvector method with constraints for synchrotron radiation sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, Kentaro [Photon Factory, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1, Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)], E-mail: kentaro.harada@kek.jp; Obina, Takashi; Kobayashi, Yukinori [Photon Factory, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1, Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Nakamura, Norio; Takaki, Hiroyuki; Sakai, Hiroshi [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan)

    2009-06-11

    An eigenvector method with constraints (EVC) is proposed as a new orbit correction scheme for synchrotron light sources. EVC efficiently corrects the global orbit in a storage ring, and can simultaneously perform exact correction of local orbits without deterioration of the global orbit. To demonstrate the advantages of EVC over the ordinary eigenvector method (EV), we carried out experimental studies at the Photon Factory storage ring (PF-ring) and the Photon Factory Advanced Ring (PF-AR) at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK). The performance of EVC was systematically examined at PF-ring and PF-AR. The experimental results agreed well with the simulated ones. Consequently, we confirmed that EVC easily realized orbit correction for both global and local orbits, and that it was very effective for the beam stabilization of synchrotron radiation (SR) sources.

  5. New Models for X-Ray Synchrotron Radiation from the Remnant of Supernova 1006 AD

    CERN Document Server

    Dyer, K K; Borkowski, K J

    2000-01-01

    Galactic cosmic rays up to energies of around 10^15 eV are assumed to originate in supernova remnants (SNRs). The shock wave of a young SNR like SN 1006 AD can accelerate electrons to energies greater than 1 TeV, where they can produce synchrotron radiation in the X-ray band. A new model (SRESC) designed to model synchrotron X-rays from Type Ia supernovae can constrain values for the magnetic-field strength and electron scattering properties, with implications for the acceleration of the unseen ions which dominate the cosmic-ray energetics. New observations by ASCA, ROSAT, and RXTE have provided enormously improved data, which now extend to higher X-ray energies. These data allow much firmer constraints. We will describe model fits to these new data on SN 1006 AD, emphasizing the physical constraints that can be placed on SNRs and on the cosmic-ray acceleration process.

  6. Synthesis of metallic nanoparticles through X-ray radiolysis using synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Akinobu; Okada, Ikuo; Fukuoka, Takao; Sakurai, Ikuya; Utsumi, Yuichi

    2016-05-01

    The potential to fabricate metallic nanoparticles directly on silicon substrates from liquid solutions is ideal for three-dimensional lithography systems, drug delivery materials, and sensing applications. Here, we report the successful synthesis of Au, Cu, and Fe nanoparticles from the corresponding liquid solutions [gold(I) trisodium disulphite, copper(II) sulfate, and potassium ferricyanide] by synchrotron (SR) X-ray irradiation. The deposition of gold nanoparticles in the gold(I) trisodium disulphite solution was performed by monochromatic X-ray exposure from synchrotron radiation. The use of ethanol as an additive enabled the nucleation and growth of Cu particles, while no Cu particles were produced in the copper sulfate solution without ethanol with polychromatic SR X-ray irradiation. Fe particles were generated by direct polychromatic SR X-ray irradiation. These results demonstrate the behavior of three-dimensional printers, enabling us to build composite material structures with metallic and plastic materials.

  7. Synchrotron radiation microtomography of musical instruments: a non-destructive monitoring technique for insect infestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Bentivoglio-Ravasio

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available X-ray computed tomography is becoming a common technique for the structural analysis of samples of cultural relevance, providing luthiers, art historians, conservators and restorators with a unique tool for the characterization of musical instruments. Synchrotron-radiation phase-contrast microtomography is an ideal technique for the non-destructive 3D analysis of samples where small lowabsorbing details such as larvae and eggs can be detected. We report results from the first feasibility studies performed at the Elettra synchrotron laboratory, where the 1494 organ by Lorenzo Gusnasco da Pavia has been studied. Together with important information about the structural conditions, the presence of xylophages could be detected and characterized.

  8. Multielemental analysis of samples from patients with dermatological pathologies using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using synchrotron radiation total X-ray fluorescence (SRTXRF) technique, the concentrations of trace elements were measured in four skin lesions: seborrheic keratosis, fibroepithelial polyp, cherry angioma and dermatosis papulosa nigra. The concentrations of P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Rb were evaluated in 62 pairs of lesions and healthy samples, each one having been collected from the same patient. The results revealed significant differences of P, Ca, K, Fe and Cu levels as well as a common trend in their variations between lesion and control samples among the skin diseases. This study revealed a powerful tool that can be useful for skin disorders research. The measurements were conducted at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS). - Highlights: • Concentrations of trace elements were measured and compared in four skin lesions. • The results revealed significant differences of P, Ca, K, Fe and Cu levels. • This study revealed a powerful tool that can be useful for skin disorders research

  9. A program in detector development for the US synchrotron radiation community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, A.; Mills, D.; Naday, S.; Gruner, S.; Siddons, P.; Arthur, J.; Wehlitz, R.; Padmore, H.

    2001-07-14

    There is a clear gulf between the capabilities of modern synchrotrons to deliver high photon fluxes, and the capabilities of detectors to measure the resulting photon, electron or ion signals. While a huge investment has been made in storage ring technology, there has not to date been a commensurate investment in detector systems. With appropriate detector technology, gains in data rates could be 3 to 4 orders of magnitude in some cases. The US community working in detector technology is under-funded and fragmented and works without the long term funding commitment required for development of the most advanced detector systems. It is becoming apparent that the US is falling behind its international competitors in provision of state-of-the-art detector technology for cutting edge synchrotron radiation based experiments.

  10. Beer analysis by synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence (SR-TXRF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Dept. de Recursos Hidricos]. E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: virgilio@cena.usp.br; Zucchi, Orgheda L.D.A. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto]. E-mail: olzucchi@fcfrp.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    In this work the concentrations of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Zn and Br in twenty-nine brands of national and international beers were determined by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence analysis (SR-TXRF). The results were compared with the limits established by the Brazilian Legislation and the nutritive values established by National Agricultural Library (NAL). The measurements were performed at the X-ray Fluorescence Beamline at Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory, in Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil, using a polychromatic beam for excitation. A small volume of 5 {mu}L of sample beers containing just an internal standard, used to correct geometry effects, were analyzed without any pre-treatment. The measuring time was 100 s and the detection limits obtained varied from 1{mu}g.L{sup -1} for Mn and Fe to 15{mu}g.L{sup -1} for P. (author)

  11. Dynamics of GaAs photocarriers probed with pulsed infrared synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Carr, G L

    2003-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation is a source of high brightness, pulsed infrared light that is well suited to the study of materials by pump-probe spectroscopy. A synchronized laser produces pump pulses and synchrotron infrared pulses serve as the probe. This method has been used for a number of time-resolved investigations, including a study of the frequency-dependent conductivity of photocarrier relaxation in GaAs. For this material, a Drude model gives a good description of the photoconductivity, but requires that the average carrier scattering rate change from electron like to hole like during the decay process (a few nanoseconds). This behavior suggests the rapid trapping of electrons, as may occur near a surface with defect states.

  12. High precision mirror alignment mechanism for use in synchrotron radiation beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of a synchrotron radiation beamline is highly depends on parameters, crucially on the manufacturing accuracies of the optical elements and very good alignment of optical elements in the beam path. To develop a synchrotron beamline the misalignment effects have to be estimated and the mechanical components that hold optical elements have to be designed and developed within the specified tolerance limits. The translational inaccuracies result in shifting the image spot, which affect the flux throughput. The misorientation errors i.e. the rotation of optical elements about their mean position affects the image quality. The horizontal misorientation i.e. the rotation of an optical element about an axis passing through its centre and perpendicular to the plane containing the mirror has the most sever effect on the spectral resolution of the beamline, because of an increase in the dispersive spot size at the image plane. The design development and testing of a high precision mirror alignment mechanism is reported in this abstract. Though this mirror alignment mechanism is developed for the X-ray diffraction beamline on synchrotron radiation source Indus-2, 2.5 GeV, 300 mA, the design is general purpose and can be adapted for any other synchrotron facility or a similar ultra high vacuum environment. The mirror alignment mechanism is based on a constrained kinematic chain which provides the angular motions about three co-ordinate axes in the range of 0 to ±1° with the backlash free resolution of 1 arc second. The linear motions in three orthogonal directions are performed by other kinematic mounts in the range of 0 to ± 10 mm with a fine adjustment of 10 μm. The motions are transferred from air to ultra high vacuum through bellows. The ultra high vacuum chamber has been designed, fabricated and tested as per the ASME code. The rotational motions of the mirror alignment mechanism has been tested using a laser interferometer. (author)

  13. Radiation safety aspects of the operation of first three synchrotron beam lines of Indus-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, M K; Nair, Haridas G; Bakshi, A K; Sahani, P K; Singh, Sunil; Khan, Saleem; Verma, Dimple; Dev, Vipin; Sahu, T K; Khare, Mukesh; Kumar, Vijay; Bandyopadhyay, Tapas; Tripathi, R M; Sharma, D N

    2015-04-01

    Five synchrotron radiation beam lines are commissioned and now under regular operation at the Synchrotron Radiation Source, Indus-2 at Raja Ramanna Centre For Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Indore, India. Nine beam lines are under trial operation, and six beam lines are in the installation stage. In the early phase of installation of beam lines on Indus-2, three bending magnet beam lines, Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS, BL-8), Energy Dispersive X-ray Diffraction (EDXRD, BL-11) and Angle Dispersive X-ray Diffraction (ADXRD, BL-12), were installed and commissioned, after approval from Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB), India. These beam lines are pink (BL-8), white (BL-11) and monochromatic (BL-12), which are housed in specially designed shielded hutches. In order to ensure safety of users and other working personnel from ionizing radiations present in these beam lines, several safety systems are incorporated and safety procedures are followed. The paper describes the radiological safety aspects of the three beam lines during its initial commissioning trials and also the measurements on radiation levels carried out in and around the beam line hutches. PMID:25209995

  14. Synchrotron radiation and diffusive shock acceleration - A short review and GRB perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlica, Mile, E-mail: mile.karlica@icranet.org [La Sapienza University of Rome - ICRANet, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00189 Rome (Italy)

    2015-12-17

    In this talk we present the sponge” model and its possible implications on the GRB afterglow light curves. “Sponge” model describes source of GRB afterglow radiation as fragmented GRB ejecta where bubbles move through the rarefied medium. In the first part of the talk a short introduction to synchrotron radiation and Fermi acceleration was presented. In the assumption that X-ray luminosity of GRB afterglow phase comes from the kinetic energy losses of clouds in ejecta medium radiated as synchrotron radiation we solved currently very simple equation of motion to find which combination of cloud and medium regime describes the afterglow light curve the best. We proposed for the first step to watch simple combinations of expansion regimes for both bubbles and surrounding medium. The closest case to the numerical fit of GRB 150403A with time power law index k = 1.38 is the combination of constant bubbles and Sedov like expanding medium with time power law index k = 1.25. Of course the question of possible mixture of variuos regime combinations is still open within this model.

  15. Proceedings of the workshop on applications of synchrotron radiation to trace impurity analysis for advanced silicon processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laderman, S [Integrated Circuits Business Div., Hewlett Packard Co., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Pianetta, P [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Wafer surface trace impurity analysis is essential for development of competitive Si circuit technologies. Today's grazing incidence x-ray fluorescence techniques with rotating anodes fall short of requirements for the future. Hewlett Packard/Toshiba experiments indicate that with second generation synchrotron sources such as SSRL, the techniques can be extended sufficiently to meet important needs of the leading edge Si circuit industry through nearly all of the 1990's. This workshop was held to identify people interested in use of synchrotron radiation-based methods and to document needs and concerns for further development. Viewgraphs are included for the following presentations: microcontamination needs in silicon technology (M. Liehr), analytical methods for wafer surface contamination (A. Schimazaki), trace impurity analysis of liquid drops using synchrotron radiation (D. Wherry), TRXRF using synchrotron sources (S. Laderman), potential role of synchrotron radiation TRXRF in Si process R D (M. Scott), potenital development of synchrotron radiation facilities (S. Brennan), and identification of goals, needs and concerns (M. Garner).

  16. Simulation of absorbed dose rate due to synchrotron radiation and shielding thickness for radiation safety at Indus-2 using FLUKA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indus-2 is a 2.5 GeV electron synchrotron radiation source at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), India. 26 synchrotron radiation (SR) beam lines are planned in Indus-2 for various research applications, of several are in operation and many are in installation stage. For experiments SR beam is brought in air. Due to intense flux of SR and low energy, the dose rate in the direct beam is high and there is a potential for radiation exposure. Appropriate shielding hutches are needed to house the beamlines and protect the workers from the radiation hazard. Simulations were carried out using computer code FLUKA to find out the absorbed dose in water due to SR and required shielding thickness in the forward direction to reduce dose within acceptable limits. SR spectrum from Indus-2 in the range 4-100 keV was used for simulating the absorbed dose and shielding thickness. It was found that the absorbed dose rate is of the order of 105 Gy/h for the design parameters of Indus-2 (2.5 GeV and 300 mA). Forward shielding thickness of 3 mm lead was found to be sufficient to reduce the dose rate to acceptable level for continuously occupied area (<1μSv/h). The details of the simulation and results are presented in the paper. (author)

  17. Short-time Variability of Blazars via Non-linear, Time-dependent Synchrotron-Self Compton Radiative Losses

    CERN Document Server

    Röken, Christian; Schöneberg, Sebastian; Schuppan, Florian

    2016-01-01

    A leptonic one-zone model accounting for the radiation emission of blazars is presented. This model describes multiple successive injections of mono-energetic, ultra-relativistic, interacting electron populations, which are subjected to synchrotron and synchrotron-self Compton radiative losses. The electron number density is computed analytically by solving a time-dependent, relativistic transport equation. Moreover, the synchrotron and synchrotron-self Compton intensities as well as the corresponding total fluences are explicitly calculated. The lightcurves and fluences are plotted for realistic parameter values, showing that the model can simultaneously explain both the specific short-time variability in the flaring of blazars and the characteristic broad-band fluence behavior.

