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Sample records for australian sheep farmers

  1. Producing consumer acceptable wool - A challenge for Australian sheep farmers facing animal welfare boycotts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livestock farming is a complex and demanding business and now is further complicated by consumers expecting greater care for the welfare of livestock and the environment. Meeting the expectations of customers while at the same time trying to make a living on a family farm is becoming far more difficult. Gone is the time when farmers, wherever they are, could rely on the image of idyllic rural scenes as a way of fulfilling the 'promise' of clean, green and ethically produced product. Australia, for many, still conjures up the image of a wide brown land with stockman droving contented sheep to shady riverbanks. However, this is changing as consumers become aware of current sheep management practices such as mulesing, which is portrayed as a barbaric act by animal welfare lobby groups. Since the early 1850's Australia has produced high quality apparel wool from Merino sheep, but early in the 20th century problems with sheep dying from 'flystrike' (infestations of maggots from the Australian sheep blowfly Lucilia cuprina), reached epidemic proportions, which threatened the industry with collapse. A history of selecting sheep with heavy fleeces and many skin wrinkles to produce more wool made them easy targets for the blowfly. This is because with extra wool around the tail area, then soiled with faecal material, the chances of infestation increase substantially. Sheep in Australia are run in big flocks on large properties (500 - 100,000ha) at low stocking rates (1-10 ewes/ha) and are usually managed by a single family. This means that it is very difficult to monitor sheep individually, on a daily basis, and also means that any control technique requires minimal intervention, and cannot be recurrent. To deal with these problems, research and development organisations began investigating methods of control and by the early 1950s, a surgical procedure called 'mulesing was developed. Mulesing involves stripping the skin away from the area around the anus and tail at three

  2. A survey of farmers' attitudes to services provided by consulting veterinarians to the Western Australian sheep industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, H M; Copland, R S; Swan, R A; Robertson, I D

    1991-06-01

    A postal survey was conducted of 80 sheep farmers in the Kojonup and Esperance districts of Western Australia to establish what they wanted from a veterinary service. Twenty five of the farmers surveyed used a sheep consultant, 25 did not, and 30 were interested in employing one. Farmers were asked questions about themselves and their attitudes to private veterinarians who provide specialist services to sheep farmers. Data reported here showed that farmers wanted a veterinarian who lived in the district, was well trained in sheep management and production, was enthusiastic and had good communication skills. The service provided should be whole-farm and available to members of the consultant's group only. Regular newsletters and field days were necessary, but the provision of contract services, such as mulesing, lamb-marking, drenching, pregnancy testing and sheep classing, and 'fire-brigade' services for sick animals, were not rated as important. Most farmers were unwilling or unable to give a dollar value for the likely benefits of a consultancy service. Non-financial benefits included keeping farmers up to date with new technical developments and information. The survey also showed that a veterinarian specialising in services to sheep farmers could be confident of employment. PMID:1888311

  3. Economic Evaluations of Production Technologies in the Australian Sheep Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Silvester, Luke T.; Vere, David T.

    2005-01-01

    The Australian Sheep Industry Cooperative Research Centre (Sheep CRC) commenced operations in February 2002 and will receive federal funding of $19.8 million over its seven-year grant period. As well, the sheep industry is expected to invest over $10 million in Sheep CRC activities over this period, while core and supporting parties will make in-kind contributions totalling about $60 million. The main objective of the Sheep CRC is to develop new technologies that will increase the productivit...

  4. Farmers' attitudes to disease risk management in England: a comparative analysis of sheep and pig farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garforth, C J; Bailey, A P; Tranter, R B

    2013-07-01

    The UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) identified practices to reduce the risk of animal disease outbreaks. We report on the response of sheep and pig farmers in England to promotion of these practices. A conceptual framework was established from research on factors influencing adoption of animal health practices, linking knowledge, attitudes, social influences and perceived constraints to the implementation of specific practices. Qualitative data were collected from nine sheep and six pig enterprises in 2011. Thematic analysis explored attitudes and responses to the proposed practices, and factors influencing the likelihood of implementation. Most feel they are doing all they can reasonably do to minimise disease risk and that practices not being implemented are either not relevant or ineffective. There is little awareness and concern about risk from unseen threats. Pig farmers place more emphasis than sheep farmers on controlling wildlife, staff and visitor management and staff training. The main factors that influence livestock farmers' decision on whether or not to implement a specific disease risk measure are: attitudes to, and perceptions of, disease risk; attitudes towards the specific measure and its efficacy; characteristics of the enterprise which they perceive as making a measure impractical; previous experience of a disease or of the measure; and the credibility of information and advice. Great importance is placed on access to authoritative information with most seeing vets as the prime source to interpret generic advice from national bodies in the local context. Uptake of disease risk measures could be increased by: improved risk communication through the farming press and vets to encourage farmers to recognise hidden threats; dissemination of credible early warning information to sharpen farmers' assessment of risk; and targeted information through training events, farming press, vets and other advisers, and farmer groups

  5. An Analysis of the Attitude of Farmers of Three Districts of Tamil Nadu, India towards Sheep Farming

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    Rajendiran, AS.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored and described the farmers' attitudes towards sheep farming in three districts of Tamil Nadu state in India, namely, Coimbatore, Dindigul and Tiruchirappalli. It examined the farmers' personal characteristics, determined their overall attitude towards sheep farming and how this attitude varied based on their personal characteristics. One hundred and fifty farmers formed the sample. The study revealed that majority of the farmers were middle aged, illiterate, had 5- 15 years of experience in sheep farming and had a sheep flock size of 50 – 100. A majority of the respondents were found to have a favourable attitude towards sheep farming. Education was found to have a negative and significant association with attitude. In comparison, the farmers of Tiruchirappalli district were found to have a less favourable attitude towards sheep farming. Introducing basic scientific concepts in sheep farming is advised to enhance productivity in the state of Tamil Nadu.

  6. Norwegian farmers' vigilance in reporting sheep showing scrapie-associated signs

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    Jarp Jorun

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scrapie is a chronic neurodegenerative disease affecting small ruminants and belongs to the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Scrapie is considered a serious animal disease and it has been notifiable in Norway since 1965. The clinical signs of scrapie might be vague and the farmers, if familiar with the signs of scrapie, are often in the best position for detecting scrapie suspects. In 2002, an anonymous questionnaire survey was conducted in order to assess Norwegian sheep farmers' vigilance of scrapie. Results Although the potential detection of a scrapie-positive animal would lead to the destruction of the sheep flock concerned, almost all the farmers (97 % expressed their willingness to report scrapie suspects. This was most certainly dependent on the Government taking the economic responsibility for the control programme as nearly all the farmers responded that this was an important condition. Listeriosis is relatively common disease in Norwegian sheep and a differential diagnosis for scrapie. In a multinomial logistic regression the reporting behaviour for non-recovering listeriosis cases, used as a measurement of willingness to report scrapie, was examined. The reporting of non-recovering listeriosis cases increased as the knowledge of scrapie-associated signs increased, and the reporting behaviour was dependent on both economic and non-economic values. Conclusion The results indicate that in 2002 almost all sheep farmers showed willingness to report any scrapie suspects. Nevertheless there is an underreporting of scrapie suspects and the farmers' awareness and hence their vigilance of scrapie could be improved. Furthermore, the results suggest that to ensure the farmers' compliance to control programmes for serious infectious diseases, the farmers' concerns of non-economic as well as economic values should be considered.

  7. Climate change and adaptation of small-scale cattle and sheep farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Mandleni, B.; Anim, F.D.K.

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the factors that affected the decision of small-scale farmers who kept cattle and sheep on whether to adapt or not to climate changes. The Binary Logistic Regression model was used to investigate farmers’ decision. The results implied that a large number of socio-economic variables affected the decision of farmers on adaptation to climate changes. The study concluded that the most significant factors affecting climate change and adaptation w...

  8. Do Welsh hill farmers dream of radioactive sheep?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A low-power portable device is being used successfully in North Wales to provide precise position-logging of sheep grazing on upland hill pastures following irradiation by fallout from the Chernobyl reactor. This follows the discovery that radiation levels appear to vary significantly among sheep from the same flock, suggesting hot-spots of radiation. The design and execution of the system is described. (UK)

  9. Learning Efficiency of Two ICT-Based Instructional Strategies in Greek Sheep Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellos, Georgios; Mikropoulos, Tassos A.; Deligeorgis, Stylianos; Kominakis, Antonis

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of the present study was to compare the learning efficiency of two information and communications technology (ICT)-based instructional strategies (multimedia presentation (MP) and concept mapping) in a sample (n = 187) of Greek sheep farmers operating mainly in Western Greece. Design/methodology/approach: In total, 15…

  10. Economic Evaluation of New Technologies and Promotions in the Australian Sheep and Wool Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Mounter, Stuart W.

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge about the size and distribution of returns from alternative broad types of R&D and promotion investments permit strategic-level decisions about resource allocation, both within and across research programs. The Australian sheep meat and wool industries are characterised by strong cross-commodity relationships due to the joint product nature of the industries. An equilibrium displacement model of the Australian sheep meat and wool industries was developed to account for these relatio...

  11. Sheep farmer opinions on the current and future role of veterinarians in flock health management on sheep farms: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaler, Jasmeet; Green, L E

    2013-11-01

    A 2009 UK Government report on veterinary expertise in food animal production highlighted that there was insufficient herd health expertise among veterinarians and lack of appropriate business models to deliver veterinary services to the livestock sector. Approximately two thirds of sheep farmers only contact their veterinarian for emergencies and one fifth have all year round contact. The aim of the current study was to understand sheep farmers' perception, the current and future role of veterinarians in flock health management using qualitative methodology. The eligibility criteria were male farmers with a flock size of at least 200 adult sheep. Seven focus groups of farmers (n=45) stratified by three regions and two age groups (≤50 and >50) were conducted. Thematic analysis of the discussions indicated that most farmers considered and used their veterinarian as a fire-fighter, whilst other advice was gathered free of charge when the veterinarian was on the farm for other reasons (typically seeing cattle) or by telephone. A small group of farmers were using their veterinarian or a sheep consultant proactively with regular contact and found this financially beneficial. Farmers indicated that the key barriers to using a veterinarian proactively were inconsistent service, high turnover of veterinarians, lack of expertise of sheep farming among veterinarians and concern about independence of advice. Although economics was also mentioned as a key barrier to using veterinarians more proactively, most farmers did not know where they gained and lost income from their flock; there was heavy reliance on the single farm payment scheme (SPS) and very few farmers kept records from which they could investigate where there were inefficiencies in production. Overall sheep farmers considered sheep farming complex and that each farm was unique and that they themselves were the experts to manage their flock. We conclude that there is an impasse: veterinarians might need to

  12. Farmers’ attitudes to disease risk management in England: a comparative analysis of sheep and pig farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Garforth, Chris J; Bailey, Alison P.; Tranter, Richard B.

    2013-01-01

    The UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) identified practices to reduce the risk of animal disease outbreaks. We report on the response of sheep and pig farmers in England to promotion of these practices. A conceptual framework was established from research on factors influencing adoption of animal health practices, linking knowledge, attitudes, social influences and perceived constraints to the implementation of specific practices. Qualitative data were collected fro...

  13. Reducing psychological distress and obesity in Australian farmers by promoting physical activity

    OpenAIRE

    McCoombe Scott; Chandrasekara Ananda; Brumby Susan; Torres Susan; Kremer Peter; Lewandowski Paul

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Studies have confirmed that the rate of mental illness is no higher in rural Australians than that of urban Australians. However, the rate of poor mental health outcomes, and in particular suicide, is significantly raised in rural populations. This is thought to be due to lack of early diagnosis, health service access, the distance-decay effect, poor physical health determinants and access to firearms. Research conducted by the National Centre for Farmer Health between 200...

  14. Missing billions. How the Australian government's climate policy is penalising farmers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Climate Institute analysis suggests ratifying the Kyoto Protocol and implementing a national emissions trading scheme today could provide Australian farmers with an income of $1.8 billion over the period 2008-2012, due to the emissions saved by limiting land clearing. Separately, a report to the National Farmers Federation by the Allen Consulting Group earlier this year concluded that a carbon emission trading system which recognised Kyoto Protocol rules could create an additional income stream of $0.7-0.9 billion over a five year period from revenue to farmers from forestry sinks. These two studies suggest that ratification of the Kyoto Protocol and the introduction of a national emissions trading scheme could provide farmers an income stream in the order of $2.5 billion. A central tenet of the Federal Government's greenhouse policy for over a decade has been to not ratify Kyoto, but to meet its Kyoto target - a national emissions increase of 8% from 1990 levels, in the period 2008-2012. Australia's National Greenhouse Gas Accounts show that farmers, by reducing land clearing rates since 1990, have offset substantial increases in greenhouse gas emissions from other sectors, mainly energy. Official Federal Government projections show that without land clearing reductions, Australia's greenhouse emissions would be 30% above 1990 levels by 2010. Australia's farmers have been responsible for virtually the entire share of the nation's greenhouse gas emissions reductions, but their efforts, worth around $2 billion, have not been recognised or financially rewarded by the Government. By reducing land clearing, farmers have already reduced greenhouse gas emissions by about 75 million tonnes since 1990. By 2010, the savings are projected to be about 83 million tonnes. This level of emissions reductions is equivalent to eliminating the total annual emissions of New Zealand or Ireland. Over that same period, emissions from energy and transport have and continue to sky

  15. Footrot and interdigital dermatitis in sheep: farmer satisfaction with current management, their ideal management and sources used to adopt new strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassink, G J; George, T R N; Kaler, J; Green, L E

    2010-08-01

    The aims of this research were to identify management practices that sheep farmers currently use to treat and prevent footrot in sheep and whether they consider that these are successful management tools and to find out how sheep farmers would ideally like to manage footrot in their flock. Over 90% of lameness in sheep in the UK is caused by Dichelobacter nodosus, which presents clinically as interdigital dermatitis (ID) alone or with separation of hoof horn (FR). A questionnaire was sent to 265 farmers to investigate their current management and their satisfaction with current management of the spectrum of clinical presentations of footrot. Farmers were also asked their ideal management of footrot and their interest in, and sources of information for, change. Approximately 160 farmers responded. Farmers satisfied with current management reported a prevalence of lameness 5%. These farmers practised routine foot trimming, footbathing and vaccination against footrot. Whilst 89% of farmers said they were satisfied with their management of FR over 34% were interested in changing management. Farmers identified veterinarians as the most influential source for new information. Farmers reported that ideally they would control FR by culling/isolating lame sheep, sourcing replacements from non-lame parents, trimming feet less, using antibacterial treatments less and using vaccination more. Footbathing was a commonly used management that was linked with dissatisfaction and that also was listed highly as an ideal management. Consequently, some of the ideal managements are in agreement with our understanding of disease control (culling and isolation, sourcing healthy replacements) but others are in contrast with our current knowledge of management and farmers self-reporting of satisfaction of management of footrot (less use of antibacterial treatment, more footbathing and vaccination). One explanation for this is the theory of cognitive dissonance where belief follows behaviour

  16. A transgenic embryonic sexing system for the Australian sheep blow fly Lucilia cuprina.

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    Yan, Ying; Scott, Maxwell J

    2015-01-01

    Genetic approaches, including the sterile insect technique (SIT), have previously been considered for control of the Australian sheep blow fly Lucilia cuprina, a major pest of sheep. In an SIT program, females consume 50% of the diet but are ineffective as control agents and compete with females in the field for mating with sterile males, thereby decreasing the efficiency of the program. Consequently, transgenic sexing strains of L. cuprina were developed that produce 100% males when raised on diet that lacks tetracycline. However, as females die mostly at the pupal stage, rearing costs would not be significantly reduced. Here we report the development of transgenic embryonic sexing strains of L. cuprina. In these strains, the Lsbnk cellularization gene promoter drives high levels of expression of the tetracycline transactivator (tTA) in the early embryo. In the absence of tetracycline, tTA activates expression of the Lshid proapoptotic gene, leading to death of the embryo. Sex-specific RNA splicing of Lshid transcripts ensures that only female embryos die. Embryonic sexing strains were also made by combining the Lsbnk-tTA and tetO-Lshid components into a single gene construct, which will facilitate transfer of the technology to other major calliphorid livestock pests. PMID:26537204

  17. Reducing psychological distress and obesity in Australian farmers by promoting physical activity

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    McCoombe Scott

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have confirmed that the rate of mental illness is no higher in rural Australians than that of urban Australians. However, the rate of poor mental health outcomes, and in particular suicide, is significantly raised in rural populations. This is thought to be due to lack of early diagnosis, health service access, the distance-decay effect, poor physical health determinants and access to firearms. Research conducted by the National Centre for Farmer Health between 2004 and 2009 reveals that there is a correlation between obesity and psychological distress among the farming community where suicide rates are recognised as high. Chronic stress overstimulates the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis that is associated with abdominal obesity. Increasing physical activity may block negative thoughts, increase social contact, positively influence brain chemistry and improve both physical and mental health. This paper describes the design of the Farming Fit study that aims to identify the effect of physical activity on psychological distress, obesity and health behaviours such as diet patterns and smoking in farm men and women. Methods/Design For this quasi-experimental (convenience sample control-intervention study, overweight (Body Mass Index ≥25 kg/m2 farm men and women will be recruited from Sustainable Farm Families™ (SFF programs held across Victoria, Australia. Baseline demographic data, health data, depression anxiety stress scale (DASS scores, dietary information, physical activity data, anthropometric data, blood pressure and biochemical analysis of plasma and salivary cortisol levels will be collected. The intervention group will receive an exercise program and regular phone coaching in order to increase their physical activity. Analysis will evaluate the impact of the intervention by longitudinal data (baseline and post intervention comparison of intervention and control groups. Discussion

  18. Assessment of farmers perception to corporate institutional for the development of sheep farming in the village : Case study in the villages of Jambu sub district, district of Semarang

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    Tri Pranadji

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to determine that sheep farming in the villages to increase farmers welfare could be developed taken into consideration of farmers perception and attitude which were included in the planning of development programme. In order to achieve the objective more effectively, the institutional system of sheep farming needs to be transformed into a corporate institution. Field study was conducted during the period of 1994-1997 in two villages of Jambu sub district, District of Semarang. Two approaches were used simultaneously, i.e. ideografis and nomotetis to analyze the data and information. Result s showed that, first, sheep farming in the villages still had big development opportunity .second, the threat of stagnation in the sheep farming may occur due to high dependency on family labor and lack of capital. Third, due to top down policy and lack of vision on the agrobusiness activities, the development of sheep farming could be hampered. Fourth, transforming into a corporate institution may increase economic profitability of sheep farming as well as performance of the farms. Fifth, in order to realize the development of corporate business systems, need to establish a pilot project. To implement the concept, support from banking institution especially for discount rate was necessary, along with the involvement of ATAI (Agricultural Technology Assessment Institutes, local livestock services, credit system and local government leader that has people oriented vision.

  19. Geographic variation in suicide rates in Australian farmers: Why is the problem more frequent in Queensland than in New South Wales?

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    Arnautovska, Urska; McPhedran, S; Kelly, B; Reddy, P; De Leo, D

    2016-07-01

    Research on farmer suicide is limited in explaining the variations in farmers' demographic characteristics. This study examines farmer suicides in two Australian states: Queensland (QLD) and New South Wales (NSW). Standardized suicide rates over 2000-2009 showed a 2 times higher prevalence of suicide in QLD than NSW (147 vs. 92 cases, respectively). Differences in age and suicide method were observed between states, although they do not appear to account for the sizeable intra- and interstate variations. Suicide prevention initiatives for farmers should account for different age groups and also specific place-based risk factors that may vary between and within jurisdictions. PMID:26890223

  20. Information Needs of Western Australian Farmers in Relation to Precision Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Rubzen, Brian Bien; Rola-Rubzen, Maria Fay

    2002-01-01

    Precision farming has the potential to increase farm productivity, lower input costs and increase expected returns. Despite these potential benefits, the adoption of precision farming technology in Australia has been relatively slow. One of the reasons for this is the lack of information regarding the technology. This study investigated the information needs of farmers in relation to precision farming. The study was conducted in Western Australia and involved interviews with 400 farmers. The ...

  1. Are Australian and United States Farmers Using Soil Information for Soil Health Management?

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    Lisa Lobry de Bruyn

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil health is an essential requirement of a sustainable, functioning agroecosystem. Tracking soil health to determine sustainability at the local level largely falls to farmers, even though they often lack access to critical information. We examine farmers’ participation in gathering soil information at the farm and paddock scale over the last two decades in Australia and the United States, by reviewing national-level reporting of farmer use of soil testing and farm planning as well as qualitative research on farmer perspectives. The level of participation in soil testing and farm planning has remained stable in the last two decades, with only 25% and 30% of landholders, respectively, participating nationally, in either country. The review revealed national-level reporting has a number of limitations in understanding farmers’ use of soil information and, in particular, fails to indicate the frequency and intensity of soil testing as well as farmer motivation to test soil or what they did with the soil information. The main use of soil testing is often stated as “determining fertilizer requirements”, yet data show soil testing is used less commonly than is customary practice. In Australia and in the United States, customary practice is three and half times more likely for decisions on fertilizer application levels. The rhetoric is heavy on the use of soil testing as a decision tool, and that it guides best practices. However, given that only a quarter of farmers are soil testing, and doing so infrequently and in low densities, the level of information on soil health is poor. While farmers report consistent monitoring of soil conditions, few have consistent records of such. In contrast to the information on the poor state of soil health, there is strong farmer interest in procuring soil health benefits through changes in farm practices such as conservation tillage or cover crops, even if they are unable to demonstrate these soil health

  2. Knowledge Types Used by Researchers and Wool Producers in Australia under a Workplace Learning Typology: Implications for Innovation in the Australian Sheep Industry

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    Thompson, Lyndal-Joy; Reeve, Ian

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on research into the learning aspects of adopting integrated parasite management practices for sheep (IPM-s) applying a workplace learning framework. An analysis of four primary data sources was conducted; a postal survey of Australian wool producers, a Delphi process with IPM-s researchers, focus groups and interviews with wool…

  3. Adoption of Soil Health Improvement Strategies by Australian Farmers: I. Attitudes, Management and Extension Implications

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    Bennett, J. McL.; Cattle, S. R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: There is inconsistency in the design, understanding, implementation and monitoring of soil health programmes. Despite mounting scientific evidence for the credibility of certain soil health indicators, an increase in the reporting of programme benefits, and progress in communicating these benefits, many farmers remain hesitant to…

  4. Adoption of Soil Health Improvement Strategies by Australian Farmers: II. Impediments and Incentives

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    Bennett, J. McL.; Cattle, S. R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Many farmers remain hesitant to implement structured management plans and strategies tailored to address soil health, irrespective of mounting scientific evidence for the credibility of certain soil health indicators, an increase in the reporting of program benefits and progress in communicating these benefits. Hence, the purpose of this…

  5. Informing decision making in agricultural greenhouse gas mitigation policy: A Best–Worst Scaling survey of expert and farmer opinion in the sheep industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Effectiveness and practicality of greenhouse gas mitigation measures are assessed. ► Best–Worst Scaling surveys are used to elicit expert and sheep farmer opinion. ► Effective and practical measures are priority candidates for policy inclusion. ► Support mechanisms may be needed to deliver effective, low practicality measures. ► Variation in farmers’ perceptions of practicality holds implications for policy delivery. -- Abstract: Policy decision making for agricultural greenhouse gas mitigation is hindered by scientific uncertainty regarding the effectiveness of mitigation measures. Successful on-farm adoption of measures is contingent upon farmer perception of the relative practicality of implementing the measure and associated incentives and advice. In the absence of a comprehensive evidence base we utilised Best–Worst Scaling, a discrete choice survey method, to elicit expert and farmer opinion on the relative effectiveness and practicality of mitigation measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from sheep production systems. The method enabled individual mitigation measures to be ranked on a ratio scale of effectiveness (expert opinion) and practicality (farmer opinion). Six measures were identified as possessing the combined qualities of effectiveness and practicality and are considered priority candidates for policy promotion. The overall preferred measure was the use of legumes in pasture reseed mixes. Estimation and analysis of the distribution of individual respondent scores revealed heterogeneity in farmers’ perceptions of practicality, suggesting that flexible policies are required to enable farmers to select mitigation measures most suited to their farm type and locality. Practical measures with below average effectiveness may be widely adopted with limited regulation, incentivisation or advice, whilst some highly effective measures with lower practicality are likely to present greater obstacles to adoption

  6. Current management of farms and internal parasites by conventional and organic meat sheep French farmers and acceptance of targeted selective treatments.

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    Cabaret, J; Benoit, M; Laignel, G; Nicourt, C

    2009-09-16

    Sheep meat production in France is characterized by large flocks and a limited supply of labour. Digestive-tract strongyles are considered as one of the main health problems and control relies mostly on the use of anthelminthics, although resistance to at least the benzimidazoles is increasing. We conducted interviews on nine conventional and seven organic farms regarding whether an anthelmintic targeted selective treatment program could fit within the operations of the farms. In addition, necropsies of lambs were performed on three organic farms, and faecal egg counts and small lungworm counts were performed on all farms in autumn in ewes. Each interview consisted of an open discussion on sheep health and was terminated with comments on digestive-tract helminth infection as detected in parallel with the interview. Factors likely to affect the adoption of the targeted selective treatment approach were subjected to cluster analysis. Conventional farms were mostly advised by veterinarians and relied on systematic planning of anthelmintic treatments. The frequency of treatments was up to once a month for lambs and two to three times a year for ewes. The concept of selecting animals to be treated according to a scheme of targeted selective treatments based on phenotypic markers (e.g., anaemia, diarrhoea, weight gains) was not seen as feasible by these farmers. Conversely, organic farmers, with greater use of advisors and a restricted range of anthelmintic treatments were more susceptible to integrating phenotypic markers into their practices for controlling digestive-tract strongyles. PMID:19414221

  7. PENINGKATAN USAHA TERNAK DOMBA MELALUI DIVERSIFIKASI TANAMAN PANGAN: EKONOMI PENDAPATAN PETANI (IMPROVEMENT OF CATTLE SHEEP THROUGH CROPS DIVERSIFICATION: ECONOMIC INCOME FARMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rusdiana

    2015-11-01

    , plantations, even land around the forest. Diversification of cattle and crops in Indonesia varied, sheep population in 2013 is about 12.7 million head and cassava production in 2013 about 21 million tons. Considering the role of farmers to economic growth, it is necessary to increase productivity to be more productive and efficient. The purpose of writing was to determine the increase of cattle sheep through crop diversification in the economic analysis of income by business diversification can reduce risk and still provide the potential rate of profit to farmer. Diversification of livestock and tatanam can be concluded that cattle scale of 5 rams can be achieved on the sales value of about 4.17sheeps, and production BEP selling price around Rp.1.043.625/tail, net gain of about Rp.1.121.875/period by value of B/C approximately 1.19, butter and arsin variety of cassava with an area of about 2 hectares has profit of cassava on varieties of butter around Rp.8.414.085/ha/year, profit of cassava varieties on Arsin around Rp.6.921.705/ha/year, the value of B/C ratio was 2.7 and 2.6 are not significantly different from the results obtained by the farmers.Diversification become more important for farmers due to income source as economic trigger at rura. Basec on cost and investment calculation, cattle sheep and cassava as main product is technically feasible, economically and financially was good, means that the business had conducted feasible diversification to be continued.

  8. INSTITUTIONAL INNOVATION TO INCREASE FARMERS' REVENUE: A CASE STUDY OF SMALL SCALE FARMING IN SHEEP: TRANSKEI REGION, SOUTH AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    D'Haese, Marijke F.C.; Verbeke, Wim; Huylenbroeck, Guido Van; Kirsten, Johann F.; D'Haese, Luc

    2003-01-01

    Commercial producers, brokers, exporters and spinners dominate the wool supply chain in South Africa. Until recently smallholder farmers in the Transkei region had limited access to a profitable market outlet for their wool. In response, the South African wool industry has taken the initiative to help local farmers by building shearing sheds, under which the local association can bulk the wool and trade directly with the brokers. More direct access to the wool brokers is a prerequisite for th...

  9. Organisation and expression of a cluster of female-specific genes in the Australian sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Australian sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina, is a major agricultural pest in Australia and New Zealand. In Australia, a number of field trails were conducted with a 'field female killing' strain of L. cuprina developed by Foster and colleagues. In the last field trial on Flinders Island, a significant repression of the field population was achieved. Thus there is a long history of attempts to use genetic strategies to control L. cuprina. We have been working towards developing a transgenic strain of L. cuprina that would be ideal for a maleonly SIT (Sterile Insect Technique) programme. We previously developed a tetracycline-repressible system for controlling female viability. This system had two components, yp1-tTA and tetO-hid. The tTA gene was only transcribed in female fat cells due to action of the female-specific transcription enhancer from the yolk protein1 gene. Once synthesis was induced, the tTA transcription factor bound to the tetO sequence and induced expression of the hidcell death gene. Since binding of tTA to DNA is inhibited by tetracycline, females are fully viable on media containing the antibiotic. As tTA and HID are functional in both Drosophila and mammalian cells, we expect they will be active in most if not all insects. However, for the system to function effectively it is essential that the yolk protein transcription enhancer is both very active in females and has very low activity in males. Since the Drosophila yp1 enhancer may not be fully functional in L. cuprina we have isolated and sequenced a genomic clone containing L. cuprina yolk protein genes. An analysis of the complete DNA sequence of the clone indicates that in L. cuprina the yolk protein genes are organised into a gene cluster. We have begun experiments to identify the female-specific transcription enhancer of one of the yolk protein genes. We have used a reporter gene approach in both transgenic Drosophila and L. cuprina. We have previously shown that transgenic L

  10. [Replacing of residue from production of palm Palm Royal Australian (Archontophoenix alexan- drae) in silage of sugar cane in diets of sheep].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayão, Geraldo Fábio Viana; Queiroz, Augusto César de; Freitas, Samuel Galvão de; Batalha, Camila Delveaux Araujo; Sousa, Katiene Régia Silva; Pimentel, Róberson Machado; Cardoso, Lucas Ladeira; Cardoso, Alex Junio da Silva

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition, voluntary intake and apparent digestibility of the diets containing residue from palm heart of Australian Royal Palm (Archontophoenix alexandrae) to replace sugar cane on sheep. Twelve sheep were used with average live weight of 23.3 ± 2.8 Kg and they placed in metabolism cages and distributed in six latin square 2 x 2 in a factorial design 3 x 2 (three types of residue--sheet, bark and composed--and two levels of residue's replacement, 5% and 15%). It was observed higher intake of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), nonfiber carbohydrates (NFC) by substitution of composed residue. The average values of apparent digestibility of DM, OM, crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fibre correct for ash and protein (NDFap) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) were higher for sheet residue. There was interaction between type of residue and level of residue's replacement on the urinary excretion of total nitrogen (NUE), apparent nitrogen balance (BNA) and microbial nitrogen compost (NMIC). Residues from palm heart of Australian Royal Palm can be used as roughage in the ruminants'diet, and of these residues, the sheet and composed residue showed better response in the evaluated characteristics. PMID:26336723

  11. A genomics-informed, SNP association study reveals FBLN1 and FABP4 as contributing to resistance to fleece rot in Australian Merino sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norris Belinda J

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fleece rot (FR and body-strike of Merino sheep by the sheep blowfly Lucilia cuprina are major problems for the Australian wool industry, causing significant losses as a result of increased management costs coupled with reduced wool productivity and quality. In addition to direct effects on fleece quality, fleece rot is a major predisposing factor to blowfly strike on the body of sheep. In order to investigate the genetic drivers of resistance to fleece rot, we constructed a combined ovine-bovine cDNA microarray of almost 12,000 probes including 6,125 skin expressed sequence tags and 5,760 anonymous clones obtained from skin subtracted libraries derived from fleece rot resistant and susceptible animals. This microarray platform was used to profile the gene expression changes between skin samples of six resistant and six susceptible animals taken immediately before, during and after FR induction. Mixed-model equations were employed to normalize the data and 155 genes were found to be differentially expressed (DE. Ten DE genes were selected for validation using real-time PCR on independent skin samples. The genomic regions of a further 5 DE genes were surveyed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP that were genotyped across three populations for their associations with fleece rot resistance. Results The majority of the DE genes originated from the fleece rot subtracted libraries and over-representing gene ontology terms included defense response to bacterium and epidermis development, indicating a role of these processes in modulating the sheep's response to fleece rot. We focused on genes that contribute to the physical barrier function of skin, including keratins, collagens, fibulin and lipid proteins, to identify SNPs that were associated to fleece rot scores. Conclusions We identified FBLN1 (fibulin and FABP4 (fatty acid binding protein 4 as key factors in sheep's resistance to fleece rot. Validation of these

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF AUSTRALIAN MEAT MERINO AND STAVROPOL RAMS ON WOOL PRODUCTIVITY OF SOVIET MERINO SHEEP BREEDS

    OpenAIRE

    Kolosov Y. A.; Belik N. I.; Krivko A. S.

    2014-01-01

    In the article we have studied the influence of breeding Stavropol Rams breed and Australian meat merino for increase a wool productivity at offspring received from crossing with Soviet merino females

  13. Design of a low-density SNP chip for the main Australian sheep breeds and its effect on imputation and genomic prediction accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolormaa, S; Gore, K; van der Werf, J H J; Hayes, B J; Daetwyler, H D

    2015-10-01

    Genotyping sheep for genome-wide SNPs at lower density and imputing to a higher density would enable cost-effective implementation of genomic selection, provided imputation was accurate enough. Here, we describe the design of a low-density (12k) SNP chip and evaluate the accuracy of imputation from the 12k SNP genotypes to 50k SNP genotypes in the major Australian sheep breeds. In addition, the impact of imperfect imputation on genomic predictions was evaluated by comparing the accuracy of genomic predictions for 15 novel meat traits including carcass and meat quality and omega fatty acid traits in sheep, from 12k SNP genotypes, imputed 50k SNP genotypes and real 50k SNP genotypes. The 12k chip design included 12 223 SNPs with a high minor allele frequency that were selected with intermarker spacing of 50-475 kb. SNPs for parentage and horned or polled tests also were represented. Chromosome ends were enriched with SNPs to reduce edge effects on imputation. The imputation performance of the 12k SNP chip was evaluated using 50k SNP genotypes of 4642 animals from six breeds in three different scenarios: (1) within breed, (2) single breed from multibreed reference and (3) multibreed from a single-breed reference. The highest imputation accuracies were found with scenario 2, whereas scenario 3 was the worst, as expected. Using scenario 2, the average imputation accuracy in Border Leicester, Polled Dorset, Merino, White Suffolk and crosses was 0.95, 0.95, 0.92, 0.91 and 0.93 respectively. Imputation scenario 2 was used to impute 50k genotypes for 10 396 animals with novel meat trait phenotypes to compare genomic prediction accuracy using genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) with real and imputed 50k genotypes. The weighted mean imputation accuracy achieved was 0.92. The average accuracy of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBVs) based on only 12k data was 0.08 across traits and breeds, but accuracies varied widely. The mean GBLUP accuracies with imputed

  14. Prevalence of Work-Related Respiratory Symptoms in Iranian Farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Hashemi, N; Mirsadraee, M; MT Shakeri; AR Varasteh

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Animal exposure may be an important trigger for work-related symptoms among farmers.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of work-related respiratory symptoms (WRS) in sheep breeders and agricultural farmers and to determine work-related risk factors.METHODS: A family doctor used a questionnaire to interview a cohort of 173 farmers comprised of 127 sheep breeders and 46 agricultural farmers in the rural area of Rokh (northeast Iran). The questionnaire pertained to recurrent wheezi...

  15. Briefing note on the sheep industry

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Sheep and beef farmers around the UK were interviewed to find out if they would adopt a range of technologies to reduce methane emissions.* Sheep farmers worked in a range of different environments, some of them very challenging. Farmers talked about a production system that worked for them, in their particular environment and reflecting their particular values. Factors within the system can act as major drivers or barriers to activity. Many perceived that opportunities to do other things tha...

  16. The International Sheep and Wool Handbook

    OpenAIRE

    Antonello Cannas

    2011-01-01

    This revised book is an expanded and updated version of the Australian Sheep and Wool Handbook published in 1991 and focuses on the sheep wool and meat industry. The book is divided in 5 sections, each including several chapters written by well-known and qualified researchers and industry representatives from many countries. The first section on Major sheep and wool industries, in my opinion, is particularly interesting because it explores the sheep and wool industries of leading countries (e...

