WorldWideScience

Sample records for australian sheep farmers

  1. Attitudes of South Brazilian sheep farmers to animal welfare and sentience

    OpenAIRE

    Priscilla Regina Tamioso; Paulo Ricardo Bittencourt Guimarães; Carla Forte Maiolino Molento

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT: We investigated self-reported attitudes of 148 South Brazilian sheep farmers to animal welfare and sentience. Many farmers (73.0%) knew animal welfare superficially. Farmers that worked for longer in the sheep industry and that raised sheep for commercial purposes mentioned more commonly that they had knowledge about animal welfare (P

  2. Farmers' attitudes to disease risk management in England: a comparative analysis of sheep and pig farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garforth, C J; Bailey, A P; Tranter, R B

    2013-07-01

    The UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) identified practices to reduce the risk of animal disease outbreaks. We report on the response of sheep and pig farmers in England to promotion of these practices. A conceptual framework was established from research on factors influencing adoption of animal health practices, linking knowledge, attitudes, social influences and perceived constraints to the implementation of specific practices. Qualitative data were collected from nine sheep and six pig enterprises in 2011. Thematic analysis explored attitudes and responses to the proposed practices, and factors influencing the likelihood of implementation. Most feel they are doing all they can reasonably do to minimise disease risk and that practices not being implemented are either not relevant or ineffective. There is little awareness and concern about risk from unseen threats. Pig farmers place more emphasis than sheep farmers on controlling wildlife, staff and visitor management and staff training. The main factors that influence livestock farmers' decision on whether or not to implement a specific disease risk measure are: attitudes to, and perceptions of, disease risk; attitudes towards the specific measure and its efficacy; characteristics of the enterprise which they perceive as making a measure impractical; previous experience of a disease or of the measure; and the credibility of information and advice. Great importance is placed on access to authoritative information with most seeing vets as the prime source to interpret generic advice from national bodies in the local context. Uptake of disease risk measures could be increased by: improved risk communication through the farming press and vets to encourage farmers to recognise hidden threats; dissemination of credible early warning information to sharpen farmers' assessment of risk; and targeted information through training events, farming press, vets and other advisers, and farmer groups

  3. Attitudes of South Brazilian sheep farmers to animal welfare and sentience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Regina Tamioso

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: We investigated self-reported attitudes of 148 South Brazilian sheep farmers to animal welfare and sentience. Many farmers (73.0% knew animal welfare superficially. Farmers that worked for longer in the sheep industry and that raised sheep for commercial purposes mentioned more commonly that they had knowledge about animal welfare (P<0.05. Terms related to freedom from hunger, thirst and malnutrition were the most used to define animal welfare, cited 24.9% of the times. The majority claimed that their animals experience good levels of welfare (93.2%, especially farmers that kept bigger flocks (P<0.05. However, many respondents believed that sheep welfare could be improved on their farms (71.6%, mainly farmers with less experience in the sheep industry (P<0.01. High scores of sentience were attributed to sheep by farmers with frequent contact with their animals (P<0.05. According to the farmers, castration causes the highest levels of suffering to sheep (32.4% and shearing, the lowest (50.0%. South Brazilian farmer knowledge about animal welfare, attitudes to sentience and recognition of suffering need improvement.

  4. Pathways to Suicide in Australian Farmers: A Life Chart Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunde, Lisa; Kõlves, Kairi; Kelly, Brian; Reddy, Prasuna; De Leo, Diego

    2017-03-28

    Farmers have been found to be at increased risk of suicide in Australia. The Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behaviour suggests that the proximal factors leading to the suicidal desire or ideation include an individual's experiences of both perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness. Suicidal desire with acquired capability to engage in lethal self-injury is predictive of suicidal behaviour. This study investigates the pathways to suicide of 18 Australian male farmers in order to understand the suicidal process and antecedents to suicide in Australian male farmers. The psychological autopsy (PA) method was used to generate life charts. Two pathways with distinct suicidal processes were identified: acute situational (romantic relationship problems and financial concerns/pending retirement) and protracted (long-term psychiatric disorder). Long working hours, interpersonal conflicts, physical illnesses and pain, alcohol abuse, access to firearms, and exposure to drought were additional common factors identified. An understanding of the interrelatedness of diverse distal and proximal risk factors on suicidal pathways in the wider environmental context for male farmers is required when developing and implementing rural suicide prevention activities.

  5. A practical tool for locomotion scoring in sheep: reliability when used by veterinary surgeons and sheep farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, J W; Cripps, P J; Grove-White, D H; Duncan, J S

    2015-05-16

    A four-point locomotion scoring tool for sheep was developed and tested on 10 general practice veterinary surgeons (VS) and 10 sheep farmers. Thirty-four video clips of sheep displaying different locomotion scores were recorded and randomly assorted. Following a set period of training using four other video clips typical of the four locomotion scores, participants then scored the 34 test clips. The participants repeated the training and the exercise one month later. There were high levels of intraobserver repeatability: weighted κ (κW) 0.81 for VS and 0.83 for farmers. There was no difference in intraobserver repeatability between vets and farmers (Wilcoxon signed rank P=0.8). When considering the overall distribution of scores within the video package, there were high levels of interobserver repeatability: mean κW 0.73 for VS and 0.72 for farmers. However, the repeatability for the individual locomotion scores was only fair to moderate. It is therefore recommended that when observations are repeated on different occasions they are made by the same observer. British Veterinary Association.

  6. Learning Efficiency of Two ICT-Based Instructional Strategies in Greek Sheep Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellos, Georgios; Mikropoulos, Tassos A.; Deligeorgis, Stylianos; Kominakis, Antonis

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of the present study was to compare the learning efficiency of two information and communications technology (ICT)-based instructional strategies (multimedia presentation (MP) and concept mapping) in a sample (n = 187) of Greek sheep farmers operating mainly in Western Greece. Design/methodology/approach: In total, 15…

  7. Sheep farmer opinions on the current and future role of veterinarians in flock health management on sheep farms: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaler, Jasmeet; Green, L E

    2013-11-01

    A 2009 UK Government report on veterinary expertise in food animal production highlighted that there was insufficient herd health expertise among veterinarians and lack of appropriate business models to deliver veterinary services to the livestock sector. Approximately two thirds of sheep farmers only contact their veterinarian for emergencies and one fifth have all year round contact. The aim of the current study was to understand sheep farmers' perception, the current and future role of veterinarians in flock health management using qualitative methodology. The eligibility criteria were male farmers with a flock size of at least 200 adult sheep. Seven focus groups of farmers (n=45) stratified by three regions and two age groups (≤50 and >50) were conducted. Thematic analysis of the discussions indicated that most farmers considered and used their veterinarian as a fire-fighter, whilst other advice was gathered free of charge when the veterinarian was on the farm for other reasons (typically seeing cattle) or by telephone. A small group of farmers were using their veterinarian or a sheep consultant proactively with regular contact and found this financially beneficial. Farmers indicated that the key barriers to using a veterinarian proactively were inconsistent service, high turnover of veterinarians, lack of expertise of sheep farming among veterinarians and concern about independence of advice. Although economics was also mentioned as a key barrier to using veterinarians more proactively, most farmers did not know where they gained and lost income from their flock; there was heavy reliance on the single farm payment scheme (SPS) and very few farmers kept records from which they could investigate where there were inefficiencies in production. Overall sheep farmers considered sheep farming complex and that each farm was unique and that they themselves were the experts to manage their flock. We conclude that there is an impasse: veterinarians might need to

  8. Sheep farmer opinions on the current and future role of veterinarians in flock health management on sheep farms: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaler, Jasmeet; Green, L.E.

    2013-01-01

    A 2009 UK Government report on veterinary expertise in food animal production highlighted that there was insufficient herd health expertise among veterinarians and lack of appropriate business models to deliver veterinary services to the livestock sector. Approximately two thirds of sheep farmers only contact their veterinarian for emergencies and one fifth have all year round contact. The aim of the current study was to understand sheep farmers’ perception, the current and future role of veterinarians in flock health management using qualitative methodology. The eligibility criteria were male farmers with a flock size of at least 200 adult sheep. Seven focus groups of farmers (n = 45) stratified by three regions and two age groups (≤50 and >50) were conducted. Thematic analysis of the discussions indicated that most farmers considered and used their veterinarian as a fire-fighter, whilst other advice was gathered free of charge when the veterinarian was on the farm for other reasons (typically seeing cattle) or by telephone. A small group of farmers were using their veterinarian or a sheep consultant proactively with regular contact and found this financially beneficial. Farmers indicated that the key barriers to using a veterinarian proactively were inconsistent service, high turnover of veterinarians, lack of expertise of sheep farming among veterinarians and concern about independence of advice. Although economics was also mentioned as a key barrier to using veterinarians more proactively, most farmers did not know where they gained and lost income from their flock; there was heavy reliance on the single farm payment scheme (SPS) and very few farmers kept records from which they could investigate where there were inefficiencies in production. Overall sheep farmers considered sheep farming complex and that each farm was unique and that they themselves were the experts to manage their flock. We conclude that there is an impasse: veterinarians might need to

  9. Perceived profitability and well-being in Australian dryland farmers and irrigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Dominic; Berry, Helen L; Schirmer, Jacki

    2015-08-01

    To describe the relationship between self-reported farm profitability and farmer well-being, and to explore potential implications for farmer assistance policy. Cross-sectional analysis of farmers from Regional Wellbeing Survey data (wave 1, 2013) and comparison between groups. Participants were 1172 dryland farmers (35% women) and 707 irrigators (24% women). The Personal Wellbeing Index and the Kessler 10-item measure of general psychological distress. There is a consistent and significant relationship between higher profitability, greater well-being and less distress among dryland farmers and irrigators. The relationship between farm profitability and the well-being of Australian dryland farmers and irrigators has the potential to inform farmer assistance policy. Assistance programs can be more effective if they explicitly incorporate a profitability assessment into their targeting and eligibility requirements and a well-being component into program design and delivery. Rural Australia. Not applicable. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  10. Determinants of biosecurity behaviour of British cattle and sheep farmers-a behavioural economics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, Luiza; Stott, Alistair W; Heffernan, Claire; Ringrose, Siân; Gunn, George J

    2013-03-01

    The paper analyses the impact of a priori determinants of biosecurity behaviour of farmers in Great Britain. We use a dataset collected through a stratified telephone survey of 900 cattle and sheep farmers in Great Britain (400 in England and a further 250 in Wales and Scotland respectively) which took place between 25 March 2010 and 18 June 2010. The survey was stratified by farm type, farm size and region. To test the influence of a priori determinants on biosecurity behaviour we used a behavioural economics method, structural equation modelling (SEM) with observed and latent variables. SEM is a statistical technique for testing and estimating causal relationships amongst variables, some of which may be latent using a combination of statistical data and qualitative causal assumptions. Thirteen latent variables were identified and extracted, expressing the behaviour and the underlying determining factors. The variables were: experience, economic factors, organic certification of farm, membership in a cattle/sheep health scheme, perceived usefulness of biosecurity information sources, knowledge about biosecurity measures, perceived importance of specific biosecurity strategies, perceived effect (on farm business in the past five years) of welfare/health regulation, perceived effect of severe outbreaks of animal diseases, attitudes towards livestock biosecurity, attitudes towards animal welfare, influence on decision to apply biosecurity measures and biosecurity behaviour. The SEM model applied on the Great Britain sample has an adequate fit according to the measures of absolute, incremental and parsimonious fit. The results suggest that farmers' perceived importance of specific biosecurity strategies, organic certification of farm, knowledge about biosecurity measures, attitudes towards animal welfare, perceived usefulness of biosecurity information sources, perceived effect on business during the past five years of severe outbreaks of animal diseases, membership

  11. Farmers sun exposure, skin protection and public health campaigns: An Australian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christel Smit-Kroner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-melanoma skin cancer is a common and costly cancer in agricultural populations. Prevention and early detection are an effective way to decrease the burden of disease and associated costs. To examine sun exposure and skin protection practices in agricultural workers and farmers a thematic review of the literature between 1983 and 2014 was undertaken. Comparison between studies was complicated by differences in study design, definitions of skin protection, and analytic methods used. Farmers are the most exposed to harmful ultraviolet (UV radiation of all outdoor workers and the level of reported skin protection by farmers is suboptimal. Years of public health campaigns have failed to adequately address farmers' specific needs. Increased rates of skin cancer and subsequent higher costs are expected. Estimates of sun exposure and skin protection practice indicate that protective clothing is the most promising avenue to improve on farmers' skin protection. Early detection needs to be part of public health campaigns. This review explores the quantitative data about Australian farmers and their skin protective behaviours. We investigate what the documented measurable effect of the public health campaign Slip!Slop!Slap! has had on agricultural workers and farmers and make recommendations for future focus.

  12. Congruence between selection on breeding values and farmers' selection criteria in sheep breeding under conventional nucleus breeding schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizaw, S; Getachew, T; Tibbo, M; Haile, A; Dessie, T

    2011-05-01

    Designing breeding schemes suitable for smallholder livestock production systems in developing regions has hitherto been a challenge. The suggested schemes either do not address farmers' breeding goals (centralized station-based nucleus schemes) or yield slow genetic progress (village-based schemes). A new breeding scheme that integrates the merits of previously suggested schemes has been designed for Menz sheep improvement in Ethiopia. It involves selection based on breeding values in nucleus flocks to produce elite rams, a one-time only provision of improved rams to villagers and a follow-up village-based selection to sustain genetic progress in village flocks. Here, we assessed whether conventional selection of breeding rams based on breeding values for production traits, which is the practice in station-based nucleus flocks, meets farmers' breeding objectives. We also elicited determinants of farmers' ram choice. Low but significant correlations were found between rankings of rams based on farmers' selection criteria, estimated breeding values (EBV) and body weight (BW). Appearance traits (such as color and horn) and meat production traits (BW and linear size traits) significantly determined farmers' breeding ram choice. The results imply that conventional selection criteria based solely on EBV for production traits do not address farmers' trait preferences fully, but only partially. Thus, a two-stage selection procedure involving selection on breeding values in nucleus centers followed by farmers' selection among top- ranking candidate rams is recommended. This approach accommodates farmers' preferences and speeds up genetic progress in village-based selection. The Menz sheep scheme could be applied elsewhere with similar situations to transform conventional station-based nucleus breeding activities into participatory breeding programs.

  13. Missing billions. How the Australian government's climate policy is penalising farmers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riguet, T.

    2006-10-01

    The Climate Institute analysis suggests ratifying the Kyoto Protocol and implementing a national emissions trading scheme today could provide Australian farmers with an income of $1.8 billion over the period 2008-2012, due to the emissions saved by limiting land clearing. Separately, a report to the National Farmers Federation by the Allen Consulting Group earlier this year concluded that a carbon emission trading system which recognised Kyoto Protocol rules could create an additional income stream of $0.7-0.9 billion over a five year period from revenue to farmers from forestry sinks. These two studies suggest that ratification of the Kyoto Protocol and the introduction of a national emissions trading scheme could provide farmers an income stream in the order of $2.5 billion. A central tenet of the Federal Government's greenhouse policy for over a decade has been to not ratify Kyoto, but to meet its Kyoto target - a national emissions increase of 8% from 1990 levels, in the period 2008-2012. Australia's National Greenhouse Gas Accounts show that farmers, by reducing land clearing rates since 1990, have offset substantial increases in greenhouse gas emissions from other sectors, mainly energy. Official Federal Government projections show that without land clearing reductions, Australia's greenhouse emissions would be 30% above 1990 levels by 2010. Australia's farmers have been responsible for virtually the entire share of the nation's greenhouse gas emissions reductions, but their efforts, worth around $2 billion, have not been recognised or financially rewarded by the Government. By reducing land clearing, farmers have already reduced greenhouse gas emissions by about 75 million tonnes since 1990. By 2010, the savings are projected to be about 83 million tonnes. This level of emissions reductions is equivalent to eliminating the total annual emissions of New Zealand or Ireland. Over that same period, emissions from energy and transport have and continue to sky

  14. Neuropsychological and psychiatric functioning in sheep farmers exposed to low levels of organophosphate pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie Ross, Sarah Jane; Brewin, Chris Ray; Curran, Helen Valerie; Furlong, Clement Eugene; Abraham-Smith, Kelly Michelle; Harrison, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    The study aim was to determine whether low level exposure to organophosphate pesticides (OPs) causes neuropsychological or psychiatric impairment. Methodological weaknesses of earlier studies were addressed by: recruiting participants who had retired on ill health grounds; excluding participants with a history of acute poisoning, medical or psychiatric conditions that might account for ill health; and exploring factors which may render some individuals more vulnerable to the effects of OPs than others. Performance on tests of cognition and mood of 127 exposed sheep farmers (67 working, 60 retired) was compared with 78 unexposed controls (38 working, 40 retired) and published test norms derived from a cross section of several thousand adults in the general population. Over 40% of the exposed cohort reported clinically significant levels of anxiety and depression compared to less than 23% of controls. Exposed subjects performed significantly worse than controls and standardisation samples on tests of memory, response speed, fine motor control, mental flexibility and strategy making, even after controlling for the effects of mood. The pattern was similar for both working and retired groups. The cognitive deficits identified cannot be attributed to mood disorder, malingering, a history of acute exposure or genetic vulnerability in terms of PON1(192) polymorphisms. Results suggest a relationship may exist between low level exposure to organophosphates and impaired neurobehavioural functioning and these findings have implications for working practice and for other occupational groups exposed to OPs such as aviation workers and Gulf War veterans. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. "The Masks We Wear": A Qualitative Study of Suicide in Australian Farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunde, Lisa; Kõlves, Kairi; Kelly, Brian; Reddy, Prasuna; de Leo, Diego

    2018-01-10

    Farmer suicide is a major public issue in Australia. Using the psychological autopsy method, this study aimed to examine the life and death circumstances of Australian male farmers who died by suicide through verbal reports from their close significant others. Individual semistructured interviews were conducted with 12 relatives of male farmers who had died by suicide in Queensland or New South Wales, Australia (2006-2014). This study followed the COREQ checklist criteria for the reporting of qualitative research. Six interrelated themes were identified: (1) masculinity, (2) uncertainty and lack of control in farming, (3) feelings of failure in relationships and farming, (4) escalating health problems, (5) maladaptive coping, and (6) acquired capability with access to means. Effective clinical interventions, as well as suicide prevention strategies, need to consider the importance of 3 key issues in suicide among farmers: adherence to masculine norms and socialization; expectations of self in maintaining family traditions and occupation; and a male subtype of depression. © 2018 National Rural Health Association.

  16. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Leptospira Seropositivity in Beef Cattle, Sheep and Deer Farmers in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanhueza, J M; Heuer, C; Wilson, P R; Benschop, J; Collins-Emerson, J M

    2017-08-01

    Leptospirosis is a global zoonosis that in New Zealand affects primarily people occupationally exposed to livestock. The objective of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of five Leptospira serovars in farmers working on cattle, sheep and deer farms that had the serological status of animals previously assessed and to identify risk factors for farmer seropositivity. A total of 178 farmers from 127 properties participated in the study. Blood samples were tested using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for the presence of antibodies to Leptospira. Samples with a MAT titre ≥48 were considered seropositive. Using Bayesian statistical analysis, the median seroprevalence of Leptospira, all serovars combined, was estimated to be 6.6% (95% probability interval (PI) 3.6-10.9%). Risk factors associated with seropositivity were assisting deer or cattle calving, farming deer, having ≥25% of flat terrain and high abundance of wild deer on farm, while high possum abundance on farm was negatively associated with seropositivity. No association was observed between farmer serostatus and previously recorded livestock serology. Leptospira seropositivity was associated with influenza-like illness of farmers (RR = 1.7; 95% PI 1.0-2.5). Assuming a causal relationship, this suggested an annual risk of 1.3% (95% PI 0.0-3.0%) of influenza-like illnesses due to Leptospira infection in the population of farmers. The association between seropositivity and disease can be used to estimate the public health burden of leptospirosis in New Zealand. Identifying and understanding risk factors for Leptospira seropositivity can inform preventive measures, hence contributing to the reduction of leptospirosis incidence in farmers. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. The health and wellbeing of Australian farmers: a longitudinal cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn Brew

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isolation, long work days, climate change and globalization are just some of the many pressures that make farming a vulnerable occupation for incurring mental health issues. The objective of this study was to determine whether farming in Australia is associated with poorer wellbeing, physical and mental health, and less health service use. Methods The Australian Rural Mental Health Study, a longitudinal cohort study was analysed over four time points comparing farmers with non-farming workers (n = 1184 at baseline. Participants were recruited from rural NSW, Australia. A number of physical, mental health, wellbeing, service use outcomes were assessed using generalised estimating equations including all waves in each model. Barriers to seeking help were also assessed. Results Farmers who lived remotely reported worse mental health (β −0.33, 95 % CI −0.53, −0.13 and wellbeing (β −0.21(95 % CI −0.35, −0.06 than remote non-farm workers regardless of financial hardship, rural specific factors eg drought worry, or recent adverse events. All farmers were no different to non-farming workers on physical health aspects except for chronic illnesses, where they reported fewer illnesses (OR 0.66, 95 % CI 0.44, 0.98. All farmers were half as likely to visit a general practitioner (GP or a mental health professional in the last 12 months as compared to non-farm workers regardless of location (OR 0.59, 95 % CI 0.35, 0.97. Rural workers felt that they preferred to manage themselves rather than access help for physical health needs (50 % or mental health needs (75 % and there was little difference between farmers and non-farm workers in reasons for not seeking help. Conclusions Remoteness is a significant factor in the mental health and wellbeing of farmers, more so than financial stress, rural factors and recent adverse events. Creative programs and policies that improve access for farmers to GPs and mental health

  18. Indigenous sheep resources of Ethiopia: types, production systems and farmers preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gizaw, S.; Komen, J.; Hanotte, O.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Ethiopia has a diverse sheep population, numbering 23.6 million, in parallel with its diverse ecology, production systems and communities. A comprehensive phenotypic and genetic characterization of Ethiopian sheep populations was initiated in 2005 to provide a nationwide framework for the management

  19. An exploration of the drivers to bio-security collective action among a sample of UK cattle and sheep farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Claire; Nielsen, Louise; Thomson, Kim; Gunn, George

    2008-11-17

    At present, collective action regarding bio-security among UK cattle and sheep farmers is rare. Despite the occurrence of catastrophic livestock diseases such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and foot and mouth disease (FMD), within recent decades, there are few national or local farmer-led animal health schemes. To explore the reasons for this apparent lack of interest, we utilised a socio-psychological approach to disaggregate the cognitive, emotive and contextual factors driving bio-security behaviour among cattle and sheep farmers in the United Kingdom (UK). In total, we interviewed 121 farmers in South-West England and Wales. The main analytical tools included a content, cluster and logistic regression analysis. The results of the content analysis illustrated apparent 'dissonance' between bio-security attitudes and behaviour.(1) Despite the heavy toll animal disease has taken on the agricultural economy, most study participants were dismissive of the many measures associated with bio-security. Justification for this lack of interest was largely framed in relation to the collective attribution or blame for the disease threats themselves. Indeed, epidemic diseases were largely related to external actors and agents. Reasons for outbreaks included inadequate border control, in tandem with ineffective policies and regulations. Conversely, endemic livestock disease was viewed as a problem for 'bad' farmers and not an issue for those individuals who managed their stock well. As such, there was little utility in forming groups to address what was largely perceived as an individual problem. Further, we found that attitudes toward bio-security did not appear to be influenced by any particular source of information per se. While strong negative attitudes were found toward specific sources of bio-security information, e.g. government leaflets, these appear to simply reflect widely held beliefs. In relation to actual bio-security behaviours, the logistic

  20. Genome-wide linkage disequilibrium and genetic diversity in five populations of Australian domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mamun, Hawlader Abdullah; Clark, Samuel A; Kwan, Paul; Gondro, Cedric

    2015-11-24

    Knowledge of the genetic structure and overall diversity of livestock species is important to maximise the potential of genome-wide association studies and genomic prediction. Commonly used measures such as linkage disequilibrium (LD), effective population size (N e ), heterozygosity, fixation index (F ST) and runs of homozygosity (ROH) are widely used and help to improve our knowledge about genetic diversity in animal populations. The development of high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays and the subsequent genotyping of large numbers of animals have greatly increased the accuracy of these population-based estimates. In this study, we used the Illumina OvineSNP50 BeadChip array to estimate and compare LD (measured by r (2) and D'), N e , heterozygosity, F ST and ROH in five Australian sheep populations: three pure breeds, i.e., Merino (MER), Border Leicester (BL), Poll Dorset (PD) and two crossbred populations i.e. F1 crosses of Merino and Border Leicester (MxB) and MxB crossed to Poll Dorset (MxBxP). Compared to other livestock species, the sheep populations that were analysed in this study had low levels of LD and high levels of genetic diversity. The rate of LD decay was greater in Merino than in the other pure breeds. Over short distances (sheep breeds, especially in Merino sheep. The observed range of diversity will influence the design of genome-wide association studies and the results that can be obtained from them. This knowledge will also be useful to design reference populations for genomic prediction of breeding values in sheep.

  1. Assessment of farmers perception to corporate institutional for the development of sheep farming in the village : Case study in the villages of Jambu sub district, district of Semarang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Pranadji

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to determine that sheep farming in the villages to increase farmers welfare could be developed taken into consideration of farmers perception and attitude which were included in the planning of development programme. In order to achieve the objective more effectively, the institutional system of sheep farming needs to be transformed into a corporate institution. Field study was conducted during the period of 1994-1997 in two villages of Jambu sub district, District of Semarang. Two approaches were used simultaneously, i.e. ideografis and nomotetis to analyze the data and information. Result s showed that, first, sheep farming in the villages still had big development opportunity .second, the threat of stagnation in the sheep farming may occur due to high dependency on family labor and lack of capital. Third, due to top down policy and lack of vision on the agrobusiness activities, the development of sheep farming could be hampered. Fourth, transforming into a corporate institution may increase economic profitability of sheep farming as well as performance of the farms. Fifth, in order to realize the development of corporate business systems, need to establish a pilot project. To implement the concept, support from banking institution especially for discount rate was necessary, along with the involvement of ATAI (Agricultural Technology Assessment Institutes, local livestock services, credit system and local government leader that has people oriented vision.

  2. Drivers for precision livestock technology adoption: A study of factors associated with adoption of electronic identification technology by commercial sheep farmers in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Eliana; Hopkins, Thomas; Gurney, Emma; Shortall, Orla; Lovatt, Fiona; Davies, Peers; Williamson, George; Kaler, Jasmeet

    2018-01-01

    The UK is the largest lamb meat producer in Europe. However, the low profitability of sheep farming sector suggests production efficiency could be improved. Although the use of technologies such as Electronic Identification (EID) tools could allow a better use of flock resources, anecdotal evidence suggests they are not widely used. The aim of this study was to assess uptake of EID technology, and explore drivers and barriers of adoption of related tools among English and Welsh farmers. Farm beliefs and management practices associated with adoption of this technology were investigated. A total of 2000 questionnaires were sent, with a response rate of 22%. Among the respondents, 87 had adopted EID tools for recording flock information, 97 intended to adopt it in the future, and 222 neither had adopted it, neither intended to adopt it. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and multivariable logistic regression modelling were used to identify farmer beliefs and management practices significantly associated with adoption of EID technology. EFA identified three factors expressing farmer's beliefs-external pressure and negative feelings, usefulness and practicality. Our results suggest farmer's beliefs play a significant role in technology uptake. Non-adopters were more likely than adopters to believe that 'government pressurise farmers to adopt technology'. In contrast, adopters were significantly more likely than non-adopters to see EID as practical and useful (p≤0.05). Farmers with higher information technologies literacy and intending to intensify production in the future were significantly more likely to adopt EID technology (p≤0.05). Importantly, flocks managed with EID tools had significantly lower farmer- reported flock lameness levels (p≤0.05). These findings bring insights on the dynamics of adoption of EID tools. Communicating evidence of the positive effects EID tools on flock performance and strengthening farmer's capability in use of technology are likely

  3. Reducing psychological distress and obesity in Australian farmers by promoting physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCoombe Scott

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have confirmed that the rate of mental illness is no higher in rural Australians than that of urban Australians. However, the rate of poor mental health outcomes, and in particular suicide, is significantly raised in rural populations. This is thought to be due to lack of early diagnosis, health service access, the distance-decay effect, poor physical health determinants and access to firearms. Research conducted by the National Centre for Farmer Health between 2004 and 2009 reveals that there is a correlation between obesity and psychological distress among the farming community where suicide rates are recognised as high. Chronic stress overstimulates the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis that is associated with abdominal obesity. Increasing physical activity may block negative thoughts, increase social contact, positively influence brain chemistry and improve both physical and mental health. This paper describes the design of the Farming Fit study that aims to identify the effect of physical activity on psychological distress, obesity and health behaviours such as diet patterns and smoking in farm men and women. Methods/Design For this quasi-experimental (convenience sample control-intervention study, overweight (Body Mass Index ≥25 kg/m2 farm men and women will be recruited from Sustainable Farm Families™ (SFF programs held across Victoria, Australia. Baseline demographic data, health data, depression anxiety stress scale (DASS scores, dietary information, physical activity data, anthropometric data, blood pressure and biochemical analysis of plasma and salivary cortisol levels will be collected. The intervention group will receive an exercise program and regular phone coaching in order to increase their physical activity. Analysis will evaluate the impact of the intervention by longitudinal data (baseline and post intervention comparison of intervention and control groups. Discussion

  4. Associations between sheep farmer attitudes, beliefs, emotions and personality, and their barriers to uptake of best practice: The example of footrot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kane, Holly; Ferguson, Eamonn; Kaler, Jasmeet; Green, Laura

    2017-04-01

    There is interest in understanding how farmers' behaviour influences their management of livestock. We extend the theory of planned behaviour with farmers attitudes, beliefs, emotions and personality to investigate how these are associated with management of livestock disease using the example of footrot (FR) in sheep. In May 2013 a one-year retrospective questionnaire was sent to 4000 sheep farmers in England, requesting data on lameness prevalence, management of footrot, farm/flock descriptors, and farmer-orientated themes: barriers to treating footrot, opinions and knowledge of footrot, relating to other people and personality. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to make composite variables from explanatory variables and latent class (LC) analysis was used to subgroup farmers, based on nine managements of FR. Associations between LC and composite variables were investigated using multinomial logistic regression. Negative binomial regression was used to investigate associations between the proportion of lame sheep and composite and personality variables. The useable response rate was 32% and 97% of farmers reported having lame sheep; the geometric mean prevalence of lameness (GMPL) was 3.7% (95% CI 3.51%-3.86%). Participants grouped into three latent classes; LC1 (best practice-treat FR within 3days of sheep becoming lame; use injectable and topical antibiotics; avoid foot trimming), 11% farmers), LC2 (slow to act, 57%) and LC3 (slow to act, delayed culling, 32%), with GMPL 2.95%, 3.60% and 4.10% respectively. Farmers who reported the production cycle as a barrier to treating sheep with FR were more likely to be in LC2 (RRR 1.36) than LC1. Negative emotions towards FR were associated with higher risk of being in LC2 (RRR 1.39) than LC1. Knowledge of preventing FR spread was associated with a lower risk of being in LC2 (RRR 0.46) or LC3 (RRR 0.34) than LC1. Knowledge about FR transmission was associated with a lower risk of being in LC3 (RRR 0.64) than LC1

  5. Evaluation of Crossbreeding of Australian Superfine Merinos with Gansu Alpine Finewool Sheep to Improve Wool Characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhui Li

    Full Text Available Crossbreeding of Australian Superfine Merinos (ASMs with Gansu Alpine Finewool (GAF sheep and an evaluation of the potential benefits of this genetic cross has not been previously conducted. 13 ASMs were crossbred with GAF sheep over a five year period with backcrossing designed to assess heterosis. Data from 11,178 lambs sired by 189 rams were used in the study. Genotype, birth year, birth type, dam age, sex and/or management group, and record age were fitted as fixed effects and within-genotype sire fitted as a random effect. Crossbreeds of 1/2 ASM expressed the most desirable effects for improving average fiber diameter (AFD, clean fleece weight (CFW, yield, coefficient of variation of AFD (CVAFD, yearling staple length (YSL to AFD ratio (YSL/AFD, and CFW to metabolic yearling bodyweight (YWT0.75 ratio (CFW/YWT0.75 but showed the least post-weaning average daily gain (powADG and YWT. Genotype of backcrossing with 1/4 ASM obtained moderate improvements in AFD, CFW, CVAFD, and YSL/AFD but the highest YSL, WWT, and prwADG. Except for yield (-1.42% and CFW/YWT0.75 (-1%, heterosis estimates were generally low and positive, and ranged from 0.1% for CVAFD to 4% for powADG, which indicates the potential to improve relevant traits through exploiting heterosis to a varying extent. The ASMs sampled in this study were found to be superior to GAFs for AFD, CFW, yield, and CVAFD by 19.82%, 11.68%, 14.47%, and 6.99%, respectively, but inferior for YSL, PowADG, and YWT by 4.36%, 50.97%, and 16.93%, respectively. ASMs also appeared to be more efficient than GAFs in clean wool production (25.34% and staple length growth (16.17%. The results of our study strongly suggest that an infusion of ASM genes via crossbreeding is an effective and appropriate approach to improve wool microns and wool production from GAF sheep, and we make recommendations to tackle the undesirable traits of YWT and YSL from ASM introduction.

  6. Informing decision making in agricultural greenhouse gas mitigation policy: A Best–Worst Scaling survey of expert and farmer opinion in the sheep industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, A.K.; Jones, D.L.; Edwards-Jones, G.; Cross, P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Effectiveness and practicality of greenhouse gas mitigation measures are assessed. ► Best–Worst Scaling surveys are used to elicit expert and sheep farmer opinion. ► Effective and practical measures are priority candidates for policy inclusion. ► Support mechanisms may be needed to deliver effective, low practicality measures. ► Variation in farmers’ perceptions of practicality holds implications for policy delivery. -- Abstract: Policy decision making for agricultural greenhouse gas mitigation is hindered by scientific uncertainty regarding the effectiveness of mitigation measures. Successful on-farm adoption of measures is contingent upon farmer perception of the relative practicality of implementing the measure and associated incentives and advice. In the absence of a comprehensive evidence base we utilised Best–Worst Scaling, a discrete choice survey method, to elicit expert and farmer opinion on the relative effectiveness and practicality of mitigation measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from sheep production systems. The method enabled individual mitigation measures to be ranked on a ratio scale of effectiveness (expert opinion) and practicality (farmer opinion). Six measures were identified as possessing the combined qualities of effectiveness and practicality and are considered priority candidates for policy promotion. The overall preferred measure was the use of legumes in pasture reseed mixes. Estimation and analysis of the distribution of individual respondent scores revealed heterogeneity in farmers’ perceptions of practicality, suggesting that flexible policies are required to enable farmers to select mitigation measures most suited to their farm type and locality. Practical measures with below average effectiveness may be widely adopted with limited regulation, incentivisation or advice, whilst some highly effective measures with lower practicality are likely to present greater obstacles to adoption

  7. Drivers for precision livestock technology adoption: A study of factors associated with adoption of electronic identification technology by commercial sheep farmers in England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Thomas; Gurney, Emma; Shortall, Orla; Lovatt, Fiona; Davies, Peers; Williamson, George; Kaler, Jasmeet

    2018-01-01

    The UK is the largest lamb meat producer in Europe. However, the low profitability of sheep farming sector suggests production efficiency could be improved. Although the use of technologies such as Electronic Identification (EID) tools could allow a better use of flock resources, anecdotal evidence suggests they are not widely used. The aim of this study was to assess uptake of EID technology, and explore drivers and barriers of adoption of related tools among English and Welsh farmers. Farm beliefs and management practices associated with adoption of this technology were investigated. A total of 2000 questionnaires were sent, with a response rate of 22%. Among the respondents, 87 had adopted EID tools for recording flock information, 97 intended to adopt it in the future, and 222 neither had adopted it, neither intended to adopt it. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and multivariable logistic regression modelling were used to identify farmer beliefs and management practices significantly associated with adoption of EID technology. EFA identified three factors expressing farmer’s beliefs–external pressure and negative feelings, usefulness and practicality. Our results suggest farmer’s beliefs play a significant role in technology uptake. Non-adopters were more likely than adopters to believe that ‘government pressurise farmers to adopt technology’. In contrast, adopters were significantly more likely than non-adopters to see EID as practical and useful (p≤0.05). Farmers with higher information technologies literacy and intending to intensify production in the future were significantly more likely to adopt EID technology (p≤0.05). Importantly, flocks managed with EID tools had significantly lower farmer- reported flock lameness levels (p≤0.05). These findings bring insights on the dynamics of adoption of EID tools. Communicating evidence of the positive effects EID tools on flock performance and strengthening farmer’s capability in use of

  8. A survey of Australian dairy farmers to investigate animal welfare risks associated with increasing scale of production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beggs, D S; Fisher, A D; Jongman, E C; Hemsworth, P E

    2015-08-01

    Although large herds (more than 500 cows) only represent 13% of Australian dairy farms, they represent more than 35% of the cows milked. A survey of Australian dairy farmers was conducted to assess relationships between herd size and known or proposed risk factors for adverse animal welfare outcomes in Australian dairy herds in relation to increasing scale of production. Responses from 863 Australian dairy farms (13% of Australian dairy farms) were received. Increasing herd size was associated with increases in stocking density, stock per labor unit, and grain fed per day-all of which could reasonably be hypothesized to increase the risk of adverse welfare outcomes unless carefully managed. However, increasing herd size was also associated with an increased likelihood of staff with formal and industry-based training qualifications. Herd size was not associated with reported increases in mastitis or lameness treatments. Some disease conditions, such as milk fever, gut problems, and down cows, were reported less in larger herds. Larger herds were more likely to have routine veterinary herd health visits, separate milking of the main herd and the sick herd, transition diets before calving, and written protocols for disease treatment. They were more likely to use monitoring systems such as electronic identification in the dairy, computerized records, daily milk yield or cell count monitoring, and pedometers or activity meters. Euthanasia methods were consistent between herds of varying sizes, and it was noted that less than 3% of farms make use of captive-bolt devices despite their effectiveness and ready availability. Increasing herd size was related to increased herd milking time, increased time away from the paddock, and increased distance walked. If the milking order of cows is consistent, this may result in reduced feed access for late-milking-order cows because of a difference in time away from the paddock. More than 95% of farmers believed that their cows were

  9. Determinants of adaptation choices to climate change by sheep and goat farmers in Northern Ethiopia: the case of Southern and Central Tigray, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feleke, Fikeremaryam Birara; Berhe, Melaku; Gebru, Getachew; Hoag, Dana

    2016-01-01

    The livestock sector serves as a foremost source of revenue for rural people, particularly in many developing countries. Among the livestock species, sheep and goats are the main source of livelihood for rural people in Ethiopia; they can quickly multiply, resilient and are easily convertible to cash to meet financial needs of the rural producers. The multiple contributions of sheep and goat and other livestock to rural farmers are however being challenged by climate change and variability. Farmers are responding to the impacts of climate change by adopting different mechanisms, where choices are largely dependent on many factors. This study, therefore, aims to analyze the determinants of choices of adaptation practices to climate change that causes scarcity of feed, heat stress, shortage of water and pasture on sheep and goat production. The study used 318 sample households drawn from potential livestock producing districts representing 3 agro-ecological settings. Data was analyzed using simple descriptive statistical tools, a multivariate probit model and Ordinary Least Squares (OLS). Most of the respondents (98.6 %) noted that climate is changing. Respondents' perception is that climate change is expressed through increased temperature (88 %) and decline in rainfall (73 %) over the last 10 years. The most commonly used adaptation strategy was marketing during forage shock (96.5 %), followed by home feeding (89.6 %). The estimation from the multivariate probit model showed that access to information, farming experience, number of households in one village, distance to main market, income of household, and agro-ecological settings influenced farmers' adaptation choices to climate change. Furthermore, OLS revealed that the adaptation strategies had positive influence on the household income.

  10. Determination of the pH and total titratable acidity of the rumen liquor from australian merino and corriedale sheep, fed on pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Leydson Formiga Feitosa

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the pH and total titratable acidity from rumen liquor was carried out in Australian Merino and Corriedale sheep fed on pasture, in two seasons of the year (winter and summer, in Botucatu City, São Paulo, Brazil. Ruminal samples were collected using a standard tube, from 103 sheep during the winter period (50 Corriedale and 53 Australian Merino and from 107 sheep in the summer (52 Corriedale and 55 Australian Merino. The results obtained for pH and total titratable acidity in Australian Merino sheep in winter and summer were, respectively 6,69 ± 0,20 and 6,75 ± 0,23, and 26,27 ± 5,02 and 29,24 ± 6.24 units. The results observed in these tests for Corriedale sheep in winter and summer were, respectively, 6,70 ± 0,21 and 6,84 ±0,28, and 27,26 ± 4,82 and 30,40 ± 5,11 units.