  18. AILES: the infrared and THz beamline on SOLEIL synchrotron radiation source; AILES: la ligne infrarouge et THz sur rayonnement synchrotron SOLEIL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, P.; Brubach, J.B.; Rouzieres, M.; Pirali, O.; Kwabia Tchana, F. [Synchrotron Soleil, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Manceron, L. [Paris-6 Univ., Lab. de Dynamique Interactions et Reactivite (LADIR), 75 (France)

    2008-03-15

    The development of a new infrared beamline (ligne de lumiere AILES) at the third generation Synchrotron Radiation source SOLEIL is underway. This beamline utilizes infrared synchrotron radiation from both the edge emission and the constant field conventional source. The expected performances including flux, spatial distribution of the photons, spectral range and stability are calculated and discussed. The optical system, spectroscopic stations and workspace are described. The calculation in the near field approach and the simulation by ray tracing show that the source with its adapted optics offers high flux and brilliance for a variety of infrared experiments. We also review the main research themes and the articulation and developments of the infrared sources at SOLEIL. (authors)

  19. Interest of synchrotron radiation for the therapy of brain tumors: methodology and preclinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbeam radiation (M.R.T.) and stereotactic synchrotron radiation therapy (S.S.R.T.) are innovative techniques currently developed at the european Synchrotron radiation facility. these techniques led to promising, but rarely reproduced, results. the use of different tumoral models for each techniques limit comparisons. M.R.T. experiments on rats bearing 9L tumors 14 days after implantation displayed a double median survival time ( from 20 to 40 days) with a 200 μm spacing irradiation, while a 100 μm spacing irradiation tripled this median (67 days) but damaged normal tissue. the impact of the device dividing synchrotron beam into micro-beams, named multi sit collimator, was also demonstrated. combination of drugs with M.R.T. irradiation was tested. promising results (median survival time: 40 days and 30% of long term survivors) were obtained with an intratumoral injection of gadolinium coupled with a crossing M.R.T. irradiation at 460 Gy. Moreover, earlier M.R.T. irradiation (tumor at D10) quadrupled the median survival time (79 days) with 30% of long term survivors. A new imaging device to target the tumor before irradiation and an adapted collimator will increase the M.R.T. results. As the differences existing between tumoral models used in M.R.T. (9L models) and in S.S.R.T. (F98 models) are major, M.R.T./S.S.R.T. comparative experiments were realised on these two models. Results showed that the two techniques have the same efficacy on F98 model and that the M.R.T. is more effective on 9L model. This can help to define adapted tumor type for these techniques. (author)

  20. Analysis and calibration of stage axial vibration for synchrotron radiation nanoscale computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jian; Li, Chen; Liu, Zhenzhong

    2015-10-01

    Synchrotron radiation nanoscale computed tomography (SR nano-CT) is a powerful analysis tool and can be used to perform chemical identification, mapping, or speciation of carbon and other elements together with X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) imaging. In practical applications, there are often challenges for SR nano-CT due to the misaligned geometry caused by the sample stage axial vibration. It occurs quite frequently because of experimental constraints from the mechanical error of manufacturing and assembly and the thermal expansion during the time-consuming scanning. The axial vibration will lead to the structure overlap among neighboring layers and degrade imaging results by imposing artifacts into the nano-CT images. It becomes worse for samples with complicated axial structure. In this work, we analyze the influence of axial vibration on nano-CT image by partial derivative. Then, an axial vibration calibration method for SR nano-CT is developed and investigated. It is based on the cross correlation of plane integral curves of the sample at different view angles. This work comprises a numerical study of the method and its experimental verification using a dataset measured with the full-field transmission X-ray microscope nano-CT setup at the beamline 4W1A of the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The results demonstrate that the presented method can handle the stage axial vibration. It can work for random axial vibration and needs neither calibration phantom nor additional calibration scanning. It will be helpful for the development and application of synchrotron radiation nano-CT systems. PMID:26265032

  1. X-Tream quality assurance in synchrotron X-ray microbeam radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Pauline; Cornelius, Iwan; Donzelli, Mattia; Requardt, Herwig; Nemoz, Christian; Petasecca, Marco; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; Rosenfeld, Anatoly; Lerch, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a novel irradiation technique for brain tumours treatment currently under development at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble, France. The technique is based on the spatial fractionation of a highly brilliant synchrotron X-ray beam into an array of microbeams using a multi-slit collimator (MSC). After promising pre-clinical results, veterinary trials have recently commenced requiring the need for dedicated quality assurance (QA) procedures. The quality of MRT treatment demands reproducible and precise spatial fractionation of the incoming synchrotron beam. The intensity profile of the microbeams must also be quickly and quantitatively characterized prior to each treatment for comparison with that used for input to the dose-planning calculations. The Centre for Medical Radiation Physics (University of Wollongong, Australia) has developed an X-ray treatment monitoring system (X-Tream) which incorporates a high-spatial-resolution silicon strip detector (SSD) specifically designed for MRT. In-air measurements of the horizontal profile of the intrinsic microbeam X-ray field in order to determine the relative intensity of each microbeam are presented, and the alignment of the MSC is also assessed. The results show that the SSD is able to resolve individual microbeams which therefore provides invaluable QA of the horizontal field size and microbeam number and shape. They also demonstrate that the SSD used in the X-Tream system is very sensitive to any small misalignment of the MSC. In order to allow as rapid QA as possible, a fast alignment procedure of the SSD based on X-ray imaging with a low-intensity low-energy beam has been developed and is presented in this publication. PMID:27577773

  2. Analysis and calibration of stage axial vibration for synchrotron radiation nanoscale computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jian; Li, Chen; Liu, Zhenzhong

    2015-10-01

    Synchrotron radiation nanoscale computed tomography (SR nano-CT) is a powerful analysis tool and can be used to perform chemical identification, mapping, or speciation of carbon and other elements together with X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) imaging. In practical applications, there are often challenges for SR nano-CT due to the misaligned geometry caused by the sample stage axial vibration. It occurs quite frequently because of experimental constraints from the mechanical error of manufacturing and assembly and the thermal expansion during the time-consuming scanning. The axial vibration will lead to the structure overlap among neighboring layers and degrade imaging results by imposing artifacts into the nano-CT images. It becomes worse for samples with complicated axial structure. In this work, we analyze the influence of axial vibration on nano-CT image by partial derivative. Then, an axial vibration calibration method for SR nano-CT is developed and investigated. It is based on the cross correlation of plane integral curves of the sample at different view angles. This work comprises a numerical study of the method and its experimental verification using a dataset measured with the full-field transmission X-ray microscope nano-CT setup at the beamline 4W1A of the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The results demonstrate that the presented method can handle the stage axial vibration. It can work for random axial vibration and needs neither calibration phantom nor additional calibration scanning. It will be helpful for the development and application of synchrotron radiation nano-CT systems.

  3. Photostimulated phosphor based image plate detection system for HRVUV beamline at Indus-1 synchrotron radiation source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haris, K. [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India); Singh, Param Jeet [Atomic and Molecular Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Shastri, Aparna, E-mail: ashastri@barc.gov.in [Atomic and Molecular Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Sunanda, K.; Babita, K.; Rao, S.V.N. Bhaskara [Atomic and Molecular Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Ahmad, Shabbir; Tauheed, A. [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India)

    2014-12-11

    A high resolution vacuum ultraviolet (HRVUV) beamline based on a 6.65 m off-plane Eagle spectrometer is in operation at the Indus-1 synchrotron radiation source, RRCAT, Indore, India. To facilitate position sensitive detection and fast spectral recording, a new BaFBr:Eu{sup 2+} phosphor based image plate (IP) detection system interchangeable with the existing photomultiplier (PMT) scanning system has been installed on this beamline. VUV photoabsorption studies on Xe, O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2} are carried out to evaluate the performance of the IP detection system. An FWHM of ∼0.5 Å is achieved for the Xe atomic line at 1469.6 Å. Reproducibility of spectra is found to be within the experimental resolution. Compared to the PMT scanning system, the IP shows several advantages in terms of sensitivity, recording time and S/N ratio, which are highlighted in the paper. This is the first report of incorporation of an IP detection system in a VUV beamline using synchrotron radiation. Commissioning of the new detection system is expected to greatly enhance the utilization of the HRVUV beamline as a number of spectroscopic experiments which require fast recording times combined with a good signal to noise ratio are now feasible. - Highlights: • Incorporation of an image plate detection system on HRVUV beamline at Indus-1. • Design and fabrication of mounting mechanisms, performance evaluation of new system. • Photoabsorption spectra of Xe, O{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O recorded in the region 1150–2300 Å. • Sensitivity, wavelength coverage, reproducibility and resolution of IP demonstrated. • First report of IP detector for VUV photoabsorption using synchrotron radiation.

  4. SKA studies of in-situ synchrotron radiation from molecular clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Dickinson, Clive; Crocker, R; Crutcher, R M; Davies, R D; Ferriere, K; Fuller, G; Jaffe, T; Jones, D I; Leahy, J P; Murphy, E J; Peel, M W; Orlando, E; Porter, T; Protheroe, R J; Robishaw, T; Strong, A W; Watson, R A; Yusef-Zadeh, F

    2015-01-01

    Observations of the properties of dense molecular clouds are critical in understanding the process of star-formation. One of the most important, but least understood, is the role of the magnetic fields. We discuss the possibility of using high-resolution, high-sensitivity radio observations with the SKA to measure for the first time the in-situ synchrotron radiation from these molecular clouds. If the cosmic-ray (CR) particles penetrate clouds as expected, then we can measure the B-field strength directly using radio data. So far, this signature has never been detected from the collapsing clouds themselves and would be a unique probe of the magnetic field. Dense cores are typically ~0.05 pc in size, corresponding to ~arcsec at ~kpc distances, and flux density estimates are ~mJy at 1 GHz. The SKA should be able to readily detect directly, for the first time, along lines-of-sight that are not contaminated by thermal emission or complex foreground/background synchrotron emission. Polarised synchrotron may also b...

  5. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering active gold nanostructure fabricated by photochemical reaction of synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The deposition of gold nanoparticles in an electroplating solution containing gold (I) trisodium disulphite under synchrotron X-ray radiation was investigated. The nanoparticles grew and aggregated into clusters with increasing radiation time. This behavior is explained by evaluating the effect of Derjaguin-Landau-Verweyand-Overbeek (DLVO) interactions combining repulsive electrostatic and attractive van der Waals forces on the particle deposition process. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of 4,4′ -bipyridine (4bpy) in aqueous solution was measured using gold nanoparticles immobilized on silicon substrates under systematically-varied X-ray exposure. The substrates provided an in situ SERS spectrum for 1 nM 4bpy. This demonstration creates new opportunities for chemical and environmental analyses through simple SERS measurements. - Highlights: • Gold nanoparticles were produced by photochemical reaction of synchrotron radiation. • The gold nanoparticles grew and aggregated into the higher-order nanostructure. • The behavior is qualitatively explained by analytical estimation. • The surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of 4,4′-bipyridine (4bpy) was demonstrated. • The substrate fabricated in a suitable condition provides in situ SERS for 1 nM 4bpy

  6. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering active gold nanostructure fabricated by photochemical reaction of synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Akinobu, E-mail: yamaguti@lasti.u-hyogo.ac.jp [Laboratory of Advance Science and Technology for Industry, University of Hyogo, 3-1-2 Koto, Kamigori, Ako, Hyogo 678-1205 (Japan); Matsumoto, Takeshi [Laboratory of Advance Science and Technology for Industry, University of Hyogo, 3-1-2 Koto, Kamigori, Ako, Hyogo 678-1205 (Japan); Okada, Ikuo; Sakurai, Ikuya [Synchrotoron Radiation Research Center, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Utsumi, Yuichi [Laboratory of Advance Science and Technology for Industry, University of Hyogo, 3-1-2 Koto, Kamigori, Ako, Hyogo 678-1205 (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    The deposition of gold nanoparticles in an electroplating solution containing gold (I) trisodium disulphite under synchrotron X-ray radiation was investigated. The nanoparticles grew and aggregated into clusters with increasing radiation time. This behavior is explained by evaluating the effect of Derjaguin-Landau-Verweyand-Overbeek (DLVO) interactions combining repulsive electrostatic and attractive van der Waals forces on the particle deposition process. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of 4,4′ -bipyridine (4bpy) in aqueous solution was measured using gold nanoparticles immobilized on silicon substrates under systematically-varied X-ray exposure. The substrates provided an in situ SERS spectrum for 1 nM 4bpy. This demonstration creates new opportunities for chemical and environmental analyses through simple SERS measurements. - Highlights: • Gold nanoparticles were produced by photochemical reaction of synchrotron radiation. • The gold nanoparticles grew and aggregated into the higher-order nanostructure. • The behavior is qualitatively explained by analytical estimation. • The surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of 4,4′-bipyridine (4bpy) was demonstrated. • The substrate fabricated in a suitable condition provides in situ SERS for 1 nM 4bpy.

  7. A Spectrometer for X-Ray Energy-Dispersive Diffraction using Synchrotron Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staun Olsen, Janus; Buras, B; Gerward, Leif;

    1981-01-01

    Describes a white-beam X-ray energy-dispersive diffractometer built for Hasylab in Hamburg, FRG, using the synchrotron radiation from the electron storage ring DORIS. The following features of the instrument are discussed: horizontal or vertical scattering plane, collimators, sample environment......, remote control of the goniometer, data acquisition, energy-sensitive detectors using small-area and large-area detector crystals, modes of operation, powder and single crystal diffraction. An example is given from a high-pressure study of YbH2 using a diamond anvil cell....

  8. Photo absorption studies of polyatomic molecules using Indus 1 synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Photophysics beamline is a medium resolution beamline designed for carrying out photo absorption and fluorescence experiments using the synchrotron radiation source Indus-l. This beamline has been commissioned recently and is in operation. An experimental setup for gas phase absorption studies has been developed and installed. Absorption spectra of a few polyatomicmolecules viz. benzene, ammonia, carbon disulphide and acetone were recorded in the wavelength region 1500 -3000 A. The results from this study indicated the satisfactory performance of the beam line as well as the experimental setup. Details of the first set of absorption experiments carried out are discussed in this report. (author)

  9. Interfacial electronic structure of Na deposited on rubrene thin film studied by synchrotron radiation photoemission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ching-Hsuan; Cheng, Chiu-Ping; Lin, Hong-Cheu; Pi, Tun-Wen

    2015-12-01

    The electronic structure of rubrene doped with various concentrations of Na was studied by synchrotron-radiation photoemission. Three stages of development were found with increasing Na concentration; Na penetrating deep into the organic film, followed by development of gap states, and ended with a metallic Na film. The charge transfer from Na to rubrene resulted in a vacuum-level shift. By doping Na into rubrene, we could control the IP of the organic molecule, which is favorable for application in organic semiconductor devices.

  10. The recent development of an X-ray grating interferometer at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haohua; Kou, Bingquan; Xi, Yan; Qi, Juncheng; Sun, Jianqi; Mohr, Jürgen; Börner, Martin; Zhao, Jun; Xu, Lisa X.; Xiao, Tiqiao; Wang, Yujie

    2012-07-01

    An X-ray grating interferometer has been installed at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF). Three sets of phase gratings were designed to cover the wide X-ray energy range needed for biological and soft material imaging capabilities. The performance of the grating interferometer has been evaluated by a tomography study of a PMMA particle packing and a new born mouse chest. In the mouse chest study, the carotid artery and carotid vein inside the mouse can be identified in situ without contrast agents.

  11. Synchrotron radiation damping, intrabeam scattering and beam-beam simulations for HE-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Valishev, A

    2011-01-01

    The proposed High-Energy LHC project presents an unusual combination of strong synchrotron radiation (SR) damping and intrabeam scattering (IBS), which is not seen in present-day hadron colliders. The subject of investigation reported in this paper was the simulation of beam-beam effect for the HE-LHC parameters. Parameters of SR and IBS are calculated, and the luminosity evolution is simulated in the absence of beambeam interaction. Then, a weak-strong numerical simulation is used to predict the effect of beam-beam interaction on particle losses and emittance evolution.