  17. Development of a recombinant epsilon toxoid vaccine against enterotoxemia and its use as a combination vaccine with live attenuated sheep pox virus against enterotoxemia and sheep pox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Dev; Naidu, Sureddi Satyam; Sugumar, Parthasarathy; Rani, Gudavalli Sudha; Vijayan, Shahana Pallichera; Mathur, Deepika; Garg, Lalit C; Srinivasan, Villuppanoor Alwar

    2010-06-01

    Sheep pox and enterotoxemia are important diseases of sheep, and these diseases cause severe economic losses to sheep farmers. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the potential of formaldehyde-inactivated recombinant epsilon toxin as a vaccine candidate. The potency of the recombinant epsilon toxoid with aluminum hydroxide as an adjuvant in sheep was determined. Vaccinated sheep were protected against enterotoxemia, with potency values of >5 IU being protective. Further, the use of this construct in a combination vaccine against sheep pox resulted in the sheep being protected against both sheep pox and enterotoxemia. PMID:20427629

  18. Development of a Recombinant Epsilon Toxoid Vaccine against Enterotoxemia and Its Use as a Combination Vaccine with Live Attenuated Sheep Pox Virus against Enterotoxemia and Sheep Pox▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Dev; Naidu, Sureddi Satyam; Sugumar, Parthasarathy; Rani, Gudavalli Sudha; Vijayan, Shahana Pallichera; Mathur, Deepika; Garg, Lalit C.; Srinivasan, Villuppanoor Alwar

    2010-01-01

    Sheep pox and enterotoxemia are important diseases of sheep, and these diseases cause severe economic losses to sheep farmers. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the potential of formaldehyde-inactivated recombinant epsilon toxin as a vaccine candidate. The potency of the recombinant epsilon toxoid with aluminum hydroxide as an adjuvant in sheep was determined. Vaccinated sheep were protected against enterotoxemia, with potency values of >5 IU being protective. Further, the use of this construct in a combination vaccine against sheep pox resulted in the sheep being protected against both sheep pox and enterotoxemia. PMID:20427629

  19. Development of a Recombinant Epsilon Toxoid Vaccine against Enterotoxemia and Its Use as a Combination Vaccine with Live Attenuated Sheep Pox Virus against Enterotoxemia and Sheep Pox▿

    OpenAIRE

    Chandran, Dev; Naidu, Sureddi Satyam; Sugumar, Parthasarathy; Rani, Gudavalli Sudha; Vijayan, Shahana Pallichera; Mathur, Deepika; Garg, Lalit C; Srinivasan, Villuppanoor Alwar

    2010-01-01

    Sheep pox and enterotoxemia are important diseases of sheep, and these diseases cause severe economic losses to sheep farmers. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the potential of formaldehyde-inactivated recombinant epsilon toxin as a vaccine candidate. The potency of the recombinant epsilon toxoid with aluminum hydroxide as an adjuvant in sheep was determined. Vaccinated sheep were protected against enterotoxemia, with potency values of >5 IU being protective. Further, the use of t...

  20. More sheep, more space...but not any tractor ! Is farm enlargement (always) damageable regarding sustainability in French Mediterranean mountains ?

    OpenAIRE

    Lasseur, Jacques; Dupre, Lucie; Sicard, Julia

    2014-01-01

    In the Mediterranean mountains, in order to face the CAP, sheep farmers had to consider the following possibilities: growing, or producing certified lamb with more productive constraints but higher income , or diversifying farms activities. In this area, sheep farming is characterized by an important use of rangeland, sometimes collective ones, since the system is based on a great mobility, especially during summer time. Sheep, and sometimes farmers, move to higher rangeland where they ...

  1. Characterization of introduced breed of sheep and pattenl of conservation of Sumatera thin tail (STT sheep in North Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanto D

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Sumatera thin tail (STT sheep are highly adapted to the local environment, no seasonal reproductive activity, and highresistance to internal parasite, but they have small body size and low mature body weight. "On Fann research" to identify morphological characteristics of intoduced breed and STT sheep, as well as an altemative conservation pattem were conducted in two location, i.e. Pulahan village, Air Batu District, Asahan Regency as the potensial area for STT sheep and Pulo Gambar village, Galang District, Deli Serdang Regency as the development area of introduced breed of sheep. The approach of Agroecosystem analysis, quantitative and qualitative characteristics of STT and introduced breed of sheep as well as interview to the farmer that raised STT in order to get recommendation of conservation pattern were aplied. The study show that STT sheep were isolated from the other area, and the populations tend to decrease from year to year. Qualitative characteristics of STT indicated smaller linear body measurements than those of introducted breed of sheep at the same age. Qualitative characteristics indicated that STT possess dominance body color of light brown and white (50.93% vs 41.28%. The STT mostly have one body color pattern (61.75%. The dominance spotted pattem were 1-10% of the body (60.29%, while the dominance of the head color was light brown (48.40%. Conservation pattern of STT are through natural process, in which the farmers are directly conserved, therefore the farmers do not have opportunity to develop their sheep farming. Therefore the conservation pattern recomnendation for STT sheep are by defending the location as "in situ conservation" or "on farm conservation" and giving "compensation program" to fanner because STT sheep farming less benefit than those of introduced breed of sheep.

  2. An survey of brucellosis infection and exposure status of sheep farmers' family members in the western pastoral areas of Jilin Province%吉林省西部牧区养殖羊农户家庭成员布鲁杆菌病感染及接触方式现状调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凡瑜; 关超玲; 李晔; 袁志忱; 王迪; 甄清; 姚燕

    2014-01-01

    Objective To find out the current situation of brucellosis infection and exposure status of family members of sheep farmers in the western pastoral areas of Jilin Province,and to provide a reference for control of human brucellosis spreading among family members.Methods On November 2012,Qianguo County was randomly selected using a multi-stage sampling method,and two townships,Chaganhua and Wulantala,were randomly selected in the county; half of the villages were selected from each township; all family members of the sheep farmers in these villages were investigated about their demographic characteristics (sex,age,education),high-risk behavior and information about brucellosis infection by using a questionnaire survey.Based on the principle of informed consent,respondents venous blood samples were collected.Brucellosis was confirmed with serum agglutination test (SAT).The effects of gender,age,education and other demographic data,high-risk behavior and high-risk behavior protection on the prevalence of brucellosis were studied.Results Out of the 403 copies of qualified questionnaires collected,84 people were found infected with brucellosis,and the infection rate was 20.84% (84/403).Men infection [24.78% (57/230)] was higher than that of women [15.61% (27/173),x2 =5.038,P < 0.05].The rates of eight kinds of high-risk behaviors were:helping feeding 86.85% (350/403),cleaning sheepfold 80.40% (324/403),holding lamp 71.71% (289/403),delivering sheep 61.54% (248/403),vaccinating sheep 53.85% (217/403),apoblema 47.39% (191/403),milking 22.08% (89/403) and slaughtering sheep 14.89% (60/403).The highest risk behavior was vaccinating sheep[24.40%(53/217)],and the lowest was milking [16.90% (15/89)].The highest rate of basic protection was delivering a sheep [31.85% (79/248)],the next was apoblema[27.23% (52/191)],and the lowest was slaughtering sheep [8.33% (5/60)].There was no statistical significant difference between brucellosis infection

  3. RISK AND RISK MANAGEMENT IN HUNGARIAN SHEEP PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Nabradi, Andras; Madai, Hajnalka

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the risk attitudes of Hungarian sheep producers regarding the changes they have had to go through since the political changes of 1989–1990. Moreover, the objective of this study is to strengthen the empirical basis for risk analysis by identifying the importance of farmers’ risk attitudes. The results of a nationwide survey of over 500 sheep farmers presented a framework of risk attitudes, risk sources and applied risk management techniques ...

  4. The impact of infection with Schmallenberg virus on weaning rate in Irish sheep flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Damien; O'Neill, Ronan; Sammin, Donal; Clegg, Tracy A; More, Simon J

    2015-12-01

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) disease emerged in Europe in 2011, with the virus initially identified in Germany, and the first confirmed case of SBV infection in Ireland diagnosed in a dairy calf in October 2012. SBV was subsequently confirmed by RT-PCR in 49 cattle herds and 39 sheep flocks. While these studies provide a good representation of the spatial distribution of SBV in Ireland, they do not quantify the impact of SBV on productivity. The objectives of this study were to assess the impact of SBV on weaning rate in Irish sheep flocks, based on data reported by Irish sheep farmers, and to evaluate weaning rate in sheep flocks as an indicator to be used in emerging disease surveillance systems. A questionnaire on productivity and management practices in sheep flocks was developed to gather data from sheep farmers. Valid responses from 267 sheep farmers were received. Negative binomial regression indicated that flocks with a confirmed SBV diagnosis had a weaning rate 0.9 times that of flocks free of SBV. The 10% reduction in weaning rates as a result of SBV is a justifiable concern for farmers and should be considered in formulating flock breeding policy. This study shows the value of a production database as an indicator of an emerging disease and the economic impact of that disease in Irish sheep flocks. PMID:26547824

  5. An Abattoir Survey of Liver and Lung Helminthic Infections in Local and Imported Sheep in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    MARAQA, Anwar

    2005-01-01

    The livers and lungs of 5596 sheep (443 local, 473 Romanian and 4680 Australian) slaughtered in Amman Central Abattoir during November-December 1999 were examined in routine meat inspection procedures for helminths. Dictyocaulus filaria, hydatid cyst, Fasciola hepatica and Dicrocoelium dendriticum were recovered from the examined sheep with variable prevalences. Dicrocoelium dendriticum is reported from the livers of imported sheep in Jordan for the first time.

  6. Farmers Insures Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freifeld, Lorri

    2012-01-01

    Farmers Insurance claims the No. 2 spot on the Training Top 125 with a forward-thinking training strategy linked to its primary mission: FarmersFuture 2020. It's not surprising an insurance company would have an insurance policy for the future. But Farmers takes that strategy one step further, setting its sights on 2020 with a far-reaching plan to…

  7. Decoupling Farm, Farming and Place: Recombinant Attachments of Globally Engaged Family Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheshire, Lynda; Meurk, Carla; Woods, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Farmers have traditionally been perceived as having a deep attachment to land and place that contrasts with the mobility of modern society. In this paper, we use this work as a starting point for analysing new forms of attachments among a cohort of Australian farmers who are highly mobile in their business activities. In response, we devise a new…

  8. Considerations on Trends in the Romanian Sheep and Goat Meat Market, 1990-2009

    OpenAIRE

    AGATHA AGATHA POPESCU

    2013-01-01

    The paper purpose was to identify the main trends in the Romanian sheep and goat meat market based on the analysis of the specific indicators regarding sheep and goat livestock and production at country level and by region, using the data provided by National Institute of Statistic for the period 1990-2009. About 198,729 farmers are raising sheep and goats and the average farm size is about 16 heads. The sheep and goat livestock declined by 34 % in the analyzed period accounting for 10,058 th...

  9. Danish farmers and investors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajderllari, Luljeta; Karantininis, Konstantinos; Bonnichsen, Ole

    The purpose of this paper is to provide some evidence on the push and pull factors that motivate farmers to expand across their home countries’ borders. The focus is on Danish expansion farmers and investor farmers setting up activities in Central and Eastern European countries like Slovakia......-border activities, except that we do not find a significant influence from the availability of cheap labour in the host countries....

  10. Virginia Beginning Farmer & Rancher Coalition Program: Virginia Beginning Farmer Profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Niewolny, Kim; Whitter-Cummings, Althea

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the Virginia Beginning Farmer Profiles is to help beginning farmers and ranchers in Virginia gain knowledge about farm start-up and planning from first-hand, personal experiences shared by other beginning farmers. This educational resource is component of the Virginia Beginning Farmer and Rancher Coalition Program's "Whole Farm Planning" curriculum.

  11. Cumbrian hill-farmers' views of scientific advice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This evidence examines one aspect of the communications between scientific experts and Cumbrian hill farmers affected by the Chernobyl fallout restrictions. Based on interviews with hill sheep farmers it analyses their responses to scientific advice, explanation and prognosis about the fallout and its effects on hill farming. Several factors were identified which influenced the credibility of expert advice: the degree of uncertainty and variability in the scientific knowledge; the recognition of relevant local knowledge needed to be integrated with scientific knowledge; the extent of past secrecy and lack of transparency of official institutional processes of decision making; the lack of apparent scientific learning from the radioactive fallout from the 1957 Windscale fire; and the opportunity for more informal personal interaction between farmers and scientists. The scientific advice was perceived as unrealistic and unrelated to hill farming realities. The effectiveness of communication of scientific advice influences the broader credibility of decision making bodies, and is therefore important. It is concluded that achievement of these ends requires not only changes in the public expression of scientific information, but also changes in the organisation of expertise to improve the practical relationships between scientific experts and relevant public groups such as the hill sheep farmers. (author)

  12. Farmers under pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade, Stefan Bastholm; Anneberg, Inger

    2013-01-01

    troubles are connected to convictions of neglect. Second, we analyse narratives where interviewed farmers, involved in cases of neglect, describe how they themselves experienced the incidents. We find that while livestock farmers in general have a low risk of animal neglect problems, a small percentage of......In this paper we analyse how risk factors in highly industrialised agriculture are connected to animal neglect. With Danish agriculture as a case study, we use two types of data. First, we use register data from Statistics Denmark to map how risk factors such as farmers’ financial and social...... growing concern among the farmers towards the governmental control in farm animal production. We discuss how these factors can be used to identify and help farmers with a high risk of being convicted of livestock neglect....

  13. Mozambique - Farmer Income Support

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millenium Challenge Corporation — Trees For the epidemic zone, the evaluation estimated the impact of FISP on disease prevalence and estimated the consequent impact on coconut production and farmer...

  14. Farmer research and extension

    OpenAIRE

    Knox, Anna; Lilja, Nina

    2004-01-01

    In this brief, we learn that "combining technical innovations with collective action initiatives has been shown to lead to substantial farmer benefits. A number of farmer-led research and extension (FRE) approaches incorporate collective action for different purposes and at different stages in the innovation process. Collective action can be useful in sharing knowledge, setting priorities, and experimenting with, evaluating, and disseminating technologies." The authors describe various partic...

  15. Australian Extinctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Massive extinctions of animals and the arrival of the first humans in ancient Australia--which occurred 45,000 to 55,000 years ago--may be linked. Researchers at the Carnegie Institution, University of Colorado, Australian National University, and Bates College believe that massive fires set by the first humans may have altered the ecosystem of…

  16. The Potential Role of Farm Forestry in the Wheat-Sheep Zone of NSW

    OpenAIRE

    Hean, Robyn L.; Cacho, Oscar J.; Signor, Anthony; Mullen, John D.

    2000-01-01

    The focus of this paper is the role of farm forestry in farming systems in the NSW wheatsheep zone. The wheat-sheep zone suffers from significant land degradation problems, and the environmental and economical sustainability of many farming systems is in question. Farm forestry provides the opportunity to diversify farmer incomes, increase agricultural productivity and provide environmental solutions. It is therefore proposed that the potential role of farm forestry in the wheat-sheep zone is...

  17. Farmer Productivity at Various Ages

    OpenAIRE

    Tauer, Loren W.

    1993-01-01

    The productivity of farmers at six different age cohorts was computed by estimating production functions using 1987 census data. The results suggest that farmers of different ages operate with slightly different technologies and use various inputs at different efficiencies. Compared with previous 1978 estimates, the productivity of middleaged farmers appears to be even greater than the productivity of younger and older farmers. The average age of U.S. farmers exceeds the age of highest produc...

  18. An Australian "Smart State" Serves Up Lessons for a Knowledge Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Fifteen years ago, the Australian state of Queensland was famous more for its beaches than for its brain power. Fellow Australians thought of Queenslanders as miners, farmers, or surfers, not as professors or scientists. When Queensland announced in 1998 that it was planning to become a "Smart State," or a knowledge economy, locals quipped that…

  19. RISK AND RISK MANAGEMENT IN HUNGARIAN LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION WITH A SPECIAL REGARD TO SHEEP PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Nemessalyi, Zsolt; Madai, Hajnalka; Nabradi, Andras

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the risk attitudes of Hungarian sheep producers regarding the changes they have had to go through since the political changes of 1989-1990. Moreover, the objective of this study is to strengthen the empirical basis for risk analysis by identifying the importance of farmers' risk attitudes. The results of a nationwide survey of over 500 sheep farmers presented a framework of risk attitudes, risk sources and applied risk management techniques of l...

  20. Parturition difficulties in sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grommers, F. J.; Elving, L.; Eldik, P. van

    1985-01-01

    The incidence of difficult parturition was recorded in Texel Sheep lambs (224), Milk Sheep lambs (273) and various crossbreeds (1043) in ten spring lambing seasons. at lambing time the ewes were under 24-hour observation. Difficult parturition is defined as necessity for obstetrical assistance as a

  1. Genetic resistance to infections in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, S C

    2015-12-14

    This paper considers genetic resistance to infectious disease in sheep, with appropriate comparison with goats, and explores how such variation may be used to assist in disease control. Many studies have attempted to quantify the extent to which host animals differ genetically in their resistance to infection or in the disease side-effects of infection, using either recorded animal pedigrees or information from genetic markers to quantify the genetic variation. Across all livestock species, whenever studies are sufficiently well powered, then genetic variation in disease resistance is usually seen and such evidence is presented here for three infections or diseases of importance to sheep, namely mastitis, foot rot and scrapie. A further class of diseases of importance in most small ruminant production systems, gastrointestinal nematode infections, is outside the scope of this review. Existence of genetic variation implies the opportunity, at least in principle, to select animals for increased resistance, with such selection ideally used as part of an integrated control strategy. For each of the diseases under consideration, evidence for genetic variation is presented, the role of selection as an aid to disease control is outlined and possible side effects of selection in terms of effects in performance, effects on resistance to other diseases and potential parasite/pathogen coevolution risks are considered. In all cases, the conclusion is drawn that selection should work and it should be beneficial, with the main challenge being to define cost effective selection protocols that are attractive to sheep farmers. PMID:26260859

  2. Participatory definition of breeding objectives for sheep breeds under pastoral systems--the case of Red Maasai and Dorper sheep in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Emelie Zonabend; Mirkena, Tadele; Strandberg, Erling; Audho, James; Ojango, Julie; Malmfors, Birgitta; Okeyo, Ally Mwai; Philipsson, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Crossing local breeds with exotic breeds may be an option for increased livestock productivity. However, there is a risk for endangerment of the local breeds. One such case is in Kenya where the imported Dorper breed is used for crossbreeding with Red Maasai sheep. The aim of this study was to investigate farmers' trait preferences as a basis for determination of breeding objectives for Red Maasai and Dorper sheep at two sites, Amboseli and Isinya, in Kenya. Within their own flock, each farmer identified three ewes representing the best, average and poorest within each breed group: Red Maasai, Dorper and Crosses. Farmers gave reasons for their ranking. Body measurements and weights were also taken. At the harshest site, Amboseli, differences between breed groups in body weight were small and breeds were equally preferred. In Isinya, where environmental conditions are better and farmers are more market oriented, Dorper and Crosses had significantly higher body weights and market prices and were thus preferred by the farmers. Red Maasai were preferred for their maternal and adaptive traits. Breeding objectives should emphasize growth traits and milk production in both breeds at both sites. Body condition needs to be specifically considered in the breeding objectives for sheep in Amboseli, whereas adaptive traits need to be generally emphasized in Dorper. PMID:26374208

  3. Calibration of farmer dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Farmer Dosemeters of Atomic Energy Medical Centre (AEMC) Jamshoro were calibrated in the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) at PINSTECH, using the NPL Secondary Standard Therapy level X-ray exposure meter. The results are presented in this report. (authors)

  4. Age and Farmer Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Tauer, Loren W.

    1994-01-01

    Farmer productivity by age was estimated, allowing for differences because of efficiency and returns to scale. Using Census of Agriculture data, estimates vary by state, but returns to scale average 1.07. Efficiency increases average 4.5 percent every ten years of age, to the age interval 35 to 44, and then decreases at that same rate.

  5. Bringing farmers together

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zake, J.; Walaga, C.; Jager, de A.

    2005-01-01

    Farmer Field Schools (FFSs) have been used in many countries in Asia, Latin America and Africa as a way to deal with constraints such as crop pests, soil fertility depletion, health issues like HIV/AIDS and the communal management of natural resources. They often work in partnership with local NGOs

  6. Motivational Postures and Compliance with Environmental Law in Australian Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, Robyn; Barclay, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    Motivational posture theory is applied and extended to the context of Australian agriculture and environmental regulation. Regulatory failure in this area has been observed but little was known of the compliance attitudes and behaviours of farmers prior to this study. Agriculture covers over 60% of Australia's land surface so this information is…

  7. Paratuberculosis in sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, P A

    2015-12-14

    considerations for animal health authorities. Although concerns of vaccine efficacy, safety and issues with diagnosis and administration persist, vaccination is increasingly recognized as providing a robust strategy for managing paratuberculosis, having made important contributions to the health of Australian sheep and the lives of producers with affected properties, and offering a mechanism to reduce risk of infection entering the food chain in ovine and caprine products. PMID:26255556

  8. Australian Research Council

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Introduction The Australian Research Council(ARC) is the Australian Government's main agency for allocating research funding to academics and researchers in Australian universities.Its mission is to deliver policy and programs that advance Australian research and innovation globally and benefit the community.

  9. [Farmer's lung antigens in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennekamp, J; Joest, M; Sander, I; Engelhart, S; Raulf-Heimsoth, M

    2012-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that besides the long-known farmer's lung antigen sources Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula (Micropolyspora faeni), Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, and Aspergillus fumigatus, additionally the mold Absidia (Lichtheimia) corymbifera as well as the bacteria Erwinia herbicola (Pantoea agglomerans) and Streptomyces albus may cause farmer's lung in Germany. In this study the sera of 64 farmers with a suspicion of farmer's lung were examined for the following further antigens: Wallemia sebi, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus versicolor, and Eurotium amstelodami. Our results indicate that these molds are not frequent causes of farmer's lung in Germany. PMID:22477566

  10. Shelterbelts and farmers needs

    OpenAIRE

    Onyewotu, L.O.Z.; Stigter, C.J.; Abdullahi, Y.; Ariyo, J.

    2003-01-01

    As a response to desertification and long periods of drought in Northern Nigeria in the 1970s, the Kano State Forestry Department designed a programme of land rehabilitation using shelterbelts. It soon became clear, however, that the shelterbelts had design errors and had many disadvantages. Farmers had not been consulted when they had been established and this added to their sense of dissatisfaction with the measures implemented. In this article the authors use the Nigerian experience to str...

  11. Problems and Solution Proposals Related to Sheep and Goat Husbandry in Kastamonu Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer Tüfekci

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted by using a survey made at 80 enterprises from 63 villages with the aim of determining situations, problems and solution proposals related to the sheep and goat farms in Kastamonu province. The average age of the farmers was 49.3 years. The farmers were 8.75% of primary school graduates, 68.75% of secondary school and also 22.6% of illiterate. The enterprises have raised animals as 31.75% of state + own land and 68.75%’ of private + leased land. Also they are kept the rate of 70% Hair goat, 30% Angora goat and 55% Merino sheep, 42.5% Akkaraman sheep, and 16.25% Turkmen genotype, 7.5% Sakız sheep and 6.25% of Kıvırcık Sheep. The average flock sizes goat and sheep enterprises were 77.3 head goats and 71.7 heads sheep, respectively. Sixty percent of the breeder feed their animals on the pasture for 8-10 months and only 30% the breeders give supplementary feeding before and during mating period. The enterprises have 31.2% parturition chamber and 92.5% lamb growth areas. While all enterprises are routinely used to protective vaccines but only used disinfectant of 73.7% enterprises. The reason of sheep and goat breeders is majority contributions of income and habits. So, flock sizes are small (74.5 heads animal. In conclusion, young people by encouraging small animal farming in the province of Kastamonu, should be given to technical, economic support and educational seminars. In the future, as the sole source of income and a large flock size may lead to a development of sheep and goat breeding in Kastamonu province.

  12. Productivity of Sumateran Composite dan Barbados Cross sheep breed in the field condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Setiadi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Two years field study has been carried out in the Purwakarta district , West Java, to evaluate sheep productivity of Sumateran Composite (K and Barbados cross (BC breeds introduced to the farmers, compared with locally thin tail sheep breed (L that were maintained by the farmers. Genotype compositions of K sheep were Barbados Blackbelly 25%, St. Croix 25%, and Sumateran sheep 50%; and for BC were Barbados Blackbelly 50% and Sumateran sheep 50%. Sheep those were introduced was new breed from breeding improvement of Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production. Litter size of K, BC, and L ewes was 1.3; 1.4; and 1.5 respectively. Pre-weaning mortality rate were 5.0; 5.0 and 8.0% respectively for K, BC, and L lambs. Ewe Reproduction Rate (LRI = number of lamb at weaning/ewe/year of L (2.14 was higher than BC (2.0 and K (1.85. The ewe productivity (PI = kg lambs/ewe/year is the average of weaning weight timed LRI. Because the weaning weight of L (7.0 kg were significantly lowest than BC (10.5 kg and K (9.25 kg will affect on PI. PI of L (14.98 ewe were significantly (P<00.5 lowest than BC (21 and K (17.11. Body weight of crossbred (K X L and BCxL under the same physiologic status were similarly with BC and K. According to the result of productivity evaluation of introduced sheep breed in the field condition, can be sumarize that productivity of K and BC sheep were significantly better than locally thin tail sheep.

  13. Entrepreneurial younger farmers and the 'young farmer problem' in England

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, William; Bosworth, Gary; Ruto, Eric

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the “Young Farmer Problem” in Europe with a specific focus on how it applies in England. Recent reforms of the European Union’s (EU) Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) have specifically targeted young farmers for increased support; with young farmers being seen as more innovative, entrepreneurial and amenable to change. Furthermore, the EU has stated that the “generational renewal” of agriculture is critical for the long term viability of the sector. This paper ...

  14. Imported coenurosis in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirteen sheep from a milk producing farm in the Canton of Grisons that presented chronic coenurosis were examined and subjected to treatment trials at the veterinary hospital in Zurich. Symptoms were first observed around two months after the import of two dogs from Italy (Abruzza) of which one was infected with Taenia multiceps and Echinococcus granulosus. The most frequently observed clinical symptoms of the sheep were reduced general condition, circling, reduced menace reflex, apathy, unsteady gait and head tilt. Analyses of cerebrospinal fluid revealed an increased leucocyte count in 3 sheep and eosinophilia in 4 sheep. In 4 animals that underwent computertomography, one or more hypodense, definable lesions were found in the brain. In 2 sheep surgical treatment and in 10 animals medical treatment with either Praziquantel (n=8) or Oxfendazol (n=2) was attempted. Only one animal treated with Praziquantel needed not to be euthanized. At necropsy, one or two coenurus cysts could be found either in a side ventricle (n=2), in the cerebellum (n=3) or in the cerebrum (n=7). The locations corresponded with the clinical findings. Despite Praziquantel or Oxfendazol treatment, living protoscoleces could be found in the parasite cysts

  15. FARMERS' PREFERENCES FOR CROP CONTRACTS

    OpenAIRE

    Lajili, Kaouthar; Barry, Peter J.; Sonka, Steven T.; Mahoney, Joseph T.

    1997-01-01

    An empirical approach combining elements of principal-agent theory and transaction cost economics is used to determine farmers'Â’ preferences for contract terms in crop production. The approach is tested by asking grain farmers to rank contract choices and specify price premiums in simulated case situations. The statistical results indicate that farmers'Â’ preferences for rates of cost sharing, price premiums, and financing arrangements are significantly influenced by asset specialization and...

  16. Orf virus infection in sheep or goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyrou, V; Valiakos, G

    2015-12-14

    Orf virus, a member of the genus Parapoxvirus, is the causative agent of contagious ecthyma ('Orf'). It is a pathogen with worldwide distribution, causing significant financial losses in livestock production. The disease mainly affects sheep and goats, but various other ruminants and mammals have been reported to be infected as well. It is also a zoonotic disease, affecting mainly people who come in direct or indirect contact with infected animals (e.g. farmers, veterinarians). The disease is usually benign and self-limiting, although in many cases, especially in young animals, it can be persistent and even fatal. Production losses caused by Orf virus are believed to be underestimated, as it is not a notifiable disease. This review of literature presents all latest information regarding the virus; considerations regarding treatment and prevention will be also discussed. PMID:26315771

  17. Occurrence of congenital disorders in Swiss sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Greber, Deborah; Doherr, Marcus; Drögemüller, Cord; Steiner, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The rates of congenital disorders in Swiss sheep were determined by a questionnaire which was sent to 3,183 members of the Swiss Sheep Breeders' Association. FINDINGS A total of 993 questionnaires were returned, giving a response rate of 31.2%. Of these, 862 questionnaires originated from farms keeping one of the predominant Swiss sheep breeds: Swiss White Alpine sheep, Brown-Headed Meat sheep, Swiss Black Brown Mountain sheep and Valais Blacknose sheep. During a 10-yea...

  18. Breeding Practices in Sheep Farming

    OpenAIRE

    M.A. Shejal; A. V. Khanvilkar; S.D.Rahane and D.R. Belhekar

    2009-01-01

    The sheep is an important economic livestock species, contributing greatly to the Indian economy, especially in arid, semi arid and mountain areas. The current population in world is 1110.78 millions, around 44.85 millions (1987) sheeps in India (ICAR., 2002). Sheeps are mostly reared for meat and wool. The average annual wool production per sheep is between 3.5 to 5.5 kg of fine quality wool in Australia, New Zealand and U.S.S.R., where as in India except Magra sheep which annually yield mor...

  19. Impact of Schmallenberg virus on British sheep farms during the 2011/2012 lambing season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, K A; Eglin, R D; Hayward, S; Milnes, A; Davies, I; Cook, A J C; Downs, S H

    2014-08-16

    British sheep farmers were invited to complete a questionnaire about the impact of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) on animal health, welfare and their own emotional wellbeing during the 2011-2012 lambing season, through Defra and Farming Industry websites, letters to farmers who had requested SBV laboratory tests and advertisement at Sheep 2012. The 494 responders included SBV confirmed (positive by RT-PCR) (n=76), SBV suspected by farmer (n=140) or SBV not suspected (n=278). Percentage of barren ewes was similar across SBV groups, however, lamb and ewe losses were higher on responder farms where SBV was confirmed or suspected. The median percentages of all lambs born (and lambs born deformed ) that died within one week of birth was 10.4 per cent (5.5 per cent), 7.0 per cent (2.9 per cent) and 5.3 per cent (0 per cent), respectively, on SBV confirmed, suspected and not suspected farms (Pimpact was greater where SBV was confirmed or suspected (Pimpact on emotional wellbeing (4 per cent of SBV not suspected), 13 per cent reported a high impact on flock welfare and financial performance and 6 per cent were less likely to farm sheep next year because of SBV (impact has been large relative to reported sheep loss. PMID:24795165

  20. Canal Water Scarcity Hits Farmers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张忠潮

    2007-01-01

    Acute shortage of canal water for irrigation in this district has caused resentment among the farmers.The water is being released in the various channels for just one week in a month,which is not enough to meet the irrigation needs of the farmers who are preparing their fields for paddy

  1. Benchmarking biodiversity performances of farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoo, de G.R.; Lokhorst, A.M.; Dijk, van J.; Staats, H.; Musters, C.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Farmers are the key players when it comes to the enhancement of farmland biodiversity. In this study, a benchmark system that focuses on improving farmers’ nature conservation was developed and tested among Dutch arable farmers in different social settings. The results show that especially tailored

  2. Considerations on Trends in the Romanian Sheep and Goat Meat Market, 1990-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGATHA AGATHA POPESCU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper purpose was to identify the main trends in the Romanian sheep and goat meat market based on the analysis of the specific indicators regarding sheep and goat livestock and production at country level and by region, using the data provided by National Institute of Statistic for the period 1990-2009. About 198,729 farmers are raising sheep and goats and the average farm size is about 16 heads. The sheep and goat livestock declined by 34 % in the analyzed period accounting for 10,058 thousand heads in 2009. Sheep/goat ratio changed from 14/1 in 1990 to 9.96/1 in 2009, in the advantage of goats. Sheep and goats are mainly grown in Central, North-Eastern and South-Western Romania. Mutton and goat meat production accounted for 1,443 thousand tons in 2009, being by 40 % lower than in 1990  because of  livestock  decline.  About 23 % mutton and sheep meat is produced in the South-Eastern Romania, 18 % in the Central part and 14 % in North-East. The share of mutton and goat meat declined from 8.38 % in 1990 to 7.21 % in 2009 in total meat production in the country. As a conclusion,  mutton  and goat meat market registered a decline during the last decades, in favour of pork and poultry meat.

  3. Sheep production and marketing system in southern Ethiopia: the case of Awassazuria district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Estefanos; Negesse, Tegene; Abebe, Girma

    2015-10-01

    A survey was conducted in Awassazuria district of southern Ethiopia to characterize sheep production system. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Using purposive sampling, a total of 120 households from the district were included in the survey. Collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Result indicated that Kajima neighbourhood has more (phome consumption. The criteria used by the households for purchase and sale of sheep are physical characteristics (coat colour, horn and tail) (46.7 %), body conformation (35 %), age (10.8 %) and known local ecotype (7.5 %). The reasons of slaughter of sheep include festival (55 %), childbirth (18.3 %), wedding (12.5 %), mutton for home (9 %), circumcision (5 %) and for guest (1.7 %). Farmers fatten sheep for New Year (60 %), Easter (30.8 %), Christmas and Arefa (Eid al-Adha celebration (Feast of the Sacrifice); home consumption, ranked in decreasing order of importance. The sheep production in southern Ethiopia is constrained by shortage of grazing land (23.3 %), recurrent drought (17.5 %), disease and parasite (15 %), marketing (10.8 %), water shortage (9 %) and other constraints including predators and lack of input, capital and lack of extension service. The presence of diversified and environmentally adaptable sheep breeds, high demand of mutton in the Awassa town and presence of nutritious and unutilized feed resources like fish meal and poultry litter were some of the opportunities for sheep production in the area. PMID:25997416

  4. Agriculture. Sheep Livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for sheep, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list. Each…

  5. Understanding collaborative partnerships between farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asai, Masayasu

    Danish farmers have developed their own strategies to respond to environmental regulations of manure application. Selfgoverning manure exchanges have been widely undertaken by farmers for more than a decade, giving rise to well-established practices. However, there is little factual knowledge about...... the extent and functioning of such existing partnerships between farms as well as farmers’ perceptions of what constitutes successful arrangements. Based on registry and farmer survey data the PhD thesis shows that the vast majority of manure exporters know their partners prior to establishing manure......, duration of the partnership and transport distance. The most important aspects of farmers' perception of successful collaborative arrangements seem to be trust, continuity, flexibility and accessibility. These findings supplement the understanding of farmer collaboration based on spatial-economic models...

  6. National Farmers Market Summit Proceedings Report

    OpenAIRE

    Tropp, Debra; Barham, James

    2008-01-01

    The USDA Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), in partnership with the Farmers Market Consortium, hosted the National Farmers Market Summit November 7–9, 2007, in Baltimore, MD. The Summit assembled key stakeholders from the farmers market community to convene a national conversation on issues and challenges facing today’s farmers markets. The National Farmers Market Summit had three broad objectives: (1) Identify farmers market needs and existing gaps in assistance, (2) Prioritize future res...

  7. Genomic Regions Associated with Sheep Resistance to Gastrointestinal Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Magda Vieira; Sonstegard, Tad S; Van Tassell, Curtis

    2016-06-01

    Genetic markers for sheep resistance to gastrointestinal parasites have long been sought by the livestock industry as a way to select more resistant individuals and to help farmers reduce parasite transmission by identifying and removing high egg shedders from the flock. Polymorphisms related to the major histocompatibility complex and interferon (IFN)-γ genes have been the most frequently reported markers associated with infection. Recently, a new picture is emerging from genome-wide studies, showing that not only immune mechanisms are important determinants of host resistance but that gastrointestinal mucus production and hemostasis pathways may also play a role. PMID:27183838

  8. A super-spreading ewe infects hundreds with Q fever at a farmers' market in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner-Wiening Christiane

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In May 2003 the Soest County Health Department was informed of an unusually large number of patients hospitalized with atypical pneumonia. Methods In exploratory interviews patients mentioned having visited a farmers' market where a sheep had lambed. Serologic testing confirmed the diagnosis of Q fever. We asked local health departments in Germany to identiy notified Q fever patients who had visited the farmers market. To investigate risk factors for infection we conducted a case control study (cases were Q fever patients, controls were randomly selected Soest citizens and a cohort study among vendors at the market. The sheep exhibited at the market, the herd from which it originated as well as sheep from herds held in the vicinity of Soest were tested for Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii. Results A total of 299 reported Q fever cases was linked to this outbreak. The mean incubation period was 21 days, with an interquartile range of 16–24 days. The case control study identified close proximity to and stopping for at least a few seconds at the sheep's pen as significant risk factors. Vendors within approximately 6 meters of the sheep's pen were at increased risk for disease compared to those located farther away. Wind played no significant role. The clinical attack rate of adults and children was estimated as 20% and 3%, respectively, 25% of cases were hospitalized. The ewe that had lambed as well as 25% of its herd tested positive for C. burnetii antibodies. Conclusion Due to its size and point source nature this outbreak permitted assessment of fundamental, but seldom studied epidemiological parameters. As a consequence of this outbreak, it was recommended that pregnant sheep not be displayed in public during the 3rd trimester and to test animals in petting zoos regularly for C. burnetii.