  11. Adoption of Soil Health Improvement Strategies by Australian Farmers: II. Impediments and Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J. McL.; Cattle, S. R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Many farmers remain hesitant to implement structured management plans and strategies tailored to address soil health, irrespective of mounting scientific evidence for the credibility of certain soil health indicators, an increase in the reporting of program benefits and progress in communicating these benefits. Hence, the purpose of this…

  12. Adoption of Soil Health Improvement Strategies by Australian Farmers: I. Attitudes, Management and Extension Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J. McL.; Cattle, S. R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: There is inconsistency in the design, understanding, implementation and monitoring of soil health programmes. Despite mounting scientific evidence for the credibility of certain soil health indicators, an increase in the reporting of programme benefits, and progress in communicating these benefits, many farmers remain hesitant to…

  13. Farmers' practices and factors associated with the prevalence of all lameness and lameness attributed to interdigital dermatitis and footrot in sheep flocks in England in 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaler, J; Green, L E

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the risk factors associated with all causes of lameness in sheep differed from those associated with the lesion specific causes of lameness, interdigital dermatitis (ID) and footrot (FR). A total of 809 randomly selected English sheep farmers participated in a postal survey in 2005. Data were requested on their management of lameness in 2004 and whether this had changed from 2003 and the prevalence of all lameness, and lameness caused by ID and FR. The farmer ability to recognise ID and FR was assessed from their responses to a written and pictorial description. On 443 farms where both ID and FR were correctly named by the farmer, the mean prevalence of all lameness, and lameness caused by ID and FR were 10.0% (95% CI: 8.9, 10.8), 6.5% (95% CI: 5.8, 7.3) and 3.1% (95% CI: 2.8, 3.6), respectively. The mean prevalence of all lameness on all 809 farms was not significantly different at 10.2% (95% CI: 9.2, 11.0). The data were analysed using negative binomial regression models with the three outcomes farmer estimated prevalence of all lameness and lameness caused by ID or FR in 2004. Farmers who changed management of sheep between 2003 and 2004 were excluded from the analysis, thus all fixed effects were the farmers' managements in 2003 and 2004 to ensure that the management was in place for at least one year before the prevalence estimates. Routine foot trimming>or=once/year compared with no routine foot trimming was significantly associated with an increased prevalence of all lameness (prevalence ratio (PR)=1.34), ID (PR=1.50) and FR (PR=1.35). Footbathing was also significantly associated with increased prevalence of all lameness (PR=1.67), ID (PR=1.68) and FR (PR=1.76). A stocking density of >8 ewes/ha was associated with a significantly increased prevalence of all lameness (PR=1.26) and ID (PR=1.39). There was a significantly lower prevalence of FR (PR=0.73; PR=0.70, respectively) on farms in the North East and

  14. Knowledge Types Used by Researchers and Wool Producers in Australia under a Workplace Learning Typology: Implications for Innovation in the Australian Sheep Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lyndal-Joy; Reeve, Ian

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on research into the learning aspects of adopting integrated parasite management practices for sheep (IPM-s) applying a workplace learning framework. An analysis of four primary data sources was conducted; a postal survey of Australian wool producers, a Delphi process with IPM-s researchers, focus groups and interviews with wool…

  15. PENINGKATAN USAHA TERNAK DOMBA MELALUI DIVERSIFIKASI TANAMAN PANGAN: EKONOMI PENDAPATAN PETANI (IMPROVEMENT OF CATTLE SHEEP THROUGH CROPS DIVERSIFICATION: ECONOMIC INCOME FARMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rusdiana dan L. Praharani

    2015-04-01

    land, plantations, even land around the forest. Diversification of cattle and crops in Indonesia varied, sheep population in 2013 is about 12.7 million head and cassava production in 2013 about 21 million tons. Considering the role of farmers to economic growth, it is necessary to increase productivity to be more productive and efficient. The purpose of writing was to determine the increase of cattle sheep through crop diversification in the economic analysis of income by business diversification can reduce risk and still provide the potential rate of profit to farmer. Diversification of livestock and tatanam can be concluded that cattle scale of 5 rams can be achieved on the sales value of about 4.17sheeps, and production BEP selling price around Rp.1.043.625/tail,  net gain of about Rp.1.121.875/period by value of B/C approximately 1.19, butter and arsin variety of cassava with an area of about 2 hectares has profit of cassava on varieties of butter around Rp.8.414.085/ha/year, profit of cassava varieties on Arsin around Rp.6.921.705/ha/year, the value of B/C ratio was 2.7 and 2.6 are not significantly different from the results obtained by the farmers.Diversification become more important for farmers due to income source as economic trigger at rura. Basec on cost and investment calculation, cattle sheep and cassava as main product is technically feasible, economically and financially was good, means that the business had conducted feasible diversification to be continued.  

  16. INSTITUTIONAL INNOVATION TO INCREASE FARMERS' REVENUE: A CASE STUDY OF SMALL SCALE FARMING IN SHEEP: TRANSKEI REGION, SOUTH AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    D'Haese, Marijke F.C.; Verbeke, Wim; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido; Kirsten, Johann F.; D'Haese, Luc

    2003-01-01

    Commercial producers, brokers, exporters and spinners dominate the wool supply chain in South Africa. Until recently smallholder farmers in the Transkei region had limited access to a profitable market outlet for their wool. In response, the South African wool industry has taken the initiative to help local farmers by building shearing sheds, under which the local association can bulk the wool and trade directly with the brokers. More direct access to the wool brokers is a prerequisite for th...

  17. Energy, water and space use by free-living red kangaroos Macropus rufus and domestic sheep Ovis aries in an Australian rangeland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, A J; Dawson, T J; McLeod, S R; Dennis, T; Maloney, S K

    2013-08-01

    We used doubly labelled water to measure field metabolic rates (FMR) and water turnover rates (WTR) in one of Australia's largest native herbivores, the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) and one of Australia's dominant livestock species, the wool-breed Merino sheep, under free-living conditions in a typical Australian rangeland. Also, we used GPS technology to examine animal space use, along with the comparisons of urine concentration, diet, diet digestibility, and subsequent grazing pressures. We found smaller space-use patterns than previously reported for kangaroos, which were between 14 and 25 % those of sheep. The FMR of a 25-kg kangaroo was 30 % that of a 45-kg sheep, while WTR was 15 % and both were associated with smaller travel distances, lower salt intakes, and higher urine concentration in kangaroos than sheep. After accounting for differences in dry matter digestibility of food eaten by kangaroos (51 %) and sheep (58 %), the relative grazing pressure of a standard (mature, non-reproductive) 25-kg kangaroo was 35 % that of a 45-kg sheep. Even for animals of the same body mass (35 kg), the relative grazing pressure of the kangaroo was estimated to be only 44 % that of the sheep. After accounting for the energetic costs of wool growth by sheep, the FMRs of our sheep and kangaroos were 2-3 times their expected BMRs, which is typical for mammalian FMR:BMRs generally. Notably, data collected from our free-living animals were practically identical to those from animals confined to a semi-natural enclosure (collected in an earlier study under comparable environmental conditions), supporting the idea that FMRs are relatively constrained within species.

  18. Cloning, recombinant expression and inhibitor profiles of dihydrofolate reductase from the Australian sheep blow fly, Lucilia cuprina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotze, A C; Bagnall, N H; Ruffell, A P; Pearson, R

    2014-09-01

    While dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is an important drug target in mammals, bacteria and protozoa, no inhibitors of this enzyme have been developed as commercial insecticides. We therefore examined the potential of this enzyme as a drug target in an important ectoparasite of livestock, the Australian sheep blow fly, Lucilia cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) (Wiedemann). The non-specific DHFR inhibitors aminopterin and methotrexate significantly inhibited the growth of L. cuprina larvae, with IC50 values at µg levels. Trimethoprim and pyrimethamine were 5-30-fold less active. Relative IC50 values for the inhibition of recombinant L. cuprina DHFR by various inhibitors were in accordance with their relative effects on larval growth. The active-site amino acid residues of L. cuprina DHFR differed by between 34% and 50% when compared with two mammalian species, as well as two bacteria and two protozoa. There were significant charge and size differences in specific residues between the blow fly and human DHFR enzymes, notably the L. cuprina Asn21, Lys31 and Lys63 residues. This study provides bioassay evidence to highlight the potential of blow fly DHFR as an insecticide target, and describes differences in active site residues between blow flies and other organisms which could be exploited in the design of blow fly control chemicals. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.

  19. A survey of Western Australian sheep, cattle and kangaroos to determine the prevalence of Coxiella burnetii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banazis, Michael Janis; Bestall, Abbey Simone; Reid, Simon Andrew; Fenwick, Stan Gordon

    2010-07-14

    The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Coxiella burnetii in two domestic ruminant species (cattle and sheep) and the western grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus) in Western Australia (WA). The IDEXX CHEKiT Q Fever ELISA and CFT were used to test sera from 50 sheep and 329 head of cattle for anti-C. burnetii antibodies and 343 kangaroo sera were tested using an indirect ELISA developed specifically for this study. Faecal or urine samples collected from the same animals were tested with two PCR assays to identify active shedding of C. burnetii in excreta. Only two of the 379 ruminant sera had detectable levels of anti-C. burnetii antibodies according to the ELISA while the CFT did not detect any positive samples. In contrast 115 of the 343 western grey kangaroo serum samples were positive when tested with the antibody-ELISA. The first qPCR assay, targeting the IS1111a element, identified 41 of 379 ruminant and 42 of 343 kangaroo DNA samples as positive for C. burnetii DNA. The second qPCR, targeting the JB153-3 gene, identified nine C. burnetii DNA-positive ruminant samples and six positive kangaroo samples. Sequence comparisons showed high degrees of identity with C. burnetii. Isolation of C. burnetii from faeces was also attempted but was not successful. From the results presented here it appears that domestic ruminants may not be the most significant reservoir of C. burnetii in WA and that kangaroos may pose a significant threat for zoonotic transfer of this pathogen. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Characteristics of Smallholder Sheep Production at Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The household owners of sheep seldom fed forage to their sheep (17.86%), while 25% of commercial sheep farmers fed forage. The common diseases in the area were diarrhea, pneumonia and mange. The constraints to sheep production in the area included automobile accidents, seasonal lack of feed, diseases, theft and ...

  1. Multipurpose fodder trees in Ethiopia : farmers'perception, constraints to adoption and effect of long-term supplementation on sheep performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekoya, A.

    2008-01-01

    Many organizations in Ethiopia have promoted exotic multipurpose fodder tree species particularly Sesbania sesban for livestock feed and soil improvement. Despite the apparent benefits, the number of farmers planting these trees was low. Moreover, some farmers feeding Sesbania sesban reported

  2. Preferences for sheep or goats in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budisatria, I.G.S.; Udo, H.M.J.; Eilers, C.H.A.M.; Baliarti, E.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to explore farmers’ preferences for sheep or goats based on feeding practices, animal and flock performances and economic benefits of sheep and goats in different agro-ecological zones in Central Java, Indonesia. In total, 150 smallholder farmers were selected from three

  3. Breeding strategies to make sheep farms resilient to uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rose, I.J.

    2014-01-01

    The sheep industry in Western Australian has had many challenges over the last 20 years which have caused sheep numbers to decline. This decline is because sheep farms are not resilient to uncertain pasture growth and commodity prices. One way to improve resilience and profitability of farming

  4. Breeding Practices in Sheep Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Shejal

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The sheep is an important economic livestock species, contributing greatly to the Indian economy, especially in arid, semi arid and mountain areas. The current population in world is 1110.78 millions, around 44.85 millions (1987 sheeps in India (ICAR., 2002. Sheeps are mostly reared for meat and wool. The average annual wool production per sheep is between 3.5 to 5.5 kg of fine quality wool in Australia, New Zealand and U.S.S.R., where as in India except Magra sheep which annually yield more than 2 kg wool having staple length 5.8 cm, the average of rest of the wool produced is less than 1.0 kg per sheep of inferior quality (Banerjee G.C., 1998. Therefore many farmers in southern India adapted sheep rearing for meat production than for wool production. For yielding more production from sheep farming one should have sound knowledge of general information related to the reproduction and different breeding practices. [Vet. World 2009; 2(1.000: 43-44

  5. The International Sheep and Wool Handbook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello Cannas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This revised book is an expanded and updated version of the Australian Sheep and Wool Handbook published in 1991 and focuses on the sheep wool and meat industry. The book is divided in 5 sections, each including several chapters written by well-known and qualified researchers and industry representatives from many countries. The first section on Major sheep and wool industries, in my opinion, is particularly interesting because it explores the sheep and wool industries of leading countries (e.g. Australia, South Africa and New Zealand and continents (Europe and South America, and those of emerging countries (e.g. China.....

  6. The sociology of the Australian agricultural environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanclay, F.

    1994-01-01

    Australian agriculture is in crisis, the terms of trade for agriculture are falling, many farmers have negative incomes, and there is massive structural adjustment with government policy assisting the exit of marginal farmers out of agriculture. Australian governments are gripped with the

  7. Feed resources management of smallholder sheep and goat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials fed to sheep and goats included cut forage such as grasses, weeds, herbs, forbs, trees and shrubs, lianas, crop residues, kitchen and local food processing wastes. Cut forage was fed to goats and sheep by 84.3 and 32.3% of the farmers irrespective of season. Kitchen waste was the commonest type of ...

  8. Characterization of Smallholder Sheep and Goat Farming in Bauchi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of Smallholder Sheep and Goat Farming in Bauchi, Northeastern Nigeria. ... Farmers kept more sheep (58.75%) than goats (41.25%). ... Disease occurrence showed that enteritis, foot rot, fracture/ dislocation, helmenthosis, mange/scabies, nutritional disorder, PPR, pneumonia and others having incidence ...

  9. Prevalence of trypanosomiasis in sheep in the Kachia Grazing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , to determine the prevalence of trypanosomiasis among sheep. The reserve has had a history of high prevalence of the disease and farmers in the area are known to ignore the control of trypanosomiasis in sheep and goats and focus more on ...

  10. Farmers Preference For Different Farmer Education Methods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A structured questionnaire of 30 items was used for data collection. Collected data were analyzed using the mean. The major finding of this study was that farmers preferred more of individual farmer education methods. Keywords: Farmers preference, farmer education methods. Global Approaches to Extension Practice Vol.

  11. The development of Conservation Agriculture in Australia—Farmers as innovators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bellotti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Australian story of farmer innovation in Conservation Agriculture reveals a complex interplay of policy, economics, science, and farming. Farmer experimentation with Conservation Agriculture began in the 1960's and has continued to this day where around 80%-90% of Australia's 23.5 million hectares of winter crops are now grown using Conservation Agriculture principles. This remarkable achievement is the result of both sustained investment in agricultural research and development and farmer innovation. Australian economic settings and science policies have encouraged and facilitated farmer participation in the Conservation Agricultural innovation system. Australian farmers have embraced Conservation Agriculture because it has met their needs, maintaining productivity and profitability in the face of declining terms of trade, and sustainably intensifying production with enhanced environmental outcomes. Drawing on individual farmer case studies, the specific strengths of farmer innovation are identified and the enabling conditions necessary for farmer innovation to flourish are discussed.

  12. Analyzing the heterogeneity of farmers' preferences for improvements in dairy cow traits using farmer typologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Collado, D; Byrne, T J; Amer, P R; Santos, B F S; Axford, M; Pryce, J E

    2015-06-01

    Giving consideration to farmers' preferences for improvements in animal traits when designing genetic selection tools such as selection indexes might increase the uptake of these tools. The increase in use of genetic selection tools will, in turn, assist in the realization of genetic gain in breeding programs. However, the determination of farmers' preferences is not trivial because of its large heterogeneity. The aim of this study was to quantify Australian dairy farmers' preferences for cow trait improvements to inform and ultimately direct the choice of traits and selection indexes in the 2014 review of the National Breeding Objective. A specific aim was to analyze the heterogeneity of preferences for cow trait improvements by determining whether there are farmer types that can be identified with specific patterns of preferences. We analyzed whether farmer types differed in farming system, socioeconomic profile, and attitudes toward breeding and genetic evaluation tools. An online survey was developed to explore farmers' preferences for improvement in 13 cow traits. The pairwise comparisons method was used to derive a ranking of the traits for each respondent. A total of 551 farmers fully completed the survey. A principal component analysis followed by a Ward hierarchical cluster analysis was used to group farmers according to their preferences. Three types of farmers were determined: (1) production-focused farmers, who gave the highest preference of all for improvements in protein yield, lactation persistency, feed efficiency, cow live weight, and milking speed; (2) functionality-focused farmers with the highest preferences of all for improvements in mastitis, lameness, and calving difficulty; and (3) type-focused farmers with the highest preferences of all for mammary system and type. Farmer types differed in their age, their attitudes toward genetic selection, and in the selection criteria they use. Surprisingly, farmer types did not differ for herd size

  13. Characterization of introduced breed of sheep and pattenl of conservation of Sumatera thin tail (STT sheep in North Sumatera

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    Priyanto D

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Sumatera thin tail (STT sheep are highly adapted to the local environment, no seasonal reproductive activity, and highresistance to internal parasite, but they have small body size and low mature body weight. "On Fann research" to identify morphological characteristics of intoduced breed and STT sheep, as well as an altemative conservation pattem were conducted in two location, i.e. Pulahan village, Air Batu District, Asahan Regency as the potensial area for STT sheep and Pulo Gambar village, Galang District, Deli Serdang Regency as the development area of introduced breed of sheep. The approach of Agroecosystem analysis, quantitative and qualitative characteristics of STT and introduced breed of sheep as well as interview to the farmer that raised STT in order to get recommendation of conservation pattern were aplied. The study show that STT sheep were isolated from the other area, and the populations tend to decrease from year to year. Qualitative characteristics of STT indicated smaller linear body measurements than those of introducted breed of sheep at the same age. Qualitative characteristics indicated that STT possess dominance body color of light brown and white (50.93% vs 41.28%. The STT mostly have one body color pattern (61.75%. The dominance spotted pattem were 1-10% of the body (60.29%, while the dominance of the head color was light brown (48.40%. Conservation pattern of STT are through natural process, in which the farmers are directly conserved, therefore the farmers do not have opportunity to develop their sheep farming. Therefore the conservation pattern recomnendation for STT sheep are by defending the location as "in situ conservation" or "on farm conservation" and giving "compensation program" to fanner because STT sheep farming less benefit than those of introduced breed of sheep.

  14. The cost effectiveness of a policy to store carbon in Australian agricultural soils to abate greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Robert E.; Davidson, Brian

    2015-07-01

    Data for cropping and pastoral enterprises in south eastern Australia were used in a cost-effectiveness analysis to assess the feasibility of abating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through storing soil carbon (C) as soil organic matter under the Australian government's Carbon Farming Initiative. We used the C credit value for 2013-14 of 24.15 per tonne of CO2- equivalent (CO2-e) and a C storage rate of 0.5 tonne C/hectare/year for conversion of cropland to pasture. Given that a change of enterprise is driven primarily by farmer returns, we found that none of the changes were feasible at current prices, with the exception of wheat to cattle or sheep in an irrigated system, and dryland cotton to cattle or sheep. Given that our model scenario assumed the most favourable economic factors, it is unlikely that increased soil C storage through a change from cropping to pasture can make a significant contribution to abating Australia's CO2 emissions. However, of greater concern to society is the methane emissions from grazing cattle or sheep, which would negate any gain in soil C under pasture, except for a switch from dryland cropping to sheep.

  15. Characteristics of Body Dimension and Male Reproduction on Groups of Sheep Population at Pandeglang and Garut Regencies

    OpenAIRE

    Nataatmaja, DM; Arifin, J

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the research was to characterise body and testes dimension of sheep, the optimal age of scrotal development for selection, and the correlation between body and scrotal measurements as a base for selection. The sheep surveyed were those owned by farmers at Pandeglang and Garut regencies that have been received grants from various government projects (Banpres, Bansos, Bangub, APBD, APBN). Pandeglang area was predominated by local sheep and crosbred between local and Garut sheep...

  16. Fat-tailed sheep in Indonesia; an essential resource for smallholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, Henk Mathijs Johannes; Budisatria, I Gede Suparta

    2011-10-01

    This paper discusses the historical development of fat-tailed sheep in Indonesia, the dynamics of production systems, production and reproduction performances under farmers' conditions, and roles of sheep in livelihoods. In the eighteenth and nineteenth century, fat-tailed sheep from southwest Asia and Africander sheep from South Africa were introduced. Crossing of fat-tailed sheep with the local thin-tailed sheep produced the Javanese fat-tailed sheep. Main motives for the gradual change-over to fat-tailed sheep have been their potential larger body size and the preference of consumers for their meat. Management systems are changing in response to the intensification of land use. The reproductive performances of fat-tailed sheep are good. Households keep four to six animals, housed close to the family quarters. This results in very high levels of faecal bacteria contamination of drinking water sources. Sheep provide a small income, manure, security and help to accumulate capital. Sheep also play a key role in religious festivities. Farmers hardly profit from the increased demand for the feast of sacrifice; animals are sold mainly when the owners have urgent cash needs. Systematic sheep fattening can contribute to higher economic results, if sufficient family labour and crop residues are available.

  17. Prevalence, farmers' knowledge and management of mange in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current study investigated, on the basis of farm and clinical records, the prevalence, knowledge of farmers and methods of management of mange in sixty small-scale sheep and goat farms in the rural areas of Ejisu-Juaben Municipality in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. Data was compiled with employment of descriptive ...

  18. Determinants Of Cattle Farmers Particiaption In Farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focused on determinants of cattle farmers particiaption in farmers organization in Hamadan province of Iran. Data was colleted from 75 randomly selected respondents with the aid of a questionnaire. Data were analyzed using percentage, mean score, analysis of variance and factor analysis. The findings revealed ...

  19. Adoption of fodder legumes technology through farmer-to-farmer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Adoption of fodder legumes technology through farmer-to-farmer extension approach. J. Sinja,ab*J. Karugia,b M. Waithakaac, D. Miano,c I. Baltenwecka; S. Franzeld ... informal methods of dissemination especially farmer-to-farmer extension. It is not known ... Results showed that farmers with positions in farmer groups, with.

  20. Current practices on sheep and beef farms in New Zealand for depriving sheep of feed prior to transport for slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, M W; Gregory, N G; Muir, P D

    2012-05-01

    To assess current practices on sheep and beef farms that deprive sheep of feed prior to transport to facilitate effluent management and processing at slaughter. A national telephone survey of 122 sheep and 346 sheep and beef farmers was conducted in March and April 2010. They were asked how long sheep were held off green feed prior to transport and why, what environment the sheep were held in, and if that period ever varied. Of the 468 respondents, 303 (65%) removed their sheep from green feed 3-12 h before transport for slaughter, with longer periods reported in the South than North Island. The main reasons given were to reduce the volume of effluent for transport operators (n=174), to prevent wool staining during transport (n=173), and that sheep were better suited to load and travel empty (n=171). Water was provided during feed deprivation by 313 farmers. The period of food deprivation could be altered in response to requirements of transporters and processors, the weather, and by the class of stock involved, although 115/468 (25%) farmers stated that they never changed their normal protocol. Amongst survey respondents, common practices compared favourably with recommendations to reduce effluent during transportation. Previous studies have investigated the effects of fasting lambs whilst in lairage prior to slaughter and focussed on carcass quality such as carcass weight and tenderness. Changes in liveweight and gastrointestinal tract contents suggest feed deprivation reduces the risk of defaecation and urination contributing to the accumulation of effluent during transport and of carcass contamination during processing. However, the point at which that risk is acceptable to transport and processing is unclear. Fasting results in physiological changes indicative of altered metabolism but it is not clear when those changes are indicative of adaptation to food deprivation or metabolic depletion and compromised welfare. There may be opportunities to improve the

  1. SCOPS and COWS--'worming it out of UK farmers'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M A

    2012-05-04

    Infections with gastrointestinal roundworms are an important cause of production losses in sheep and cattle. Worm control is a vital part of health and production management in sheep flocks and cattle herds in the UK, and good control is highly dependent on effective anthelmintics. Unfortunately, a direct and unavoidable consequence of using anthelmintics to control worm populations is selection for individuals that are resistant to the chemicals used. If left unchecked, anthelmintic resistance (AR) could prove to be one of the biggest challenges to sheep and cattle production and animal welfare within the UK. As a consequence of increasing reports of AR in sheep, a working group, "SCOPS" (sustainable control of parasites in sheep) was formed in 2003 with representatives from the UK sheep industry to promote practical guidelines for sheep farmers and their advisors. This led to the production of guidelines for 'sustainable worm control strategies for sheep' intended for veterinarians and sheep advisors, plus ongoing promotional literature aimed at farmers. Whilst there is some evidence of emerging resistance in roundworms of cattle, it appears to still be at a very low level in the UK. However the potential presence of such AR in cattle worms has been seen as a timely warning, which if ignored, could lead to a not dissimilar AR situation to that seen in sheep, and in other cattle areas around the world. Reports of AR in UK cattle nematodes have generally been limited to a small number of anecdotal reports of treatment failure with some macrocyclic lactone (ML) products, especially those formulated as pour-on preparations, and invariably involving the dose-limiting species, Cooperia oncophora. As a consequence of these observations, guidelines have been produced similar to those for sheep, for sustainable worm control strategies for cattle "COWS" (control of worms sustainably), and were launched in May 2010. Uptake and effectiveness of SCOPS recommendations are

  2. Decoupling Farm, Farming and Place: Recombinant Attachments of Globally Engaged Family Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheshire, Lynda; Meurk, Carla; Woods, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Farmers have traditionally been perceived as having a deep attachment to land and place that contrasts with the mobility of modern society. In this paper, we use this work as a starting point for analysing new forms of attachments among a cohort of Australian farmers who are highly mobile in their business activities. In response, we devise a new…

  3. THE ROLE OF IRRIGATED FODDER PRODUCTION TO SUPPLEMENT THE DIET OF FATTENING SHEEP BY SMALLHOLDERS IN SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melkamu Bezabih Derseh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Feed shortage and poor quality of available feeds are major constraints for livestock production in the highlands of Ethiopia. A trial was conducted to assess if producing irrigated oat-vetch fodder during the dry period could adequately supplement the diet of fattening sheep and generate additional income for smallholders. A total of 14 farmers and 70 sheep (5 per farmer were involved in the trial. The farmers supplemented their fattening sheep with 200 g of irrigated oat-vetch fodder per day for about 70 days. The mean daily body weight gain of the fattened sheep ranged from 52 to 110 grams. The partial budget analysis revealed that while farmers with good feeding management could earn an additional income in the range of ETB 55 – 161 per sheep, farmers with the lower rate of weight gain could lose up to ETB 58 per sheep unless purchase and sale prices remained constant. Sheep prices do, however, fluctuate, peaking during major holiday periods occurring during the dry season. Therefore, timing of the fattening period is essential to profitability, and supplemental irrigated fodder production offers smallholders opportunities to produce good quality feed and target favourable markets for fattened animals.

  4. Sheep laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Dean M; Murray, Leigh W

    2013-01-01

    Turning preferences among 309 white-faced ewes were individually evaluated in an enclosed, artificially lit T-maze, followed by each ewe choosing either a right or left return alley to return to peers. Data recorded included time in the start box, time in the T-maze, exit arm chosen to leave the T-maze, and return alley. Right and left arms of the T-maze were chosen 65.7% and 34.3% of the time, respectively, while right and left return alleys were chosen 32.4% and 67.6%, respectively. Exit arm and return alley were not independently chosen (p laterality was not related (α =.05) to time of day the test was administered, ewe's age or genetics, most recent liveweight, or most recent shorn fleece weight. The mean time spent in the start box (21 s) was not related to exit arm (p =.947) or return alley (p =.779). Mean time (15 s) spent in the T-maze was not related to exit arm (p =.086) or return alley (p =.952). More research will be required to understand sheep turning laterality and how it can impact working facilities and research equipment.

  5. Becoming with sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grum, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    The art project Becoming Sheep (2015), in which Charlotte Grum connected herself to a live sheep for 5 weeks, intended to explore the apparatuses producing human and non-human animals and to evoke the embodied and embedded mattering processes and practices, producing these very phenomena. Becoming...... Sheep turned into a diffractional aparatus cutting some things together and other things apart....

  6. Danish farmers and investors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajderllari, Luljeta; Karantininis, Konstantinos; Bonnichsen, Ole

    The purpose of this paper is to provide some evidence on the push and pull factors that motivate farmers to expand across their home countries’ borders. The focus is on Danish expansion farmers and investor farmers setting up activities in Central and Eastern European countries like Slovakia......, Poland, Romania and Latvia. Data from 44 mail surveys was analysed to explore the push and pull factors that contribute to farmers’ level of activities outside their home country. The responses given in the mail survey are analysed using two analytical methods of frequency analysis and an ordered probit...... model. The results indicate that the important factors for Danish farmers to extend overseas are price and availability of land, institutional governance, network and image with regard to farming. These findings generally support the literature regarding reasons for farmers to increase their cross...

  7. Succession Planning in Australian Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hicks

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The theme of this paper is that succession planning in Australian farming is under-developed.It may be linked to economic and social change which suggests that farmers need to adapt togenerational change but this is being resisted or ignored. The implications of this are the slowdecline of family farming, a poor transfer of skills and knowledge to subsequent generationsof farmers in some parts of the agricultural sector and the potential for an extension of thefinancial services industry to develop a more effective raft of succession planning measuresto mitigate the effects of a traditional approach to succession in agriculture.

  8. Determinants Of Cattle Farmers Particiaption In Farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the activities of the farmer organizations in Hamadan province of Iran. All the members of the cattle-breeding cooperative in Hamadan province (N= 550) were included in the study. By use of simple random method 75 respondents were selected. The study was a descriptive-exploration, survey research. A questionnaire ...

  9. Methane production by sheep and cattle in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minson, D. J.

    1993-02-01

    Using methane production rates from Australian feeds and local estimates of the quantity of feed eaten by different classes of animal, it was estimated that sheep and cattle in Australia produce 2.66 Tg methane in 1990. This value is 43% higher than previous estimates and indicates a need to reassess the methane production of ruminants in other countries.

  10. Mozambique - Farmer Income Support

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Trees For the epidemic zone, the evaluation estimated the impact of FISP on disease prevalence and estimated the consequent impact on coconut production and farmer...

  11. Farmers under pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade, Stefan Bastholm; Anneberg, Inger

    2013-01-01

    troubles are connected to convictions of neglect. Second, we analyse narratives where interviewed farmers, involved in cases of neglect, describe how they themselves experienced the incidents. We find that while livestock farmers in general have a low risk of animal neglect problems, a small percentage...... of them face severe financial difficulties, divorce and psychiatric problems, which are connected to an increased risk of being convicted for the neglect of farm animals. The narratives bring forward themes of pressure related to financial trouble, technological break down, family problems, stress...... and a growing concern among the farmers towards the governmental control in farm animal production. We discuss how these factors can be used to identify and help farmers with a high risk of being convicted of livestock neglect....

  12. Biological monitoring of chlorpyrifos exposure to rice farmers in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, Dung Tri; Connell, Des; Miller, Greg; Hodge, Mary; Patel, Renu; Cheng, Ron; Abeyewardene, Manel; Chu, Cordia

    2012-04-01

    Chlorpyrifos is the most common organophosphate insecticide registered for use in Vietnam and is widely used in agriculture, particularly rice farming. However, chlorpyrifos exposure to and adverse effects on farmers has not been evaluated. In this study, biological monitoring of chlorpyrifos exposure in a group of rice farmers was conducted after a typical application event using back-pack spraying. Urine samples (24 h) were collected from the rice farmers before and post insecticide application. Samples were analysed for 3,5,6-trichloropyridinol (TCP), the major urinary metabolite of chlorpyrifos, using an enzymatic pre-treatment before extraction followed by HPLC-MS/MS. Absorbed Daily Dose (ADD) of chlorpyrifos for farmers were then estimated from urinary TCP levels, expressed as μg g(-1)creatinine. The analytical method for urinary TCP had a low detection limit (0.6 μg L(-1)), acceptable recovery values (80-114%), and low relative percentage differences in duplicate and repeated samples. Post-application chlorpyrifos ADD of farmers varied from 0.4 to 94.2 μg kg(-1) (body weight) d(-1) with a mean of 19.4 μg kg(-1) d(-1) which was approximately 80-fold higher than the mean baseline exposure level (0.24 μg kg(-1) d(-1)). Hazard Quotients (ratio of the mean ADD for rice farmers to acute oral reference dose) calculated using acute oral reference doses recommended by United States and Australian agencies varied from 2.1 (Australian NRA), 4.2 (US EPA) to 6.9 (ATSDR). Biological monitoring using HPLC-MS/MS analysis of urinary TCP (24 h) was found to be an effective method for measuring chlorpyrifos exposure among farmers. This case study found that Vietnamese rice farmers had relatively high exposures to chlorpyrifos after application, which were likely to have adverse health effects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. testinal nematodes of sheep owned by smallholder farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    analyzed using the formula described by Dash et al. (1988), arithmetic means, and Presidente (1985), geometric means, of FECR. Nematodes egg counts were subject to logarithmic transformation, [log (x+1)], to stabilize variances (Mar- tin, 1982) and expressed as geometric means for the groups; and also for analy-.

  14. Australian Government Information Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Bert

    2017-01-01

    Provides an overview of Australian Government information resources. Features content from Australian Government agency websites such as the Department of Environment and Energy, Department of Defence, Australian National Maritime Museum, ANZAC Memorial in Sydney, Department of Immigration & Border Protection, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Dept. of Agriculture and Water Resources, Australian Parliament, Australian Treasury, Australian Transport Safety Board, and Australian Parl...

  15. Parturition difficulties in sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grommers, F. J.; Elving, L.; Eldik, P. van

    1985-01-01

    The incidence of difficult parturition was recorded in Texel Sheep lambs (224), Milk Sheep lambs (273) and various crossbreeds (1043) in ten spring lambing seasons. at lambing time the ewes were under 24-hour observation. Difficult parturition is defined as necessity for obstetrical assistance as

  16. Are cattle, sheep, and goats endangered species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taberlet, P; Valentini, A; Rezaei, H R; Naderi, S; Pompanon, F; Negrini, R; Ajmone-Marsan, P

    2008-01-01

    For about 10 000 years, farmers have been managing cattle, sheep, and goats in a sustainable way, leading to animals that are well adapted to the local conditions. About 200 years ago, the situation started to change dramatically, with the rise of the concept of breed. All animals from the same breed began to be selected for the same phenotypic characteristics, and reproduction among breeds was seriously reduced. This corresponded to a strong fragmentation of the initial populations. A few decades ago, the selection pressures were increased again in order to further improve productivity, without enough emphasis on the preservation of the overall genetic diversity. The efficiency of modern selection methods successfully increased the production, but with a dramatic loss of genetic variability. Many industrial breeds now suffer from inbreeding, with effective population sizes falling below 50. With the development of these industrial breeds came economic pressure on farmers to abandon their traditional breeds, and many of these have recently become extinct as a result. This means that genetic resources in cattle, sheep, and goats are highly endangered, particularly in developed countries. It is therefore important to take measures that promote a sustainable management of these genetic resources; first, by in situ preservation of endangered breeds; second, by using selection programmes to restore the genetic diversity of industrial breeds; and finally, by protecting the wild relatives that might provide useful genetic resources.

  17. Farmers' work-day noise exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Warwick; Brumby, Susan; Calvano, Adrian; Hatherell, Tracey; Mason, Heidi; Mercer-Grant, Cate; Hogan, Anthony

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to understand the extent of farmers' exposure to hazardous noise, and trial and test the ability of an on-farm noise audit report to improve awareness and preventative action towards farm based noise hazards. Visits were made to working farms where noise and dosimetry measurements undertaken. During return visits, the noise measurements were explained in a brief report. A follow-up questionnaire was implemented gathering feedback on the use or otherwise of the report. Working farms in Western Victoria and SE Queensland including dairy, beef, wool, prime lamb and cropping. Participants were 14 female and 37 male farm workers. Noise exposure assessment of daily activities through dosimetry; measurements of noisy tasks and machinery; supply and interpretation of a noise audit report. Participants were supplied with a 'noise report' of their workplace together with an explanation of the report's meaning to farm workers. Men and women have similar at risk exposures. The average noise exposure was 1.09 Pa(2)h (LAeq,8h  = 85.3 dB). This implies 163 000 Australian agricultural workers are at risk from hazardous noise. On-farm noise audit reports were a relevant and valuable feedback to farmers in relation to their potential noise hazards. Of those measured 51%, and by extrapolation 163 000 Australian agricultural workers, have noise exposure levels greater than the recommended Australian Standard of 1.01 Pa(2)h (85 dB). Men and women are equally exposed. On-farm noise audit reports are an effective feedback to increase awareness and improve hearing health. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  18. FARMERS'PERSPECTIVE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    outbreak of BBW but few knew its mode of spread and mainly in areas it has existed for some time (Kayunga,. Kamuli and Luwero). In the same sites, a good proportion of farmers knew the importance ofremoval ofmale buds and other control methods such as uprooting infected plants but implementation was a problem.

  19. Identification of Social Capital on Beef Cattle Farmers Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, V. S.; Sirajuddin, S. N.; Abdullah, A.

    2018-02-01

    Social capital plays an important role in the development of beef cattle farms in South Sulawesi. The aim of this research was to know the social capital of beef cattle farmers in South Sulawesi. Population of this research was 31 beef cattle farmers. Variable of social capital was mutual trust, norms and linkage. The data were collected from observation and depth interview by using questionnaire. There were 10 questions which were adopted from Australian Center for International Agriculture Research. The answer was scored by using Likert scale ranging from 1 refer to strongly disagree; 2 refer to disagree; 3 refer to not sure; 4 refer to agree and 5 refer to strongly agree. The data were analyzed descriptively by using frequency distribution. The research revealed that the social capital of beef cattle farmers was categorized as “high”.

  20. The sheep (Ovis aries) muscle proteome: Decoding the mechanisms of tolerance to Seasonal Weight Loss using label-free proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana M; Grossmann, Jonas; Fortes, Claudia; Kilminster, Tanya; Scanlon, Tim; Milton, John; Greeff, Johan; Oldham, Chris; Nanni, Paolo; Almeida, André M

    2017-05-24

    Seasonal Weight Loss (SWL) is one of the most pressing issues in animal production in the tropics and Mediterranean. This work aims to characterize muscle proteome changes as a consequence of SWL in meat producing sheep, using a label-free proteomics approach. We compare three breeds: the Australian Merino (SWL susceptible), the Damara (SWL tolerant) and the Dorper (SWL intermediate tolerance). We identified 668 proteins of the sheep proteome, 95 with differential regulation. Also we observe that the more vulnerable to SWL a breed is, the more differential abundance proteins we find. Protein binding was the most frequently altered molecular function identified. We suggest 6 putative markers for restricted nutritional conditions independently of breed: ferritin heavy-chain; immunoglobulin V lambda chain; transgelin; fatty acid synthase; glutathione S-transferase A2; dihydrodiol dehydrogenase 3-like. Moreover, we suggest as related to SWL tolerance: S100-A10 Serpin A3-5-like and Catalase, subject however to necessary validation assays. The identification of SWL-tolerance related proteins using proteomics will lead to increased stock productivity of relevant interest to animal production, particularly if identified at the muscle level, the tissue of economic importance in meat production. Seasonal Weight Loss (SWL) is the most pressing issue in animal production in the tropics and the Mediterranean. To counter SWL, farmers often use animal breeds that have a natural ability to withstand pasture scarcity. Here we study the sheep muscle proteome at the muscle level, the tissue of economic importance in meat production. Furthermore, the identification of proteins that change their abundance in response to SWL using proteomics can contribute to increased stock productivity of relevant interest to animal production. We identified 668 proteins of the sheep proteome. We demonstrate that the following proteins are affected by restricted nutritional conditions: ferritin heavy

  1. [Farmer's lung antigens in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennekamp, J; Joest, M; Sander, I; Engelhart, S; Raulf-Heimsoth, M

    2012-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that besides the long-known farmer's lung antigen sources Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula (Micropolyspora faeni), Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, and Aspergillus fumigatus, additionally the mold Absidia (Lichtheimia) corymbifera as well as the bacteria Erwinia herbicola (Pantoea agglomerans) and Streptomyces albus may cause farmer's lung in Germany. In this study the sera of 64 farmers with a suspicion of farmer's lung were examined for the following further antigens: Wallemia sebi, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus versicolor, and Eurotium amstelodami. Our results indicate that these molds are not frequent causes of farmer's lung in Germany. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Paratuberculosis in sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, P A

    2015-12-14

    considerations for animal health authorities. Although concerns of vaccine efficacy, safety and issues with diagnosis and administration persist, vaccination is increasingly recognized as providing a robust strategy for managing paratuberculosis, having made important contributions to the health of Australian sheep and the lives of producers with affected properties, and offering a mechanism to reduce risk of infection entering the food chain in ovine and caprine products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Conservation priorities for Ethiopian sheep breeds combining threat status, breed merits and contributions to genetic diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gizaw, S.; Komen, J.; Windig, J.J.; Hanotte, O.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Prioritizing livestock breeds for conservation needs to incorporate both genetic and non-genetic aspects important for the survival of the breeds. Here, we apply a maximum-utility-strategy to prioritize 14 traditional Ethiopian sheep breeds based on their threat status, contributions to farmer

  4. Methane production by sheep and cattle in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    MINSON, D. J.

    2011-01-01

    Using methane production rates from Australian feeds and local estimates of the quantity of feed eaten by different classes of animal, it was estimated that sheep and cattle in Australia produce 2.66 Tg methane in 1990. This value is 43% higher than previous estimates and indicates a need to reassess the methane production of ruminants in other countries.DOI: 10.1034/j.1600-0889.1993.00008.x

  5. The Effect of Comic Book’s Story Character and Color on Farmers’ Knowledge Gain About Small Sheep Farm Management in Kulur, District of Majalengka, West Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Satmoko

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available What kind of comic book’s character was best suited to small sheep farmers, what was their preferred color, and what were the combined effects of such characters and color on the farmers’ knowledge about small sheep farm management? These questions directed researchers to design a 2x2 factorial quasi experimental study. Four farmer groups were involved in the study. The results indicated that the comic book characters’ effect on the farmers’ knowledge gains was highly significant; the comic book’s color effect on the farmers’ knowledge gains was also significant, and the combined effect of the comic book’s character and colors was not significant. Further tests demonstrated that the farmer group exposed to the colored comic book with human character performed much better than the other three groups in the posttests. So, the conclusion was that farmers preferred the colored comic book with human character to learn the small sheep farm management.

  6. Productivity of Sumateran Composite dan Barbados Cross sheep breed in the field condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Setiadi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Two years field study has been carried out in the Purwakarta district , West Java, to evaluate sheep productivity of Sumateran Composite (K and Barbados cross (BC breeds introduced to the farmers, compared with locally thin tail sheep breed (L that were maintained by the farmers. Genotype compositions of K sheep were Barbados Blackbelly 25%, St. Croix 25%, and Sumateran sheep 50%; and for BC were Barbados Blackbelly 50% and Sumateran sheep 50%. Sheep those were introduced was new breed from breeding improvement of Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production. Litter size of K, BC, and L ewes was 1.3; 1.4; and 1.5 respectively. Pre-weaning mortality rate were 5.0; 5.0 and 8.0% respectively for K, BC, and L lambs. Ewe Reproduction Rate (LRI = number of lamb at weaning/ewe/year of L (2.14 was higher than BC (2.0 and K (1.85. The ewe productivity (PI = kg lambs/ewe/year is the average of weaning weight timed LRI. Because the weaning weight of L (7.0 kg were significantly lowest than BC (10.5 kg and K (9.25 kg will affect on PI. PI of L (14.98 ewe were significantly (P<00.5 lowest than BC (21 and K (17.11. Body weight of crossbred (K X L and BCxL under the same physiologic status were similarly with BC and K. According to the result of productivity evaluation of introduced sheep breed in the field condition, can be sumarize that productivity of K and BC sheep were significantly better than locally thin tail sheep.

  7. Occupational hearing loss in farmers.

    OpenAIRE

    Plakke, B L; Dare, E

    1992-01-01

    Studies have shown that there is a great deal of high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss among farmers. The studies have failed, however, to differentiate farmers who have occupational noise exposure only from other potential hearing loss etiologies. This study, through extensive case history information, has isolated a farm noise-exposure group and matched its members by age with persons with no significant noise exposure. Results indicate that farmers exposed only to noise from farming ha...

  8. Imported coenurosis in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweizer, G.; Grünenfelder, F.; Sydler, T.; Rademacher, N.; Braun, U.; Deplazes, P.