  12. Grain tracing and strain determination in a Be compact tension specimen using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varma, R.; Green, R.; Garcia, M.D.; Satyam, P.V.; Yun, W.B.; Maser, J.; Kai, Z.; Lai, B.; Sinha, S.K.

    1999-04-19

    X-ray synchrotron radiation of high (11 KeV) energy and high flux (10{sup 10} photons per square centimeter per second) has been used to measure strains and polycrystallinity in 6-mm thick polycrystalline beryllium compact tension (CT) specimens at and around the crack tip (for fatigue-precracked sample) or at chevron notch point under load or no-load conditions. The authors demonstrated the feasibility strain field mapping as well as determining the polycrystallinity at or near the points of maximum load in beryllium CT specimens. The experimental techniques and results will be discussed.

  13. Growth strains in thermally grown Al2O3 scales studied using synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, P. Y.; Paulikas, A. P.; Veal, B. W.

    2009-07-01

    The strains in alumina thin films growing on high-temperature alloys at 1,000-1,100°C and during cooling have been successfully measured in-situ using a novel x-ray technique, exploiting synchrotron radiation at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. This paper summarizes results obtained from model alloys, with or without the presence of a reactive element, such as Zr, Hf, and Y, to show the importance of the dynamic nature of the stress evolution process and the effects of alloy composition on the generation and relaxation of these stresses.

  14. Measurement of internal residual strain gradients in metal matrix composites using synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, Todd A.; Wadley, Haydn N. G.; Black, David R.

    An evaluation is presented of the feasibility of the use of energy-dispersive diffractometry to measure the thermal residual strains around fibers embedded in HIP-consolidated metal-matrix composites, using the intense white radiation that is available from a large synchrotron. The high spatial resolution of the technique was demonstrated by measuring diffraction from volumes of the order of 0.001 cu mm. Encouraging measurement results for thermal residual-strain gradients around fibers embedded in a thick composite were obtained.

  15. Electric field detection of coherent synchrotron radiation in a storage ring generated using laser bunch slicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, I.; Shimosato, H.; Bito, M.; Furusawa, K.; Adachi, M.; Shimada, M.; Zen, H.; Kimura, S.; Yamamoto, N.; Hosaka, M.; Katoh, M.; Ashida, M.

    2012-03-01

    The electric field of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) generated by laser bunch slicing in a storage ring has been detected by an electro-optic sampling method. The gate pulses for sampling are sent through a large-mode-area photonic-crystal fiber. The observed electric field profile of the CSR is in good agreement with the spectrum of the CSR observed using Fourier transform far-infrared spectrometry, indicating good phase stability in the CSR. The longitudinal density profiles of electrons modulated by laser pulses were evaluated from the electric field profile.

  16. A photoelectron velocity map imaging spectrometer for experiments combining synchrotron and laser radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Keeffe, P.; Bolognesi, P.; Coreno, M.; Avaldi, L. [CNR-IMIP, Area della Ricerca di Roma 1, Monterotondo Scalo (Italy); Moise, A.; Richter, R.; Cautero, G.; Stebel, L.; Sergo, R. [Sincrotrone Trieste SCpA, Area Science Park, I-34149 Basovizza (Trieste) (Italy); Pravica, L. [The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley, Western Australia (Australia); Ovcharenko, Y. [Institute of Electron Physics, 88017 Uzhgorod (Ukraine)

    2011-03-15

    A velocity map imaging/ion time-of-flight spectrometer designed specifically for pump-probe experiments combining synchrotron and laser radiations is described. The in-house built delay line detector can be used in two modes: the high spatial resolution mode and the coincidence mode. In the high spatial resolution mode a kinetic energy resolution of 6% has been achieved. The coincidence mode can be used to improve signal-to-noise ratio for the pump-probe experiments either by using a gate to count electrons only when the laser is present or by recording coincidences with the ion formed in the ionization process.

  17. Melatonin mitigate cerebral vasospasm after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage: a study of synchrotron radiation angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, J.; He, C.; Chen, L.; Han, T.; Huang, S.; Huang, Y.; Bai, Y.; Bao, Y.; Zhang, H.; Ling, F.

    2013-06-01

    Cerebral vasospasm (CV) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating and unsolved clinical issue. In this study, the rat models, which had been induced SAH by prechiasmatic cistern injection, were treated with melatonin. Synchrotron radiation angiography (SRA) was employed to detect and evaluate CV of animal models. Neurological scoring and histological examinations were used to assess the neurological deficits and CV as well. Using SRA techniques and histological analyses, the anterior cerebral artery diameters of SAH rats with melatonin administration were larger than those without melatonin treatment (p experimental SAH.

  18. Using of Synchrotron radiation for study of multielement composition of the small mammals diet and tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezel, V. S.; Koutzenogii, K. P.; Mukhacheva, S. V.; Chankina, O. V.; Savchenko, T. I.

    2007-05-01

    The Synchrotron radiation X-ray Fluorescence analysis (SRXRF) was used for estimation of "geochemical selection" of elements by small mammals, which belong to different trophic groups and inhabit polluted and background areas (the Middle Ural). The concentrations of K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, Cd, Pb in the diet and into hepar of a herbivorous ( bank vole) and carnivorous ( Laxmann's shrew) small mammals were compared. Herbivores play a particular role in chemical elements translocation between trophic levels, limiting element transition to consumers of the consequent levels. Whereas, insectivores concentrate most elements in their tissues under the same conditions.

  19. Structural and elemental X-ray microanalysis with synchrotron radiation in confocal geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosa, Carlos M. [IFEG-CONICET, (X5016LAE) Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba (Argentina); Sánchez, H. Jorge [IFEG-CONICET, (X5016LAE) Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba (Argentina); FAMAF, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, (X5016LAE) Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba (Argentina); Pérez, Carlos A. [Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron – LNLS, POB 6192, 13084-971 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Perez, Roberto D., E-mail: danperez@famaf.unc.edu.ar [IFEG-CONICET, (X5016LAE) Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba (Argentina); FAMAF, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, (X5016LAE) Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba (Argentina)

    2014-01-15

    A spectrometer for 3D structural and multielemental X-ray microanalysis with synchrotron radiation is presented in this work. It is based on the combination of the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and diffraction with polycapillary optics. The 3D spatial resolution was achieved by the superposition of the foci of two lenses arranged in confocal geometry. The parameters that affect the performance of the spectrometer were study in detail giving rise to a simplified calibration method for depth profile analysis. Two specific examples were included to illustrate the use of the spectrometer in order to identify their possible application fields.

  20. A Furnace for Diffraction Studies using Synchrotron X-Ray Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buras, B.; Lebech, Bente; Kofoed, W.

    1984-01-01

    A furnace for diffraction studies using synchrotron X-ray radiation is described. The furnace can be operated between ambient temperature and 1 800 °C with a temperature stability better than 5 °C for temperatures above 300 °C. Kapton windows allow almost 360° access for the X-ray beam...... in the horizontal scattering plane and the furnace may be used in both conventional monochromatic beam angle-dispersive and white-beam energy-dispersive diffraction experiments. Details of the furnace windows, heating element, thermometry and sample mount are given....

  1. Growth strains in thermally grown Al2O3 scales studied using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strains in alumina thin films growing on high-temperature alloys at 1,000-1,100 C and during cooling have been successfully measured in-situ using a novel x-ray technique, exploiting synchrotron radiation at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. This paper summarizes results obtained from model alloys, with or without the presence of a reactive element, such as Zr, Hf, and Y, to show the importance of the dynamic nature of the stress evolution process and the effects of alloy composition on the generation and relaxation of these stresses

  2. Pion Production from Proton Synchrotron Radiation under Strong Magnetic Field in a Relativistic Quantum Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruyama Tomoyuki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study pion production from proton synchrotron radiation in the presence of strong magnetic fields by using the exact proton propagator in a strong magnetic field and explicitly including the anomalous magnetic moment. Results in this exact quantum approach do not agree with those obtained in the semi-classical approach. Then, we find that the anomalous magnetic moment of the proton greatly enhances the production rate by about two orders magnitude, and that the decay width satisfies a robust scaling law.

  3. Pion Production from Proton Synchrotron Radiation under Strong Magnetic Field in Relativistic Quantum Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruyama Tomoyuki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study pion production from proton synchrotron radiation in the presence of strong magnetic fields by using the exact proton propagator in a strong magnetic field and explicitly including the anomalous magnetic moment. Results in this exact quantum-field approach do not agree with those obtained in the semi-classical approach. Furthermore, we also find that the anomalous magnetic moment of the proton greatly enhances the production rate about by two orders of magnitude, and that the polar angle of an emitted pion is the same as that of an initial proton.

  4. An x-ray fluorescence study of lake sediments from ancient Turkey using synchrotron radiation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alatas, A.; Alp, E. E.; Friedman, E. S.; Jennings, G.; Johnson, C. E.; Lai, B.; Mini, S. M.; Sato, Y.; Wilkinson, T. J.; Yener, K. A.

    1999-03-10

    Sediments from relic Lake Golbasi were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence with synchrotrons radiation to determine changes in element concentrations over time with selected elements serving as proxies for environmental change. Increases in Ca and Sr suggest soil formation during a dry period, from ca. 4500 BC to ca. 200 AD at which point K, Rb, Zr, Ti, and Y increase, indicating the return of a wet environment. Soil erosion, represented by Cr and Ni, increases ca. 7000 BC, probably as a consequence of environmental change, prior to suggested exploitation of natural resources by the newly urbanized society of the third millennium BC.

  5. Coherent Synchrotron Radiation as a Diagnostic Tool for the LCLS Longitudinal Feedback System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Juhao; Emma, P.; Huang, Z.; /SLAC

    2005-06-15

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) will be the world's first x-ray free-electron laser (FEL). To ensure the vitality of FEL lasing, a longitudinal feedback system is required together with other diagnostics. In this paper, we study the possibility of using Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) from the chicane as a diagnostic tool for bunch length feedback. Studies show that CSR is a good candidate, even for a non-Gaussian, double-horn longitudinal charge distribution as in the LCLS. We further check the possibility for detecting possible microbunching.

  6. Detecting Structural Features in Metallic Glass via Synchrotron Radiation Experiments Combined with Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu-Qing Guo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Revealing the essential structural features of metallic glasses (MGs will enhance the understanding of glass-forming mechanisms. In this work, a feasible scheme is provided where we performed the state-of-the-art synchrotron-radiation based experiments combined with simulations to investigate the microstructures of ZrCu amorphous compositions. It is revealed that in order to stabilize the amorphous state and optimize the topological and chemical distribution, besides the icosahedral or icosahedral-like clusters, other types of clusters also participate in the formation of the microstructure in MGs. This cluster-level co-existing feature may be popular in this class of glassy materials.

  7. PREFACE: 17th Pan-American Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation Conference SRI2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gwyn P.; Revesz, Peter; Arp, Uwe

    2014-03-01

    These proceedings are a collection of the articles presented at the seventeenth Pan-American Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation Conference SRI2013, held on the campus of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), located in Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States of America, 19-21 June, 2013. SRI2013 was jointly hosted by the Cornell University Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab), and the Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF III) at NIST. This meeting's focus was clearly on instrumentation, thus fulfilling the intent of this SRI meeting series, which was initiated at NIST, then the National Bureau of Standards (NBS), in 1979. SRI2013 hosted more than 150 delegates, despite the new US governmental travel restrictions. This proceedings series aims to be an essential reference work for practitioners in the field. It primarily documents the evolution and development of techniques, but also recent scientific advances, that were presented during the two and a half days of the conference. We are extremely thankful to all the authors who contributed to making these proceedings a volume of reference as well as to the reviewers for their careful reading and constructive recommendations for improving the articles. Great thanks go to Robert Dragoset at NIST, for creating and maintaining the conference website and generating the conference logo. We are also thankful for the excellent support we received from the Conference Program at NIST, especially Kathy Kilmer and Angela Ellis. And we would like to dedicate these proceedings to the memory of Kathy Kilmer, who passed away on 15 October, 2013. NIST will not be the same without her. The Co-Editors: Uwe Arp (SURF/NIST) Peter Reversz (CHESS) Gwyn P Williams (Jefferson Lab)

  8. Atomic and Molecular Photoelectron and Auger Electron SpectroscopyStudies Using Synchrotron Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southworth, Stephen H.

    1982-01-01

    Electron spectroscopy, combined with synchrotron radiation, was used to measure the angular distributions of photoelectrons and Auger electrons from atoms and molecules as functions of photon energy. The branching ratios and partial cross sections were a 130 measured in certain cases. By comparison with theoretical calculations, the experimental results are interpreted in terms of the characteristic electronic structure and ionization dynamics of the atomic or molecular sample. The time structure of the synchrotron radiation source was used to record time-of-flight (TOF) spectra o f the ejected electrons. The ''a double-angle-TOF'' method for the measurement of photoelectron angular distributions is discussed. This technique offers the advantages of increased electron collect ion efficiency and the elimination of certain systematic errors. Several results were obtained for Xe using photon energies in the range hv {approx_equal} 60-190 eV, where excitation and ionization of the inner-subshell 4d electrons dominates. The 4d asymmetry parameter {beta} exhibits strong oscillations with energy, in agreement with several theoretical calculations. As predicted, the 5p asymmetry parameter was observed to deviate strongly from that calculated using the independent-electron model, due to intershell correlation with the 4d electrons.

  9. Effects of synchrotron radiation spectrum energy on polymethyl methacrylate photosensitivity to deep x-ray lithography

    CERN Document Server

    Mekaru, H; Hattori, T

    2003-01-01

    Since X-ray lithography requires a high photon flux to achieve deep resist exposure, a synchrotron radiation beam, which is not monochromatized, is generally used as a light source. If the synchrotron radiation beam is monochromatized, photon flux will decrease rapidly. Because of this reason, the wavelength dependence of the resist sensitivity has not been investigated for deep X-ray lithography. Measuring the spectrum of a white beam with a Si solid-state detector (SSD) is difficult because a white beam has a high intensity and an SSD has a high sensitivity. We were able to measure the spectrum and the photocurrent of a white beam from a beam line used for deep X-ray lithography by keeping the ring current below 0.05 mA. We evaluated the characteristics of the output beam based on the measured spectrum and photocurrent, and used them to investigate the relationship between the total exposure energy and the dose-processing depth with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). We found that it is possible to guess the p...