  9. Perímetro escrotal e idade à puberdade em ovinos Merino Australiano submetidos a diferentes regimes alimentares - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i4.1179 Scrotal perimeter and age of puberty in Australian Merino Sheep, submitted to different alimentary strategies - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i4.1179

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Franco Martins

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Testou-se a hipótese de que animais bem alimentados durante a vida fetal e durante o período pós-parto apresentariam melhor desempenho reprodutivo que aqueles com alimentação restrita durante a vida fetal e/ou no pós-parto, sendo animais com menor idade à puberdade. Utilizaram-se 120 ovelhas Merino Australiano prenhes com 60 dias de gestação, distribuídas em fatorial 2x2, com quatro níveis nutricionais, tendo metade de seus grupos invertidos. Os animais foram pesados no nascimento, e as ovelhas que pariram fêmeas foram eliminadas e os machos identificados por brincos de cores diferentes (laranja, roxo, preto e verde e distribuídos entre os tratamentos. O escore corporal manteve as mesmas relações observadas para o peso corporal entre os grupos. Os animais de brinco preto apresentaram menor perímetro escrotal aos 132 dias, com maior crescimento escrotal, decorrente da melhora nutricional desses animais em determinados períodos. Como condição de escore corporal, o perímetro escrotal manteve a mesma relação entre os grupos, como observado para o peso corporal, com o grupo laranja com maior perímetro, seguido pelo grupo roxo, pelo verde e pelo preto. Apenas 62,5% dos animais manifestaram puberdade até o final do experimento. Os animais atingiram a puberdade com escore, com perímetro e com idade semelhantes, entretanto tiveram pesos diferentesThe hypothesis that animals well fed during the fetal life and in the post parturition would present better reproductive performance than those with restricted feeding, during the fetal life and/or in the post parturition was experimented pointing out that younger animals reach puberty first. One hundred and twenty pregnant Australian Merino sheep were used on the 60th day of gestation, distributed in a 2x2 factorial, with four nutritional levels, half of groups being were inverted. Birth weights were recorded. The females were eliminated and the males were identified by using earrings

  10. Salmonella in Sheep in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnarsson E

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1995 several outbreaks of food poisoning in humans occurred in Iceland, that were traced to salmonella contamination of singed sheep heads. This prompted us to study the prevalence of salmonella infection in sheep and to trace where and how infection might have occurred. Faecal, intestinal contents and tonsillar samples were collected in the spring and autumn from sheep on 50 farms in the southwestern part of the country, where salmonellosis had been detected and from 5 farms in the northwestern part of the country. All faecal samples from the southwest were negative, whereas samples from 3 farms obtained in the autumn in the northwest were positive. Tonsillae taken in the autumn were positive in sheep from 3 farms in the southwest and 2 in the northwest. Our results show that salmonella infection is rare in Icelandic sheep but healthy carriers may harbour the bacteria in tonsillae. Salmonella was not detected in drainage from slaughterhouses nor in singed sheep heads.

  11. Farmers’ perceptions of foreign investment in Western Australian broadacre agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Fraser; Kragt, Marit; Gibson, Fiona

    2015-01-01

    Foreign investment can provide a flow of capital into Australian agriculture and has played an important role meeting the shortfalls in domestic savings throughout Australia’s history. Despite the political and media attention on foreign investment in agriculture, there is little knowledge about stakeholders’ perceptions of foreign investment in their community. This study assesses the opinions of farmers about foreign investment in the Wheatbelt. We investigate the economic, social and envir...

  12. Farming in the "New Economy" : An Australian Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    McGregor, Murray J.; Bent, Martin J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Barriers to trade between countries have reduced through the general Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the World Trade Organisation (WTO). The nature of trade between businesses is also changing dramatically through developments in Information Technology but also due to adoption of quality assurance and new approaches to supply chain management. The impacts of this "New Economy" vary around the world. This paper considers the implications of these developments for Australian farmers. ...

  13. Factors associated with the presence and prevalence of contagious ovine digital dermatitis: A 2013 study of 1136 random English sheep flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickins, Alan; Clark, Corinna C A; Kaler, Jasmeet; Ferguson, Eamonn; O'Kane, Holly; Green, Laura E

    2016-08-01

    In 2013, a questionnaire was used to gather data on risks for introduction, and factors associated with prevalence, of contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD). There were 1136 (28.4%) usable responses from 4000 randomly selected sheep farmers in England. CODD was present in 58% (662) of flocks, with a reported prevalence of CODD lesions of 2.3%. The geometric mean period prevalence of all lameness was 4.2% and 2.8% in CODD positive and negative flocks respectively. Factors associated with a greater risk of presence of CODD were purchasing replacement ewes, not always checking the feet of sheep before purchase, not isolating purchased sheep, foot bathing returning ewes, foot trimming the flock more than twice in the year all compared with not doing these activities and increasing log10 flock size. Farmers who vaccinated sheep with Footvax™ were less likely to report presence of CODD. Factors associated with increasing prevalence of CODD lesions were not always checking the feet of purchased sheep, flocks that mixed with other flocks and sheep that left the farm for summer grazing and later returned. In addition, flocks where farmers followed the current recommended managements for control of footrot, had a lower prevalence of CODD whilst those who used foot bathing and where feet bled during routine foot trimming had a higher prevalence of CODD. The prevalence of CODD decreased with each log10 increase in flock size. We conclude that CODD is an infectious cause of lameness in sheep of increasing importance in GB. Introduction is linked to poor biosecurity with one likely source of the pathogen being introduction of or mixing with infected sheep. As with footrot, prevalence of CODD was lower in flocks where farmers focused on individual treatment to manage lameness and avoided foot bathing and trimming feet. We conclude that most of the currently recommended biosecurity and treatment approaches to control footrot in GB are also effective for control of CODD

  14. Farmers' approaches to ecological agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Vartdal, Barbro; Løes, Anne-Kristin

    1995-01-01

    Three categories of organic farmers are described; the ecosopher, the antroposopher and the reformist, the latter being locally oriented whereas the two first catergories were more globally oriented. Conversion to organic agriculture is described as a process of social adaptation.

  15. Financing young and beginning farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Nathan Kauffman

    2013-01-01

    Attracting and retaining the next generation of farm operators has been a persistent struggle in U.S. agriculture. Over the past century, productivity gains in U.S. agriculture have led to the consolidation of farm enterprises into larger operations, limiting opportunities for farm ownership and triggering an exodus of young farmers from the industry. Although the recent surge in farm prosperity has rekindled interest in U.S. agricultural production, the increasing age of farmers and rising c...

  16. Farmer Training Fund Set Up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>On the afternoon of February 12, 2007, the China Friendship Foundation for Peace and Development (CFFPD) held the inauguration of the Farmer Training Fund and a press conference. Li Xiaolin, CPAFFC vice president and chairman of the Board of Directors of the CFFPD, who announced the inauguration, said, the Farmer Training Fund is set up by the CFFPD timely in response to the Party’s call of "building a new socialist countryside" and a

  17. 40 CFR 262.70 - Farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or other standards in 40 CFR parts 264, 265, 268, or 270 for those wastes provided he triple rinses... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Farmers. 262.70 Section 262.70... APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Farmers § 262.70 Farmers. A farmer disposing of waste...

  18. Variation of serum selenium concentrations in German sheep flocks and implications for herd health management consultancy

    OpenAIRE

    Humann-Ziehank, Esther; Tegtmeyer, Philip C; Seelig, Bjoern; Roehrig, Petra; Ganter, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Background This study was performed to demonstrate the widespread distribution and severity of selenium (Se) deficiency in sheep flocks and to evaluate the impact of influencing factors. In 150 flocks, ten serum samples of adult ewes were analysed for Se concentration. The farmers were interviewed concerning flock size, provision of mineral supplement, predominant form of husbandry (stationary fenced pasture/transhumance), predominant form of water provision (tap water/well/surface water) and...

  19. Constraints to Hamari sheep farming under range conditions in Darfur and Kordofan Regions of Western Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirab, Ahmed Berima; Chimonyo, Michael

    2016-08-01

    The study was conducted to identify the major production constraints of Hamari sheep in Darfur and Kordofan Regions of Western Sudan. A structured questionnaire was administered to 128 farmers in Darfur and Kordofan. Feed shortages, prevalence of diseases and parasites, and predation were more severe in Darfur than Kordofan (P flocks, large flocks, semi-nomadic and sedentary husbandry system in Kordofan than their counterparts in Darfur Region (P flock size, region and production system used. PMID:27126220

  20. Biosecurity on Finnish cattle, pig and sheep farms - results from a questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlström, Leena; Virtanen, Terhi; Kyyrö, Jonna; Lyytikäinen, Tapani

    2014-11-01

    Biosecurity is important in order to prevent disease transmission between animals on farms as well as from farm to farm. Personal biosecurity routines such as hand washing and the use of protective clothing and footwear are measures that should be used at all farms. Other measures are for example related to purchasing new animals to the farm. A questionnaire-based survey was undertaken to study the frequency of use of different biosecurity measures on cattle, pig and sheep farms in Finland. Information about which biosecurity measures are in use is needed for contingency planning of emerging diseases or when combating endemic diseases. Knowledge about the level of biosecurity of a farm is also needed in order to assess if and where improvement is needed. Information regarding biosecurity levels may benefit future animal disease risk assessments. A total of 2242 farmers responded to the questionnaire resulting in a response rate of 45%. The implementation frequencies of different biosecurity measures are reported. The results revealed differences between species: large pig farms had a better biosecurity level than small cattle farms. There were also differences between production types such as dairy farming versus beef cattle farming, but these were not as remarkable. Sheep farming in Finland is sparse and the large number of hobby farmers keeps the biosecurity level low on sheep farms. This might represent a risk for the entire sheep farming industry. The Finnish farmers were satisfied with their on-farm biosecurity. Eighty percent of the farmers report that they were satisfied even though the biosecurity level was not particularly high. The implementation of biosecurity measures could be further improved. Even though the disease situation in Finland is good today, one must be prepared for possible epidemics of threatening diseases. PMID:25147126

  1. Smallholder dairy sheep production and market channel development: an institutional perspective of rural Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voors, M J; D'Haese, M

    2010-08-01

    The rural economy of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia has been adapting to new economic and political realities. Especially important for rural areas has been the breakdown of the socialist market structure in agriculture, which meant the demise of cooperative structures and farmers gaining access to new market outlets. The aim of this paper is to investigate the potential of dairy sheep farmers to enter into new contracts with buyers and to analyze why some farmers continue selling to traditional market outlets. Using survey data of dairy sheep farmers we studied the choice they make between 3 market outlets: (1) selling milk to a recently established large dairy processor, (2) selling milk to traditional small local processors, or (3) transforming milk on-farm into cheese and selling it at the farm gate or at local markets. The significance of determinants of choice for these markets were tested in a multinomial logit model, which showed that distance to the collection point of the large dairy processor was the most important determinant of whether farmers sold milk or made cheese, with those at a greater distance selling cheese. Furthermore, we analyzed the main sources of transaction costs in developing new market channels. Overcoming transport and transaction costs may contribute to higher income for the farmers and hence to improving their livelihoods. PMID:20655456

  2. 29 CFR 780.133 - Farmers' cooperative as a “farmer.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Farmers' cooperative as a âfarmer.â 780.133 Section 780.133... General Scope of Agriculture Practices Performed âby A Farmerâ § 780.133 Farmers' cooperative as a “farmer.” (a) The phrase “by a farmer” covers practices performed either by the farmer himself or by the...

  3. ANTIPARASITICAL PROTECTION IN SHEEP FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOINA ARDELEANU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Through our researches were carried out at ICDCOC- Palas, Constantza, we proposed ourselves to establish the poly-parasitism structure on sheep, as well as elaborating efficientical methods for anti-parasitical prophylaxis and fighting in sheep populations and pasture sourfaces, in order to ensuring anti-parasitical protection in sheep exploitations The copro-parasitological examinations was carried ovoscopicaly (flotation - by Willis and Mc. Master methods; sediment – by polyvalent method and larvoscopicaly – by Baermann method. The parasitological examination of coprological smears which were harvested on sheep showed the presence of polyparasitism phenomenon with protozoans (coccidiae: Eimeria spp. and helmints (cestodae: Moniesia expansa; gastro-intestinal nemathodes: Trichostrongylus spp., Nematodirus spp., Strongyloides papillosus and pulmonary nemathodes: Müellerius capillaris, Protostrongylus rufescens, Dictyocaulus filaria. Also, we proposed ourselves to study the paresites and their intermediary stages on pastures which were exploited with sheep, comparatively with mowed pastures. In the ansamble of research activities a special place is occupied by testing differents methods, in order to prevention and fighting of parasitical infestations on sheep and pasture in sheep farms.

  4. The Australian National Seismograph Network

    OpenAIRE

    D. Jepsen

    1994-01-01

    The Australian Seismological Centre of the Australian Geological Survey Organisation, operates and co-operates a national seismograph network consisting of 24 analogue and 8 digitally telemetred (3 broadband) stations (see fig. 1 and table 1). The network covers the Australian continent and the Australian Antarctic Territory.

  5. The Australian National Seismograph Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Jepsen

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Seismological Centre of the Australian Geological Survey Organisation, operates and co-operates a national seismograph network consisting of 24 analogue and 8 digitally telemetred (3 broadband stations (see fig. 1 and table 1. The network covers the Australian continent and the Australian Antarctic Territory.

  6. Impact of Training Bolivian Farmers on Integrated Pest Management and Diffusion of Knowledge to Neighboring Farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; Konradsen, Flemming; Huici, Omar;

    2016-01-01

    Teaching farmers Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in Farmer Field Schools (FFS) has led to reduced pesticide use and safer handling. This article evaluates the long term impact of training farmers on IPM and the diffusion of knowledge from trained farmers to neighboring farmers, a subject of...... importance to justify training costs and to promote a healthy and sustainable agriculture. Training on IPM of farmers took place from 2002 to 2004 in their villages in La Paz County, Bolivia, while dissemination of knowledge from trained farmer to neighboring farmer took place until 2009. To evaluate the...... impact of the intervention, self-reported knowledge and practice on pesticide handling and IPM among trained farmers (N=23) and their neighboring farmers (N=47) were analyzed in a follow up study and compared in a cross-sectional analysis to a control group of farmers (N=138) introduced in 2009...

  7. Genomic sequences of Australian bluetongue virus prototype serotypes reveal global relationships and possible routes of entry into Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, David B; Bulach, Dieter M; Amos-Ritchie, Rachel; Adams, Mathew M; Walker, Peter J; Weir, Richard

    2012-06-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is transmitted by biting midges (Culicoides spp.). It causes disease mainly in sheep and occasionally in cattle and other species. BTV has spread into northern Europe, causing disease in sheep and cattle. The introduction of new serotypes, changes in vector species, and climate change have contributed to these changes. Ten BTV serotypes have been isolated in Australia without apparent associated disease. Simplified methods for preferential isolation of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and template preparation enabled high-throughput sequencing of the 10 genome segments of all Australian BTV prototype serotypes. Phylogenetic analysis reinforced the Western and Eastern topotypes previously characterized but revealed unique features of several Australian BTVs. Many of the Australian BTV genome segments (Seg-) were closely related, clustering together within the Eastern topotypes. A novel Australian topotype for Seg-5 (NS1) was identified, with taxa spread across several serotypes and over time. Seg-1, -2, -3, -4, -6, -7, -9, and -10 of BTV_2_AUS_2008 were most closely related to the cognate segments of viruses from Taiwan and Asia and not other Australian viruses, supporting the conclusion that BTV_2 entered Australia recently. The Australian BTV_15_AUS_1982 prototype was revealed to be unusual among the Australian BTV isolates, with Seg-3 and -8 distantly related to other BTV sequences from all serotypes. PMID:22514341

  8. Education Needs of Michigan Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvedi, Murari; Jeong, Eunseong; Coombs, John

    2010-01-01

    In 2008 MSU Extension evaluated their program to identify the major areas of educational need for Michigan farmers and agribusiness operators. Surveys were mailed to a stratified random sample from Michigan Agricultural Statistics Service records of dairy, livestock, swine, cash crops, fruit, vegetable, and nursery/greenhouse producers. Findings…

  9. Biology and the Peasant Farmer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coverdale, G. M.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the importance of biological education in the rural development of under-developed countries. Argues that if the peasant farmer possessed even the most basic rudiments of biological knowledge he would be much more adaptable and amenable to technological innovation. Also describes how such an educational program might be implemented. (JR)

  10. Factors affecting farmers networking decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pascucci, S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses farmers' decisions to carry out transactions by using three different types of networks: input supply cooperatives, processing and/or marketing cooperatives, and producers associations. We use arguments from economic sociology and new institutional economics to define the main fa

  11. Farmers' reactions to the internationalisation of cooperatives

    OpenAIRE

    Ollila, Petri; Nilsson, Jerker; Hess, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which farmer cooperatives enjoy social capital within their memberships as they become internationalised. The empirical basis was a survey of farmers in Finland. Findings from limited dependent variable regression models suggest that the farmers who are most loyal to their cooperatives tend to oppose its foreign investments. Another group of farmers tended to switch membership status between different cooperatives, and a third group tended to opt out of coope...

  12. Marketing Channels Used by Small Tennessee Farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Tegegne, Fisseha; Pasirayi, Simbarashe; Singh, Surendra P.; Ekanem, Enefiok P.

    2012-01-01

    One of the key challenges that small farmers face is marketing their products. National and international markets are difficult to tap into for small farmers due to their inability to compete with large farm operators that dominate these markets. The objective of this study was to examine marketing channels used by small Tennessee Farmers. A mail survey was sent to 250 selected small farmers in Tennessee. Ninety-two completed responses, representing about 37% response rate, were received. Ove...

  13. Factors Affecting Farmer Participation in Agritourism

    OpenAIRE

    Bagi, Faqir Singh; Reeder, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Using a national farm survey, this study estimates a logit model to identify factors affecting U.S. farmers' participation in agritourism. Of the dummy variables, public access to the farm for recreation has the greatest positive impact, followed by farms near central cities, farms in Rocky Mountain and Southern Plains regions, farmers with college education, farmers paying for farm advice, farms organized as partnerships/corporations, farms enrolled in conservation programs, and farmers with...

  14. Protein turnover in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considerable advances have been made in the knowledge of the mechanisms and control of synthesis and degradation of proteins in animal tissues during the last decade. Most of the work on the measurement of synthetic and degradative rates of the mixed protein fraction from tissues has been conducted in the rat. There have, unfortunately, been few publications describing results of protein turnover studies with ruminants. Consideration is given here to the techniques used to measure protein turnover, and some of the results obtained, particularly with sheep, are summarized. No attempt has been made to discuss directly the situation in parasitized animals; rather the aim is to provide background information which complements other work dealing with the effects of parasites on the nitrogen metabolism of ruminants. (author)

  15. Becoming Sheep, Becoming Animal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grum, Charlotte; Svabo, Connie

    2016-01-01

    Proposal for Performance Research, in response to the call Turning Animal: As a part of a 2015 group exhibition exploring the history and local myths of a woman living in a Danish heath landscape 150 years ago, artist Charlotte Grum connected herself to a live sheep for 4 hours a day, 5 days a week......, for 5 weeks, turning the two into a hybrid relational assemblage, intra-acting and becoming with the heath habitat, the other by-passing human and non-human animals, the changing weather and their fluctuating biological needs. She wanted to explore the discursive and material effects of a site......-specific human-nonhuman animal intra-action, to challenge the gendered and anthropocentric reading of a particular historical subject and to explore the messy constituents of the very categories of women and animals. In general she is occupied with how to animate and perform the intra-active entanglement of...

  16. Becoming Sheep, Becoming Animal..

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grum, Charlotte; Svabo, Connie

    As a part of a 2015 group exhibition exploring the history and local myths of a woman living in a Danish heath landscape 150 years ago, artist Charlotte Grum connected herself to a live sheep for 4 hours a day, 5 days a week, for 5 weeks, turning the two into a hybrid relational assemblage, intra...... performative practice. Continuing explorations of how to undo authorship, activate multiple subject positions and animate the very resources through which we practice and continuously become, for this conference artist Charlotte Grum has invited Connie Svabo, Associate Professor in Performance-Design at...... Roskilde University, to participate in a performative conversation. Svabo’s interest in environmental aesthetics and in new modes of disseminating artistic knowledge (Schwab & Borgdorf, 2013) will intra-act with visual and textual notes from “Becoming Sheep” in a live exploration of the methodological...

  17. Pharmacokinetics of albendazole in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriner, S E; Bogan, J A

    1980-07-01

    The concentrations of albendazole and its two major metabolites, the sulfoxide and sulfone, were measured in plasma and in ruminal and abomasal fluid of three sheep (surgically prepared with permanent ruminal and abomasal cannulae) orally given albendazole as a suspension at a dose rate of 10 mg/kg. Albendazole was not detectable in plasma at any time in one sheep (detection limit, 0.02 micrograms/ml) and in the other sheep, only transiently detectable. Albendazole sulfoxide was detectable in plasma and in abomasal fluid at mean peak concentrations of 3.2 and 26.2 micrograms/ml, respectively, 20 hours after administration. It is probable that much of the anthelmintic activity of albendazole in sheep is due to the metabolically formed sulfoxide and sulfone. PMID:7436109

  18. A survey on Aflatoxin M1 content in sheep and goat milk produced in Sardinia Region, Italy (2005-2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Salvatore Virdis; Christian Scarano; Vincenzo Spanu; Gavino Murittu; Carlo Spanu; Ignazio Ibba; Enrico Pietro Luigi De Santis

    2014-01-01

    In the present work the results of a survey conducted in Sardinia Region on Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) contamination in milk of small ruminants from 2005 to 2013 are reported. A total of 517 sheep and 88 goat milk samples from bulk tank, tank trucks and silo tank milk were collected. Analyses were performed by the Regional Farmers Association laboratory using high-performance liquid chromatography following the ISO 14501:1998 standard. None of the sheep milk samples analysed during 2005- 2012 showed...

  19. Farmer Experience of Pluralistic Agricultural Extension, Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowa, Clodina; Garforth, Chris; Cardey, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Malawi's current extension policy supports pluralism and advocates responsiveness to farmer demand. We investigate whether smallholder farmers' experience supports the assumption that access to multiple service providers leads to extension and advisory services that respond to the needs of farmers. Design/methodology/approach: Within a…

  20. The characteristics and causes of sheep losses in the Victorian Mallee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, D J; Nowara, G

    1995-09-01

    The extent and causes of sheep losses in the semi-arid Mallee region of north-western Victoria were assessed by interviewing the owners of 79 randomly selected farms running 241 flocks in 1987/88 and 245 flocks in 1988/89. Mean annual losses were higher in ram flocks (21%) than in ewe flocks (7%), in flocks of non-Merino sheep (rams 24%, ewes 11%, weaners 5%) than in Merino (rams 11%, ewes 6%, wethers 4%, weaners 4%) and in ewe flocks 3 or more years old (10%) than in young ewe flocks (3.5%). In flocks where losses exceeded 5%, the causes most often reported by farmers were blowfly strike (especially in Merino sheep and weaners), ewe losses in autumn close to lambing, and heliotrope (Heliotropium europaeum) poisoning. Heliotrope poisoning was considered by the authors to be the main reason for the higher losses in old ewes than in young ewes and in non-Merino sheep than in Merino sheep. Losses of ewes associated with pregnancy and lambing were considered by the authors to be often predisposed by liver damage caused by heliotrope poisoning, and high losses in non-Merino ram flocks were attributed to both heliotrope poisoning and their ability to escape through boundary fences. Reasons for continuing high losses due to enterotoxaemia are discussed. Losses due to gastro-intestinal parasites, footrot and foot abscess were low. PMID:8585847

  1. Australian G20 Presidency

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei G. Sakharov; Andrei V. Shelepov; Elizaveta A. Safonkina; Mark R. Rakhmangulov

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 Australian presidency took place against the backdrop of multiple challenges in both global economy and international politics, with Ukrainian crisis, Syrian conflict, Islamic State, and Ebola. Thus, despite being an economic forum, the G20 could not avoid addressing these issues, with discussions taking place during the bilateral meetings and on the sidelines of the forum. The article attempts to analyze the Australian G20 Presidency within a functional paradigm, assessing G20 perfo...

  2. EXPLORING DAIRY FARMER???S KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICES OF FECES MANAGEMENT IN ENREKANG REGENCY

    OpenAIRE

    baba, syahdar; Asmuddin, Natsir; Maruddin, Fatma; Izzdin, Idrus

    2015-01-01

    The consecuency of the increasing of dairy cattle population in Enrekang is environmental pollution from manure. The objective of this research was to explore dairy farmer???s knowledge and practices of manure management in Enrekang Regency. The design of research was survey with 79 respondents from a total of 460 dairy farmers that divided by 65 respondents was small scale (1-3 heads each farmer) and 14 respondents was medium scale (more than 3 heads each farmers). Data were obtained thro...

  3. Risk factors associated with small ruminant lentivirus infection in eastern Poland sheep flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junkuszew, Andrzej; Dudko, Paulina; Bojar, Wiktor; Olech, Monika; Osiński, Zbigniew; Gruszecki, Tomasz M; Kania, Monika Greguła; Kuźmak, Jacek; Czerski, Grzegorz

    2016-05-01

    An analysis of the risk factors for ovine lentivirus infection was performed in sheep flocks located throughout the central-eastern region of Poland. Here, we report the infection details for 98 flocks with a total of 6470 ewes, 15 sheep breeds. The identification of infected animals and a review of the epidemiological status of each flock were based on an evaluation of serological tests performed on collected blood serum samples. Blood for examination was obtained from 2925 ewes of the 98 flocks under observation. Specific antibodies for Maedi Visna Virus (MVV) were detected via ELISA. Data illustrating the conditions at each sheep farm were obtained through questionnaires completed by farmers, as well as observations, measurements, and breeding records that were available. These observations were used to assess risk factors contributing to small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) infection in sheep flocks. It was found that both sheep flock size and the type of management system had a significant effect on the increased risk of lentiviral infection. In addition, we demonstrate that there is a significant (pmastitis (OR 2.01, CI: 1.55-2.61) and diarrhea (OR 4.22, CI: 3.30-5.39) with SRLV infection in the observed sheep. Additionally, the infection rate of the animals translated directly to an impaired physical condition. Notably, the risk of infection could potentially be reduced if sheep producers are further acquainted with SRLV detection and invoke a control program based on diagnostic tests. Moreover, marketing approval should be granted for solely SRLV-seronegative animals. PMID:27094139

  4. Awassi sheep keeping in the Arabic steppe in relation to nitrous oxide emission from soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Hijazi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Sheep husbandry is the main source of income for farmers in arid zones. Increasing sheep production on steppes may increase the greenhouse gas production. The objective of this study was to investigate the nitrous oxide (N2O emissions from the steppes for Awassi sheep keeping and feed cropping in arid zones such as Syria. The methodology developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC was used to estimate N2O emissions. A survey was conducted on 64 farms in Syria to gather data for analysis. Precipitation and crop yield data from 2001 to 2009 were also used for calculation and modelling. Sheep-keeping systems, precipitation, year and the region have significant effects on N2O emissions (p < 0.05. Emissions of N2O from lands with extensive, semi-intensive and intensive systems were 0.30 ± 0.093, 0.598 ± 0.113 and 2.243 ± 0.187 kg sheep−1year−1, respectively. Crop production was higher in regions with high precipitation levels, which helped to reduce N2O emissions. Using more residuals of wheat, cotton and soya as feed for sheep in the keeping systems evaluated may decrease the overuse of steppe regions and N2O emissions. Nitrous oxide emissions of N2O from sheep-keeping areas can be reduced by changing sheep-keeping systems and increasing the crop production in arid zones through artificial irrigation.

  5. 26 CFR 1.61-4 - Gross income of farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gross income of farmers. 1.61-4 Section 1.61-4... Gross income of farmers. (a) Farmers using the cash method of accounting. A farmer using the cash... required to be capitalized. (b) Farmers using an accrual method of accounting. A farmer using an...

  6. Resilience among Men Farmers: The Protective Roles of Social Support and Sense of Belonging in the Depression-Suicidal Ideation Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Suzanne; Challis, Chantal

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the applicability of 3 models of resiliency for the prediction of suicidal ideation from depression (the risk factor) and social support and sense of belonging (the protective factors). A sample of 99 Australian men farmers completed measures of depression, suicidal ideas, social support, and sense of belonging. Sense of…

  7. Seismic operations and farmers' rights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specific rights of farmers in Alberta regarding seismic operations on their land are described. A seismic operator can enter onto a property only after obtaining approval from the owner and occupant of the land. It is entirely up to the farmer to negotiate the terms of the contract. This document summarizes the chronology of a seismic survey and describes the steps required to conduct seismic tests on titled land, leased land and on leased road allowance. Also discussed are the implications of seismic operations on water wells and property damage. The required distances of various seismic operations, and the requirements for hole abandonment, cleanup and compensation are laid out. Special considerations for 3-D seismic surveys are also addressed

  8. A clinical trial comparing parenteral oxytetracyline and enrofloxacin on time to recovery in sheep lame with acute or chronic footrot in Kashmir, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaler J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No clinical trials have been conducted in India on the efficacy of parenteral antibacterials to treat footrot in sheep. In addition, there are no studies worldwide on the efficacy of parenteral antibacterials to treat chronic footrot. Sixty two sheep with acute footrot and 30 sheep with chronic footrot from 7 villages in Kashmir, India were recruited into two separate trials. Sheep with acute footrot were allocated to one of three treatments using stratified random sampling: long acting parenteral oxytetracycline, long acting parenteral enrofloxacin and topical application of potassium permanganate solution (a traditional treatment used by sheep farmers in India. In a quasi pre-post intervention design, sheep with chronic footrot that had not responded to treatment with potassium permanaganate were randomly allocated to treatment with one of the two parenteral antibacterials mentioned above. Sheep with acute footrot were treated on day 0 and those with chronic footrot on days 0, 3, 6 and 9. Sheep were monitored for up to 28 days after treatment. Time to recovery from lameness and initial healing of lesions was assessed using Kaplan-Meier survival curves, nonparametric log-rank and Wilcoxon sign-rank tests. Results There was significant correlation in recovery from lameness and presence of healing lesions in sheep with acute (r = 0.94 or chronic (r = 0.98 footrot. Sheep with acute footrot which were treated with parenteral antibacterials had a significantly more rapid recovery from lameness and had healing lesions (median = 7 days compared with those treated with topical potassium permanganate solution (less than 50% recovered in 28 days. The median time to recovery in sheep with chronic footrot treated with either antibacterial was 17 days; this was significantly lower than the median of 75 days lame before treatment with antibacterials. The median time to recovery for both acute and chronic footrot increased as the severity

  9. Haemophilus somnus (Histophilus somni) in bighorn sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Alton C.S.; Weiser, Glen C.; Anderson, Bruce C.; Cummings, Patrick J.; Arnold, Karen F.; Corbeil, Lynette B.

    2006-01-01

    Respiratory disease and poor lamb recruitment have been identified as limiting factors for bighorn-sheep populations. Haemophilus somnus (recently reclassified as Histophilus somni) is associated with respiratory disease in American bison, domestic sheep, and cattle. It is also harbored in their reproductive tracts and has been associated with reproductive failure in domestic sheep and cattle. Therefore, reproductive tract and lung samples from bighorn sheep were evaluated for the presence of...

  10. Coat colour pattern in Garut sheep and its crossbred

    OpenAIRE

    Ismeth Inounu; D. Ambarawati; R.H. Mulyono

    2009-01-01

    Coat colour is a qualitative trait whose expression is controlled by genes and could be used as a characteristic of sheep breed and could be used as a trade mark for certain sheep breeder enterprise. The research was done to study the coat color pattern in Garut sheep and its crossbred. In this study 178 heads of sheep was used which consisted of 64 Garut sheep (GG); 24 MG sheep (50% M and 50% G); 14 HG sheep (50% St. Croix and 50% G); 20 HMG sheep and 56 MHG sheep. HMG and MHG sheep are comp...

  11. Impact of Training Bolivian Farmers on Integrated Pest Management and Diffusion of Knowledge to Neighboring Farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørs, Erik; Konradsen, Flemming; Huici, Omar; Morant, Rafael C; Volk, Julie; Lander, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    Teaching farmers integrated pest management (IPM) in farmer field schools (FFS) has led to reduced pesticide use and safer handling. This article evaluates the long-term impact of training farmers on IPM and the diffusion of knowledge from trained farmers to neighboring farmers, a subject of importance to justify training costs and to promote a healthy and sustainable agriculture. Training on IPM of farmers took place from 2002 to 2004 in their villages in La Paz County, Bolivia, whereas dissemination of knowledge from trained farmer to neighboring farmer took place until 2009. To evaluate the impact of the intervention, self-reported knowledge and practice on pesticide handling and IPM among trained farmers (n = 23) and their neighboring farmers (n = 47) were analyzed in a follow-up study and compared in a cross-sectional analysis with a control group of farmers (n = 138) introduced in 2009. Variables were analyzed using χ(2) test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Trained farmers improved and performed significantly better in all tested variables than their neighboring farmers, although the latter also improved their performance from 2002 to 2009. Including a control group showed an increasing trend in all variables, with the control farmers having the poorest performance and trained farmers the best. The same was seen in an aggregated variable where trained farmers had a mean score of 16.55 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15.45-17.65), neighboring farmers a mean score of 11.97 (95% CI: 10.56-13.38), and control farmers a mean score of 9.18 (95% CI: 8.55-9.80). Controlling for age and living altitude did not change these results. Trained farmers and their neighboring farmers improved and maintained knowledge and practice on IPM and pesticide handling. Diffusion of knowledge from trained farmers might explain the better performance of the neighboring farmers compared with the control farmers. Dissemination of knowledge can contribute to justify the cost and

  12. Sheep Production Occupations. Skills and Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabol, Joe

    This report summarizes the findings of a national study to determine what skills and competencies are needed by beginning employees on sheep ranches and farms, lamb feedlots, and in the sheep shearing industry. The research procedure, which involved determining from the sheep industry the competencies needed by beginning employees in the thirteen…

  13. Production trials involving use of the FAMACHA© system for haemonchosis in sheep : preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Van Wyk

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In three trials conducted on two separate farms the production of sheep treated for naturally acquired haemonchosis using the FAMACHA© system of targeted selective treatment (TST (i.e. to treat only those animals unable to manage unaided in the face of heavy Haemonchus challenge was compared to that of suppressively drenched sheep in the same flock. As expected by the research team who developed and evaluated the FAMACHA© system, TST did result in some loss in production. However, despite high levels of worm challenge in two of the trials and the fact that the comparison was with suppressive drenching which is not sustainable, the total effect was relatively small in relation to the important advantage of using the TST as regards reduced selection for anthelmintic resistance (AR. Concerning the sustainability of worm control, it is concluded that the development of drug resistance to anthelmintics leaves sheep and goat farmers in South Africa no choice but to use methods of TST such as FAMACHA©. The FAMACHA© system can also be a useful clinical aid for early on-farm detection of AR by farmers; the degree of improvement in the colour of the ocular mucous membrane from pale to red in individually drenched anaemic animals over a period of 7-14 days can give a good indication of the efficacy of the compound(s used.

  14. Scleroderma in Australian aborigines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurauskas, J; Beroukas, D; Walker, J G; Smith, M D; Ahern, M J; Roberts-Thomson, P J

    2005-01-01

    Scleroderma (systemic sclerosis) has not been reported before in Australian Aborigines. We describe in detail a community middle-aged Aboriginal woman whose diffuse scleroderma terminated fatally with a renal crisis. Moreover, we have identified a further five Aboriginal patients on the South Australian Scleroderma Register (two with diffuse, two with limited and one with overlap scleroderma), a number consistent with that expected from the 2001 census data for our state. However, an analysis of all antinuclear antibody (ANA) requests from the Top End of Australia over a 6-year period revealed only two Aborigines with low titre anticentromere antibody (despite frequent occurrence of ANA with other specificities). Neither of these Aborigines had features of scleroderma. In conclusion, scleroderma does occur in indigenous Australians but further studies are needed to confirm the apparent infrequency of centromere-associated limited scleroderma (which is the commonest form of scleroderma in our Caucasian population). PMID:15667472

  15. Risk Management of Occupational Health and Safety in RiceFarmers in Ngrendeng, East Java in 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Anisa Yonelia; L. Meily Kurniawidjaja

    2013-01-01

    Agriculture is an important sector that has big impact to the society thus a program that can keep its sustainability is needed, especially in term of productivity. The focus of this study was risk management of Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) in rice farmers in Ngrendeng Village, Ngawi, East Java in 2012 with analyze hazard and risk on activities and workplaces. This study was a semi-quantitative analitical descriptive with observational approach using Australian Standard/New Zealand St...

  16. The Path Analysis of Farmers' Income Structure in Yunnan Province

    OpenAIRE

    XIAO, Yongtian; Cui, Yu; HU, Lijia

    2015-01-01

    The problem of farmers' income growth is the key of issues concerning agriculture, countryside and farmers, so the farmers’ income growth is the fundamental starting point for agricultural and rural economic development. In this paper, we use the statistics concerning farmers' income in Yunnan Province from 1995 to 2012, to perform the path analysis of components of farmers' income in Yunnan Province, study the path of influence of components of farmers' income on farmers' net income, and t...

  17. Mineral requirements of dairy sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mineral requirements of dairy sheep under semi-intensive and intensive management systems are reviewed. Basically, mineral requirements obtained with mutton breeds are supplemented with specific information obtained with dairy sheep. The daily requirements of sheep in major elements have been estimated using the factorial method, first to calculate the net requirements during maintenance, growth, reproduction and lactation, and second to assess the efficiency of absorption for converting net requirements into dietary allowance. The requirements in trace elements were estimated from the results of feeding trials. The choice of values for endogenous losses and particularly the precision with which efficiency of absorption can be predicted are the main sources of error in estimates of dietary allowances, especially when efficiency of absorption is low. The net requirements in major elements are given for maintenance, pregnancy and lactation, together with the recommended coefficients of absorption. Dietary requirements in trace elements are expressed as milligram per kilogram dry matter. The requirements in all nutrients and particularly in Ca and P increase during late pregnancy, especially during lactation. The requirements during lactation mainly reflect milk composition, the level of milk yield and lactation length, but also the feed intake level. The factors related to the confinement, feeding and management of dairy breeds, which differ from those of mutton breeds, may affect their mineral requirements. Changes in husbandry practices resulting in increased production may increase the stress on the animal and therefore alter its metabolic equilibrium. Direct supplementation of the diet of dairy sheep is the cheapest and most convenient method of mineral supplementation. The cost is outweighed by the enhanced performance of sheep. Determination of the mineral composition of feedstuffs available for feeding dairy sheep indicates the type and level of mineral

  18. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy: Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Ray P

    2013-01-01

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical component includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, and this knowledge was used for practical purposes, such as constructing calendars. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, paid careful attention to unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts, and could determine the cardinal points to an accuracy of a few degrees.