    2006-01-01

    Thirteen sheep from a milk producing farm in the Canton of Grisons that presented chronic coenurosis were examined and subjected to treatment trials at the veterinary hospital in Zurich. Symptoms were first observed around two months after the import of two dogs from Italy (Abruzza) of which one was infected with Taenia multiceps and Echinococcus granulosus. The most frequently observed clinical symptoms of the sheep were reduced general condition, circling, reduced menace reflex, apathy, unsteady gait and head tilt. Analyses of cerebrospinal fluid revealed an increased leucocyte count in 3 sheep and eosinophilia in 4 sheep. In 4 animals that underwent computertomography, one or more hypodense, definable lesions were found in the brain. In 2 sheep surgical treatment and in 10 animals medical treatment with either Praziquantel (n=8) or Oxfendazol (n=2) was attempted. Only one animal treated with Praziquantel needed not to be euthanized. At necropsy, one or two coenurus cysts could be found either in a side ventricle (n=2), in the cerebellum (n=3) or in the cerebrum (n=7). The locations corresponded with the clinical findings. Despite Praziquantel or Oxfendazol treatment, living protoscoleces could be found in the parasite cysts [de

  9. The effectiveness of Farmer Field School (FFS) training on farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the effectiveness of Farmer Field School (FFS) training on farmers\\' competence in Integrated Pest Management of cocoa and the transfer of knowledge to others in Ondo State, Nigeria. Using structured questionnaire and interview schedule, data from 60 randomly selected respondents made up of 30 ...

  10. Farming fit? Dispelling the Australian agrarian myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCoombe Scott

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rural Australians face a higher mental health and lifestyle disease burden (obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease than their urban counterparts. Our ongoing research reveals that the Australian farming community has even poorer physical and mental health outcomes than rural averages. In particular, farm men and women have high rates of overweightness, obesity, abdominal adiposity, high blood pressure and psychological distress when compared against Australian averages. Within our farming cohort we observed a significant association between psychological distress and obesity, abdominal adiposity and body fat percentage in the farming population. Presentation of hypothesis This paper presents a hypothesis based on preliminary data obtained from an ongoing study that could potentially explain the complex correlation between obesity, psychological distress and physical activity among a farming population. We posit that spasmodic physical activity, changing farm practices and climate variability induce prolonged stress in farmers. This increases systemic cortisol that, in turn, promotes abdominal adiposity and weight gain. Testing the hypothesis The hypothesis will be tested by anthropometric, biochemical and psychological analysis matched against systemic cortisol levels and the physical activity of the subjects. Implications of the hypothesis tested Previous studies indicate that farming populations have elevated rates of psychological distress and high rates of suicide. Australian farmers have recently experienced challenging climatic conditions including prolonged drought, floods and cyclones. Through our interactions and through the media it is not uncommon for farmers to describe the effect of this long-term stress with feelings of 'defeat'. By gaining a greater understanding of the role cortisol and physical activity have on mental and physical health we may positively impact the current rates of psychological

  11. Entrepreneurship of Dutch dairy farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergevoet, R.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    Several developments in the Netherlands as well as in the other countries within the EU are forcing dairy farmers to reconsider their involvement in dairy production. Farmers are being called to account more for the entrepreneurial element of their farming behaviour. Up till now it was unclear how

  12. Extensiveness of Farmers' Buying Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, M.; Meulenberg, M.T.G.; Broens, D.F.

    1997-01-01

    In this article we study farmers' buying processes, in particular the selection of a supplier for a given farm input. Extensiveness of farmers' buying processes is defined as the degree information acquisition and alternative evaluation effort carried out to prepare that selection. Hypotheses,

  13. The lived experience of low back pain among Irish farmers: case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Aoife; Blake, Catherine; Meredith, David; McNamara, John; Phelan, Jim; Cunningham, Caitriona

    2014-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is the most commonly reported musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) among farmers. There is limited researching regarding the lived experience of LBP among farmers. Video interviews were conducted with three dairy farmers who reported having a significant episode of LBP. The interview data were transcribed and analyzed, and results were presented in relation to the constructs explored. The farmers experienced their first significant episode of LBP in their late 20s or early 30s and all attributed their LBP to farm work or a farm-related incident. Hours worked per day ranged from 9 to 13 hours. Tasks identified by farmers that they were unable to do due to LBP included physical work, working with sheep, building work, and "certain jobs." Work changes made due to LBP included getting help, slowing down, avoiding strenuous work, carrying smaller loads, mechanizing the farm, using the tractor more, and wearing a back belt for certain jobs. Each farmer had his own way of preventing or managing his LBP, including a mix of active self-management and passive coping strategies such as swimming, using ice, spinal manipulation, and taking medication. The farmers were unable to quantify how much their LBP had cost them directly or indirectly. The case studies illustrate farmers engaging in ongoing work despite significant pain. All of the farmers have adapted at work and engaged in self-management strategies to reduce the occurrence of LBP. Given the rich data produced by these case studies, future case studies are recommended to gain greater insights into farmers' experiences concerning LBP.

  14. Farmers on Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Ann-Christina

    In 2007 the farm subsidies of the European Union's common agricultural policy took over 40 percent of the entire EU budget. How did a sesctor of diminishing social and economic importance manage to maintain such political prominence? The conventional answer focuses on the negotiations among...... the member states of the European Community from 1958 onward. That story holds that the political priority given to the CAP, as well as its long-term stability, resides in a basic devil's bargain between French agriculture and German industry. In Farmers on Welfare, a landmark new account of the making...... on extensive archival research from a variety of political actors across the Community, she illustrates how and why this supranational farm regime was created in the 1960s, and also provides us with a detailed narrative history of how national and European administrations gradually learned about this kind...

  15. Agriculture. Sheep Livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for sheep, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list. Each…

  16. Mulberry Foliage As Forage Protein Source For Sheep And Goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Yulistiani

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Protein is one of limiting nutrient factor that determine the production level of livestock including sheep and goat. However, the price of protein feed source from oil meal or animal by-products is expensive and sometimes it is not are affordable by small scale farmers in the village. On the other hand, ruminants animal have the advantage of having rumen which able in using protein from forage to meet their protein requirement. Therefore this is important to obtain alternative feed which is cheap, affordable and have high quality and available throughout the year to increase sheep and goat productivity. Mulbery (Morus alba plant can grow well all the year in tropical condition like Indonesia. Mulbery foliage has high protein content (> 20%, so it is potential to be used as protein foliage source in goat and sheep diet. Mulberry foliage supplementation in sheep diet could increase dry matter consumption 22.5% and followed by average daily gain 85% compared to unsuplemented diet.

  17. A super-spreading ewe infects hundreds with Q fever at a farmers' market in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner-Wiening Christiane

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In May 2003 the Soest County Health Department was informed of an unusually large number of patients hospitalized with atypical pneumonia. Methods In exploratory interviews patients mentioned having visited a farmers' market where a sheep had lambed. Serologic testing confirmed the diagnosis of Q fever. We asked local health departments in Germany to identiy notified Q fever patients who had visited the farmers market. To investigate risk factors for infection we conducted a case control study (cases were Q fever patients, controls were randomly selected Soest citizens and a cohort study among vendors at the market. The sheep exhibited at the market, the herd from which it originated as well as sheep from herds held in the vicinity of Soest were tested for Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii. Results A total of 299 reported Q fever cases was linked to this outbreak. The mean incubation period was 21 days, with an interquartile range of 16–24 days. The case control study identified close proximity to and stopping for at least a few seconds at the sheep's pen as significant risk factors. Vendors within approximately 6 meters of the sheep's pen were at increased risk for disease compared to those located farther away. Wind played no significant role. The clinical attack rate of adults and children was estimated as 20% and 3%, respectively, 25% of cases were hospitalized. The ewe that had lambed as well as 25% of its herd tested positive for C. burnetii antibodies. Conclusion Due to its size and point source nature this outbreak permitted assessment of fundamental, but seldom studied epidemiological parameters. As a consequence of this outbreak, it was recommended that pregnant sheep not be displayed in public during the 3rd trimester and to test animals in petting zoos regularly for C. burnetii.

  18. Fatal pneumonia of bighorn sheep following association with domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreyt, W J; Jessup, D A

    1982-04-01

    During 1979-1980 acute fibrinopurulent bronchopneumonia resulted in high mortality or total loss of herds of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in California and Washington. Contact with domestic sheep occurred shortly before the onset of disease in each case. Circumstantial evidence indicated that the apparently healthy domestic sheep transmitted pathogenic bacteria to the bighorns, resulting in mortality. Pasteurella multocida and Corynebacterium pyogenes were isolated from pulmonary tissue of dead bighorns. The presence of domestic sheep may have been an important stress which initiated or compounded the disease.

  19. Salmonella in Sheep in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnarsson E

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1995 several outbreaks of food poisoning in humans occurred in Iceland, that were traced to salmonella contamination of singed sheep heads. This prompted us to study the prevalence of salmonella infection in sheep and to trace where and how infection might have occurred. Faecal, intestinal contents and tonsillar samples were collected in the spring and autumn from sheep on 50 farms in the southwestern part of the country, where salmonellosis had been detected and from 5 farms in the northwestern part of the country. All faecal samples from the southwest were negative, whereas samples from 3 farms obtained in the autumn in the northwest were positive. Tonsillae taken in the autumn were positive in sheep from 3 farms in the southwest and 2 in the northwest. Our results show that salmonella infection is rare in Icelandic sheep but healthy carriers may harbour the bacteria in tonsillae. Salmonella was not detected in drainage from slaughterhouses nor in singed sheep heads.

  20. Schmallenberg Virus in Belgium: Estimation of Impact in Cattle and Sheep Herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poskin, A; Méroc, E; Behaeghel, I; Riocreux, F; Couche, M; Van Loo, H; Bertels, G; Delooz, L; Quinet, C; Dispas, M; Van der Stede, Y

    2017-02-01

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) emerged during summer 2011. SBV induced an unspecific syndrome in cattle and congenital signs (abortions, stillbirths and malformations) in domestic ruminants. To study the impact of SBV in Belgium, a phone survey was conducted upon September 2012. Hereto two groups of cattle farmers (A and B) and two groups of sheep farmers (C and D) were randomly selected. Farms from groups A (n = 53) and C (n = 42) received SBV-positive result at RT-PCR in the Belgian National Reference Laboratory (NRL). Farms from groups B (n = 29) and D (n = 44) never sent suspected samples to NRL for SBV analysis but were however presumed seropositive for SBV after the survey. Questionnaires related to reproduction parameters and clinical signs observed in newborn and adult animals were designed and addressed to farmers. As calculated on a basis of farmers' observations, 4% of calves in group A and 0.5% in group B were reported aborted, stillborn or deformed due to SBV in 2011-2012. The impact as observed by sheep farmers was substantially higher with 19% of lambs in group C and 11% in group D that were reported aborted, stillborn or deformed due to SBV in 2011-2012. Interestingly, abortions or stillbirths were not clear consequences of SBV outbreak in cattle farms, and the birth of a deformed animal was an essential condition to suspect SBV presence in cattle and sheep farms. This study contributes to a better knowledge of the impact of the SBV epidemic. The results suggest that SBV impacted Belgian herds mostly by the birth of deformed calves, stillborn lambs and deformed lambs. This work also demonstrates that the birth of a deformed calf or lamb was a trigger for the farmer to suspect the presence of SBV and send samples to NRL for further analyses. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Participatory Barley Variety Selection and Farmers' Selection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selection criteria was set together with farmers; and ranked by farmers and breeders. Farmers and breeders made visual score of each plot on 1-5 scale beside variety selection. Some farmers were supported by the staff in case of data recording problem. The result showed that grain yield, disease resistance, effective tillers ...

  2. Linkage disequilibrium compared between five populations of domestic sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Eva KF

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The success of genome-wide scans depends on the strength and magnitude of linkage disequilibrium (LD present within the populations under investigation. High density SNP arrays are currently in development for the sheep genome, however little is known about the behaviour of LD in this livestock species. This study examined the behaviour of LD within five sheep populations using two LD metrics, D' and x2'. Four economically important Australian sheep flocks, three pure breeds (White Faced Suffolk, Poll Dorset, Merino and a crossbred population (Merino × Border Leicester, along with an inbred Australian Merino museum flock were analysed. Results Short range LD (0 – 5 cM was observed in all five populations, however the persistence with increasing distance and magnitude of LD varied considerably between populations. Average LD (x2' for markers spaced up to 20 cM exceeded the non-syntenic average within the White Faced Suffolk, Poll Dorset and Macarthur Merino. LD decayed faster within the Merino and Merino × Border Leicester, with LD below or consistent with observed background levels. Using marker-marker LD as a guide to the behaviour of marker-QTL LD, estimates of minimum marker spacing were made. For a 95% probability of detecting QTL, a microsatellite marker would be required every 0.1 – 2.5 centimorgans, depending on the population used. Conclusion Sheep populations were selected which were inbred (Macarthur Merino, highly heterogeneous (Merino or intermediate between these two extremes. This facilitated analysis and comparison of LD (x2' between populations. The strength and magnitude of LD was found to differ markedly between breeds and aligned closely with both observed levels of genetic diversity and expectations based on breed history. This confirmed that breed specific information is likely to be important for genome wide selection and during the design of successful genome scans where tens of thousands of

  3. Fatal Pasteurella haemolytica pneumonia in bighorn sheep after direct contact with clinically normal domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreyt, W J

    1989-03-01

    Six Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep were raised in captivity from birth (n = 5) or taken from the wild as a lamb (n = 1). After the bighorn sheep were in captivity for over a year, 6 clinically normal domestic sheep were placed on the 2 ha of pasture on which the bighorn sheep were kept. Nasal swab specimens were obtained from all sheep at the time the domestic sheep were introduced. Pasteurella haemolytica was isolated from swab specimens obtained from 4 of 6 domestic sheep, but not from specimens obtained from the bighorn sheep. All 6 bighorn sheep died of acute hemorrhagic pneumonia after exposure to domestic sheep. Death in the bighorn sheep occurred on days 4, 27, 27, 29, 36, or 71 after initial exposure to domestic sheep. Pasteurella haemolytica was isolated from respiratory tract tissue specimens of all bighorn sheep at the time of death. None of the domestic sheep were clinically ill during the study. At the end of the study, 3 of 6 domestic sheep were euthanatized, and at necropsy, P haemolytica was isolated from 2 of them. The most common serotypes in bighorn and domestic sheep were P haemolytica T-3 and A-2. Other serotypes isolated included P haemolytica A-1, A-9, and A-11 in bighorn sheep and A-1 in domestic sheep. On the basis of results of this study and of other reports, domestic sheep and bighorn sheep should not be managed in proximity to each other because of the potential fatal consequences in bighorn sheep.

  4. Methane emission from free-ranging sheep: a comparison of two measurement methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuning, R.; Baker, S. K.; Jamie, I. M.; Hsu, C. H.; Klein, L.; Denmead, O. T.; Griffith, D. W. T.

    Methane emissions from a flock of 14, 1-year old sheep grazing on a grass and legume pasture were measured using a micrometeorological mass-balance method and a sulphur hexaflouride (SF 6) tracer technique. The former measured the mean emission, over 45 min intervals, from all the sheep within a fenced 24 m×24 m enclosure, from the enrichment of methane (CH 4) in air as it passed over the sheep. The tracer technique measured emissions from a subset of 7 individual animals over 24 h periods from measurements of CH 4 and SF 6 concentrations in air exhaled by the sheep, and from the known rate of release of SF 6 from small permeation tubes placed in the animals' rumens. Both methods gave highly similar results for 4 out of 5 days. When the species composition of dietary intake was steady during the last two days of measurement, the mean emission rate from the mass-balance method was 11.9±1.5 (SEM) g CH 4 sheep -1 d -1, while the rate from the tracer technique was 11.7±0.4 (SEM) g CH 4 sheep -1 d -1. These rates are for sheep with mean live mass of 27 kg, with a measured dry matter intake of 508 g sheep -1 d -1 and pasture dry matter digestibility of 69.5%. There was close agreement between these measurements and estimates from algorithms used to predict methane emissions from sheep for the Australian National Greenhouse Gas Inventory.

  5. Using the choice experiment method in the design of breeding goals in dairy sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragkos, A; Abas, Z

    2015-02-01

    Market failures are the main cause of poor acknowledgement of the true impact of functional sheep traits on the management and economic performance of farms, which results in their omission from the breeding goal or the estimation of non-representative economic weights in the breeding goal. Consequently, stated-preference non-market valuation techniques, which recently emerged to mitigate these problems, are necessary to estimate economic weights for functional traits. The purpose of this paper is to present an example of the use of a choice experiment (CE) in the estimation of economic weights for sheep traits for the design of breeding goals. Through a questionnaire survey the preferences of sheep farmers are recorded and their marginal willingness to pay (MWTP) for 10 production and functional traits is estimated. Data are analysed using random parameter logit models. The results reveal unobserved preference heterogeneity for fertility, adaptability to grazing and resistance to disease, thus highlighting that these traits are appreciated differently by farmers, because their needs are diverse. Positive MWTP is found for Greek breeds, high milk production and lambs with low fat deposition, for which there is high demand in Greek markets. On the other hand, MWTP for the cheese-making ability of milk is negative, stemming from the fact that sheep milk prices in Greece are not formulated according to milk composition. In addition, farmers seem to understand differences between udder shapes and attribute different values to various types. This application of the CE method indicates that communication channels among farmers and breeders should be established in order to enhance market performance and to provide orientation to the design of breeding programmes. Non-market valuation can be used complementarily to market valuation techniques, in order to provide accurate estimates for production and functional traits.

  6. Biosecurity on Finnish cattle, pig and sheep farms - results from a questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlström, Leena; Virtanen, Terhi; Kyyrö, Jonna; Lyytikäinen, Tapani

    2014-11-01

    Biosecurity is important in order to prevent disease transmission between animals on farms as well as from farm to farm. Personal biosecurity routines such as hand washing and the use of protective clothing and footwear are measures that should be used at all farms. Other measures are for example related to purchasing new animals to the farm. A questionnaire-based survey was undertaken to study the frequency of use of different biosecurity measures on cattle, pig and sheep farms in Finland. Information about which biosecurity measures are in use is needed for contingency planning of emerging diseases or when combating endemic diseases. Knowledge about the level of biosecurity of a farm is also needed in order to assess if and where improvement is needed. Information regarding biosecurity levels may benefit future animal disease risk assessments. A total of 2242 farmers responded to the questionnaire resulting in a response rate of 45%. The implementation frequencies of different biosecurity measures are reported. The results revealed differences between species: large pig farms had a better biosecurity level than small cattle farms. There were also differences between production types such as dairy farming versus beef cattle farming, but these were not as remarkable. Sheep farming in Finland is sparse and the large number of hobby farmers keeps the biosecurity level low on sheep farms. This might represent a risk for the entire sheep farming industry. The Finnish farmers were satisfied with their on-farm biosecurity. Eighty percent of the farmers report that they were satisfied even though the biosecurity level was not particularly high. The implementation of biosecurity measures could be further improved. Even though the disease situation in Finland is good today, one must be prepared for possible epidemics of threatening diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. 9 CFR 91.8 - Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sheep. 91.8 Section 91.8 Animals and... EXPORTATION Diagnostic Tests, Treatments § 91.8 Sheep. (a) No sheep shall be exported if it is a scrapie..., parent, or sibling of any scrapie-positive animal. (1) Sheep exported for immediate slaughter need not...

  8. Understanding collaborative partnerships between farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asai, Masayasu

    arrangements, either as family or neighbors, or through their local or professional networks. Social relationships are also shown to play an important role in shaping the functions of partnerships, expressed for example in the burden-sharing of manure transportation and spreading, frequency of communication......, duration of the partnership and transport distance. The most important aspects of farmers' perception of successful collaborative arrangements seem to be trust, continuity, flexibility and accessibility. These findings supplement the understanding of farmer collaboration based on spatial-economic models...

  9. Perímetro escrotal e idade à puberdade em ovinos Merino Australiano submetidos a diferentes regimes alimentares - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i4.1179 Scrotal perimeter and age of puberty in Australian Merino Sheep, submitted to different alimentary strategies - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i4.1179

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Franco Martins

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Testou-se a hipótese de que animais bem alimentados durante a vida fetal e durante o período pós-parto apresentariam melhor desempenho reprodutivo que aqueles com alimentação restrita durante a vida fetal e/ou no pós-parto, sendo animais com menor idade à puberdade. Utilizaram-se 120 ovelhas Merino Australiano prenhes com 60 dias de gestação, distribuídas em fatorial 2x2, com quatro níveis nutricionais, tendo metade de seus grupos invertidos. Os animais foram pesados no nascimento, e as ovelhas que pariram fêmeas foram eliminadas e os machos identificados por brincos de cores diferentes (laranja, roxo, preto e verde e distribuídos entre os tratamentos. O escore corporal manteve as mesmas relações observadas para o peso corporal entre os grupos. Os animais de brinco preto apresentaram menor perímetro escrotal aos 132 dias, com maior crescimento escrotal, decorrente da melhora nutricional desses animais em determinados períodos. Como condição de escore corporal, o perímetro escrotal manteve a mesma relação entre os grupos, como observado para o peso corporal, com o grupo laranja com maior perímetro, seguido pelo grupo roxo, pelo verde e pelo preto. Apenas 62,5% dos animais manifestaram puberdade até o final do experimento. Os animais atingiram a puberdade com escore, com perímetro e com idade semelhantes, entretanto tiveram pesos diferentesThe hypothesis that animals well fed during the fetal life and in the post parturition would present better reproductive performance than those with restricted feeding, during the fetal life and/or in the post parturition was experimented pointing out that younger animals reach puberty first. One hundred and twenty pregnant Australian Merino sheep were used on the 60th day of gestation, distributed in a 2x2 factorial, with four nutritional levels, half of groups being were inverted. Birth weights were recorded. The females were eliminated and the males were identified by using earrings

  10. The use of a Psoroptes ovis serodiagnostic test for the analysis of a natural outbreak of sheep scab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgess Stewart TG

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sheep scab is a highly contagious disease of sheep caused by the ectoparasitic mite Psoroptes ovis. The disease is endemic in the UK and has significant economic impact through its effects on performance and welfare. Diagnosis of sheep scab is achieved through observation of clinical signs e.g. itching, pruritis and wool loss and ultimately through the detection of mites in skin scrapings. Early stages of infestation are often difficult to diagnose and sub-clinical animals can be a major factor in disease spread. The development of a diagnostic assay would enable farmers and veterinarians to detect disease at an early stage, reducing the risk of developing clinical disease and limiting spread. Methods Serum samples were obtained from an outbreak of sheep scab within an experimental flock (n = 480 (3 samples each from 160 sheep allowing the assessment, by ELISA of sheep scab specific antibody prior to infestation, mid-outbreak (combined with clinical assessment and post-treatment. Results Analysis of pre-infestation samples demonstrated low levels of potential false positives (3.8%. Of the 27 animals with clinical or behavioural signs of disease 25 tested positive at the mid-outbreak sampling period, however, the remaining 2 sheep tested positive at the subsequent sampling period. Clinical assessment revealed the absence of clinical or behavioural signs of disease in 132 sheep, whilst analysis of mid-outbreak samples showed that 105 of these clinically negative animals were serologically positive, representing potential sub-clinical infestations. Conclusions This study demonstrates that this ELISA test can effectively diagnose sheep scab in a natural outbreak of disease, and more importantly, highlights its ability to detect sub-clinically infested animals. This ELISA, employing a single recombinant antigen, represents a major step forward in the diagnosis of sheep scab and may prove to be critical in any future control

  11. ANTIPARASITICAL PROTECTION IN SHEEP FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOINA ARDELEANU

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Through our researches were carried out at ICDCOC- Palas, Constantza, we proposed ourselves to establish the poly-parasitism structure on sheep, as well as elaborating efficientical methods for anti-parasitical prophylaxis and fighting in sheep populations and pasture sourfaces, in order to ensuring anti-parasitical protection in sheep exploitations The copro-parasitological examinations was carried ovoscopicaly (flotation - by Willis and Mc. Master methods; sediment – by polyvalent method and larvoscopicaly – by Baermann method. The parasitological examination of coprological smears which were harvested on sheep showed the presence of polyparasitism phenomenon with protozoans (coccidiae: Eimeria spp. and helmints (cestodae: Moniesia expansa; gastro-intestinal nemathodes: Trichostrongylus spp., Nematodirus spp., Strongyloides papillosus and pulmonary nemathodes: Müellerius capillaris, Protostrongylus rufescens, Dictyocaulus filaria. Also, we proposed ourselves to study the paresites and their intermediary stages on pastures which were exploited with sheep, comparatively with mowed pastures. In the ansamble of research activities a special place is occupied by testing differents methods, in order to prevention and fighting of parasitical infestations on sheep and pasture in sheep farms.

  12. Selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations.

    OpenAIRE

    Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; San Cristobal, Magali; Boitard, Simon; Drögemüller, Cord; The International Sheep Genomics Consortium, ISGC

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep popula...

  13. Selection Signatures in Worldwide Sheep Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; Cristobal, Magali San; Boitard, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep popula...

  14. Factors affecting farmers networking decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pascucci, S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses farmers' decisions to carry out transactions by using three different types of networks: input supply cooperatives, processing and/or marketing cooperatives, and producers associations. We use arguments from economic sociology and new institutional economics to define the main

  15. Research-extension-farmer linkages

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    i Training extension staff and farmers . ..ii Producing fry for satellite centres at the regions and for fish fanners; and iii Conducting experiments on fish production, productivity and water quality. Restructuring of Agricultural Research and Extension services. The organisation ofUganda's national agricultural research.

  16. Constraints To Farmers Effective Participation In Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eastern Nigeria is the provision of agricultural extension services to farmers. This study, therefore, examined the constraints to farmers' effective participation in the agricultural extension programmes of four non-profit NGOs in three states of ...

  17. Armenia - Water to Market Farmer Training

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The Farming Practices Survey (FPS) was commissioned by MCC to evaluate the impact of Water-to-Market (WtM) activities, particularly farmer training, on rural farmers...

  18. Assessing the diversity of preferences of suburban smallholder sheep keepers for breeding rams in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindano, K; Moula, N; Traoré, A; Leroy, P; Antoine-Moussiaux, N

    2017-08-01

    Urbanisation in developing countries entails deep changes in the livestock sector and the management of animal genetic resources (AnGR). Sheep breeding around Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) illustrates these changes and the need to coordinate genetic improvement in general and the use of crossbreeding in particular. For this, it is important to understand breeders' choices and improvement strategy, to accompany them within a national plan for AnGR management. In a context of missing market for breeding rams, a stated choice experiment was conducted with 137 farmers, together with a characterisation of herd management practices. This survey analyses farmers' preferences for breeding rams, estimating their willingness to pay (WTP) for different traits (attributes). Their practices were characterised by a high reliance on natural pastures (82% of farmers) and a minority of crossbreeding (23%). The highest WTP was observed for disease resistance. However, the subgroup of farmers practicing crossbreeding showed a tolerance to high susceptibility. A strong preference for the white colour was revealed. Although significant, the influence of sheep body size on decision-making showed a lesser importance, again with a distinct behaviour in the subgroup practicing crossbreeding. These results illustrate the need to take account of the diversity of goals and preferences among smallholder sheep keepers to gain their adhesion to a coordinated genetic improvement framework.

  19. Training Needs Assessment of Cocoa Farmers Association ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of soil fertility on the performance of any crop cannot be overemphasized. The study assessed cocoa farmers' training needs on soil management techniques in Cross River State of Nigeria. Study data were obtained from random sample of farmers belonging to Cocoa Farmers Association of Nigeria (CFAN) in ...

  20. Institutional Factors Influencing Crop Farmers Adoption of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E M IGBOKWE

    A total of 260 crop farmers who have sustained the use of agrochemicals for at ..... Internet. 105 (40.4). 10th. NAFDAC. 88 (32.3). 11th. EPA. 36 (13.8). 12th. Extension Visits to Crop Farmers. More than 30% of crop farmers were not visited in the last one ..... parameters of eggplant protection in Jessore District of Bangladesh.

  1. Factors Influencing Livelihood Diversification among Rural Farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research study was set out to analyze factors influencing rural farmer's engagement in livelihood diversification in the study area. The specific objectives were; to identify the different levels of farmers' engagement in livelihood diversification, determine the socio-demographic factors or forces that influence farmers' ...

  2. Farmers' involvement in agricultural problems identification and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Majority of the technologies disseminated were not based on farmers' identified problems and felt needs. Some of the constraints that might have militated against farmers' involvement were poor motivation and encouragement of farmers by researchers and extension officers, lack of adequate knowledge of research and ...

  3. Iinformation accessibility and farmers manageriability of guinea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the farmers' access to information and their manageriability of the intervention programme in the study area. To achieve the objective, there was need to determine farmers' information accessibility and manageriability of guinea worm intervention package; then determine farmers satisfaction with the ...

  4. Impact of Training Bolivian Farmers on Integrated Pest Management and Diffusion of Knowledge to Neighboring Farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; Konradsen, Flemming; Huici, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Teaching farmers Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in Farmer Field Schools (FFS) has led to reduced pesticide use and safer handling. This article evaluates the long term impact of training farmers on IPM and the diffusion of knowledge from trained farmers to neighboring farmers, a subject...... the impact of the intervention, self-reported knowledge and practice on pesticide handling and IPM among trained farmers (N=23) and their neighboring farmers (N=47) were analyzed in a follow up study and compared in a cross-sectional analysis to a control group of farmers (N=138) introduced in 2009....... Variables were analyzed using χ(2)-test test and ANOVA. Trained farmers improved and performed significantly better in all tested variables than their neighboring farmers, although the latter also improved their performance from 2002 t0 2009. Including a control group showed an increasing trend in all...

  5. Zimbabwean farmers in Nigeria: exceptional farmers or spectacular support?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Abdul Raufu

    2011-01-01

    Since 2004, white commercial farmers displaced under Zimbabwe's fast-track land reform programme have established new successful farms near the central Nigerian town of Shonga. This article explores the basis of that success. It addresses three key questions: (1) What has actually happened near Shonga since 2004? (2) What or who is driving the process of agrarian transformation? And (3) What are the long-term consequences for the peasantry since Nigerian agriculture is still largely peasant-based? It argues that contrary to popular myths of ‘enterprising’ white Zimbabwean farmers, the process is driven by a complex group of actors, including the national and regional states. Comparative evidence from similar transplantations of Zimbabwean farmers suggests that active state support is central to the success of Shonga. With respect to the relationship between the commercial farms and the peasantry, it is argued that all the synergies included in the project design to promote a symbiotic development have failed to materialize. As a result, the peasantry faces a process of ‘development by dispossession’.

  6. Organic Sheep and Goat Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmann, Gerold

    2007-01-01

    Organic sheep and goat farming is on the rise in Germany and the EU. Many consumers see organic farms as an example of the "intact world" of farming and rural living. Agrienvironmental schemes support conversion from conventional towards organic farming. Only few know how difficult organic sheep and goat farming is from animal welfare, ecological and economic perspective. Newcomers particularly overestimate the production and marketing potential of the field, and underestimate the associated ...

  7. A report on the levels of radiocaesium activity in mountain sheep October - December 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgan, P.A.

    1988-02-01

    This report details the in vivo monitoring of mountain sheep undertaken by the Nuclear Energy Board during the period 5th October to 18th December 1987. A total of 636 farms in upland areas in eight counties were visited and 7,429 sheep were monitored. In addition, monitoring of sheep for the home and export market was undertaken at five slaughterhouses where a further 779 animals were examined. The farm monitoring identified 989 sheep with radiocaesium activities above 600 Bq/kg, of which 162 were above 1000 Bq/kg. Statistical testing was used to identify areas deemed to be 'reserved' and 'cleared' in each of the counties visited. It is concluded that the imposition of restrictions on the movement and slaughter of sheep may not be the most effective means of preventing animals with unacceptably high radiocaesium concentrations reaching the market. A programme of farmer education in stock management, allied to in vivo monitoring at slaughterhouses serving both the domestic and export markets, is put forward as the most effective method of ensuring the protection of the public

  8. Organic dairy farmers put more emphasis on production traits than conventional farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slagboom, Margot; Kargo, Morten; Edwards, David

    2016-01-01

    with herd characteristics and production systems (organic or conventional). We established a web-based survey to characterize the preferences of farmers for improvements in 10 traits, by means of pairwise rankings. We also collected a considerable number of herd characteristics. Overall, 106 organic farmers......, and farmers that gave the highest ranking to cow and heifer fertility had the lowest conception rate in their herds. This finding suggests that farmers prefer to improve traits that are more problematic in their herd. The proportion of organic and conventional farmers also differed between clusters; we found...... a higher proportion of organic farmers in the production-based clusters. When we analyzed organic and conventional data separately, we found that organic farmers ranked production traits higher than conventional farmers. The herds of organic farmers had lower milk yields and lower disease incidences, which...

  9. External and internal modulators of sheep reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blache, Dominique; Bickell, Samantha L

    2011-12-01

    Several factors such as season, genetics, social interaction and metabolic status control or modulate the reproductive capacity of sheep. In addition to these well-studied factors in sheep, the influence of emotional reactivity on the reproductive success of sheep has started to be investigated over the last two decades. In this paper, after briefly reviewing the impact of classical factors affecting reproduction in sheep, we define emotional reactivity and the expression of its inter-individual variability, named temperament. Then, following a description of the protocol to measure temperament in sheep and discussion on the heritability of temperament traits, we illustrate how this selection affects the reproductive biology of sheep. We will be mainly using results obtained from a unique flock of sheep selected for low or high emotional reactivity. In conclusion, we propose that energy partitioning could be one of the mechanisms by which selection for temperament in sheep affects the different steps of the reproductive cycle.

  10. Integrating agroforestry and sheep feed in Mali

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    feed reduces the meat production of sheep. Agroforestry offers the potential for better herd management, ... species are available year-round and can supply valuable nutrition during this period. The project will test different species of woody forage crops for nutritional content, sheep preference, and sheep growth rates, and ...

  11. Sheep Production Occupations. Skills and Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabol, Joe

    This report summarizes the findings of a national study to determine what skills and competencies are needed by beginning employees on sheep ranches and farms, lamb feedlots, and in the sheep shearing industry. The research procedure, which involved determining from the sheep industry the competencies needed by beginning employees in the thirteen…

  12. Records of ectoparasites on humans and sheep from Viking-age deposits in the former western settlement of Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, J P

    1990-07-01

    During recent archaeological excavations in Viking Greenland, specimens of the human flea, Pulex irritans L., and the body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus L., were recovered from several farmsteads. Bovicola ovis (Schrank) and the sheep ked, Melophagus ovinus (L.), also were found in associated deposits. The specimens were dated from about AD 990 to AD 1350. These finds raise questions about the levels of hygiene of the Viking farmers and open some interesting medical and biogeographical conundrums.

  13. Production trials involving use of the FAMACHA© system for haemonchosis in sheep : preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Van Wyk

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In three trials conducted on two separate farms the production of sheep treated for naturally acquired haemonchosis using the FAMACHA© system of targeted selective treatment (TST (i.e. to treat only those animals unable to manage unaided in the face of heavy Haemonchus challenge was compared to that of suppressively drenched sheep in the same flock. As expected by the research team who developed and evaluated the FAMACHA© system, TST did result in some loss in production. However, despite high levels of worm challenge in two of the trials and the fact that the comparison was with suppressive drenching which is not sustainable, the total effect was relatively small in relation to the important advantage of using the TST as regards reduced selection for anthelmintic resistance (AR. Concerning the sustainability of worm control, it is concluded that the development of drug resistance to anthelmintics leaves sheep and goat farmers in South Africa no choice but to use methods of TST such as FAMACHA©. The FAMACHA© system can also be a useful clinical aid for early on-farm detection of AR by farmers; the degree of improvement in the colour of the ocular mucous membrane from pale to red in individually drenched anaemic animals over a period of 7-14 days can give a good indication of the efficacy of the compound(s used.

  14. Farmers' willingness to pay for groundwater protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Erik; Zimmerman, Rae

    1999-03-01

    The effectiveness of current groundwater protection policies depends largely on farmers' voluntary compliance with leaching reduction measures, an important component of which is their willingness to adopt costlier production practices in order to prevent leaching of chemicals. Data from an original survey of 1611 corn and soybean growers in the mid-Atlantic region were used to estimate farmers' willingness to pay to prevent leaching of pesticides into groundwater. The results indicate that farmers are willing to pay more for leaching prevention than nonfarm groundwater consumers, both absolutely and relative to total income. The primary motivation appears to be concern for overall environmental quality rather than protection of drinking water or the health and safety of themselves and their families. Hobby farmers are willing to pay more than farmers with commercial activity. Certified pesticide applicators are willing to pay less than farmers without certification.

  15. ASSESSING ECONOMIC RETURNS FROM FARMERS' RIGHTS

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan, Chittur S.

    2003-01-01

    Many developing countries are attempting to address the inequities of plant breeders' rights by incorporating farmers' rights provisions in their Plant Variety Protection legislations to reward the role of farmers' as conservers and enhancers of agro-biodiversity. Developing countries expect to generate substantial revenues for biodiversity conservation or for community reward schemes through the application of farmers' rights provisions. This paper applies a patent-renewal model to assess th...

  16. Danish dairy farmers' perception of biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Erling; Jakobsen, Esben B

    2011-05-01

    To implement biosecurity measures at farm-level is a motivational challenge to dairy farmers as emerging diseases and their consequences largely are unpredictable. One of the reasons for this challenge is that outcomes are more likely to benefit society than the individual farmer. From the individual farmer's point of view the impacts of zoonotic risk, international trade and welfare concerns appear less obvious than the direct costs at farm-level. Consequently, a social dilemma may arise where collective interests are at odds with private interests. To improve biosecurity at farm-level farmers must be motivated to change behavior in the 'right' direction which could provide selfish farmers with unintended possibilities to exploit the level of biosecurity provided by other dairy farmers' collective actions. Farmers' perception of risk of disease introduction into a dairy herd was explored by means of Q-methodology. Participating farmers owned very large dairy herds and were selected for this study because Danish legislation since 2008 has required that larger farms develop and implement a farm specific biosecurity plan. However, a year from introduction of this requirement, none of the participating farmers had developed a biosecurity plan. Farmers' perception of biosecurity could meaningfully be described by four families of perspectives, labeled: cooperatives; confused; defectors, and introvert. Interestingly, all families of perspectives agreed that sourcing of animals from established dealers represented the highest risk to biosecurity at farm-level. Farmers and policy-makers are faced with important questions about biosecurity at farm-level related to the sanctioning system within the contextual framework of social dilemmas. To solve these challenges we propose the development of a market-mediated system to (1) reduce the risk of free-riders, and (2) provide farmers with incentives to improve biosecurity at farm-level. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All

  17. More feed efficient sheep produce less methane and carbon dioxide when eating high-quality pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganoni, B; Rose, G; Macleay, C; Jones, C; Brown, D J; Kearney, G; Ferguson, M; Thompson, A N

    2017-09-01

    The Australian sheep industry aims to increase the efficiency of sheep production by decreasing the amount of feed eaten by sheep. Also, feed intake is related to methane production, and more efficient (low residual feed intake) animals eat less than expected. So we tested the hypothesis that more efficient sheep produce less methane by investigating the genetic correlations between feed intake, residual feed intake, methane, carbon dioxide, and oxygen. Feed intake, methane, oxygen, and carbon dioxide were measured on Merino ewes at postweaning (1,866 at 223 d old), hogget (1,010 sheep at 607 d old), and adult ages (444 sheep at 1,080 d old). Sheep were fed a high-energy grower pellet ad libitum for 35 d. Individual feed intake was measured using automated feeders. Methane was measured using portable accumulation chambers up to 3 times during this feed intake period. Heritabilities and phenotypic and genotypic correlations between traits were estimated using ASReml. Oxygen (range 0.10 to 0.20) and carbon dioxide (range 0.08 to 0.28) were generally more heritable than methane (range 0.11 to 0.14). Selecting to decrease feed intake or residual feed intake will decrease methane (genetic correlation [] range 0.76 to 0.90) and carbon dioxide ( range 0.65 to 0.96). Selecting to decrease intake ( range 0.64 to 0.78) and methane ( range 0.81 to 0.86) in sheep at postweaning age would also decrease intake and methane in hoggets and adults. Furthermore, selecting for lower residual feed intake ( = 0.75) and carbon dioxide ( = 0.90) in hoggets would also decrease these traits in adults. Similarly, selecting for higher oxygen ( = 0.69) in hoggets would also increase this trait in adults. Given these results, the hypothesis that making sheep more feed efficient will decrease their methane production can be accepted. In addition, carbon dioxide is a good indicator trait for feed intake because it has the highest heritability of the gas traits measured; is cheaper, faster, and

  18. Sweetpotato breeding for northeastern Uganda: farmer varieties, farmer-participatory selection, and stability of performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abidin, P.E.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Agro-biodiversity, farmer varieties, indigenous knowledge, farmer-participatory research, genetic diversity, genotype-by-environment interaction, germplasm collection, Ipomoea batatas , specific adaptation, yield stability, sweetpotato, variance component

  19. Conservation priorities for Ethiopian sheep breeds combining threat status, breed merits and contributions to genetic diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windig Jack J

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Prioritizing livestock breeds for conservation needs to incorporate both genetic and non-genetic aspects important for the survival of the breeds. Here, we apply a maximum-utility-strategy to prioritize 14 traditional Ethiopian sheep breeds based on their threat status, contributions to farmer livelihoods (current breed merits and contributions to genetic diversity. Contributions of the breeds to genetic diversity were quantified using Eding's marker-estimated kinship approaches. Non-genetic aspects included threats (e.g. low population size, low preferences by farmers and current merits (economic, ecological and cultural merits. Threat analysis identified eight of the 14 breeds as threatened. Analysis of current merits showed that sub-alpine and arid-lowland breeds contribute most to farmer livelihoods in comparison to other breeds. The highest contribution to the genetic diversity conserved was from the Simien breed. Simien showed high between-breed (low between-breed kinship = 0.04 as well as high within-breed diversity (low within-breed kinship = 0.09 and high HE = 0.73 and allelic richness = 6.83. We combined the results on threat status, current breed merits and contributions to genetic diversity to produce a ranking of the 14 breeds for conservation purposes. Our results balance the trade-offs between conserving breeds as insurance against future uncertainties and current sustainable utilization. The ranking of breeds provides a basis for conservation strategies for Ethiopian sheep and contributes to a regional or global conservation plan.