  10. Chemical synthesis in acetonitrile containing discharges. Insights from photoionization experiments with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Insights into the photo-induced ion chemistry of gaseous acetonitrile by VUV synchrotron radiation. ► Ionic isomer selectivity (linear vs cyclic) in the reaction of CH2CN+ with CH3CN. ► Calculations (G3 level) of structure and energetics of some relevant ionic clusters. - Abstract: The photoinduced ion chemistry of acetonitrile is investigated by using tuneable VUV synchrotron radiation in an octupolar ion guide with mass spectrometric detection. The appearance energies and yields of primary photoions and secondary ionic products deriving from self-reactions at thermal collision energies are measured. Comparison of the appearance energies of the different product ions provides insights into the reaction mechanisms. Experimental data are interpreted with the help of theoretical calculations (energies and structures at the G3 level of theory) for the various isomers of the most relevant ionic products. We find that the ion C2H2N+ is formed at the threshold with a cyclic structure, but only its linear isomer (lying 0.47 eV higher in energy) can react with acetonitrile to form CH2CNCH2+ plus HCN via a cyclic transition state.

  11. Evaluation of ozone concentration for a white beam line hutch at Indus-2 synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the synchrotron radiation source Indus-2, 26 synchrotron radiation beam lines are planned, out of which 7 beam lines are operational and several are in installation stage. For carrying out experiments, SR beam is brought out to air through the beam lines (which are housed in shielded hutches). Due to the interaction of SR with air, ozone is produced, which is a noxious gas and is hazardous, if inhaled in excess. The production of ozone is high in white beam lines in comparison with pink and monochromatic beam lines. In the present paper ozone generation for a white beam line of Indus-2 is estimated. The ozone production rate, saturation concentration, ventilation rate and delay time are also estimated. The saturation concentration of ozone for the white beam line (energy dispersive X-ray diffraction beam line) BL-11 was found to be 0.965 ppm for 100 cm interaction path length and 51.45 m3 hutch volume without any ventilation. The paper presents the details of the calculation and the results. (author)

  12. Synchrotron radiation and absence of linear polarization in the colliding wind binary WR 146

    CERN Document Server

    Hales, C A; del Palacio, S; Romero, G E; Koribalski, B S

    2016-01-01

    Several massive early-type binaries exhibit non-thermal emission which has been attributed to synchrotron radiation from particles accelerated by diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) in the wind-collision region (WCR). If the magnetic field in the strong shocks is ordered, its component parallel to the shock front should be enhanced, and the resultant synchrotron radiation would be polarized. However, such polarization has never been measured. We performed spatially-unresolved radio continuum observations of WR 146, a well known a WC6+O8 system, at 5 cm and 20 cm with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. No linearly polarized radio emission was detected. The data constrain the fractional linear polarization to less than 0.6% between 1 to 8 GHz. This is compatible with a high level of turbulence and a dominant random component in the magnetic field. In this case the relativistic particles could be produced by turbulent magnetic reconnection (MR). In order for this scenario to satisfy the required non-thermal ene...

  13. Impact of the Wiggler Coherent Synchrotron Radiation Impedance on the Beam Instability

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, J; Raubenheimer, T O; Huang, Z; Huang, Zhirong

    2003-01-01

    Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) can play an important role by not only increasing the energy spread and emittance of a beam, but also leading to a potential instability. Previous studies of the CSR induced longitudinal instability were carried out for the CSR impedance due to dipole magnets. However, many storage rings include long wigglers where a large fraction of the synchrotron radiation is emitted. This includes high-luminosity factories such as DAPHNE, PEP-II, KEK-B, and CESR-C as well as the damping rings of future linear colliders. In this paper, the instability due to the CSR impedance from a wiggler is studied assuming a large wiggler parameter $K$. The primary consideration is a low frequency microwave-like instability, which arises near the pipe cut-off frequency. Detailed results are presented on the growth rate and threshold for the damping rings of several linear collider designs. Finally, the optimization of the relative fraction of damping due to the wiggler systems is discussed for the ...

  14. Application of Synchrotron Radiation Imaging for Non-destructive Monitoring of Mouse Rheumatoid Arthritis Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chang-Hyuk; Kim, Hong-Tae; Choe, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Jong Ki; Youn, Hwa Shik

    2007-01-01

    This study was performed to observe microstructures of the rheumatoid arthritis induced mouse feet using a synchrotron radiation beam and to compare findings with histological observations. X-ray refraction images from ex-vivo rheumatoid arthritis induced mouse feet were obtained with an 8KeV white (unmonochromatic) beam and 20 micron thick CsI(Tl) scintillation crystal. The visual image was magnified using a × 10 microscope objective and captured using digital CCD camera. Experiments were performed at 1B2 bending magnet beamline of the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (PAL) in Korea. Obtained images were compared with histopathologic findings from same sample. Cartilage destruction and thickened joint capsule with joint space narrowing were clearly identified at each grade of rheumatoid model with spatial resolution of as much as 1.2 micron and these findings were directly correlated with histopathologic findings. The results suggest that x-ray microscopy study of the rheumatoid arthritis model using synchrotron radiation demonstrates the potential for clinically relevant micro structure of mouse feet without sectioning and fixation.

  15. An experimental study of dual-energy CT imaging using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of electron density is important for medical diagnosis and charged particle radiotherapy treatment planning. Traditionally, electron density is obtained by CT imaging using the relationship between CT-number and electron densities established beforehand. However, the measurement is not accurate due to the beam hardening effect. In this paper, we propose a simple and practical electron density acquisition method based on dual-energy CT technique. For each sample, the CT imaging is conducted using two selected X-ray energy from synchrotron radiation. A post-processing dual-energy reconstruction method is used. Linear attenuation coefficients of the scanned samples are obtained by FBP reconstruction. The effective atomic number and electron density are got by solving the dual-energy simultaneous equations. Different phantoms and breast tissues were scanned in this experimental study under 10 keV and 30 keV monochromatic X-rays. The distribution of effective atomic numbers and electron densities of the scanned phantoms were obtained by Dual-energy CT image reconstruction, which agrees well with the theoretical values. Compared with conventional methods, the measurement accuracy is greatly improved, and the measurement error is reduced to about 1%, This experimental study demonstrates that DECT imaging based on synchrotron radiation source is applicable to medical diagnosis for quantitative measurement with high accuracy. (authors)

  16. Photostimulated phosphor based image plate detection system for HRVUV beamline at Indus-1 synchrotron radiation source

    CERN Document Server

    Haris, K; Shastri, Aparna; K., Sunanda; K., Babita; Rao, S V N Bhaskara; Ahmad, Shabbir; Tauheed, A

    2014-01-01

    A high resolution vacuum ultraviolet (HRVUV) beamline based on a 6.65 meter off-plane Eagle spectrometer is in operation at the Indus-1 synchrotron radiation source, RRCAT, Indore, India. To facilitate position sensitive detection and fast spectral recording, a new BaFBr:Eu2+ phosphor based image plate (IP) detection system interchangeable with the existing photomultiplier (PMT) scanning system has been installed on this beamline. VUV photoabsorption studies on Xe, O2, N2O and SO2 are carried out to evaluate the performance of the IP detection system. An FWHM of ~ 0.5 {\\AA} is achieved for the Xe atomic line at 1469.6 {\\AA}. Reproducibility of spectra is found to be within the experimental resolution. Compared to the PMT scanning system, the IP shows several advantages in terms of sensitivity, recording time and S/N ratio, which are highlighted in the paper. This is the first report of incorporation of an IP detection system in a VUV beamline using synchrotron radiation. Commissioning of the new detection sys...

  17. Application of a One-Dimensional Position Sensitive Chamber on Synchrotron Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Huirong; Liu, Mei

    2014-02-01

    In the last few years, wire chambers have been frequently used for X-ray detection because of their low cost, large area and reliability. X-ray diffraction is an irreplaceable method for powder crystal lattice measurements. A one-dimensional single-wire chamber has been developed in our lab to provide high position resolution for powder diffraction experiments using synchrotron radiation. There are 200 readout strips of 0.5 mm width with a pitch of 1.0 mm in the X direction, and the working gas is a mixture of Ar and CO2 (90/10). The one-dimensional position of the original ionization point is determined by the adjacent strip's distribution information using the center of gravity method. Recently, a study of the detector's performance and diffraction image was completed at the 1W1B laboratory of the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF) using a sample of SiO2. Most of the relative errors between the measured values of diffraction angles and existing data were less than 1%. The best position resolution achieved for the detector in the test was 71 μm (σ value) with a 20 μm slit collimator. Finally, by changing the detector height in incremental distances from the center of the sample, the one-dimensional detector achieved a two-dimensional diffraction imaging function, and the results are in good agreement with standard data.

  18. Beam test of a one-dimensional position sensitive chamber on synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Mei, Liu; Hui-Rong, Qi; Bao-An, Zhuang; Jian, Zhang; Rong-Guang, Liu; Qi-Ming, Zhu; Qun, Ouyang; Yuan-Bo, Chen; Xiao-Shan, Jiang; Ya-Jie, Wang; Peng, Liu; Guang-Cai, Chang

    2013-01-01

    One-dimensional single-wire chamber was developed to provide high position resolution for powder diffraction experiments with synchrotron radiation. A diffraction test using the sample of SiO2 has been accomplished at 1W2B laboratory of Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Source. The data of beam test were analyzed and some diffraction angles were obtained. The experimental results were in good agreement with standard data from ICDD powder diffraction file. The precision of diffraction angles was 1% to 4.7%. Most of relative errors between measured values of diffraction angles and existing data were less than 1%. As for the detector, the best position resolution in the test was 138 um (sigma value) with an X-ray tube. Finally, discussions of the results were given. The major factor that affected the precision of measurement was deviation from the flat structure of detector. The effect was analyzed and it came to a conclusion that it would be the optimal measurement scheme when the distance between the powder sample...

  19. System of laser pump and synchrotron radiation probe microdiffraction to investigate optical recording process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a system of laser-pump and synchrotron radiation probe microdiffraction to investigate the phase-change process on a nanosecond time scale of Ge2Sb2Te5 film embedded in multi-layer structures, which corresponds to real optical recording media. The measurements were achieved by combining (i) the pump-laser system with a pulse width of 300 ps, (ii) a highly brilliant focused microbeam with wide peak-energy width (ΔE/E ∼ 2%) made by focusing helical undulator radiation without monochromatization, and (iii) a precise sample rotation stage to make repetitive measurements. We successfully detected a very weak time-resolved diffraction signal by using this system from 100-nm-thick Ge2Sb2Te5 phase-change layers. This enabled us to find the dependence of the crystal-amorphous phase change process of the Ge2Sb2Te5 layers on laser power.

  20. Vertical synchrotron radiation beamline for proximity X-ray lithography: Theoretical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukreeva, Inna N.; Kozhevnikov, Igor V.

    1997-02-01

    The general physical principles of operation of the vertical beamline of synchrotron radiation (SR) intended for proximity X-ray lithography are considered. An optical system provides a deflection of the SR beam to the vertical plane, a cutoff of the hard X-rays, a uniform illumination of a wafer, a normal incidence of X-ray beam onto a mask, and a small enough divergency of the radiation. A vertical SR beamline makes it possible to circumvent the expensive development of vertical-plane displacement steppers and to use the conventional horizontal ones, to exclude the scanning of the SR beam across the mask and to reduce the requirements imposed on the accuracy of alignment of a gap between the mask and the wafer.

  1. Development of polishing methods for Chemical Vapor Deposited Silicon Carbide mirrors for synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Material properties of Chemical Vapor Deposited Silicon Carbide (CVD SiC) make it ideal for use in mirrors for synchrotron radiation experiments. We developed methods to grind and polish flat samples of CVD SiC down to measured surface roughness values as low as 1.1 Angstroms rms. We describe the processing details, including observations we made during trial runs with alternative processing recipes. We conclude that pitch polishing using progressively finer diamond abrasive, augmented with specific water based lubricants and additives, produces superior results. Using methods based on these results, a cylindrical and a toroidal mirror, each about 100 x 300mm, were respectively finished by Continental Optical and Frank Cooke, Incorporated. WYCO Interferometry shows these mirrors have surface roughness less than 5.7 Angstroms rms. These mirrors have been installed on the LLNL/UC X-ray Calibration and Standards Facility at the Stanford Synthrotron Radiation Laboratory

  2. Synchrotron radiation. Appendix to the Daresbury annual report 1993/1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This appendix to the main report of the Daresbury Laboratory contains 387 contributions on research carried out using the Synchrotron Radiation Source. The research areas covered include: biological solution scattering; protein crystallography; biological radiation damage; biological spectroscopy; fibre diffraction of biological systems; membranes and liquid systems; machine physics; polymer studies; quantum wells; carbon fibre diffraction; organometallics; phase studies at high pressure; semiconductors; metal oxides; magnetic materials; non-linear optics; alloys; metallic glass; amorphous materials/aqueous solutions; porous silicon and mesoporous materials; silica sols and emulsions; thin films; geology and mineralogy; liquid crystals; catalysis; ceramics and glass; superconductors; detectors for structural biology; metal oxide gas sensors; X-ray scattering techniques; new developments in X-ray techniques; structural studies of powders; single crystal and small molecule crystallography; molecular spectroscopy; lime resolved spectroscopy; surface spectroscopy; topography and diffuse scattering; X-ray microscopy; X-ray studies of surfaces. (UK)

  3. Transformation of the luminescent centres in KCl-In crystals under synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Gyunsburg, K E; Kochubey, D I; Sedova, Y G

    2000-01-01

    In view of the opportunity to use alkali-halide crystals with indium impurity for the registration of ionising radiation we have studied the influence of a method of impurity doping and mechanical treatment of a crystal on its sensitivity to X-ray. It is shown that the doping of a crystal with In sup 3 sup + reduces the sensitivity of medium. Optical and X-ray spectral experiments have allowed us to conclude that this phenomenon is caused by a change in the impurity centre structure. It is proved experimentally that mechanical crushing results in the transformation of the luminescent centres. This does not allow the effective conversion of the centres under synchrotron radiation.

  4. Software development for studies of diffuse scattering using CCD-detectors and synchrotron radiation sources

    CERN Document Server

    Paulmann, C; Bismayer, U

    2001-01-01

    A graphical-user-interface based software system was developed to cover advanced data processing requirements which arise from studies of diffuse scattering in disordered minerals using synchrotron radiation sources and CCD-detectors. The software includes interfaces to standard applications, procedures for numerical processing of large data sets, corrections for sample external scattering and detector-specific distortions, different scaling options to correct the data set against the varying primary beam intensity as well as procedures to reconstruct arbitrary slices in reciprocal space on a regular grid. The software system was successfully applied in studies of diffuse scattering in disordered REE-doped germanates, phase-transition studies of synthetic titanite and studies of the thermal recrystallization behaviour of radiation-damaged (metamict) minerals.

  5. Assessment of the image contrast improvement and dose reduction in mammography with synchrotron radiation compared to standard units

    CERN Document Server

    Moeckli, R; Fiedler, S; Pachoud, M; Hessler, C; Meuli, R; Valley, J F

    2001-01-01

    An objective method was used to evaluate image quality and dose in mammography with synchrotron radiation and to compare them to standard units. It was performed systematically in the energy range of interest for mammography through the evaluation of the contrast and the measurement of the mean glandular dose. Synchrotron radiation measurements were performed at the ESRF and a slit was placed between the test object and the screen-film system in order to reduce scatter. The conventional films were obtained on mammography units with an anti-scatter grid. In a recent paper, it was shown that the use of synchrotron radiation leads to a noticeable improvement of the image quality-dose relationship (Moeckli et al. Phys. Med. Biol. 45(12)3509). The reason of that enhancement is partly due to the monochromaticity of the synchrotron beam and partly due to the use of a slit instead of a grid. The dose reduction with synchrotron radiation can be attributed to a better X-ray total transmission of the slit and the contra...