  19. Milk yield of some Croatian sheep breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Kristijan Pandek; Boro Mioč; Zdravko Barać; Vesna Pavić; Neven Antunac; Zvonimir Prpić

    2005-01-01

    Among the most important breeds of sheep, used for the milk production in Croatia, are the sheep from Pag, Brač, Cres, Istrian and Travnik΄s sheep, different crossbreeds and, recently, East Friesian sheep. The aim of the research was to determine the genotype effect on lactation period, milk yield and protein and fat content, which are important in cheese making. The longest lactation period (213 days) had East Friesian sheep, while the highest total milk production (294 kg) and the highest p...

  20. molecular and biochemical markers for early pregnancy detection in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the present study was conducted as in the experimental sheep farm of the nuclear research center, egyptian atomic energy authority in association with the institute of graduate studies and research. university of alexandria. this study aims to accurately and economically detect early pregnancy using techniques of biotechnology .consequently, the suggested method may replace techniques used nowadays for pregnancy detection since these techniques have disadvantages (e.g. long time before accurately determining pregnancy in rectal abdominal palpation and high cost and hazards of using serum progesterone radio immunoassay (RIA). the farmer may benefit from such detection economically by increasing his farm breeding cycle efficiency , reducing the breeding expenses . and isolating fertile ewes as early as possible. therefore reducing abortion incidences. stillbirths or production of weak lambs. this study was performed in two separate experiments. the first experiment: twenty four mixed breed sheep from the experimental sheep of the nuclear research center . egyptian atomic energy authority were used in this study. blood samples were taken at days 5.7.10.16.21.and 25 days after mating and a native- page were applied on the serum of these samples in correlation with serum progesterone RIA test. in addition . white blood cells were isolated from blood samples to obtain purified total RNA for RT-PCR. gel images were analyzed using totallab v.i.II(nonlinear dynamic, Newcastle upontyne. UK) computer software.the second experiment:nine pregnant and two non-pregnant ewes used in this experiment. blood sample were taken 0.25.30.35.40.45.and 50 days after mating and SDS-page were applied on the serum of theses samples. Native-page were applied for serum samples and stained for glycoproteins. gel images were analyzed using totallab v/1.11 (nonlinear dynamic. Newcastle upontyne. UK) computer software

  1. Seroprevalence and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii in sheep in Grosseto district, Tuscany, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenci-Goga Beniamino T

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serum samples from 630 milk sheep, in 33 dairy flocks representative of the southern area of the Tuscany region, were tested for the presence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii using an indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT. Questionnaires exploring the management system were completed by the veterinarian in charge of the flocks. Results At least one seropositive animal was found in 32 of the 33 flocks tested (97.0%; 95% CI: 84.2%, 99.9%. In the positive flocks, median seroprevalence was 29.4% (interquartile range: 15.9%-46.1%. Overall animal-level seroprevalence, adjusted for sampling weights and test sensitivity and specificity, was 33.3% (95% CI: 24.8%, 42.7%. In a multivariable negative binomial regression model the number of seropositive animals in a flock decreased with increasing flock size (for >400 vs. CR = 0.62; 95% CI: 0.41, 0.95; P = 0.028 and was greater on farms where stray cats had access to animals’ water (CR = 1.54; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.26; P = 0.027. Conclusions Small flock size and access of cats to water are potential risk factors for Toxoplasma infection in sheep in the Grosseto district in Tuscany, Italy. Sheep could be an important source of T. gondii infection in humans, since we estimate that between 25% and 43% of sheep in the district were seropositive. Toxoplasmosis is also likely to be an important cause of abortion in sheep in the district. Control and prophylactic measures must be adopted to improve the rearing system and the implementation of health promoting programmes in a joint effort between sheep farmers, farmers’ associations and veterinarians to inform about the means of transmission of the infection and for a better understanding of the disease.

  2. Farmer Cooperatives in the 21st Century: Young and Old Farmers in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Hakelius, Karin

    1999-01-01

    Young and old farmers in Sweden view their cooperative commitment differently. Young farmers generally see their cooperative commitment as a means to obtain economic advantages. Old farmers have the opposite view: They view the cooperative membership as a way of showing solidarity with peers, economic aspects being of secondary importance. The recent development of farmers' views upon cooperatives, combined with the great changes taking place on the European agricultural markets, imply proble...

  3. Triticale allergy in a farmer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merget, Rolf; Sander, Ingrid; van Kampen, Vera; Raulf, Monika; Brüning, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    We present the case of a 29-year-old farmer with hay fever and atopic dermatitis since adolescence who had developed work-related asthma about 5 years earlier. He was sensitized to grass pollen, wheat and rye flour, dust from the floors of the animal facilities (cows and pigs) and grain barn, and a battery of animal feed from his farm. Work-relatedness of his asthma was demonstrated by serial measurements of spirometry and fractional exhaled nitric oxide at work and during a holiday. Immunoblot analyses revealed dominant IgE-binding to grass pollen and triticale (a hybrid of rye and wheat). IgE inhibition experiments demonstrated that sensitization to triticale was not due to cross-reactivity to grass pollen. Testing of specific IgE-antibodies to recombinant wheat allergens showed sensitizations to profilin, peroxidase, and nonspecific lipid transfer proteins type I subfamily 9.1 and 9.7. We conclude that triticale allergy may occur as a distinct allergy in farmers. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:501-505, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26814013

  4. Australian Hackers and Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, M. J.; W. Hutchinson

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to look at the way hackers act and ways in which society can protect itself. The paper will show the current views and attitudes of hackers in an Australian context. The paper will also include a case study to show how a hacking incident can develop and how technology can be used to protect against hacking.

  5. Farmer, Agent, and Specialist Perspectives on Preferences for Learning among Today's Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Nancy K.; Piercy, Fred; Donaldson, Joseph; Westbrook, Johnnie; Richard, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have examined the types of educational delivery methods preferred by farmers (Eckert & Bell, 2005; Eckert & Bell, 2006). The research project reported here explored the preferred learning methods of farmers in Louisiana, Tennessee, and Virginia. Data on learning methods collected directly from farmers were compared with preferred…

  6. Mineral requirements of dairy sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppina Camboni; Walter Pinna; Federico Infascelli; Giuseppe Moniello

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the major (Calcium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Sodium, Chlorine, Sulphur, Magnesium) and the trace  elements (Iron, Copper, Cobalt, Iodine, Manganese, Zync, Molybdenum, Selenium) that play an essential role in animal  metabolism. For each one the authors indicate not only the function, but also the more recent advances in terms of  daily requirements for dairy sheep

  7. Distribution of radionuclides in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data were taken on contamination of organs of a mother sheep and its lamb. 2.5 months after the passage of the Chernobyl - caused radioactive cloud over Graz (Austria). The specific activity of Cs-137 in the muscle tissues is strongly dependent on its fat content. Barium 140 could be detected in the rib bones of both animals

  8. Taenia hydatigena cysticercosis in slaughtered pigs, goats, and sheep in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Kabululu, Mwemezi; Nørmark, Michelle Elisabeth; Nejsum, Peter; Ngowi, Helena Aminel; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2015-12-01

    Few studies have been carried out in Africa to estimate the prevalence of Taenia hydatigena. With the aim to determine the prevalence of T. hydatigena in slaughtered pigs and small ruminants (goats and sheep) in Mbeya, Tanzania, two cross-sectional surveys were carried out investigating pigs in April to May 2014 and small ruminants in September 2012. In total, 243 pigs were examined post-mortem for T. hydatigena cysts which were found in 16 (6.6 %) pigs. The majority (80 %) of cysts were found on the omentum and the rest on the liver (20 %), all on the visceral surface. Two pigs were also found infected with Taenia solium but showed no signs of other infections. A total of 392 goats and 27 sheep were examined post-mortem, and the prevalence of T. hydatigena was similar in goats and sheep with 45.7 and 51.9 %, respectively. DNA sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) from a subsample of metacestodes from goats and sheep confirmed the T. hydatigena infection. The prevalence found in small ruminants was comparable to other studies conducted in Africa, but for pigs, it is one of the highest recorded to date. The present study also confirms the occurrence of T. hydatigena and T. solium in pigs from Mbeya. Further studies are needed to determine the impact of T. hydatigena on production under sub-Saharan conditions and the financial consequences for smallholder farmers. PMID:26210397

  9. Investigation of FecB Mutation in Four Romanian Sheep Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu-Emil Georgescu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Hyperprolific phenotype of Booroola sheep was first discovered in the Australian Merino breed. This phenotype is due to the action of a single autosomal gene that influences the number of ovulations per estrogenic cycle. Recent discoveries have revealed that high prolificacy in Booroola Merino sheep is the result of a mutation (FecB in the bone morphogenetic protein receptor 1B (BMPR-1B gene. This mutation is located in the highly conserved kinase domain of the bone morphogenetic protein receptor IB, and is characterized by precocious differentiation of ovarian follicles, leading to the production of large numbers of ovulatory follicles. Our objective was to develop an easy method to identify the FecB mutation in order to screen sheep populations in terms of prolificacy. We designed primers to amplify a 190 bp fragment from the BMPR-1B gene containing or lacking the mutation. The PCR product was cut with AvaII endonuclease and the restriction products were analysed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Using the PCR-RFLP technique, we established an easy and efficient method that can be used to screen the FecB mutation. Therefore, these new methods increase the panel of molecular tools available for sheep breeders to choose the most prolific genotypes for improving artificial selection.

  10. The difficult encounter between inspector and farmer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anneberg, Inger; Sørensen, Jan Tind; Vaarst, Mette

    2012-01-01

    When the inspector drives into the farmyard and asks to see the animal barns to inspect the welfare of the animals, a tense situation may arise because inspections transcend limits and are complex and difficult for many farmers to relate to. A new research project is examining the interaction...... between authorities and farmers....

  11. Best Management Practices for Beginning Farmer Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochterski, Jim; Frenay, Erica

    2010-01-01

    Many beginning farmers have little previous contact with Extension, yet they will comprise an important part of our future base of support. We present those educational activities directed toward beginning farmers that represent high impact, outcome-based Extension programming, given an educator's time limitations. This checklist of insights will…

  12. How Midwestern Farmers Rate Risk Management Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Micheels, Eric; Barry, Peter

    2005-01-01

    This article utilizes a farmer survey to analyze the relationships between farm business structure and the importance farmers place on risk management practices. The strongest relationships occur between farm size and risk management, while rating differences across age of operator, tenure, and use of debt are less pronounced.

  13. Thought on Improving Civic Awareness of Farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Chunyan Chen; Shudong Zhang

    2010-01-01

    For the time being, great gap still exists between the status quo of civic awareness of farmers and the requirement of construction of a new countryside in China. Thus, exploration into the path of fostering the civic awareness of farmers is an urgent task to construct the new socialist countryside.

  14. Social Network Structures among Groundnut Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuo, Mary; Bell, Alexandra A.; Bravo-Ureta, Boris E.; Okello, David K.; Okoko, Evelyn Nasambu; Kidula, Nelson L.; Deom, C. Michael; Puppala, Naveen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Groundnut farmers in East Africa have experienced declines in production despite research and extension efforts to increase productivity. This study examined how social network structures related to acquisition of information about new seed varieties and productivity among groundnut farmers in Uganda and Kenya.…

  15. Farmer's lung is now in decline.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Arya, A

    2012-02-03

    Farmer\\'s lung incidence in Ireland was constant until 1996, even though hay making methods were revolutionised in late 1980\\'s. We undertook this study to find out the incidence of farmer\\'s lung in Ireland from 1982-2002 and its correlation with rainfall and the effect of changing farm practices. The primary cases of farmer\\'s lung were identified from Hospital in Patients Enquiry (HIPE) unit of the national Economic & Social Research Institute (ESRI) Dublin. Rainfall data were obtained from Met Eireann whereas population, hay production and silage production were obtained from the Central Statistics Office, Dublin. As the farming population is in decline, we used the annual working unit (AWU), which reflects the true population at risk. An AWU is the equivalent of 1800 hours per farm worker per year. The incidence rates were constant from 1982-1996, but from 1997-2002 a marked decline was observed. There was strong positive correlation with hay production (r = 0.81) and strong negative correlation with silage production (r = -0.82). This study indicates that the incidence of farmer\\'s lung is now in decline.

  16. Towards farming-systems change from value-chain optimisation in the Australian sugar industry

    OpenAIRE

    Antony, George; Prestwidge, D.; Sandell, G.; Archer, A; Thorburn, Peter; Higgins, Andrew J.

    2005-01-01

    The supply chain of the conventional Australian sugar industry is characterized by horizontal separation between the stages. Often antagonistic relations between segments, particularly farmers and millers, led to each developing their systems for their own segment’s benefit, without reference to the wider industry interests. Cane growing developed into a monoculture, reliant on material inputs and technological solutions, whose low labour intensity afforded substantial lifestyle benefits to...

  17. Improving the Local Sheep in Gansu via Crossing with Introduced Sheep Breeds Dorset and Borderdale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun; Xiaoping; Liu; Jianbin; Zhang; Wanlong; Lang; Xia; Yang; Bohui; Guo; Jian; Feng; Ruilin

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the meat performance of local sheep in Gansu Province,Dorset and Borderdale were introduced to crossbreed with local sheep which were Tan sheep,Small-tail Han sheep and Mongolia sheep. The offspring under different crossbreeding combinations were sampled randomly at the different growing stage to measure their growth traits so as to select optimize the crossbreeding mode. The results indicated that,for the same crossbreeding mode,the growth rate of progeny was in order F3> F2> F1; for the F3 progeny,the combinations Dorset- Borderdale- Small tail Han sheep and Dorset- Borderdale- Mongolia sheep gave a higher growth rate,with a body weight of 1. 57%,3. 17%,8. 23%,1. 15% higher in male and female individuals than the counterparts of Dorset and Tan sheep and Small tail Han sheep; for the F2 progeny,the combinations Dorset- Borderdale- Small tail Han sheep and Dorset- Borderdale- Mongolia sheep also gave a higher growth rate,with a body weight of 2. 15%,4. 53%,9. 21% and 2. 75% higher in male and female individuals than the counterparts of Dorset and Tan sheep and Small tail Han sheep; for the F1 progeny,the combination Borderdale and Small tail Han sheep assumed a higher growth rate,with a body weight of 3. 23%,6. 07%,7. 42% and 8. 66% higher in male and female individuals than the counterparts of Borderdale- Mongolia sheep and Tan sheep- Small tail Han sheep,respectively. Therefore,in the Small-tail Han sheep and Mongolia sheep producing regions,the F2 or F3progeny bred by using Dorset or Borderdale sheep as male parent to cross with local breeds,or the hybrid lambs of Small-tail Han sheep and Borderdale sheep as highly qualified commodity,would produce significant economic benefit. Moreover,the novel breeds obtained by crossing were the valuable genetic resource for breeding meat sheep.

  18. Financial modelling with WindFarmer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The WINDOPS WindFarmer design and optimisation software is now widely used throughout the wind energy industry. Whilst the design, optimisation and visual assessment capabilities of the software have been covered in previous papers presented to the BWEA, little focus has been given to the powerful capabilities of the WindFarmer Finance Module. The WindFarmer Finance Module is designed to allow users to carry out full financial appraisals of wind energy projects within the integrated WindFarmer interface. Any existing spreadsheet containing a wind farm costing or financial model can be loaded and dynamically linked to elements within the Base module. This paper explores the functions of this module and demonstrate the powerful WindFarmer features that allow users to determine not only the optimum layout for a site, but also the most economical type and number of wind turbines. (Author)

  19. Study on Training Scheme for New Farmers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Farmers play an important role in agricultural modernization,and farmers’quality directly influence the agricultural modernization drive. We analyzed basic situations and existing problems of farmers,including lack of consciousness as a master,cultural awareness,market awareness,skill awareness,and democracy and legal awareness.To build new farmers,we put forward multi-channel and comprehensive training schemes,including enhancing leadership,making clear objective,and giving top priority to subjects;increasing fund input and perfecting new farmer training system;focusing on economic development and combining with new socialist countryside construction;training by classification to improve overall qualities of different level farmers;combining many cultivation ways to improve the overall training effect.

  20. An Australian perspective on developing standards and ensuring compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornber, Peter M

    2010-01-01

    Australia is a federation of states and territories, each with their own parliament and animal-welfare laws. Australian animal-welfare legislation imposes a "duty of care" on people responsible for the care and well-being of animals under their management. In the livestock sector, this responsibility is mirrored by the ongoing development of standards, guidelines, and codes of practice to assist people to understand their responsibilities and to meet expectations concerning animal welfare. The Australian Animal Welfare Strategy (AAWS) is the national animal-welfare policy blueprint for sustainable improvements in animal welfare, and one of its key goals is to achieve greater consistency in the development, implementation, and enforcement of animal-welfare standards. Standards, guidelines, and model codes also inform the development of contemporary, evidence-based quality assurance programs for individual livestock industries and provide the basis for competency-based training programs for animal handlers. Australian standards have been developed for pigs and land transport of livestock, and work is progressing on national standards for cattle, sheep, horses, zoo animals, dogs, and cats. Other achievements include the development of requirements for the care and use of animals in research and teaching, guidelines for the welfare of aquatic animals, and codes of practice for the humane killing of pest animals. State and territory governments are developing a framework for consistent regulation and compliance in consultation with industries and welfare organizations. PMID:20378873

  1. 75 FR 63437 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... Farmers Program Review Committee, comprised of representatives from USDA's Office of the Chief Economist... CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Program Staff, Office of Trade Programs, FAS, USDA,...

  2. 75 FR 41432 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... Farmers Review Committee, comprised of representatives from USDA's Office of the Chief Economist, Farm... Farmers' Program Should Contact: USDA, Farm Service Agency (at your local service center). FOR...

  3. 75 FR 59683 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... for Farmers Program Review Committee, comprised of representatives from USDA's Office of the Chief... assistance in FY 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers...

  4. A Survey on aflatoxin M1 content in sheep and goat milk produced in Sardinia region, Italy (2005-2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Virdis, Salvatore; Scarano, Christian; Spanu, Vincenzo; Murittu, Gavino; Spanu, Carlo; Ibba, Ignazio; De Santis, Enrico Pietro Luigi

    2014-01-01

    In the present work the results of a survey conducted in Sardinia Region on Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) contamination in milk of small ruminants from 2005 to 2013 are reported. A total of 517 sheep and 88 goat milk samples from bulk tank, tank trucks and silo tank milk were collected. Analyses were performed by the Regional Farmers Association laboratory using high-performance liquid chromatography following the ISO 14501:1998 standard. None of the sheep milk samples analysed during 2005- 2012 showed...

  5. DEFINING SMALL-SCALE FARMERS IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN CONTEXT

    OpenAIRE

    Kirsten, Johann F.; Zyl, Johan van

    1998-01-01

    South African agriculture is comprised of mainly two categories of farmers -- the subsistence farmers in the former homeland areas and the large-scale commercial (mainly white) farmers. This is in contrast with the situation in many other countries in the world where one would find a whole range of farm sizes, ranging from the very small or subsistence farmer to the very large farmer/agribusiness. The paper highlights the situation of small-scale farmers in an international context and compar...

  6. Emerging parasitic diseases of sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M A

    2012-09-30

    There have been changes in the emergence and inability to control of a number of sheep parasitic infections over the last decade. This review focuses on the more globally important sheep parasites, whose reported changes in epidemiology, occurrence or failure to control are becoming increasingly evident. One of the main perceived driving forces is climate change, which can have profound effects on parasite epidemiology, especially for those parasitic diseases where weather has a direct effect on the development of free-living stages. The emergence of anthelmintic-resistant strains of parasitic nematodes and the increasing reliance placed on anthelmintics for their control, can exert profound changes on the epidemiology of those nematodes causing parasitic gastroenteritis. As a consequence, the effectiveness of existing control strategies presents a major threat to sheep production in many areas around the world. The incidence of the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, is inextricably linked to high rainfall and is particularly prevalent in high rainfall years. Over the last few decades, there have also been increasing reports of other fluke associated diseases, such as dicroceliosis and paramphistomosis, in a number of western European countries, possibly introduced through animal movements, and able to establish with changing climates. External parasite infections, such as myiasis, can cause significant economic loss and presents as a major welfare problem. The range of elevated temperatures predicted by current climate change scenarios, result in an elongated blowfly season with earlier spring emergence and a higher cumulative incidence of fly strike. Additionally, legislative decisions leading to enforced changes in pesticide usage and choices have resulted in increased reports and spread of ectoparasitic infections, particularly mite, lice and tick infestations in sheep. Factors, such as dip disposal and associated environmental concerns, and, perhaps more

  7. An estimate of seasonality and intensity of infection with gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep and goats . in West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beriajaya

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Tracer Inoodle tbin-tail sheep and Kacang goats were used to measure the seasonal changes in gastrointestinal nematodes parasitism i ~'und[, .xillapek .Fodd~ 'ofis in West Java . Each 3 months for 12 months worm-free male sheep (5 and goats (5 about 5 months of age were ~ $Jri~tgldI o% ef- farmer, and managed as part of their flock for 2 months . Animals were then returned to the laboratory and maintained on "`~^taaan-ftwAiet in elevated slatted pens for 3 weeks prior to slaughter. In all trials sheep had higher faecal egg counts than goats . Egg counts were significantly lower during the late dry-early wet season due mainly to lower burdens of Oesophagostomum spp. than at other times of the year. The predominant genera recovered from faecal larval cultures were Haemonchus and Trichostrongylus . At post mortem more than 94 percent of animals were infected with Trichostrongylus colubriformis, T. axei, Haemonchus contortus, Oesophagostomum columbianwn and Strongyloides papillosus . Other species found, in descending order of occurrence, were Cooperia curticei, Trichuris ovis, Bunostornum trigonocephalum, Oesophagostomumn asperum, Capillaria bovis and Gaigena pachycelis. It was concluded that intensity of exposure of both sheep and goats to H contortus, T. axei and C. curticei was similar throughout the year, but that availability of infectioe larvae of T. colubriformis was higher during the dry than the wet season and vise versa for O. columbianum . Sheep had higher burdens of T. Colubrzformis than goats but similar numbers of other species.

  8. The Australian synchrotron project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Australian Synchrotron to be built at Monash University, is a synchrotron light facility based on a 3-GeV electron storage ring. It is scheduled to be fully operational in 2007. In this paper we describe the accelerator systems that lie at the heart of the facility, and describe the spectral characteristics of the 'light' - ranging from infra-red to hard x-rays - that will be provided from bend magnets, undulators, and wigglers

  9. Australian Hackers and Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Warren

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to look at the way hackers act and ways in which society can protect itself. The paper will show the current views and attitudes of hackers in an Australian context. The paper will also include a case study to show how a hacking incident can develop and how technology can be used to protect against hacking.

  10. Meat quality of goat and sheep sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, A.; Pereira, Etelvina; Rodrigues, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to contribute to the characterization of a new product, based on goat and sheep meat with a strategy, which gives value-added to meat from culled goats and sheep, which have a very low commercial price. Carcasses from animals weighing more than the body weight allowed by PDO label specifications were used to produce fresh sausages. Sheep and goats sausages were produced in a traditional industry, in Northeast Portugal. The following character...

  11. Mineral requirements of dairy sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Camboni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the major (Calcium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Sodium, Chlorine, Sulphur, Magnesium and the trace  elements (Iron, Copper, Cobalt, Iodine, Manganese, Zync, Molybdenum, Selenium that play an essential role in animal  metabolism. For each one the authors indicate not only the function, but also the more recent advances in terms of  daily requirements for dairy sheep

  12. Feeding cassava foliage to sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Hue, Khuc Thi

    2012-01-01

    The potential of cassava foliage (Manihot esculenta Crantz) as a protein-rich feed in sheep production in Vietnam was examined by studying cassava foliage yield, hydrogen cyanide (HCN) content, toxicity and performance of lambs fed the foliage as a supplement. Cassava foliage fed ad libitum as a protein supplement to a basal diet of urea-treated rice straw gave similar lamb live weight gain (LWG) as diets supplemented with commercial concentrate or protein-rich foliage of stylosanthes (S...

  13. Genetic and environmental variation in methane emissions of sheep at pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D L; Goopy, J P; Hegarty, R S; Oddy, V H; Thompson, A N; Toovey, A F; Macleay, C A; Briegal, J R; Woodgate, R T; Donaldson, A J; Vercoe, P E

    2014-10-01

    A total of 2,600 methane (CH4) and 1,847 CO2 measurements of sheep housed for 1 h in portable accumulation chambers (PAC) were recorded at 5 sites from the Australian Sheep CRC Information Nucleus, which was set up to test leading young industry sires for an extensive range of current and novel production traits. The final validated dataset had 2,455 methane records from 2,279 animals, which were the progeny of 187 sires and 1,653 dams with 7,690 animals in the pedigree file. The protocol involved rounding up animals from pasture into a holding paddock before the first measurement on each day and then measuring in groups of up to 16 sheep over the course of the day. Methane emissions declined linearly (with different slopes for each site) with time since the sheep were drafted into the holding area. After log transformation, estimated repeatability (rpt) and heritability (h(2)) of liveweight-adjusted CH4 emissions averaged 25% and 11.7%, respectively, for a single 1-h measurement. Sire × site interactions were small and nonsignificant. Correlations between EBV for methane emissions and Sheep Genetics Australia EBV for production traits were used as approximations to genetic correlations. Apart from small positive correlations with weaning and yearling weights (r = 0.21-0.25, P production trait and methane EBV (calculated from a model adjusting for liveweight by fitting separate slopes for each site). To improve accuracy, future protocols should use the mean of 2 (rpt = 39%, h(2) = 18.6%) or 3 (rpt = 48%, h(2) = 23.2%) PAC measurements. Repeat tests under different pasture conditions and time of year should also be considered, as well as protocols measuring animals directly off pasture instead of rounding them up in the morning. Reducing the time in the PAC from 1 h to 40 min would have a relatively small effect on overall accuracy and partly offset the additional time needed for more tests per animal. Field testing in PAC has the potential to provide accurate

  14. Heat exposure on farmers in northeast Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimpong, Kwasi; Van Etten E J, Eddie; Oosthuzien, Jacques; Fannam Nunfam, Victor

    2016-08-01

    Environmental health hazards faced by farmers, such as exposure to extreme heat stress, are a growing concern due to global climate change, particularly in tropical developing countries. In such environments, farmers are considered to be a population at risk of environmental heat exposure. The situation is exacerbated due to their farming methods that involve the use of primitive equipment and hard manual labour conducted in full sunshine under hot and humid conditions. However, there is inadequate information about the extent of heat exposure to such farmers, both at the household and farm levels. This paper presents results from a study assessing environmental heat exposure on rural smallholder farmers in Bawku East, Northern Ghana. From January to December 2013, Lascar USB temperature and humidity sensors and a calibrated Questemp heat stress monitor were deployed to farms and homes of rural farmers at Pusiga in Bawku East to capture farmers' exposure to heat stress in both their living and working environments as they executed regular farming routines. The Lascar sensors have the capability to frequently, accurately and securely measure temperature and humidity over long periods. The Questemp heat stress monitor was placed in the same vicinity and showed strong correlations to Lascar sensors in terms of derived values of wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT). The WBGT in the working environment of farmers peaked at 33.0 to 38.1 °C during the middle of the day in the rainy season from March to October and dropped to 14.0-23.7 °C in the early morning during this season. A maximum hourly WBGT of 28.9-37.5 °C (March-October) was recorded in the living environment of farmers, demonstrating little relief from heat exposure during the day. With these levels of heat stress, exposed farmers conducting physically demanding outdoor work risk suffering serious health consequences. The sustainability of manual farming practices is also under threat by such high levels of

  15. Neuropsychological and psychiatric functioning in sheep farmers exposed to low levels of organophosphate pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Mackenzie Ross, Sarah Jane; Brewin, Chris Ray; Curran, Helen Valerie; Furlong, Clement Eugene; Abraham-Smith, Kelly Michelle; Harrison, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    The study aim was to determine whether low level exposure to organophosphate pesticides (OPs) causes neuropsychological or psychiatric impairment. Methodological weaknesses of earlier studies were addressed by: recruiting participants who had retired on ill health grounds; excluding participants with a history of acute poisoning, medical or psychiatric conditions that might account for ill health; and exploring factors which may render some individuals more vulnerable to the effects of OPs th...

  16. Environmental performances of Sardinian dairy sheep production systems at different input levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagnoni, E; Franca, A; Breedveld, L; Porqueddu, C; Ferrara, R; Duce, P

    2015-01-01

    Although sheep milk production is a significant sector for the European Mediterranean countries, it shows serious competitiveness gaps. Minimizing the ecological impacts of dairy sheep farming systems could represent a key factor for farmers to bridging the gaps in competitiveness of such systems and also obtaining public incentives. However, scarce is the knowledge about the environmental performance of Mediterranean dairy sheep farms. The main objectives of this paper were (i) to compare the environmental impacts of sheep milk production from three dairy farms in Sardinia (Italy), characterized by different input levels, and (ii) to identify the hotspots for improving the environmental performances of each farm, by using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. The LCA was conducted using two different assessment methods: Carbon Footprint-IPCC and ReCiPe end-point. The analysis, conducted "from cradle to gate", was based on the functional unit 1 kg of Fat and Protein Corrected Milk (FPCM). The observed trends of the environmental performances of the studied farming systems were similar for both evaluation methods. The GHG emissions revealed a little range of variation (from 2.0 to 2.3 kg CO2-eq per kg of FPCM) with differences between farming systems being not significant. The ReCiPe end-point analysis showed a larger range of values and environmental performances of the low-input farm were significantly different compared to the medium- and high-input farms. In general, enteric methane emissions, field operations, electricity and production of agricultural machineries were the most relevant processes in determining the overall environmental performances of farms. Future research will be dedicated to (i) explore and better define the environmental implications of the land use impact category in the Mediterranean sheep farming systems, and (ii) contribute to revising and improving the existing LCA dataset for Mediterranean farming systems. PMID:25265396

  17. Would banning atrazine benefit farmers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Frank; Whited, Melissa; Knight, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Atrazine, an herbicide used on most of the US corn (maize) crop, is the subject of ongoing controversy, with increasing documentation of its potentially harmful health and environmental impacts. Supporters of atrazine often claim that it is of great value to farmers; most recently, Syngenta, the producer of atrazine, sponsored an "Atrazine Benefits Team" (ABT) of researchers who released a set of five papers in 2011, reporting huge economic benefits from atrazine use in US agriculture. A critical review of the ABT papers shows that they have underestimated the growing problem of atrazine-resistant weeds, offered only a partial review of the effectiveness of alternative herbicides, and ignored the promising option of nonchemical weed management techniques. In addition, the most complete economic analysis in the ABT papers implies that withdrawal of atrazine would lead to a decrease in corn yields of 4.4% and an increase in corn prices of 8.0%. The result would be an increase in corn growers' revenues, equal to US$1.7 billion annually under ABT assumptions. Price impacts on consumers would be minimal: at current levels of ethanol production and use, gasoline prices would rise by no more than US$0.03 per gallon; beef prices would rise by an estimated US$0.01 for a 4-ounce hamburger and US$0.05 for an 8-ounce steak. Thus withdrawal of atrazine would boost farm revenues, while only changing consumer prices by pennies. PMID:24804340

  18. Prevalence and risk factors for chronic bronchitis and farmer's lung in French dairy farmers.

    OpenAIRE

    Dalphin, J.C.; Debieuvre, D.; Pernet, D.; Maheu, M F; Polio, J. C.; Toson, B.; Dubiez, A.; Monnet, E; Laplante, J. J.; Depierre, A

    1993-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic bronchitis and of clinical farmer's lung was studied in 30 districts of the French Doubs province in relation to individual (age, sex, smoking) and geographical (altitude) factors. 5703 exclusively dairy farmers (response rate 83%) participated in the study by answering a medical questionnaire. Prevalences of chronic bronchitis and clinical farmer's lung were 9.3% and 1.4% respectively. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate risk factors for chronic bronchi...

  19. Farmer co-designed agroforestry initiative reduces field residue removal by subsistence farmers in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Anders, E.; Norton, U.

    2013-01-01

    This study will evaluate the magnitude and origins of plant biomass use in everyday small-holder farmer households. Implementation of farmer co-designed agroforestry practices as an offset to current post-harvest field residue collection and transition processes associated will be assessed. We hypothesize that post-harvest crop residue use is critical to current subsistence strategies. It is further hypothesized that co-designed alternative resources will mitigate farmer need to remove post-h...

  20. Farmer's suicides in India: Issues and Concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. S.R. Keshava

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is the India's culture since time immemorial. Even today, Agriculture is a way of life and the principle source of livelihood for more than 52% of its population (Economic Survey 2009-10. Hence agriculture plays a key role in the overall economic and social well being of the country.Farmers face floods, drought, pests, disease, and a plethora of other natural disasters. The weather is their greatest adversary, something that can never be controlled by man. Yet, farming has been in existence since the caveman turned his spear in for a hoe. Farming has come a long way since then; nevertheless; farmers are still at the mercy of the heavens. Crop insurance is a risk management tool that farmers can use in today's agricultural world. Government of India as early as 1972 initiated the administered insurance schemes. But the lack of political and bureaucratic will failed one nobler scheme leaving the farmer to his fate.

  1. Sharing Economic Fruits with 900 Million Farmers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAOTIANBI

    2005-01-01

    The current goal of the central government is to benefit China′s900 million farmers through the development of mrket economy,as there can be no harmonious society without the participation of its major body.

  2. THE BACKYARD OF THE CORN FARMERS. SAN NICOLÁS DE LOS RANCHOS, PUEBLA-MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis López González

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to identify the contribution that the backyards of corn farmers make to food security and the preservation and conservation of plant and animal diversity, and its link with farmers' knowledge, in San Nicolas de los Ranchos. To this end, 77 producers surveyed randomly selected corn was calculated using an equation, the role of food security in the backyard, and the calculation of the diversity index and species richness that helped expose the plant diversity found also estimated the amount of dung that provide animals to backyard farming, this helped to show synergy livestock farming. Some results suggest that the products obtained in the backyard contribute to feeding the family. Also found plant and animal diversity, as are most ornamental plants, food and medicinal use, it is also possible to identify animals such as chickens, turkeys, sheep, goats, cows, horses and donkeys.

  3. Validity of self-reported sedentary time differs between Australian rural men engaged in office and farming occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollman, James; Pontt, Johanna L; Rowlands, Alex V

    2016-01-01

    Rural Australians have a higher likelihood of chronic disease than urban Australians, particularly male farmers. Chronic disease has been associated with occupational sedentary time. The aim was to validate the self-report of sedentary time in men in contrasting rural occupations. Farmers (n = 29) and office workers (n = 28), age 30-65 years, were recruited from the Riverland region of South Australia. Daily sedentary time and number of breaks in sedentary time were self-reported and measured objectively using body-worn inclinometers. Correlational analyses were conducted between self-reported and objectively measured variables, separately by occupation. There was a significant correlation between self-reported and objectively measured sedentary time in the whole sample (r = 0.44, P = 0.001). The correlation among office workers was significant (r = 0.57, P = 0.003) but not among farmers (r = 0.08, P = 0.68). There were no significant correlations between self-reported and measured number of breaks in sedentary time, for the whole sample (rho = -0.03, P = 0.83), office workers (rho = 0.17, P = 0.39) and farmers (rho = -0.22, P = 0.25). In conclusion, the validity of self-report of sedentary behaviours by farmers was poor. Further research is needed to develop better performing self-report instruments or more accessible objective measures of sedentary behaviour in this population. PMID:26430922

  4. Towards Inclusion: An Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    This article outlines the views of the Australian Special Education Principals' Association (ASEPA) on inclusion and the impact this is having on Australian Government Schools from a school based perspective. ASEPA is a relatively young association and was formed in 1997 out of the need to put forward the case to support students with special…

  5. NPT review conference: Australian statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article contains the text of statement delivered by the leader of the Australian delegation to the Second Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference in Geneva on August 14, 1980. An outline is given of Australian policy regarding nuclear weapons proliferation

  6. Economics of farmer early retirement policy

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, John; Caskie, Paul; Wallace, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Abstract We estimate the structural effects, costs and potential efficiency gains that might arise from the introduction of an Early Retirement Scheme for farmers in Northern Ireland using data from the Farm Business Survey and a separate survey of 350 farmers aged between 50 and 65. Modelling results suggest that farm scale is a significant determinant of profit per hectare but that operator age is not. The economic gains from releasing land through a Scheme were conditional on tr...

  7. ATTITUDES OF MACEDONIAN FARMERS TOWARDS EU ACCESSION

    OpenAIRE

    Kotevska, Ana; Martinovska-Stojcheska, Aleksandra; Ohlmer, Bo; Dimitrievski, Dragi

    2012-01-01

    Macedonia is a candidate-country for EU membership since 2005. The EU integrative process, without doubt, will have impact on the Macedonian economy and particularly on the agricultural sector, as being one of the most significant in terms of GDP contribution and workforce employer. So far, farmer's attitudes and intentions with regard to the EU integration and accession were not much investigated. In this sense, the objective of the paper is to provide understanding of the Macedonian farmers...

  8. Occupational diseases among farmers in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Neonila Szeszenia-Dąbrowska; Beata Świątkowska; Urszula Wilczyńska

    2016-01-01

    Background: The study’s objective is to present epidemiological situation concerning the incidence of occupational diseases among farmers in Poland. Material and Methods: All 3438 cases of occupational diseases diagnosed among farmers and obligatorily reported to the Central Register of Occupational Diseases (covering all the national territory and all the cases of occupational diseases diagnosed in Poland after 1970) over the years 2000–2014 were subjected to analysis. Results: The annual in...