  20. REPRODUCTIVE SEASONALITY AND ITS CONTROL IN SPANISH SHEEP AND GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Gómez Brunet

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sheep and goat breeds from subtropical, middle and high latitudes show seasonal changes in reproductive activity. In general, the breeding season starts in autumn and ends in winter, with anoestrus in spring/summer. An endogenous circannual rhythm driven and synchronised by the annual photoperiod cycle regulates the onset and offset of the breeding season. However, the timing and duration of the breeding season can be affected by interactions between the photoperiod and factors such as breed, geographical origin, nutritional and lactational status, social interactions, and the season of parturition. Seasonality in reproduction is naturally accompanied by variation in the availability and price of meat, milk and cheese over the year, affecting the economy of farmers, consumers and the food industry alike. The control of reproduction outside the normal breeding season by inducing and synchronizing oestrus and ovulation plus the use of artificial insemination and/or natural mating would help ensure the year-round availability of products. This review describes the seasonal variation in the sexual activity of ovine and caprine species with special regard to local Spanish sheep and goats breeds, examines how the photoperiod regulates their annual reproductive cycle, and discusses a number of strategies that can be used to induce and synchronise ovulation outside the natural breeding season.

  1. Subacute and acute fasciolosis in sheep in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiss, Leticia; de Lourdes Adrien, Maria; Marcolongo-Pereira, Clairton; Assis-Brasil, Nathalia D; Sallis, Eliza S V; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Ruas, Jerônimo L; Schild, Ana Lucia

    2013-02-01

    Eight outbreaks of acute and subacute fasciolosis are reported in sheep in the municipality of Santa Vitória do Palmar, southern Brazil, in areas used for irrigated rice cultivation, which are subject to frequent flooding. Two outbreaks occurred mid-winter during July and August, and six occurred during spring and early summer. Morbidity ranged from 3 to 66.7 %, and mortality ranged from 3 to 50 %. Clinical signs included weight loss, mucosal pallor, apathy, depression, muscle tremors, and drooling; these were followed by death within approximately 24 h. Some sheep were found dead. Gross lesions were characterized by an irregular liver capsule with fibrin deposition and hemorrhages. The liver parenchyma contained hemorrhagic tracts or irregular clear areas alternated with dark hemorrhagic areas. Histologically, hemorrhagic dark red tracts of necrotic liver parenchyma and an inflammatory infiltrate were noted; these lesions coincided with the presence of immature flukes. Langhans-type giant cells, fibrous tissue, and bile duct cell proliferation were observed in subacute cases. Chronic fasciolosis is a well-known disease to farmers in southern Brazil; nevertheless, acute and subacute fasciolosis, which are more difficult to diagnose and treat, may cause important economic losses. Efficient control of fasciolosis requires integration of measures to treat infections in the definitive host, to reduce the population of snails of the genus Lymnaea, and to avoid contact between the parasite and host by appropriate pasture management.

  2. Do organic farmers have different risk attitudes than non-organic farmers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardebroek, C.

    2002-01-01

    Perceived risks of organic farming are often suggested to be an impediment for non-organic farmers to switch to organic farming. If this hypothesis holds, organic farmers should be less risk averse than non-organic farmers. This paper estimates absolute Arrow-Pratt coefficients of risk aversion for

  3. Socioeconomic Effects of Farmer-Pastoralist Conflict on Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socioeconomic Effects of Farmer-Pastoralist Conflict on Agricultural Extension Service Delivery in Oyo State, Nigeria. ... The majority (71%) of farmers suffer economic losses from farmer-pastoralist conflicts. ... There was a significant difference (p=0.000) in socio-economic losses among farmers and pastoralists. Farmers are ...

  4. Effect of integrated pest management farmer field school (IPMFFS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research aimed to explore the effect of the Integrated Pest Management Farmer Field School (IPMFFS), on farmer knowledge, farmer group's ability, process of adoption and diffusion of IPM in Jember district. The population of the research was 556 farmer groups consisting of 22.240 farmers engaged in the IPMFFS in ...

  5. Seroprevalence and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii in sheep in Grosseto district, Tuscany, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenci-Goga Beniamino T

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serum samples from 630 milk sheep, in 33 dairy flocks representative of the southern area of the Tuscany region, were tested for the presence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii using an indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT. Questionnaires exploring the management system were completed by the veterinarian in charge of the flocks. Results At least one seropositive animal was found in 32 of the 33 flocks tested (97.0%; 95% CI: 84.2%, 99.9%. In the positive flocks, median seroprevalence was 29.4% (interquartile range: 15.9%-46.1%. Overall animal-level seroprevalence, adjusted for sampling weights and test sensitivity and specificity, was 33.3% (95% CI: 24.8%, 42.7%. In a multivariable negative binomial regression model the number of seropositive animals in a flock decreased with increasing flock size (for >400 vs. CR = 0.62; 95% CI: 0.41, 0.95; P = 0.028 and was greater on farms where stray cats had access to animals’ water (CR = 1.54; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.26; P = 0.027. Conclusions Small flock size and access of cats to water are potential risk factors for Toxoplasma infection in sheep in the Grosseto district in Tuscany, Italy. Sheep could be an important source of T. gondii infection in humans, since we estimate that between 25% and 43% of sheep in the district were seropositive. Toxoplasmosis is also likely to be an important cause of abortion in sheep in the district. Control and prophylactic measures must be adopted to improve the rearing system and the implementation of health promoting programmes in a joint effort between sheep farmers, farmers’ associations and veterinarians to inform about the means of transmission of the infection and for a better understanding of the disease.

  6. Fatal pneumonia following inoculation of healthy bighorn sheep with Pasteurella haemolytica from healthy domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreyt, W J; Snipes, K P; Kasten, R W

    1994-04-01

    In a series of three experiments, isolates of Pasteurella haemolytica biotype A, serotype 2, ribotype reference WSU-1, from healthy domestic sheep, were inoculated intratracheally into eight bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis) and seven domestic sheep with doses of bacteria ranging from 5.3 x 10(8) to 8.6 x 10(11) colony forming units. Seven of eight inoculated bighorn sheep died from acute pneumonia within 48 hr of inoculation, whereas all seven domestic sheep inoculated with comparable or greater doses of bacteria remained healthy. One contact control bighorn sheep also died 6 days after its penmates received P. haemolytica. Three other noncontact control bighorn sheep remained healthy during the experiments. Pasteurella haemolytica biotype A, serotype 2, ribotype reference WSU-1 in the inocula was recovered from one or more tissues from all bighorns that died; whereas, it was not detected in any bighorn sheep before inoculation. Three different ribotypes of P. haemolytica A2 were recovered from bighorn sheep; however, only the ribotype reference WSU-1 in the domestic sheep-origin inoculum was recovered from all dead bighorn sheep, and was not recovered from bighorn sheep that survived the experiments. Thus, a relatively nonpathogenic and common isolate of P. haemolytica from healthy domestic sheep was lethal in bighorn sheep under experimental conditions.

  7. A spatial risk assessment of bighorn sheep extirpation by grazing domestic sheep on public lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Tim E; Coggins, Victor L; McCarthy, Clinton; O'Brien, Chans S; O'Brien, Joshua M; Schommer, Timothy J

    2014-04-01

    Bighorn sheep currently occupy just 30% of their historic distribution, and persist in populations less than 5% as abundant overall as their early 19th century counterparts. Present-day recovery of bighorn sheep populations is in large part limited by periodic outbreaks of respiratory disease, which can be transmitted to bighorn sheep via contact with domestic sheep grazing in their vicinity. In order to assess the viability of bighorn sheep populations on the Payette National Forest (PNF) under several alternative proposals for domestic sheep grazing, we developed a series of interlinked models. Using telemetry and habitat data, we characterized herd home ranges and foray movements of bighorn sheep from their home ranges. Combining foray model movement estimates with known domestic sheep grazing areas (allotments), a Risk of Contact Model estimated bighorn sheep contact rates with domestic sheep allotments. Finally, we used demographic and epidemiologic data to construct population and disease transmission models (Disease Model), which we used to estimate bighorn sheep persistence under each alternative grazing scenario. Depending on the probability of disease transmission following interspecies contact, extirpation probabilities for the seven bighorn sheep herds examined here ranged from 20% to 100%. The Disease Model allowed us to assess the probabilities that varied domestic sheep management scenarios would support persistent populations of free-ranging bighorn sheep. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Australian uranium mining policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisk, B.

    1985-01-01

    Australian government policy is explained in terms of adherence to the Non-Proliferation Treaty. Two alleged uncertainties are discussed: the future of Australian mining industry as a whole -on which it is said that Australian uranium mines will continue to be developed; and detailed commercial policy of the Australian government - on which it is suggested that the three-mines policy of limited expansion of the industry would continue. Various aspects of policy, applying the principles of the NPT, are listed. (U.K.)

  9. Neuroaxonal dystrophy in Australian Merino lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessell, A E; Finnie, J W; Blumbergs, P C; Manavis, J; Jerrett, I V

    2012-07-01

    Neuroaxonal dystrophy (NAD) is a morphological abnormality in man and animals that is characterized by the occurrence of numerous axonal swellings (spheroids) in the nervous system. NAD has been described in Suffolk lambs in the USA, Merino lambs in Australia and several breeds of sheep in New Zealand. This paper describes the clinicopathological changes of only the second occurrence of NAD reported in Merino lambs. There were some features (myelin loss, gliosis and visual impairment) in these Australian cases that have not been reported previously in ovine NAD. Application of immunohistochemical markers of axonal transport suggested that disruption of this transport mechanism contributed to spheroid development. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Farmer and input marketer's involvement in researchextension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined the level of involvement of farmers and input marketers in the Research-Extension-Farmer-Input Linkage System (REFILS) continuum of activities in the Southeastern agro-ecological zone of Nigeria. Data were collected with the aid of structured questionnaire administered to 80 randomly selected ...

  11. Qualitative evaluation of smallholder farmer decisions, support ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Qualitative evaluation of smallholder farmer decisions, support systems, knowledge and disease management tools. ... A group of 15 extension officers and 12 researchers were purposively selected for the study because they play a major role in organising and disseminating information to the farmers. Participatory ...

  12. Farmers' perception and knowledge of environmental problems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined farmers' perception and knowledge of environmental problems affecting their food production. A total of 120 farmers randomly selected from six communities in Orhionmwon and Uhunmwonde Local Government areas of Edo State were used for the study. Data were collected from respondents using ...

  13. Human prehistory: Hunting for the earliest farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley-Conwy, Peter

    2009-11-03

    The degree to which the spread of farming into Europe was accompanied by demographic shifts is subject to intense debate. Genetic evidence from Europe's first farmers and their hunter-gatherer counterparts now suggests an important role for the immigration of farmers.

  14. Farmer's lung is now in decline.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Arya, A

    2012-02-03

    Farmer\\'s lung incidence in Ireland was constant until 1996, even though hay making methods were revolutionised in late 1980\\'s. We undertook this study to find out the incidence of farmer\\'s lung in Ireland from 1982-2002 and its correlation with rainfall and the effect of changing farm practices. The primary cases of farmer\\'s lung were identified from Hospital in Patients Enquiry (HIPE) unit of the national Economic & Social Research Institute (ESRI) Dublin. Rainfall data were obtained from Met Eireann whereas population, hay production and silage production were obtained from the Central Statistics Office, Dublin. As the farming population is in decline, we used the annual working unit (AWU), which reflects the true population at risk. An AWU is the equivalent of 1800 hours per farm worker per year. The incidence rates were constant from 1982-1996, but from 1997-2002 a marked decline was observed. There was strong positive correlation with hay production (r = 0.81) and strong negative correlation with silage production (r = -0.82). This study indicates that the incidence of farmer\\'s lung is now in decline.

  15. Institutional Factors Influencing Crop Farmers Adoption of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the institutional factors influencing adoption of recommended agrochemical practices (RAPs) among crop farmers in Nigeria. A total of 260 crop farmers who have sustained the use of agrochemicals for at least five years were selected for the study using multi-stage sampling technique. Data were ...

  16. Farmers\\' Characteristics And Adoption Of Recommended Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focused on farmers under the fadama project scheme in Edo State, Nigeria with emphasis on the relationship between farmers\\' characteristics and adoption of recommended technologies. Analyses of data obtained from a random sample of 80 respondents reveals that fadama farming was dominated by females ...

  17. Perception of agricultural biotechnology among farmers, journalists ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study sought to establish the perception of farmers, journalists and scientists of genetically-modified (GM) crops in Tanzania. Its specific objectives were to determine the perception of GM Crops among farmers, journalists and scientists in Tanzania, and to determine the factors that influence their perception.

  18. Sustainable agriculture development through effective farmer groups

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Group formation cannot simply be achieved by calling people together. The formation and development of an effective farmer group is influenced by the skills of the group promoter and the adherence to certain basic group dynamic principles. This paper reflects on the experience of establishing and working with farmer ...

  19. Linkage activities amongst researchers, extension agents, farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the research- extension- farmer- input dealer and marketer linkage activities in the North West Province of South Africa. A simple random sampling technique was used to select researchers, extension agents, farmers, agricultural input dealers and marketers. Their responses in linkage activities were ...

  20. farmer's characteristics and adoption of recommended practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ekwueme

    The study focused on farmers under the fadama project scheme in Edo State, Nigeria with emphasis on the relationship between farmers' .... estimated parameters, and standard error of estimates. Based on these criteria the linear ... the reason given by respondents for this preference was the local varieties taste better than ...

  1. Social Network Structures among Groundnut Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuo, Mary; Bell, Alexandra A.; Bravo-Ureta, Boris E.; Okello, David K.; Okoko, Evelyn Nasambu; Kidula, Nelson L.; Deom, C. Michael; Puppala, Naveen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Groundnut farmers in East Africa have experienced declines in production despite research and extension efforts to increase productivity. This study examined how social network structures related to acquisition of information about new seed varieties and productivity among groundnut farmers in Uganda and Kenya.…

  2. Understanding farmers' preferences for wastewater reuse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa has included water reuse as a policy option; hence the aim of this study is to understand farmers' preferences regarding water reuse frameworks for irrigation. A choice modelling approach was applied to identify the elements defining these frameworks and to quantify their relative importance amongst farmers in ...

  3. Preliminary bluetongue Transmission with the sheep ked Melophagus ovinus (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedke, A J; Jochim, M M; Bowne, J G

    1965-09-01

    Five experiments indicated that the sheep ked MELOPHAGUS OVINUS (L.), can transmit bluetongue virus (BTV) in sheep. It was not determined whether these were mechanical or biological transmissions, although the results suggested mechanical transmission. Sheep keds were manually transferred from a BTV-host sheep to 18 susceptible test sheep. Of these, 10 were positive (5 with mild reactions), 6 questionable, and 2 negative for BTV. Three of the mildly reacting sheep and 3 of the questionable sheep had highly intensified reactions on challenge inoculation. Five of the positive sheep were immune on challenge inoculation. Blood from 2 positive reactors was subpassaged into susceptible sheep, which reacted with typical disease signs.

  4. Preliminary Bluetongue Transmissions with the Sheep Ked Melophagus Ovinus (L.)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedke, A. J.; Jochim, M. M.; Bowne, J. G.

    1965-01-01

    Five experiments indicated that the sheep ked MELOPHAGUS OVINUS (L.), can transmit bluetongue virus (BTV) in sheep. It was not determined whether these were mechanical or biological transmissions, although the results suggested mechanical transmission. Sheep keds were manually transferred from a BTV-host sheep to 18 susceptible test sheep. Of these, 10 were positive (5 with mild reactions), 6 questionable, and 2 negative for BTV. Three of the mildly reacting sheep and 3 of the questionable sheep had highly intensified reactions on challenge inoculation. Five of the positive sheep were immune on challenge inoculation. Blood from 2 positive reactors was subpassaged into susceptible sheep, which reacted with typical disease signs. PMID:4221988

  5. Prevalence of major sheep diseases and analysis of mortality in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the objective of identifying major sheep diseases, to assess the magnitude of sheep mortality and ... sheep mortality. A total of 242 fecal samples were collected for the analysis sheep internal parasites. The major identified internal parasites of sheep were Strongyle ..... 54.2%, respectively) and also pneumonia was the most.

  6. Farmer Cooperation in the Context of Agro-clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardhana, D.; Ihle, R.; Heijman, W.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    The geographical concentration of farming activities can promote institutional innovations for farmers. Sharing resources, knowledge, and markets in clustered regions lead to the income improvements of farmers. We explore such advantages for smallholder farmers in West Java of Indonesia by

  7. Farmer Field Schools as a Springboard for Enhanced Uptake of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kyakaisho, 2000), various. Farmer ... relationships between pest population-crop damage- yields. In this cyclical learning process, farmers develop .... improved technologies. Farmers actively cultivate interpersonal networks and use these networks for.

  8. Longitudinal prevalence and faecal shedding of Chlamydia pecorum in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchang; Jacobson, Caroline; Gardner, Graham; Carmichael, Ian; Campbell, Angus J D; Ryan, Una

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence and faecal shedding of Chlamydia spp. in sheep in Australia has not been well described. Two species-specific quantitative PCRs (qPCRs) targeting the chlamydial outer membrane protein cell surface antigen gene (ompA) were validated and used to determine the prevalence and faecal shedding of C. abortus and C. pecorum from faecal samples of lambs at three sampling times (weaning, post-weaning and pre-slaughter) from eight farms in South Australia, New South Wales, Victoria and Western Australia. A total of 3412 faecal samples were collected and screened from approximately 1189 lambs across the four states. C. abortus was not detected in any of the samples screened. The overall prevalence of C. pecorum was 1027/3412 (30.1%) and median bacterial concentrations at weaning, post-weaning and pre-slaughter were 1.8 × 10(7), 1.2 × 10(7) and 9.6 × 10(5)/g faeces, respectively. A subset of C. pecorum positive samples from each farm, (n = 48) was sequenced to confirm their identity. The present study demonstrates that C. pecorum is prevalent in Australian sheep, highlighting a need for further research on the impact of this bacterium on production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Studies of the congenitally goitrous sheep. Iodoproteins of the goitre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, Ian R.; Roitt, I. M.; Seamark, R. F.; Torrigiani, G.

    1970-01-01

    1. Congenitally goitrous thyroid tissue was obtained from South Australian Merino sheep. Ultrastructural studies of the secretory cells in this tissue showed active cells of normal appearance, containing apical protein droplets. 2. 125I-labelling in vivo of goitre tissue was used to investigate the iodoproteins, in which the major proportion of 125I appeared in the cell protein fraction soluble in 0.9% sodium chloride (average 62% in goitres from untreated sheep). 3. Ammonium sulphate fractionation showed two clear peaks of iodoprotein precipitation, one at 35–40% saturation and the other at 50–55% saturation. Both iodoprotein fractions contained iodotyrosines and iodothyronines, which were identified chromatographically after enzymic hydrolysis of the protein. 4. Polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis at pH9.4, at either 7.5 or 5.0% acrylamide concentration, was used to characterize the iodoproteins. Two major fractions were observed, the fastest-migrating fraction coincident with serum albumin, and a slower-migrating, less-well-defined zone. This fraction migrated in 7.5% acrylamide gel, which excluded normal thyroglobulin. 5. Density-gradient (10–40% sucrose) centrifugation was used to determine the approximate sedimentation coefficients of the iodoproteins, which showed major components at s20,w 8–9S and s20,wanimal, and that the fraction of s20,wanimals, it was possible that the genetic defect causing goitre resulted in an abnormal thyroglobulin, incapable of being iodinated but immunologically reactive. ImagesPLATE 1PLATE 2 PMID:5419739

  10. Early Australian Pronunciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, John S.

    Comparative research indicates that almost without exception, late eighteenth century non-standard English pronunciation was very close to what is called Broad Australian. Present Australian English is closely akin to the blended, popular colloquial London English, spoken by the largest group of Australia's first settlers. This pronunciation…

  11. Australian Asian Options

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Moreno; Javier F. Navas

    2003-01-01

    We study European options on the ratio of the stock price to its average and viceversa. Some of these options are traded in the Australian Stock Exchange since 1992, thus we call them Australian Asian options. For geometric averages, we obtain closed-form expressions for option prices. For arithmetic means, we use different approximations that produce very similar results.

  12. Demography of Dall's sheep in northwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleckner, Christopher; Udevitz, Mark S.; Adams, Layne G.; Shults, Brad S.

    2003-01-01

    Dall’s sheep in northwestern Alaska declined in the early 1990s following the severe 1989-90 and 1990-91 winters. In the Baird Mountains of Noatak National Preserve, estimates of adult sheep declined by 50% from 800 in 1989 to under 400 in 1991. Population counts remained low throughout 1991 to 1996, reaching a minimum of 244 adult sheep in 1996. Few lambs were observed during annual midsummer aerial surveys in 1991 to 1994. We suspect that these declines resulted from a combination of poorer nutritional condition and increased vulnerability of sheep to predation resulting from severe winter conditions.As a result of these declines, both subsistence and sport hunting seasons were closed by emergency order in 1991, resulting in substantial management controversy. The affected publics, although willing to accept the closures, questioned the validity of the sheep survey data and strongly emphasized their interest in restoring harvests as soon as populations increased sufficiently. In 1995 the Northwest Arctic Regional Advisory Council, the local advisory committee for the Federal Subsistence Board, passed a motion supporting efforts to initiate research on sheep populations in the region to better understand the factors limiting sheep populations and to evaluate sheep survey methodologies.Currently estimates of Dall’s sheep population size and composition in the western Brooks Range are based on intensive fixed-wing aerial surveys conducted annually since 1986 in areas including the Baird Mountains. The annual variation in recent Baird Mountains aerial counts cannot be explained with reasonable assumptions about reproduction and survival, suggesting that there is some variability in the proportion of the population observed each year or that a substantial number of sheep move during the survey. Prior to our research, no attempt had been made to estimate visibility bias or precision for these surveys.Our understanding of Dall’s sheep population biology comes

  13. Livestock Update : Beef-Horse-Poultry-Sheep-Swine

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, Scott Patrick; Eller, A. L. (Arthur Laxton), 1933-

    2011-01-01

    Contains articles on August beef management, Tri-State Cow Calf Conference, Virginia Livestock Hall of Fame, tips for successful sheep breeding, sheep field day, and an upcoming conference on parasite control in sheep and goats.

  14. Selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; San Cristobal, Magali; Boitard, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep populations, (ii) make use of linkage disequilibrium information and (iii) focus specifically on either recent or older selection signatures. We show that this allows pinpointing several new selection signatures in the sheep genome and distinguishing those related to modern breeding objectives and to earlier post-domestication constraints. The newly identified regions, together with the ones previously identified, reveal the extensive genome response to selection on morphology, color and adaptation to new environments.

  15. Heat exposure on farmers in northeast Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimpong, Kwasi; Van Etten E J, Eddie; Oosthuzien, Jacques; Fannam Nunfam, Victor

    2017-03-01

    Environmental health hazards faced by farmers, such as exposure to extreme heat stress, are a growing concern due to global climate change, particularly in tropical developing countries. In such environments, farmers are considered to be a population at risk of environmental heat exposure. The situation is exacerbated due to their farming methods that involve the use of primitive equipment and hard manual labour conducted in full sunshine under hot and humid conditions. However, there is inadequate information about the extent of heat exposure to such farmers, both at the household and farm levels. This paper presents results from a study assessing environmental heat exposure on rural smallholder farmers in Bawku East, Northern Ghana. From January to December 2013, Lascar USB temperature and humidity sensors and a calibrated Questemp heat stress monitor were deployed to farms and homes of rural farmers at Pusiga in Bawku East to capture farmers' exposure to heat stress in both their living and working environments as they executed regular farming routines. The Lascar sensors have the capability to frequently, accurately and securely measure temperature and humidity over long periods. The Questemp heat stress monitor was placed in the same vicinity and showed strong correlations to Lascar sensors in terms of derived values of wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT). The WBGT in the working environment of farmers peaked at 33.0 to 38.1 °C during the middle of the day in the rainy season from March to October and dropped to 14.0-23.7 °C in the early morning during this season. A maximum hourly WBGT of 28.9-37.5 °C (March-October) was recorded in the living environment of farmers, demonstrating little relief from heat exposure during the day. With these levels of heat stress, exposed farmers conducting physically demanding outdoor work risk suffering serious health consequences. The sustainability of manual farming practices is also under threat by such high levels of

  16. Investigation of FecB Mutation in Four Romanian Sheep Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu-Emil Georgescu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Hyperprolific phenotype of Booroola sheep was first discovered in the Australian Merino breed. This phenotype is due to the action of a single autosomal gene that influences the number of ovulations per estrogenic cycle. Recent discoveries have revealed that high prolificacy in Booroola Merino sheep is the result of a mutation (FecB in the bone morphogenetic protein receptor 1B (BMPR-1B gene. This mutation is located in the highly conserved kinase domain of the bone morphogenetic protein receptor IB, and is characterized by precocious differentiation of ovarian follicles, leading to the production of large numbers of ovulatory follicles. Our objective was to develop an easy method to identify the FecB mutation in order to screen sheep populations in terms of prolificacy. We designed primers to amplify a 190 bp fragment from the BMPR-1B gene containing or lacking the mutation. The PCR product was cut with AvaII endonuclease and the restriction products were analysed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Using the PCR-RFLP technique, we established an easy and efficient method that can be used to screen the FecB mutation. Therefore, these new methods increase the panel of molecular tools available for sheep breeders to choose the most prolific genotypes for improving artificial selection.

  17. Megaesophagus in sheep and goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Melo Nascimento

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Megaesophagus is a rare disease in ruminants characterized by regurgitation of rumen contents. In this paper it was described cases of megaesophagus in two sheep and two goats on a farm in the state of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil. All animals showed regurgitation of rumen contents and weight loss, with a clinical course of several months. At necropsy all animals presented megaesophagus. Histological examination showed segmental muscle necrosis in the esophagus and skeletal muscles. Serum samples from one sheep and one goat were negative for the presence of blue tongue antibodies by ELISA, and whole blood and muscle samples from one goat were negative for this virus by RT PCR. Epidemiological data and pathology suggested that the disease could have been caused by some toxic plant, but known plants causing segmental muscle necrosis were not observed in the areas where the disease occurred.

  18. ORGANIC PRODUCTION OF SHEEP MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Ángeles Hernández

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic production systems are based on natural processes, leveraging local resources and decreasing in soil degradation. Effectiveness of milk production of organic systems vs. conventional production systems is a subject open to debate. There are various studies in which there is a positive effect of organic systems in relation to the welfare and animal health, product quality and environmental impact. However, some authors report lower milk yields production and increased susceptibility to environmental conditions compared with those obtained in conventional systems. The lower milk yields in organic systems in Dairy sheep's production, are related to the limited nutritional value, low genetic potential, and the changing environmental conditions. These systems are mainly a production method for a specific market with premium quality products and high standards in their production processes. Thus, a company organic Dairy sheep production should be considered viable when present a positive global sustainability level, that is socially beneficial, economically viable and environmentally responsible.

  19. Enteric paramphistomiasis in Yankasa sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bida, S A; Schillhorn van Veen, T

    1977-02-01

    An outbreak of acute enteric paramphistomiasis was observed among Yankasa (indigenous) sheep that were herded with cattle on the University farm at Samaru in February 1973. Mortality was approximately thirty to forty per cent. The most important clinical signs were anorexia, unthriftiness and profuse foetid diarrhoea soiling the perianal region and hind legs. Diagnosis was based on the post-mortem findings, clinical signs and presence of conical flukes identified as Paramphistomum microbothrium.

  20. fat-tailed sheep breeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Barresi-e asar-e sen va Jens barehay-e zel- e mazanderan bar tavan-e parvari va khosusiat-e lasheh (Study of age and sex effects on growth performance and carcass characteristics of Mazanderan Zel sheep breed) pajuhesh va sazandegi 37, 97-. 99 (in Persian). McClinton, O.W. & Carson, A.F., 2000. Growth and carcass ...

  1. Healthy ageing of cloned sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, K D; Corr, S A; Gutierrez, C G; Fisher, P A; Lee, J-H; Rathbone, A J; Choi, I; Campbell, K H S; Gardner, D S

    2016-07-26

    The health of cloned animals generated by somatic-cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been of concern since its inception; however, there are no detailed assessments of late-onset, non-communicable diseases. Here we report that SCNT has no obvious detrimental long-term health effects in a cohort of 13 cloned sheep. We perform musculoskeletal assessments, metabolic tests and blood pressure measurements in 13 aged (7-9 years old) cloned sheep, including four derived from the cell line that gave rise to Dolly. We also perform radiological examinations of all main joints, including the knees, the joint most affected by osteoarthritis in Dolly, and compare all health parameters to groups of 5-and 6-year-old sheep, and published reference ranges. Despite their advanced age, these clones are euglycaemic, insulin sensitive and normotensive. Importantly, we observe no clinical signs of degenerative joint disease apart from mild, or in one case moderate, osteoarthritis in some animals. Our study is the first to assess the long-term health outcomes of SCNT in large animals.

  2. The Australian National Seismograph Network

    OpenAIRE

    Jepsen, D.

    1994-01-01

    The Australian Seismological Centre of the Australian Geological Survey Organisation, operates and co-operates a national seismograph network consisting of 24 analogue and 8 digitally telemetred (3 broadband) stations (see fig. 1 and table 1). The network covers the Australian continent and the Australian Antarctic Territory.

  3. The Australian National Seismograph Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Jepsen

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Seismological Centre of the Australian Geological Survey Organisation, operates and co-operates a national seismograph network consisting of 24 analogue and 8 digitally telemetred (3 broadband stations (see fig. 1 and table 1. The network covers the Australian continent and the Australian Antarctic Territory.

  4. Income analysis of goat farmers on the farmers group in district of Serdang Bedagai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manurung, J. N.; Hasnudi; Supriana, T.

    2018-02-01

    The farmers group are expected to reduce the production cost of goat breeding and improve the income of farmers which impact on the welfare of goat farmers. This research aim to analyze the factors that influence the income of farmers group, in sub-district Dolok Masihul Pegajahan, and Dolok Merawan, Serdang Bedagai. The method used is survey method with 90 respondents. Data was analysed by multiple linear regression. The result showed, simultaneously goat cost, sale price of goat, fixed cost and variable cost had significant effect on income of goat farmers. Partially, goat cost, variable cost and sale price of goat had significant effect on income of goat farmers, while fixed cost had no significant effect.

  5. A review of some characteristics, socio-economic aspects and utilization of Zulu sheep: implications for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunene, Nokuthula Winfred; Bezuidenhout, Carlos C; Nsahlai, Ignatius V; Nesamvuni, Edward A

    2011-08-01

    Zulu sheep are Nguni sheep of Zululand and are adapted to the harsh conditions of KwaZulu-Natal. They are used by rural farmers for economic purposes. Their numbers are declining, indicating a potential extinction threat. Knowledge of their phenotypic and genotypic characteristics is essential for conservation planning. In this review, there is a focus on the utilization, socio-economic aspects, phenotypic and genotypic characteristics as well as a proposed breeding programme. A survey has shown that rural farmers in the areas of northern KwaZulu-Natal prefer to keep this breed for its adaptability, resistance to diseases and meat quality. Zulu sheep are small-framed multi-coloured animals. Mature males weigh up to 38 kg and females up to 32 kg. Based on four morphological traits and live weight, phenotypic diversity between three populations was estimated at 48%. A genetic diversity between these three populations was estimated at 22%. Live weight of Zulu sheep can be estimated using the heart girth and wither height measurements. Scrotum circumference of young rams (up to 22 months old) is reliable for estimating the live weight. Animals that were characterized in the studies were grazed extensively and no supplements were provided. There is therefore a potential of weight increase if these animals are reared in a semi-extensive environment. An open nucleus breeding scheme is thus recommended for a sustainable use and conservation of this breed. For more conclusive results, larger numbers of phenotypic and genetic characteristics, in larger numbers of Zulu sheep populations, should be investigated.

  6. Farmers' reactions to the internationalisation of cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petri Ollila

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study examined the extent to which farmer cooperatives enjoy social capital within their memberships as they become internationalised. The empirical basis was a survey of farmers in Finland. Findings from limited dependent variable regression models suggest that one group of farmers is loyal to the cooperative and opposes its foreign investments. A second and a third group have lower levels of social capital and switch membership status between multiple cooperatives or opt out of cooperatives. These farmers welcome international investment. This finding was more significant for individual farm types than the social capital-linked opposition to internationalisation. A general conclusion is that the internationalization of cooperatives seems affect the members’ trust in the cooperative differently. The increasing heterogeneity within the memberships may give rise to governance problems.

  7. Allegheny County Farmers Markets Locations (2017)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset shows the locations of farmers markets in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data...

  8. Environmental performances of Sardinian dairy sheep production systems at different input levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagnoni, E; Franca, A; Breedveld, L; Porqueddu, C; Ferrara, R; Duce, P

    2015-01-01

    Although sheep milk production is a significant sector for the European Mediterranean countries, it shows serious competitiveness gaps. Minimizing the ecological impacts of dairy sheep farming systems could represent a key factor for farmers to bridging the gaps in competitiveness of such systems and also obtaining public incentives. However, scarce is the knowledge about the environmental performance of Mediterranean dairy sheep farms. The main objectives of this paper were (i) to compare the environmental impacts of sheep milk production from three dairy farms in Sardinia (Italy), characterized by different input levels, and (ii) to identify the hotspots for improving the environmental performances of each farm, by using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. The LCA was conducted using two different assessment methods: Carbon Footprint-IPCC and ReCiPe end-point. The analysis, conducted "from cradle to gate", was based on the functional unit 1 kg of Fat and Protein Corrected Milk (FPCM). The observed trends of the environmental performances of the studied farming systems were similar for both evaluation methods. The GHG emissions revealed a little range of variation (from 2.0 to 2.3 kg CO2-eq per kg of FPCM) with differences between farming systems being not significant. The ReCiPe end-point analysis showed a larger range of values and environmental performances of the low-input farm were significantly different compared to the medium- and high-input farms. In general, enteric methane emissions, field operations, electricity and production of agricultural machineries were the most relevant processes in determining the overall environmental performances of farms. Future research will be dedicated to (i) explore and better define the environmental implications of the land use impact category in the Mediterranean sheep farming systems, and (ii) contribute to revising and improving the existing LCA dataset for Mediterranean farming systems. Copyright © 2014

  9. Pneumonia in bighorn sheep: Risk and resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassirer, E. Frances; Manlove, Kezia R.; Almberg, Emily S.; Kamath, Pauline; Cox, Mike; Wolff, Peregrine L.; Roug, Annette; Shannon, Justin M.; Robinson, Rusty; Harris, Richard B.; Gonzales, Ben J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Hudson, Peter J.; Cross, Paul C.; Dobson, Andrew; Besser, Thomas E.

    2018-01-01

    Infectious disease was an important driver of historic declines and extirpations of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in North America and continues to impede population restoration and management. Domestic sheep have long been linked to pneumonia outbreaks in bighorn sheep and this association has now been confirmed in 13 captive commingling experiments. However, ecological and etiological complexities still hinder our understanding and control of the disease. We provide an overview of the current state of knowledge about the biology and management of respiratory disease in bighorn sheep and propose strategies for moving forward. Epizootic pneumonia in bighorn sheep is polymicrobial. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, a bacterium host-specific to Caprinae and commonly carried by healthy domestic sheep and goats appears to be a necessary primary agent. All-age epizootics following introduction of M. ovipneumoniae along with other pathogens into bighorn sheep populations are usually severe (median mortality 47%) but fatality rates vary widely, from 15 – 100%. Disease severity may be influenced by the strain of M. ovipneumoniae, by secondary bacterial and viral pathogens, and by factors affecting transmission and host immunity. Once introduced, M. ovipneumoniae can persist in bighorn sheep populations for decades. Carrier dams transmit the pathogen to their susceptible lambs, triggering fatal pneumonia outbreaks in nursery groups, which limits recruitment and slows or prevents population recovery. The result is that demographic costs of pathogen persistence often outweigh the impacts of the initial invasion and die-off. There is currently no effective vaccine or antibiotic for domestic or wild sheep and to date, no management actions have been successful in reducing morbidity, mortality, or disease spread once pathogen invasion has occurred. Molecular-based strain typing suggests that spillover of M. ovipneumoniae into bighorn sheep populations from domestic small ruminants

  10. THE BACKYARD OF THE CORN FARMERS. SAN NICOLÁS DE LOS RANCHOS, PUEBLA-MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis López González

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to identify the contribution that the backyards of corn farmers make to food security and the preservation and conservation of plant and animal diversity, and its link with farmers' knowledge, in San Nicolas de los Ranchos. To this end, 77 producers surveyed randomly selected corn was calculated using an equation, the role of food security in the backyard, and the calculation of the diversity index and species richness that helped expose the plant diversity found also estimated the amount of dung that provide animals to backyard farming, this helped to show synergy livestock farming. Some results suggest that the products obtained in the backyard contribute to feeding the family. Also found plant and animal diversity, as are most ornamental plants, food and medicinal use, it is also possible to identify animals such as chickens, turkeys, sheep, goats, cows, horses and donkeys.

  11. An ecologic study comparing distribution of Pasteurella trehalosi and Mannheimia haemolytica between Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep, White Mountain bighorn sheep, and domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassini, Letizia; Gonzales, Ben; Weiser, Glen C; Sischo, William

    2009-10-01

    The prevalence and phenotypic variability of Pasteurella and Mannheimia isolates from Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis sierrae), White Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni), and domestic sheep (Ovis aries) from California, USA, were compared. The White Mountain bighorn sheep population had a recent history of pneumonia-associated mortality, whereas the Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep population had no recent history of pneumonia-associated mortality. The domestic sheep flocks were pastured in areas geographically near both populations but were not known to have direct contact with either bighorn sheep population. Oropharyngeal swab samples were collected from healthy domestic and bighorn sheep and cultured to characterize bacterial species, hemolysis, biogroups, and biovariants. Pasteurella trehalosi and Mannheimia haemolytica were detected in all of the study populations, but the relative proportion of each bacterial species differed among sheep populations. Pasteurella trehalosi was more common than M. haemolytica in the bighorn sheep populations, whereas the opposite was true in domestic sheep. Mannheimia haemolytica was separated into 11 biogroups, and P. trehalosi was characterized into two biogroups. Biogroup distributions for M. haemolytica and P. trehalosi differed among the three populations; however, no difference was detected for the distribution of P. trehalosi biogroups between the Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep and domestic sheep. The prevalence odds ratios (pOR) for the distribution of M. haemolytica biogroups suggested little difference between White Mountain bighorn sheep and domestic sheep compared with Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep and domestic sheep, although these comparisons had relatively large confidence intervals for the point estimates. Hemolytic activity of the isolates was not different among the sheep populations for M. haemolytica but was different for P. trehalosi. No clear evidence of association was found in the

  12. The impact of drought on technical efficiency of smallholder farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition to construction of irrigation infrastructure and reallocation of farmers, we also recommend increased education support, financial inclusion of rural farmers through the development of rural financial institutions and publication of drought related information for farmers' consumption. Key words: Farmers, Drought, ...

  13. Linking African Farmers to Markets (eARN Africa) | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Studies suggest that information and communication technologies (ICTs) are of some benefit to farmers, but how effective they are in linking small farmers to wider markets remains unknown. There are knowledge gaps concerning the factors conditioning farmers' adoption of ICTs, farmers' benefits from ICTs, drivers of ...

  14. Farmers\\' knowledge and perceptions of insect pests of yam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    these farmers were small, averaging 2.8 acres (range 0.5- 12 acres). Most farmers were illiterate, because 88 per cent had not received formal education. Farmers identified yam pests as one of the major production constraints. Pests mentioned by farmers as causing the most serious damage in the field and storage, and ...

  15. Gene expression of regulatory enzymes involved in the intermediate metabolism of sheep subjected to feed restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Harten, S; Brito, R; Almeida, A M; Scanlon, T; Kilminster, T; Milton, J; Greeff, J; Oldham, C; Cardoso, L A

    2013-03-01

    The effect of feed restriction on gene expression of regulatory enzymes of intermediary metabolism was studied in two sheep breeds (Australian Merino and Dorper) subjected to two nutritional treatments: feed restriction (85% of daily maintenance requirements) and control (ad libitum feeding), during 42 days. The experimental animals (ram lambs) were divided into four groups, n = 5 (Australian Merino control (MC), Australian Merino Restriction (MR), Dorper control (DC) and Dorper Restriction (DR)). After the trial, animals were sacrificed and samples were taken from liver tissue to quantify glucose levels and gene expression of relevant intermediary metabolism enzymes (phosphofructokinase (PFK), pyruvate kinase (PK), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, glucose-6-phosphatase, glycogen synthase (GS), fatty acid synthase (FAS), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and carbamoyl phosphate synthase (CPS)) through real-time PCR. During the experimental period, the MR animals lost 12.6% in BW compared with 5.3% lost by the Dorper lambs. MC and DC rams gained, respectively, 8.8% and 14% during the same period. Within the Dorper breed, restricted feed animals revealed a significant decrease over controls in the transcription of PFK (1.95-fold) and PK (2.26-fold), both glycolytic enzymes. The gluconeogenesis showed no change in the feed restricted animals of both breeds. DR feed group presented a significant decrease over the homologous Merino sheep group on GS. In both experimental breeds, FAS mRNA expression was decreased in restricted feed groups. GDH expression was decreased only in the DR animals (1.84-fold) indicating a reduced catabolism of amino acids in these animals. Finally, CPS was significantly (P enzymes and hepatic glucose production of Dorper sheep to feed restriction concurring with the BW results in the experimental groups.

  16. Australianness as fairness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plage, Stefanie; Willing, Indigo; Skrbis, Zlatko

    2017-01-01

    This article provides an account of interwoven and often competing repertoires of cosmopolitanism and nationalism on which Australians draw when encountering diversity. Using interview and focus group data the article first explores how the notion of Australianness grounded in civic virtues such ......-go’ principle at times conceptually overlaps with cosmopolitan ethics. However, it also bears the potential to hinder cosmopolitan practices. Ultimately national and cosmopolitan ethical frameworks have to be interrogated simultaneously when applied to micro-level interactions.......This article provides an account of interwoven and often competing repertoires of cosmopolitanism and nationalism on which Australians draw when encountering diversity. Using interview and focus group data the article first explores how the notion of Australianness grounded in civic virtues...

  17. Paraquat use among farmers in Korea after the ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Ye Jin; Kim, Jaeyoung; Lee, Won Jin

    2017-07-04

    The purpose of this study was to examine the proportion of paraquat use among farmers and to describe their epidemiologic characteristics after the paraquat ban in 2012. We interviewed 249 farmers in Korea in 2014. Approximately 20% of the farmers reported using paraquat in 2014. Farmers with longer farming experience, longer pesticide application years, and upland farming reported an increased risk of paraquat use although the trend was not statistically significant. The majority of the farmers used preexisting paraquat (85.7%), but some farmers purchased it illegally (14.3%). Farmers who used paraquat perceived paraquat as a dangerous chemical; however, they disagreed with the necessity of the paraquat ban.