  6. Characterization of a tungsten/gas multislit collimator for microbeam radiation therapy at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräuer-Krisch, E.; Bravin, A.; Zhang, L.; Siegbahn, E.; Stepanek, J.; Blattmann, H.; Slatkin, D. N.; Gebbers, J.-O.; Jasmin, M.; Laissue, J. A.

    2005-06-01

    Clinical microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) will require a multislit collimator with adjustable uniform slit widths to enable reliable Monte Carlo-based treatment planning. Such a collimator has been designed, fabricated of >99% tungsten [W] by Tecomet/Viasys (Woburn, Massachusetts, USA) and installed at the 6GeV electron-wiggler-generated hard x-ray ID17 beamline of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. Its pair of 125 parallel, 8mm deep, 0.100mm wide radiolucent slits, 0.400mm on center, are perfused with nitrogen gas [N2] to dissipate heat during irradiation. Major improvements in uniformity of microbeam widths and good peak/valley dose ratios combined with a very high dose rate in targeted tissues have been achieved.

  7. PREFACE: 11th International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation (SRI2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Paul; Susini, Jean

    2013-03-01

    These proceedings are a recollection of the articles presented at the Eleventh International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation (SRI22012), held in Lyon (France), on 9-13 July 2012. SRI2012, co-organized by ESRF and SOLEIL, was the eleventh in a series of conferences bringing together the foremost x-ray scientists from around the world. This triennial conference is the prime forum to highlight connections between synchrotron radiation instrumentation, science, and society. SRI2012 hosted more than 1000 delegates, including 72 exhibitors. The 2012 edition has seen the emergence of new avenues in the synchrotron technique and in related research areas, and has emphasized the complementarities between synchrotron centers and new x-ray sources such as Free Electron Lasers. The program was structured around 20 topics, and each of the articles in these proceedings refers to one of these topics namely, Instrumentation for Macromolecular Crystallography, Biomedical Experiments, Insertion Device Developments, Storage Ring Performances and Limits on Beam Stability, Advances in Hard X-ray Optics, New Developments in Area Detectors, New Facilities, New Developments in Spectroscopy Detectors, Time-Resolved Applications, Magnetism, SR Experiments under Extreme Conditions, VUV Instrumentation and Applications, Advances in Materials Science Experiments, IR and THz Generation and Applications, Advances in Soft-X-ray Optics, Modelling Tools and Optical Design, Scattering Experiments, High Energy Application, X-ray Microscopy and Nanoprobes, X-ray Imaging Techniques and, Instrumentation and Enabling Technologies. This proceedings series aims to be an essential reference work for practitioners in the field. It primarily documents the evolution and development of techniques, but also recent scientific advances, that were presented during the 4 days of the conference. We are extremely thankful to all the authors who contributed to making these proceedings a volume of

  8. Estimation of effective dose caused by stray radiations of photons, electrons and positrons around a small storage ring for a synchrotron radiation facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Y.; Oki, S.; Sugiyama, H.; Kobayakawa, H.

    2005-10-01

    The spatial distribution of the effective dose of photons, electrons and positrons caused by beam loss around a small electron storage ring in a synchrotron radiation source is calculated. We propose a simple formula applicable to calculate the effective dose for storage rings for beam energies ranging from 200 MeV to 5 GeV. The formula is derived from Monte Carlo calculations of radiation flux using the simulation code EGS4. We apply the formula to estimate the effective dose distribution in a small synchrotron radiation facility planned by the Nagoya University.

  9. Control of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation and Micro-Bunching Effects During Transport of High Brightness Electron Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Douglas, D R; Hutton, A; Krafft, G A; Li, R; Neil, G R; Roblin, Y; Tennant, C D; Tsai, C -Y

    2014-01-01

    Beam quality preservation during transport of high-brightness electron beams is of general concern in the design of modern accelerators. Methods to manage incoherent synchrotron radiation (ISR) have been in place for decades; as beam brightness has improved coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) and the microbunching instability (uBI) have emerged as performance limitations. We apply the compensation analysis of diMitri, Cornacchia, and Spampinati - as previously used by Borland - to the design of transport systems for use with low-emittance beams, and find that appropriately configured second order achromats will suppress transverse emittance growth due to CSR and appear to limit uBI gain.

  10. Using the electron synchrotron radiation for the calibration of the spectral density in UV and long-wave vacuum UV range (160 nm to 340 nm)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron synchrotron radiation was investigated with a view to the development of methods for the calibration of the spectral density in the UV and long-wave vacuum UV spectral regions. The relative spectral radiation flow of a synchrotron can be calculated over a wide spectral region. In order to determine the absolute radiation flow in the vaccum UV, the synchrotron radiation in the visible region is compared with a reference source (calibrated tungsten filament lamp). Between 160 nm and 340 nm, the spectral beam density calibration with the synchrotron radiation is uncertain by about +- 5%. Between 280 nm and 340 nm, calibrations of deuterium lamps at the synchrotron and at a cavity radiator vary by less than 10%. (orig./WL)

  11. Physics fundamentals and biological effects of synchrotron radiation therapy; Fundamentos fisicos y efectos biologicos de la radioterapia con radiacion sincrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prezado, Y.

    2010-07-01

    The main goal of radiation therapy is to deposit a curative dose in the tumor without exceeding the tolerances in the nearby healthy tissues. For some radioresistant tumors, like gliomas, requiring high doses for complete sterilization, the major obstacle for curative treatment with ionizing radiation remains the limited tolerance of the surrounding healthy tissue. This limitation is particularly severe for brain tumors and, especially important in children, due to the high risk of complications in the development of the central nervous system. In addition, the treatment of tumors close to an organ at risk, like the spinal cord, is also restricted. One possible solution is the development of new radiation therapy techniques exploiting radically different irradiation modes and modifying, in this way, the biological equivalent doses. This is the case of synchrotron radiation therapy (SR T). In this work the three new radiation therapy techniques under development at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESR F), in Grenoble (France) will be described, namely: synchrotron stereotactic radiation therapy (Ssr), microbeam radiation therapy (MR T) and mini beam radiation therapy. The promising results in the treatment of the high grade brain tumors obtained in preclinical studies have paved the way to the clinical trials. The first patients are expected in the fall of 2010. (Author).

  12. Blending work-integrated learning with distance education in an Australian radiation therapy advanced practice curriculum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced practice for radiation therapists has been a part of the international landscape for several years; however formal implementation into the Australian health care system is yet to happen. Despite this, three short course radiation therapy advanced practitioner programs have been established by an Australian tertiary institution in response to clinical service needs at several organisations. This paper describes the rationale for curriculum design and development of the program materials, the small-scale implementation of the programs at pilot sites, and the evolution of the curriculum to be available to registered radiation therapists nationally. Each program has been designed around a specific clinical role, where flexibility of delivery to busy practitioners was central to the decision to offer them via distance education. The curriculum comprises theoretical units of study which run in parallel to and underpin clinical practice units, where advanced competence in the specific area of practice is overseen by an experienced radiation oncologist mentor. Given the nature of the disparate clinical services requiring an advanced radiation therapy practitioner, the workplace learning component of the course is individually negotiated at a local level. Outcomes suggest that the flexible clinically based training underpinned by a distance education academic curriculum is able to support the development of advanced radiation therapy practitioners responsive to local service need, and ultimately may improve the patient experience

  13. Galactic synchrotron radiation from radio to microwaves, and its relation to cosmic-ray propagation models: past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Elena

    2016-04-01

    Galactic synchrotron radiation observed from radio to microwaves is produced by cosmic-ray (CR) electrons propagating in magnetic fields (B-fields). The low-frequency foreground component separated maps by WMAP and Planck depend on the assumed synchrotron spectrum. The synchrotron spectrum varies for different line of sights as a result of changes on the CR spectrum due to propagation effects and source distributions. Our present knowledge of the CR spectrum at different locations in the Galaxy is not sufficient to distinguish various possibilities in the modeling. As a consequence uncertainties on synchrotron emission models complicate the foreground component separation analysis with Planck and future microwave telescopes. Hence, any advancement in synchrotron modeling is important for separating the different foreground components.The first step towards a more comprehensive understanding of degeneracy and correlation among the synchrotron model parameters is outlined in our Strong et al. 2011 and Orlando et al. 2013 papers. In the latter the conclusion was that CR spectrum, propagation models, B-fields, and foreground component separation analysis need to be studied simultaneously in order to properly obtain and interpret the synchrotron foreground. Indeed for the officially released Planck maps, we use only the best spectral model from our above paper for the component separation analysis.Here we present a collections of our latest results on synchrotron, CRs and B-fields in the context of CR propagation, showing also our recent work on B-fields within the Planck Collaboration. We underline also the importance of using the constraints on CRs that we obtain from gamma ray observations. Methods and perspectives for further studies on the synchrotron foreground will be addressed.

  14. Synchrotron radiation based on laser-plasma interaction in the relativistic range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work illustrates the experimental characterization of a new compact X-ray source: the Betatron X-ray source. It is the first time that collimated hard X-ray source is produced by laser. Through the focusing of an ultra-intense laser radiation (30 TW, 30 fs) on a helium plasma, the ponderomotive force linked to the light intensity gradient expels the plasma electrons forming an accelerating cavity in the wake of the laser plasma. Some electrons trapped in the back of this structure, are accelerated and oscillate to produce X-radiation. This document is composed of 8 chapters. The first one is a presentation of the topic. The second chapter gives an account of the physics behind the laser-plasma interaction in the relativistic range and for ultra-short pulses. The third chapter presents the theoretical characteristics of the Betatron X-ray source. This chapter begins with an analogy with current synchrotron radiation and the radiation emitted by an electron undergoing Betatron oscillations is described in terms of power, spectral intensity and photon flux. The fourth chapter is dedicated to the numerical simulation of the Betatron radiation. The trajectories of the electrons are computed from the equation of motion, taking into account longitudinal and transverse forces. The radiation emission term is then computed from the radiation equation detailed in the previous chapter. The fifth chapter presents the experimental setting to produce Betatron X-rays. The sixth chapter gives the experimental characterization of the source (size, divergence and spectrum) on one hand, and on the other hand studies how source flux and spectra vary when laser and plasma parameters change. The seventh chapter presents experimental methods used to characterize the electrons trajectories in the plasma wiggler. The last chapter draws some perspectives on this source in terms of improvement and uses. (A.C.)

  15. Geodesic synchrotron radiation in the Kerr geometry by the method of asymptotically factorized Green's functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrzanowski, P. L.; Misner, C. W.

    1974-01-01

    The scalar, electromagnetic, and gravitational geodesic-synchrotron-radiation (GSR) spectra are determined for the case of a test particle moving on a highly relativistic circular orbit about a rotating (Kerr) black hole. It is found that the spectral shape depends only weakly on the value of the angular-momentum parameter (a/M) of the black hole, but the total radiated power drops unexpectedly for a value of at least 0.95 and vanishes as the value approaches unity. A spin-dependent factor (involving the inner product of the polarization of a radiated quantum with the source) is isolated to explain the dependence of the spectral shape on the spin of the radiated field. Although the scalar wave equation is solved by separation of variables, this procedure is avoided for the vector and tensor cases by postulating a sum-over-states expansion for the Green's function similar to that found to hold in the scalar case. The terms in this sum, significant for GSR, can then be evaluated in the geometric-optics approximation without requiring the use of vector or tensor spherical harmonics.

  16. Performance of an LPD prototype detector at MHz frame rates under Synchrotron and FEL radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, A.; Hart, M.; Nicholls, T.; Angelsen, C.; Coughlan, J.; French, M.; Hauf, S.; Kuster, M.; Sztuk-Dambietz, J.; Turcato, M.; Carini, G. A.; Chollet, M.; Herrmann, S. C.; Lemke, H. T.; Nelson, S.; Song, S.; Weaver, M.; Zhu, D.; Meents, A.; Fischer, P.

    2013-11-01

    A MHz frame rate X-ray area detector (LPD — Large Pixel Detector) is under development by the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory for the European XFEL. The detector will have 1 million pixels and allows analogue storage of 512 images taken at 4.5 MHz in the detector front end. The LPD detector has 500 μm thick silicon sensor tiles that are bump bonded to a readout ASIC. The ASIC's preamplifier provides relatively low noise at high speed which results in a high dynamic range of 105 photons over an energy range of 5-20 keV. Small scale prototypes of 32 × 256 pixels (LPD 2-Tile detector) and 256 × 256 pixels (LPD supermodule detector) are now available for X-ray tests. The performance of prototypes of the detector is reported for first tests under synchrotron radiation (PETRA III at DESY) and Free-Electron-Laser radiation (LCLS at SLAC). The initial performance of the detector in terms of signal range and noise, radiation hardness and spatial and temporal response are reported. The main result is that the 4.5 MHz sampling detection chain is reliably working, including the analogue on-chip memory concept. The detector is at least radiation hard up to 5 MGy at 12 keV. In addition the multiple gain concept has been demonstrated over a dynamic range to 104 at 12 keV with a readout noise equivalent to < 1 photon rms in its most sensitive mode.

  17. Heat transfer studies for a crystal in a synchrotron radiation beamline

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Sinha

    2009-04-01

    Heat load studies have been performed for the first crystal of a double crystal monochromator to be installed in a beamline of the 2·5 GeV synchrotron radiation source Indus-2. Finite element analysis (FEA) has been used to calculate the temperature distribution and the mechanical distortions on these crystals. Several cases of cooling schemes and heat loads have been studied. Based on these FEA results, the analytical relationships available in the literature have been modified. It is shown that modified analytical results compare well with the empirical results obtained from FEA. The optimisation of the cooling conditions can be achieved by doing FEA calculations for only one case. All other cases can then be calculated by using analytical relations proposed here. The proposed analytical equations are generic in nature and can be applied for any source—crystal combination and therefore would be useful for performance prediction of any new monochromator on a new synchrotron source without taking recourse to time consuming, computation-intensive FEA.

  18. Synchrotron radiation: a new tool for biophysical spectroscopy in the visible and ultraviolet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, J C

    1978-01-01

    Spectroscopy in the ultraviolet, visible and near infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum is extremely important in the study of biological materials. These lectures consider the applications of synchrotron radiation (SR) to this region. They are limited to measurements which do not make use of the time structure inherent in SR. Comparisons of SR with conventional sources suggests that the greatest improvements will be realized in the far and vacuum ultraviolet regions--wavelengths less than about 300 nm. Consideration of the transitions of the valence electrons of most organic and biologically important materials indicate that wavelengths less than about 120 nm will not be especially informative. In addition, spectroscopic experiments at wavelengths less than 105 nm become more difficult because of the loss of window materials and surfaces with high normal incidence reflectance. The characteristic visible and ultraviolet absorption bands of proteins, nucleic acids and sugars are reviewed. Important spectroscopic techniques such as absorption, natural and magnetic circular dichroism, fluorescence and various fluorescence polarization spectroscopies are described and their potential use in the far and vacuum ultraviolet (120 to 300 nm) using synchrotron sources is discussed.