  9. Factors Influencing Smallholder Farmers' Climate Change Perceptions: A Study from Farmers in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habtemariam, Lemlem Teklegiorgis; Gandorfer, Markus; Kassa, Getachew Abate; Heissenhuber, Alois

    2016-08-01

    Factors influencing climate change perceptions have vital roles in designing strategies to enrich climate change understanding. Despite this, factors that influence smallholder farmers' climate change perceptions have not yet been adequately studied. As many of the smallholder farmers live in regions where climate change is predicted to have the most negative impact, their climate change perception is of particular interest. In this study, based on data collected from Ethiopian smallholder farmers, we assessed farmers' perceptions and anticipations of past and future climate change. Furthermore, the factors influencing farmers' climate change perceptions and the relation between farmers' perceptions and available public climate information were assessed. Our findings revealed that a majority of respondents perceive warming temperatures and decreasing rainfall trends that correspond with the local meteorological record. Farmers' perceptions about the past climate did not always reflect their anticipations about the future. A substantial number of farmers' anticipations of future climate were less consistent with climate model projections. The recursive bivariate probit models employed to explore factors affecting different categories of climate change perceptions illustrate statistical significance for explanatory variables including location, gender, age, education, soil fertility status, climate change information, and access to credit services. The findings contribute to the literature by providing evidence not just on farmers' past climate perceptions but also on future climate anticipations. The identified factors help policy makers to provide targeted extension and advisory services to enrich climate change understanding and support appropriate farm-level climate change adaptations. PMID:27179801

  10. Factors Influencing Smallholder Farmers' Climate Change Perceptions: A Study from Farmers in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habtemariam, Lemlem Teklegiorgis; Gandorfer, Markus; Kassa, Getachew Abate; Heissenhuber, Alois

    2016-08-01

    Factors influencing climate change perceptions have vital roles in designing strategies to enrich climate change understanding. Despite this, factors that influence smallholder farmers' climate change perceptions have not yet been adequately studied. As many of the smallholder farmers live in regions where climate change is predicted to have the most negative impact, their climate change perception is of particular interest. In this study, based on data collected from Ethiopian smallholder farmers, we assessed farmers' perceptions and anticipations of past and future climate change. Furthermore, the factors influencing farmers' climate change perceptions and the relation between farmers' perceptions and available public climate information were assessed. Our findings revealed that a majority of respondents perceive warming temperatures and decreasing rainfall trends that correspond with the local meteorological record. Farmers' perceptions about the past climate did not always reflect their anticipations about the future. A substantial number of farmers' anticipations of future climate were less consistent with climate model projections. The recursive bivariate probit models employed to explore factors affecting different categories of climate change perceptions illustrate statistical significance for explanatory variables including location, gender, age, education, soil fertility status, climate change information, and access to credit services. The findings contribute to the literature by providing evidence not just on farmers' past climate perceptions but also on future climate anticipations. The identified factors help policy makers to provide targeted extension and advisory services to enrich climate change understanding and support appropriate farm-level climate change adaptations.

  11. 12 CFR 615.5174 - Farmer Mac securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farmer Mac securities. 615.5174 Section 615....5174 Farmer Mac securities. (a) General authority. You may purchase and hold mortgage securities that... Corporation (Farmer Mac securities). You may purchase and hold Farmer Mac securities for the purposes...

  12. 26 CFR 1.162-12 - Expenses of farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Expenses of farmers. 1.162-12 Section 1.162-12... farmers. (a) Farms engaged in for profit. A farmer who operates a farm for profit is entitled to deduct... 263A and the regulations thereunder. For taxable years beginning after July 12, 1972, where a farmer...

  13. Disseminating Improved Practices: Are Volunteer Farmer Trainers Effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukuyu, B.; Place, F.; Franzel, S.; Kiptot, E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper assesses the effectiveness of volunteer farmer trainers in promoting adoption of agricultural technologies in western Kenya. Specifically, the purpose was to assess the type of information they disseminated, farmer trainers' characteristics desirable to farmer trainees, and how trainees evaluate farmer trainers.…

  14. Black Farmers: Why Such a Severe and Continuing Decline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, Calvin

    1991-01-01

    Proposes reasons for the precipitous drop in the number of Black farmers since the 1950s. Today, most Black farmers have very small operations and are at an advanced age. A healthy rural nonfarm economy is essential to supplement farmers incomes. The Agriculture Credit Act of 1987 offers low-interest loans to Black farmers. (KS)

  15. Preception of Farmers Regarding Rice Technology Adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.D. Mirani

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice is one of the important cash crop of Pakistan. To improve rice production, farmers must be aware of recommended practices. Different sources of information are used for dissemination of information and it was assumed that farmer would be able to understand new technology for rice production and will employ this technology at their fields. Therefore, this study sought to describe farmers level of knowledge regarding the recommended technology for rice production and to assess the effectiveness of the sources of information. The study used a sample survey method and identifies through a simple random sampling technique 150 rice growers of Larkana district of Sindh province of Pakistan. The study found that more than 70% rice growers were following recommended technology which was considered under the moderate level. Radio and Agriculture Extension were found significant sources in helping farmers to adopt new technology. Farmers were of the opinion that the government should held conferences for farmers which is helpful in understanding new and improved technological advancement in the field of agriculture. The majority of the respondents perceived that agricultural extension agents should pay visit to their farm/field on a regular basis.

  16. Goats, sheep, and cattle: some basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasture-based finishing systems for meat goats, sheep and cattle are growing rapidly in the eastern USA. Increasing demand for pasture-raised meat and dairy products requires renewed efforts to communicate the best practical information in order to initiate mixed grazing with goats, sheep, and beef...

  17. Molecular characterization of cryptosporidium in brazilian sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feces were collected from 125 sheep between January and December 2007, on ten farms in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium. Ninety samples were collected from lambs 2 to 6 months of age, and 35 were from sheep over 12 months of age. All samples were...

  18. The perils of technology transfer : the Australian wheat/medic System in the Near East/North Africa region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risopoulos, S.

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Yields and production of rainfed areas in the Near East and North Africa are stagnating. The Australian wheat-medic system has been tried out in several countries of the region, Increases in soil fertility and yields were expected as well as better crop-livestock integration. Difficulties were more serious than foreseen. The farmer of the region differs from his Australian counterpart by the much smaller size of his farm and by his preference for keeping his land-use options open to match climatic variability.

  19. ANALYSIS OF FARMERS' AGRICULTURAL KNOWLEDGE IN SUGARCANE CULTIVATION

    OpenAIRE

    Karim, Masud; Hossain, M. Delwar

    1993-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to assess farmers' agricultural knowledge in sugarcane cultivation. The specific objectives of the study were to i) describe the selected characteristics of the farmers, ii) determine the extent of farmers agricultural knowledge in sugarcane cultivation, and iii) determine the relationships between the selected characteristics of the farmers and their agricultural knowledge in sugarcane cultivation. Data were collected from a randomly selected 140 farmers th...

  20. How does farmer connectivity influence livestock genetic structure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthouly, C; Do, Duy Ngoc; Thévenon, S;

    2009-01-01

    farmers and their husbandry practices will define the farmer's network and so determine farmer connectivity. It is thus assumed that farmer connectivity will affect the genetic structure of their livestock. To test this hypothesis, goats reared by four different ethnic groups in a Vietnamese province were...... ethnic groups, ethnicity and husbandry practices. In this study, we clearly linked the livestock genetic pattern to farmer connectivity and showed the importance of taking into account spatial information in genetic studies....

  1. Processes of enlightenment : farmer initiatives in rural development in China

    OpenAIRE

    Ye Jingzhong

    2002-01-01

    This research concerns development initiatives in rural communities. I define a farmer initiative as the impetus that sufficiently and necessarily drives a farmer (or group of farmers) to formulate a realistic strategic plan, and to implement it in an attempt to create space for manoeuvre and to pursue change through changing social conditions. Farmer initiatives emerge from farmers' experiences, knowledge, events, social networks, and from interactions among themselves, a wider network of ac...

  2. 9 CFR 113.45 - Sheep safety test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sheep safety test. 113.45 Section 113... Procedures § 113.45 Sheep safety test. The sheep safety test provided in this section shall be conducted when.... (1) Inject each of two sheep of the minimum age for which the product is recommended with...

  3. Familiarity with and uptake of alternative methods to control sheep gastro-intestinal parasites on farms in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Hope; Pandolfi, Fanny; Kyriazakis, Ilias

    2016-05-15

    A questionnaire was distributed electronically amongst sheep farmers in England; it aimed to provide a quantification of current anthelmintic practices, farmer awareness of the issue of anthelmintic resistance (AR) and the uptake, awareness and opinions surrounding conventional and alternative methods of nematode control. The majority of farmers relied on several anthelmintics and used faecal egg counts to identify worm problems. Although farmers were aware of the issue of AR amongst helminth parasites in the UK, there was a disconnection between such awareness and on farm problems and practice of nematode control. Grazing management was used by 52% of responders, while breeding for resistance and bioactive forages by 22 and 18% respectively. Farms with more than 500 ewes, and farmers who felt nematodes were a problem, had a higher probability of using selective breeding. Farmers who considered their wormer effective, had a qualification in agriculture and whose staff did not include any family members, were more likely to use bioactive forages; the opposite was the case if farmers dosed their lambs frequently. Amongst the alternatives, highest preference was for selective breeding and vaccination, if the latter was to become commercially available, with more respondents having a preference for breeding than actually using it. Several barriers to the uptake of an alternative were identified, the most influential factor being the cost to set it up and the length of time for which it would remain effective. The disconnection between awareness of AR and practice of nematode control on farm reinforces the need for emphasising the links between the causes of AR and the consequences of strategies to address its challenge. PMID:27084464

  4. Technological level and epidemiological aspects of sheep husbandry in Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora M.G. Gouveia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and health aspects of sheep husbandry were assessed on 213 sheep flocks in 142 municipalities from the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. An updated questionnaire was filled out for each flock, requesting data on the farm, the flock and the farmer by the veterinarians of the State Government Agency for Animal Health (Instituto Mineiro de Agropecuária. Thirteen important variables were selected and scored to determine the technological level of the 117 farms; 0.9% of them was classified as high technological level, 45.3% as medium technological level and 53.0% as low technological level. Lamb production was the main objective of the farms and the main features were low-frequencies of individual identification of animals (16.9%, technical assistance (31.9%, use of quarantine for newly acquired animals (0.9% the separation of animals by age group (3.7% and requeste the sanitary certificate at purchasing of animals (11.7%. The main health problems reported were abortion (23.9%, keratoconjunctivitis (17.9%, contagious ecthyma (13.6%, pneumonia (10.3%, diarrhea (9.3% and caseous lymphadenitis (6.1%. Information of the epidemiological situation and the mainly health measures used in the sheep farms are important to improve the productivity and quality of the lamb.

  5. PRE-WEANING GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF SEKOTA SHEEP BREED IN WAGHIMRA ZONE, ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AEMERO YIHEYIS

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Pre-weaning growth performances of Sekota sheep breed was studied at Sekota district of Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia under traditional crop-livestock production systems which is characterized by extensive, low-input low-output system. Two hundred thirty one lambs were monitored from birth to weaning age. Data on growth performances were collected and analyzed using the general linear model procedures of Statistical analysis system software. The least squares mean birth weight, three months weight and average daily weight gains from birth to three months age were 2.73 kg, 11.9 kg and 101 gm, respectively. Parity and type of birth were significant sources of variation for birth weight. Location had an effect of three months weight. The results obtained revealed the potential of the breed for meat production in the prevailing environment. The effect of parity on birth weight indicates special care for lambs from maiden ewes. Management options like integrated health care and supplementation of feed for sheep during the dry season help farmers to benefit from their sheep.

  6. The Prevalence of Sheep Traumatic Myiasis in Three Counties from the West Side of Romania and Bacteria Isolated from the Insects Maggots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Marina Mot

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis represents an infestation of animals and humans caused by the maggots of certain fly species of Diptera order, Insecta class, which feed on the hosts' living or dead tissues or body fluids. In sheep, myiasis is a major animal welfare issue developing serious pain, suffering and in untreated cases may result in tissue injuries, reproduction and productivity losses and even death. There are two most important fly species which cause traumatic cutaneous myiasis of sheep in Europe: Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Sarcophagidae implicated in etiology of wound myiasis in southern and eastern Europe and Lucilia sericata (Calliphoridae, implicated in etiology of sheep strike, mainly in the middle latitudes of Europe continent. A few farmers from Timiş, Arad and Caraş-Severin counties were been asked to response to a questionnaire on the prevalence of traumatic myiasis which evolved in their sheep flock in April-September period of year 2012. From a total number of 2206 sheep taken into study were been discovered 1658 healthy sheep (75.16% and 548 sheep with myiasis (24.84%. From identified lesions with myiasis were been collected insects maggots from all three stages of development and were been prepared in Microbiology laboratory in the view to obtain data on the culturable bacteria isolated under aerobic conditions. Bacteria detected from maggots samples were: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Proteus vulgaris, Micrococcus luteus and Escherichia coli. The myasis insects maggots in sheep infestation can acquire many bacteria from their host or from their surroundings, all these can, together another bacteria, complicate the lesions and without treatment may lead to animals death.

  7. The Dynamics, Prevalence and Impact of Nematode Infections in Organically Raised Sheep in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waller PJ

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A three-year survey (1997–99 was carried out on organically reared sheep flocks throughout Sweden. The aim was to determine the prevalence and intensity of nematode infections and to establish relationships between sheep management practices and parasite infections. Faecal samples from ewes and lambs were collected from 152 organic flocks around lambing-time and during the grazing-period for analysis. Results were compared with the different management practices that farmers use to prevent parasitism in their flocks. A high proportion of the flocks was infected with nematodes. The most prevalent species were Haemonchus contortus, Teladorsagia circumeincta, Trichostrongylus axei, T. colubriformis and Chabertia ovina and infections progressively increased during summer in lambs grazing on permanent pastures. Severity of parasitic infection in lambs was highly dependent on egg output from the ewes. H. contortus was found in 37% of the flocks, even at latitudes approximating the Polar Circle. Nematodirus battus was recorded for the first time in Sweden during the course of this study. Lambs turned out onto permanent pasture showed higher nematode faecal egg counts (epg than lambs that had grazed on pastures, which had not carried sheep the previous year. This beneficial effect of lambs grazing non-infected pastures persisted if the ewes were treated with an anthelmintic before turn-out and if the lambs were kept on pastures of low infectivity after weaning. In lambs, the prevalence and the magnitude of their egg counts were higher during autumn in flocks where lambs were slaughtered after 8 months of age, compared with flocks where all lambs were slaughtered before this age. These results will be used in providing advice to farmers of ways to modify their flock management in order to minimise the use of anthelmintics, but at the same time efficiently produce prime lambs.

  8. EXPLAINING DIFFERENCES IN PRICES RECEIVED BY FARMERS: TESTING THEORY BASED ON ACTUAL FARMER TRANSACTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, Lewis T., III; Brorsen, B. Wade; Anderson, Kim B.

    2004-01-01

    There has been considerable normative research about how farmers should make marketing decisions, but little positive research on what farmers really do. Regressions of gender, total volume, timing, and frequency of sales on the average weighted price received are used to test hypotheses regarding gender differences, myopic loss aversion, economies of size, and market efficiency.

  9. Aspects Regarding the Coprological Pollution Level in Some Sheep Helminthiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Octavian Negrea; Vioara Mireşan; Camelia Raducu; Flore Chirilă; Octavia Negrea; Adriana Criste; Daniel Cocan; Iulia Festila

    2013-01-01

    The investigations on the incidence and intensity of parasitism in some endoparasytes in sheep  performed on 376 animals (260 sheep and 116 young adult sheep) Turcana breed, Gilău area, Cluj County, indicated an increased incidence in trihostrongilidys  of 72.7% in young  sheep and 65.0% in adult sheep. The incidence of monesya had different values ​​depending on age group, 45.5% at young sheep and 10.0% in  adult sheep. The data obtained regarding the prevalence of hepatobiliary trematodsys...

  10. Marine Biodiversity in the Australian Region

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Alan J.; Rees, Tony; Beesley, Pam; Bax, Nicholas J.

    2010-01-01

    The entire Australian marine jurisdictional area, including offshore and sub-Antarctic islands, is considered in this paper. Most records, however, come from the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) around the continent of Australia itself. The counts of species have been obtained from four primary databases (the Australian Faunal Directory, Codes for Australian Aquatic Biota, Online Zoological Collections of Australian Museums, and the Australian node of the Ocean Biogeographic Information System),...

  11. The rate of spread of sheep scab within small groups of Merino and Dorper sheep : short communication

    OpenAIRE

    T. Meintjies; L. J. Fourie; I.G. Horak

    2002-01-01

    A single Merino sheep, artificially infested with the sheep scab mite, Psoroptes ovis, and a similarly infested Dorper sheep were placed with 9 uninfested Merino or 9 uninfested Dorper sheep respectively during winter and the rate of spread of infestation on the uninfested sheep observed. The same procedure was repeated in summer. It took 14 and 8 weeks respectively in winter before all sheep in the 2 groups displayed lesions of sheep scab, whereas in summer it took 10 and 12 weeks before all...

  12. An Inquiry into Cultivation of New-generation Farmers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This article expounds the necessity of the transformation from traditional farmers to modern new farmers: the building of new socialist countryside needs modern new farmers; the coordination of urban-rural integration development needs the transformation from traditional farmers to modern new farmers; the development of modern agriculture needs the transformation from traditional farmers to modern new farmers. Then it analyses the characteristics and role of new-generation farmers, and presents the way to accelerate cultivation of new-generation farmers: make sound laws and regulations, to lay solid foundation for cultivation of new-generation farmers; create conditions, to provide funds guarantee for cultivation of new-generation farmers; make scientific planning, to promote regular, systematized and standardized training work for new-generation farmers; focus on education, to promote the overall quality of new-generation farmers; innovate upon content, to meet the needs of development of new-generation farmers; highlight focus, to intensify competitiveness training for returning-home migrant workers.

  13. Conservation genetics in Chinese sheep: diversity of fourteen indigenous sheep (Ovis aries) using microsatellite markers

    OpenAIRE

    E, Guang‐Xin; Zhong, Tao; Ma, Yue‐Hui; Gao, Hui‐Jiang; He, Jian‐Ning; Liu, Nan; Zhao, Yong‐Ju; Zhang, Jia‐Hua; Huang, Yong‐Fu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The domestic sheep (Ovis aries) has been an economically and culturally important farm animal species since its domestication around the world. A wide array of sheep breeds with abundant phenotypic diversity exists including domestication and selection as well as the indigenous breeds may harbor specific features as a result of adaptation to their environment. The objective of this study was to investigate the population structure of indigenous sheep in a large geographic location of...

  14. Rumen protozoa in South African sheep with a summary of the worldwide distribution of sheep protozoa

    OpenAIRE

    Dirk Booyse; Burk A. Dehority

    2011-01-01

    Protozoa species were identified in rumen contents of four domestic sheep (Ovis aries) from South Africa. All animals were fed a forage diet which consisted of 50% lucerne and 50% teff hay. Ten new host records were identified, bringing the total number of species and forms observed in sheep in South Africa to 30. The occurrence and geographic distribution of ciliate protozoa in both domestic and wild sheep from around the world are summarised. It was found that 15 genera and 131 species...

  15. GM plants, farmers and the public

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Jesper; Sandøe, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The controversy in Europe over genetically manipulated (GM) foods has been conceived largely as a conflict between a reluctant public and a more enthusiastic agri-food sector. As a result, the political focus has been on the public to the neglect of other actors, such as the farmers, whose...... willingness to adopt GM technology is taken for granted. This article explores the case of herbicide-resistant GM plants with claimed environmental benefits. It is assumed that these claims satisfy public concerns and that farmers are not only willing to grow them but do so in a way that ensures that the...... hand, the result of a conflict between the idea behind herbicide-resistant plants and what we conceptualise as harmony on the farm, and , on the other hand, the way farmers perceive nature in relation to the farm. In a wider perspective the problems illustrate a clash between an agricultural and GM...

  16. Impact on Western Australia’s sheep supply chain of the termination of live sheep exports

    OpenAIRE

    Nath, Tanmoy; Kingwell, Ross S.; Cunningham, Peter; Islam, Nazrul; Xayavong, Vilaphonh; Curtis, Kimbal; Feldman, David; Anderton, Lucy; Mahindua, Truphena

    2012-01-01

    Western Australia (WA) supplies around three-quarters of Australia’s exports of live sheep. The number of sheep exported live from WA has ranged from 4.5 million to 2.4 million with the trend in numbers exported being downwards. The future of this export trade appears to be increasingly vulnerable and uncertain, primarily because of the influence of animal welfare lobbyists. This paper uses scenario analysis to assess the impact on WA’s sheep supply chain of the termination of the live sheep ...

  17. An Australian Sense of Xenophobia

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Burney

    2009-01-01

    Linda Burney of the Wiradjuri Nation and Minister for Community Services in New South Wales discusses how xenophobia has manifested itself as forms of political and institutional racism in Australian history. She asks us to think of Australia as a giant and beautiful mosaic with over 200 Aboriginal Nations and for the rest of the Australian population to welcome ways to work with all its nation's people.

  18. Learner discipline: An Australian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    STEWART, D.

    2004-01-01

    Australian schools by and large are safe schools. Nonetheless discipline problems do exist – including bullying behaviour. For this kind of problem schools should have management policies in place. As traditional behaviour-management practices – including corporal punishment – are largely prohibited in Australian schools, contemporary practices centre on management through supportive school programmes, including appropriate curricula and school-support structures. This article supports the be...

  19. Chinese Rebalancing and Australian Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Gerard Kelly

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese authorities plan to gradually rebalance the composition of Chinese economic growth from investment towards household consumption. This article uses the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) to give a general sense of how this rebalancing might affect Australian exports and economic activity. Dollar for dollar, Chinese investment appears to absorb more than twice as much Australian value-added output as Chinese household consumption. This largely reflects the significant role of resou...

  20. Prospects for Australian uranium exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the focus of this paper is Australian uranium exports, the status of other energy minerals is also discussed briefly. The size of its uranium resources has given Australia the opportunity to become a major exporter; however, it is estimated that any major long-term expansion of uranium production hinges on favourable market conditions and on major changes in the Australian government's policy towards the industry. 4 tabs., ill

  1. Genetic Alterations in Pesticide Exposed Bolivian Farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; González, Ana Rosa; Ascarrunz, Maria Eugenia;

    2007-01-01

    evaluated by well known statistical methods, controlling for relevant confounders. To measure genetic damage chromosomal aberrations and the comet assay analysis were performed. Results: Pesticide exposed farmers had a higher degree of genetic damage compared to the control group. The number of chromosomal...... aberrations increased with the intensity of pesticide exposure. Females had a lower number of chromosomal aberrations than males, and people living at altitudes above 2500 metres seemed to exhibit more DNA damage measured by the comet assay. Conclusions: Bolivian farmers showed signs of genotoxic damage...

  2. Crop price indemnified loans for farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Karlan, Dean; Kutsoati, Ed; McMillan, Margaret; Udry, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Farmers face a particular set of risks that complicate the decision to borrow. We use a randomized experiment to investigate (1) the role of crop-price risk in reducing demand for credit among famers and (2) how risk mitigation changes farmers’ investment decisions. In rural Ghana, we offer farmers loans with an indemnity component that forgives 50 percent of the loan if crop prices drop below a threshold price. A control group is offered a standard loan product at the same interest rate. We ...

  3. The Cap and Water Trading in Australian Murray-Darling Basin for Wetlands Protection:The Possible Lessons for China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Qiang

    2008-01-01

    As the consequence of climate change, water that is received in Australian Murray-Darling Basin wetlands is declining and agricultural water demands are increasing. In order to keep the water use balance between environment protection including wetland protection and irrigation water use, the Australian government adopted a series of reforms in Murray-Darling Basin to address the environmental water shortage problem and encourage irrigators to use water more efficiently and plant high economic value crop. The water trading and cap are two major reforms in this process.In order to match up the environmental water demand such as wetland water use, based on the seasonal rainfall, dam level and environmental water demand, the cap system seasonally allocate how much water the irrigators can access as per water licenses. As the cap dramatically reduced the water access for irrigators, the water trading is aiming to use limited agricultural water more efficiently. The water trading scheme separate the water use right from the land property right and allow Australian farmers to trade their water licenses in the market. Water trading encouraged farmers who plant low value crops such as wheat and canola transfer their water entitles to farmers who plant high value crops such as grape. In the drought seasons, The Australian government can purchase the water licenses from irrigators to increase the environmental flows.This Australian water management system represents the most complicated and effective environmental and agricultural water use management in this world. There are possible many lessons that will help China to better manage the water use for wetland protection and farming practices.

  4. Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis of sheep livestock prices in origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavón-Domínguez, P.; Serrano, S.; Jiménez-Hornero, F. J.; Jiménez-Hornero, J. E.; Gutiérrez de Ravé, E.; Ariza-Villaverde, A. B.

    2013-10-01

    The multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) is used to verify whether or not the returns of time series of prices paid to farmers in original markets can be described by the multifractal approach. By way of example, 5 weekly time series of prices of different breeds, slaughter weight and market differentiation from 2000 to 2012 are analyzed. Results obtained from the multifractal parameters and multifractal spectra show that the price series of livestock products are of a multifractal nature. The Hurst exponent shows that these time series are stationary signals, some of which exhibit long memory (Merino milk-fed in Seville and Segureña paschal in Jaen), short memory (Merino paschal in Cordoba and Segureña milk-fed in Jaen) or even are close to an uncorrelated signals (Merino paschal in Seville). MF-DFA is able to discern the different underlying dynamics that play an important role in different types of sheep livestock markets, such as degree and source of multifractality. In addition, the main source of multifractality of these time series is due to the broadness of the probability function, instead of the long-range correlation properties between small and large fluctuations, which play a clearly secondary role.

  5. Putative Aspergillus niger-induced oxalate nephrosis in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, C J; Truter, M; Bredell, T; Lange, L; Mülders, M S G

    2009-03-01

    A sheep farmer provided a maize-based brewer's grain (mieliemaroek) and bales of Eragrostis curvula hay to ewes and their lambs, kept on zero-grazing in pens. The 'mieliemaroek' was visibly mouldy. After 14 days in the feedlot, clinical signs, including generalised weakness, ataxia of the hind limbs, tremors and recumbency, were noticed. Six ewes died within a period of 7 days. A post mortem examination was performed on 1 ewe. The carcass appeared to be cachectic with mild effusions into the body cavities; mild lung congestion and pallor of the kidneys were observed. Microscopical evaluation revealed nephrosis and birefringent oxalate crystals in the renal tubules when viewed under polarised light. A provisional diagnosis of oxalate nephrosis with subsequent kidney failure was made. Amongst other fungi, Aspergillus niger was isolated from 'mieliemaroek' samples submitted for fungal culture and identification. As A. niger is known to synthesise oxalates, a qualitative screen to detect oxalic acid in the mieliemaroek and purified A. niger isolates was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Oxalic acid was detected, which supported a diagnosis of soluble oxalate-induced nephropathy. PMID:19653520

  6. Radioiodide transfer across sheep placenta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unidirectional transplacental clearances of radioiodide were calculated from the net radioiodide fluxes after injection into fetal and/or maternal circulations of 33 catheterized conscious sheep. Maternofetal potential difference (PD) was also recorded. Clearance reached a steady state 20 min after bolus injection. Fetomaternal clearance was related to PD. Bidirectional clearance ratios measured in five experiments showed a significant divergence from the value for passive flux predicted from the measured PD, and in four experiments these ratios were also significantly different from unity, this result being incompatible with passive flux even if the transplacental PD is assumed to be zero. Injection of thiocyanate or iodide reduced radioiodide clearance. Fetomaternal clearance of radioiodide was halved by an increase in fetal plasma iodide concentration of approximately 0.1 mM. There appears to be an inhibitable iodide-transporting site capable of active transport in either direction

  7. Selective breeding for scrapie resistance in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Santos Sotomaior

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the susceptibility of sheep to scrapie is determined by the host’s prion protein gene (PRNP. PRNP polymorphisms at codons 136 (alanine, A/valine, V, 154 (histidine, H/arginine, R and 171 (glutamine, Q/histidine, H/arginine, R are the main determinants of sheep susceptibility/resistance to classical scrapie. There are four major variants of the wild-type ARQ allele: VRQ, AHQ, ARH and ARR. Breeding programs have been developed in the European Union and the USA to increase the frequency of the resistant ARR allele while decreasing the frequency of the susceptible VRQ allele in sheep populations. In Brazil, little PRNP genotyping data are available for sheep, and thus far, no controlled breeding scheme for scrapie has been implemented. This review will focus on important epidemiological aspects of scrapie and the use of genetic resistance as a tool in breeding programs to control the disease.

  8. 1989 sheep monitoring programme January - December 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report details the work undertaken by the Board during 1989 and includes the results of on-farm measurements, slaughterhouse monitoring and butchers' shops surveys relating to sheep and sheepmeat (author)

  9. 1988 sheep monitoring programme January - December 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarises the work undertaken by the Board during 1988 and includes the results of in vivo farm measurements, slaughterhouse monitoring and butcher's shops surveys relating to sheep and sheepmeat

  10. Schmallenberg virus experimental infection of sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd; Bréard, Emmanuel;

    2013-01-01

    Since late 2011, a novel orthobunyavirus, named Schmallenberg virus (SBV), has been implicated in many cases of severely malformed bovine and ovine offspring in Europe. In adult cattle, SBV is known to cause a mild transient disease; clinical signs include short febrile episodes, decreased milk...... production and diarrhoea for a few days. However, the knowledge about clinical signs and pathogenesis in adult sheep is limited.In the present study, adult sheep of European domestic breeds were inoculated with SBV either as cell culture grown virus or as virus with no history of passage in cell cultures...... 3–5 days by real-time RT-PCR. In total, 13 out of 30 inoculated sheep became RNAemic, with the highest viral load in animals inoculated with virus from low cell culture passaged or the animal passaged material. Contact animals remained negative throughout the study. One RNAemic sheep showed...

  11. GM2 gangliosidosis in British Jacob sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, M E; Holmes, J P; Jeffrey, M; Jackson, M; Mackintosh, A; Kolodny, E H; Zeng, B J; Wang, C B; Scholes, S F E

    2014-01-01

    GM2 gangliosidosis (Tay-Sachs disease) was diagnosed in 6- to 8-month-old pedigree Jacob lambs from two unrelated flocks presenting clinically with progressive neurological dysfunction of 10 day's to 8 week's duration. Clinical signs included hindlimb ataxia and weakness, recumbency and proprioceptive defects. Histopathological examination of the nervous system identified extensive neuronal cytoplasmic accumulation of material that stained with periodic acid--Schiff and Luxol fast blue. Electron microscopy identified membranous cytoplasmic bodies within the nervous system. Serum biochemistry detected a marked decrease in hexosaminidase A activity in the one lamb tested, when compared with the concentration in age matched controls and genetic analysis identified a mutation in the sheep hexa allele G444R consistent with Tay-Sachs disease in Jacob sheep in North America. The identification of Tay-Sachs disease in British Jacob sheep supports previous evidence that the mutation in North American Jacob sheep originated from imported UK stock. PMID:24309906

  12. Salivary prions in sheep and deer

    OpenAIRE

    Tamgüney, Gültekin; Richt, Jürgen A; Hamir, Amir N.; Greenlee, Justin J.; Miller, Michael W.; Wolfe, Lisa L; Sirochman, Tracey M; Young, Alan J; Glidden, David V.; Johnson, Natrina L.; Giles, Kurt; Stephen J DeArmond; Prusiner, Stanley B.

    2012-01-01

    Scrapie of sheep and chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids are transmissible prion diseases. Milk and placenta have been identified as sources of scrapie prions but do not explain horizontal transmission. In contrast, CWD prions have been reported in saliva, urine and feces, which are thought to be responsible for horizontal transmission. While the titers of CWD prions have been measured in feces, levels in saliva or urine are unknown. Because sheep produce ∼17 L/day of saliva and scrapie ...

  13. Technological suitability of sheep milk for processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romualda Danków

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Annual world sheep milk production is estimated at the level of 8.2 million tons and constitutes 1.5% of the total milk production obtained from various species of mammals. Majority of this milk is used to manufacture cheeses and fermented beverages. These products are commonly considered as regional articles and are protected by legal regulations which guarantee their taste and aroma typical for a given region and which they owe to traditional production technologies. In Poland, sheep are reared, primarily, in mountainous areas (Podhale, Bieszczady but also in Wielkopolska and Podlasie. The sheep population in Poland is estimated at 223 000 animals but milk is obtained only from a small number of animals and its annual production is assessed at the level of 1000 t. The nutritional value of sheep milk is higher in comparison with goat or cow milk. Sheep milk protein is characterised by a high biological value comparable with the biological value of the whole chicken egg. In addition, products manufactured from sheep milk possess high nutritive value. Due to its rich chemical composition, sheep milk provides an excellent raw material for processing into maturing soft and hard cheeses (75-80% of protein is casein, for fermented beverages, both natural and with different tastes, as well as butter, ghee and ice-cream. High proportion of dry matter (up to 18% found in sheep milk does not require application of any thickeners in production of fermented beverages. That is why these beverages are fully natural and free of additives.

  14. Strategies for coping with feed scarcity among urban and peri-urban livestock farmers in Kampala, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Ivarsson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Livestock keeping is increasingly becoming more popular in Kampala, the capital city of Uganda. However, lack of feed is a real challenge. Inadequate feed supply in urban areas is due to many interacting factors, which include among others land shortage, high cost of feeds, climate risks and poor quality of feeds. The objective of this study was to identify and examine the effectiveness of the strategies adopted by livestock farmers in urban and peri-urban areas of Kampala, Uganda to cope with feed scarcity. A total of 120 livestock farmers from Kampala were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Dairy cattle (48.3% and chickens (37.5% were the most common species, followed by pigs (34.2%, goats (26.7% and sheep (3.3%. Farm size was generally small both in terms of herd size and total landholding. Cattle and pig farmers in urban and peri-urban areas of Kampala ranked feed scarcity as their first major constraint, while chicken farmers had high cost of feeds. These farmers have adopted several strategies for coping with feed scarcity. Among the major coping strategies adopted were: changing of feed resources based on availability and cost (37.5%, purchasing of feed ingredients in bulk (29.7%, using crop/food wastes (26.6%, harvesting of forages growing naturally in open access lands (23.4% and reducing herd size (17.2%. However, most of the coping strategies adopted were largely aimed at dealing with the perennial challenge of feed scarcity on a day-by-day basis rather than dealing with it using sustainable and long-term strategies.

  15. FARMER EFFICIENCY AND TECHNOLOGY USE WITH AGE

    OpenAIRE

    Tauer, Loren W.; Lordkipanidze, Nazibrola

    2000-01-01

    Productivity of U.S. farmers by age is measured by non-parametric programming using 1992 Census data, decomposed into efficiency and technology Malmquist index components. Productivity increases slightly with age and then decreases. In most states productivity variations are from technology use rather than efficiency differences.

  16. Pro farmer, pro industry land acquisition act

    OpenAIRE

    Varma, Vijaya Krushna Varma

    2015-01-01

    Varma suggests a new land acquisition act which is pro farmer, pro industry and pro development, and which leads to faster economic growth. My suggestions for new land acquisition act consist of 6 segments 1. Land acquisition 2. Categorisation of Land allotment 3. Time table for completion of projects 4. Compensation 5. Rehabilitation 6. Land management

  17. Low Oxygen Storage of Farmer Stock Peanuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer stock peanuts are stored in bulk storage facilities for periods ranging from 30d to 12mo. Studies were conducted in 1/10 scale conventional and monolithic dome storage facilities located in Dawson, GA. Conventional storage was represented by four metal buildings with storage capacity of appro...

  18. 730 Million Farmers Freed from Agricultural Tax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    About 730 million farmers will benefit from tax cuts totaling more than 20 billion yuan (US$2.4 billion) this year, as 26 of China's 31 provinces will terminate the Agricultural Tax, according to Vice Minister of Agriculture Fan Xiaojian.

  19. Occupational diseases among farmers in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neonila Szeszenia-Dąbrowska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study’s objective is to present epidemiological situation concerning the incidence of occupational diseases among farmers in Poland. Material and Methods: All 3438 cases of occupational diseases diagnosed among farmers and obligatorily reported to the Central Register of Occupational Diseases (covering all the national territory and all the cases of occupational diseases diagnosed in Poland after 1970 over the years 2000–2014 were subjected to analysis. Results: The annual incidence in the analyzed period ranged 5–14 per 100 000 farmers. The analysis showed that about 90% of pathologies were induced by the biological agents. Almost every third pathology due to biological agents had allergic origin. Infectious and parasitic diseases accounted for 62% of the cases. Among them the diseases carried by ticks (93% – borreliosis (85.8% and tick-borne encephalitis (7.2% were the most frequent ones. The age of farmers, in the case of whom bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis were diagnosed, was significantly higher than the age of remaining employees of the national economy, in which these occupational diseases were recognized. Conclusions: The study indicates the necessity to introduce periodic health examinations programs focusing on agricultural workers to monitor health and well-being and improve working conditions and the working environment. Med Pr 2016;67(2:163–171

  20. Farmer's attitudes affect piglet production parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Kauppinen, T.; Valros, A.; Vesala, K.M.