  18. Thwarting plague and pestilence in the Australian sugar industry : Crop protection capacity and resilience built by agricultural extension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunt, Warren; Birch, Colin; Vanclay, Frank

    This paper investigates how Australian sugar industry extension services over the last decade have overcome historical pest management challenges in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.). The industry has done this by building increased capacity amongst its extension agents and farmers. This paper considers

  19. Performance of sheep grazing Brachiaria decumbens, Panicum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance of sheep grazing Brachiaria decumbens, Panicum maximum and Pennisetum purpureum in combination with gliricidia sepium. ... The animals weregrazed continuously for 28 days in the sub plots. Sheep grazing the Gliricidia/Panicum plot had a higher (P < 001) growth rate (38 g d-1) than those animals ...

  20. Estimating phosphorus intake by grazing sheep

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimating phosphorus intake in grazing sheep is ditficult since hand-picked ... Thus to establish the intake of phosphorus, a method other than forage .... between the mean (tSD) levels in the ribs of the sheep and the. S.-Afr. Tydskr. Veek. 19g3, l3(3) of phosphorus and feed they consumed. Determination. Specimen".

  1. Temperature and Weight Changes in Yankassa Sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Temperature and weight changes in experimental Trypanosoma infected Yankassa sheep were studied over a period of 7 weeks. Ten clinically healthy Yankassa Sheep were divided into 2 groups of five control and five infected animals. Animals in the latter group were infected with Trypanosoma congolense and their ...

  2. Genetic and environmental variation in methane emissions of sheep at pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D L; Goopy, J P; Hegarty, R S; Oddy, V H; Thompson, A N; Toovey, A F; Macleay, C A; Briegal, J R; Woodgate, R T; Donaldson, A J; Vercoe, P E

    2014-10-01

    A total of 2,600 methane (CH4) and 1,847 CO2 measurements of sheep housed for 1 h in portable accumulation chambers (PAC) were recorded at 5 sites from the Australian Sheep CRC Information Nucleus, which was set up to test leading young industry sires for an extensive range of current and novel production traits. The final validated dataset had 2,455 methane records from 2,279 animals, which were the progeny of 187 sires and 1,653 dams with 7,690 animals in the pedigree file. The protocol involved rounding up animals from pasture into a holding paddock before the first measurement on each day and then measuring in groups of up to 16 sheep over the course of the day. Methane emissions declined linearly (with different slopes for each site) with time since the sheep were drafted into the holding area. After log transformation, estimated repeatability (rpt) and heritability (h(2)) of liveweight-adjusted CH4 emissions averaged 25% and 11.7%, respectively, for a single 1-h measurement. Sire × site interactions were small and nonsignificant. Correlations between EBV for methane emissions and Sheep Genetics Australia EBV for production traits were used as approximations to genetic correlations. Apart from small positive correlations with weaning and yearling weights (r = 0.21-0.25, P methane EBV (calculated from a model adjusting for liveweight by fitting separate slopes for each site). To improve accuracy, future protocols should use the mean of 2 (rpt = 39%, h(2) = 18.6%) or 3 (rpt = 48%, h(2) = 23.2%) PAC measurements. Repeat tests under different pasture conditions and time of year should also be considered, as well as protocols measuring animals directly off pasture instead of rounding them up in the morning. Reducing the time in the PAC from 1 h to 40 min would have a relatively small effect on overall accuracy and partly offset the additional time needed for more tests per animal. Field testing in PAC has the potential to provide accurate comparisons of animal and

  3. Haemophilus somnus (Histophilus somni) in bighorn sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Respiratory disease and poor lamb recruitment have been identified as limiting factors for bighorn-sheep populations. Haemophilus somnus (recently reclassified as Histophilus somni) is associated with respiratory disease in American bison, domestic sheep, and cattle. It is also harbored in their reproductive tracts and has been associated with reproductive failure in domestic sheep and cattle. Therefore, reproductive tract and lung samples from bighorn sheep were evaluated for the presence of this organism. Organisms identified as H. somnus were isolated from 6 of 62 vaginal but none of 12 preputial swab samples. Antigen specific to H. somnus was detected by immunohistochemical study in 4 of 12 formalin-fixed lung tissue samples of bighorn sheep that died with evidence of pneumonia. Notably, H. somnus was found in alveolar debris in areas of inflammation. The 6 vaginal isolates and 2 H. somnus isolates previously cultured from pneumonic lungs of bighorn sheep were compared with 3 representative isolates from domestic sheep and 2 from cattle. The profiles of major outer membrane proteins and antigens for all of the isolates were predominantly similar, although differences that may be associated with the host–parasite relationship and virulence were detected. The DNA restriction fragment length profiles of the bighorn-sheep isolates had similarities not shared with the other isolates, suggesting distinct phylogenetic lines. All of the isolates had similar antimicrobial profiles, but the isolates from the bighorn sheep produced less pigment than those from the domestic livestock, and growth of the former was not enhanced by CO2. Wildlife biologists and diagnosticians should be aware of the potential of these organisms to cause disease in bighorn sheep and of growth characteristics that may hinder laboratory detection. PMID:16548330

  4. Haemophilus somnus (Histophilus somni) in bighorn sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Alton C S; Weiser, Glen C; Anderson, Bruce C; Cummings, Patrick J; Arnold, Karen F; Corbeil, Lynette B

    2006-01-01

    Respiratory disease and poor lamb recruitment have been identified as limiting factors for bighorn-sheep populations. Haemophilus somnus (recently reclassified as Histophilus somni) is associated with respiratory disease in American bison, domestic sheep, and cattle. It is also harbored in their reproductive tracts and has been associated with reproductive failure in domestic sheep and cattle. Therefore, reproductive tract and lung samples from bighorn sheep were evaluated for the presence of this organism. Organisms identified as H. somnus were isolated from 6 of 62 vaginal but none of 12 preputial swab samples. Antigen specific to H. somnus was detected by immunohistochemical study in 4 of 12 formalin-fixed lung tissue samples of bighorn sheep that died with evidence of pneumonia. Notably, H. somnus was found in alveolar debris in areas of inflammation. The 6 vaginal isolates and 2 H. somnus isolates previously cultured from pneumonic lungs of bighorn sheep were compared with 3 representative isolates from domestic sheep and 2 from cattle. The profiles of major outer membrane proteins and antigens for all of the isolates were predominantly similar, although differences that may be associated with the host-parasite relationship and virulence were detected. The DNA restriction fragment length profiles of the bighorn-sheep isolates had similarities not shared with the other isolates, suggesting distinct phylogenetic lines. All of the isolates had similar antimicrobial profiles, but the isolates from the bighorn sheep produced less pigment than those from the domestic livestock, and growth of the former was not enhanced by CO2. Wildlife biologists and diagnosticians should be aware of the potential of these organisms to cause disease in bighorn sheep and of growth characteristics that may hinder laboratory detection.

  5. Farmer Field School (FFS) and Junior Farmer Field and Life School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farmer Field School (FFS) and Junior Farmer Field and Life School (JFFLS) as challenges to agricultural extension development and practice in Nigeria. ... The paper suggests the need for promotion of these approaches by national extension policy and donor agencies to ensure sustainability. It notes that these ...

  6. Empowering Smallholder Farmers in Markets: strengthening the advocacy capacities of national farmer organisations through collaborative research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ton, G.; Grip, de K.; Lançon, F.; Onumah, G.; Proctor, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    The Empowering Smallholder Farmers in Markets programme (ESFIM) supported the advocacy capacities of national farmer organisations (NFOs) for improving smallholder market access. The programme gave NFOs in 11 countries the opportunity to contract local experts to strengthen the evidence-base of

  7. Bacteriological investigation of sheep and goats milk for brucellosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 418 sheep and goats milk samples were examined culturally. Investigation revealed a 34.75 per cent and 15.88 per cent rate of infection in goats and sheep by milk ring test. Of 277 sheep and 141 goats milk samples examined culturally, brucellae were isolated from four sheep and six goats giving a total of ten ...

  8. Ethnoveterinary practices among sheep rearers in Ona-Ara Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    These were administered to the selected village sheep owners and sheep traders. information provided by the respondents were organized under the following sub-headings: socioeconomic background, sheep management practices, major causes of sheep losses, health management practices, local methods for treating ...

  9. 9 CFR 113.45 - Sheep safety test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sheep safety test. 113.45 Section 113... Procedures § 113.45 Sheep safety test. The sheep safety test provided in this section shall be conducted when.... (1) Inject each of two sheep of the minimum age for which the product is recommended with the...

  10. Technological level and epidemiological aspects of sheep husbandry in Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora M.G. Gouveia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and health aspects of sheep husbandry were assessed on 213 sheep flocks in 142 municipalities from the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. An updated questionnaire was filled out for each flock, requesting data on the farm, the flock and the farmer by the veterinarians of the State Government Agency for Animal Health (Instituto Mineiro de Agropecuária. Thirteen important variables were selected and scored to determine the technological level of the 117 farms; 0.9% of them was classified as high technological level, 45.3% as medium technological level and 53.0% as low technological level. Lamb production was the main objective of the farms and the main features were low-frequencies of individual identification of animals (16.9%, technical assistance (31.9%, use of quarantine for newly acquired animals (0.9% the separation of animals by age group (3.7% and requeste the sanitary certificate at purchasing of animals (11.7%. The main health problems reported were abortion (23.9%, keratoconjunctivitis (17.9%, contagious ecthyma (13.6%, pneumonia (10.3%, diarrhea (9.3% and caseous lymphadenitis (6.1%. Information of the epidemiological situation and the mainly health measures used in the sheep farms are important to improve the productivity and quality of the lamb.

  11. Issues and Preferences of Horticulture Farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Venkattakumar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A National Farmers Meet (NFM was organized by Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR and Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU at Regional Research Station (RRS, Paiyur, Tamil Nadu on 14.3.2015. The purpose was to sensitize the farmers about improved horticultural production technologies and obtain first-hand information about issues of horticulture farmers of Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala. A brief survey was conducted at NFM with horticulture farmers as respondents (60 through a structured questionnaire. Analysis of the survey data indicated that Mango, Tomato and Marigold are the major fruit, vegetable and ornamental crops cultivated respectively. Non-availability of critical inputs such as fertilizers, seeds/ planting material and lack of remunerative market price are the major issues in contemporary horticulture, apart from unawareness towards improved horticulture production technologies. Field demonstrations and offcampus training programmes are the two major extension interventions preferred by the horticulture farmers; whereas mass media channels are preferred as information sources apart from institutional sources such as development departments and research institutes. Appropriate extension strategies are suggested based on the findings of the survey.

  12. Health of farmers in southland: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, H; Herbison, P; McBride, D; Feyer, A M

    2001-09-28

    To describe the health of farmers in Southland. Coss-sectional study of a random sample of farmers in Southland. 586 individuals were interviewed from 286 farms with a response rate of 65.4%. The prevalence of at least one injury in the last twelve months which prevented normal farm work was 17.1%. Low back pain was common with 54.6% reporting such an episode in the last twelve months. Noise-induced hearing loss was prevalent among men with 28.7% of those 45 years and over being affected. Levels of asthma appeared low with a point prevalence of 6.8%, with 4.6% on medication. There were 19.3% of male farmers who were obese. The prevalence of alcohol use disorder among men aged 15-24 years was 57.4%, and 39.0% among farm workers. Similarly, 32.0% of men in this age-group smoked, with 35.6% of farm workers being smokers. Farmers experienced high levels of injury, low back pain and noise-induced hearing loss. Community intervention programmes to prevent injury remain a priority for farmers, although lifestyle factors should also be addressed, particularly among farm workers.

  13. The Prevalence of Sheep Traumatic Myiasis in Three Counties from the West Side of Romania and Bacteria Isolated from the Insects Maggots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Marina Mot

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis represents an infestation of animals and humans caused by the maggots of certain fly species of Diptera order, Insecta class, which feed on the hosts' living or dead tissues or body fluids. In sheep, myiasis is a major animal welfare issue developing serious pain, suffering and in untreated cases may result in tissue injuries, reproduction and productivity losses and even death. There are two most important fly species which cause traumatic cutaneous myiasis of sheep in Europe: Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Sarcophagidae implicated in etiology of wound myiasis in southern and eastern Europe and Lucilia sericata (Calliphoridae, implicated in etiology of sheep strike, mainly in the middle latitudes of Europe continent. A few farmers from Timiş, Arad and Caraş-Severin counties were been asked to response to a questionnaire on the prevalence of traumatic myiasis which evolved in their sheep flock in April-September period of year 2012. From a total number of 2206 sheep taken into study were been discovered 1658 healthy sheep (75.16% and 548 sheep with myiasis (24.84%. From identified lesions with myiasis were been collected insects maggots from all three stages of development and were been prepared in Microbiology laboratory in the view to obtain data on the culturable bacteria isolated under aerobic conditions. Bacteria detected from maggots samples were: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Proteus vulgaris, Micrococcus luteus and Escherichia coli. The myasis insects maggots in sheep infestation can acquire many bacteria from their host or from their surroundings, all these can, together another bacteria, complicate the lesions and without treatment may lead to animals death.

  14. Do traditional sheep breeders perform conscious selection? An example from a participatory breeding program of Morada Nova sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arandas, Janaina Kelli Gomes; Alves, Ângelo Giuseppe Chaves; Facó, Olivardo; Belchior, Ernandes Barboza; Shiotsuki, Luciana; de Arruda Leite, Paulo Márcio Barbosa; Ribeiro, Maria Norma

    2017-10-01

    The implementation of sustainable breeding programs requires genetic breeding strategies that are appropriate for the reality production systems. It is also essential that the choice of animal selection criteria be based on breeders' knowledge and objectives. This work is an ethno-zootechnical study of the Morada Nova sheep breed and its crossbreeds. The goals of this study were to register and analyze indigenous breeders' knowledge and practices regarding animal selection criteria and to generate technical information to support a participatory breeding program of the breed. This study was conducted in the Morada Nova municipality in the state of Ceará, Brazil. Semi-structured interviews were evaluated using two groups of individuals, purebred Morada Nova sheep breeders (RMN, n = 13) and breeders of Morada Nova crossbreeds (MMN, n = 48). Interview questions were used to identify local selection criteria adopted by each group in the choice of animals for breeding. Data from the interviews were submitted to frequency distribution analysis and the Shapiro-Wilk test to verify their distribution. Later, the Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the two groups of farmers based on that information, in addition to multivariate statistical analysis and evaluation of Smith salience index. Breeders in the RMN group used selection criteria related to breed standards, such as pelage color. In contrast, breeders of the MMN group used criteria related to productivity, such as body conformation and milk production. Breeders should be engaged in the development of breeding programs, and it is important to consider their preferences and objectives when evaluating breeding animals.

  15. Aspects Regarding the Coprological Pollution Level in Some Sheep Helminthiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Octavian Negrea; Vioara Mireşan; Camelia Raducu; Flore Chirilă; Octavia Negrea; Adriana Criste; Daniel Cocan; Iulia Festila

    2013-01-01

    The investigations on the incidence and intensity of parasitism in some endoparasytes in sheep  performed on 376 animals (260 sheep and 116 young adult sheep) Turcana breed, Gilău area, Cluj County, indicated an increased incidence in trihostrongilidys  of 72.7% in young  sheep and 65.0% in adult sheep. The incidence of monesya had different values ​​depending on age group, 45.5% at young sheep and 10.0% in  adult sheep. The data obtained regarding the prevalence of hepatobiliary trematodsys...

  16. The Dynamics, Prevalence and Impact of Nematode Infections in Organically Raised Sheep in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waller PJ

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A three-year survey (1997–99 was carried out on organically reared sheep flocks throughout Sweden. The aim was to determine the prevalence and intensity of nematode infections and to establish relationships between sheep management practices and parasite infections. Faecal samples from ewes and lambs were collected from 152 organic flocks around lambing-time and during the grazing-period for analysis. Results were compared with the different management practices that farmers use to prevent parasitism in their flocks. A high proportion of the flocks was infected with nematodes. The most prevalent species were Haemonchus contortus, Teladorsagia circumeincta, Trichostrongylus axei, T. colubriformis and Chabertia ovina and infections progressively increased during summer in lambs grazing on permanent pastures. Severity of parasitic infection in lambs was highly dependent on egg output from the ewes. H. contortus was found in 37% of the flocks, even at latitudes approximating the Polar Circle. Nematodirus battus was recorded for the first time in Sweden during the course of this study. Lambs turned out onto permanent pasture showed higher nematode faecal egg counts (epg than lambs that had grazed on pastures, which had not carried sheep the previous year. This beneficial effect of lambs grazing non-infected pastures persisted if the ewes were treated with an anthelmintic before turn-out and if the lambs were kept on pastures of low infectivity after weaning. In lambs, the prevalence and the magnitude of their egg counts were higher during autumn in flocks where lambs were slaughtered after 8 months of age, compared with flocks where all lambs were slaughtered before this age. These results will be used in providing advice to farmers of ways to modify their flock management in order to minimise the use of anthelmintics, but at the same time efficiently produce prime lambs.

  17. Epidemiology, sero-diagnosis and therapeutic studies on nematodes infection in balochi range-sheep at district quetta, balochistan, pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Razzaq

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the infectious organisms of parasitic origin, gastrointestinal nematodes are very important as they have been reported worldwide. The main aim of the present research study to highlight the annual epidemiological contributing factors associated with the prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes and their control in sheep.A total 1200 faecal samples (100 per month were collected from farmers holding Balochi-sheep (either sexes, 1-5 years old during January-December 2012 and analyzed to determine the prevalence of nematodes based on microscopy and ELISA based diagnostic assay. Therapeutic efficacies of different synthetic and herbal medicines against these nematodes were assessed by field trials.Results showed that 23.92% Balochi-sheep were infected with nematodes. Five nematodes infections were recorded with highest prevalence of Haemonchus (7.75% followed by Nematodirus (7.58%, Strongyloides (4.42%, Trichostrongylus (2.33% and Trichuris (1.83%. The younger and older ewes (one and five years presented higher nematodes prevalence with peak during March/April and August/September. Haemonchus and Trichuris positive samples based on coprological examination were also showed 92-100% positive sensitivity for these nematodes by the ELISA. Sheep treated with Ivermectin showed higher reduction (97.76% in nematode egg counts followed by Atreefal deedan (96.42% and Oxfendazole (95.44%, respectively.The gastro-intestinal nematodes are prevalent in all age and either sex of Balochi-sheep with peak during summer. The ELISA based diagnosis is more accurte. The synthetic and herbal products are very effective against sheep nematodes.

  18. 21 CFR 133.184 - Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. 133.184 Section 133.184 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION..., sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. (a) Description. (1) Roquefort cheese...

  19. Aspects Regarding the Coprological Pollution Level in Some Sheep Helminthiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian Negrea

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The investigations on the incidence and intensity of parasitism in some endoparasytes in sheep  performed on 376 animals (260 sheep and 116 young adult sheep Turcana breed, Gilău area, Cluj County, indicated an increased incidence in trihostrongilidys  of 72.7% in young  sheep and 65.0% in adult sheep. The incidence of monesya had different values ​​depending on age group, 45.5% at young sheep and 10.0% in  adult sheep. The data obtained regarding the prevalence of hepatobiliary trematodsys of sheep in the study, indicates similar values ​​for the two categories, 27.2% young sheep and 30.0% for adult sheep. Instead the extensivity of  lung strongilatosys showed notable differences between the two groups of animals, 18.1% at young sheep and 35.0% in adult sheep. The cop microscopic pollution degree with trihostrongily eggs in correlation with age group, indicated a dominance of low infestation (50% young sheep and 61.5% adult sheep. In exchange, the data obtained on parasitism intensity with cestode oncospheres expresses a dominance of medium infestation (60.0% in young sheep and the low (10.0% in adult sheep. The intensity level of Hepatobiliary trematodosys parasitism in the young sheep showed a dominance of small and medium infestations (37.5% and in adult sheep are dominant only at low infestations (45.4%. The larvae strongilatosys  parasitism intensity in the lung detected similar values ​​in the two age groups (50.0% in young sheep and 17.2% in adult sheep.

  20. Attitude of Farmers towards Kisan Call Centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shely Mary Koshy

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to measure the attitude of farmers in Kerala, India towards Kisan Call Centre (KCC. Kisan Call Centre provides free agricultural advisory services to every citizen involved in agriculture through a toll free number. One hundred and fifty farmers who have utilized the Kisan Call Centre service were selected from the database of KCC. The results showed that the respondents had moderately favourable attitude towards KCC followed by highly favourable attitude. The variables digital divide, temporal awareness on KCC, satisfaction towards KCC and utilization of KCC were found to have a positive correlation with the attitude of respondents towards KCC.

  1. 1990 Sheep monitoring programme January - December 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgan, P.A.; O'Grady, J.; Cunnigham, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    The monitoring of sheep and sheepmeat has been undertaken by the Nuclear Energy Board since 1987 and reports of the work have been published on an annual basis. The main components of previous programmes have been continued during 1990. including; in vivo monitoring of sheep at the main slaughterhouses dealing with both the domestic and export markets, laboratory analysis of sheepmeat collected from butchers' shops nationwide, in vivo monitoring of mountain sheep at selected farms during the months of summer grazing. In addition, baseline data on radiocaesium in soils and plants at 13 sites were collected during the second half of the year

  2. Risk Factors Associated with Brucella Seropositivity in Sheep and Goats in Duhok Province, Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhamada, Ali G; Habib, Ihab; Barnes, Anne; Robertson, Ian

    2017-12-07

    Sera from 432 small ruminants (335 sheep and 97 goats) from 72 farms in Duhok Province, northern Iraq, were collected to investigate risk factors associated with brucellosis seropositivity. Serum samples were tested using the Rose Bengal test (RBT) and an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA). Using parallel interpretation, RBT and iELISA results showed that 31.7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 26.1, 36.3) of sheep and 34.0% (95% CI: 24.7, 44.3) of goats had antibodies against Brucella in the study area. A random-effects multivariable logistic regression model indicated that a higher chance of being seropositive (odds ratio (OR) = 1.7; 95% 1.4; 2.2) was associated with an increase in the age of animals. The odds of Brucella seropositivity in flocks where sheep and goats grazed together was 2.0 times higher (95% CI: 1.08; 3.9) compared to flocks where sheep and goats grazed separately. The odds of Brucella seropositivity in small ruminants was 2.2 higher (95% CI: 1.2; 4.3) for animals originating from farms with a history of goat abortion in the preceding 12 months. In contrast, for every 1000 Iraqi Dinars (~0.85 US Dollar) spent by the farmers on control of Brucella in their flocks, the odds of Brucella seropositivity decreased significantly (OR = 0.9, p -value = 0.021). The final model also indicated significant differences in Brucella seropositivity between the different districts of Duhok Province. This study provides a contribution to the epidemiology of brucellosis in small ruminants in northern Iraq.

  3. Risk Factors Associated with Brucella Seropositivity in Sheep and Goats in Duhok Province, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali. G. Alhamada

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sera from 432 small ruminants (335 sheep and 97 goats from 72 farms in Duhok Province, northern Iraq, were collected to investigate risk factors associated with brucellosis seropositivity. Serum samples were tested using the Rose Bengal test (RBT and an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA. Using parallel interpretation, RBT and iELISA results showed that 31.7% (95% confidence interval (CI: 26.1, 36.3 of sheep and 34.0% (95% CI: 24.7, 44.3 of goats had antibodies against Brucella in the study area. A random-effects multivariable logistic regression model indicated that a higher chance of being seropositive (odds ratio (OR = 1.7; 95% 1.4; 2.2 was associated with an increase in the age of animals. The odds of Brucella seropositivity in flocks where sheep and goats grazed together was 2.0 times higher (95% CI: 1.08; 3.9 compared to flocks where sheep and goats grazed separately. The odds of Brucella seropositivity in small ruminants was 2.2 higher (95% CI: 1.2; 4.3 for animals originating from farms with a history of goat abortion in the preceding 12 months. In contrast, for every 1000 Iraqi Dinars (~0.85 US Dollar spent by the farmers on control of Brucella in their flocks, the odds of Brucella seropositivity decreased significantly (OR = 0.9, p-value = 0.021. The final model also indicated significant differences in Brucella seropositivity between the different districts of Duhok Province. This study provides a contribution to the epidemiology of brucellosis in small ruminants in northern Iraq.

  4. Frozen yogurt from sheep milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisangela de Abreu

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to develop frozen yogurt formulations from powdered yogurt of sheep milk, through an experimental design of 2², with a triplicate at the central point. The variables studied were emulsifier/stabilizer (0.50%, 0.75%, and 1.00% and powder for cream (2.75%, 3.00% and 3.25%. The parameters evaluated were sensory characteristics, texture, and microbiological counts. The results showed that the formulations had counts of S. aureus and fecal coliforms at 45 °C, lactic acid bacteria and Salmonella sp within the limits established by legislation. Instrumental analysis of texture-related parameters (firmness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, and consistency of the formulations with different concentrations of emulsifier/stabilizer and cream powder showed no significant differences (p > 0.05. In sensory analysis, Formulations 3 and 4 with lower concentrations of emulsifier/stabilizer scored the highest values, thus indicating good acceptability.

  5. 1989 sheep monitoring programme January - December 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgan, P.A.; Scully, B.J.

    1990-06-01

    This report details the work undertaken by the Board during 1989 and includes the results of on-farm measurements, slaughterhouse monitoring and butchers' shops surveys relating to sheep and sheepmeat (author)

  6. Schmallenberg virus experimental infection of sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd; Bréard, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Since late 2011, a novel orthobunyavirus, named Schmallenberg virus (SBV), has been implicated in many cases of severely malformed bovine and ovine offspring in Europe. In adult cattle, SBV is known to cause a mild transient disease; clinical signs include short febrile episodes, decreased milk...... production and diarrhoea for a few days. However, the knowledge about clinical signs and pathogenesis in adult sheep is limited.In the present study, adult sheep of European domestic breeds were inoculated with SBV either as cell culture grown virus or as virus with no history of passage in cell cultures...... 3–5 days by real-time RT-PCR. In total, 13 out of 30 inoculated sheep became RNAemic, with the highest viral load in animals inoculated with virus from low cell culture passaged or the animal passaged material. Contact animals remained negative throughout the study. One RNAemic sheep showed...

  7. Selective breeding for scrapie resistance in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Santos Sotomaior

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the susceptibility of sheep to scrapie is determined by the host’s prion protein gene (PRNP. PRNP polymorphisms at codons 136 (alanine, A/valine, V, 154 (histidine, H/arginine, R and 171 (glutamine, Q/histidine, H/arginine, R are the main determinants of sheep susceptibility/resistance to classical scrapie. There are four major variants of the wild-type ARQ allele: VRQ, AHQ, ARH and ARR. Breeding programs have been developed in the European Union and the USA to increase the frequency of the resistant ARR allele while decreasing the frequency of the susceptible VRQ allele in sheep populations. In Brazil, little PRNP genotyping data are available for sheep, and thus far, no controlled breeding scheme for scrapie has been implemented. This review will focus on important epidemiological aspects of scrapie and the use of genetic resistance as a tool in breeding programs to control the disease.

  8. Drug needs of the sheep industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgin, M S

    1993-01-01

    Two areas of drug needs in the sheep industry are reviewed. The first is the need for prolificacy drugs such as those used outside the country. These drugs would encourage out-of-season lambing, increased lambs/per ewe during the traditional lambing season and synchronize estrus for easier management of lambing and increased use of artificial insemination for faster genetic improvement. The other area is drugs to treat or prevent major causes of disease, specifically abortion, neonatal diarrhea, pneumonia and internal parasitism. Efficacious drugs for these diseases are either not now cleared for use in sheep at all; a safe, easy to administer product is not available; or not cleared for sheep at a dosage level which is effective. These are drugs which will have a positive impact on the industry by increasing production, reducing expenses, and helping the U. S. to be able to compete with other sheep producing countries in the U. S. markets.

  9. Sheep monitoring programme January - September 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgan, P.A.; Scully, B.J.

    1989-02-01

    This report summarises the work undertaken by the Board during the first nine months of 1988, and includes the results of in vivo farm measurements, slaughterhouse monitoring and butchers' shops surveys relating to sheep and sheepmeat.(author)

  10. Haemoglobinuria caused by propylene glycol in sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, B. J.

    1958-01-01

    Haemoglobinuria occurred in sheep anaesthetized by an intravenous injection of pentobarbitone sodium containing propylene glycol: an equivalent dose failed to cause haemoglobinuria in rabbits. Intravenous injection of an aqueous solution of 20% propylene glycol caused haemoglobinaemia and haemoglobinuria in sheep. Neither distilled water nor 20% glycerol in water administered under identical conditions produced these effects. Haemoglobinuria occurred on some occasions when an aqueous 20% solution of propylene glycol was administered to sheep after an injection of saline: it never occurred when a solution of 20% propylene glycol prepared with physiological saline was injected. It is suggested that saline may protect against the haemolytic action of propylene glycol in sheep and that propylene glycol should be avoided as a menstruum for pharmaceutical preparations to be used for injection into the blood stream of these animals. PMID:13618540

  11. An Effective Aquaculture Extension System from Farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Government and projects extension professionals should support the system through technical training, study tours, publications and networking. Likewise, since educated and well-off farmers in peri-urban areas can access information, government offices should be equipped with well-trained extension personnel and ...

  12. FARMERS ADAPTATION STRATEGIES TO THE EFFECT OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AGROSEARCH UIL

    (χ2 = 14.068), farm size (χ2 = 99.597) and the level of production of yam farmers. Pearson product moment ... and development of innovation for sustainable yam cropping in the face of climate variation. Key words: Climate variation, ..... and wind storm as serious constraints confronting yam production. Other constraints ...

  13. Food security of small holding farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peramaiyan, Panneer; Hermansen, John Erik; Halberg, Niels

    2010-01-01

    practicing different agro-ecological methods were higher under organic systems than conventional systems. These results suggest that organic farming has the potential to improve food security of small farmers by reducing indebtedness due to the lower cost of production without affecting total farm production...

  14. Genetic Alterations in Pesticide Exposed Bolivian Farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; González, Ana Rosa; Ascarrunz, Maria Eugenia

    2007-01-01

    Background: Pesticides are of concern in Bolivia because of increasing use. Frequent intoxications have been demonstrated due to use of very toxic pesticides, insufficient control of distribution and sale and little knowledge among farmers of protective measures and hygienic procedures. Method: Q...

  15. Factors Influencing Smallholder Farmers Participation in IFAD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-02-02

    Feb 2, 2015 ... strengthen them for easy access to credit, farm inputs and markets for their agricultural products. References. Agbelemoge, A., Adedoyin, S.F. and Oladoyin, S.D. (2001). Farmers Related. Factors and Adoption of Cocoa Rehabilitation Technology in Oluyole. Local Government Area of Oyo State Nigeria.

  16. Genetic Alterations in Pesticide Exposed Bolivian Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørs, Erik; Gonzáles, Ana Rosa; Ascarrunz, Maria Eugenia; Tirado, Noemi; Takahashi, Catharina; Lafuente, Erika; Dos Santos, Raquel A; Bailon, Natalia; Cervantes, Rafael; O, Huici; Bælum, Jesper; Lander., Flemming

    2007-01-01

    Background Pesticides are of concern in Bolivia because of increasing use. Frequent intoxications have been demonstrated due to use of very toxic pesticides, insufficient control of distribution and sale and little knowledge among farmers of protective measures and hygienic procedures. Method Questionnaires were applied and blood tests taken from 81 volunteers from La Paz County, of whom 48 were pesticide exposed farmers and 33 non-exposed controls. Sixty males and 21 females participated with a mean age of 37.3 years (range 17–76). Data of exposure and possible genetic damage were collected and evaluated by well known statistical methods, controlling for relevant confounders. To measure genetic damage chromosomal aberrations and the comet assay analysis were performed. Results Pesticide exposed farmers had a higher degree of genetic damage compared to the control group. The number of chromosomal aberrations increased with the intensity of pesticide exposure. Females had a lower number of chromosomal aberrations than males, and people living at altitudes above 2500 metres seemed to exhibit more DNA damage measured by the comet assay. Conclusions Bolivian farmers showed signs of genotoxic damage, probably related to exposure to pesticides. Due to the potentially negative long term health effects of genetic damage on reproduction and the development of cancer, preventive measures are recommended. Effective control with imports and sales, banning of the most toxic pesticides, education and information are possible measures, which could help preventing the negative effects of pesticides on human health and the environment. PMID:19662224

  17. Technological Packages Extended To Farmers by Non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper investigated technological packages extended to farmers by Non Governmental Organizations in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria. Data for the study was collected with the aid of structured questionnaire from 450 respondents in the study area. Findings revealed that yam minisett technology, hybrid cassava ...

  18. Farmers' Opinions about Third-Wave Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasley, Paul; Bultena, Gordon

    The opinions of 1,585 Iowa farmers about 8 emergent agricultural technologies (energy production from feed grains and oils; energy production from livestock waste; genetic engineering research on plants, livestock, and humans; robotics for on-farm use; confinement livestock facilities; and personal computers for farm families) were found to be…

  19. Discriminant Analysis Of Poultry Farmers Technology Adoption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study determined the poultry Farmers technology adoption potentials in Abia State Nigeria. Multi-stage random sampling technique was used in the selection of local government areas, blocks, circles and respondents. Instrument of data collection was via a structured and pre-tested questionnaire. The data were ...

  20. Kenyan farmers discover the Internet | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-20

    Oct 20, 2010 ... With the Internet linking producers to consumers, the farmer is likely to get better value for her/his produce. "The expectation is that DrumNet ... Kenyan journalist Ken Opala is the recent Gold Medal winner of the 2003 Natali Prize — one of the world's leading awards for journalists. He is also the winner of ...

  1. Fish farmers' perceptions of constraints affecting aquaculture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focused on fish farmers' perceptions of constraints affecting aquaculture development in Akwa-Ibom State of Nigeria. Random sampling procedure was used to select 120 respondents from whom primary data was collected. Data analysis was with the aid of descriptive statistics. Results show that fish farming ...

  2. GM plants, farmers and the public

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Jesper; Sandøe, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The controversy in Europe over genetically manipulated (GM) foods has been conceived largely as a conflict between a reluctant public and a more enthusiastic agri-food sector. As a result, the political focus has been on the public to the neglect of other actors, such as the farmers, whose willin...

  3. Farmer Assessment, Conservation and Utilization of Endangered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is an important staple food crop in the savanna zone of Ghana. Surveys to determine farmers' perception, crop management strategies and variety maintenance of neglected sorghum landraces were conducted in the Upper West Region of Ghana in 2004. Fifty-nine samples of ...

  4. Survey Evidence From Ethiopian Coffee Farmers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The worldwide turndown in coffee revenue to the majority of resource poor primary producers has become a serious threat to sustainable development. There is however inadequate knowledge with respect to mechanisms used by resource poor coffee farmers to stave off situations of economic hardship.

  5. Measuring the environmental awareness of young farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kountios, G.; Ragkos, A.; Padadavid, G.; Hadjimitsis, D.

    2017-09-01

    Young farmers in Europe, especially the beneficiaries of Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) funding schemes, are considered as the ones who could ensure the sustainability of the European Model of Agriculture. Economic efficiency and competitiveness, aversion of depopulation of rural areas and environmental protection constitute some of the key objectives of the CAP and young farmers are expected to play a role to all of them. This study proposes a way of measuring the potential of young farmers to contribute to the latter objectives of the CAP by estimating their environmental attitudes. Data from a questionnaire survey of 492 Greek young farmers were used to design a latent construct measuring their environmental attitudes. The latent construct was designed by means of an Explanatory Factor Analysis (EFA) using the responses to a set of 12 Likert-scale items. The results the EFA yielded a latent construct with three factors related to "Environmental pollution and policies (EPP)", "Environmental factors and food quality (EFF)" and "Farming practices and the environment". These results were validated through a CFA where 8 items in total were categorized in the three factors (latent variables). The utilization of the latent construct for the effective implementation of CAP measures could ameliorate the relationships of agriculture and environment in general.

  6. Climate changes and farmers' endogenous adaptation strategies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has been claimed that climate changes impact studies often assume certain adaptations and little explicit examination of how, when, why, and under what conditions they occur. This research aims at analysing the endogenous strategies developed by farmers in agricultural land and crop management. With random ...

  7. Why did the First Farmers Toil?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    Time-budget studies done among contemporary primitive people suggest that the first farmers worked harder to attain subsistence than their foraging predecessors. This makes the adoption of agriculture in the Stone Age one of the major curiosities in human cultural history. Theories offered...

  8. Why did the First Farmers Toil?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    2009-01-01

    Time-budget studies done among contemporary primitive people suggest that the first farmers worked harder to attain subsistence than their foraging predecessors. This makes the adoption of agriculture in the Stone Age one of the major curiosities in human cultural history. Theories offered...

  9. climate changes and farmers' endogenous adaptation strategies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    CLIMATE CHANGES AND FARMERS' ENDOGENOUS ADAPTATION STRATEGIES: SOCIO ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE DYNAMIC USE OF AGRICULTURAL LANDS IN. CENTRAL REGION OF BENIN. M.W. ABIDJI, H. DEDEHOUANOU, P. VISSOH, E. AGBOSSOU1 and H. GUIBERT1. University of Abomey-Calavi ...

  10. Farmers\\' Discontinuance Decision Behaviours Of Yam Minisett ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farmers' discontinuance decision behaviours of technologies is attributed to certain reasons and it is governed by certain socio-economic variables. This study identified and analyzed the rate of discontinuance of yam minisett technology, reasons for discontinuance and the socio-economic determinants of the ...

  11. Farmer awareness, coping mechanisms and economic implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coffee leaf rust (CLR) still remains a serious threat to the economics of coffee farming in Uganda. The disease is more severe on Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica) at mid and low altitude (1500 m and below) where crop losses is up to 50%. The objective of this study was to document farmers' knowledge about the disease, ...

  12. Farmers' Characteristics and Adoption' of Recommended Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The study focused on farmers under the Fadama Project Scheme in Edo State, Nigeria with emphasis ..... respondents for this preference was that the local ... practices. Variables. Standardized t value beta. Education. Age. Household size. Sex. Marital Status. Intercept. Adjusted R2. Standard Error. F. 0.465. - 0.147.

  13. (cadp) on farmers' empowerment in kaduna state

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CIU

    The Kaduna State Commercial Agriculture Development Project (CADP), a ... Project. ii. To examine the extent to which the Kaduna State CADP market opportunities for small and medium scale commercial farmers has enhanced the income ..... In computing the degree of freedom, we now have: V = (3 – 1) (2 – 1) =2 x 1 = 2.

  14. Understanding farmers' preferences for wastewater reuse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    service design, pricing strategy, and distribution channels, as well as concepts of public welfare (Louviere et al., 2000). For this study a choice modelling approach was adopted to foster understanding of farmers' preferences concerning frameworks of water reuse for irrigation. Choice modelling has gained recog- nition in ...

  15. Incorporating Migrant Farmers into Nigeria's Agricultural Extension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madukwe

    area. Most of the migrant farmers had strong links with their places of origin and returned more than twelve times in a year for burial ceremonies of relations, traditional festivals, meetings and marriages. Although both migrant men and women were engaged in various agricultural activities, there were significant differences ...

  16. Constraints to Women Farmers' Entrepreneurial Development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Abstract. This study examined the entrepreneurial competencies among women farmers in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Specifically, this paper described the characteristics of the respondents, identified the characteristics (type, form and duration) of enterprises the respondents engaged in, and examined their constraints to ...

  17. Strategies for coping with feed scarcity among urban and peri-urban livestock farmers in Kampala, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Ivarsson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Livestock keeping is increasingly becoming more popular in Kampala, the capital city of Uganda. However, lack of feed is a real challenge. Inadequate feed supply in urban areas is due to many interacting factors, which include among others land shortage, high cost of feeds, climate risks and poor quality of feeds. The objective of this study was to identify and examine the effectiveness of the strategies adopted by livestock farmers in urban and peri-urban areas of Kampala, Uganda to cope with feed scarcity. A total of 120 livestock farmers from Kampala were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Dairy cattle (48.3% and chickens (37.5% were the most common species, followed by pigs (34.2%, goats (26.7% and sheep (3.3%. Farm size was generally small both in terms of herd size and total landholding. Cattle and pig farmers in urban and peri-urban areas of Kampala ranked feed scarcity as their first major constraint, while chicken farmers had high cost of feeds. These farmers have adopted several strategies for coping with feed scarcity. Among the major coping strategies adopted were: changing of feed resources based on availability and cost (37.5%, purchasing of feed ingredients in bulk (29.7%, using crop/food wastes (26.6%, harvesting of forages growing naturally in open access lands (23.4% and reducing herd size (17.2%. However, most of the coping strategies adopted were largely aimed at dealing with the perennial challenge of feed scarcity on a day-by-day basis rather than dealing with it using sustainable and long-term strategies.

  18. Performance of farmers-led extension system in agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    -technology package. Adoption rate was estimated at 35%, meaning that farmers applied about 35% of the practices in which they were trained. The rate was lower. (30%) among women than male farmers (37%) due to a combination of ...

  19. Profitability of fungicide use decisions among cocoa farmers in south ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CRIN) recommended fungicide use rate with profit maximization objective of Nigerian cocoa farmers. To achieve this research objective, a cross-sectional survey of cocoa farmers in four local government areas (LGAs) each in Osun and Ondo ...

  20. How can veterinarians be interesting partners for organic dairy farmers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duval, J E; Bareille, N; Fourichon, C

    2017-01-01

    Organic dairy farmers must live up to the organic goal of 'good health' in respect the organic principles and regulation. Veterinarians could be the organic dairy farmers' expected sparring partners in reaching this goal but have found difficulties to establish advisory relationships with them....... The objectives of this study are -from organic dairy farmers' points of view- (i) to describe farmers' objectives and strategies regarding herd health, (ii) to describe private veterinarians' roles in farmers' animal health promotion strategies and (iii) to identify farmers' reasons for accepting veterinarians...... in an advisory role. Fourteen organic dairy farmers were interviewed using qualitative research interviews. Data collection and analysis was performed using a modified approach to Grounded Theory. Organic dairy farmers had animal health management strategies focusing on animal health promotion. Veterinarians had...

  1. Organic farmers may gain from Green House Gas trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2009-01-01

    Farmers may earn money from participating in the ongoing greenhouse gas (GHG) trade system under the Kyoto agreement.......Farmers may earn money from participating in the ongoing greenhouse gas (GHG) trade system under the Kyoto agreement....

  2. Sheep research offers alternatives to improve production

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Edward O.; Bradford, G. Eric

    2001-01-01

    Scientists working at the UC Hopland Research and Extension Center (HREC) have made important contributions to the sheep industry in breeding and genetics, and in the understanding of animal behavior. A long-term experiment involving HREC was initiated in 1960 to evaluate the effects of selection environment on sheep performance under range conditions. Selectrion of the UC Davis flock, representing the favorable conditions typical of purebred flocks where most breeding rams are raised, result...