  19. TXRF analysis of multielements in serum of patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) by synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of trace elements levels in physiological fluids is of considerable interest in clinical chemistry. Since it has been established these levels in human serum can be utilized as indicators for several pathological conditions, diagnosis and treatment of various diseases. In this work, trace elements were analyzed in serum of patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) by total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation (SRTXRF). Sickle cell Anemia is a blood disorder that affects hemoglobin, the protein found in red blood cells that help carry oxygen throughout the body. SCA occurs when a person inherits two abnormal genes (one from each parent) that cause their red blood cells to change shape. These irregular-shaped blood cells die prematurely, resulting in a chronic shortage of red blood cells. We studied forty-three patients (15 males and 28 females) aged 18 to 50 years, suffering SCA and Sixty healthy volunteers (41 males and 19 females) aged 18 to 60 years. All the serum samples had been collected of people who live in the urban area of Rio de Janeiro City/Brazil. The measurements were performed at the X-ray fluorescence beam line at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), in Campinas, Sao Paulo using a polychromatic beam. It was possible to determine the concentrations of the following elements: P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. (author)

  20. Analysis of mineral water from Brazil using total reflection X-ray fluorescence by synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation (SRTXRF) has become a competitive technique for the determination of trace elements in samples that the concentrations are lower than 100 ng ml-1. In this work, thirty-seven mineral waters commonly available in supermarkets of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were analyzed by SRTXRF. The measurements were performed at the X-Ray Fluorescence Beamline at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), in Campinas, Sao Paulo, using a polychromatic beam with maximum energy of 20 keV for the excitation. Standard solutions with gallium as internal standard were prepared for calibration of the system. Mineral water samples of 10 μl were added to Perspex sample carrier, dried under infrared lamp and analyzed for 200 s measuring time. It was possible to determine the concentrations of the following elements: Si, S, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ge, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb. The elemental concentration values were compared with the limits established by the Brazilian legislation

  1. TXRF analysis of multielements in serum of patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) by synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canellas, Catarine G.L.; Jesus, Edgar F.O. de; Anjos, Marcelino J.; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: catarine@lin.ufrj.b, E-mail: edgar@lin.ufrj.b, E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.b, E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.b [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). COPPE Technology Center. Nuclear Instrumentation Lab.; Carvalho, Silvia M.F., E-mail: silvia@hemorio.rj.gov.b [State Institute of Hematology Arthur de Siqueira Cavalcanti (HEMORIO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The determination of trace elements levels in physiological fluids is of considerable interest in clinical chemistry. Since it has been established these levels in human serum can be utilized as indicators for several pathological conditions, diagnosis and treatment of various diseases. In this work, trace elements were analyzed in serum of patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) by total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation (SRTXRF). Sickle cell Anemia is a blood disorder that affects hemoglobin, the protein found in red blood cells that help carry oxygen throughout the body. SCA occurs when a person inherits two abnormal genes (one from each parent) that cause their red blood cells to change shape. These irregular-shaped blood cells die prematurely, resulting in a chronic shortage of red blood cells. We studied forty-three patients (15 males and 28 females) aged 18 to 50 years, suffering SCA and Sixty healthy volunteers (41 males and 19 females) aged 18 to 60 years. All the serum samples had been collected of people who live in the urban area of Rio de Janeiro City/Brazil. The measurements were performed at the X-ray fluorescence beam line at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), in Campinas, Sao Paulo using a polychromatic beam. It was possible to determine the concentrations of the following elements: P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. (author)

  2. Study on the impregnation of archaeological waterlogged wood with consolidation treatments using synchrotron radiation microtomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugani, S; Modugno, F; Lucejko, J J; Giachi, G; Cagno, S; Cloetens, P; Janssens, K; Morselli, L

    2009-12-01

    In favourable conditions of low temperature and low oxygen concentration, archaeological waterlogged wooden artefacts, such as shipwrecks, can survive with a good state of preservation. Nevertheless, anaerobic bacteria can considerably degrade waterlogged wooden objects with a significant loss in polysaccharidic components. Due to these decay processes, wood porosity and water content increase under ageing. In such conditions, the conservation treatments of archaeological wooden artefacts often involve the replacement of water with substances which fill the cavities and help to prevent collapse and stress during drying. The treatments are very often expensive and technically difficult, and their effectiveness very much depends on the chemical and physical characteristics of the substances used for impregnation. Also important are the degree of cavity-filling, penetration depth and distribution in the structure of the wood. In this study, the distribution in wood cavities of some mixtures based on polyethylene glycols and colophony, used for the conservation of waterlogged archaeological wood, was investigated using synchrotron radiation X-ray computed microtomography (SR-microCT). This non-destructive imaging technique was useful for the study of the degraded waterlogged wood and enabled us to visualise the morphology of the wood and the distribution of the materials used in the wood treatments. The study has shown how deposition is strictly related to the dimension of the wooden cavities. The work is currently proceeding with the comparison of synchrotron observations with the data of the solutions viscosity and with those of the properties imparted to the wood by the treatments. PMID:19760192

  3. Synchrotron Radiation Circular Dichroism (SRCD) Spectroscopy - An Enhanced Method for Examining Protein Conformations and Protein Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B Wallace; R Janes

    2011-12-31

    CD (circular dichroism) spectroscopy is a well-established technique in structural biology. SRCD (synchrotron radiation circular dichroism) spectroscopy extends the utility and applications of conventional CD spectroscopy (using laboratory-based instruments) because the high flux of a synchrotron enables collection of data at lower wavelengths (resulting in higher information content), detection of spectra with higher signal-to-noise levels and measurements in the presence of absorbing components (buffers, salts, lipids and detergents). SRCD spectroscopy can provide important static and dynamic structural information on proteins in solution, including secondary structures of intact proteins and their domains, protein stability, the differences between wild-type and mutant proteins, the identification of natively disordered regions in proteins, and the dynamic processes of protein folding and membrane insertion and the kinetics of enzyme reactions. It has also been used to effectively study protein interactions, including protein-protein complex formation involving either induced-fit or rigid-body mechanisms, and protein-lipid complexes. A new web-based bioinformatics resource, the Protein Circular Dichroism Data Bank (PCDDB), has been created which enables archiving, access and analyses of CD and SRCD spectra and supporting metadata, now making this information publicly available. To summarize, the developing method of SRCD spectroscopy has the potential for playing an important role in new types of studies of protein conformations and their complexes.

  4. Multielemental analysis in cigarettes using total reflection X-ray fluorescence with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: It is well known that trace elements have important ejects in the life processes. Some of these elements are toxic for the human even at a very low level of intake. It is known that tobacco plant easily absorbs the heavy metals from the soil, especially Cd and Ni, accumulating them in its leaves. Part of these metals are transferred from tobacco to human body where they will be accumulated and damage some organs, mainly kidneys and liver. In this way, cigarettes are responsible for the death of millions of people in the world, about one death every eight seconds. The aim of this work was to determine the elemental concentrations of ten different elements in tobacco of Brazilian cigarettes used Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence with Synchrotron Radiation method. The fluorescence measurements were carried out at Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory, Campinas - Sao Paulo. A qualitative analysis of spectral peaks showed that the samples contained potassium, calcium, titanium, chromium, manganese, iron, copper, rubidium and strontium. Among these elements, calcium, potassium and iron presented the highest concentrations. There was a wide range in the elemental concentrations in the tobacco, due various factors, such as agricultural practices, soil characteristics, climatic conditions and plant varieties. Our results are in good concern with the results reported by the scientific literature

  5. Tumor Cell Response to Synchrotron Microbeam Radiation Therapy Differs Markedly From Cells in Normal Tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: High-dose synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) can be effective at destroying tumors in animal models while causing very little damage to normal tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate the cellular processes behind this observation of potential clinical importance. Methods and Materials: MRT was performed using a lattice of 25 μm-wide, planar, polychromatic, kilovoltage X-ray microbeams, with 200-μm peak separation. Inoculated EMT-6.5 tumor and normal mouse skin tissues were harvested at defined intervals post-MRT. Immunohistochemical detection of γ-H2AX allowed precise localization of irradiated cells, which were also assessed for proliferation and apoptosis. Results: MRT significantly reduced tumor cell proliferation by 24 h post-irradiation (p = 0.002). An unexpected finding was that within 24 h of MRT, peak and valley irradiated zones were indistinguishable in tumors because of extensive cell migration between the zones. This was not seen in MRT-treated normal skin, which appeared to undergo a coordinated repair response. MRT elicited an increase in median survival times of EMT-6.5 and 67NR tumor-inoculated mice similar to that achieved with conventional radiotherapy, while causing markedly less normal tissue damage. Conclusions: This study provides evidence of a differential response at a cellular level between normal and tumor tissues after synchrotron MRT.

  6. Application of synchrotron radiation for elemental microanalysis of human central nervous System tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczerbowska-Boruchowska, M.; Lankosz, M.; Ostachowicz, J.; Adamek, D.; Krygowska-Wajs, A.; Tomik, B.; Szczudlik, A.; Simionovici, A.; Bohic, S.

    2003-03-01

    The pathogenesis of two neurodegenerative diseases i.e. Parkinson's Disease (PD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are still not known. It is supposed that disturbance of metal ions homeostasis may promote degeneration and atrophy of neurones. As a preliminary study. the quantitative and topographic elemental analysis of selected parts of human brain and spinal cord was performed using synchrotron microbeam-X ray fluorescence (μ-SXRF) technique. The samples were taken during the autopsy from patients with PD, ALS and from patients died due to non-neurological conditions events. X-ray fluorescence imaging showed that increased concentration of selected elements are observed in neurons perikarial parts in compare with surrounding area. Moreover, comparable analysis showed significant differences in accumulation of selected elements between the pathological and control cases. The investigations indicate that micro-beam of synchrotron radiation can be satisfactory applied for analysis of central nervous System tissue providing useful information about distribution and contents of elements at the single cell level.

  7. Synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM of brachiopod shell interiors for taxonomy: Preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motchurova-Dekova Neda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM is a non-destructive technique for the investigation and visualization of the internal features of solid opaque objects, which allows reconstruction of a complete three-dimensional image of internal structures by recording of the differences in the effects on the passage of waves of energy reacting with those structures. Contrary to X-rays, produced in a conventional X-ray tube, the intense synchrotron light beams are sharply focused like a laser beam. We report encouraging results from the use of SRXTM for purely taxonomic purposes in brachiopods: an attempt to find a non-destructive and more efficient alternative to serial sectioning and several other methods of dissection together with the non-destructive method of X-ray computerised micro-tomography. Two brachiopod samples were investigated using SRXTM. In “Rhynchonella” flustracea it was possible to visualise the 3D shape of the crura and dental plates. In Terebratulina imbricata it was possible to reveal the form of the brachidium. It is encouraging that we have obtained such promising results using SRXTM with our very first two fortuitous samples, which had respectively fine-grained limestone and marl as infilling sediment, in contrast to the discouraging results communicated to us by some colleagues who have tested specimens with such infillings using X-ray micro-tomography. In future the holotypes, rare museum specimens or delicate Recent material may be preferentially subjected to this mode of analysis.

  8. A Delphi study on research priorities in radiation therapy: The Australian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation therapists (RTs) need to engage more in research to establish an evidence base for their daily practice. However, RTs world-wide conduct little research themselves, although positive moves have been made in some countries. This project is the second stage of a Delphi process aimed at prioritising RT areas of research interest. A questionnaire was constructed using responses to a previous questionnaire which identified the research interests of Australian RTs. Fifty-three Research Areas were identified from these responses and grouped into 12 categories such as 'imaging in radiation therapy', 'symptom management', 'accuracy of patient positioning' and 'techniques/equipment'. The survey was sent to all Australian departments of radiation oncology, and RTs were asked to form interest groups to discuss and prioritise the Research Areas. There was a 50% response rate (18 of 36 departments surveyed). The highest ranked research Category was 'imaging in radiation therapy'. Six of the top 10 ranked Research Areas were within Central RT practice ('imaging in radiation therapy'; 'symptom management'; 'accuracy of patient positioning' and 'techniques/equipment') and the other four were within broader RT practice ('diversification, recognition and other professional issues'; and 'management and staff issues'). Patient Care was also considered to be an area requiring more research. This prioritization of Research Areas and categories provides a useful list of future research for RTs, which will enable them to decide whether their research ideas are a high priority, and spend less time deciding on a relevant research topic that needs investigation in their own workplaces.