    2010-01-01

    Our results show that farmers' attitudes count: treating the animals humanely, investing in a favourable environment, and having a positive attitude towards new information and scientific research is associated with an above-average productivity on piglet farms. These attitudes, when implemented and concretized in practice, also benefit the animals through a higher standard of welfare.

  1. Genetic Alterations in Pesticide Exposed Bolivian Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørs, Erik; Gonzáles, Ana Rosa; Ascarrunz, Maria Eugenia; Tirado, Noemi; Takahashi, Catharina; Lafuente, Erika; Dos Santos, Raquel A; Bailon, Natalia; Cervantes, Rafael; O, Huici; Bælum, Jesper; Lander., Flemming

    2007-01-01

    Background Pesticides are of concern in Bolivia because of increasing use. Frequent intoxications have been demonstrated due to use of very toxic pesticides, insufficient control of distribution and sale and little knowledge among farmers of protective measures and hygienic procedures. Method Questionnaires were applied and blood tests taken from 81 volunteers from La Paz County, of whom 48 were pesticide exposed farmers and 33 non-exposed controls. Sixty males and 21 females participated with a mean age of 37.3 years (range 17–76). Data of exposure and possible genetic damage were collected and evaluated by well known statistical methods, controlling for relevant confounders. To measure genetic damage chromosomal aberrations and the comet assay analysis were performed. Results Pesticide exposed farmers had a higher degree of genetic damage compared to the control group. The number of chromosomal aberrations increased with the intensity of pesticide exposure. Females had a lower number of chromosomal aberrations than males, and people living at altitudes above 2500 metres seemed to exhibit more DNA damage measured by the comet assay. Conclusions Bolivian farmers showed signs of genotoxic damage, probably related to exposure to pesticides. Due to the potentially negative long term health effects of genetic damage on reproduction and the development of cancer, preventive measures are recommended. Effective control with imports and sales, banning of the most toxic pesticides, education and information are possible measures, which could help preventing the negative effects of pesticides on human health and the environment. PMID:19662224

  2. On realization of equal election for farmers in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Naisheng

    2007-01-01

    With the election rights of farmers, there exists inequality not only in practice but also in legislation. How do we view such inequality? We do not think that such inequality is entirely the result of artificiality. It depends on the historical status of farmers, especially the level of the productive forces they represent. In China, provided the majority of the residents are farmers, who are small individual farmers, it is plausible that farmers cannot acquire the equal election rights in legislation. However, we shall create conditions for actively promoting the realization of farmers' equal election rights in legislation. The day when the majority of farmers become the producers and operators of commodities will be the time when farmers in China realize their equal election rights in legislation.

  3. 75 FR 59684 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... analyzed by USDA's Economic Research Service and reviewed by the Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers... adjustment assistance in FY 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for...

  4. 75 FR 59681 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... Farmers Program Review Committee, comprised of representatives from USDA's Office of the Chief Economist... adjustment assistance in FY 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for...

  5. Organic farmers may gain from Green House Gas trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2009-01-01

    Farmers may earn money from participating in the ongoing greenhouse gas (GHG) trade system under the Kyoto agreement.......Farmers may earn money from participating in the ongoing greenhouse gas (GHG) trade system under the Kyoto agreement....

  6. 75 FR 23667 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... site for the Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers program. The URL is...

  7. Participatory support to farmers in improving safety and health at work: building WIND farmer volunteer networks in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Tsuyoshi; Van, Vhu Nhu; Theu, Nguyen Van; Khai, Ton That; Kogi, Kazutaka

    2008-10-01

    The government of Viet Nam places a high priority on upgrading the quality of farmers' lives. Providing adequate occupational safety and health (OSH) protection for all farmers is an important challenge. The Ministry of Labour, Invalids and Social Affairs (MOLISA) of Viet Nam trained WIND (Work Improvement in Neighbourhood Development) farmer volunteers. From 2004-2007, MOLISA in cooperation with ministries of health and agriculture trained 480 WIND farmer volunteers in selected 14 provinces. Trained farmer volunteers trained their neighbouring farmers and expanded their networks. The WIND training programme produced in Cantho, Viet Nam in 1996, was used as the core training methodology. The WIND action-checklist, good example photo-sheets, and other participatory training materials were designed for WIND farmer volunteers as practical training tools. The volunteers trained 7,922 farmers. The trained farmers implemented 28,508 improvements in materials handling, work posture, machine and electrical safety, working environments and control of hazardous chemicals, and welfare facilities. The provincial support committees organized follow-up workshops and strengthen the WIND farmer volunteer networks. The system of WIND farmer volunteers proved effective in extending practical OSH protection measures to farmers at grassroots level. The system of WIND farmer volunteers was adopted in the First National Programme on Labour Protection and OSH of Viet Nam as a practical means in OSH and is now further expanding within the framework of the National Programme. PMID:18840935

  8. Seroprevalance of Babesia ovis in Sheep in Malatya

    OpenAIRE

    AKTAŞ, Münir

    2001-01-01

    This study was carried out in Malatya and vicinity to determine the seroprevalance of Babesia ovis in sheep. A total of 220 sheep sera were tested against B. ovis using the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). In addition, peripheral blood smears from these sheep were prepared and examined for B. ovis. The ELISA test showed that 55.9% of sheep were seropositive for B. ovis infection. The infection rate was 49.2% in sheep which were 1-12 months old and 59% in sheep which were older than...

  9. Dietary intake of radiocaesium by free ranging mountain sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vegetation composition of the diet of mountain sheep was determined by faecal fragment analysis. A comparison of diet composition with the vegetation available for grazing revealed selection by sheep of grasses, in preference to the more abundant shrubby vegetation. The radiocaesium content of the diet and of the available vegetation was determined and compared with sheep in-vivo radiocaesium levels and sheep faeces radiocaesium activity activities. This approach demonstrated the importance of diet selectivity by sheep in determining dietary intake of radiocaesium. Faeces radiocaesium activity was shown to be more appropriate than vegetation radiocaesium activity as a predictor of in-vivo radiocaesium activity in free ranging mountain sheep. (Author)

  10. Factors Explaining Farmers' Insurance Purchase in the Dutch Dairy Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Ogurtsov, Victor A.; Van Asseldonk, Marcel A.P.M.; Huirne, Ruud B.M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzed the impact of farm and farmer characteristics on the acceptability to dairy farmers in the Netherlands of an all-risk insurance package and underlying specific categories of insurance coverage. The major farm characteristics considered were structural, operational and financial variables, while farmer age was the major farmer-specific characteristic analyzed. The specific insurance categories reviewed were damage, legal, disability, liability and health insurance. The resu...

  11. Farmland Ownership and Leasing: Implications for Young and Beginning Farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Katchova, Ani L.; Ahearn, Mary Clare

    2014-01-01

    This study considers the issue of the transition of new farmers into U.S. agriculture, by examining land ownership and leasing trends. Our approach is to characterize the entire distribution by farmer age and farmer experience rather than using young versus old and beginning versus established farmer categories. We also use a linked-farms longitudinal approach instead of a repeated cross-sectional approach to show trends over time in farmland expansion and contraction. Differences in farm siz...

  12. OPTIMAL POST-HARVEST GRAINS STORAGE BY RISK AVERSE FARMERS

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Jing-Yi; Myers, Robert J.; Hanson, Steven D.

    2001-01-01

    Most previous research on post-harvest grain storage by farmers has assumed risk-neutral behavior and/or made restrictive assumptions about underlying price probability distributions. In this study we solve the optimal post-harvest storage problem for a risk averse farmer under more general assumptions about underlying price distributions. The resulting model is applied to Michigan corn farmers and results show that, contrary to the sell all-or-nothing risk-neutral rule, risk averse farmers w...

  13. Farmer Forward Pricing Behavior: Evidence from Marketing Clubs

    OpenAIRE

    McNew, Kevin; Musser, Wesley N.

    2002-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated how farmers should use forward pricing markets, but only limited research exists on how farmers actually use these markets. This study relies on data from a real-time forward pricing game employed by Maryland grain marketing clubs from 1994 through 1998. Hypotheses are tested regarding the consistency of farmer behavior with the research literature on hedging. Findings indicate that farmers do not achieve price enhancement, a result consistent with the effic...

  14. ECONewFARMERs Building a future for new farmers in ecological farming through vocational training

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, CA; Arslam, M; Basile, S; de Castro, M; C. Coll; Correia, H.; Correia, P; Guerra, LT; Guiné, R; J. MacDonald; Radics, L; Soylu, S; Teixerira, D; Tothova, M; Toth, P.

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 partners from diffreent european countries started a commom inovation tranfer program with rthe support of Leonardo da Vinci 2013-1-PT1-LEO05-15535 "ECONewFARMERs Building a future for new farmers in ecological farming through vocational training". whithin this paper we outline the outcome of the questionnaires filled by stake holders and - based on the results - the training material developed.

  15. Farmers' Perceptions of Necessary Management Skills in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Tiina E. A.; Kaustell, Kim O.; Leppala, Jarkko; Hurme, Timo; Suutarinen, Juha

    2007-01-01

    The main aim of this pre-study was to provide a preliminary overview of Finnish farmers' motivation and capacity prerequisites for adopting and improving their management skills. Motivation was studied by asking farmers what farm management tasks and skills they consider important. Capacity was evaluated by asking farmers to rank management tasks…

  16. Should Farmers' Locus of Control Be Used in Extension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuthall, Peter L.

    2010-01-01

    To explore whether Farmers' Locus of Control (LOC) could be useful in agricultural extension programmes to improve managerial ability. This test records a farmer's belief in her/his control over production outcomes. A mail survey of 2300 New Zealand farmers was used to obtain a range of variables, and to measure their LOC using a question set…

  17. 75 FR 41434 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... Crawfish Farmers Association and accepted for review by USDA on May 3, 2010. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: To... and reviewed by the TAA for Farmers Review Committee, comprised of representatives from USDA's...

  18. 75 FR 49458 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Program Staff, FAS, USDA by... TAA for Farmers' Web site: http://www.fas.usda.gov/itp/taa . Dated: August 3, 2010. Suzanne...

  19. 75 FR 43140 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... assistance and cash benefits. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Staff... ; or visit the TAA for Farmers' Web site: http://www.fas.usda.gov/itp/taa . Dated: July 14, 2010....

  20. 75 FR 28780 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-24

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) for Farmers petitions for Fiscal Year 2011. Petitioners must file the... Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Pub. L. 111-5) reauthorized the TAA for Farmers Program as established by Subtitle...

  1. 75 FR 48931 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Program Staff, FAS, USDA by phone... Farmers' Web site: www.fas.usda.gov/itp/taa . Dated: July 30, 2010. John D. Brewer, Administrator,...

  2. 75 FR 42375 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... Assistance for Farmers Staff, FAS, USDA, by phone: (202) 720-0638, or (202) 690-0633; or by e-mail: tradeadjustment@fas.usda.gov ; or visit the TAA for Farmers' Web site: http://www.fas.usda.gov/itp/taa ....

  3. 75 FR 42376 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... Assistance for Farmers Staff, FAS, USDA, by phone: (202) 720-0638, or (202) 690-0633; or by e-mail: tradeadjustment@fas.usda.gov ; or visit the TAA for Farmers' Web site: http:// www.fas.usda.gov/itp/taa ....

  4. Farmers' Markets in Rural Communities: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Moya L.; Nickelson, Jen; Cohen, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although the potential health benefits of farmers markets have been discussed for years, there is a dearth of literature to aid health educators in advocating for the development of local farmers markets. Purpose: The purpose of this manuscript is to present a case study of a rural farmers market in southeast Georgia with emphasis on…

  5. 75 FR 41430 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY... Economic Research Service and reviewed by the TAA for Farmers Review Committee, comprised of... Assistance for Farmers Staff, FAS, USDA, by phone: (202) 720-0638, or (202) 690-0633; or by...

  6. "American Gothic" Revised: Positive Perceptions from a Young American Farmer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joehl, Regan R.

    2008-01-01

    Grant Wood's "American Gothic," intended to represent the Depression Era, Midwestern farmer, has been regarded by many as the stereotypical representation of a true American farmer for decades. While this painting does represent farmers in the early part of the 20th century, the author feels obliged to say that it is time to drop this stereotype…

  7. 75 FR 51978 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... Assistance for Farmers Program Staff, FAS, USDA by phone: (202) 720-0638 or (202) 690- 0633: or by e-mail at: tradeadjustment@fas.usda.gov ; or visit the TAA for Farmers' Web site: http://www.fas.usda.gov/itp/taa ....

  8. 7 CFR 761.209 - Loan funds for beginning farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan funds for beginning farmers. 761.209 Section 761... Funds to State Offices § 761.209 Loan funds for beginning farmers. Each fiscal year, the Agency reserves a portion of direct and guaranteed FO and OL loan funds for beginning farmers in accordance...

  9. 75 FR 59682 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... analyzed by USDA's Economic Research Service and reviewed by the Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers... Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Program Staff, Office of Trade Programs, FAS, USDA, or by phone at...

  10. 75 FR 43485 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY...: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Staff, FAS, USDA, by phone: (202) 720-0638, or (202) 690-0633; or by e-mail: tradeadjustment@fas.usda.gov ; or visit the TAA for Farmers' Web site:...

  11. 75 FR 11513 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... Adjustment Assistance (TAA) for Farmers petitions for fiscal year 2010 beginning March 11, 2010. Petitioners... in accordance with 7 CFR part 1580.201. The petition must be received by the TAA for Farmers Staff...

  12. 75 FR 41431 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... Economic Research Service and reviewed by the TAA for Farmers Review Committee, comprised of... Assistance for Farmers Staff, FAS, USDA, by phone: (202) 720-0638, or (202) 690-0633; or by...

  13. 75 FR 59685 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... analyzed by USDA's Economic Research Service and reviewed by the Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers... assistance in FY 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Program...

  14. 75 FR 48642 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Program Staff, FAS, USDA by phone: (202) 720-0638 or (202) 690- 0633; or by e-mail at: tradeadjustment@fas.usda.gov ; or visit the TAA for Farmers' Web site:...

  15. 75 FR 45092 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Program Staff, FAS, USDA by... TAA for Farmers' Web site: http://www.fas.usda.gov/itp/taa . Dated: July 21, 2010. John D....

  16. Organization and Strategy of Farmer Specialized Cooperatives in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Hu (Yamei); Z. Huang (Zhen); G.W.J. Hendrikse (George); X. Xu

    2005-01-01

    textabstractA description and analysis of China’s Farmer Specialized Cooperatives is presented. Data is presented regarding the historical development of farmer cooperatives in China, the membership composition of a sample of 66 farmer cooperatives in the Zhejiang province, and the various attribute

  17. Processes of enlightenment : farmer initiatives in rural development in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye Jingzhong,

    2002-01-01

    This research concerns development initiatives in rural communities. I define a farmer initiative as the impetus that sufficiently and necessarily drives a farmer (or group of farmers) to formulate a realistic strategic plan, and to implement it in an attempt to create space for manoeuvre and to pur

  18. Human Vulnerability to Climate Variability in the Sahel: Farmers' Adaptation Strategies in Northern Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Bruno; Yacouba, Hamma; Karambiri, Harouna; Zoromé, Malick; Somé, Blaise

    2009-05-01

    In this study, the authors investigate farmers’ vulnerability to climate variability and evaluate local adoption of technology and farmers’ perceptions of adaptation strategies to rainfall variability and policies. A survey was conducted in a community in northern Burkina Faso following the crop failure of 2004. In 2006, following a better harvest, another survey was conducted to compare farmers’ actions and reactions during two contrasted rainy seasons. The results confirm that farmers from this community have substantially changed their practices during the last few decades. They have adopted a wide range of techniques that are intended to simultaneously increase crop yield and reduce yield variability. Micro water harvesting (Zaï) techniques have been widely adopted (41%), and a majority of fields have been improved with stone lines (60%). Hay (48%) and sorghum residues are increasingly stored to feed animals during the dry season, making bull and sheep fattening now a common practice. Dry season vegetable production also involves a majority of the population (60%). According to farmers, most of the new techniques have been adopted because of growing land scarcity and new market opportunities, rather than because of climate variability. Population pressure has reached a critical threshold, while land scarcity, declining soil fertility and reduced animal mobility have pushed farmers to intensify agricultural production. These techniques reduce farmers’ dependency on rainfall but are still insufficient to reduce poverty and vulnerability. Thirty-nine percent of the population remains vulnerable after a good rainy season. Despite farmers’ desire to remain in their own communities, migrations are likely to remain a major source of regular income and form of recourse in the event of droughts.

  19. High occurrence of mitochondrial heteroplasmy in nepalese indigenous sheep (Ovis aries) compared to chinese sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorkhali, Neena Amatya; Jiang, Lin; Shrestha, Bhola Shankar; He, Xiao-Hong; Junzhao, Qian; Han, Jian-Lin; Ma, Yue-Hui

    2016-07-01

    Heteroplasmy due to length polymorphism with tandem repeats in mtDNAs within individual was hardly studied in domestic animals. In the present study, we identified intra-individual length variation in the control region of mtDNAs in Nepalese sheep by molecular cloning and sequencing techniques. We observed one to four tandem repeats of a 75-bp nucleotide sequences in the mtDNA control region in 45% of the total Nepalese sheep sampled in contrast to the Chinese sheep, indicating that the heteroplasmy is specific to Nepalese sheep. The high rate of heteroplasmy in Nepalese sheep could be a resultant of the mtDNA mutation and independent segregation at intra-individual level or a strand slippage and mispairing during the replication. PMID:26084311

  20. Sheep housing in Trás-os-Montes. Contribution to design buildings and equipment appropriate for local sheep farms

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, José Carlos

    2004-01-01

    Sheep farming has a great importance in the region of Trás-os-Montes, one of the most depopulated and least favoured Portuguese areas. We have studied the buildings for sheep housing, in this region, aiming to identify the aspects that may be considered as constraints or problems that can hinder the development of sheep farming in the region. Thus, we selected several villages where we have interviewed sheep raisers, aiming to get to know the sheep farming system and the sheep housing...

  1. High sero-prevalence of caseous lymphadenitis identified in slaughterhouse samples as a consequence of deficiencies in sheep farm management in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimarães Alessandro S

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caseous lymphadenitis (CLA, caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, is one of the most important diseases of sheep and goats, causing considerable economic losses for herd owners. Results We assessed the seroprevalence of infection with C. pseudotuberculosis in 805 sheep from 23 sheep farms that supply slaughterhouses in the state of Minas Gerais; we also analyzed management practices that could be associated with CLA occurrence, used on these and nearby farms that also supplied animals to the slaughterhouse (n = 60. The serum samples for assaying CLA infection were taken at the slaughterhouse. Frequency of infection with C. pseudotuberculosis was estimated at 43.7%, and farm frequency was estimated at 100%. Management practices were analyzed through a questionnaire. All farmers (60/60 had extensive/semi-extensive rearing system; 70.0% (42/60 identified sheep individually; 11.7% (7/60 had periodical technical assistance; 41.7% (25/60 disinfected the facilities; 86.7% (52/60 used barbed wire fences and did not implement adequate CLA control measures; only 11.7% (7/60 of breeders reported vaccination against C. pseudotuberculosis; 13.3% (8/60 took note of animals with clinical signs of CLA; 1.7% (1/60 opened and sanitized abscesses, and isolated the infected animals; 10.0% (6/60 knew the zoonotic potential of this disease and 1.7% (1/60 of the farmers culled animals in case of recurrence of abscesses. Conclusions It can be concluded that C. pseudotuberculosis infection is widely spread in sheep flocks in Minas Gerais state in Brazil and that there is a lack of good management measures and vaccination, allowing transmission of this infectious agent throughout the production network.

  2. Changing Patterns of Governance for Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Kay; Treadgold, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    Dissatisfaction with the "corporate" model for university governance, a model advocated by both sides of the Australian parliament and adopted by Australian universities over the past two decades, prompted the Australian Vice-Chancellors' Committee (AVCC) in 2003 to suggest an alternative "trusteeship" model. The paper discusses how this model…

  3. The Truth That Will Set Us All Free: An Uncertain History of Memorials to Indigenous Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Read

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Aborigines and other Australians have not met with amity. Memorials to the Aboriginal people of Australia are not common and some of the more prominent are regularly damaged. Eddies of past tempests slap disturbingly at modern day memorials thousands of kilometres and several generations removed from the eye of furious storms. This article traces a difficult story of what seems at first sight to be blind racism, at a second sight, a rampant colonialism, and at a more reflective third, perhaps, the economy of the pastoralist and the farmer in deadly disharmony to that of the hunter gatherer. Whatever the origins, the consequences of conflict endure for centuries.

  4. Employed Farmers in the Pearl River Delta and Related Issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    As a special weak group in agricultural floating population,employed farmers make special historic contribution to socio-economic development of the Pearl River Delta.However,employed farmers are faced with survival difficulties,which lead to a series of social issues.From historical origin,current situations and social issues,we put forward countermeasures to solve problems of employed farmers:solve the household registration of employed farmers;raise the compensation standard of land expropriation and demolition;cancel the admission threshold;provide reemployment guidance;and establish management funds of employed farmers.

  5. BOOMERANG - the Australian light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A proposal has been prepared for the installation in Australia of a national high performance synchrotron light facility called Boomerang. The Boomerang proposal had its origin in the establishment of the Australian Synchrotron Research Program (ASRP) which was one of the seven Major National Research Facilities announced by the Federal Government in December 1995. The ASRP provides the opportunity and funding for Australian researchers to access international synchrotron facilities, specifically two consortia at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at the Argonne National Laboratory, USA and continued interaction with the Photon Factory at the KEK Laboratory in Japan. The ASRP was the successor to the Australian National Beamline Facility project (ANBF) which began in 1991 following the ASTEC inquiry titled 'Small Country - Big Science'. The Federal Government also provided funding for a Feasibility Study to determine the value of establishing an Australian-based synchrotron radiation facility. The Feasibility Study was completed in August 1998 and endorsed by the institutional members of the ASRP and the research community in general. The study concluded that, on the data available in Australia, there was a strong case for the installation of an Australian-based facility. The study considered several options for an Australian-based facility and recommended that these options and the data supporting the general conclusions receive further investigation. A mission was arranged to a select group of overseas laboratories to explore these questions in detail. The review team included a mix of scientific and industrial experience and also represented the interests of the ASRP and an Industrial Synchrotron Consortium based in Victoria. Based on the conclusions of the overseas mission and incorporating the advice of all international specialists in the design and use of synchrotron facilities consulted during the mission, the most cost-effective option was an extended

  6. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy - An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Ray P.; Hamacher, Duane W.

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical component includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, and this knowledge was used for practical purposes such as constructing calendars. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, paid careful attention to unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts, and could determine the cardinal points to an accuracy of a few degrees.

  7. Strategies for Washing Australian Coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackinnon, W.L.A.; Swanson, A.R. [Downer EDI Engineering Projects Pty. Ltd. QCC, East Maitland, NSW (Australia)

    2010-07-01

    This article represents a distillation of QCC's experience over the last 20 years in developing coal-washing circuits to optimize coal recoveries for a wide range of Australian coals. The article will look at typical washabilities and product types to capture the general washing requirements. The major processing equipment will be reviewed as to their typical usage in the Australian context. From this background the processing circuits and strategies commonly used will be discussed for the relevant coal types, including hard coking coal, semi-hard coking coal, PCI, export thermal, and domestic thermal coal from the major producing regions in NSW and Queensland.

  8. Australian uranium and the election

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international and national complexities of the situation in Australia over the question of mining of the country's large and rich uranium deposits are explored with especial reference to the pending general election. The present position is ironical since access to low cost uranium would give a welcome boost to the nuclear industry which is enthusiastically supported by the Australian prime minister and his colleagues yet the Australian government is unable to promote mining as rapidly as it would like because of the international commitments it has made to provide a justification for its policy. (U.K.)

  9. Proteomic evaluation of sheep serum proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiaradia Elisabetta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The applications of proteomic strategies to ovine medicine remain limited. The definition of serum proteome may be a good tool to identify useful protein biomarkers for recognising sub-clinical conditions and overt disease in sheep. Findings from bovine species are often directly translated for use in ovine medicine. In order to characterize normal protein patterns and improve knowledge of molecular species-specific characteristics, we generated a two-dimensional reference map of sheep serum. The possible application of this approach was tested by analysing serum protein patterns in ewes with mild broncho-pulmonary disease, which is very common in sheep and in the peripartum period which is a stressful time, with a high incidence of infectious and parasitic diseases. Results This study generated the first reference 2-DE maps of sheep serum. Overall, 250 protein spots were analyzed, and 138 identified. Compared with healthy sheep, serum protein profiles of animals with rhino-tracheo-bronchitis showed a significant decrease in protein spots identified as transthyretin, apolipoprotein A1 and a significant increase in spots identified as haptoglobin, endopin 1b and alpha1B glycoprotein. In the peripartum period, haptoglobin, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, apolipoprotein A1 levels rose, while transthyretin content dropped. Conclusions This study describes applications of proteomics in putative biomarker discovery for early diagnosis as well as for monitoring the physiological and metabolic situations critical for ovine welfare.

  10. Computed tomography of rambouillet sheep affected with neuronal ceroid lepofuscinosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography (CT) was performed on 3 normal Rambouillet sheep and 6 Rambouillet sheep affected with neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. Characteristic lesions seen in the brain of affected sheep included dramatically enlarged lateral ventricles and reduced cerebral thickness. The lesions were seen in sheep as young as 4 months of age. Antemortem CT observations correlated well with postmortem findings in this model of Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis

  11. The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Ontario sheep flocks

    OpenAIRE

    Waltner-Toews, David; Mondesire, Roy; Menzies, Paula

    1991-01-01

    In a random sample of 103 sheep farms in Ontario, 99% of the farms had some sheep serologically positive for Toxoplasma gondii, based on an enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The percent of sheep affected within farms ranged from 3.8% to 97.8%, with an average flock prevalence of 57.6%. When farm management variables were considered in a multivariate analysis, significantly lower rates of serologically positive sheep were associated with neutering of female cats and clipping of ewes' p...

  12. Social Capital And Economic Behavior Of Farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heliawaty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstrac The purpose of this study to analyze the relationship between social capital affects economic behavior in producing coffee plants in improving coffee farmers income. This study was conducted in the district of Bantaeng South Sulawesi. Subdistrict Tampobulu selected purposively. The study lasted for four months of April to July 2014. The data used in this study consist of primary data and secondary data. It can be concluded that social capital is trust networking and institutions affect economic behavior namely the production of coffee plants. Trust improving technology adoption Robusta and Arabica coffee cuttings while distrust led to rampant theft of coffee is still green. Networking affect the price of coffee and institutions influence the behavior of farmers in obtaining venture capital through middlemen. It is expected that future studies should be focused on the factors that influence the innovative behavior in increasing the production of coffee plants.

  13. Why did the First Farmers Toil?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    2009-01-01

    economists and economic historians largely fail to capture work-intensification among early farmers. Attributing a key role to human metabolism, this study provides a simple framework for analysing the adoption of agriculture. It demonstrates how the additional output that farming offered could have lured...... people into agriculture, but that subsequent population increase would eventually have swallowed up its benefits, forcing early farmers into an irreversible trap, where they had to do more work to attain subsistence compared to their foraging ancestors. The framework draws attention to the fact that, if...... agriculture arose out of need, as some scholars have suggested, then this was because prehistoric foragers turned down agriculture in the first place. Estimates of population growth before and after farming, however, in the light of the present framework seem to suggest that hunters were pulled rather than...

  14. Why did the First Farmers Toil?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    economists and economic historians largely fail to capture work-intensification among early farmers. Attributing a key role to human metabolism, this study provides a simple framework for analysing the adoption of agriculture. It demonstrates how the additional output that farming offered could have lured...... people into agriculture, but that subsequent population increase would eventually have swallowed up its benefits, forcing early farmers into an irreversible trap, where they had to do more work to attain subsistence compared to their foraging ancestors. The framework draws attention to the fact that, if...... agriculture arose out of need, as some scholars have suggested, then this was because pre-historic foragers turned down agriculture in the first place. Estimates of population growth before and after farming, however, in light of the present framework seem to suggest that hunters were pulled rather than...

  15. Empirical Research on the Developmental Status of Farmer Cooperatives’ Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In the paper, members in farmer cooperatives are selected as investigation subjects. By using fuzzy synthetic evaluation methods, functions of farmer cooperatives, which include six functions as follows: providing technology and information, marketing, processing and transportation, standardized services, and credit services and rights protection, are analyzed. The quantitative analysis is conducted on the developmental status of the functions of farmer cooperatives. The evaluation results are taken as evidence to anticipate the problems in the development of farmer cooperatives and then countermeasures are put forward, including intensifying the construction of actual functions of farmer cooperatives; contracting diversified credit and loan services; improving comprehensive strength of farmer cooperatives and taking the path of combining professional and comprehensive developmental paths. This study improves our knowledge on the development of farmer cooperatives and provides new insights to solve the problems that arise following the development.

  16. Stress and Burnout Among Finnish Dairy Farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallioniemi, Marja K; Simola, Ahti; Kaseva, Janne; Kymäläinen, Hanna-Riitta

    2016-01-01

    Psychosocial risks among farmers have increasingly been examined because of the ongoing changes in agriculture, such as restructuring of the industry, transition from family farming towards entrepreneurship, and climate change. The aims of the study were to determine the stressors, prevalence of stress and burnout, and variables associated with these symptoms among Finnish dairy farmers. In total 265 respondents completed a postal survey; their average age was 48 years, 44% were females and 56% males. The farms of the survey sample were larger (54 field hectares, 29 cows) than an average farm in Finland (37 hectares, 24 cows) in 2010. The most common stressors were external, such as "agricultural policy of the EU" (European Union) and "the treatment of farmers in society and the media." In addition, common stressors were related to farm and work, e.g., "amount of work," unpredictability, and "animal diseases." The prevalence of stress (42%) was found to have increased compared with earlier studies and was greater than among the general working population. All respondents as a group were classified as having slight symptoms of burnout, and one tenth (9%) of dairy farmers had experienced severe burnout. Stressors related to the workload and health were associated with stress and burnout symptoms. Also, a poor economic situation and loneliness were related to stress. Burnout correlated with a tie stall barn type and with a farm not being involved in the milk production record system. Factors protecting against burnout included positive features of the work and living environment. The study revealed changes during the past decade and new features of the well-being at work on dairy farms in Finland. PMID:27081893

  17. Farmers Need Motivation to Reach Full Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Sino-African agricultural cooperation should focus more on training and encouraging farmers to get into the fields FOOD security remains big issue for many developing countries.According to a report released by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization,the hungry and undernourished population had exceeded 1 billion worldwide as of January 2010.More than 300 million of these people are in Africa, which means one out of three people on the continent are going hungry.

  18. Milk yield and quality of Cres sheep and their crosses with Awassi and East Friesian sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boro Mioč

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to establish the impact of crossing the indigenous Cres sheep with Awassi and, respectively, Awassi and East Friesian sheep on the milk yield and quality. For this purpose, through regular monthly milk yield recordings a total of 824individual milk samples from 139 sheep in the second lactation of the same flock were collected, of which: 46 purebred Cres sheep, CS; 33 crosses with 50 % Cres sheep and 50 % Awassi, CA; 60 crosses with 50 % Cres sheep, 25 % Awassi and 25 % East Friesian, CAEF. The obtained results show a significant (P<0.05; P<0.01 impact of the genotype and the lactation stage on the yield and chemical composition of milk, and the somatic cell count. The most milk was yielded by CAEF crosses (690 mL/ewe/day, i.e., 133.8 L per lactation and the least by CS (340 mL/ewe/day, i.e., 58.48 L per lactation. The content of total solids, fat and protein increased as lactation advanced, whereas the trend of the lactose content was opposite. The highest content of total solids, fat and protein were established in the milk of the indigenous Cres sheep. A positive correlation was established between the amount of yielded milk and the somatic cell count, whereas a negative correlation was established between the amount of milk and the content of solids, fat and proteins.

  19. The Australian solar scene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowley, Paul [IT Power Australia (Australia)

    2007-06-15

    This presentation mainly talks about the actions taken by the Australian country concerning the use of renewable energy and the reduction of the peak load in some areas. In the first part, there are found both the geographical aspects as well as the major political, e.g. Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean development and Climate. There are also explained the issues related to peak load growth and it is shown a comparison graphic having information about the most used photovoltaic systems. Then, there are mentioned the communities that are testing one of the model photovoltaic systems in order to: reduce the peak load, use the energy in a properly way, reduce the energy cost, among others. Finally, it is succinctly explained the photovoltaic rebate program as well as the use of the off-grid systems, besides, it is given relevant information about those remote communities of Australia and the benefits of the implementation of Bushlight. [Spanish] Esta presentacion trata primordialmente de las acciones, referentes al uso de energia renovable, tomadas por Australia y creadas con el fin de reducir la maxima demanda en algunas regiones de este pais. En la primera parte, se encuentran tanto los aspectos geograficos como los principales aspectos politicos; por ejemplo, la Sociedad Asia-Pacifico para el Desarrollo no Contaminante y el Clima. Asimismo, se da una explicacion acerca de las cuestiones relacionadas al crecimiento de la maxima demanda; ademas, se muestra un cuadro comparativo, que contiene informacion relacionada con los sistemas fotovoltaicos mas utilizados. Despues, se mencionan aquellas comunidades que tienen en periodo de prueba alguno de los modelos fotovoltaicos con el fin de: reducir la maxima demanda, utilizar eficientemente la energia, reducir el costo de la misma, entre otros aspectos mas. Finalmente, se explica escuetamente el programa de reembolso centrado en el uso de sistemas fotovoltaicos, asi como el uso de sistemas asilados de la red; ademas, se

  20. Differential Gene Expression in Ovaries of Qira Black Sheep and Hetian Sheep Using RNA-Seq Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Han Ying; Shen, Hong; Jia, Bin; Zhang, Yong Sheng; Wang, Xu Hai; Zeng, Xian Cun

    2015-01-01

    The Qira black sheep and the Hetian sheep are two local breeds in the Northwest of China, which are characterized by high-fecundity and low-fecundity breed respectively. The elucidation of mRNA expression profiles in the ovaries among different sheep breeds representing fecundity extremes will helpful for identification and utilization of major prolificacy genes in sheep. In the present study, we performed RNA-seq technology to compare the difference in ovarian mRNA expression profiles betwee...

  1. Experimental reproduction of severe bluetongue in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLachlan, N J; Crafford, J E; Vernau, W; Gardner, I A; Goddard, A; Guthrie, A J; Venter, E H

    2008-05-01

    Sheep inoculated with a virulent South African strain of bluetongue (BT) virus serotype 4 developed severe clinical signs and lesions characteristic of fulminant BT, including coronitis, hemorrhage and ulceration of the mucosal lining of the oral cavity and forestomaches, hemorrhage in the wall of the pulmonary artery, and focally extensive necrosis of skeletal muscle, especially of the neck. At necropsy, up to 14 days after infection, the infected sheep exhibited striking pulmonary edema, edema of the subcutaneous tissues and fascial planes of the head and neck, and pleural and pericardial effusion of varying severity. A reliable model for experimental reproduction of fulminant BT in sheep will facilitate future studies to better characterize the pathogenesis of this disease, particularly as it regards the mechanisms responsible for the increased vascular permeability that characterizes BT and related orbiviral diseases such as African horse sickness. PMID:18487487

  2. [Assessment of noise exposure in sheep].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, R; Wechsler, B

    2013-02-01

    The behaviour of sheep was recorded as a reaction to the sound pressure levels caused by shooting with heavy machine guns. The reactions varied in intensity depending on the distance of the source of the noise from the fold. In the case of salvoes that were fired in the immediate vicinity of the fold and were associated with sound pressure levels higher than 120 dB (LCpeak), the sheep reacted with marked fright reactions, and no adaptation to the shooting noise was observed. It is concluded that the tolerable maximum noise level for sheep with this kind of noise source is likely to be less than 120 dB (LCpeak). PMID:23385071

  3. Toxoplasmosis of sheep and its role and importance in pathology of sheep production

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlović Ivan 1; Ivanović Snežana

    2004-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis was one of the most spread zoonotic parasitosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii. In sheep, toxoplasmosis has global distribution which depends on the area, followed by 1-76%. In infected flocks and in infected sheep we had a fetal mortality of 35%, 60% during partus and 5% several hours after birth. Meat and milk of infected sheep present a source of infection of other hosts including humans. Data of WHO/FAO show that numerous people were infected with toxoplasma via ovine meat or m...