  3. Laryngeal Chondritis in Sheep in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurðardóttir, Ó G; Jörundsson, E; Friðriksdóttir, V

    2016-11-01

    Laryngeal chondritis is a chronic disease in sheep with low morbidity, high mortality and unresolved pathogenesis. The disease has been recognized recently in Iceland and affects both ewes and rams. Animals of different ages are affected, but lambs and yearlings predominate. The disease is seen in housed animals and most cases occur during the late winter months. We report the gross and microscopical findings in 45 cases of laryngeal chondritis in Icelandic sheep. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Associations between housing and management factors and reproductive performance in 327 Norwegian sheep flocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Housing sheep in insulated, warm buildings, which is common in Norway, involves high buildings costs, but has not been reported to improve health and performance. Few studies have dealt with the association between housing and management and reproductive performance. Data on housing and management during the indoor period from a questionnaire were merged with herd level data from the Norwegian Sheep Recording System, and the material included 327 sheep flocks. Associations between housing and management factors and reproductive performance were analyzed by means of multivariate regression models and grouped logistic regression. Results There was no difference in reproductive performance between warm and cold housing. Number of live born lambs born per pregnant ewe was highest in flocks with 10 or less ewes per pen, and lowest in flocks with more than 40 ewes per pen. Rate of barren ewes was lowest, and number of lambs per ewe at the end of the indoor period was highest in flocks where the sheep were regrouped according to number of foetuses (lambs) identified by scanning. A higher total number of lambs born per pregnant ewe and lambs per ewe at the end of the indoor period were found where other available housing facilities or outdoor areas were used in addition to the main housing unit in the lambing season. The rate of stillbirths was lowest on farms where sheep was the only animal production. None of the factors evaluated had any significant association with mortality of live born lambs in the indoor period. Lowest number of lambs per ewe at the end of the indoor period was found on farms where other family members/hired labour were caretakers as compared with the farmer or spouse/cohabitant, and highest numbers were found where caretakers were older than 60 years of age. Reproductive performance was lower in the Spæl Breed than the Norwegian White Sheep. Conclusion Housing systems per se are of minor importance, whereas management practices in the

  5. Occupational heat stress in Australian workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Ollie; Brotherhood, John R

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to summarize the current state of knowledge on heat stress risk within typical Australian occupational settings. We assessed identified occupations (mining, agriculture, construction, emergency services) for heat production and heat loss potential, and resultant levels of physiological heat strain. A total of 29 reports were identified that assessed in-situ work settings in Northern Territory, South Australia, Western Australia, Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria, that measured physiological responses and characterized the thermal environment. Despite workers across all industries being regularly exposed to high ambient temperatures (32-42°C) often coupled with high absolute humidity (max: 33 hPa), physiological strain is generally low in terms of core temperature (demands of many tasks, and self-regulated pacing of work possible in most jobs. Heat stress risk is higher in specific jobs in agriculture (e.g. sheep shearing), deep underground mining, and emergency services (e.g., search/rescue and bushfire fighting). Heat strain was greatest in military-related activities, particularly externally-paced marching with carried loads which resulted in core temperatures often exceeding 39.5°C despite being carried out in cooler environments. The principal driver of core temperature elevations in most jobs is the rate of metabolic heat production. A standardized approach to evaluating the risk of occupational heat strain in Australian workplaces is recommended defining the individual parameters that alter human heat balance. Future research should also more closely examine female workers and occupational activities within the forestry and agriculture/horticulture sector.

  6. Effect of subjective economic status on psychological distress among farmers and non-farmers of rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Danjun; Ji, Linqin; Xu, Lingzhong

    2015-08-01

    This study aims to compare the prevalence of psychological distress between farmers and non-farmers of rural China. Further, this examines the effect of subjective economic status on psychological distress and whether this effect varies between farmers and non-farmers. The study design is a cross-sectional survey. The study was conducted in 27 villages of Dongying City in Shandong Province. Rural employed people included 1433 farmers and 584 non-farmers. Psychological distress was assessed by the Kessler 10 questionnaire, and subjective economic status was assessed by a single question. Overall, the farmers did not report significantly higher prevalence of psychological distress than non-farmers (31.13% versus 30.01%). However, the farmers aged 51-70 years did report significantly higher psychological distress than their non-farmer counterparts (33.4% versus 24.2%, P = 0.04). Second, subjective economic status had a significant (β = -0.28, P economic status exerted a stronger effect on psychological distress among farmers (β = 0.30, P China. Subjective economic status exerted a significant effect on the psychological distress of rural employed people, and this effect was stronger for the farmers than for the non-farmers. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  7. Australian uranium today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisk, B.

    1978-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections, entitled: Australia's resources; Northern Territory uranium in perspective; the government's decision [on August 25, 1977, that there should be further development of uranium under strictly controlled conditions]; Government legislation; outlook [for the Australian uranium mining industry]. (U.K.)

  8. Tobacco farmers and diversification: opportunities and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, D G; Levine, D W; Howard, G; Hamilton, H

    1996-01-01

    To assess the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours of tobacco growers and allotment owners in the southeastern United States. Cross-sectional telephone survey. Tobacco growers (n = 529) and tobacco allotment owners (n = 417) were interviewed by telephone in March 1995. Tobacco growing states in the southeastern US. Attitudes of tobacco growers and tobacco allotment owners towards, and experience with, diversification; and attitudes towards an increase in the federal excise tax on tobacco. Half of the respondents had done something to learn about on-farm alternatives to tobacco, had an interest in trying other on-farm ventures to supplement tobacco income, and found alternatives that were profitable. There was a strong, negative linear trend between age and being interested in or trying alternative enterprises. Structural and economic impediments to diversification were noted by respondents (especially younger respondents), but 73% supported an increase in the federal excise tax on tobacco if the money was used to help farmers overcome these barriers. These data suggest that farmers and health professionals have reason to establish dialogue around diversification and using excise tax increases to fund diversification and to promote health. Tobacco companies have been successful in mobilising farmers against tax increases, but efforts must be made to show farmers that tax increases can be beneficial both to their diversification efforts and to public health. The outcome of this dialogue may well affect the economic infrastructure of thousands of rural communities, the livelihood of tens of thousands of tobacco farmers and their families, and the health of millions of tobacco users.

  9. Sudanese live sheep and mutton exports competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babiker Idris Babiker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The livestock sector of Sudan provides livelihood for about 17% of the population. Sudanese livestock products meet the domestic demand for meat in addition to a substantial excess for export amounting to about 22% of total country exports. It contributes about 19% of GDP. Sheep marketing in Sudan is characterised by traditional operations and is informally organised, although, recently there are great efforts by the formal livestock authorities to organise some secondary and terminal livestock markets. These markets are deficient in basic infrastructures and systematic marketing research. The system as a whole is faced by various complex obstacles and constraints, which decrease the contribution of livestock in general, and sheep in particular, to the national economy, and suppress the optimum exploitation of this resource. These obstacles are represented in the lack of transportation networks that connect the production and consumption centres to break the seasonality of supply that creates shortages and high prices at the consumption centres. This paper employs the policy analysis matrix (PAM technique to examine the Sudanese live sheep and mutton competitiveness in the international market. The results indicated that the market price was greater than the border price implying a positive incentive as an implicit subsidy to the live sheep exporter. The mutton exporters were found subsidised as well. The international value added (IVA indicted a positive foreign exchange earnings or savings. Exported live sheep and mutton coefficient of competitiveness (CIC implied that sheep and mutton exports are profitable and internationally competitive.

  10. Managerial efficiency among yam farmers in Ondo state, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study revealed that the mean age of the farmers was 48.50 years where majority of the farmers fall within the age range of 41-50 years (35%), showing that majority of the yam farmers in the study area are in their active age who are energetic. Majority of them are male accounting for 85.00% , 90.00% of the farmers have ...

  11. Understanding of the farmers privilege concept by smallholder farmers in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Noluthando C. Netnou-Nkoana; Julian B. Jaftha; Mabjang A. Dibiloane; Jacobus N. Eloff

    2015-01-01

    Legislation on plant breeders’ rights – the Plant Breeders’ Rights Act, 1976 (Act No. 15 of 1976) – currently is being reviewed by the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. This legislation provides for farmers’ privilege, which is one of the exceptions to plant breeders’ rights. It allows farmers to save seed of protected varieties for their own use. Farmers’ privilege, and particularly its impact on smallholder farmers in developing countries, is a widely debated issue. During ...

  12. Determinants of production level of commercial snail farmers in Oyo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigates the determinants of productivity level among commercial snail farmers in Oyo State. A systematic sampling technique was employed to select one-hundred and forty–two snail farmers from the membership list provided by the Snail Farmers Association of Nigeria (SFAN), Oyo State Chapter.

  13. Profitability of groundnut-based cropping systems among farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Groundnut is an important cash crop and a good source of vegetable oil to resource-poor farmers. The study examined the Profitability of Groundnut–based Cropping Systems among farmers in Hong Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Specifically, the socio-economic characteristics of the farmers were ...

  14. Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change by Food Crop Farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... constraints to farmers adaptation strategies. Inputs supply to the local farmers should also come with government subsidy. This will go a long way in alleviating the sufferings of the farmers, as regards inadequate supply and delivery of agricultural inputs. Key words: Adaptation, Strategies, Climate, Change, Food, Crop,

  15. differentials in socioeconomic attributes of male and female farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. (Mrs.) Gladys Erie

    ABSTRACT. This paper was designed to compare the technical efficiency of food crop farmers along gender line ... differences in the socioeconomic attributes of male and female food crop farmers, resulting in differences in .... may be as a result of the fact that older farmers are very conservative and are not receptive to new ...

  16. Irrigation farmers motivation for participating in social networking in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Irrigation farmers motivation for participating in social networking in North Central Nigeria. ... The study focused on the motivation of farmers in participating in social networking on the use of irrigations in north central Nigeria. For the purpose of the study, social ... Key Words: Farmers, Irrigation, Motivation, Social Networking ...

  17. Cocoa Farmer Characteristics and Access to Research-Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main purpose is to review the state of cocoa extension system and its preparedness to meet the information needs of resource-poor farmers. It also sought to investigate the extent of farmer access to research-based information and how this access is influenced by certain farmer characteristics. Social survey involving ...

  18. Farmers' Willingness to Pay for Private Irrigation Supply in Nandom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated farmers willingness to pay (WTP) for private irrigation in Nandom district, Ghana. The study randomly sampled 236 farmers and analyzed data using descriptive statistics and ordered logit regression model. Results revealed that 94.5 percent of the farmers were WTP for private irrigation services with ...

  19. 75 FR 20977 - Departmental Management; Advisory Committee on Minority Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... maximizing the participation of minority farmers and ranchers in USDA programs; and (3) civil rights... organizations with a history of working with minority farmers and ranchers; (3) not less than two civil rights...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Departmental Management; Advisory Committee on Minority Farmers AGENCY: USDA...

  20. Determinants of Access and Farmers' use of Information and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determinants of Access and Farmers' use of Information and Communication Technologies (1CTs) in Edo State, Nigeria. ... The study recommends organizing farmers into associations for training in the use of and collective acquisition of new ICTs. @JASEM. Keywords: Farmers, Access, Use New Information and ...

  1. Farmers' Perceptions of Rice Postharvest Losses in Eastern Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cross-sectional survey involving 83 farmers in focus group discussions and 150 individual interviews examined smallholder farmers' perceptions about postharvest losses (PHLs) in in rice in Eastern Uganda. Principal component analysis and logistic regression were used to establish the determinants of farmers' ...

  2. Information Search Behaviors of Indian Farmers: Implications for Extension Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendenning, Claire J.; Babu, Suresh C.; Asenso-Okyere, Kwadwo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In India, a national survey conducted in 2003 showed that only 40% of farmers accessed extension. But little is known of the characteristics of farmers who did not access extension. However, this understanding is needed in order to target approaches to farmers, who differ in their access and use of information, that is their information…

  3. Perception of Farm Succession Planning by Poultry Farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed poultry farm characteristics and poultry farmers' perception of farm succession planning in southwest Nigeria. A multistage sampling procedure was used in selecting poultry farmers in Oyo and Osun states. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results reveal that poultry farmers ...

  4. Assessment of farmers awareness and practice of health safety ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The broad objective of the study was to assess farmers' awareness and practice of health safety measures in the use of agrochemicals in Niger state , Nigeria. The specific objectives were to describe the socio-economic and demographic features of the farmers, identify the common agrochemicals being used by the farmers ...

  5. "American Gothic" Revised: Positive Perceptions from a Young American Farmer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joehl, Regan R.

    2008-01-01

    Grant Wood's "American Gothic," intended to represent the Depression Era, Midwestern farmer, has been regarded by many as the stereotypical representation of a true American farmer for decades. While this painting does represent farmers in the early part of the 20th century, the author feels obliged to say that it is time to drop this…

  6. Veterinary Extension Services Provided To Livestock Farmers In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the differences in the veterinary services provided by university and ministry based officers to livestock farmers in Oyo State. Simple random sampling technique was used to select veterinary clinics and livestock farmers who visited the clinics. One hundred and twenty five farmers were selected and ...

  7. 26 CFR 1.61-4 - Gross income of farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Gross income of farmers. (a) Farmers using the cash method of accounting. A farmer using the cash receipts and disbursements method of accounting shall include in his gross income for the taxable year— (1... the sale of livestock or other items which were purchased is to be ascertained by deducting the cost...

  8. Local Poultry Farmers' Media Use, Access and Understanding of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farmers listened to radio in the morning and evening but watch television in the evening. Publication readership was low though farmers look at billboards and posters. Posters pictures were important in attracting farmers' attention. Road junctions, churches, schools and mosques were identified as appropriate locations for ...

  9. A Comparative Study of The Economic Performance of Farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined the better irrigation method between large scale and motorised pump to recommend to farmers in Katsina state of Nigeria. The target populations were Farmers Under Large Scale (FULS) and Farmers Using Motorised Pumps (FUMP) and were compared along their socio-economic characteristics, ...

  10. Evaluation of Effects of Maize Extension Package on Farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the effects of maize extension package on farmers indigenous practices in Nwangele Local Government Area (LGA) of Imo State, Nigeria. Both farmers and extension agents were the target audience. Fifty (50) farmers and two (2) extension agents were purposively sampled from the selected ...

  11. Farmer Field Schools as a Springboard for Enhanced Uptake of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The latest approach in enhancing the uptake of agricultural technologies is through the Farmer Field Schools that have only a short history in Tanzania.This paper reviews the literature on Farmer Field Schools, first giving a brief description of the nature of Farmer Field Schools. This is then followed by experiences from ...

  12. Mentorship by commercial farmers in the land reform programme in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluates commercial farmers' views of their role as mentors in the land reform programme in two regions of the Free State Province. It reveals that the majority of commercial farmers in the study area are willing to act as mentors. The farmers overwhelmingly agreed that their role as mentors is very important.

  13. Constraints to Farmers' Labour Group Productivity in Eastern Kogi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Smallholder farmers in rural Nigeria face farm labour shortages and the need to find ways of dealing with this problem is therefore apt for food security and socioeconomic improvement. In an attempt to deal with this problem, Nigerians rural farmers constitute themselves into farmers' labour groups in other to meet their farm ...

  14. Socio-economic characteristics of small-holder farmers influencing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-economic characteristics of small-holder farmers influencing their utilisation of microcredit in the central agricultural zone of Cross River state. ... The findings revealed that about thirty – four percent (33.6%) of the crop farmers fell between 41-50 years while about 51% of the livestock farmers fell between 31-40 years.

  15. Farmer groups key to boosting technology adoption in Kenya | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-09-20

    Sep 20, 2013 ... Kenya Medical Research Institute: Nutrition and health. Farmers share lessons and successes. Engaging farmers in evaluating improved crops and practices and sharing their lessons and successes with more farmer groups is proving to be an effective way to scale up techno- logy adoption — and one that ...

  16. Correlation Matrix Of Farmers Perceived Objectives In Crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the correlation matrix of farmers perceived objectives in crop production in Emohua and Etche local government areas of Rivers State, Nigeria. Data for the study was from 77 farmers in the study area. It was found that small holder farmers have multiple objectives which were ranked according to their ...

  17. Farmer led multiplication of rosette resistant groundnut varieties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    sure way to provide poor farmers with access to improved varieties, practices, knowledge and information required for ... sustainable, and appropriate, especially for resource poor farmers. In view of this situation this project promotes farmer- led multiplication of rosette resistant Groundnuts varieties .... appropriate solutions.

  18. Fish Farmers' Perception of Climate change impact on fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Madukwe

    elements of climate change, ascertain the extent farmers perceived climate change in the zone, find out the various ... most serious environmental threat facing our planet today. Such significant change, according to ... 1. assess the farmers' level of awareness of elements of climate change;. 2. ascertain the extent farmers ...

  19. Farmers' knowledge and perceptions of cotton insect pests and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of 337 cotton farmers in the three northern regions of Ghana was conducted between November 2002 and March 2003 with the objectives of assessing farmers' knowledge and perceptions of cotton insect pests and examining their control practices. The survey revealed that between 69 and 86% of the farmers ...

  20. Ethno veterinary practices of small ruminant livestock farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were collected from a total of 400 ruminant livestock farmers selected from Oyo, Ogun, Lagos, Ondo and Edo States of Nigeria using Multi-stage sampling technique. The data collected include the specific attributes of small ruminant livestock farmers in the area, ethno-veterinary practices of farmers in the treatment of ...

  1. Transaction Cost Of Borrowing Among Small Scale Farmers In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined transaction cost of borrowing among small scale farmers in Rivers State, Nigeria. Data was collected with the aid of structured questionnaire from 109 randomly selected small scale farmers in the study area. Data analysis was by frequency, percentage and mean. It was found that farmers mostly ...

  2. Rural farmers' perspectives on stock theft: police crime statistics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural farmers are not only facing challenges of severe drought blamed on the El Nino weather pattern, but the stock theft as well. The South African Police's annual crime statistics report and surveys indicates that rural livestock farmers are mostly affected by stock theft in South Africa. The costs paid by these farmers to ...

  3. Farmers' compliance with the use of approved cocoa pesticides in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The survey evaluates the awareness and level of compliance in the use of approved cocoa pesticides by local farmers in selected cocoa producing states of Nigeria. Thirty farmers were randomly selected in Kwara, Ogun and Osun States. More than 70 percent of the farmers were aware of banned cocoa pesticides.

  4. Cocoa Farmers Attitude towards Utilisation of Integrated Pest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined cocoa farmers' attitude towards the utilization of integrated pest management (IPM) in Edo and Ogun States of Nigeria. In Edo State, 60 respondents were randomly selected out of 100 trained cocoa farmers. Random selection of 60 respondents from registered cocoa farmers that were not trained in IPM ...

  5. 551 training needs assessment of cocoa farmers association

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-08-26

    Aug 26, 2013 ... Abstract. The influence of soil fertility on the performance of any crop cannot be overemphasized. The study assessed cocoa farmers' training needs on soil management techniques in Cross River State of. Nigeria. Study data were obtained from random sample of farmers belonging to Cocoa Farmers.

  6. Farmers' Information Needs in Soap Opera Utilisation for Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined farmers' information needs in soap opera utilisation for agricultural enterprise promotion in Southwestern Nigeria. Using a multistage sampling procedure, 150 farmers were randomly selected across selected states in the study area. Data were collected with the use of interview schedule on farmers' ...

  7. Credit worthiness and loan repayment performance among farmer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Credit worthiness and loan repayment performance among farmer cooperators in Owerri Agricultural Zone of Imo State, Nigeria. ... policies that will improve the linkage between farmer cooperatives and formal credit sources in the area. Keywords: Credit worthiness, loan repayment, farmers, cooperative societies and credit ...

  8. Processes of enlightenment : farmer initiatives in rural development in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye, J.

    2002-01-01

    This research concerns development initiatives in rural communities. I define a farmer initiative as the impetus that sufficiently and necessarily drives a farmer (or group of farmers) to formulate a realistic strategic plan, and to implement it in an

  9. Small Scale Oil Palm Farmers Perception Of Organic Agriculture In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the perception of oil palm farmers in Imo State, Nigeria, with specific objectives of determining personal characteristics of farmers, access their level of practice and preferences for organic farming. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 120 farmers while a pre-tested questionnaire was ...

  10. 7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9... INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.9 Farmers stock peanuts. Farmers stock peanuts means picked or threshed peanuts produced in the United States which have not been...

  11. Influence of information channels on maize farmers\\' adoption of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of the 5 identified maize technologies in the study area, farmers average level of innovation awareness was higher (mean = 4) as compared to low level of adoption (mean = 2). Farmers level of technology awareness was strongly influenced by farm visits by other farmers (X2 = 12.88), extension agents (X2 = 11.48), radio ...

  12. 7 CFR 760.7 - Other requirements for affected farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... fallout. (2) None of the milk was produced by dairy cattle which he knew, or had reason to know at the... Payments to Dairy Farmers for Milk § 760.7 Other requirements for affected farmers. An indemnity payment for milk may be made under this subpart to an affected farmer only under the following conditions: (a...

  13. Women farmers' participation in household food security and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the participation of women farmers in Household Food Security and Nutrition programme in Oyo State. Specifically, the study determined women farmers' participation in various activities of the food security and nutrition programme. It determined the relationship between women farmers' ...

  14. Pattern and prevalence of eye diseases among farmers Inan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farmers are exposed to certain occupational hazards which predispose them to ocular diseases including ocular injuries. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and pattern of ocular diseases among farmers. A descriptive crosssectional survey carried out among farmers in an agricultural industry in Edo ...

  15. profitability of groundnut-based cropping systems among farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Groundnut is an important cash crop and a good source of vegetable oil to resource-poor farmers. The study examined the Profitability of Groundnut–based Cropping Systems among farmers in Hong Local Government Area of. Adamawa State, Nigeria. Specifically, the socio-economic characteristics of the farmers were ...

  16. Comparison of analgesic and systemic effects of bupivacaine, methadone, or bupivacaine/methadone administered epidurally in conscious sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRossi, R; Jardim, P H A; Hermeto, L C; Pagliosa, R C

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the combination of bupivacaine and methadone administered epidurally in sheep. Six healthy female mixed-breed sheep weighing 35-46 kg and aged 12-18 months were included. Each sheep was assigned to receive three treatments: 0.5 mg/kg 0.25% bupivacaine (BP), 0.3 mg/kg 1% methadone (MT) or 0.25 mg/kg bupivacaine and 0.15 mg/kg methadone (BPMT). All drugs were injected into the lumbosacral space through an epidural catheter. Each animal received each treatment at random. Heart rate, arterial blood pressure (systolic, diastolic and mean), respiratory rate, rectal temperature, analgesia, sedation and motor block were determined before treatment and at predetermined intervals. The duration of analgesia was 240, 220, and 180 min for BP, MT and BPMT, respectively (P blood pressure or respiratory rate. Our findings suggest that lumbosacral epidural administration of bupivacaine, methadone or a combination of the two drugs can provide perioperative analgesia in sheep as part of their management for surgical procedures in the flank and hindlimbs. © 2015 Australian Veterinary Association.

  17. Determinants of sheep prices in the highlands of northeastern Ethiopia: implication for sheep value chain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Beneberu Teferra; Haile, Anteneh Girma; Essa, John Abdu

    2011-12-01

    In order to assess and identify the determinants of sheep price and price variation across time, a time series data were collected from four selected markets in North Shewa, Northeastern Ethiopia on weekly market day basis for a period of 2 years. Data on animal characteristics and purpose of buying were collected on a weekly basis from randomly selected 15-25 animals, and a total of 7,976 transactions were recorded. A general linear model technique was used to identify factors influencing sheep price, and the results showed that sheep price (liveweight sheep price per kilogram taken as a dependent variable) is affected by animal characteristics such as weight, sex, age, condition, season, and color. Most of the markets' purpose for which the animal was purchased did not affect significantly the price per kilogram. This may be due to the similarity of the markets in terms of buyer's purpose. The results suggest that there will be benefit from coordinated fattening, breeding, and marketing programs to take the highest advantage from the preferred animals' characteristics and selected festival markets. Finally, the study recommends for a coordinated action to enhance the benefit generated for all participant actors in the sheep value chain through raising sheep productivity, improving the capacity of sheep producers and agribusiness entrepreneurs to access and use latest knowledge and technologies; and strengthening linkages among actors in the sheep value chain.

  18. Survey of farmer knowledge and attitudes to endemic disease management in South Australia, with a focus on bovine viral diarrhoea (bovine pestivirus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanyon, S R; Anderson, M L; Reichel, M P

    2015-05-01

    We aimed to establish the attitudes of South Australian cattle farmers towards endemic animal disease prevention and control, with a particular focus on the awareness of and attitudes towards bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD). This cross-sectional postal survey involved mailing a questionnaire to all South Australian cattle owners with 35 or more head of cattle. Worms and lice were the most common animal disease concerns. Less than half of responding farmers were adequately vaccinating their herds against clostridial diseases, but 53.0% stated that they utilised quarantine procedures. Less than 20% of respondents had actively taken part in BVD educational opportunities, or had vaccinated or tested their herd for BVD; less than 20% of respondents were actively involved in any systematic control of Johne's disease. Overall, farmers' actual knowledge of BVD was lower than their perceived understanding, although their interest in BVD and its control was high. Disease prevention measures such as vaccination, quarantine and participation in systematic control schemes were used by a minority of respondents. The results suggest that respondents acknowledge BVD as an important and relevant disease, despite many believing it was not a problem in their herd. Interest in BVD appears to be high and it is likely that an education program would be well received. © 2015 Australian Veterinary Association.

  19. [Risk behavior among farmers from Podkarpacie Provinece].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkowska-Bury, Monika; Penar-Zadarko, Beata; Marć, Małgorzata; Sobolewski, Marek

    2010-01-01

    Increasing awareness of science and medical environments and the society in the scope of behavioral conditioning of many diseases (e.g. cardiovascular diseases, tumors and injuries motivates to shape pro-health behaviors and eliminate harmful habit also in rural areas. There is a need for constant monitoring of behaviors related to health among rural areas inhabitants. The results enriches present state of knowledge in that scope, as well as might be use to increase the effectiveness of health promotion and health education activities and shape pro-health lifestyle among rural areas inhabitants, and particularly among farmers. The aim of the study was to acquaint socio-demographic features related to risk behaviors (tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking) among farmers from Podkarpacie Provinece. The study was carried out between January and December 2009 among 755 farmers with national health insurance KRUS for minimum last year, living in Podkarpacie Provinece, whom had their own farm business, owned a farm either spouse or household member works on the farm. The study population was purposefully chosen. The study was conducted using a diagnostics survey method with questionnaire including above all questions considering tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking and demographic issues. Results from questionnaires were analyzed using the statistical package STATISTICA 9.0 (Statsoft). The gathered data was statistically prepared using chi-square test, logistic regression model with stepwise and progressive regression. Based on results it was assumed that frequency of tobacco smoking in the studied group values 31.5%. More frequent smoke: men than women, people with high economic status and those evaluating their Heath state as a good one. Gender and material status are strong predictors of tobacco smoking among farmers. Age and level of education do not influence on tobacco smoking among studied farmers. Frequency of alcohol drinking in the studied group values 82.0%. More

  20. Coagulation of sheep intestinal and prefemoral lymph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, C A; Johnston, M G; Nelson, W

    1988-06-01

    We have determined the most suitable method for the automated analysis of the clotting parameters in sheep intestinal and prefemoral lymph as defined by the Activated Partial Thromboplastin Times (APTT; measure of intrinsic coagulation pathway) and the Prothrombin Times (PT; measure of extrinsic coagulation pathway). As opposed to optical density systems, the use of a Fibro-System Fibrometer was found to provide the most consistent assessment of coagulation with the endpoint being the time to fibrin strand formation. We measured APTT in sheep intestinal and prefemoral lymph of 59.78 +/- 7.69 seconds and 51.03 +/- 10.49 seconds respectively. These values were more prolonged than those obtained from sheep blood plasma but only in the case of intestinal lymph were the differences significant (p less than 0.025). Human blood APTT values were significantly less than both sheep blood (p less than 0.05) and sheep intestinal (p less than 0.001) and prefemoral lymph (p less than 0.01). PT values were found to be 21.56 +/- 1.14 seconds in intestinal and 22.00 +/- 1.88 seconds in prefemoral lymph. These values were also significantly greater than those obtained from sheep blood (both p less than 0.001). Human blood PTs were significantly less than both sheep blood (p less than 0.001) and intestinal and prefemoral lymph (both p less than 0.001). Measurement of APTT and PT values in intestinal lymph and PT determinations in prefemoral lymph were not affected by storage in the refrigerator or freezer. There was some indication that APTT values in prefemoral samples were susceptible to storage artifacts; however, the differences in coagulation times were not significant.

  1. A Study on Genes of Bayanbulak Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beiyao Zuo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The average twin lambing rate of Bayanbulak sheep is 2% to 3%. However, a flock of sheep with a close genetic relationship and an average of 2 to 3 lambs per birth has been found recently. To determine the major genes controlling the prolificacy of the flock in the present study, the flock was designated A while 100 normal Bayanbulak sheep were randomly selected to comprise the control flock B. Ligase detection reaction method was applied to detect and analyze the 10 mutational loci of the 3 candidate prolificacy genes including bone morphogenetic protein type I receptors, bone morphogenetic protein 15, and growth differentiation factor 9. The 10 mutational loci are as follows: FecB locus of the BMPR-IB gene; FecXI, FecXB, FecXL, FecXH, FecXG, and FecXR of the BMP15 gene; and G1, G8, and FecTT of the GDF9 gene. Two mutations including BMPR-IB/FecB and GDF9/G1 were found in Bayanbulak sheep. Independence test results of the two flocks demonstrate that the FecB locus has a significant effect on the lambing number of Bayanbulak sheep. However, the mutation frequency of the G1 locus in GDF9 is very low. Independence test results demonstrate that the GDF9 locus does not have a significant impact on the lambing performance of Bayanbulak sheep. Among the 10 detected loci, BMPR-IB/FecB is the major gene that influences the high lambing rate of Bayanbulak sheep.

  2. Production objectives and breeding practices of urban goat and sheep keepers in West Africa: regional analysis and implications for the development of supportive breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossa, Luc Hippolyte; Sangaré, Mamadou; Buerkert, Andreas; Schlecht, Eva

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the relative importance of the multi-purpose functions of small ruminants for their urban owners and related breeding practices including selection criteria, we undertook a comparative analysis across the West African cities of Kano (Nigeria), Bobo Dioulasso (Burkina Faso) and Sikasso (Mali). Semi-structured questionnaires were used to collect the required information from 301 sheep farmers (100, 102 and 99 in Kano, Bobo Dioulasso and Sikasso) and 306 goat farmers (100, 99 and 107 in Kano, Bobo Dioulasso and Sikasso). Sheep and goats were kept for a variety of reasons including income generation, insurance (sale for cash to meet unexpected expenditures) and economic security (sale for cash to support foreseeable expenses), social/religious functions and prestige in ownership. The relative importance given by respondents to the different functions varied significantly (p < 0.001) across cities and between species within a city. However, irrespective of city, both species were primarily kept for their financial functions whereby sheep were perceived as having higher economic value. Although breeding practices were very similar in many respects (low practice of castration, culling and replacement strategies, uncontrolled mating, no record keeping and selection criteria), the emphasis put on each selection criteria varied across cities and between species. Irrespective of city, most of the goats were of the indigenous type while keeping crossbred animals and/or maintaining more than one genotype in the same flock was more commonly practiced by sheep keepers. This points to a higher motivation for strategic breeding among sheep than goat keepers and indicates that the former might be interested in joining carefully designed participatory flock improvement programs.

  3. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding cystic echinococcosis and sheep herding in Peru: a mixed-methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Veronika; Westgard, Christopher M; Bayer, Angela M; García, Patricia J

    2017-07-06

    The parasitic disease, cystic echinococcosis (CE), is prevalent in low-income, livestock-raising communities and 2000 new people will be diagnosed this year in South America alone. The disease usually passes from livestock to dogs to humans, making it a zoonotic disease and part of the One Health Initiative. Control of CE has been infamously difficult; no endemic areas of South America have succeeded in maintaining sustainable eradication of the parasite. For the current study, we aimed to gain a better understanding of the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of rural sheep farmers and other community leaders regarding their sheep herding practices and perspectives about a control program for CE. We also hope to identify potential barriers and opportunities that could occur in a control program. The authors conducted Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) surveys and semi-structured interviews in rural communities in the highlands of Peru. The KAP surveys were administered to 51 local shepherds, and the semi-structured interviews were administered to 40 individuals, including shepherds, community leaders, and health care providers. We found that the shepherds already deworm their sheep at a median of 2 times per year (N = 49, range 2-4) and have a mean willingness-to-pay of U.S. $ 0.60 for dog dewormer medication (N = 20, range = 0.00- $2.00 USD). We were not able to learn the deworming agent or agents that were being used, for neither sheep nor dogs. Additionally, 90% of shepherds slaughter their own sheep (N = 49). We also learned that the main barriers to an effective control program include: lack of education about the cause and control options for CE, accessibility to the distant communities and sparse grazing pastures, and a lack of economic incentive. Findings suggest it may be feasible to develop an effective CE control program which can be used to create an improved protocol to control CE in the region.

  4. Social Capital And Economic Behavior Of Farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heliawaty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstrac The purpose of this study to analyze the relationship between social capital affects economic behavior in producing coffee plants in improving coffee farmers income. This study was conducted in the district of Bantaeng South Sulawesi. Subdistrict Tampobulu selected purposively. The study lasted for four months of April to July 2014. The data used in this study consist of primary data and secondary data. It can be concluded that social capital is trust networking and institutions affect economic behavior namely the production of coffee plants. Trust improving technology adoption Robusta and Arabica coffee cuttings while distrust led to rampant theft of coffee is still green. Networking affect the price of coffee and institutions influence the behavior of farmers in obtaining venture capital through middlemen. It is expected that future studies should be focused on the factors that influence the innovative behavior in increasing the production of coffee plants.

  5. Communicating soil carbon science to farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingram, Julie; Mills, Jane; Dibari, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A key narrative within climate change science is that conserving and improving soil carbon through agricultural practices can contribute to agricultural productivity and is a promising option for mitigating carbon loss through sequestration. This paper examines the potential disconnect...... between science and practice in the context of communicating information about soil carbon management. It focuses on the information producing process and on stakeholder (adviser, farmer representative, policy maker etc) assessment of the attributes credibility, salience and legitimacy. In doing...

  6. Can structural adjustment work for women farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, R

    1991-12-01

    This article discusses the impact of structural adjustment programs (SAPs) on women farmers in developing countries. SAPs aim to improve economic efficiency and promote more rapid economic growth. SAPs are introduced in two phases. The first phase involves short-term loans with the condition that the country adopt monetary restraints and currency devaluation measures. In the second phase, long-term loans are given with the provision that the country deregulate their economy and open up markets. The agricultural sector is affected by SAPs because of their importance in employment, income generation, and export earnings. SAPs result in lower farm commodity prices due to currency devaluations and in removal of subsidies, which results in market-sensitive pricing or higher food prices. The impact of SAPs on agriculture vary between countries. In Morocco and Algeria, agriculture expanded under SAPs. In Indonesia, Bolivia, Costa Rica, and Mexico, the agriculture stagnated or declined. Agricultural growth was slowest in Africa. SAPs were somewhat successful in increasing agricultural exports. Food production grew slowly in many adjusting countries. Blame for failures of SAPs has been placed on government failure to implement reforms properly and overly optimistic assumptions about the timing of productive gains. Little attention has focused on the constraints facing women farmers, who are a large proportion of farmers, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. This article focuses on the issues of limited access to resources, credit, agricultural extension and information, land ownership, education, and time as constraints to women farmers. Women also must ensure household food security. For SAPs to work effectively, complementary policies must be implemented that reallocate available productive resources and new technologies to women and that deal with women's constraints.

  7. Low back pain among Irish farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Deirdre; Cunningham, Caitriona; Blake, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Despite farming being regarded as a high-risk activity for low back pain (LBP), little LBP research exists for this work sector. To establish LBP prevalence, beliefs regarding LBP, perceived LBP risk factors, related health service utilization, awareness and participation in manual-handling training among farmers in Ireland. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was distributed to 200 farmers in Ireland via five Irish veterinary practices. Data were entered onto the Statistical package for the Social Sciences (version 12.0.1) and analysed using descriptive statistics while qualitative data were coded and analysed for common themes. The response rate was 52% (n = 104). Lifetime, annual and point prevalence of LBP was 74% (n = 77), 54% (n = 56) and 27% (n = 28), respectively. Of respondents with a history of LBP, 72% (n = 55) stated that farming had contributed to their problem. Sixty-three per cent (n = 31) identified lifting as a contributory factor to their LBP. The majority of respondents (86%, n = 66) with LBP sought some form of treatment, with 73% (n = 56) of these having attended a general practitioner (GP). Few respondents (13%, n = 14) had ever attended a manual-handling course. A high prevalence of LBP was found among farmers, with lifting being reported as the major contributing factor. GPs were the most commonly utilized healthcare practitioner for LBP. Farmers do not commonly attend manual-handling courses with many noting they were not widely accessible or adequately publicized. There is a need for high-quality studies to examine the effectiveness of different interventions to prevent LBP among the Irish farming population.

  8. Australian Hackers and Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Warren

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to look at the way hackers act and ways in which society can protect itself. The paper will show the current views and attitudes of hackers in an Australian context. The paper will also include a case study to show how a hacking incident can develop and how technology can be used to protect against hacking.

  9. Relationship between behavioural reactivity and feed efficiency in housed sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Charlotte Amdi; Williams, Andrew Richard; Maloney, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    for high (HBR) and low (LBR) behavioural reactivity to stressful stimuli (human presence and social isolation). The sheep were habituated to the experimental procedures for 10 days, followed by 45 days during which voluntary feed intake was measured so that total daily energy intake was quantified...... or body condition score. The net feed intake of HBR sheep was lower than that of LBR sheep (P = 0.02), indicating that under the conditions of our experiment, HBR sheep were actually more feed efficient than LBR sheep. This study was carried out on sheep with steady intakes and in familiar surroundings....... It is possible that LBR sheep may be more efficient than HBR sheep in more stressful situations....

  10. Farmers' pensions and the Polish economic crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanis, J G

    1983-04-01

    The Polish Government, in 1977, inaugurated a new pension program that made old-age and invalidity benefits available for the first time to most farmers in that country. The evolution and eventual failure of that program were closely intertwined with a growing national economic crisis, manifested in widespread popular unrest and culminating in emergence of the Solidarity movement. The farmers' pension program was originally presented as both a social security measure and a vehicle for improving agricultural efficiency. The economic situation was expected to benefit as farms of older owners were passed to younger, presumably more efficient, successors, with the state sometimes acting as intermediary. A further step to bind the social security concept to agricultural efficiency came through relating the pension amount to the quantity of produce the individual farmer sold to the state over a number of years. The failure of these provisions and other unpopular features of the new program was aggravated by inflation and continuing deterioration of the Polish economy.

  11. Characterizing customers at medical center farmers' markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraschnewski, Jennifer L; George, Daniel R; Rovniak, Liza S; Monroe, Diana L; Fiordalis, Elizabeth; Bates, Erica

    2014-08-01

    Approximately 100 farmers' markets operate on medical center campuses. Although these venues can uniquely serve community health needs, little is known about customer characteristics and outreach efforts. Intercept survey of markets and market customers between August 2010 and October 2011 at three medical centers in different geographic regions of the US (Duke University Medical Center, Cleveland Clinic, and Penn State Hershey Medical Center) were conducted. Markets reported serving 180-2,000 customers per week and conducting preventive medicine education sessions and community health programs. Customers (n = 585) across markets were similar in sociodemographic characteristics--most were middle-aged, white, and female, who were employees of their respective medical center. Health behaviors of customers were similar to national data. The surveyed medical center farmers' markets currently serve mostly employees; however, markets have significant potential for community outreach efforts in preventive medicine. If farmers' markets can broaden their reach to more diverse populations, they may play an important role in contributing to community health.

  12. Australian synchrotron radiation science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.W.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The Australian Synchrotron Radiation Program, ASRP, has been set up as a major national research facility to provide facilities for scientists and technologists in physics, chemistry, biology and materials science who need access to synchrotron radiation. Australia has a strong tradition in crystallography and structure determination covering small molecule crystallography, biological and protein crystallography, diffraction science and materials science and several strong groups are working in x-ray optics, soft x-ray and vacuum ultra-violet physics. A number of groups whose primary interest is in the structure and dynamics of surfaces, catalysts, polymer and surfactant science and colloid science are hoping to use scattering methods and, if experience in Europe, Japan and USA can be taken as a guide, many of these groups will need third generation synchrotron access. To provide for this growing community, the Australian National Beamline at the Photon Factory, Tsukuba, Japan, has been established since 1990 through a generous collaboration with Japanese colleagues, the beamline equipment being largely produced in Australia. This will be supplemented in 1997 with access to the world's most powerful synchrotron x-ray source at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, USA. Some recent experiments in surface science using neutrons as well as x-rays from the Australian National Beamline will be used to illustrate one of the challenges that synchrotron x-rays may meet

  13. Understanding of the farmers privilege concept by smallholder farmers in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noluthando C. Netnou-Nkoana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Legislation on plant breeders’ rights – the Plant Breeders’ Rights Act, 1976 (Act No. 15 of 1976 – currently is being reviewed by the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. This legislation provides for farmers’ privilege, which is one of the exceptions to plant breeders’ rights. It allows farmers to save seed of protected varieties for their own use. Farmers’ privilege, and particularly its impact on smallholder farmers in developing countries, is a widely debated issue. During the public consultation process, several comments proposing amendments to the farmers’ privilege provision were received from various stakeholders. However, no comments were received from the smallholder farmers who may be directly impacted by this provision. This pilot study was undertaken to assess the understanding of the farmers’ privilege concept by smallholder farmers from the historically disadvantaged communities and their current practices with regard to seed saving. The results showed that the majority of the smallholder farmers were not aware of the existence of the legislation on plant breeders’ rights and therefore do not understand the farmers’ privilege concept and its implications. They also did not know whether the varieties they were using were protected by plant breeders’ rights or not. Little information has been published on the impact of plant breeders’ rights in South Africa in general. We hope that this study might inform policy decisions on matters related to plant breeders’ rights and the farmers’ privilege.