  9. Convergence across a continent: adaptive diversification in a recent radiation of Australian lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Mozes P K; Horner, Paul; Moritz, Craig

    2016-06-15

    Recent radiations are important to evolutionary biologists, because they provide an opportunity to study the mechanisms that link micro- and macroevolution. The role of ecological speciation during adaptive radiation has been intensively studied, but radiations can arise from a diversity of evolutionary processes; in particular, on large continental landmasses where allopatric speciation might frequently precede ecological differentiation. It is therefore important to establish a phylogenetic and ecological framework for recent continental-scale radiations that are species-rich and ecologically diverse. Here, we use a genomic (approx. 1 200 loci, exon capture) approach to fit branch lengths on a summary-coalescent species tree and generate a time-calibrated phylogeny for a recent and ecologically diverse radiation of Australian scincid lizards; the genus Cryptoblepharus We then combine the phylogeny with a comprehensive phenotypic dataset for over 800 individuals across the 26 species, and use comparative methods to test whether habitat specialization can explain current patterns of phenotypic variation in ecologically relevant traits. We find significant differences in morphology between species that occur in distinct environments and convergence in ecomorphology with repeated habitat shifts across the continent. These results suggest that isolated analogous habitats have provided parallel ecological opportunity and have repeatedly promoted adaptive diversification. By contrast, speciation processes within the same habitat have resulted in distinct lineages with relatively limited morphological variation. Overall, our study illustrates how alternative diversification processes might have jointly stimulated species proliferation across the continent and generated a remarkably diverse group of Australian lizards. PMID:27306048

  10. Interest of synchrotron radiation for the therapy of brain tumors: methodology and preclinical applications; Interet du rayonnement synchrotron dans la therapie des tumeurs cerebrales: methodologie et applications precliniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regnard, P

    2007-12-15

    Microbeam radiation (M.R.T.) and stereotactic synchrotron radiation therapy (S.S.R.T.) are innovative techniques currently developed at the european Synchrotron radiation facility. these techniques led to promising, but rarely reproduced, results. the use of different tumoral models for each techniques limit comparisons. M.R.T. experiments on rats bearing 9L tumors 14 days after implantation displayed a double median survival time ( from 20 to 40 days) with a 200 {mu}m spacing irradiation, while a 100 {mu}m spacing irradiation tripled this median (67 days) but damaged normal tissue. the impact of the device dividing synchrotron beam into micro-beams, named multi sit collimator, was also demonstrated. combination of drugs with M.R.T. irradiation was tested. promising results (median survival time: 40 days and 30% of long term survivors) were obtained with an intratumoral injection of gadolinium coupled with a crossing M.R.T. irradiation at 460 Gy. Moreover, earlier M.R.T. irradiation (tumor at D10) quadrupled the median survival time (79 days) with 30% of long term survivors. A new imaging device to target the tumor before irradiation and an adapted collimator will increase the M.R.T. results. As the differences existing between tumoral models used in M.R.T. (9L models) and in S.S.R.T. (F98 models) are major, M.R.T./S.S.R.T. comparative experiments were realised on these two models. Results showed that the two techniques have the same efficacy on F98 model and that the M.R.T. is more effective on 9L model. This can help to define adapted tumor type for these techniques. (author)

  11. Environmental radiation monitoring during visits of nuclear powered warships to Australian ports: requirements, arrangements and procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Commonwealth Government has determined conditions to be met when nuclear powered warships visit Australian ports. These conditions include a requirement that appropriate State/Territory and Commonwealth authorities provide a radiation monitoring program to determine whether any radioactivity has been discharged or accidently released from a nuclear powered warship in port; to determine actual or potential levels of any consequent exposure to radiation of members of the public; and to provide this information within a timescale that allows remedial action to be taken. Part 1 of this document sets out the requirements of a radiation monitoring program capable of meeting these objectives. The fundamental arrangements and procedures for implementing the requirements are presented at Part 2 and provide a basis for the development of fully detailed, port specific, radiation monitoring programs

  12. High-resolution detectors for medical applications and synchrotron radiation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babichev, E. A.; Baru, S. E.; Grigoriev, D. N.; Groshev, V. R.; Leonov, V. V.; Papushev, P. A.; Porosev, V. V.; Savinov, G. A.; Shayakhmetov, V. R.; Shekhtman, L. I.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Ukraintsev, Yu. G.; Yurchenko, Yu. B.

    2011-02-01

    In the present report, we summarize our experience in the development of high-resolution position sensitive gas detectors for medicine and synchrotron radiation experiments at Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics for the last years. We have designed several versions of Multistrip Ionisation Chambers with a channel pitch varying from 0.4 down to 0.1 mm. The high quantum efficiency (>65%) of these detectors allow its application in high quality diagnostic imaging. The detector with 0.1 mm strip pitch and 20 atm pressure of Xe demonstrates the best possible DQE and spatial resolution for gaseous detectors in a wide range of X-ray energies. Additionally, the initial results of feasibility study of the detector for beam position monitoring for Heavy Ion Therapy System are presented too.

  13. Inclined-incidence quasi-Fresnel lens for prefocusing of synchrotron radiation x-ray beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagoshima, Yasushi; Takano, Hidekazu; Takeda, Shingo

    2012-10-01

    An inclined-incidence quasi-Fresnel lens made of acrylic resin has been developed for prefocusing in synchrotron radiation x-ray beamlines. By inclining the lens, the grating aspect ratio is large enough for x-ray use. As it operates in transmission mode with negligible beam deflection and offset, little additional equipment is needed to introduce it into existing beamlines. It is fabricated by sheet-press forming, enabling inexpensive mass production. The prototype was able to focus a 730-μm-wide beam to a width of 80 μm with a photon flux density gain of 5.6 at an x-ray energy of 10 keV.

  14. The Advanced Photon Source: A national synchrotron radiation research facility at Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vision of the APS sprang from prospective users, whose unflagging support the project has enjoyed throughout the decade it has taken to make this facility a reality. Perhaps the most extraordinary aspect of synchrotron radiation research, is the extensive and diverse scientific makeup of the user community. From this primordial soup of scientists exchanging ideas and information, come the collaborative and interdisciplinary accomplishments that no individual alone could produce. So, unlike the solitary Roentgen, scientists are engaged in a collective and dynamic enterprise with the potential to see and understand the structures of the most complex materials that nature or man can produce--and which underlie virtually all modern technologies. This booklet provides scientists and laymen alike with a sense of both the extraordinary history of x-rays and the knowledge they have produced, as well as the potential for future discovery contained in the APS--a source a million million times brighter than the Roentgen tube

  15. A fast X-ray absorption spectrometer for use with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quasi-parallel and polychromatic beam of synchrotron radiation is focused and dispersed by a curved crystal, so that the energy of each ray of the focused beam varies as a function of convergence angle through the focus. The specimen is placed at the focus. By measuring the X-ray intensity distribution across the beam behind the focus, in the presence and absence of the specimen, the absorption spectra of Cu and Ni metal foils were obtained. Using an X-ray film as the detector, a spectrum from a Cu foil was obtained in 0.1 seconds when the SPEAR storage ring at Stanford was operated at 3.1 GeV and 80 mA. The energy resolution is approximately 2.0 eV and the energy range of the spectrum is approximately 1 keV. (author)

  16. Physical properties and biocompatibility of UHMWPE-derived materials modified by synchrotron radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykova, Iu; Weinhardt, V; Kashkarova, A; Lebedev, S; Baumbach, T; Pichugin, V; Zaitsev, K; Khlusov, I

    2014-08-01

    The applications of synchrotron radiation (SR) in medical imaging have become of great use, particularly in angiography, bronchography, mammography, computed tomography, and X-ray microscopy. Thanks to recently developed phase contrast imaging techniques non-destructive preclinical testing of low absorbing materials such as polymers has become possible. The focus of the present work is characterization and examination of UHMWPE-derived materials widely used in medicine, before and after their exposure to SR during such testing. Physical properties, such as wettability, surface energy, IR-spectroscopy, roughness, optical microscopy, microhardness measurements of UHMWPE samples were studied before and after SR. The relationship between a growth of UHMWPE surface hydrophilicity after SR and surface colonization by stromal cells was studied in vitro. Obtained results demonstrate that SR may be used as prospective direction to examine bulk (porous) structure of polymer materials and/or to modify polymer surface and volume for tissue engineering.

  17. Application of high resolution synchrotron micro-CT radiation in dental implant osseointegration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neldam, Camilla Albeck; Lauridsen, Torsten; Rack, Alexander;

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe a refined method using high-resolution synchrotron radiation microtomography (SRmicro-CT) to evaluate osseointegration and peri-implant bone volume fraction after titanium dental implant insertion. SRmicro-CT is considered gold standard evaluating bone...... microarchitecture. Its high resolution, high contrast, and excellent high signal-to-noise-ratio all contribute to the highest spatial resolutions achievable today. Using SRmicro-CT at a voxel size of 5 μm in an experimental goat mandible model, the peri-implant bone volume fraction was found to quickly increase...... to 50% as the radial distance from the implant surface increased, and levelled out to approximately 80% at a distance of 400 μm. This method has been successful in depicting the bone and cavities in three dimensions thereby enabling us to give a more precise answer to the fraction of the bone-to-implant...

  18. High flux and high resolution VUV beam line for synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A beam line has been optimized for high flux and high resolution in the wavelength range from 30 nm to 300 nm. Sample chambers for luminescence spectroscopy on gaseous, liquid and solid samples and for photoelectron spectroscopy have been integrated. The synchrotron radiation from the storage ring DORIS (at DESY, Hamburg) emitted into 50 mrad in horizontal and into 2.2 mrad in vertical direction is focused by a cylindrical and a plane elliptical mirror into the entrance slit of a 2m normal incidence monochromator. The light flux from the exit slit is focused by a rotational elliptic mirror onto the sample yielding a size of the light spot of 4 x 0.15 mm2. The light flux at the sample reaches 7 x 1012 photons nm-1s-1 at 8 eV photon energy for a current of 100 mA in DORIS. A resolution of 0.007 nm has been obtained. (orig.)

  19. Impact of next-generation synchrotron radiation sources on materials research

    CERN Document Server

    Shenoy, G K

    2003-01-01

    Three generations of synchrotron radiation sources have revolutionized our understanding of various correlations in the equilibrium phase of materials through X-ray imaging, spectroscopy and scattering techniques. It is anticipated that new sources based on energy-recovery linacs and X-ray free-electron lasers will deliver X-ray pulses that are below a few-hundred femtoseconds in length and have very high coherence. These sources will extend and broaden our current knowledge of materials science. But more importantly, it is expected that these sources will provide the first glimpse of nonequilibrium processes in materials, including nonthermal melting, metal-insulator transitions involving nonequilibrium phases, laser-induced catalytic oxidation, and determining the structure of imperfect nanoparticles lacking crystalline structure.

  20. Synchrotron-Radiation Photoemission Study of Electronic Structures of a Cs-Doped Rubrene Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chiu-Ping; Lu, Meng-Han; Chu, Yu-Ya; Pi, Tun-Wen

    Using synchrotron-radiation photoemission spectroscopy, we have studied the electronic structure of a cesium-doped rubrene thin film. The addition of cesium atoms causes the movement of the valence-band spectra and the change in line shapes at different concentration that can be separated into four different stages. In the first stage, the cesium atoms continuously diffuse into the substrate, and the Fermi level moves in the energy gap as a result of an electron transferred from the cesium to the rubrene. The second stage, in which the shifts of the spectra are interrupted, is characterized by the introduction of two in-gap states. When increasing doping of cesium into the third stage, the spectra move again; whereas, the line shapes maintain at the stoichiometric ratio of one. In the fourth stage, new in-gap states appear, which are the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and HOMO+1 states of (rubrene)2- anion.

  1. Suppression of the emittance growth induced by coherent synchrotron radiation in triple-bend achromat

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Xiyang; Cui, Xiaohao; Xu, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) effect at a bending path plays an important role in transverse emittance dilution in high-brightness light sources and linear colliders, where the electron beams are of short bunch length and of high peak current. Suppression of the emittance growth induced by CSR is essential and critical to preserve the beam quality and to help improve the machine performance. To evaluate the CSR effect analytically, we have proposed a novel method, which enabled us to obtain generic conditions of cancelling the CSR linear effect in a two-dipole achromat. In this paper, it illustrates that with this method the CSR-cancellation condition can be obtained for a TBA with symmetric layout, which is independent of concrete element parameters, and to a large extent, the initial beam distribution. Implementation of found condition in concrete optics design of a TBA is discussed, and the proposed condition is verified through numerical simulations.

  2. High frequency dynamics of BMG determined by synchrotron radiation: A microscopic picture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, Jorge, E-mail: jserrano@fa.upc.ed [Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Univ. Politecnica de Catalunya, Avda. del Canal Olimpic 15, Castelldefels (Spain); Dept. de Fisica Aplicada, EPSC, Univ. Politecnica de Catalunya, Avda. del Canal Olimpic 15, 08860 Castelldefels (Spain); Pineda, Eloi [Dept. de Fisica i Enginyeria Nuclear, ESAB, Univ. Politecnica de Catalunya, Avda. del Canal Olimpic 15, 08860 Castelldefels (Spain); Bruna, Pere [Dept. de Fisica Aplicada, EPSC, Univ. Politecnica de Catalunya, Avda. del Canal Olimpic 15, 08860 Castelldefels (Spain); Labrador, Ana [LLS, BM16-ESRF, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Le Tacon, Mathieu; Krisch, Michael; Monaco, Giulio [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Crespo, Daniel [Dept. de Fisica Aplicada, EPSC, Univ. Politecnica de Catalunya, Avda. del Canal Olimpic 15, 08860 Castelldefels (Spain)

    2010-04-16

    Mechanical properties are becoming the focus in research on bulk metallic glasses (BMG), as they are the limiting factor for structural applications. A wide range of experimental techniques gives complementary macroscopic data that are often difficult to correlate with the microscopic structural knowledge of the same materials. Recently, high resolution inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) was applied to determine the high frequency dynamics of BMG [T. Scopigno, J.-B. Suck, R. Angelini, F. Albergamo, G. Ruocco, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 (2006) 135501]. This technique offers a new approach to the mechanic properties helping to bridge the gap between the microscopic and the macroscopic picture. Here we will present results of IXS experiments on bulk metallic glasses with different fragility values, obtained at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in Grenoble (France).

  3. Investigation of GEM-Micromegas Detector on X-ray Beam of Synchrotron Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, YuLian; Hu, BiTao; Fan, ShengNan; Wang, Bo; Liu, Mei; Zhang, Jian; Liu, RongGuang; Chang, GuangCai; Liu, Peng; Ouyang, Qun; Chen, YuanBo; Yi, FuTing

    2013-01-01

    To solve the discharge of the standard Bulk Micromegas and GEM detector, the GEM-Micromegas detector was developed in Institute of High Energy Physics. Taking into account the advantages of the two detectors, one GEM foil was set as a preamplifier on the mesh of Micromegas in the structure and the GEM preamplification decreased the working voltage of Micromegas to reduce the effect of the discharge significantly. In the paper, the performance of detector in X-ray beam was studied at 1W2B laboratory of Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. Finally, the result of the energy resolution under various X-ray energies was given in different working gases. It indicated that the GEM-Micromegas detector had the energy response capability in all the energy range and it could work better than the standard Bulk-Micromegas.

  4. Time-resolved X-ray studies using third generation synchrotron radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The third generation, high-brilliance, hard x-ray, synchrotron radiation (SR) sources currently under construction (ESRF at Grenoble, France; APS at Argonne, Illinois; and SPring-8 at Harima, Japan) will usher in a new era of x-ray experimentation for both physical and biological sciences. One of the most exciting areas of experimentation will be the extension of x-ray scattering and diffraction techniques to the study of transient or time-evolving systems. The high repetition rate, short-pulse duration, high brilliance, and variable spectral bandwidth of these sources make them ideal for x-ray time-resolved studies. The temporal properties (bunch length, interpulse period, etc.) of these new sources will be summarized. Finally, the scientific potential and the technological challenges of time-resolved x-ray scattering from these new sources will be described. 13 refs., 4 figs

  5. Preliminary study of human breast tissue using synchrotron radiation combining WAXS and SAXS techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using synchrotron radiation, we combined simultaneously wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques to obtain the scattering profiles of normal and neoplastic breast tissues samples at the momentum transfer range 6.28 nm-1≤Q(=4π.sin(θ/2)/λ)≤50.26 nm-1 and 0.15 nm-1≤Q≤1.90 nm-1, respectively. The results obtained show considerable differences between the scattering profiles of these tissues. We verified that the combination of some parameters (ratio between glandular and adipose peak intensity and third-order axial peak intensity) extracted from scattering profiles can be used for identifying breast cancer.