  4. Farmers, Milk Prices and Rural Indignation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael N. Cardwell

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available For over a decade there have been protests by United Kingdom farmers against the low prices which they receive for their milk. This paper will first set these protests against the legal background, with specific reference to the deregulation of the dairy sector in the 1990s, actions taken by the competition authorities and recent statutory intervention in the groceries supply chain. It will then examine the protests themselves, concentrating on the militant expression of indignation which has coalesced around Farmers for Action and the ways in which the farmers have hoped to influence either industry practice or even the political process. Finally, there will be discussion of Regulation (EU No. 261/2012, a targeted legislative response designed to rebalance the respective bargaining power of farmers and dairy processors. In conclusion, it will be suggested that the protests have overall been relatively effective, and may even be characterised as a form of ‘negotiation’ in a market which is not functioning well. Durante más de una década, los ganaderos del Reino Unido han protestado por los bajos precios que reciben por su leche. En primer lugar, este artículo analizará el marco legal de las protestas, haciendo una referencia específica a la desregulación del sector lácteo en la década de 1990, las medidas adoptadas por las autoridades de competencia y la reciente intervención legal en la cadena de suministro de alimentos. A continuación, se analizarán las protestas en sí mismas, concentrándose en la expresión activista de indignación, reunida alrededor de Farmers for Action (Ganaderos en Acción, y la forma en la que los ganaderos han pretendido influir tanto en la práctica industrial o incluso en el proceso político. Por último, se debatirán las reformas a nivel de la Unión Europea, destinadas a reequilibrar el poder de negociación de agricultores y elaboradores de productos lácteos. En conclusión, se sugiere que, en

  5. Stress Literacy in Australian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlow, Megan; Wuthrich, Viviana; Murrihy, Rachael; Remond, Louise; Tuqiri, Rebekka; van Kessel, Jacobine; Wheatley, Anna; Dedousis-Wallace, Anna; Kidman, Antony

    2009-01-01

    Stress literacy is a term that refers to knowledge about stress and stress management techniques. Levels of stress literacy were examined in more than nine hundred Australian adolescents by providing a short stress-management education session and assessing stress literacy using a pre-post survey design. It was found that while adolescents had a…

  6. Staff Bullying in Australian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Dan; Duncan, Deirdre J.; Edwards, John

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to estimate the prevalence of staff bullying in Australian schools, to identify bullies and targets and to examine some implications for school leaders in dealing with staff bullying. Design/methodology/approach: The quantitative research design survey instrument contained 11 demographic items, 44 questions of…

  7. Tay-Sachs disease in Jacob sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Paola A; Zeng, Bai Jin; Porter, Brian F; Alroy, Joseph; Horak, Fred; Horak, Joan; Kolodny, Edwin H

    2010-12-01

    Autopsy studies of four Jacob sheep dying within their first 6-8 months of a progressive neurodegenerative disorder suggested the presence of a neuronal storage disease. Lysosomal enzyme studies of brain and liver from an affected animal revealed diminished activity of hexosaminidase A (Hex A) measured with an artificial substrate specific for this component of β-hexosaminidase. Absence of Hex A activity was confirmed by cellulose acetate electrophoresis. Brain lipid analyses demonstrated the presence of increased concentrations of G(M2)-ganglioside and asialo-G(M2)-ganglioside. The hexa cDNA of Jacob sheep was cloned and sequenced revealing an identical number of nucleotides and exons as in human HexA and 86% homology in nucleotide sequence. A missense mutation was found in the hexa cDNA of the affected sheep caused by a single nucleotide change at the end of exon 11 resulting in skipping of exon 11. Transfection of normal sheep hexa cDNA into COS1 cells and human Hex A-deficient cells led to expression of Hex S but no increase in Hex A indicating absence of cross-species dimerization of sheep Hex α-subunit with human Hex β-subunits. Using restriction site analysis, the heterozygote frequency of this mutation in Jacob sheep was determined in three geographically separate flocks to average 14%. This large naturally occurring animal model of Tay-Sachs disease is the first to offer promise as a means for trials of gene therapy applicable to human infants. PMID:20817517

  8. Survival of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) commingled with domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in the absence of mycoplasma ovipneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To test the hypothesis that Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae is an important agent of the bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) pneumonia that has previously inevitably followed experimental commingling with domestic sheep (Ovis aries), we commingled M. ovipneumoniae–free domestic and bighorn sheep (n=4 each). On...

  9. Sexual transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Rodriguez, Joana D'Ark; Souza, Fernando A; dos Santos, Thais Rabelo; dos Santos, Ricardo Silva; Rosanese, Walter Matheus; Lopes, Werik Renato Zanetti; Sakamoto, Cláudio Alessandro; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2013-07-01

    Male sheep of reproductive age were distributed into three groups: GI, a sheep inoculated (oral) with 2.0×10(5) oocysts of the P strain of Toxoplasma gondii; GII, a sheep infected (subcutaneous) with 1.0×10(6) tachyzoites of the RH strain of T. gondii; and GIII, a sheep kept as a control (not infected). After the inoculation of the males, 12 breeding ewes, which were not pregnant and which were serologically negative for reproductive diseases (particularly toxoplasmosis), were distributed into three groups, synchronized, and subsequently exposed to natural mating with previously inoculated males. The distribution was as follows: five ewes that underwent natural mating with the GI male, five ewes that were exposed to natural mating with the GII male, and two ewes that were mated with the non-infected male (control). Serum samples of all the ewes were collected on days -30, -14, -7, -1, and 0 (days before natural mating) and on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 11, 14, and weekly until birth; the presence of serum antibodies against T. gondii was assessed by IFAT. Using a bioassay and PCR, T. gondii was isolated from the semen of the infected reproducing sheep before mating. Following natural mating, 5 of the 12 females displayed antibodies specific for T. gondii; of these animals, two of the ewes underwent natural mating with the male inoculated with oocysts (GI) and three with the male infected with tachyzoites (GII). One of the females that displayed antibodies specific to this coccidian and that underwent natural mating with the GII sheep had a macerated fetus on the 70th day following coverage. Using a bioassay after the birth, it was possible to isolate T. gondii from samples of the "pool" of tissues from the five females that seroconverted after natural mating and from their respective lambs. Using PCR, the DNA of T. gondii was isolated from the "pool" of tissues from one and two females exposed to natural mating with the reproductive males infected with the oocysts and

  10. Selective breeding for scrapie resistance in sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Santos Sotomaior; Fernanda Trentini Lopes Ribeiro; Rüdiger Daniel Ollhoff

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that the susceptibility of sheep to scrapie is determined by the host’s prion protein gene (PRNP). PRNP polymorphisms at codons 136 (alanine, A/valine, V), 154 (histidine, H/arginine, R) and 171 (glutamine, Q/histidine, H/arginine, R) are the main determinants of sheep susceptibility/resistance to classical scrapie. There are four major variants of the wild-type ARQ allele: VRQ, AHQ, ARH and ARR. Breeding programs have been developed in the European Union and the USA to incre...

  11. Toxoplasmosis of Goat and Sheep in Java

    OpenAIRE

    Tolibin Iskandar

    2008-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease, caused by Toxoplasma gondii attacking goat, sheep, and wild animals. This disease is zoonosis and widely distributed in many districts of Java and as a zoonotic disease. Cat is the definitive host of T. gondii, while sheep, goats, and humans are the intermediate hosts. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis in Java was between 7 to 84%, with an average of 42.9%. It occurs through out of the year and causes abortions and infertilities of infected animals. All bre...

  12. DAIRY BUSINESS: THE CASE OF BULGARIAN DAIRY CATTLE FARMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetana HARIZANOVA-METODIEVA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to explore differences between dairy cattle farmers in Bulgaria, according to certain factors. Information about the social characteristics of the farmers (educational level, gender, and age, and about the farm characteristics (number of cows in the main herd, average milk yield, and the rate of return on investment was collected. Sixty percent of the farmers were up to 50 years of age. Fifty percent of the farmers had had a secondary education and the rest had gained a university degree. The study found that only one of the 20 farmers was a woman. It was found that the group of farmers with a university degree had lower average age than the group of farmers with secondary school. There was no significant difference in the rate of return between the two groups of farms in terms of the effectiveness of the farm. The difference in the number of cows in the main herd was not significant too. The research identified a need for additional training for farmers in order to reduce their dependence on hired workers. It was found that farmers attend basic courses in the field of agriculture and livestock breeding in order to fill the gap between the existing levels of knowledge of farmers and the necessary skills for the effective management of dairy farms.

  13. THE USE OF MICROSATELLITE MARKERS TO STUDY GENETIC DIVERSITY IN INDONESIAN SHEEP

    OpenAIRE

    Jakaria; M S A Zein; S. Sulandari; Subandriyo; Muladno

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study genetic diversity in Indonesian sheep population using microsatellite markers. A total of 18 microsatellite loci have been used for genotyping Indonesian sheep. Total sheep blood 200 samples were extracted from garut sheep of fighting and meat types, purbalingga sheep, batur sheep and jember sheep populations by using a salting out method. Microsatellite loci data were analyzed using POPGENE 3.2 software. Based on this study obtained 180 alleles from ...

  14. Fat-tailed sheep in Indonesia; an essential resource for smallholders

    OpenAIRE

    Udo, H.M.J.; Budisatria, I.G.S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the historical development of fat-tailed sheep in Indonesia, the dynamics of production systems, production and reproduction performances under farmers’ conditions, and roles of sheep in livelihoods. In the eighteenth and nineteenth century, fat-tailed sheep from southwest Asia and Africander sheep from South Africa were introduced. Crossing of fat-tailed sheep with the local thin-tailed sheep produced the Javanese fat-tailed sheep. Main motives for the gradual change-ove...

  15. Minimum Effective Dose of Cattle and Sheep BSE for Oral Sheep Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian McGovern

    Full Text Available The minimum dose required to cause infection of Romney and Suffolk sheep of the ARQ/ARQ or ARQ/ARR prion protein gene genotypes following oral inoculation with Romney or Suffolk a sheep Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE-derived or cattle BSE-derived agent was investigated using doses ranging from 0.0005g to 5g. ARQ/ARQ sheep which were methionine (M / threonine (T heterozygous or T/T homozygous at codon 112 of the Prnp gene, dosed ARQ/ARR sheep and undosed controls did not show any evidence of infection. Within groups of susceptible sheep, the minimum effective oral dose of BSE was found to be 0.05g, with higher attack rates following inoculation with the 5g dose. Surprisingly, this study found no effect of dose on survival time suggesting a possible lack of homogeneity within the inoculum. All clinical BSE cases showed PrPd accumulation in brain; however, following cattle BSE inoculation, LRS involvement within Romney recipients was found to be significantly lower than within the Suffolk sheep inoculated group which is in agreement with previous reports.

  16. Occupational exposure of grain farmers to carbofuran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, M; Yoshida, K; Atiemo, M; Johnston, D

    1990-01-01

    Six prairie grain farmers were monitored for pesticide exposure and related adverse effects while they mixed and/or sprayed carbofuran (Furadan 480F) with ground rig application equipment to control grasshoppers in southern Alberta, Canada. Dermal exposure was estimated with Tegaderm patches placed at seventeen locations on the skin beneath the work clothes. Hand and wrist exposure was determined by the amount of chemical found in hand rinses and on wrist patches. Potential inhalation exposure was measured with an air sampler using polyurethane foam as the adsorbent. Urine samples were collected at 24-hr intervals after exposure and monitored for carbofuran. Blood samples were analyzed for acetylcholinesterase (AChE), pseudocholinesterase (ChE) and several other blood parameters. The results indicated that during the mixing and/or spraying operation, a farmer could potentially be exposed to a total of 1,264 micrograms carbofuran per kg of active ingredient (a.i.) used. Of this amount, 1,262 micrograms/kg (or 99.8%) was dermal and 2 micrograms/kg (or 0.2%) could be through the inhalation route. Hand and wrist exposure was about 1,100 micrograms/kg a.i. (or 87% of total exposure). Excretion of the chemical in the urine amounted to 28 micrograms/kg a.i. No ChE inhibition was observed. Other blood measurements were within normal ranges. The farmers showed no acute adverse effects during exposure and for four days after exposure. These results are discussed in relation to the mammalian toxicity of carbofuran. PMID:2322020

  17. Monensin toxicosis in 2 sheep flocks.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, A.

    2001-01-01

    Several lambs in 2 sheep flocks died suddenly and others were examined for generalized weakness and dyspnea. Postmortem findings were suggestive of degenerative myocardial and skeletal muscle myopathy, which was confirmed histologically. Feed analysis revealed toxic levels of monensin and ionophore toxicosis was diagnosed.

  18. Coxiella burnetii infections in sheep or goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, Van den R.; Engelen, van E.; Roest, H.I.J.; Hoek, van der W.; Vellema, P.

    2015-01-01

    Q fever is an almost ubiquitous zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, which is able to infect several animal species, as well as humans. Cattle, sheep and goats are the primary animal reservoirs. In small ruminants, infections are mostly without clinical symptoms, however, abortions and stillbirt

  19. Analysis of wolves and sheep. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogden, J.; Papcun, G.; Zlokarnik, I.; Nix, D.

    1997-08-01

    In evaluating speaker verification systems, asymmetries have been observed in the ease with which people are able to break into other people`s voice locks. People who are good at breaking into voice locks are called wolves, and people whose locks are easy to break into are called sheep. (Goats are people that have a difficult time opening their own voice locks.) Analyses of speaker verification algorithms could be used to understand wolf/sheep asymmetries. Using the notion of a ``speaker space``, it is demonstrated that such asymmetries could arise even though the similarity of voice 1 to voice 2 is the same as the inverse similarity. This explains partially the wolf/sheep asymmetries, although there may be other factors. The speaker space can be computed from interspeaker similarity data using multidimensional scaling, and such speaker space can be used to given a good approximation of the interspeaker similarities. The derived speaker space can be used to predict which of the enrolled speakers are likely to be wolves and which are likely to be sheep. However, a speaker must first enroll in the speaker key system and then be compared to each of the other speakers; a good estimate of a person`s speaker space position could be obtained using only a speech sample.

  20. Dynamics of Sheep Production in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Rezende Paiva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sheep production is present on all continents and has been practiced in Brazil since the colonization. In this study, the multitemporal dynamics of sheep production in Brazil is examined using official government data (Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics-IBGE from 1976 to 2010. Maps of flock growth rates and growth acceleration maps by municipality were elaborated. The Southern states are seen to show a reduction in production mainly due to the wool crisis in the 1970s and 80s. The Northeast is seen to be important for meat production. More recently, centerwest and northern states have shown an increase in growth rates but this is still incipient. The maps of growth, acceleration and midpoint for sheep production showed a noticeable return to an increase in production in the South in recent years. The midpoint of production flow was in the northeast direction, which has stagnated. There was great dynamics in sheep production over the whole Brazilian territory, which affected supply chains due to the expansion of domestic and foreign markets. Areas with higher fluctuations in production are more vulnerable in terms of investment policies.

  1. Differential gene expression in ovaries of Qira black sheep and Hetian sheep using RNA-Seq technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Ying Chen

    Full Text Available The Qira black sheep and the Hetian sheep are two local breeds in the Northwest of China, which are characterized by high-fecundity and low-fecundity breed respectively. The elucidation of mRNA expression profiles in the ovaries among different sheep breeds representing fecundity extremes will helpful for identification and utilization of major prolificacy genes in sheep. In the present study, we performed RNA-seq technology to compare the difference in ovarian mRNA expression profiles between Qira black sheep and Hetian sheep. From the Qira black sheep and the Hetian sheep libraries, we obtained a total of 11,747,582 and 11,879,968 sequencing reads, respectively. After aligning to the reference sequences, the two libraries included 16,763 and 16,814 genes respectively. A total of 1,252 genes were significantly differentially expressed at Hetian sheep compared with Qira black sheep. Eight differentially expressed genes were randomly selected for validation by real-time RT-PCR. This study provides a basic data for future research of the sheep reproduction.

  2. Strategy for Strengthening Farmer Groups by Institutional Strengthening

    OpenAIRE

    Purbayu Budi Santoso; Darwanto Darwanto

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture sector becomes a spotlight because this sector will be full of potential but the welfare of farmers who become the leading actor is not guaranteed and has a poor tendency. The purpose of this study is to formulate strategies to strengthen farmers' groups in order to create the marketing of the agricultural sector that benefit farmers. The method used to achieve this goal is to use a qualitative approach and Analytical Network Process. In addition to the secondary data obtained fro...

  3. 29 CFR 780.614 - Definition of a farmer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of a farmer. 780.614 Section 780.614 Labor... § 780.614 Definition of a farmer. The Act does not define the term “farmer.” Whether an employer is a “farmer” within the meaning of section 13(b)(13) must be determined by consideration of the...

  4. Empirical Research on the Developmental Status of Farmer Cooperatives' Function

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yanrong; Gao, Jianzhong

    2011-01-01

    In the paper, members in farmer cooperatives are selected as investigation subjects. By using furry synthetic evaluation methods, functions of farmer cooperatives, which include six functions as follows, prodding technology and information, marketing, processing and transportation, Standardized services, and credit services and rights protection, are analyzed. The quantitative analysis is conducted on the developmental status of the functions of farmer cooperatives. The evaluation results are...

  5. Farmer strategies to face labor shortages in Chilean agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Verónica Aguirre; Rodrigo Echeverría; Clara Olmedo; Gustavo Blanco

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the strategies that farmers in the south of Chile use to face current labor shortages and identify the variables that determine each of these strategies. A multinomial logit model and odds ratios plots with predicted probabilities were applied to a sample of 384 farmers. Interviews and focus groups were applied to specific producers, professionals and public officials. The main results show that only 32.3% of farmers declared that labor shortage is a problem. Of this perce...

  6. Computer and Internet Use by Great Plains Farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Aaron; Morrison Paul, Catherine J.; Goe, W. Richard; Kenney, Martin

    2004-01-01

    This study uses data from a 2001 survey of Great Plains farmers to explore the adoption, usage patterns, and perceived benefits of computers and the Internet. Adoption results suggest that exposure to the technology through college, outside employment, friends, and family is ultimately more influential than farmer age and farm size. Notably, about half of those who use the Internet for farm-related business report zero economic benefits from it. Whether a farmer perceives that the Internet ge...

  7. Farmer groups and input access: When membership is not enough

    OpenAIRE

    Saweda, Lenis; Liverpool-Tasie, Lenis Saweda O.

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses a double hurdle model to explore whether different methods of distributing fertilizer through groups in a targeted input subsidy program affects an intervention’s ability to increase farmer access to agricultural inputs. It uses a case study of Nigeria to demonstrate this. Farmer group membership was required for participating in a voucher program in Nigeria in 2009. However, for actual fertilizer distribution among participants, individual farmers were given their allotted sh...

  8. Organization and Strategy of Farmer Specialized Cooperatives in China

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Yamei; Huang, Zhen; Hendrikse, George; Xu, X.

    2005-01-01

    textabstractA description and analysis of China’s Farmer Specialized Cooperatives is presented. Data is presented regarding the historical development of farmer cooperatives in China, the membership composition of a sample of 66 farmer cooperatives in the Zhejiang province, and the various attributes (governance, quality control system, and strategy) of a watermelon cooperative in this province. Many cooperatives are being transformed in organizations with a market orientation. These cooperat...

  9. Financing Preferences for Cattle Farmers in Bone Regency South Sulawesi

    OpenAIRE

    asnawi, aslina; Hastang

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigated of cattle farmer preference to sources of financing in their farms by a survey-based approach. Financing has been cited as one of the most commons problems faced by farmers and was often viewed as one of their main barriers to growth. The data was collected by using questionnaire instrument. It was observed that the sample farmers adopted more informal and formal institutions to meet their financing requirements. The result showed that internal financing, non-bank sour...

  10. FARMER EDUCATION AND ADOPTION OF SLASH AND BURN AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Schuck, Eric C.; Nganje, William E.; Yantio, Debazou; Aquach, Emmanuel

    2001-01-01

    Education can play a critical role in moving farmers in developing countries away from environmentally harmful slash and burn agriculture. The present research examines the extent to which extension education can promote adoption of cropping systems other than slash and burn. Choice of cropping system by farmers in Cameroon, whether slash and burn, multiple crops, or mono-cropping, is modeled as a function of farm size, farmer educational level, and visits by extension personnel. Results indi...

  11. Animal Husbandry Practices of Organic Farmers: An Appraisal

    OpenAIRE

    Subrahmanyeswari; B and Mahesh Chander

    2008-01-01

    In Uttarakhand organic farming is being promoted through a special institution i.e. Uttarakhand Organic Commodity Board (UOCB) through registering the farmers and orienting them towards organic farming. Organic farmers currently practicing and marketing only organic crop products. However, their livestock production practices are also similar to recommended organic standards. Hence, to document their livestock production practices, a total of 180 registered organic farmers selected through mu...

  12. Risk Preferences and Pesticide Use by Cotton Farmers in China

    OpenAIRE

    Elaine Liu; JiKun Huang

    2013-01-01

    Despite insect-resistant Bt cotton has been lauded for its ability to reduce the use of pesticides, studies have shown that Chinese Bt cotton farmers continue to use excessive amounts of pesticides. Using results from a survey and an artefactual field experiment, we find that farmers who are more risk averse use greater quantities of pesticides. We also find that farmers who are more loss averse use lesser quantities of pesticides. This result is consistent with our conceptual framework and s...

  13. extension; farmers, capacity introduction technology, integrated farming system

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, Agustina; M. Ali, Hikmah; A Syamsu, Jasmal

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research were a) to analyze farmer capacity in adopting paddy wastes and cattle manure processing and application in the development of integrated farming system based on beef cattle and paddy farming zero w aste b). to analyze the status and sustainability index of the integrated farming system adopted by farmers, and c). to formulate strategy and policy guidance in developing farmers??? capacity building in applying zero waste integrated farming system base...

  14. Variability of the Sheep Lung Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Steven; Pollock, Jolinda; Tennant, Peter; Collie, David; McLachlan, Gerry

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sequencing technologies have recently facilitated the characterization of bacterial communities present in lungs during health and disease. However, there is currently a dearth of information concerning the variability of such data in health both between and within subjects. This study seeks to examine such variability using healthy adult sheep as our model system. Protected specimen brush samples were collected from three spatially disparate segmental bronchi of six adult sheep (age, 20 months) on three occasions (day 0, 1 month, and 3 months). To further explore the spatial variability of the microbiotas, more-extensive brushing samples (n = 16) and a throat swab were taken from a separate sheep. The V2 and V3 hypervariable regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA genes were amplified and sequenced via Illumina MiSeq. DNA sequences were analyzed using the mothur software package. Quantitative PCR was performed to quantify total bacterial DNA. Some sheep lungs contained dramatically different bacterial communities at different sampling sites, whereas in others, airway microbiotas appeared similar across the lung. In our spatial variability study, we observed clustering related to the depth within the lung from which samples were taken. Lung depth refers to increasing distance from the glottis, progressing in a caudal direction. We conclude that both host influence and local factors have impacts on the composition of the sheep lung microbiota. IMPORTANCE Until recently, it was assumed that the lungs were a sterile environment which was colonized by microbes only during disease. However, recent studies using sequencing technologies have found that there is a small population of bacteria which exists in the lung during health, referred to as the “lung microbiota.” In this study, we characterize the variability of the lung microbiotas of healthy sheep. Sheep not only are economically important animals but also are often used as large animal models of human

  15. Agricultural Multifunctionality and Farmers' Entrepreneurial Skills: A Study of Tuscan and Welsh Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Selyf Lloyd; Marsden, Terry; Miele, Mara; Morley, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    The process of agricultural restructuring in Europe has been strongly influenced both by CAP support of multifunctional agriculture and by market liberalisation, and farmers are exhorted to become more entrepreneurial in response. This paper explores the interaction of these policy goals in two regions where a rural development form of…

  16. Nazi medical experiments on Australian prisoners of war: Commentary on the testimony of an Australian soldier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, George M

    2015-12-01

    Archival research reveals that Australian prisoners of war were exposed to non-consensual medical experiments during World War II. This article discusses the first known case of an Australian soldier exposed to German medical experiments. PMID:26939510

  17. Experiences with Farmer Participatory Cowpea Improvement and Seed Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer participatory research is not only a significant concept today but it has become an essential approach to certain aspects of contemporary agricultural research. The CGIAR has already launched a system wide program on participatory research to assess the effectiveness of this approach in plant breeding, natural resources management and gender analysis. The need for participatory research arose when some of the superior technologies identified based on the tests at experiment stations failed to gain acceptance/popularity with resource poor farmers. In most cases, there was nothing wrong with the technologies but farmers did not have access to the recommended inputs and without inputs, the new technologies were poorer, equal to or marginally better than what farmers were using. The apparent lacuna was the lack of testing of new technologies in divers conditions including marginal environments without inputs to ensure superior performance under all conditions. Since all possible test conditions cannot be created at the experiment station, it is now generally agreed that farmer participation at strategic stages may be helpful in developing improved technologies intended for resource poor conditions and traditional cropping systems. The farmer participation ensures use of indigenous knowledge, farmer's perception about the acceptable plant types, seed types and use patterns. It also permits testing of selected materials in diverse conditions and farmer to farmer diffusion of improved technologies

  18. [Review on farmer's climate change perception and adaptation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue-Yan

    2014-08-01

    As the most serious challenge that the humankind is facing, climate change has been strengthened vulnerability in many countries and regions, and how to scientifically adapt to climate change has become the global issue of common concern to the international community today. The impact of climate change on farming people depending on the nature resource is especially remarkable, and understanding farmers' adaptation mechanism and process is very important to effectively make the adaptation policy. As the basis of understanding the human response action, public perception has provided a new perspective to verify the farmers' adaptation mechanism and process about climate change. Based on the recent theoretical and empirical developments of farmers' perception and adaptation, the impact of climate change on the farmers' livelihood was analyzed, and the main adaptation obstacles which the farmers faced in response to climate change were summarized systematically. Then, we analyzed the relationship between the farmers' climate change perception and adaptation, illuminated the key cognitive elements in the process of the farmers' climate change adaptation and introduced the framework to analyze the relationship between the farmers' climate change perception and adaptation. At last, this review put forward the key questions which should be considered in study on the relationship between the farmers' climate change perception and adaptation. PMID:25509101

  19. Radiocaesium variability in upland sheep flocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the 1986 Chernobyl accident large areas of uplands in the United Kingdom were contaminated by radiocaesium. Consequently, the level of radiocaesium in the tissues of some sheep exceeded 1000 Bq kg-1 fresh weight This is the limit adopted within the UK above which meat cannot enter the food chain. In 1986, restrictions were placed on the movement and slaughter of sheep in areas of west Cumbria, north Wales and Scotland. Whilst the number of farms under restriction has reduced considerably, some still remain restricted in 2002. Although a number of workers had noted considerable variability between the radiocaesium activities of individuals within sheep flocks there had been no analyses of causal effects. The work described here, combined studies on three upland farms within west Cumbria with controlled feeding experiments, to systematically assess the parameters which may contribute to such variability. Results from all three farms demonstrate a temporally consistent ranking of the 137Cs activity concentration of individual sheep within the study flocks. As there was also a correlation between the 137Cs activity concentration of ewes and their pre-weaned lambs it is likely that the same ewes are producing lambs in excess of the intervention limit in subsequent years. It is difficult to generalise as to which factors will contribute to 137Cs variability within a given upland flock; factors contributing to variation were not consistent between the study farms. However, the location grazed and/or vegetation selected by animals was a causal factor to the observed variability at all three farms. The transfer of radiocaesium from the diet to muscle of sheep was found to be determined by live-weight change and dry matter intake. Subsequent studies have suggested that protein turnover may be a potential mechanism for the relationship between dry matter intake and radiocaesium transfer. This hypothesis is supported by current understanding of protein-dry matter

  20. TOXIC EFFECTS OF PATULIN ON SHEEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.O. Ortega

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the adverse effects of patulin on beef and dairy sheep. In the beef sheep trial, nine Corriedale lambs averaging 26 3 kg-1 BW were used. The treatment group, n=5, received 3.3 mg patulin/kg-1 BW twice daily (BID on days 0 through 2; 4.5 mg/kg-1 BW on days 3 through 5, and 5 mg/ kg-1 BW on day 6. Lambs received no patulin from day 7 through 13. The control lambs, n= 4, received an equal volume of water by stomach tube BID. The dry matter (DM intake in dosed sheep was 22 % less than that of control animals after three days of treatment with 3.3 mg patulin/ kg-1 BW. This difference increased to 40 % as the dose of patulin increased to 5 mg/kg-1 BW. Differences in DM consumption remained significant through day 13 ( P+ 6 kg-1 BW were used. The treatment group, n= 7, received 3.3 mg patulin/kg-1 BW divided BID. The control group, n=6, received an equal volume of water by stomach tube BID. Neither changes in body weight nor effects on feed intake were observed in the patulin treated group. Effects on milk production, serum biochemistry, electrolytes, and hematology parameters were not detected. Contrary to what it was expected patulin treatment in almost equal doses shown to be effective for beef sheep failed to influence production and health in dairy sheep. Factors such as age, diet and composition of rumen microflora might have contributed to the difference in behavior.

  1. How safe is Australian Radiotherapy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many incidents and near-incidents are known to occur in Australian radiation oncology departments. The vast majority of incidents are minor in nature; however a small percentage represent major threats to good patient care, administrative structures and public confidence. A small but regular number of incidents result in ad-hoc local and/or State committees of inquiry or Tort actions and inevitably have substantial personal and departmental repercussions. Apart from some local databases on treatment delivery incidents maintained by radiation therapists, no systematic data collection or analysis of treatment incidents exists for radiation oncology in Australia. This paper argues the case for a prospective, systematic approach to the recording and analysis of treatment-related incidents and near incidents. Major barriers to such a scheme, including fear of litigation, misuse of information and lack of understanding on the nature of an incident are discussed. Copyright (2003) Australian Institute of Radiography

  2. Research Output of Australian Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm Abbot; Hristos Doucouliagos

    2003-01-01

    Research plays an important role in underpinning a country’s economic and social life. Universities are at the centre of the research and human capital generating process. The aim of this paper is to explore the links between research output, research income, academic and non-academic labour and some of the characteristics of Australian universities. The results indicate that research income, academic staff and post-graduates are all positively associated with research output. There are notic...

  3. Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2010-06-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of Australian Aboriginal accounts of meteors. The data used were taken from anthropological and ethnographic literature describing oral traditions, ceremonies, and Dreamings of 97 Aboriginal groups representing all states of modern Australia. This revealed common themes in the way meteors were viewed between Aboriginal groups, focusing on supernatural events, death, omens, and war. The presence of such themes around Australia was probably due to the unpredictable nature of meteors in an otherwise well-ordered cosmos.

  4. Basic pulmonary function tests in pig farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đuričić Slaviša M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Many epidemiological and clinical studies have demonstrated an increased risk for the symptoms of respiratory disorders consistent with chronic bronchitis and asthma and alterations of pulmonary function tests in pig farmers. AIM The aim of this study was to determine basic pulmonary function values in workers in swine confinement buildings and to compare them with the same values in the control group of unexposed persons. The next aim was to examine the association between these values with duration of professional exposure, cigarette smoking, age, and sex of the examined persons. METHODS We randomly selected for examination 145 workers of both sex who had worked for at least 2 previous years in pig farms and spent at least 3 hours per day, 6 days per week in a swine confinement building. The farmers worked at 6 different farms with 12,383 pigs on average on each farms. The subject was eligible for the study if he had had no history of atopic disease nor any serious chronic disease, and no acute respiratory infection within 3 previous months. As control group we examined 156 subjects who had lived and/or worked in the same areas and had had no history of exposure to farming environment or any other known occupational air pollutants. In both groups the study comprised cigarette smokers and persons who had never smoked. Pulmonary function data were collected according to the standard protocol with a Micro Spirometer, (Micro Medical Ltd, England, UK. The registered parameters were FEV1 and FVC At least three satisfactory forced maximal expirations were performed by each subject and the best value was accepted for analyses. The results were also expressed as a percentage of predicted values and FEV1/FVCxlOO was calculated. RESULTS There were no differences in the main demographic characteristics between two examined groups (Table1. Mean duration of work in pig farming was 11.6 years (SD=8.5; range 2-40. The average values of examined

  5. Weeds as important vegetables for farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisella S. Cruz-Garcia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the multiple uses and cognitive importance of edible weeds in Northeast Thailand. Research methods included focus group discussions and freelistings. A total of 43 weeds consumed as vegetable were reported, including economic, naturalized, agricultural and environmental weeds. The weedy vegetables varied considerably on edible parts, presenting both reproductive (flowers, fruits and seeds and vegetative organs (shoots, leaves, flower stalks, stems or the whole aerial part. The results of this study show that weedy vegetables are an important resource for rice farmers in this region, not only as a food but also because of the multiple additional uses they have, especially as medicine. The fact that the highest Cognitive Salience Index (CSI scores of all wild vegetables freelisted corresponded to weeds, reinforces the assertion that weeds are culturally cognitively important for local farmers as a vegetable source. This is a key finding, given that these species are targets of common pesticides used in this region.

  6. Simulating farmer behaviour under water markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, SIlvia; Erfani, Tohid; Henriques, Catarina; Maziotis, Alexandros; Garbe, Jennifer; Swinscoe, Thomas; Harou, Julien; Weatherhead, Keith; Beevers, Lindsay; Fleskens, Luuk

    2015-04-01

    Increasing water scarcity may lead water managers to consider alternative approaches to water allocation including water markets. One concern with markets is how will specific sectors interact with a potential water market, when will they gain or loose water and will they benefit economically - why, when and how? The behaviours of different individual abstractors or institutional actors under water markets is of interest to regulators who seek to design effective market policies which satisfy multiple stakeholder groups. In this study we consider two dozen agricultural water users in eastern England (Nar basin). Using partially synthetic but regionally representative cropping and irrigation data we simulate the buying and selling behaviour of farmers on a weekly basis over multiple years. The impact of on-farm water storage is assessed for farmers who own a reservoir. A river-basin-scale hydro-economic multi-agent model is used that represents individual abstractors and can simulate a spot market under various licensing regimes. Weekly varying economic demand curves for water are calibrated based on historical climate and water use data. The model represents the trade-off between current use value and expected gains from trade to reach weekly decisions. Early results are discussed and model limitations and possible extensions are presented.

  7. Australian methodology for the estimation of greenhouse gas emissions and sinks: Agriculture: Workbook for livestock: Workbook 6.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bureau of Resource Sciences, Canberra, ACT (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    This workbook details a methodology for estimating methane emissions from Australian livestock. The workbook is designed to be consistent with international guidelines and takes into account special Australian conditions. While regarded as a significant source of anthropogenic methane emissions, it is also acknowledged in this document that livestock do not provide sinks for methane or any other greenhouse gas. Methane can originate from both fermentation processes in the digestive tracts of all livestock and from manure under certain management conditions. Methane emissions were estimated from beef cattle, dairy cattle, sheep, pigs, poultry, goats, horses, deer, buffalo, camels, emus and ostriches, alpacas and donkeys and mules. Two methodologies were used to estimate emissions. One is the standard Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Tier 1 methodology that is needed to provide inter-country comparisons of emissions. The other has been developed by the Inventory Methodology Working Group. It represents the best current Australian method for estimating greenhouse gas emissions from Australian livestock. (author). 6 tabs., 22 refs.

  8. Time Travel: Australian Tourists and Britain's Past

    OpenAIRE

    Richard White

    2012-01-01

    Across the twentieth century, Britain drew more Australian tourists for longer and more intense experiences than anywhere else, though as early as the 1970s Asia was attracting more Australians than Europe. They found much to admire and to deprecate in Britain but above all they were seduced by Britain’s past, or what they imagined it to be. This paper examines the Australian experience of history in Britain, their admiration for notions of tradition, for an unchanging village life, for fadin...

  9. Immune dysfunction in Australian Aborigines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Thomson, P J; Roberts-Thomson, R A; Nikoloutsopoulos, T; Gillis, D

    2005-12-01

    An examination of the prevalence and phenotype of immune disorders in different ethnic groups may provide important clues to the etiopathogenesis of these disorders. Whilst still conjectural the restricted and somewhat unique polymorphisms of the MHC (and other genetic loci involving host defences) of the Australian Aborigines may provide an explanation for their apparent heightened susceptibility to newly encountered infections and their resistance to many (auto) immune and allergic disorders. In comparison with non-Aboriginal Australians, Australian Aborigines have heightened frequencies of rheumatic fever, systemic lupus erythematosus, various infections and post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. In contrast various autoimmune disorders (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, CREST, biliary cirrhosis, coeliac disease, pernicious anaemia, vitiligo), B27 related arthropathies, psoriasis, lymphoproliferative disorders and atopic disorders appear infrequent or absent. Similarly various autoantibodies occur with increased or diminished frequency. With continuing racial admixture, social deprivation and deleterious lifestyles of these people it is likely that further changes in both the frequencies and phenotype of these immune disorders will occur. It is only with a full understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms involved in these immune disorders that meaningful and clinical relevant interventions will be possible. PMID:16572744

  10. A survey on Aflatoxin M1 content in sheep and goat milk produced in Sardinia Region, Italy (2005-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Virdis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the results of a survey conducted in Sardinia Region on Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 contamination in milk of small ruminants from 2005 to 2013 are reported. A total of 517 sheep and 88 goat milk samples from bulk tank, tank trucks and silo tank milk were collected. Analyses were performed by the Regional Farmers Association laboratory using high-performance liquid chromatography following the ISO 14501:1998 standard. None of the sheep milk samples analysed during 2005- 2012 showed AFM1 contamination. In sheep milk samples collected in 2013, 8 out of 172 (4.6% were contaminated by AFM1 with a concentration (mean±SD of 12.59±14.05 ng/L. In one bulk tank milk sample 58.82 ng/L AFM1 was detected, exceeding the EU limit. In none of goat milk samples analysed from 2010 to 2012 AFM1 was detected. In 2013, 9 out of 66 goat milk samples (13.6% showed an AFM1 concentration of 47.21±19.58 ng/L. Two of these samples exceeded the EU limit, with concentrations of 62.09 and 138.6 ng/L. Higher contamination frequency and concentration rates were detected in bulk tank milk samples collected at farm than in bulk milk truck or silo samples, showing a dilution effect on AFM1 milk content along small ruminants supply chain. The rate and levels of AFM1 contamination in sheep and goat milk samples were lower than other countries. However, the small number of milk samples analysed for AFM1 in Sardinia Region in 2005-2013 give evidence that food business operators check programmes should be improved to ensure an adequate monitoring of AFM1 contamination in small ruminant dairy chain.