  14. Milk yield and quality of Cres sheep and their crosses with Awassi and East Friesian sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boro Mioč

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to establish the impact of crossing the indigenous Cres sheep with Awassi and, respectively, Awassi and East Friesian sheep on the milk yield and quality. For this purpose, through regular monthly milk yield recordings a total of 824individual milk samples from 139 sheep in the second lactation of the same flock were collected, of which: 46 purebred Cres sheep, CS; 33 crosses with 50 % Cres sheep and 50 % Awassi, CA; 60 crosses with 50 % Cres sheep, 25 % Awassi and 25 % East Friesian, CAEF. The obtained results show a significant (P<0.05; P<0.01 impact of the genotype and the lactation stage on the yield and chemical composition of milk, and the somatic cell count. The most milk was yielded by CAEF crosses (690 mL/ewe/day, i.e., 133.8 L per lactation and the least by CS (340 mL/ewe/day, i.e., 58.48 L per lactation. The content of total solids, fat and protein increased as lactation advanced, whereas the trend of the lactose content was opposite. The highest content of total solids, fat and protein were established in the milk of the indigenous Cres sheep. A positive correlation was established between the amount of yielded milk and the somatic cell count, whereas a negative correlation was established between the amount of milk and the content of solids, fat and proteins.

  15. Bartonella melophagi in Melophagus ovinus (sheep ked) collected from sheep in northern Oromia, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier; Socolovschi, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Melophagus ovinus (sheep ked) is one of the most common ectoparasites that contributes to enormous economic losses in the productivity of sheep in many countries. The present study was conducted from January 2012 to July 2013 on M. ovinus collected from sheep at three sites in Ethiopia. Of the sheep studied, 65.7% (88/134) were infested with M. ovinus. The prevalence of M. ovinus was 76% (76/100), 47% (8/17) and 23.5% (4/17) at the Kimbibit, Chacha and Shano sites, respectively. An overall number of 229 M. ovinus specimens (138 females, 86 males and five pupae) and 554 M. ovinus specimens (272 females, 282 males) were collected from young and adult sheep, respectively. Bartonella DNA was detected in 89% (694/783) of M. ovinus using a quantitative Bartonella genus-specific PCR assay targeting the 16S/23S rRNA intergenic spacer region. The sequencing of the PCR products of fragments of the gltA and rpoB genes showed 99.6-100% and 100% homology, respectively, with B. melophagi. Statistically significant variation was not noted in the overall prevalence of Bartonella DNA between female and male M. ovinus. All of the sheep infested with M. ovinus 100% (88/88) harbored at least one M. ovinus specimen that contained Bartonella DNA. This study highlights that B. melophagi in M. ovinus from sheep in highlands in Ethiopia possibly has certain zoonotic importance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Survival of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) commingled with domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in the absence of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Thomas E; Cassirer, E Frances; Yamada, Catherine; Potter, Kathleen A; Herndon, Caroline; Foreyt, William J; Knowles, Donald P; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2012-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae is an important agent of the bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) pneumonia that has previously inevitably followed experimental commingling with domestic sheep (Ovis aries), we commingled M. ovipneumoniae-free domestic and bighorn sheep (n=4 each). One bighorn sheep died with acute pneumonia 90 days after commingling, but the other three remained healthy for >100 days. This unprecedented survival rate is significantly different (P=0.002) from that of previous bighorn-domestic sheep contact studies but similar to (P>0.05) bighorn sheep survival following commingling with other ungulates. The absence of epizootic respiratory disease in this experiment supports the hypothesized role of M. ovipneumoniae as a key pathogen of epizootic pneumonia in bighorn sheep commingled with domestic sheep.

  17. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats from Canada. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from Canada must be accompanied by a certificate...

  18. Integrating agroforestry and sheep feed in Mali | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The challenge. Sheep herding plays a significant role in the livelihoods of rural households in Mali and other semi-arid countries of West Africa. Although sheep herding could improve the incomes of rural women, its potential is not being realized because a lack of feed reduces the meat production of sheep. Agroforestry ...

  19. Study on common phenotypic traits for purchasing sheep and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted in 2008 to assess the relationship between common phenotypic traits most considered for marketing sheep and the body weight and price of sheep at markets of four towns in East Showa zone. Six hundred randomly selected sheep purchased for various purposes were studied. The study methods.

  20. Gastrolobium spp. poisoning in sheep: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes the history and investigation of a suspected plant poisoning event in Western Australia where fifteen sheep died. One of the poisoned sheep was necropsied and gross and microscopic pathology of the poisoned sheep is described. Monofluoroacetate was detected in rumen contents ...

  1. Characterization of sheep populations of Kenya using microsatellite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of sheep populations of Kenya using microsatellite markers: Implications for conservation and management of indigenous sheep populations. ... the various sheep populations and breeds of Kenya. This paper reports results on the genetic diversity and admixture observed using microsatellite DNA markers.

  2. Estimation of genetic diversity between three Saudi sheep breeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimation of genetic diversity between three Saudi sheep breeds using DNA markers. AAG Adam, NB Hamza, MAW Salim, KS Khalil. Abstract. The genetic variation of Najdi, Harri and Awassi breeds of Saudi sheep prevailing in Raniah province of Makka district were assessed and compared to Sudanese Desert sheep ...

  3. Intraspecies prion transmission results in selection of sheep scrapie strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Yokoyama

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sheep scrapie is caused by multiple prion strains, which have been classified on the basis of their biological characteristics in inbred mice. The heterogeneity of natural scrapie prions in individual sheep and in sheep flocks has not been clearly defined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we intravenously injected 2 sheep (Suffolk and Corriedale with material from a natural case of sheep scrapie (Suffolk breed. These 3 sheep had identical prion protein (PrP genotypes. The protease-resistant core of PrP (PrPres in the experimental Suffolk sheep was similar to that in the original Suffolk sheep. In contrast, PrPres in the Corriedale sheep differed from the original PrPres but resembled the unusual scrapie isolate, CH1641. This unusual PrPres was not detected in the original sheep. The PrPres distributions in the brain and peripheral tissues differed between the 2 breeds of challenged sheep. A transmission study in wild-type and TgBoPrP mice, which overexpressing bovine PrP, led to the selection of different prion strains. The pathological features of prion diseases are thought to depend on the dominantly propagated strain. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that prion strain selection occurs after both inter- and intraspecies transmission. The unusual scrapie prion was a hidden or an unexpressed component in typical sheep scrapie.

  4. Prevalence of Brucella antibodies in sheep and springbok ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was concluded that sheep and springbok on the eleven farms had not been exposed to Brucella melitensis and B. abortus infections and that on previously positive farms the infection had been eliminated in sheep and had not spread to springbok. Key words: springbok, sheep, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, ...

  5. Bacteria Associated with Sheep Pneumonia in El - Damazin Area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Little work have been done in the Sudan concerning the association of different bacteria with sheep pneumonia. This study was conducted to isolate and characterize the aerobic bacteria associated with pneumonia in sheep by conventional bacteriological methods. A total of 250 samples were collected from lungs of sheep ...

  6. Grasses grazed by springbok and sheep | R. | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grazing habits were determined by analysis of rumina from slaughtered springbok and sheep where springbok grazed together with Merino sheep in False Upper Karoo and together with Dorper sheep in Kalahari Thornveld. Results show that in both veld types, grass constituted about 39 percent of the dry mass intake of ...

  7. Spontaneous poisoning by Prosopis juliflora (Leguminosae) in sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this paper is to describe the first report of clinical, epidemiological and pathological aspects of spontaneous poisoning by Prosopis juliflora in sheep. Of a total of 500 sheep at risk, two adult male sheep were affected; one died spontaneously and the other animal was examined, euthaniz...

  8. Study on common phenotypic traits for purchasing sheep and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted in 2008 to assess the relationship between common phenotypic traits most considered for marketing sheep and the body weight and price of sheep at markets of four towns in East Showa zone. Six hundred randomly selected sheep purchased for various purposes were studied. The study methods ...

  9. Performance And Nutrient Utilization By Sheep Fed Ficus Leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth and metabolic studies were conducted with 32 sheep (16 rams and 16 ewes) to evaluate Ficus leaves (Ficus thonningia) as substitute for Hyparrbenia rura (Hyparrhenia) in the diets ·'>f sheep. Ficus replaced O, 25, 50 and 75% of grass and was offered at 3% of animal body weight as DM. All the sheep received ...

  10. Prevalence of major sheep diseases and analysis of mortality in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross sectional and retrospective case study design were carried out from May 2008 to April 2012 in model sheep villages of Farta and Lay Gaint districts with the objective of identifying major sheep diseases, to assess the magnitude of sheep mortality and recommend disease and mortality control options in the study ...

  11. A survey of anthelmintic resistance on ten sheep farms in Mashonaland East Province, Zimbabwe : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mukaratirwa

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey to detect anthelmintic resistance in nematode parasites of sheep was conducted on 10 randomly-distributed farms in the Chivhu District, Mashonaland East Province, Zimbabwe. Before the survey, a questionnaire was circulated to the farmers concerning nematode parasite control. Results showed that parasite control using anthelmintic treatment was the only method practised and that the benzimidazoles were the most frequently used anthelmintic drugs. The faecal egg count reduction test was used to detect resistance. The anthelmintic groups tested were benzimidazoles, levamisole and ivermectin. Resistance to benzimidazoles was detected on 6 of 10 farms and levamisole resistance on 2 of 3 farms. Ivermectin resistance was not observed on the farms surveyed. Post-treatment larval cultures indicated that Haemonchus contortus survived administration of fenbendazole, albendazole, oxfendazole and levamisole. A Cooperia sp. strain resistant to albendazole was detected and this is the first report in Zimbabwe of a resistant parasite in this genus.

  12. Conditions for Australian consent to reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    This article contains the text of the statement by the Australian Minister for Foreign Affairs to the House of Representatives, Noember 1980, on conditions for Australian consent to the reprocessing of nuclear material of Australian origin

  13. Molecular epidemiological confirmation and circumstances of occurrence of sheep (S) strains of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in cases of paratuberculosis in cattle in Australia and sheep and cattle in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, R J; Taragel, C A; Ottaway, S; Marsh, I; Seaman, J; Fridriksdottir, V

    2001-04-19

    Distinct strains of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis with a tendency to segregate in either sheep, or cattle and other ruminants, have been described and are known as S and C strains, respectively. These strains can be distinguished by a polymorphism in the IS1311 element and other DNA-based methods. C strains are relatively easy to culture from tissues and faeces of animals with paratuberculosis but S strains are difficult to culture. A retrospective survey of archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples from culture negative Australian paratuberculous cattle was undertaken to determine whether infection in these cases was due to S strains. Polymerase chain reaction and restriction endonuclease analysis of the amplified product was used to identify the polymorphism in IS1311. Three cases of bovine paratuberculosis due to S strain were confirmed from three different farms. A serological survey led to the identification of a further two cases on one of these farms. S strains were also identified in archival tissues from paratuberculous sheep and cattle from Iceland, confirming epidemiological and microbiological evidence that paratuberculosis in Iceland was due to S strain following importation of infected sheep from Europe. In each bovine case in both Iceland and Australia there had been direct or indirect contact of calves with paratuberculous sheep. We were unable to determine whether S strains had established endemic infection in cattle or whether repeated infection from sheep had occurred. Limited epidemiological evidence suggests that transmission of S strains to cattle in Australia has been uncommon under extensive grazing conditions. In Iceland, different husbandry practices appear to have favoured transmission of S strains to cattle.

  14. Update on trematode infections in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo-Vázquez, F A; Meana, A; Valcárcel, F; Martínez-Valladares, M

    2012-09-30

    Trematode parasites live in the liver, fore stomachs or blood vessels of a wide range of animals and humans. Most of them have a special economic and veterinary significance. Liver fluke disease of sheep and other animal species is caused by the common liver fluke Fasciola hepatica. Hepatic fasciolosis occurs throughout the world, where climatic conditions are suitable for the survival of aquatic intermediate host snails. Also of importance for ruminants, in some parts of the world, are Fasciola gigantica and Fascioloides magna. Other trematodes infecting ruminants include Dicrocoelium dendriticum; Eurytrema pancreaticum and Eurytrema coelomaticum. Among the Paramphistomidae, some species can infect sheep and other ruminants. Finally, Schistosoma spp. are found in the blood vessels of ruminants and are of minor importance in temperate regions. The manuscript concentrates on trematode species of veterinary importance for domestic sheep. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. DAIRY BUSINESS: THE CASE OF BULGARIAN DAIRY CATTLE FARMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetana HARIZANOVA-METODIEVA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to explore differences between dairy cattle farmers in Bulgaria, according to certain factors. Information about the social characteristics of the farmers (educational level, gender, and age, and about the farm characteristics (number of cows in the main herd, average milk yield, and the rate of return on investment was collected. Sixty percent of the farmers were up to 50 years of age. Fifty percent of the farmers had had a secondary education and the rest had gained a university degree. The study found that only one of the 20 farmers was a woman. It was found that the group of farmers with a university degree had lower average age than the group of farmers with secondary school. There was no significant difference in the rate of return between the two groups of farms in terms of the effectiveness of the farm. The difference in the number of cows in the main herd was not significant too. The research identified a need for additional training for farmers in order to reduce their dependence on hired workers. It was found that farmers attend basic courses in the field of agriculture and livestock breeding in order to fill the gap between the existing levels of knowledge of farmers and the necessary skills for the effective management of dairy farms.

  16. Tay-Sachs disease in Jacob sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Paola A; Zeng, Bai Jin; Porter, Brian F; Alroy, Joseph; Horak, Fred; Horak, Joan; Kolodny, Edwin H

    2010-12-01

    Autopsy studies of four Jacob sheep dying within their first 6-8 months of a progressive neurodegenerative disorder suggested the presence of a neuronal storage disease. Lysosomal enzyme studies of brain and liver from an affected animal revealed diminished activity of hexosaminidase A (Hex A) measured with an artificial substrate specific for this component of β-hexosaminidase. Absence of Hex A activity was confirmed by cellulose acetate electrophoresis. Brain lipid analyses demonstrated the presence of increased concentrations of G(M2)-ganglioside and asialo-G(M2)-ganglioside. The hexa cDNA of Jacob sheep was cloned and sequenced revealing an identical number of nucleotides and exons as in human HexA and 86% homology in nucleotide sequence. A missense mutation was found in the hexa cDNA of the affected sheep caused by a single nucleotide change at the end of exon 11 resulting in skipping of exon 11. Transfection of normal sheep hexa cDNA into COS1 cells and human Hex A-deficient cells led to expression of Hex S but no increase in Hex A indicating absence of cross-species dimerization of sheep Hex α-subunit with human Hex β-subunits. Using restriction site analysis, the heterozygote frequency of this mutation in Jacob sheep was determined in three geographically separate flocks to average 14%. This large naturally occurring animal model of Tay-Sachs disease is the first to offer promise as a means for trials of gene therapy applicable to human infants. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Review of Australian Higher Education: An Australian Policy Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montague, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Higher education is one of the key foundations that economic prosperity is founded upon. Government policies, funding and strategic planning require a fine balance to stimulate growth, prosperity health and well-being. The key Australian government policies influenced by a Review of Australian Higher Education report include attracting many more…

  18. The perils of technology transfer : the Australian wheat/medic System in the Near East/North Africa region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risopoulos, S.

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Yields and production of rainfed areas in the Near East and North Africa are stagnating. The Australian wheat-medic system has been tried out in several countries of the region, Increases in soil fertility and yields were expected as well as better crop-livestock integration. Difficulties were more serious than foreseen. The farmer of the region differs from his Australian counterpart by the much smaller size of his farm and by his preference for keeping his land-use options open to match climatic variability.

  19. Abattoir surveillance of Sarcocystis spp., Cysticercosis ovis and Echinococcus granulosus in Tasmanian slaughter sheep, 2007-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phythian, C J; Jackson, B; Bell, R; Citer, L; Barwell, R; Windsor, P A

    2018-03-01

    To estimate the prevalence of macroscopic Sarcocystis spp., Cysticercus ovis and Echinococcus granulosus recorded at routine postmortem inspection of Tasmanian slaughter sheep during 2007 to 2013. A retrospective analysis of routine postmortem meat inspection data maintained on 352,325 Tasmanian adult slaughter sheep inspected across nine abattoirs in Tasmania, Victoria and South Australia as part of the National Sheep Health Monitoring Project (NSHMP). During the period 1 September 2007 to 30 June 2013, the estimated prevalence of macroscopic Sarcocystis spp. was 14.3%, C. ovis was 3.2% and E. granulosus was 0.01%. Mean Sarcocystis spp. line prevalence ranged from 0% to 33.5%. Significant between-abattoir differences in the level of sarcosporidiosis (P < 0.001) and C. ovis were found (P < 0.001). Overall, very low levels of hydatidosis were recorded throughout the surveillance period. Predicted within-line prevalence of macroscopic sarcocysts in animals coming from a known/recorded local government area (LGA) (P < 0.001) was lower than that of lines where the LGA was unknown or not recorded. A higher prevalence of sarcocystosis was recorded in lines of sheep aged ≥ 2 years compared with those < 2 years (P < 0.001). Reasons for the significant between-abattoir differences in recorded levels of ovine sarcosporidiosis and cysticercosis remain unknown, but may represent sampling bias, with subsets of slaughter sheep going to abattoirs with different tiers or access to markets. Further investigation into apparent differences, including epidemiological studies of properties with high lesion prevalence, comparing meat inspector diagnostic sensitivity, assessing the effect of line speed and tiers and market access in different abattoirs, may be useful. © 2018 Australian Veterinary Association.

  20. Sexual transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Rodriguez, Joana D'Ark; Souza, Fernando A; dos Santos, Thais Rabelo; dos Santos, Ricardo Silva; Rosanese, Walter Matheus; Lopes, Werik Renato Zanetti; Sakamoto, Cláudio Alessandro; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2013-07-01

    Male sheep of reproductive age were distributed into three groups: GI, a sheep inoculated (oral) with 2.0×10(5) oocysts of the P strain of Toxoplasma gondii; GII, a sheep infected (subcutaneous) with 1.0×10(6) tachyzoites of the RH strain of T. gondii; and GIII, a sheep kept as a control (not infected). After the inoculation of the males, 12 breeding ewes, which were not pregnant and which were serologically negative for reproductive diseases (particularly toxoplasmosis), were distributed into three groups, synchronized, and subsequently exposed to natural mating with previously inoculated males. The distribution was as follows: five ewes that underwent natural mating with the GI male, five ewes that were exposed to natural mating with the GII male, and two ewes that were mated with the non-infected male (control). Serum samples of all the ewes were collected on days -30, -14, -7, -1, and 0 (days before natural mating) and on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 11, 14, and weekly until birth; the presence of serum antibodies against T. gondii was assessed by IFAT. Using a bioassay and PCR, T. gondii was isolated from the semen of the infected reproducing sheep before mating. Following natural mating, 5 of the 12 females displayed antibodies specific for T. gondii; of these animals, two of the ewes underwent natural mating with the male inoculated with oocysts (GI) and three with the male infected with tachyzoites (GII). One of the females that displayed antibodies specific to this coccidian and that underwent natural mating with the GII sheep had a macerated fetus on the 70th day following coverage. Using a bioassay after the birth, it was possible to isolate T. gondii from samples of the "pool" of tissues from the five females that seroconverted after natural mating and from their respective lambs. Using PCR, the DNA of T. gondii was isolated from the "pool" of tissues from one and two females exposed to natural mating with the reproductive males infected with the oocysts and

  1. Apocrine hidrocytoma in an Awassi sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael M. Hananeh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Hidrocytomas are benign cystic lesions of sweat apocrine glands. It is a recognized condition in cats and dogs, but has never been reported in sheep. In this case, a 5-year-old Awassi ewe was presented for ocular evaluation. The left eye had a 1.0-cm-diameter dome shaped mass containing clear fluids and was protruded from the palpebral eyelid margin near the lateral canthus. The cyst was surgically removed and revealed apocrine hidrocytoma via histopathology. Seven months post-surgery, neither cyst recurrence nor additional masses were present. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of apocrine hidrocytoma in sheep.

  2. Experimental poisoning by cassava wastewater in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir C. Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The processing of Manihot esculenta (cassava tubers yield different by-products, including cassava wastewater, which is the liquid pressed out of the tuber after it has been mechanically crushed. Cyanide poisoning after ingestion of cassava wastewater has been reported in ruminants and pigs in Northeastern Brazil. With the aim of studying its toxicity, cassava wastewater was administered orally to six sheep at doses of 0.99, 0.75, 0.70, 0.63, and 0.5 mg of hydrocyanic acid kg-1 body weight, which corresponded to 14.2, 10.6, 9.8, 8.89, and 7.1 mL of wastewater kg-1. On the second day, the sheep received a volume of wastewater which corresponded to 0.46, 0.34, 0.31, 0.28, and 0.23 mg of HCN kg-1. A sheep used as control received 9.9 mL of water kg-1 BW. Sheep that received from 0.75 to 0.99 mg kg-1 of HCN on the first day exhibited severe clinical signs of poisoning, and the sheep that received 0.63 and 0.5 mg kg-1 exhibited mild clinical signs. All sheep were successfully treated with sodium thiosulfate. On the second day, only the sheep that received 0.46 mg kg-1 and 0.34 mg kg-1 exhibited mild clinical signs and recovered spontaneously. The concentration of HCN in the wastewater was 71.69±2.19 μg mL-1 immediately after production, 30.56±2.45 μg mL-1 after 24 hours, and 24.25±1.28 μg mL-1 after 48 hours. The picric acid paper test was strongly positive 5 minutes after production; moderately positive 24 hours after production, and negative 48 hours after production. We conclude that cassava wastewater is highly toxic to sheep if ingested immediately after production, but rapidly loses toxicity in 24-48 hours.

  3. Australian methane fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    Estimates are provided for the amount of methane emitted annually into the atmosphere in Australia for a variety of sources. The sources considered are coal mining, landfill, motor vehicles, natural gas suply system, rice paddies, bushfires, termites, wetland and animals. This assessment indicates that the major sources of methane are natural or agricultural in nature and therefore offer little scope for reduction. Nevertheless the remainder are not trival and reduction of these fluxes could play a significant part in any Australian action on the greenhouse problem. 19 refs., 7 tabs., 1 fig

  4. Case report of a pustular dermatitis outbreak in sheep: Clinical and food safety considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Roccaro

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this report is to describe an outbreak of pustular dermatitis in a flock of about 200 sheep, its clinical evolution and food safety implications. The onset of the symptoms was sudden and the lesions spread very quickly from ewe to ewe, so that in about 3 days almost all of the lactating sheep were stricken. Pustules from 5 different animals, six milk samples, two cheese samples, teat cup samples from the milking machine and farmer’s hands were analysed. A pure culture of Staphylococcus aureus, producing staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE C, was isolated from pustules. Milk and cheese showed a contamination by coagulase positive staphylococci <15 and 30 colony forming units respectively and the absence of SE. Farmer’s hands and teat cups samples resulted negative for coagulase positive staphylococci. Therapy with daily topical medicaments was prescribed and a prophylactic intervention was suggested by the administration of an autovaccine. The low level of milk and cheese contamination and the absence of SE in cheese supported the decision to not advise the farmer to recall cheese produced with milk from affected animals.

  5. The Strategy of Welfare Improvement for Salt Farmers in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudaryana Bambang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Until now, production of salt in Indonesia is done by salt farmers and PT. Garam Indonesia as the only state company that produces salt. As the perpetrators of production which contribute greatly to the national salt production, salt farmer is considered not prosperous. In general, they depend on marine and coastal resources, use requires large investment and rely heavily on season. Climate and weather conditions that are often hostile, the price mechanism and the salt market tend to be contrast to the condition of farmers, this is what makes salt business is risky. The goals of this research are: 1. Improving the Welfare of salt farmers through a focused and effective empowerment. 2. Improving government’spolicies on salt. To conclude, Empowerment of salt farmers in Indonesia should be focused and effective, salt governance and policy revisions significantly affect the welfare of salt farmers.

  6. Selection Role on Configuration of Resistance / Susceptibility Degree to Scrapie and on Genetic Diversity at PrP Locus in the Botosani Karakul Sheep Breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Hrinca

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The molecular-genetic profiles from the determinant locus of scrapie have been described in the Botosani Karakul breed. Sheep belonged to two farm types: elite farm from Research and Development Station for Sheep and Goat Breeding, Popauti-Botosani and several production farms of some private farmers. The two farm types differ between them by selective specificities; in the farm elite the selection pressure is stronger and the selection criteria applied to sheep have been more accuracy than in the production farms. Sheep genotyping at the PrP locus was achieved by the Real-Time PCR method. By framing the individuals in risk classes concerning the prion disease, there were identified significant differences between the two farm types in terms of resistance / susceptibility to scrapie of sheep. The elite farm population is significantly advantaged as regards the molecular-genetic endowment at the PrP locus and low probability converting of the PrPc normal protein in the PrPSc pathogenic isomorph compared to the population of production farms. The reasons for the different associations of prion genotypes with morbid phenomenon intensity in the two farm types must be sought exclusively in the characteristics of selection systems applied to the animals in each farm type. From the standpoint of informational statistics, there is a high degree of genetic similarity at the PrP locus between the two populations. Contrary to expectations, the genetic diversity of prion structures is more developed in the elite farm than in the production farms. The knowing importance of prion profiles was revealed  in pursuit of genetic and veterinary prophylaxis of the sheep populations.

  7. Genetic diversity and population structure of Zackel sheep and other Hungarian sheep breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Neubauer, V.; Vogl, C.; Seregi, J.; Sáfár, L.; Brem, G.

    2015-01-01

    More than 6000 samples of 18 different Hungarian sheep breeds were genotyped for 10 unlinked microsatellite loci. After data cleaning, 5434 sheep remained in the analysis. Some locus–breed combinations show deviation from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium, possibly due to null alleles or the Wahlund effect. All breeds show high genetic variability; the lowest expected heterozygosity is that of the British Milksheep (He = 0.588). The Transylvanian Zackel has the highest expected het...

  8. Assessing Attitude of Tank Irrigated Farmers Towards Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mohanraj

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted in ten districts of five Agro Climatic Zones of Tamil Nadu to assess the attitude of tank irrigated farmers towards climate change. In order to measure the attitude of tank user farmers, the scale was constructed by following ‘Equal Appearing Interval’ scaling technique developed by Thurstone and Chave (1929. The study revealed that majority of the farmers had moderately favourable attitude towards climate change.

  9. Assessing Attitude of Tank Irrigated Farmers Towards Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    K. Mohanraj; C. Karthikeyan

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted in ten districts of five Agro Climatic Zones of Tamil Nadu to assess the attitude of tank irrigated farmers towards climate change. In order to measure the attitude of tank user farmers, the scale was constructed by following ‘Equal Appearing Interval’ scaling technique developed by Thurstone and Chave (1929). The study revealed that majority of the farmers had moderately favourable attitude towards climate change.

  10. Impacts of Renewable Energy on European Farmers. Creating benefits for farmers and society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedroli, G.B.M.; Langeveld, H.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents results of the project Impacts of Renewable Energy on European Farmers. It focuses on the (potential) role that on-farm generation of Renewable Energy in the EU-27 may play both in realisation of national and EU environmental targets as in (re)vitalising agriculture and rural

  11. Of Organic Farmers and "Good Farmers": Changing Habitus in Rural England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Lee-Ann; Darnhofer, Ika

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, numerous studies have identified the importance of cultural constructions of "good farming" to farming practice. In this paper, we develop the "good farming" construct through an empirical study of organic and conventional farmers, focussing on how change occurs. Drawing on Bourdieu's concepts of cultural…

  12. Minimum Effective Dose of Cattle and Sheep BSE for Oral Sheep Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian McGovern

    Full Text Available The minimum dose required to cause infection of Romney and Suffolk sheep of the ARQ/ARQ or ARQ/ARR prion protein gene genotypes following oral inoculation with Romney or Suffolk a sheep Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE-derived or cattle BSE-derived agent was investigated using doses ranging from 0.0005g to 5g. ARQ/ARQ sheep which were methionine (M / threonine (T heterozygous or T/T homozygous at codon 112 of the Prnp gene, dosed ARQ/ARR sheep and undosed controls did not show any evidence of infection. Within groups of susceptible sheep, the minimum effective oral dose of BSE was found to be 0.05g, with higher attack rates following inoculation with the 5g dose. Surprisingly, this study found no effect of dose on survival time suggesting a possible lack of homogeneity within the inoculum. All clinical BSE cases showed PrPd accumulation in brain; however, following cattle BSE inoculation, LRS involvement within Romney recipients was found to be significantly lower than within the Suffolk sheep inoculated group which is in agreement with previous reports.

  13. Evolutionary dynamics of endogenous Jaagsiekte sheep retroviruses proliferation in the domestic sheep, mouflon and Pyrenean chamois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sistiaga-Poveda, M; Jugo, B M

    2014-06-01

    The oncogenic exogenous Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV), responsible for ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma, has several endogenous counterparts termed enJSRVs. Although many of these elements have been inactivated over time by the accumulation of deleterious mutations or internal recombination leading to solo long terminal repeat (LTR) formation, several members of enJSRVs have been identified as nearly intact and probably represent recent integration events. To determine the level of enJSRV polymorphism in the sheep population and related species, we have undertaken a study by characterizing enJSRVs copies and independent integration sites in six domestic sheep and two wild species of the sheep lineage. enJSRVs copies were detected by amplifying the env-LTR region by PCR, and for the detection of the insertion sites, we used two approaches: (1) an in silico approach based on the recently published Sheep Reference Genome Assembly (OARv3.0) and (2) an experimental approach based on PCR suppression and inverse PCR techniques. In total, 103 enJSRV sequences were generated across 10 individuals and enJSRV integrations were found on 11 of the 28 sheep chromosomes. These findings suggest that there are still uncharacterized enJSRVs, and that some of the integration sites are variable among the different species, breeds of the same species, subspecies and geographic locations.

  14. [Review on farmer's climate change perception and adaptation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue-Yan

    2014-08-01

    As the most serious challenge that the humankind is facing, climate change has been strengthened vulnerability in many countries and regions, and how to scientifically adapt to climate change has become the global issue of common concern to the international community today. The impact of climate change on farming people depending on the nature resource is especially remarkable, and understanding farmers' adaptation mechanism and process is very important to effectively make the adaptation policy. As the basis of understanding the human response action, public perception has provided a new perspective to verify the farmers' adaptation mechanism and process about climate change. Based on the recent theoretical and empirical developments of farmers' perception and adaptation, the impact of climate change on the farmers' livelihood was analyzed, and the main adaptation obstacles which the farmers faced in response to climate change were summarized systematically. Then, we analyzed the relationship between the farmers' climate change perception and adaptation, illuminated the key cognitive elements in the process of the farmers' climate change adaptation and introduced the framework to analyze the relationship between the farmers' climate change perception and adaptation. At last, this review put forward the key questions which should be considered in study on the relationship between the farmers' climate change perception and adaptation.

  15. Experiences with Farmer Participatory Cowpea Improvement and Seed Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B. B.

    2000-10-01

    Farmer participatory research is not only a significant concept today but it has become an essential approach to certain aspects of contemporary agricultural research. The CGIAR has already launched a system wide program on participatory research to assess the effectiveness of this approach in plant breeding, natural resources management and gender analysis. The need for participatory research arose when some of the superior technologies identified based on the tests at experiment stations failed to gain acceptance/popularity with resource poor farmers. In most cases, there was nothing wrong with the technologies but farmers did not have access to the recommended inputs and without inputs, the new technologies were poorer, equal to or marginally better than what farmers were using. The apparent lacuna was the lack of testing of new technologies in divers conditions including marginal environments without inputs to ensure superior performance under all conditions. Since all possible test conditions cannot be created at the experiment station, it is now generally agreed that farmer participation at strategic stages may be helpful in developing improved technologies intended for resource poor conditions and traditional cropping systems. The farmer participation ensures use of indigenous knowledge, farmer's perception about the acceptable plant types, seed types and use patterns. It also permits testing of selected materials in diverse conditions and farmer to farmer diffusion of improved technologies

  16. Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Prevalence Among Farmers in Central Tunisia, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellali, Hedia; Chemak, Fraj; Nouiri, Issam; Ben Mansour, Dorra; Ghrab, Jamila; Chahed, Mohamed Kouni

    2017-01-01

    Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) is endemic in central Tunisia and is more prevalent in rural agricultural areas. The aim of this work was to determine ZCL prevalence among farmers and to test their availability to take ownership of the problem and participate actively to fight and address the disease. A sample of farmers from Sidi Bouzid, central Tunisia, was selected randomly. Farmers were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire about ZCL lesion occurrence, its date of onset among family members, and the farmers' availability to contribute to fighting this disease. ZCL occurred in at least one of the family members of 38.5% interviewed farmers. The disease was endemic with recurrent epidemics every 4 or 5 years. ZCL among farmers was associated with irrigation management. With regard to ZCL preventive measures, the majority of farmers agreed and expressed willingness to collaborate (93.1%), to follow health care facilities instructions (73.1%), and to join the nongovernmental organization (NGO) (56.9%). However, they did not agree to reduce irrigation activities mainly at night, to live far from their irrigated fields, or to sleep out of their houses at night. ZCL is more prevalent in farmers engaged in irrigation activities. Farmers are not agreeable to reducing their activity to avoid exposure to the sand fly bites. Thus, population involvement and commitment is required to implement effective control measures to fight and address ZCL.

  17. Improved reproductive response of sheep in intrauterine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improved reproductive response of sheep in intrauterine insemination program with the use of royal jelly. ... estrus in ewes treated with 100 IU eCG plus 500 mg RJ when compared with the other treatment groups. Keywords: Royal jelly, equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG), natural progesterone, artificial insemination, ewe ...

  18. A Sheep in Wolf’s Clothing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leitheiser, Erin

    2017-01-01

    The growing complexity of global supply chains alongside increasing expectations of companies has resulted in a proliferation of private governance arrangements. These are largely voluntary and therefore operationalized through “soft law” (non-binding). However, after the horrific collapse of the...... this approach may be little more than a sheep in wolf’s clothing....

  19. The current status of sheep pox disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanuprakash, V; Indrani, B K; Hosamani, M; Singh, R K

    2006-01-01

    Sheep are the moving banks of shepherds and their economic contribution in terms of meat, wool and skin/hide is immense. Various infectious diseases jeopardize the optimum productivity; among which sheep pox is more important as the disease restricts the export of sheep and their products besides other economic losses. Although, clinical signs are indicative of the disease but a laboratory confirmation is necessary for unequivocal diagnosis and studying epidemiology. The causative agent, sheep pox virus (SPV), is antigenically and genetically closely related to goat pox virus (GPV) and lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), the other members of the genus capripox virus. In some countries, SPV and GPV are cross infective to small ruminants posing problem in diagnosis and epidemiology. However, recent studies have showed that the viruses are phylogenetically distinct and can be differentiated by molecular tools. Prophylaxis using attenuated vaccines is the choice of control measure as the immunity is long lasting. Detailed information on isolation, identification, pathology, epidemiology, diagnosis and prophylaxis would not only help in updating the knowledge of scientific fraternity but will be useful to the policy makers in order to formulate appropriate measures for control and eradication of the disease. This synthesis is to present an up-to-date review of the disease and its control to provide the reader with an overview of the problem.

  20. Some important factors affecting fertility in sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Petrović Milan P.; Caro-Petrović V.; Ružić-Muslić D.; Maksimovic N.; Ilić Z.; Milošević B.; Stojković J.

    2012-01-01

    Efficiency of sheep production is conditioned by fertility. According to some authors number of offspring obtained per lambing is more important than gain of weight. Genetic relationships involving reproductive traits were seldom studied. Reproductive traits have low heritabilities, a discrete phenotypic expression, and are expressed only in sexually mature ewes leading to low selection intensities and long generation intervals. Documentation of realized se...

  1. THE SYNCHRONISATION OF OESTRUS IN SHEEP. 4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    respectively). these dif{'erences were not significant. The ultimate aim of synchronisation of the oestrous cycles of sheep is the practicability of a successful artificial insemination programme. Such a programme would usually require twice daily use of vasectomised rams for identification of ewes in oestrus. The possibility of ...

  2. GM2 gangliosidosis in British Jacob sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, M E; Holmes, J P; Jeffrey, M; Jackson, M; Mackintosh, A; Kolodny, E H; Zeng, B J; Wang, C B; Scholes, S F E

    2014-01-01

    GM2 gangliosidosis (Tay-Sachs disease) was diagnosed in 6- to 8-month-old pedigree Jacob lambs from two unrelated flocks presenting clinically with progressive neurological dysfunction of 10 day's to 8 week's duration. Clinical signs included hindlimb ataxia and weakness, recumbency and proprioceptive defects. Histopathological examination of the nervous system identified extensive neuronal cytoplasmic accumulation of material that stained with periodic acid--Schiff and Luxol fast blue. Electron microscopy identified membranous cytoplasmic bodies within the nervous system. Serum biochemistry detected a marked decrease in hexosaminidase A activity in the one lamb tested, when compared with the concentration in age matched controls and genetic analysis identified a mutation in the sheep hexa allele G444R consistent with Tay-Sachs disease in Jacob sheep in North America. The identification of Tay-Sachs disease in British Jacob sheep supports previous evidence that the mutation in North American Jacob sheep originated from imported UK stock. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of wolves and sheep. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogden, J.; Papcun, G.; Zlokarnik, I.; Nix, D.

    1997-08-01

    In evaluating speaker verification systems, asymmetries have been observed in the ease with which people are able to break into other people`s voice locks. People who are good at breaking into voice locks are called wolves, and people whose locks are easy to break into are called sheep. (Goats are people that have a difficult time opening their own voice locks.) Analyses of speaker verification algorithms could be used to understand wolf/sheep asymmetries. Using the notion of a ``speaker space``, it is demonstrated that such asymmetries could arise even though the similarity of voice 1 to voice 2 is the same as the inverse similarity. This explains partially the wolf/sheep asymmetries, although there may be other factors. The speaker space can be computed from interspeaker similarity data using multidimensional scaling, and such speaker space can be used to given a good approximation of the interspeaker similarities. The derived speaker space can be used to predict which of the enrolled speakers are likely to be wolves and which are likely to be sheep. However, a speaker must first enroll in the speaker key system and then be compared to each of the other speakers; a good estimate of a person`s speaker space position could be obtained using only a speech sample.

  4. Pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, van L.J.M.; Vromans, M.E.W.; Dolstra, C.H.; Bossers, A.; Zijderveld, van F.G.

    2008-01-01

    The pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep was studied by immunohistochemical detection of scrapie-associated prion protein (PrPSc) in the gastrointestinal, lymphoid and neural tissues following oral inoculation with BSE brain homogenate. First accumulation of PrPSc was

  5. Coxiella burnetii infections in sheep or goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, Van den R.; Engelen, van E.; Roest, H.I.J.; Hoek, van der W.; Vellema, P.

    2015-01-01

    Q fever is an almost ubiquitous zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, which is able to infect several animal species, as well as humans. Cattle, sheep and goats are the primary animal reservoirs. In small ruminants, infections are mostly without clinical symptoms, however, abortions and

  6. Factors affecting litter size in Texel sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharafeldin, M.A.

    1960-01-01

    The effect of age of ewes and of different lambing years on fertility expressed as number of lambs born and surviving to 2 months per lambing has been studied in field data collected by the herdbook for Texel sheep in North Holland. The fertility of ewes was compared when first bred at about 8

  7. Pharmacokinetics of Chloramphenicol in Sheep after Intramuscular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The animals were bled at pre-determined time intervals and serum chloramphenicol concentrations monitored using chloramphenicol-ELISA for a period of 30 days post drug administration. Pharmacokinetic evaluation was carried out using a non-compartment analysis. The mean Cmax values obtained in the eight sheep ...

  8. Differential Gene Expression in Ovaries of Qira Black Sheep and Hetian Sheep Using RNA-Seq Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Bin; Zhang, Yong Sheng; Wang, Xu Hai; Zeng, Xian Cun

    2015-01-01

    The Qira black sheep and the Hetian sheep are two local breeds in the Northwest of China, which are characterized by high-fecundity and low-fecundity breed respectively. The elucidation of mRNA expression profiles in the ovaries among different sheep breeds representing fecundity extremes will helpful for identification and utilization of major prolificacy genes in sheep. In the present study, we performed RNA-seq technology to compare the difference in ovarian mRNA expression profiles between Qira black sheep and Hetian sheep. From the Qira black sheep and the Hetian sheep libraries, we obtained a total of 11,747,582 and 11,879,968 sequencing reads, respectively. After aligning to the reference sequences, the two libraries included 16,763 and 16,814 genes respectively. A total of 1,252 genes were significantly differentially expressed at Hetian sheep compared with Qira black sheep. Eight differentially expressed genes were randomly selected for validation by real-time RT-PCR. This study provides a basic data for future research of the sheep reproduction. PMID:25790350

  9. Differential gene expression in ovaries of Qira black sheep and Hetian sheep using RNA-Seq technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Ying Chen

    Full Text Available The Qira black sheep and the Hetian sheep are two local breeds in the Northwest of China, which are characterized by high-fecundity and low-fecundity breed respectively. The elucidation of mRNA expression profiles in the ovaries among different sheep breeds representing fecundity extremes will helpful for identification and utilization of major prolificacy genes in sheep. In the present study, we performed RNA-seq technology to compare the difference in ovarian mRNA expression profiles between Qira black sheep and Hetian sheep. From the Qira black sheep and the Hetian sheep libraries, we obtained a total of 11,747,582 and 11,879,968 sequencing reads, respectively. After aligning to the reference sequences, the two libraries included 16,763 and 16,814 genes respectively. A total of 1,252 genes were significantly differentially expressed at Hetian sheep compared with Qira black sheep. Eight differentially expressed genes were randomly selected for validation by real-time RT-PCR. This study provides a basic data for future research of the sheep reproduction.

  10. Development of pneumonia in desert bighorn sheep after exposure to a flock of exotic wild and domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, R J; Bunch, T D; Workman, G W; Mock, R E

    1991-03-15

    From 1986 to 1989, 5 desert bighorn sheep (3 Ovis canadensis mexicana and 2 O c nelsoni), ranging in age from 2 to 3 years, were exposed to a flock of exotic wild and domestic sheep to potentially achieve naturally acquired pneumonia. Pasteurella multocida was isolated from nasal samples from 4 of 6 sheep randomly sampled from the flock. Bighorn sheep were exposed individually and each exposure period was a trial. Treatment before and after exposure varied and included combinations of alpha interferon, antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs, and vaccines. Treatments were chosen on the basis of recommendations of others for treating pneumonia in desert bighorn sheep as well as our own experience in sheep and cattle. Regardless of treatment used, bighorn sheep in trials 1 to 4 developed signs of pneumonia within 10 to 14 days of exposure. Bighorn sheep in trials 1 to 3 died within 11 to 17 days of initial exposure. In trial 4, the bighorn sheep was isolated from the carrier sheep for treatment of pneumonia on day 14 and died on day 30. Pasteurella multocida was isolated from lung tissue in 3 of the 4 bighorn sheep. On the basis of results of trials 1 to 4, a more in depth clinical study was conducted in trial 5. Nasal and blood specimens were collected prior to and during trial 5 for bacteriologic culturing and serologic testing for bovine viral diarrhea virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza-3 virus, and respiratory syncytial virus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Family farmers as subjects of rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton Lazzaretti Picolotto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of the family farmers' recognition as individuals with rights demonstrates having their first roots, in spite of being recent, if compared to the history of the Brazilian rural syndicalism, still in the constitution of the labor-syndical legislation in 1930. Therefore, seeking to explore that process the present paper has as objective to analyze the family farmers' emergence as individuals of rights in the contemporary Brazilian society, analyzing the processes of formation of the rural syndicalism and the expansion of the labor law for the rural workers as a form of accomplishment of a “regulated citizens hip” until the decade of 1970; the urge to the official syndicalism, the structuring of a “new syndicalism” and the new social actors' appearance in the field, which made possible the enlargement of the citizenship spaces in the period of re-democratization in Brazil; the “crisis” of the new syndicalism, the creation of new syndical structures “apart” of the official structure (syndicalism of the family agriculture and the emergency of the “family farmers” as subject of rights in the recent period.