  6. Application of a conic glass monocapillary in Beijing synchrotron radiation facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yude, E-mail: liyude@bnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Lin, Xiaoyan; Guo, Fei; Liu, Shigang; He, JinLong; Zhao, Weilin; Sun, Tianxi [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Zheng, Lirong; Gao, Zengqiang; Chang, Guangcai [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2014-08-01

    A conic glass monocapillary was developed and used at the Biological Macromolecules Station (BMS) in Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF). The structure and transmission property of this optics is reported here in details. The experiments have shown that the value of full width at the half maximum (FWHM) of the X-ray beams transmitted through this optics was nearly unchanged within a short distance. This is very convenient for further measurement of samples. The power diffraction experiments of CeO{sub 2} revealed that the Debye rings are much clearer in the case of applying this optics. The ratio of error in the diffraction peak position is reduced significantly to the value as less as 0.042%.

  7. Internal strain measurement for Nb3Sn wires using synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguro, Hidetoshi; Awaji, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kazuo; Sugano, Michinaka; Machiya, Shutaro; Shobu, Takahisa; Sato, Masugu; Koganezawa, Tomoyuki; Osamura, Kozo

    2012-05-01

    The internal strain of the practical Nb3Sn wires under tensile strain were measured by synchrotron radiation. The x-ray energy of 72 keV was selected to obtain the diffraction from the Nb3Sn in the composite wire. The axial and lateral strains of the as-reacted and prebent wire were investigated. The Nb3Sn 321 and 320 diffraction peaks were measured to obtain accurate strain data because of their high intensity. It was found that the relationship between internal and external strain under the tensile strain is slightly different. The strain of the Nb3Sn 321 plane reveals the similar total strain applied to the Nb3Sn wire. The ratio of lateral/axial strain for the as-reacted and prebent wires is 0.34 and 0.30, respectively.

  8. Investigations of intrinsic strain and structural ordering in a-Si:H using synchrotron radiation diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haerting, M. [Department of Physics UCT, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Britton, D.T. [Department of Physics UCT, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa)]. E-mail: dtb@science.uct.ac.za; Minani, E. [Department of Physics UCT, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Department of Physics, Kigali Institute of Education, Kigali (Rwanda); Ntsoane, T.P. [Department of Physics UCT, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); iThemba LABS, PO Box 72, Faure, 7131 (South Africa); Topic, M. [Department of Physics UCT, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Thovhogi, T. [Department of Physics UCT, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Osiele, O.M. [Department of Physics UCT, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Department of Physics, Federal University of Technology, Akure (Nigeria); Knoesen, D. [Department of Physics, University of the Western Cape, Bellville 7530 (South Africa); Harindintwari, S. [Department of Physics, University of the Western Cape, Bellville 7530 (South Africa); Furlan, F. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron, Caixa Postal 6192, CEP 13084-971, Campinas-SP (Brazil); Giles, C. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron, Caixa Postal 6192, CEP 13084-971, Campinas-SP (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, C.P. 6165, CEP 13083-970 Campinas-SP (Brazil)

    2006-04-20

    The residual strain in a-Si:H layers has been determined directly using synchrotron radiation diffraction, at LNLS in Brazil, by two different methodologies. Using a method previously presented using laboratory X-ray sources, the height and length of side of the Si-Si{sub 4} tetrahedron are determined from variations in the diffraction angle of the first two amorphous peaks. In a more extensive calculation, the spatially dependent pair correlation function is calculated, allowing the separation of strain resulting from changes in the bond length and the bond angle. Two different layers, deposited by HW-CVD on glass substrates at growth temperatures of 300 and 500 deg. C, have been studied to investigate the effect of growth temperature on residual stress.

  9. Distribution of lead in the brain tissues from DNTC patients using synchrotron radiation microbeams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ide-Ektessabi, Ari [International Innovation Center, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Ota, Yukihide [Department of Precision Engineering, Kyoto University, Yoshida Honnmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto (Japan)]. E-mail: h51167@sakura.kudpc.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Ishihara, Ryoko [Department of Psychiatry, Nagoya University, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Mizuno, Yutaka [Obu Dementia Care Research and Training Center, Obu (Japan); Takeuchi, Tohru [Department of Psychiatry, Nagoya University, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan)

    2005-12-15

    Diffuse neurofibrillary tangles with calcification (DNTC) is a form of dementia with certain characteristics. Its pathology is characterized by cerebrum atrophy, calcification on globus pallidus and dentate nucleus and diffuse neurofibrillary tangles without senile plaques. In the present study brain tissues were prepared from patients with patients DNTC, calcified and non-calcified Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. The brain tissues were examined non-destructively by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation (SR) microbeams for trace metallic elements Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb. The XRF analysis showed that there were Pb concentrations in the calcified areas in the brain tissues with both DNTC and AD but there was none in those with non-calcified AD.

  10. Fast bolometric response by high T sub c detectors measured with subnanosecond synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, G.L.; Quijada, M.; Tanner, D.B. (Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (USA)); Hirschmugl, C.J.; Williams, G.P. (National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (USA)); Etemad, S.; Dutta, B.; DeRosa, F.; Inam, A.; Venkatesan, T. (Bell Communications Research, Red Bank, New Jersey 07701 (USA)); Xi, X. (Department of Physics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08855 (USA))

    1990-12-17

    We have measured a fast response by thin-film YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} detectors to pulsed, broadband, infrared radiation. Synchrotron light from an electron storage ring was used as the infrared source, providing subnanosecond pulses from far infrared through visible. Pulse responsivities as high as 10{sup 6} V/J and as fast as 4 ns have been observed. For film thicknesses in the range 400--3200 A, the detector response follows the film absorptivity while the speed varies inversely with thickness, suggesting a bolometric mechanism. Calculations based on such a model are in accord with the data. We find no evidence for any nonbolometric components in the response.

  11. Feasibility study of a periodic arc compressor in the presence of coherent synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mitri, S.

    2016-01-01

    The advent of short electron bunches in high brightness linear accelerators has raised the awareness of the accelerator community to the degradation of the beam transverse emittance by coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) emitted in magnetic bunch length compressors, transfer lines and turnaround arcs. Beam optics control has been proposed to mitigate that CSR effect. In this article, we enlarge on the existing literature by reviewing the validity of the linear optics approach in a periodic, achromatic arc compressor. We then study the dependence of the CSR-perturbed emittance to beam optics, mean energy, and bunch charge. The analytical findings are compared with particle tracking results. Practical considerations on CSR-induced energy loss and nonlinear particle dynamics are included. As a result, we identify the range of parameters that allows feasibility of an arc compressor for driving, for example, a free electron laser or a linear collider.

  12. Properties of cold ions produced by synchrotron radiation and by charged particle impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, J. C.; Biedermann, C.; Cederquist, H.; O, C.-S.; Short, R. T.; Sellin, I. A.

    1989-04-01

    Argon recoil ions produced by beams of 0.8 MeV/u Cl 5+ have been detected by time-of-flight (TOF) techniques in coincidence with the loss of from one to five projectile electrons. Recoil-ion energies have been determined to be more than an order of magnitude higher than those of highly charged ions produced by unmonochromatized synchrotron radiation. Charge-state distributions, however, show similarities, suggesting that loss of projectile electrons corresponds, in some cases, to inner-shell target ionization producing vacancy cascades. In an essential improvement to the usual multinomial description of ionization in the independent-electron-ejection model, we find the inclusion of Auger vacancy cascades significantly alters the description of the recoil ion spectra corresponding to the projectile-electron loss. These conclusions are consistent with impact parameters inferred from determination of mean recoil energy.

  13. The Advanced Photon Source: A national synchrotron radiation research facility at Argonne National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The vision of the APS sprang from prospective users, whose unflagging support the project has enjoyed throughout the decade it has taken to make this facility a reality. Perhaps the most extraordinary aspect of synchrotron radiation research, is the extensive and diverse scientific makeup of the user community. From this primordial soup of scientists exchanging ideas and information, come the collaborative and interdisciplinary accomplishments that no individual alone could produce. So, unlike the solitary Roentgen, scientists are engaged in a collective and dynamic enterprise with the potential to see and understand the structures of the most complex materials that nature or man can produce--and which underlie virtually all modern technologies. This booklet provides scientists and laymen alike with a sense of both the extraordinary history of x-rays and the knowledge they have produced, as well as the potential for future discovery contained in the APS--a source a million million times brighter than the Roentgen tube.

  14. Electromagnetic Coupling Between High Intensity LHC Beams and the Synchrotron Radiation Monitor Light Extraction System

    CERN Document Server

    Andreazza, W; Bravin, E; Caspers, F; Garlasch`e, M; Gras, J; Goldblatt, A; Lefevre, T; Jones, R; Metral, E; Nosych, A; Roncarolo_, F; Salvant, B; Trad, G; Veness, R; Vollinger, C; Wendt, M

    2013-01-01

    The CERN LHC is equipped with two Synchrotron Radiation Monitor (BSRT) systems used to characterise transverse and longitudinal beam distributions. Since the end of the 2011 LHC run the light extraction system, based on a retractable mirror, has suffered deformation and mechanical failure that is correlated to the increase in beam intensity. Temperature probes have associated these observations to a strong heating of the mirror support with a dependence on the longitudinal bunch length and shape, indicating the origin as electromagnetic coupling between the beam and the structure. This paper combines all this information with the aim of characterising and improving the system in view of its upgrade during the current LHC shutdown. Beam-based observations are presented along with electromagnetic and thermomechanical simulations and complemented by laboratory measurements, including the study of the RF properties of different mirror bulk and coating materials.

  15. X-ray phase-contrast CT imaging of the acupoints based on synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenglin, Liu, E-mail: lclyctc@163.com [Physics Department of Yancheng Teachers’ College, Yancheng 224051 (China); Xiaohua, Wang; Hua, Xu [Physics Department of Yancheng Teachers’ College, Yancheng 224051 (China); Fang, Liu; Ruishan, Dang [Anatomy Department of Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Dongming, Zhang; Xinyi, Zhang [Synchrotron Radiation Research Center of Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Honglan, Xie; Tiqiao, Xiao [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility of Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, CAS, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2014-10-15

    In this paper, the morphology of the acupuncture point (abbreviated as acupoint hereafter) or tissue where there were no acupoints in the fractional rabbit hind limb was studied by in-line phase contrast CT imaging (PCI-CT) methods based on synchrotron radiation. The density of micro-vessels was calculated for tissues with acupoints or without acupoints. Differences between acupoints area and non-acupoint areas determined by the density of the micro-vessels propose a strong evidence of the existence of acupoints. Our results showed that there were two significantly higher densities of the micro-vessels, where two acupoints were located, respectively. In addition, there were large numbers of involutedly microvascular structure in the acupoint areas. Nevertheless, in non-acupoints area, the microvascular structure was relatively simple and flat.

  16. X-ray phase-contrast CT imaging of the acupoints based on synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the morphology of the acupuncture point (abbreviated as acupoint hereafter) or tissue where there were no acupoints in the fractional rabbit hind limb was studied by in-line phase contrast CT imaging (PCI-CT) methods based on synchrotron radiation. The density of micro-vessels was calculated for tissues with acupoints or without acupoints. Differences between acupoints area and non-acupoint areas determined by the density of the micro-vessels propose a strong evidence of the existence of acupoints. Our results showed that there were two significantly higher densities of the micro-vessels, where two acupoints were located, respectively. In addition, there were large numbers of involutedly microvascular structure in the acupoint areas. Nevertheless, in non-acupoints area, the microvascular structure was relatively simple and flat

  17. Observation of intense terahertz-wave coherent synchrotron radiation at LEBRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sei, Norihiro; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Hayakawa, Ken; Tanaka, Toshinari; Hayakawa, Yasushi; Nakao, Keisuke; Sakai, Takeshi; Nogami, Kyoko; Inagaki, Manabu

    2013-01-01

    We observed intense coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in the terahertz region using an S-band linac at the Laboratory for Electron Beam Research and Application at Nihon University. The evolution of the CSR power was measured, and the CSR reflected in the vacuum chamber of the bending magnet could be extracted through the quartz window for a few tens of picoseconds. The long wave packet of the delayed CSR in the autocorrelation suggests that the delayed CSR was the non-resonant ring-down of the vacuum chamber of the bending magnet. To design a high-energy accelerator, it is necessary to decrease high-energy photons resulting from Compton backscattering with intense CSR.

  18. Using of Synchrotron radiation for study of multielement composition of the small mammals diet and tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezel, V.S. [Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 8 Marta str., 202, 620144, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Koutzenogii, K.P. [Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Institutskaya str., 3, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Mukhacheva, S.V. [Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 8 Marta str., 202, 620144, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: msv@ipae.uran.ru; Chankina, O.V. [Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Institutskaya str., 3, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Savchenko, T.I. [Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Institutskaya str., 3, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2007-05-21

    The Synchrotron radiation X-ray Fluorescence analysis (SRXRF) was used for estimation of 'geochemical selection' of elements by small mammals, which belong to different trophic groups and inhabit polluted and background areas (the Middle Ural). The concentrations of K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, Cd, Pb in the diet and into hepar of a herbivorous (bank vole) and carnivorous (Laxmann's shrew) small mammals were compared. Herbivores play a particular role in chemical elements translocation between trophic levels, limiting element transition to consumers of the consequent levels. Whereas, insectivores concentrate most elements in their tissues under the same conditions.

  19. Properties of cold ions produced by synchrotron radiation and by charged particle impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, J.C.; Biederman, C.; Cederquist, H.; O, C.S.; Short, R.T.; Sellin, I.A.

    1988-01-01

    Argon recoil ions produced by beams of 0.8 MeV/u Cl/sup 5 +/ have been detected by time-of-flight (TOF) techniques in coincidence with the loss of from one to five projectile electrons. Recoil-ion energies have been determined to be more than an order of magnitude higher than those of highly-charged ions produced by unmonochromatized synchrotron radiation. Charge-state distributions, however, show similarities, suggesting that loss of projectile electrons corresponds, in some cases, to inner-shell target ionization producing vacancy cascades. In an essential improvement to the usual multinomial description of ionization in the independent-electron-ejection model, we find the inclusion of Auger vacancy cascades significantly alters the description of the recoil ion spectra corresponding to projectile-electron loss. These conclusions are consistent with impact parameters inferred from determinations of mean recoil energy. 11 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Studies of Mn/ZnO (0001¯) Interfacial Formation and Electronic Properties with Synchrotron Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, C. W.; Xu, P. S.; Wu, Y. Y.; Sun, B.; Xu, F. Q.; Pan, H. B.; Yuan, H. T.; Du, X. L.

    2007-01-01

    The initial growth, interfacial reaction and Fermi level movement of Mn on the O-terminated Zn (000 1¯) surface have been investigated by using synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy (SRPES) and X-ray photoemission (XPS). Mn is found to be grown on the surface in the layer-by-layer (Frank-van der Merwe) mode and be quite stable on the O-terminated surface at room temperature. With increasing the coverage of Mn, a downward Fermi level movement in band structure measurement of SRPES is observed and the resultant Schottky Barrier Height (SBH) is calculated to be about 1.1eV. Annealing behavior of the interface is investigated and we find that annealing at 600 °C induces a pronounced Mn-Zn atoms exchange reaction at the interface.