  12. Basic pulmonary function tests in pig farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đuričić Slaviša M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Many epidemiological and clinical studies have demonstrated an increased risk for the symptoms of respiratory disorders consistent with chronic bronchitis and asthma and alterations of pulmonary function tests in pig farmers. AIM The aim of this study was to determine basic pulmonary function values in workers in swine confinement buildings and to compare them with the same values in the control group of unexposed persons. The next aim was to examine the association between these values with duration of professional exposure, cigarette smoking, age, and sex of the examined persons. METHODS We randomly selected for examination 145 workers of both sex who had worked for at least 2 previous years in pig farms and spent at least 3 hours per day, 6 days per week in a swine confinement building. The farmers worked at 6 different farms with 12,383 pigs on average on each farms. The subject was eligible for the study if he had had no history of atopic disease nor any serious chronic disease, and no acute respiratory infection within 3 previous months. As control group we examined 156 subjects who had lived and/or worked in the same areas and had had no history of exposure to farming environment or any other known occupational air pollutants. In both groups the study comprised cigarette smokers and persons who had never smoked. Pulmonary function data were collected according to the standard protocol with a Micro Spirometer, (Micro Medical Ltd, England, UK. The registered parameters were FEV1 and FVC At least three satisfactory forced maximal expirations were performed by each subject and the best value was accepted for analyses. The results were also expressed as a percentage of predicted values and FEV1/FVCxlOO was calculated. RESULTS There were no differences in the main demographic characteristics between two examined groups (Table1. Mean duration of work in pig farming was 11.6 years (SD=8.5; range 2-40. The average values of examined

  13. Radiocaesium variability in upland sheep flocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beresford, N.A.

    2002-01-01

    Following the 1986 Chernobyl accident large areas of uplands in the United Kingdom were contaminated by radiocaesium. Consequently, the level of radiocaesium in the tissues of some sheep exceeded 1000 Bq kg -1 fresh weight This is the limit adopted within the UK above which meat cannot enter the food chain. In 1986, restrictions were placed on the movement and slaughter of sheep in areas of west Cumbria, north Wales and Scotland. Whilst the number of farms under restriction has reduced considerably, some still remain restricted in 2002. Although a number of workers had noted considerable variability between the radiocaesium activities of individuals within sheep flocks there had been no analyses of causal effects. The work described here, combined studies on three upland farms within west Cumbria with controlled feeding experiments, to systematically assess the parameters which may contribute to such variability. Results from all three farms demonstrate a temporally consistent ranking of the 137 Cs activity concentration of individual sheep within the study flocks. As there was also a correlation between the 137 Cs activity concentration of ewes and their pre-weaned lambs it is likely that the same ewes are producing lambs in excess of the intervention limit in subsequent years. It is difficult to generalise as to which factors will contribute to 137 Cs variability within a given upland flock; factors contributing to variation were not consistent between the study farms. However, the location grazed and/or vegetation selected by animals was a causal factor to the observed variability at all three farms. The transfer of radiocaesium from the diet to muscle of sheep was found to be determined by live-weight change and dry matter intake. Subsequent studies have suggested that protein turnover may be a potential mechanism for the relationship between dry matter intake and radiocaesium transfer. This hypothesis is supported by current understanding of protein-dry matter

  14. Inclusiveness of identification among farmers in The Netherlands and Galicia (Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klandermans, P.G.; Sabucedo, J.M.; Rodriguez, M.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we discuss inclusiveness of identification among farmers in Galicia (Spain) and The Netherlands. Identification with three nested categories - farmers in the local community, farmers in the country, and farmers in Europe was assessed among 167 Dutch and 248 Galician farmers at three

  15. The Australian synchrotron research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, R.F.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The Australian Synchrotron Research Program (ASRP) was established in 1996 under a 5 year grant from the Australian Government, and is managed by ANSTO on behalf of a consortium of Australian universities and research organisations. It has taken over the operation of the Australian National Beamline Facility (ANBF) at the Photon Factory, and has joined two CATS at the Advanced Photon Source: the Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation CAT (SRI-CAT) and the Consortium for Advanced Radiation Sources (CARS). The ASRP thus manages a comprehensive range of synchrotron radiation research facilities for Australian science. The ANBF is a general purpose hard X-ray beamline which has been in operation at the Photon Factory since 1993. It currently caters for about 35 Australian research teams per year. The facilities available at the ANBF will be presented and the research program will be summarised. The ASRP facilities at the APS comprise the 5 sectors operated by SRI-CAT, BioCARS and ChemMatCARS. A brief description will be given of the ASRP research programs at the APS, which will considerably broaden the scope of Australian synchrotron science

  16. Value of mental health first aid training of advisory and extension agents in supporting farmers in rural Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, D; Gorman, D; Eley, R; Coutts, J

    2010-01-01

    This study was a pilot project responding to the increasing levels of stress, depression and other mental health issues in Australian rural areas resulting from prolonged drought and a changing economic and social environment. Thirty-two Advisory and Extension Agents (AEAs) attended a training course held in 2007 and 2008 in Queensland, Australia. A year after the training, data was collected to determine its value. Interviews were conducted with course participants and their supervisors and focus groups were held with stakeholders (farmers, agency staff and health professionals). The findings show that Mental Health First Aid training improved the participants' confidence level and their knowledge of mental health issues and increased their empathy toward persons with mental health problems. Furthermore, providing training on mental health issues to AEAs was perceived by stakeholders to be beneficial to both farmers and AEAs. This study demonstrated that stakeholders and course participants see this type of training as very much needed and highly beneficial. Further, providing training in mental health issues to rural service providers can be very beneficial to their farmer clients and their social network.

  17. Control ofNematodirusspp. infection by sheep flock owners in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Connor; Edgar, Hillary W J; Barley, Jason P; Hanna, Robert E B; Brennan, Gerard P; Fairweather, Ian

    2017-01-01

    To address a lack of information on the control of ovine helminth parasites in Northern Ireland (NI), a number of research projects have been undertaken, dealing with gastrointestinal nematodes, tapeworms and liver fluke. This investigation concerns Nematodirus and concentrates on three aspects of disease: farm management strategies for its control, derived from the results of a Questionnaire; the efficacy of treatment used by farmers, as determined by a coprological survey; and the hatching requirements of Nematodirus eggs, that is, whether prolonged chilling is a pre-requisite for hatching. A Questionnaire was sent to 252 sheep farmers in NI in March 2012 (covering the years 2009-2012) and replies were received from 228 farmers. Under-dosing, inaccurate calibration of equipment and inappropriate product choice were poor practices identified. Following this survey, the efficacy of treatment of Nematodirus spp. in sheep flocks was evaluated in April and May 2012. Sampling kits were sent to 51 flock owners, all of whom returned pre- and post-anthelmintic dosing faecal samples to the laboratory for analysis. At the time of treatment, 41 flocks were positive for Nematodirus (as diagnosed by the presence of eggs). Reduced benzimidazole efficacy was detected in 35.7% of flocks tested ( n  = 28). Although only involving a small number of flocks, reduced efficacy of levamisole treatment was detected in 50%, of avermectins in 33% and of moxidectin in 75% of flocks tested (n = 2, 6 and 4, respectively). In the egg hatch experiment, carried out under "chilled" and "non-chilled" conditions, 43% of the eggs in the "non-chilled" group were able to hatch, compared to 100% in the "chilled" group. The identification of inefficient control strategies argues for continued education of stockholders, in order to improve their management programmes. This is particularly important where the practices might impact on the development of anthelmintic resistance, which has been shown to

  18. Adapting to Climate Change: Lessons from Farmers and Peri-Urban Fringe Residents in South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy M. Robinson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on results from two major research projects conducted in South Australia. The first investigates adaptation to climate change in two of the state’s major grain and sheep farming regions, using semi-structured interviews and focus groups. The second uses a postal questionnaire and an internet-based survey of residents in the peri-urban fringes of Adelaide, the state capital, to examine knowledge of and attitudes to climate change and resulting adaptations, especially in the context of increasing risk of wildfires. The research on adaptation to climate change in agriculture focused on formal institutions (e.g., government agencies and communities of practice (e.g., farm systems groups. Both groups noted that farmers autonomously adapt to various risks, including those induced by climate variability. The types and levels of adaptation varied among individuals partly because of barriers to adaptation, which included limited communication and engagement processes established between formal institutions and communities of practice. The paper discusses possibilities for more effective transfers of knowledge and information on climate change among formal institutions, communities of practice, trusted individual advisors and farmers. Research in the peri-urban fringe revealed that actions taken by individuals to mitigate and/or adapt to climate change were linked to the nature of environmental values held (or ecological worldview and place attachment. Individuals with a strong place attachment to the study area (the Adelaide Hills who possessed knowledge of and/or beliefs in climate change were most likely to take mitigating actions. This was also linked to previous experience of major risk from wildfires. The paper concludes by discussing prospects for developing co-management for reducing the impact of climate change across multiple groups in rural and peri-urban areas.

  19. Preventative services offered by veterinarians on sheep farms in England and Wales: Opinions and drivers for proactive flock health planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellet, Camille; Woodnutt, Joanna; Green, Laura E; Kaler, Jasmeet

    2015-12-01

    Recent independent UK government reports and studies have highlighted the importance, but lack, of flock health services provided by veterinarians. Qualitative interviews were analysed by thematic analysis to construct belief statements to understand veterinarians' opinions on preventative advice and drivers for current services to sheep farmers. A postal questionnaire was sent to 515 sheep practices registered with the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeon (RCVS) in England and Wales in 2012 to gather quantitative data on these belief statements and to gather demographic information and current services provided by the veterinarian. Exploratory factor analysis with heuristic approaches was conducted on the respondents' belief statements to identify common factors of veterinarian beliefs. Three main factors were identified: motivation for proactiveness, perceived capability to offer preventative services and perceived opportunity to deliver these services. A beta regression model was built to identify the factors significantly associated with the time veterinarians spent in an advisory role. The relative proportion of time increased by 10% (1.01-1.19), 16% (1.03-1.30) and 29% (CI: 1.09-1.53) for each unit increase in score for factor 1 motivation, factor 2 capability and factor 3 opportunity respectively, indicating that these latent factors explained time veterinarians spent in an advisory role with sheep clients. There was a significant correlation between these factors suggesting influence of the associated beliefs between factors. This study provides insight into the nature and drivers of veterinarians' current behaviour and beliefs. These results could be further tested in behaviour intervention studies and help in designing efficient strategies aiming at promoting proactive health services offered by veterinarians on sheep farms in England and Wales. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Detecting signatures of selection within the Tibetan sheep mitochondrial genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Lili; Chen, Xiaoyong; Xiao, Ping; Zhao, Qianjun; Zhou, Jingxuan; Hu, Jiangtao; Sun, Hongxin; Guo, Jiazhong; Li, Li; Wang, Linjie; Zhang, Hongping; Zhong, Tao

    2017-11-01

    Tibetan sheep, a Chinese indigenous breed, are mainly distributed in plateau and mountain-valley areas at a terrestrial elevation between 2260 and 4100 m. The herd is genetically distinct from the other domestic sheep and undergoes acclimatization to adapt to the hypoxic environment. To date, whether the mitochondrial DNA modification of Tibetan sheep shares the same feature as the other domestic breed remains unknown. In this study, we compared the whole mitogenome sequences from 32 Tibetan sheep, 22 domestic sheep and 24 commercial sheep to identify the selection signatures of hypoxic-tolerant in Tibetan sheep. Nucleotide diversity analysis using the sliding window method showed that the highest level of nucleotide diversity was observed in the control region with a peak value of π = 0.05215, while the lowest π value was detected in the tRNAs region. qPCR results showed that the relative mtDNA copy number in Tibetan sheep was significantly lower than that in Suffolk sheep. None of the mutations in 12S rRNA were fixed in Tibetan sheep, which indicated that there has been less artificial selection in this herd than the other domestic and commercial breeds. Although one site (1277G) might undergo the purifying selection, it was not identified as the breed-specific allele in Tibetan sheep. We proposed that nature selection was the main drive during the domestication of Tibetan sheep and single mutation (or locus) could not reveal the signature of selection as for the high diversity in the mitogenome of Tibetan sheep.

  1. Australian coal industry continues expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, G.E.

    1991-01-01

    Recent saleable Australian black coal production figures are given along with trends in development of new operations and new technology aiming to provide a sound basis for the continuing expansion of the Australian coal industry. Export prices from 1982 to 1991 to Japan (Australia's major export market) are provided, together with Australian dollar return to exporters at the exchange rate prevailing at the start of each contract year. An increased demand for steaming coal is expected, thus maintaining Australia's position as the world's larger exporter. 4 tabs

  2. Ergonomic and health assessment of farmers' multi-pesticide exposure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the ergonomic risk factors, and occupational health and safety conditions of farmers' multi-pesticide exposures.Methods. Methods consisted of ... Farmers reported pesticide spills on their body parts while spraying (79%), and 49 % complained of getting sick because of work. Of those who got ill, 69.8% ...

  3. Information flow on agronomic practices among oil palm farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information flow on agronomic practices among oil palm farmers in delta state, Nigeria. ... Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences ... There is the need for extension agents to intensify effort in improving, educating, and encouraging the farmers to share information on improved agronomic practices among themselves.

  4. Farmers' awareness and perceived benefits of agro-ecological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A transition towards intensification of smallholder banana systems requires that the full range of ecosystem services provided by AEI practices are recognized and valued by farmers. Therefore, empowering farmers with knowledge on their agro-ecological systems and locally adapting AEI practices is essential for realization ...

  5. Socioeconomic Effects of Farmer-Pastoralist Conflict on Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Abstract. The study examined the socio - economic effect of farmer-pastoralist conflict on family farming in Oyo State, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select to 60 farmers and 60 pastoralists for the research and were interviewed with structured questionnaire. Results showed that a little above.

  6. Farmers' preferences for tree species on Agroforestry System in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farmers' preferences for tree species on Agroforestry System in Ijebu North Local Government Area, Ogun State, Nigeria. RI Mustapha, SO Jimoh. Abstract. This study was conducted to generate information on tree species farmers are willing to retain or plant on their farms; the benefits they derive from the trees and the ...

  7. Farmers` satisfaction with the performance of the Mooi River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation was instituted to determine factors that significantly influence the satisfaction status of farmers at the Mooi-River Irrigation Scheme (MRIS) in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa. A multinomial Logit regression model was employed to analyse the response of the farmers. It was established that about 57% of the ...

  8. 75 FR 49886 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers... Service (FAS) today accepted and began a review of a petition for trade adjustment assistance filed under... INFORMATION CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Program Staff, FAS, USDA by phone: (202) 720-0638...

  9. 75 FR 49458 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers... Service (FAS) today accepted and began a review of a petition for trade adjustment assistance filed under... and cash benefits. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Program...

  10. 75 FR 48642 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers... Service (FAS) today accepted and began a review of a petition for trade adjustment assistance filed under... benefits. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Program Staff, FAS, USDA...

  11. 75 FR 43485 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice... petition for trade adjustment assistance filed under the FY 2011 Program by three wool producers on behalf... cash benefits. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Staff, FAS...

  12. Assessing farmer involvement in collective action for enhancing the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing farmer involvement in collective action for enhancing the sorghum value chain in Soroti, Uganda. ... in six sub-counties of Soroti, Uganda, where associations are established. A binomial logit regression model was employed to ascertain socio-economic factors that influenced membership to farmer associations.

  13. Fuzzy modeling of farmers' knowledge for land suitability classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sicat, R.S.; Carranza, E.J.M.; Nidumolu, U.B.

    2005-01-01

    In a case study, we demonstrate fuzzy modeling of farmers' knowledge (FK) for agricultural land suitability classification using GIS. Capture of FK was through rapid rural participatory approach. The farmer respondents consider, in order of decreasing importance, cropping season, soil color, soil

  14. An analysis of social status and social participation of farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the socio economic status and social participation of farmers cultivating soybean in Kwara State, Nigeria. Their social status was determined and the relationship between these characteristics and adoption of soybean were explored. From a sampling frame of 1800 farmers, three hundred soybean ...

  15. Evaluation of pesticide safety measures adopted by potato farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to increase productivity and quality, farmers use pesticides and other agrochemicals. These pesticides if improperly handled impact negatively on the health of the users. The objective of the study was to evaluate the pesticide safety measures adopted by potato farmers in Chebiemit Division of Elgeyo/Marakwet ...

  16. The Farmer Life School: experience from an innovative approach to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Farmer Life School (FLS) is an innovative approach to integrating HIV education into life skills and technical training for farmers. This study aims to gain insight into the strengths and weaknesses of this relatively new approach, through the implementation of an adapted version in South Africa. The results are presented ...

  17. Farmer-led documentation as a possible tool for improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Training on FLD, camera maintenance and taking photographs was done during a workshop, and further supported during follow-up visits through the season. The final feedback workshop enabled farmers to share the content of their photographs, as well as their experiences with FLD and photography. Farmers discussed ...

  18. Purchase of Catastrophe Insurance by Dutch Dairy and Arable Farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogurtsov, V.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzed the impact of risk perception, risk attitude, and other farmer personal and farm characteristics on the actual purchase of catastrophe insurance by Dutch dairy and arable farmers. The specific catastrophe insurance types considered were hail–fire–storm insurance for buildings,

  19. Technical Efficiency of Enugu Urban Broiler Farmers in Enugu State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study measured the level of technical efficiency and among determinants in broiler farmers in Enugu urban of Enugu State, Nigeria using stochastic frontier production function. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 120 broiler farmers from which data were collected using well-structured questionnaire and ...

  20. innovations adoption levels of small ruminant farmers in tolon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UDS-CAPTURED

    ruminant farmers need to adopt innovations in order to promote and sustain small ruminant production. This paper .... innovations have been adopted by small ruminant farmers in the Tolon-Kumbungu District of the. Northern Region ..... to be able to carry out closed castration in their respective communities. As indicated in ...

  1. Farmers\\' Attitudes And Problems Associated With The Adoption Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The farmers showed favourable attitudes to rejuvenate their farms with the hybrid, but are sceptical about their success in the long-run. Thus, only few had planted the hybrid. Farmers interested in the hybrid expressed common problems of getting true-to-type seedlings at the right time and at a reasonable cost. Salvaging ...

  2. Using the VOICE tool to make good farmer programming Appendix

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-04-23

    Apr 23, 2014 ... program? Do you broadcast at a time that is suitable for farmers? Do farmers' voices really shine through in your programming? These are the kinds of questions radio broadcasters ask themselves when it's time to evaluate their programs. Sometimes, it is good to take a step back and carefully analyze.

  3. sources and use of extension information among maize farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR ADESOPE

    benefit, some pertinent questions became imperative. These are. -. Should extension services be information dissemination or knowledge enhancing? -. Should the determination of farmers need and solutions to them remain that of the external agency, the government, the farmer themselves or a joint venture of all the.

  4. Farmer groups key to boosting technology adoption in Kenya | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-09-20

    Sep 20, 2013 ... Impressed by the success of the PPATE/SPATE model, farmers are now organizing to explore marketing opportunities. ... Farmers are more likely to implement new practices and stick with them, the project team found, if they see direct economic benefits (i.e., increased productivity, better means of ...

  5. Response of farmers to agricultural insurance in Kogi State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study conducted in Kogi and Adavi Local Government Areas of Kogi State, assessed farmers response to the Agricultural Insurance Scheme of the Nigerian Insurance Company (NAIC). The willingness of farmers to take up the scheme was also determined. The data obtained were subjected to descriptive statistics and ...

  6. Determinant of farmers' ability to pay for improved irrigation water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An ordinary least squares regression was used to investigate factors affecting ATP. Results indicate that factors such as labour, training, household assets and road conditions positively influence ATP. The study highlights the importance of support to farmers and their institutions. The study also concludes that farmers are ...

  7. Socio-economic determinants of income among cowpea farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-economic determinants of income among cowpea farmers in Bama local government area of Borno state, Nigeria. ... Based on the results of the study, it was recommended that policy measures aimed at providing relevant training opportunities and education schemes to the farmers should be encouraged; further ...

  8. Development Aid, Agricultural Value Chains and Farmers' Benefits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article assesses farmers' benefits from a donor-funded programme that promoted non-traditional agricultural export crops, specifically vanilla and hot pepper. Data was obtained from a survey of 125 famers from eight farmers' associations working with a Dutch NGO and trading company, four focus group discussions ...

  9. Farmers, consumers and gatekeepers and their attitudes towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 1999, a project to develop insect resistance maize for Africa was launched. Social scientists from this team used participatory rural appraisals, consumer studies, a baseline and gatekeeper survey to study the awareness and attitudes towards biotechnology among farmers, consumers and gatekeepers. Farmers' ...

  10. Women Farmers' Perception and Utilization of Marketing Information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study ascertained the perception of women farmers' on utilization of marketing information on cassava in Osun State, Nigeria.Multistage sampling technique was adopted in the selection of 110 women cassava farmers in Osun State. Data were collected from the women with the aid of structured interview schedule .

  11. Benefits of zucchini crop cultivation among farmers in Oluyole Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were collected from 79 farmers on socioeconomic characteristics, access to information and knowledge of the potentials of zucchini cultivation as well as constraints ... Awareness campaign on the potentials of the crop should be created while farmers' capacity on appropriate storage technologies should be enhanced.

  12. This paper describes farmer's perception towards potential adoption

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ademola

    2013-12-23

    Dec 23, 2013 ... We assessed the perception of farmers towards potential adoption of genetic modification (GM) technology for improving health, food security and agricultural productivity using a semi-structured interview. A total sample of 54 small-scale farmers participated in 6 focus group meetings (FGMs) and.

  13. Improving farmer adaptive capacity by integrating local and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-22

    Improving farmer adaptive capacity by integrating local and indigenous knowledge in climate forecasting. April 22, 2016. Image. Despite the availability of more reliable forecasts from meteorological services in Kenya, farmers seldom use them for farm level decision-making. This case study discusses how downscaled ...

  14. Perception Of Farmers About Profitability Of Vegetable Gardening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed perception of farmers about profitability of vegetable gardening enterprise in Ahiazu Mbaise local government area of Imo state, Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was administered to 60 randomly selected farmers in the study area. Data collected were analysed using frequencies, percentages and ...

  15. An assessment of farmers' awareness and practices of land ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The continuous deterioration of the agricultural land resulting in low food output necessitated this study. One hundred and twenty farmers were selected for interview, using a systematic random sampling from the list of 360 registered farmers provided by the ADP officials. A list of ten management practices was drawn for the ...

  16. Maize stemborers distribution, their natural enemies and farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-04-25

    Apr 25, 2013 ... Farmers perception on effects of climate change on maize stem borers distribution and their natural enemies. 4773. Maize stemborers distribution, their natural enemies and farmers' perception on climate change and stemborers in southern Togo. Tounou Agbéko Kodjo1*, Agboka Komi1, Agbodzavu Komi ...

  17. Adaptation Practices to Climate Change Among Rice Farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined adaptation practices to climate change among rice farmers in Anambra State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 100 rice farmers by the combination of multistage, purposive and simple random sampling techniques, through the use of interview schedule. Percentage and mean statistics were used for ...

  18. Agricultural extension needs of farmers in Telfairia production and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed agricultural extension needs of farmers in Telfairia production and marketing in Enugu State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was used to select 160 Telfairia farmers for the study. Structured interview schedule was used to collect data. Data was analysed by use of descriptive statistics and factor ...

  19. The influence of farmer perception on pesticide usage for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The insect pest complex infesting cowpea has made farmers in Uganda to increasingly use pesticides as the major means of pest control. A case study conducted in eastern Uganda revealed that: (a) pesticide usage depended on farmer production goal, (b) change from one pesticide to another depended on perceived ...

  20. Farmer's knowledge and perception of horticultural insect pest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Whilst 89% were aware of insect pest problems, only 35% used chemical treatment even though about 79% thought that pest damage ranged from mild to severe. Majority of the farmers adopt diverse number of traditional methods in pest control. Key words: Farmers, pests, horticultural crops, vegetable, control

  1. Effects Of Educational Workshops On Farmers' Pest Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The heavy use of pesticides in Iran not only has critically harmful health effects on the farmers, but also harms the environment and consumer's health. One of the best approaches for overcoming this problem can be adoption of pest management practices and IPM (integrated pest management) systems by farmers.

  2. Comparison of youth farmers' utilization of agricultural farm land in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This entails that farming enterprise needs active, productive and relatively young farmers who are energetic to participate actively to raise the enterprise. The study therefore recommended that, youth farmers in Benue State should be encouraged to undertake tertiary education through short term programmes, and early ...

  3. Determinants of Farmers' Willingness to Pay for Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed that majority of the farmers (65%) were males. The result also revealed that such socio-economic variables like level of education, farm size, income and farming experience had a direct relationship to farmer's willingness to pay for extension services. The constraints identified by the study as serious ...

  4. Evaluation Of Farmers\\' Extension Education Needs In Ohaji ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluated farmers extension education needs in Ohaji/Egbema local government area of Imo State, Nigeria. Data for the study was collected with the aid of questionnaire and interview from 124 randomly selected farmers in the study area. Data analysis was with the use of frequencies, percentages and Pearson ...

  5. The influence of farmers\\' adoption behaviour on maize production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was therefore designed to determine the contribution of farmers\\' adoption of recommended maize production practices, namely maize varieties, seed spacing, fertilization and weeding on production efficiency in order to assess the soundness of the advice given to farmers. The research was conducted in the ...

  6. Farmer preferences and the production strategies of agroforestry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agroforestry projects in Madagascar that promote fruit trees address social and environmental threats to rainforests by reducing farmers' reliance on rice cultivation as long as fruit production is a more economically efficient option. This study aims to understand farmer planting preferences for fruit trees around Ranomafana ...

  7. Selected socio-demographic factors affecting involvement of farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selected socio-demographic factors affecting involvement of farmers in part-time farming in Emohua, Rivers State. DO Onu. Abstract. The study investigates selected socio-demographic factors affecting involvement of farmers in part-time farming in Emohua, Rivers State. Structured questionnaire was administered to 87 ...

  8. Assessment of food crop farmers' participation and performance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    List of farmers who participated in WAAPP collected from N.R.C.R.I WAAPP Coordinating office, Umudike and Agricultural Innovation Platform (AIP), Umudike served as the study population. A structured questionnaire was used to elicit information from the farmers. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential ...

  9. From Complementarity to Conflict: A Historical Analysis of Farmer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From Complementarity to Conflict: A Historical Analysis of Farmer-Fulbe Relations in West Africa. M Davidheiser, AM Luna. Abstract. This paper provides a socio-historical analysis of conflict between Fulbe pastoralists and farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa. The discussion examines various structural factors that have fostered ...

  10. Contribution of agroforestry in farmers' livelihood and its impact on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agri-silicultural system is in vogue for livelihood under prevailing biophysical limitations of the environment in northern areas of Pakistan. Therefore, to make the farmers realise the significance of agroforestry system and to analyse its income, agro ecological effect on agroforestry income of farmers a study was carried out in ...

  11. Determinants of rice output among ADP contact farmers in mining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study analyzed factors affecting rice output among Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) contact farmers in the mining and non mining locations of IVO LGA of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Multistage random sampling technique was used to select agricultural circles and rice farmers. The sample size was 120 rice ...

  12. Behavioural changes among Fadama II Project farmers and lessons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Behavioural changes among Fadama II Project farmers and lessons in agriculture development of Enugu State, Nigeria. ... Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR) ... The study analyzed the behavioral changes and Fadama ii project farmers and lesson in Agricultural development of Enugu State, Nigeria.

  13. Impact of National Fadama Development Project II on Rice farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the impact of National Fadama Development Project II on the profitability of rice farmers and assessed the extent to which the various innovations disseminated by the project were adopted by the rice farmer beneficiaries. The project which had all operating expenses cofinanced by the various key ...

  14. Information Needs of Cassava Farmers in Delta State of Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    significant relationship between level of education and marketing pattern. Education is a very important variable in farm production. According to Ogunsumi et al (2002) educated farmers have more access to information on farm improvement techniques and credit than non-educated farmers. There exists positive and non- ...

  15. Farmer participation in radio campaigns for technology adoption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, farmer exposure to and participation in radio campaigns may increase awareness and knowledge as did the AFRRI campaign, but may not necessarily lead the farmers and consumers into adopting new maize varieties, technologies or innovations. Key words: radio campaign, participation, radio production, adoption, ...

  16. Meeting the information needs of ghanaian cocoa farmers: are ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A number of farmer-led approaches to technology transfer have emerged in recent times to replace the largely discredited Transfer of Technology (TOT) and Training and Visit (T&V) models of agricultural extension. One such initiative is the Farmer Field School (FFS), an experiential learning approach originally developed ...

  17. Conflict over landownership: The case of farmers and cattle graziers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It argues that the recurrent conflicts involving farmers and cattle graziers over landownership in the northwest region of Cameroon have their roots in scarcity of land, climate change and the 'poor' application of statutory laws guaranteeing landownership. Although some farmers have struggled to enjoy their right to use land, ...

  18. The rural farmer and plant genetic resources conservation: A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methods of conservation used by rural farmers were studied in the Fanteakwa District in the Eastern Region of Ghana. Ten rural communities were randomly selected, and10 rural farmers were interviewed in each community. Questions posed ranged from methods of conservation to traditional belief systems associated ...

  19. Empowering Farmers Through Discovery Learning: A Case Study Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the effectiveness of Farmer Field School (FFS) training on farmers\\' competence in Integrated Pest Management of cocoa and the transfer of knowledge to others in Ondo State, Nigeria. Using structured questionnaire and interview schedule, data from 60 randomly selected respondents made up of 30 ...

  20. sources and use of extension information among maize farmers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR ADESOPE

    execute farm plans. Some farmers are opportune to generate funds internally to prosecute their farm programmes. Unfortunately, however, a majority of the Nigerian farmers cannot generate enough financial .... Kendal coefficient was used to analyze the data on degree of association among ranking of factors of supply of ...

  1. Analysis of Technical Efficiency among Swamp Rice Farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the Technical efficiency among swamp rice farmers in Niger State, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 159 swamp rice farmers. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics, and the stochastic frontier production function. The results showed ...

  2. Adoption Of Improved Cassava Varieties By Farmers In Kogi State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improved cassava varieties have been developed and disseminated to farmers in the study area but the rate of adoption has not been ascertained. This gave rise to the study. The data for the study were collected with the aid of structured questionnaire, from 60 farmers randomly sampled from two Local Government Areas ...

  3. Adoption of improved rice varieties by farmers in Bende local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the adoption of improved rice varieties by farmers in Bende Local Government Area, Abia State, Nigeria. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select a total of 120 rice farmers. Descriptive statistics and tobit regression model were employed to analyze the data. Results showed that ...

  4. Farmers Adoption Scenarios for the Control of Cassava Mosaic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined farmers' adoption levels of the cassava varieties and value adding technologies introduced under the project. Data for the study were collected from 260 randomly selected respondents using interview schedule. Farmers' adoption indices were used to summarize information on adoption levels, while ...

  5. Farmers' perception of the performance of the National Special ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The farmers indicated that only fertilizers and maize seeds were inputs readily available in the programme. Most of the technologies disseminated by the extension staff to the farmers were adopted and already in use. In general, the SPFS programme was perceived to be effective in terms of crop intensification, number of ...

  6. Farmers\\' Perception Of Improved And Local Cassava Cultivars In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantity of the byproduct of cassava, taste of byproduct, maturity time and disease resistance significantly contributed to farmers' perception of the cassava cultivars. Apart from good agronomic characteristics of disease resistance and early maturity, farmers' perception of cultivars is also tied to food value issues, field ...

  7. Farmers' perception on the effects of climate change on groundnut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farmers' perception on the effects of climate change on groundnut production in Obi Local Government Area of Benue. ... Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences ... Farmers perceived high rainfall, temperature and spread of pests and diseases among others, as the greatest adverse effects of climate change. Some of the ...

  8. Enhancing Performance of Farmers' Cooperative in Rice Innovation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The state has witnessed proliferation of farmers' cooperative; and while new ones are emerging in their numbers, some old ones are becoming less functional and others going into extinct The study examined factors for enhancing performance of rice farmers' cooperative in rice innovation system. Seventy members of rice ...

  9. Sources of Technical Efficiency Among Smallholders Maize Farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maize yield in Tanzania has been decreasing in the past few years. The decline has been attributed to many factors. This paper assesses production efficiency and its determinants among maize farmers in Babati district. The paper uses data collected from 122 maize farmers residing in six villages in the study district.

  10. Improving Farmers' Efficiency in Rice Production In Nigeria: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper assesses the effects of extension services on farmers' efficiency and productivity in rice production in Kano State, Nigeria. Data for the study were collected from 126 rice farmers selected using multi stage sampling technique. Stochastic production frontier function was estimated to ascertain the effects of ...

  11. Determinants of poverty among bee farmers: An antidote for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the poverty status of bee-farmers in two ecological zones of Kwara State, Nigeria with modern bee-keeping farmers as a case study. Primary data subjected to a pre-survey which involved structured questionnaire and interview schedule were administered using multistage random technique to selected ...

  12. Social network and innovation dissemination among farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is no adequate link between the farmers and the social groups which are very pivotal to the adoption of innovation and its eventual usage. This study therefore looked at social network and innovation dissemination among farmers in Kwara state Nigeria. This research specifically examined the impact of social network ...

  13. Indigenous methods of controlling pests among rice farmers in Patigi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Considering the negative effects of the continuous dependence on chemical, it is therefore necessary to look into the potentials in local experiences and practices adopted by rice farmers to control pests. The objective of the study is to assess the indigenous methods used to control pests of rice by farmers in Patigi Local ...

  14. Technologies Extended To Women Farmers in Abia State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... as hindrance to the use of extended technologies by the women farmers. Based on the findings, four recommendations for enhancing Home Economics extension programmes were made. Key words: Technologies, Women Farmers, Abia State Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences Vol.2(2) 2004: 58-67 ...

  15. Farm size - productivity relationships among arable crops farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to analyze the relationship between farm size and resource productivity among arable crop farmers in Imo state, and isolate the major determinants of agricultural productivity. Data used for the study were collected from a sample of 120 farmers randomly selected from Okigwe and Orlu agricultural ...

  16. Resource Use Productivity Among Small-Scale Farmers In Yola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study conducted in Yola Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria, has the overall objective of determining resource use productivity among the small-scale farmers. The findings of the study revealed that characteristics of the farmers such as age, level of education, farm size, sources of farm labour and of ...

  17. Farmers select innovations and practices that work for them | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-09-11

    Sep 11, 2013 ... Determining what works. Maize continues to be the dominant staple in Kenya. But its susceptibility to drought puts the food security of smallholder farmers at risk. Early results from this project show that farmers are increasingly receptive to growing more nutritious crops, in addition to maize, that produce ...

  18. Perceptions of drought among rural farmers in the Savelugu district ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some farmers perceived a reduction in drought intensity and changes in the time dimension of drought occurrence. In addition, some farmers expected the risk of drought to rise in the near future. These observations are partially consistent with the science of climate change. However, the explanations for these perceptions ...

  19. Policy Issues in Meeting Rice Farmers Agricultural Information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madukwe

    The study aimed at assessing rice farmers agricultural information needs ... especially in an information dependent sector like agriculture where there are new and rather complex problems facing farmers every day. The information .... to the fact that e-mail and internet are just beginning to make their make in rural areas.

  20. The perception of corn farmers about biological control of Caradrina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-08

    Aug 8, 2011 ... The purpose of this study was to analyze the perception of corn farmers about biological control of. Caradrina by Braconid in Dezful Township, Khouzestan Province, Iran. The method used in this study was correlative descriptive and causal relation. A random sample of Dezful township corn farmers of.

  1. Smallholder food crop farmers' participation in Bank of Agriculture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low participation of smallholder farmers in agricultural loans, despite efforts by governments and NGOs to make funds available for agricultural growth and development, has remained a matter of concern in Nigeria. The study analysed smallholder food crop farmers' participation in Bank of Agriculture loan (BOA) scheme in ...

  2. Farmers Utilization Of Loan Schemes Of The Nigerian Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study on utilization of loans was conducted in the five branches of theNigerian Agricultural and Cooperatives Bank (NACRDB), in Abia State Nigeria. Two farmer customers were sampled randomly in proportion to the category of the bank branch . Thirty-two (32) farmers who had mandatory savings with the bank were ...

  3. Technical Efficiency Among Cassava Farmers im Ikenne Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava has played and continues to play a remarkable role on the agricultural stage of Nigeria. The inability of the country meeting existing demand has been traced to resource use efficiency of the farmers. The study evaluates the technical efficiency among cassava farmers in Ikenne Local Government Area of Ogun ...

  4. Resource Use Efficency by Rural Poor Cassava Farmers in Imo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Motivated by this, the study aim is to assess the possibility of alleviating poverty in the rural set-up through efficient and effective use of resources by rural poor cassava farmers in Imo State. It adopts a multistage sampling technique, and a total of 120 cassava farmers were used for the study. The data was analyzed using ...

  5. Attitudes of Dutch pig farmers towards animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huik, van M.M.; Bock, B.B.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose ¿ The purpose of this paper is to provide insights into the rationale of Dutch pig farmers concerning animal welfare and animal-friendly production. It aims to show the interrelations between farmers' production logic, their ideas about good farming and animal welfare and the characteristics

  6. Performance evaluation of women farmer cooperative societies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the performance of women farmer cooperatives in Owerri Agricultural Zone of Imo State. Data were collected from 50 women farmer cooperators studied in four local governments within the Zone. Factors such as age of cooperators, family size, farm size, input costs and labour costs were identified to ...

  7. Economic efficiency among small scale poultry farmers in Imo State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... household size and extension, were found to be the significant factors that account for the observed variation in efficiency among the small scale poultry farmers. Keywords: economic efficiency, small scale poultry farmers, stochastic frontier production model. International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development Vol.

  8. Agricultural Credit Utilization among Small Scale Women Farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The specific objectives were to: identify the major sources of credit to small-scale farmers ; and determine the benefit (if any) which small-scale women farmers had derived after acquiring credit for their farm operations. Data were collected from one hundred respondents randomly selected from five wards with the aid of ...

  9. CASE STUDY: Cuba — Farmers and Researchers Reshape Cuba's ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The researchers managed to collect genetic materials for 92 maize varieties and 63 bean varieties, including, commercial and local varieties as well as promising new lines. The farmers were impressed. "The display at the fairs demonstrated to farmers the diversity of these staple crops," says project leader Humberto Ríos.

  10. Soil conservation practices among Arable Crop Farmers In Enugu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil conservation practices among Arable Crop Farmers In Enugu – North Agricultural Zone, Nigeria: Implications for Climate Change. ... The paper recommends concerted efforts to promote among farmers the conservation practices that aid mitigation and adaptation to climate change and at the same time enhance ...

  11. Assessment of market performance of cat fish farmers in Sagamu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to assess the market performance of catfish farmers in Sagamu Local Government area of Ogun State, Nigeria. A stage random technique was used to select 106 fish farmers from the study area and an interview schedule was used to elicit information. Results of the study indicated that 44.3 ...

  12. Retirement planning by Dutch farmers: rationality or randomness?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Veen, van der H.B.; Meulen, van der H.A.B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose

    – In self‐directed retirement plans, farmers are responsible for selecting the types of risky investments toward which the funds in their retirement plan are allocated. Furthermore, farmers do not necessarily purchase sufficient annuities with their savings upon retirement. There is

  13. Social Activities And Socio-Economic Status Of Rural Farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    agent (at P=0.01) while contact with extension and age of farmer and social participation and access to radio (at P=0.05). And, results of stepwise regression showed that age, level of education and farm size of farmers were significantly related to adoption (at P=0.05). Keywords: Improved maize, socio-economic status, rural ...

  14. Farmers' Perception of Sustainable Agriculture in South- Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KENNY

    The modern industrial agriculture had created an array of ecological and equity problems through the introduction of high input agricultural technology such as heavy machinery, irrigation and agrochemicals. This approach favours the rich farmers at the expense of poor farmers because it is not scale neutral. This.

  15. Profit efficiency among catfish farmers in Benue state, Nigeria | Tsue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined profit efficiency among catfish farmers in Benue State of Nigeria using a stochastic profit frontier approach. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to collect data from 143 catfish farmers through a well structured questionnaire. The study used a Cobb-Douglas stochastic profit frontier function to ...

  16. farmers' knowledge and perceptions of cotton insect pests and their

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prince Acheampong

    ABSTRACT. A survey of 337 cotton farmers in the three northern regions of Ghana was conducted between. November 2002 and March 2003 with the objectives of assessing farmers' knowledge and perceptions of cotton insect pests and examining their control practices. The survey revealed that between 69 and 86%.

  17. Socio-economic characteristics of registered cocoa farmers in Edo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the socio-economic characteristics of registered cocoa farmers in Edo State; Nigeria. Primary data was collected using a well structured questionnaire administered to 180 registered cocoa farmers selected using a multi-stage sampling technique. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and ...

  18. Assessment of Farmers' Benefits Derived from Olam Organisation's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed farmers' benefits derived from Olam organization's sustainable cocoa production extension activities in Ondo state. Structured and validated interview schedule was used to collect relevant information from thirty cocoa farmers, using multistage random sampling technique from cocoa producing towns ...

  19. Adoption of Integrated Pest Management among Cocoa Farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The determinants of adoption of IPM among cocoa farmers were investigated in Cross Rivers State, 271 trained cocoa farmers were systematically selected out of 2704 while in Osun State 107 were selected out of 1070. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain data on respondents' socio-economic characteristics, ...

  20. Socio-Economic Characteristics of Registered Cocoa Farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    ABSTRACT: This study examined the socio-economic characteristics of registered cocoa farmers in Edo State; Nigeria. Primary data was collected using a well-structured questionnaire administered to 180 registered cocoa farmers selected using a multi-stage sampling technique. Data were analyzed using descriptive ...