  11. Mitochondrial DNA variation of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Adriana; Gonçalves, Joana; Muigai, Anne W T; Pereira, Filipe

    2016-06-01

    The history of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in Africa remains largely unknown. After being first introduced from the Near East, sheep gradually spread through the African continent with pastoral societies. The eastern part of Africa was important either for the first diffusion of sheep southward or for putative secondary introductions from the Arabian Peninsula or southern Asia. We analysed mitochondrial DNA control region sequences of 91 domestic sheep from Kenya and found a high diversity of matrilines from the widespread haplogroup B, whereas only a single individual from haplogroup A was detected. Our phylogeography analyses of more than 500 available mitochondrial DNA sequences also identified ancestral haplotypes that were probably first introduced in Africa and are now widely distributed. Moreover, we found no evidence of an admixture between East and West African sheep. The presence of shared haplotypes in eastern and ancient southern African sheep suggests the possible southward movement of sheep along the eastern part of Africa. Finally, we found no evidence of an extensive introduction of sheep from southern Asia into Africa via the Indian Ocean trade. The overall findings on the phylogeography of East African domestic sheep set the grounds for understanding the origin and subsequent movements of sheep in Africa. The richness of maternal lineages in Kenyan breeds is of prime importance for future conservation and breeding programmes. PMID:26765790

  12. Structure and performance of Awassi and Assaf dairy sheep farms in northwestern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milán, M J; Caja, G; González-González, R; Fernández-Pérez, A M; Such, X

    2011-02-01

    Data of 69 dairy sheep farms (70% Assaf and 30% Awassi crossbred), located in the Spanish Autonomous Community of Castilla y León and grouped for receiving technical advice, were used to study their structure and performance. Farm surface was 55.4ha, on average. Approximately 25% of the farms did not have cultivation land, and the other 75% had, on average, 73ha (from which 67% were devoted to forage). Farms used 2.1 annual work units (familiar, 90%), 493 ewes, and yielded 147,000 L/yr of milk. Farmers were tenant (84%), younger than 45 yr (70%), had new houses, and were grouped in cooperatives (83%). Sheep were fed indoors (occasional grazing only) in modern loose stalls and had machine milking. Planned mating (summer to fall) was done in 91% of farms (hormonal treatment, 54%) but artificial insemination was scarce (23%). Annual milk sales averaged 309 L/ewe (fat, 6.5%; protein, 5.3%; log(10) somatic cell count, 5.7), and milk was sent to local dairy industries for cheese production, and 1.35 lambs/ewe were harvested as milk-fed lambs (lechazo). Artificial lamb rearing was done in 38% of farms (automatic, 81%; manual, 19%). Total mixed rations were used in 33% of farms, and the rest used rationed concentrate (including self-produced cereals) according to physiological stage of the ewes (0.45 to 1.97 kg/d) and ad libitum forage (dehydrated, 70%; hay, 68%; fresh, 25%; silage, 12%). The concentrate-to-forage ratio ranged between 32 and 61%. In total, 68% of farms bought more than half of the forage, and 87% of them bought more than half of the required concentrates. According to structural, productive, and managerial traits, 4 types of farms were differentiated by using multiple correspondence analysis and cluster analysis. Type groups were: 1) large-surface farms, devoted to cereal and forage production, predominantly with Awassi crossbreed sheep and a high level of self-consumed commodities (12% of the farms); 2) large flocks with intermediate farm surfaces

  13. Multivariate characterization on morphological traits in Burkina Faso sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 6440 female sheep from Burkina Faso were scored for seven body measurements and four qualitative morphological traits. Sampling included the three main environmental areas and sheep breeds of Burkina Faso: the Sahel area (Burkina-Sahel sheep), the Sudan- Sahel area (Mossi sheep) and the Sudan area (Djallonke sheep). Canonical analyses showed that differences in body measurements between the Sudan and the Sudan-Sahel sheep were small even though most body traits showed higher average values in the Burkina-Sahel sheep: the shortest Mahalanobis distance was found between the Sudan and the Sudan-Sahel populations (1.54), whilst that between the Sudan and the Sahelian populations was the largest (7.88). Discriminant analysis showed that most Sudan (Djallonke) individuals (60.85%) were classified as Sudan-Sahel (Mossi) individuals whilst most Burkina-Sahel individuals were classified into their environmental area of sampling (89.5%). Correspondence analyses indicated that the Burkina-Sahel sheep population clustered together with dropping ears, black and brown colour patterns and presence of wattles, the Sudan sheep were closely associated with long hair and vertical and curled ears and that the Sudan-Sahel sheep did not have clear associations with qualitative phenotypic traits. At the morphological level, the Sudan-Sahel (Mossi) sheep population can be considered a geographical subpopulation belonging to the Djallonke breed, showing some particularities, namely larger body size, due to the particular environmental condition of the area in which it is managed and a continuous gene flow from Sahelian sheep, The information reported in this study will be the basis for the establishment of further characterization, conservation and selection strategies for Burkina Faso sheep. (author)

  14. Farmers' beliefs about bovine tuberculosis control in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hagan, M J H; Matthews, D I; Laird, C; McDowell, S W J

    2016-06-01

    Beliefs can play an important role in farmer behaviour and willingness to adopt new policies. In Northern Ireland, bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is one of the most important endemic diseases facing the cattle industry. An observational study was conducted on 192 farms in a high bTB incidence area during 2010-2011 in order to obtain a better understanding of farmers' beliefs in relation to bTB control. The views of farmers who had experienced a recent confirmed or multiple reactor bTB breakdowns (cases) were compared to those of farmers who had no recent reactors or restricted herd tests (controls). Data were obtained from a face-to-face questionnaire assessing farmers' agreement to 22 statements. All participating farmers found bTB control important and most were keen to learn more about bTB biosecurity measures and were in favour of the cattle-related bTB control measures as presented in the questionnaire (isolation of skin test inconclusive animals, use of the gamma-interferon test and pre-movement testing). The majority of farmers would allow badger vaccination and culling on their own land with an overall preference for vaccination. Highest disagreement was shown for the statements querying a willingness to pay for bTB control measures. There was agreement on most issues between case and control farmers and between different age groups of farmers although case farmers showed more support for additional advice on bTB biosecurity measures (P = 0.042). Case farmers were also more in favour of allowing badger vaccination (P = 0.008) and culling (P = 0.043) on their land and showed less concern for public opposition (P = 0.048). PMID:27256021

  15. THE USE OF MICROSATELLITE MARKERS TO STUDY GENETIC DIVERSITY IN INDONESIAN SHEEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakaria

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study genetic diversity in Indonesian sheep population using microsatellite markers. A total of 18 microsatellite loci have been used for genotyping Indonesian sheep. Total sheep blood 200 samples were extracted from garut sheep of fighting and meat types, purbalingga sheep, batur sheep and jember sheep populations by using a salting out method. Microsatellite loci data were analyzed using POPGENE 3.2 software. Based on this study obtained 180 alleles from 17 microsatellite loci, while average number of alleles was 6.10 alleles (6 to 18 alleles from five Indonesian sheep populations (garut sheep of fighting type, garut sheep of meat type, purbalingga sheep, batur sheep and jember sheep population. The average of observed heterozygosity (Ho and expected heterozygosity (He values were 0.5749 and 0.6896, respectively, while the genetic differentiation for inbreeding among population (FIS, within population (FIT and average genetic differentiation (FST were 0.1006, 0.1647 and 0.0712, respectively. Genetic distance and genetic tree showed that Indonesian sheep population was distinct from garut sheep of fighting and meat types, purbalingga sheep, batur sheep and jember sheep population. Based on this results were needed a strategy for conservation and breeding programs in each Indonesian sheep population.

  16. A better living. A small farmer development project benefits farmers and landless laborers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molitor, C

    1992-12-01

    Nepal suffers from massive poverty. The efforts of the Agricultural Development Bank (ADB) and the International Fund for Agricultural Development (AFAD) are directed to providing loans to small farmers for poverty alleviation. The 1st project between 1981 and 1987 and the 2nd project with closing loans in 1991 has assisted 88,000 rural poor in 41 districts, which is considerably more than the target of 58,000. A 3rd Loan Project funded just by ADB will benefit another 138,000 rural poor or 17% of eligible beneficiaries by 1995. Requirements for loans are income Rs2000, landless laborers, and farmers with .5 hectares of land. The credit limit is Rs30,000. An example of the improvement in standard of living of a mother and her 4 children is given; not only has her income increased form Rs2000/year to a potential Rs1800/month but her children are able to receive an education. She was 1 of 1550 participants in the subproject at Mahendra Nagar in the Dhanusa district. Another landless farmer joined an 8-person farmer group and the loan helped him establish a fishery which yields gross income of Rs7500/year. With an additional loan for expansion, he might be able to gross Rs15,000/year. The interest charge is 13% with repayment over 5 years compared with private moneylender charges of 60-100%. Support from the group organizer was needed, however, to encourage the fishery business, because the farmer's intentions were originally to buy a buffalo which other group members had done and then consumed, thus not providing for repayment of the loan. Organizers must not only direct farmers activities, but initially select suitable candidates, motivate them, and provide guidance. Organizers must have a certificate in science, social science, or agriculture. Loans can be obtained for agriculture, livestock and fish enterprises, cottage industries, and agricultural and retail trading. Group savings is encouraged through special meetings, as needed. 15% of the graduates have been

  17. Farmers' Perception and Awareness and Factors Affecting Awareness of Farmers Regarding Crop Insurance as a Risk Coping Mechanism Evidence from Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sidra Ghazanfar; Zhang Qi-wen; Muhammad Abdullah; Zeeshan Ahmad; Majid Lateef

    2015-01-01

    This study has been conducted in three districts of Punjab Province namely, Dera Ghazi Khan, RajanPur and Bahawalpur of Pakistan. The study showed the results of a survey of 300 farmers which was organized to assess awareness level of farmers regarding crop insurance, factors affecting the awareness level among farmers and the perception of farmers about crop insurance. Based on exploratory research work upon the responses of farmers, the average and standard deviation were calculated. Probit model was applied to explore the factors affecting the awareness level of farmers. SPSS was used for the analysis of the collected data. The results revealed that out of 300 farmers, 184 farmers were aware with crop insurance and rests of the 116 farmers were not aware. Banks and E-media were found to be the two most important sources of the awareness for the respondent farmers. In the study area, the climatic risks were reported as the most severe risks faced by the farmers. The results also revealed the existence of negative perceptions of the farmers about crop insurance i.e. farmers perceived crop insurance as a kind of tax and they believed premium was so high that it was out of range of poor farmers and only large scale farmers could afford it. Results obtained by applying Probit model revealed that "education" and "previously availed agricultural credit" were the two most important factors which affected the awareness of the farmers regarding crop insurance.

  18. Social Learning and Innovation at Retail Farmers' Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichs, C. Claire; Gillespie, Gilbert W.; Feenstra, Gail W.

    2004-01-01

    Retail farmers' markets are seen as key institutions in a more "civic agriculture," but little is known about how they promote small business entrepreneurship. Drawing on research in economic sociology and economic geography, this paper examines the role of social learning in vendor innovation. Data from a 1999 mail survey of farmers' market…

  19. 75 FR 23225 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... Assistance for Farmers program. The URL is http://www.fas.usda.gov/itp/taa . Dated: April 27, 2010. John...

  20. 75 FR 23226 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... Assistance for Farmers program. The URL is http://www.fas.usda.gov/itp/taa . Dated: April 27, 2010. John...

  1. 75 FR 23227 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... Adjustment Assistance for Farmers program. The URL is http://www.fas.usda.gov/itp/taa . Dated: April 27,...

  2. Farmers' Concerns: A Qualitative Assessment to Plan Rural Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brittney T.; Johnson, Gwendolyn J.; Wheat, John R.; Wofford, Amina S.; Wiggins, O. Sam; Downey, Laura H.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Context: Limited research suggests that translational approaches are needed to decrease the distance, physical and cultural, between farmers and health care. Purpose: This study seeks to identify special concerns of farmers in Alabama and explore the need for a medical education program tailored to prepare physicians to address those…

  3. 75 FR 61121 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... Economic Research Service and reviewed by the TAA for Farmers Program Review Committee, comprised of... program in order to be eligible for cash benefits. Producers Certified As Eligible For TAA For...

  4. Attitudes of Dutch pig farmers towards animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huik, van M.M.; Bock, B.B.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose ¿ The purpose of this paper is to provide insights into the rationale of Dutch pig farmers concerning animal welfare and animal-friendly production. It aims to show the interrelations between farmers' production logic, their ideas about good farming and animal welfare and the characteristics

  5. Fuzzy modeling of farmers' knowledge for land suitability classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sicat, R.S.; Carranza, E.J.M.; Nidumolu, U.B.

    2005-01-01

    In a case study, we demonstrate fuzzy modeling of farmers' knowledge (FK) for agricultural land suitability classification using GIS. Capture of FK was through rapid rural participatory approach. The farmer respondents consider, in order of decreasing importance, cropping season, soil color, soil te

  6. Research on the Urban Integration of Land-losing Farmers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Fishbone chart is used to analyze the status of the living ability of land-losing farmers, as well as its causation from the aspects of system layer, social support network, land-losing farmer themselves, and economic layer. Result shows that the system layer includes the unreasonable land compensation, the lack of social security for land-losing farmers, and the employment exclusion of land-losing farmers. Small scale and low heterogeneity are the causations for social support network. Low willingness to become citizens, low cultural quality and difficulty in role change are the causations of land-losing farmers themselves. The low expected return and high living cost are the causations for economic layer. Based on the above analysis, countermeasures to improve the urban-living ability of land-losing farmers are put forward, such as improving the land expropriation system, establishing a multi-level social security system, enhancing the training and employment mechanism of land-losing farmers, and improving the quality of land-losing farmers.

  7. Cytogenetical anchoring of sheep linkage map and syntenic groups using a sheep BAC library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cribiu Edmond-Paul

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to simultaneously integrate linkage and syntenic groups to the ovine chromosomal map, a sheep bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library was screened with previously assigned microsatellites using a sheep-hamster hybrid panel and genetic linkage. Thirty-three BACs were obtained, fluorescently labelled and hybridised on sheep-goat hybrid metaphases (2n = 57. This study allowed us, (i, to anchor all linkage groups on sheep chromosomes, (ii, to give information on the probable position of the centromere on the linkage map for the centromeric chromosomes, (iii, to contradict the previous orientation of the ovine × linkage group by the mapping of BMS1008 on OARXq38. Concerning our somatic cell hybrid panel, this study resulted in the assignment of all the previously unassigned groups to ovine chromosomes and a complete characterisation of the hybrid panel. In addition, since hybridisations were performed on a sheep-goat hybrid, new marker/anchoring points were added to the caprine cytogenetic map.

  8. Bridging the gap between farmers and consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedoin, Florence; Kristensen, Troels; Noe, Egon

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is to explore how different quality dimensions (safety, aesthetics, ethics and rooted ness) are created in food networks; how these qualities are transferred until the consumers; and how this process is supported by the organisation of the food network. Our postulate is th...... of organisations such as public label scheme, cooperate owned brand and direct sell from farmer to consumer. The results highlight the importance of the role of certification and personal commitment for the creation, and also for the mediation of added-value....... is that combining the quality and organisation dimensions and exploring the link between them will provide an interesting perspective for improving the sharing of values in food networks. This framework is applied to five case studies of “pasture-raised beef” food networks in France, representing a diversity...

  9. Food security of small holding farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peramaiyan, Panneer; Hermansen, John Erik; Halberg, Niels

    2010-01-01

    This study compared farm production, crop yield, input cost, and income in organic and conventional farming systems in three states of India: Uttarakhand, Madhya Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu. The results showed that organic farming reduced the input cost without affecting the net margin in all three...... states. Total food production was found to be comparable for the two systems in two of three states. While yield of rice and wheat generally was lower under the organic systems, yield from intercropping food crops was generally higher. The number of agro-ecological methods and percentage of farms...... practicing different agro-ecological methods were higher under organic systems than conventional systems. These results suggest that organic farming has the potential to improve food security of small farmers by reducing indebtedness due to the lower cost of production without affecting total farm production...

  10. Climate change and parasitic disease: farmer mitigation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Eric R; Wall, Richard

    2009-07-01

    Global climate change predictions suggest that far-ranging effects might occur in the population dynamics and distributions of livestock parasites, provoking fears of widespread increases in disease incidence and production loss. However, several biological mechanisms (including increased parasite mortality and more rapid acquisition of immunity), in tandem with changes in husbandry practices (including reproduction, housing, nutrition, breed selection, grazing patterns and other management interventions), might act to mitigate increased parasite development rates, preventing dramatic rises in overall levels of disease. Such changes might, therefore, counteract predicted climate-driven increases in parasite challenge. Optimum mitigation strategies will be highly system specific and depend on detailed understanding of interactions between climate, parasite abundance, host availability and the cues for and economics of farmer intervention. PMID:19540163

  11. Sensors Enable Plants to Text Message Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Long-term human spaceflight means long-term menu planning. Since every pound of cargo comes with a steep price tag, NASA has long researched technologies and techniques to allow astronauts to grow their own food, both on the journey and in some cases at their destination. Sustainable food technologies designed for space have resulted in spinoffs that improve the nutrition, safety, and durability of food on Earth. There are of course tradeoffs involved in making astronauts part-time farmers. Any time spent tending plants is time that can t be spent elsewhere: collecting data, exploring, performing routine maintenance, or sleeping. And as scarce as time is for astronauts, resources are even more limited. It is highly practical, therefore, to ensure that farming in space is as automated and precise as possible.

  12. Sheep internal parasites on Rab and Pag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Relja Beck

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our research was to determine which groups and species of internal parasites endanger the health of sheep on the islands of Rab and Pag. The research was carried out in 10 flocks on both islands taking the fresh dung out of 30% of the total number of sheep in each flock. It was ascertained that the gastrointestinal parasites and protozoa of Eimeria genus are present in most flocks on both islands. The presence of the fluke Dicrocoelium dendriticum was ascertained in considerably larger number of flocks on the island of Rab than on the island of Pag. On the other hand, the presence of parasites of Moniezia and Nematodirus genus was ascertained in larger number of flocks on the island of Pag. In two flocks on Rab parasites of Protostrongylus genus were ascertained while on the island of Pag they were not found in any flock.

  13. Mastitis detection in sheep by infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Rafhael Felipe Saraiva; do Prado Paim, Tiago; de Abreu Cardoso, Cyntia; Stéfano Lima Dallago, Bruno; de Melo, Cristiano Barros; Louvandini, Helder; McManus, Concepta

    2013-06-01

    This study aims to evaluate the use of an infrared thermograph for mastitis diagnosis in sheep. Thirty-seven Santa Inês ewes were evaluated weekly through infrared images obtained with thermograph FLIR System Series-i®. Milk was collected for somatic cell count and milk compound level determination. The clinical mastitis group had the highest fat and protein level, as well as the lowest lactose level. The udder temperatures were higher for subclinical mastitis group. The udder temperature data was able to correctly classify the animals into the mastitis groups and the canonical analysis showed that these temperatures clearly differentiated the subclinical mastitis groups from the others. Therefore, this study showed that udder infrared temperatures can be used as diagnostic method to mastitis in sheep. PMID:23178047

  14. Measurement of bone blood flow in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone blood flow in sheep tibia has been estimated via the measurement of the perfusion limited clearance of 41Ar from the bone mineral matrix following fast neutron activation of 44Ca. Tibia blood flows were estimated for the intact sheep, and after the installation of an intramedullary pressure tap to elevate bone marrow pressure by saline infusion. The results indicate that normal blood flow in the tibia is in the range of 1.1 to 3.7 ml/100ml-min in the intact animal and at normal marrow pressure. With an elevated intramedullary pressure of approximately 100 mmHg, the bone blood flow measured varied around 0.5 to 1.1 ml/100ml-min. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  15. Revealing the history of domesticated sheep using retrovirus integrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chessa, Bernado; Pereira, Filipe; Arnaud, Frederick;

    2009-01-01

    The domestication of livestock represented a crucial step in human history. By using endogenous retroviruses as genetic markers, we found that sheep differentiated on the basis of their "retrotype" and morphological traits dispersed across Eurasia and Africa via separate migratory episodes. Relicts...... production traits, shaped the great majority of present-day breeds. The ability to differentiate genetically primitive sheep from more modern breeds provides valuable insights into the history of sheep domestication...

  16. Relationship between behavioural reactivity and feed efficiency in housed sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Charlotte Amdi; Williams, Andrew Richard; Maloney, S.K.;

    2010-01-01

    In this study we test the hypothesis that selecting sheep for a low behavioural reactivity to stressful situations will improve their metabolic efficiency, and thereby feed efficiency, during a controlled trial in an animal house. Twenty-four Merino wethers were used, 12 each from lines selected ...... surroundings. It is possible that LBR sheep may be more efficient than HBR sheep in more stressful situations....

  17. The influence of selected genes on sheep performance traits

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalena KOLENDA; Daria Karwowska; Beata SITKOWSKA; Ewa Grochowska; Dominika PIETRUSZYNSKA

    2014-01-01

    In order to enhance breeding progress, genes that affect the performance of sheep are being identified. In Poland, sheep breeding programs focus mainly on meat performance, therefore, it is important to identify genes that affect it. Moreover, studies on reproductive performance of sheep have been made. Myostatin (GDF8), calpastatin (CAST) and calpain have been identified as the candidate genes affecting meat quality. Whereas, BMP15 and GDF9, also called fertility genes (Fec), have been repor...

  18. Therapeutic management of sarcoptic mange in a sheep flock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, G S S; Nagesha, A M; Hemanna Gowda, K

    2013-10-01

    Sarcoptic mange infested sheep showed pruritis, excoriation, crusts, lichenification and secondary alopecia on face and ears. All the infested sheep were treated successfully with Ivermectin at 200 μg/kg body weight and complete recovery of skin was observed between 10th and 14th day post treatments. Sarcoptic mange is highly contagious and the spread of Sarcoptes scabiei is usually by close contact but in goats not same because it has natural resistance against sheep mange. PMID:24431584

  19. Pesticides and respiratory symptoms among farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faria Neice Müller Xavier

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Despite the intensive use of pesticides in agriculture there are few studies assessing the risk of respiratory conditions from this exposure. The study aimed at quantifying the prevalence of respiratory symptoms among farmers and evaluating its relationship with occupational use of pesticides and the prevalence of respiratory symptoms. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,379 farmers from two municipalities of Southern Brazil in 1996. Frequency and type of chemical exposure and pesticide poisoning were recorded for both sexes. All subjects aged 15 years or older with at least 15 weekly hours of agricultural activity were interviewed. An adapted questionnaire developed by the American Thoracic Society was used for the assessment of respiratory symptoms. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out. RESULTS: More than half (55% of interviewees were male. The prevalence of asthma symptoms was 12% and chronic respiratory disease symptoms was 22%. Higher odds ratios for both asthma (OR=1.51; 95% CI: 1.07-2.14 and chronic respiratory disease (OR=1.34; 95% CI 1.00-1.81 symptoms were found in women. Logistic regression analysis identified associations between many forms of exposure to pesticides and increased respiratory symptoms. Occurrence of pesticide poisoning was associated with higher prevalence of asthma symptoms (OR=1.54; 95% CI: 1.04-2.58 and chronic respiratory disease symptoms (OR=1.57; 95% CI: 1.08-2.28. CONCLUSIONS: In spite of causality limitations, the study results provide evidence that farming exposure to pesticides is associated with higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms, especially when the exposure is above two days per month.

  20. Identification of Morphometry and Carcass Composition of Local Sheep at Different Growth Rate

    OpenAIRE

    M. Yamin; Rahayu, S.; Komariah; M. Iswahyudi; R. Rachman

    2012-01-01

    Sheep fattening farms have been recently growing rapidly to produce better quality of sheep meat and fullfill consumer’s demand. Sheep fattening and breeding farms should be developed proportionally to obtain sustainable sheep flock in the market. Twelve male lambs (less than one year old) were selected based on their average daily gain (ADG), consisting into two groups: 6 fast growing (FG) and 6 slow growing (SG) sheep. Some morphometric parameters in body and head parts of sheep and their c...

  1. Haemonchus contortus Infections in Alpacas and Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Casey, Sarah Jane

    2014-01-01

    The blood feeding nematode Haemonchus contortus infects the abomasum of small ruminants and compartment three (C-3) of camelids. Heavy infections may cause severe anemia and death. Alpacas were first introduced into the U.S. in the 1980s. Although not true ruminants, alpacas may become infected with H. contortus and develop the same clinical signs as sheep and goats. Even though alpacas may become infected with the parasite, prior research by Hill et al. (1993) and Green et al. (1996) indicat...

  2. Tooth development in incisor region of sheep

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Míšek, Ivan

    Olomouc: -, 2008 - (Bezdičková, M.; Molíková, R.). s. 128-128 ISBN 978-80-244-2061-5. [Morphology 2008. Lojda Symposium on Histochemistry /45./. 08.09.2008-10.09.2008, Olomouc] R&D Projects: GA ČR GC524/08/J032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : tooth development * sheep Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry

  3. 9 CFR 91.8 - Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-positive animal or an exposed animal, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54 and 79, or if it has ever been in an infected flock, source flock, or trace flock, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54 and 79; or if it is the progeny... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sheep. 91.8 Section 91.8 Animals...

  4. Acorn poisoning in cattle and sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    • Multiple cases of acorn poisoning in cattle and sheep following bumper crop • Salmonella Dublin infection causes abortions in cattle • Respiratory disease affecting different age groups of pigs on a nursery finisher unit • Porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome cases diagnosed • A further case of suspect Marek's disease in turkeys. These are among matters discussed in the Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency's (AHVLA's) disease surveillance report for November 2013 to January 2014. PMID:24578432

  5. Vitamin and water requirements of dairy sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Fulvia Bovera; Monica Isabella Cutrignelli; Giuseppe Moniello; Federico Infascelli

    2010-01-01

    The authors review the physiological role and the daily requirement of fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K), vitamin C  and water in dairy sheep. Regarding the vitamins, classical clinical symptoms and/or non-specific parameters, such as  lowered production and reproduction rates are associated with their deficiencies or excesses. Until the last decade,  these compounds were considered important only for the prevention of such alterations; currently, there is more  emphasi...

  6. MEAT PRODUCTIVITY OF CROSSBRED SHEEP CALVES

    OpenAIRE

    Degtyar A. S.; Kolosov A. Y.; Romanets T. S.

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the results of the control slaughter of purebred and crossbred lambs. It was found that the index of compactness and the main killer performance superiority had two or three breed lambs obtained from crosses involving sheep southern meat breed. The experimental animals were taken measurements of carcasses, which give a fairly complete and objective view of the differences in the length of the torso, hips, mascara and hip girth. There are specific differences in the yield ...

  7. Impacts of Renewable Energy on European Farmers. Creating benefits for farmers and society

    OpenAIRE

    Pedroli, G.B.M.; Langeveld, H.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents results of the project Impacts of Renewable Energy on European Farmers. It focuses on the (potential) role that on-farm generation of Renewable Energy in the EU-27 may play both in realisation of national and EU environmental targets as in (re)vitalising agriculture and rural economy in different regions of the Union. Renewable Energy (RE) in this respect includes the energy generated on farms by using wind, PV, solar thermal, hydro, geothermal or biomass resources.

  8. Dialogue between farmers and experts regarding farm animal welfare. Farmers' juries in Norway, the Netherlands and Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bock, B.B.; Swagemakers, P.; Jacobsen, E.; Ferrari, P.

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this report is to evaluate farmers' responses to and acceptance of the Welfare Quality assessment and monitoring system, its grading system and use for product information. It is important to determine how farmers perceive the tool because they will be among main users, and the

  9. Kusheh, na minem Fatu, en mi na koko farmer Hello, I am Fatu and I am a cocoa farmer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveen, L.M.; Goris, Margriet; Lie, R.; Ingram, V.J.

    2016-01-01

    This document reports on the development of a prototype Digital Farmer Field School (DFFS) called Kusheh, na minem Fatu, en mi na koko farmer (“Hello, I am Fatu and I am a cocoa farmer”). The DFFS provides an ICT-based alternative to traditional agricultural extension. More specifically, it offers a

  10. Four Management Agendas for Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharrock, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    In a new mixed economy of higher learning, Australian universities require more strategic management to compete and collaborate sustainably. However, many scholars argue that new modes of university management are at odds with scholarly aims and values. This article examines how Australian universities frame their missions and communicate their…

  11. Recent developments in the Australian housing market

    OpenAIRE

    James Bond

    2003-01-01

    Housing plays an important role in Australia’s economic growth and in the welfare of Australians. This article examines developments in the Australian housing market over recent years. It argues that investors have played an increasingly important role in the housing market for both detached houses and apartments.

  12. Understanding Culture and Diversity: Australian Aboriginal Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vize, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Australian Aboriginal culture is rich, complex and fascinating. The art of Aboriginal Australians shows a great understanding of the earth and its creatures. This article presents an activity which has been designed as a multi-age project. The learning outcomes have been written to suit both younger and older students. Aspects of the project could…

  13. A global history of Australian trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Brett M

    2011-01-01

    Scholars studying the globalization of Australian trees have previously emphasized the rapid natural propagation of Australian trees outside of their native habitats, believing their success to be a reversal of "ecological imperialism" from the "new world" to the "old world." This article argues that the expansion of Australian trees should not be viewed as a biological phenomenon, but as the result of a long-term attempt by powerful states and state-sponsored scientists to select and breed Australian species that could grow in a variety of climates and ecological conditions. Five non-biological factors largely determined the success of these attempts to grow Australian trees: the abundance or paucity of natural forests, state power, the amount of scientific research directed to planting Australian trees, the cost of labor, and the ability to utilize hardwood timbers and bark. This paper compares the use of Australian trees in Australia, India, and South Africa to demonstrate that biology was not the determining factor in the long-term success of many Australian genera and species. PMID:20665086

  14. Are Young Muslims Adopting Australian Values?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Nahid Afrose

    2008-01-01

    Recently politicians in Australia have raised concerns that some Muslims are not adopting Australian values to a sufficient extent. In this paper I explore the notion of Australian values with respect to immigrant youth. By analysing interviews with 32 Muslim students who are 15-18 years of age and of diverse backgrounds in two state schools in…

  15. Live monitoring of cattle, reindeer and sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Chernobyl accident the fallout differed considerably from area to area in Norway and specially were found from soil samples that the mountain pasture in Middle and South of Norway were heavily contaminated. These natural ecosystem is important in several nutrition pathways; notably sheep, goat, reindeer and cattle. In June 1986 the Health Directorate imposed action levels for the nuclides Cs-134 and Cs-137. The action levels were 370 Bq/kg for milk and baby food and 600 Bq/kg for all other types of food. In November 1986, the action level for reindeer meat were increased to 6000 Bq/kg, and in June 1987 the level was also increased to 6000 Bq/kg for wild freshwater fish. The most effected meat production were reindeer, sheep and cattle. Almost 20 to 35% of the sheep had activity levels above the action limits. This fact initiated a broad program to establish effective measure to increase the activity levels and to sort out the animals which could be slaughtered. Three main approaches have been utilized in Norway in order to achieve this and to limit the potential health risk: action aimed at reducing uptake from soil to vegetation (plowing, use of fertilizing etc.); action aimed at reducing uptake from fodder to animals (use of cesium binder, change of slaughter time), or reducing unacceptable activity levels in animals (downfeeding); action aimed at reducing intake to human (interdiction, dietary advice). Live monitoring were in several of these actions necessary for a successful result

  16. Studies on Phylogenetic Relationship of Sheep Population in East and South of Central Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Wei; CHANG Hong; YANG Zhang-ping; GENG Rong-qing; LU Sheng-xia; DU Lei; NI Da-xing; FAN Bao-sheng; Tsunoda K

    2002-01-01

    This paper was based on the Hu sheep in China, after collecting the same data about 9 Asiasheep populations and 5 European sheep (breeds in Japan) populations. It clustered 15 populations in terms ofthe gene frequency of 10 loci and 33 allele in blood enzyme and other protein variations. The result of Hierar-chy Clustering showed that the sheep populations in the East and South of Central Asia could be classified intothree genetic groups: Mongolia sheep, South Asia sheep and European sheep, and the Hu sheep belonged toMongolia sheep.

  17. The Australian Synchrotron Project - Update

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Alan

    2004-01-01

    The Australian Synchrotron - a synchrotron light facility based on a 3-GeV electron storage ring is under construction at a site in the Metropolitan District of Melbourne. Building preparation started on a "green-field" site in September 2003 and staff moved in to their new offices in February 2005. Installation of the technical equipment started in April 2005 with all accelerator contracts expected to be completed before April 2006. Storage Ring commissioning with beam will start in June 2006, and project completion is scheduled for March 2007. In this paper we present an overview of the facility and discuss progress to date in meeting this very aggressive schedule.

  18. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2013-01-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  19. Comets in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2010-01-01

    We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities, citing both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of bright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great Comets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of comets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with fear, death, omens, malevolent spirits, and evil magic, consistent with many cultures around the world. We also provide a list of words for comets in 16 different Aboriginal languages.

  20. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2013-07-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  1. Comets in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-03-01

    We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities, citing both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of historically bright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great Comets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of comets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with fear, death, omens, malevolent spirits, and evil magic, consistent with many cultures around the world. We also provide a list of words for comets in 16 different Aboriginal languages.

  2. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy and Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Philip A.

    Australian Aboriginal ethnoastronomical traditions were recorded from a wide variety of sources in different periods. While the corpus of mythology concerning the heavens is diverse, it is unified by beliefs of a Skyworld as land with its own topography, containing plants and animals familiar to those living below. Spirits of the dead reside alongside the Creation Ancestors as celestial bodies in the Skyworld. Aboriginal hunter-gatherers used the regular movement of constellations and planets to measure time and to indicate the season, while unexpected change in the sky was seen as an omen.

  3. ATTITUDES OF VEGETABLE FARMERS TOWARDS PUBLIC AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tala Qtaishat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Among vegetable farmers in Jordan, there are conflicting attitudes towards the extension activities provided by the public sector. Some farmers accept and adopt the recommendations of these activities; on the other hand, some people are not satisfied and consider these activities a waste of time for both the farmers and the government. This situation has serious impacts on the quality, duration and efficiency of the extension activities provided by government related agencies. Also, the situation will end in providing low-quality agricultural extension services to the farmers or providing these services in a non-productive manner. The actual attitudes of vegetable farmers towards Public Agricultural Extension Services (PAES in the Dear Alla Area of Jordan were investigated in this study. A total of 80 vegetable farmers were selected for the study. A questionnaire consisting of two main parts was used for data collection; the first part was related to personal and socio-economic characteristics of the sample individuals. The second part was related to extension activities. A five-point Likert-type scale was used as an instrument to gather primary data. The farmers rated their attitudes toward Public Agricultural Extension Services (PAES through 10 statements related carefully to the Public Agricultural Extension Services. Data analysis was done in two sections, consisting of data description and data inferential analysis. The results of the study revealed that the farmers’ overall attitude towards the public agricultural extension activities was negative. The farmers’ attitudes according to age, experience, educational level and frequency and type of contact with public extension services were also negative. The negative attitude of the participant farmers towards the Public Agricultural Extension Services means that the farmers were not satisfied with these services. Identifying the sources and types of public extension programs, the

  4. Investigation of transferrin polymorphism in Garole sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Devesh K; Taraphder, Subhash; Sahoo, Ajit K; Dhara, K C

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the genetics of polymorph systems of Transferrin in Garole sheep breed. The present study was conducted on 95 adult Garole sheep comprising 52 ewes and 43 rams, maintained at Sheep and Goat Breeding Farm of West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, West Bengal, during the period from April-September, 2009. The polymorphism of transferrin was determined through SDS-Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis technique. It was found that the transferrin type was controlled by five codominant alleles (TfA, TfB, TfC TfD and TfE) in Garole sheep. These five alleles, because of co-dominant nature of inheritance, determined the occurrence of nine transferrin genotypes in the analyzed flock. Four (TfAA, TfBB, TfCC and TfDD) of these were homozygous and the remaining five (TfAD, TfBC, TfBD, TfCD and TfDE) heterozygous. It was found that the TfDD genotype (0.263) was predominant while TfDE genotype (0.042) was least common in the analyzed flock. Frequencies of other genotypes were as: TfCD(0.242), TfBD(0.126), TfCC(0.084), TfBB(0.074), TfAA(0.063), TfAD and TfBC (0.053 for each genotype ) in whole population. From the result it was found that in whole population combined, the heterozygotic genotypic frequency (0.516) was more than that of homozygotic genotypic frequency (0.484). Considerable variations were recognized in the frequencies of transferrin alleles. In the whole population frequencies of transferrin alleles were found to be TfA = 0.089, TfB = 0.163, TfC = 0.232, TfD = 0.495 and TfE = 0.021. Transferrin system has shown an absence of genetic equilibrium among the analyzed herd (chi2 value = 51.31). In conclusion, there were polymorphism in Transferrin types and the presence of differences among the frequencies of the five alleles by categories could be a source of genetic variation in Garole sheep. PMID:20349135

  5. Protecting Ourselves from Harm: Voices of Aging Farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, D B; Claunch, D T

    2015-10-01

    Senior farmers suffer the highest fatality risk of any age group in agriculture. The purpose of this exploratory study was to develop a "voice" for senior farmers by examining aging farmers' and their families' perspectives of farm work, associated injury risks, and methods to decrease those risks. Focus groups and personal interviews were used to collect data from 81 participants across seven U.S. states. The findings reflect the collective and verified voice of the study group. The Health Belief Model was applied and revealed differences between farmers and their family members; however, the need and desire to continue self-directed work was ubiquitous. Seniors reported external risks, while family members were more likely to name risks associated with the health of the senior farmer. Both groups cited stress as an injury risk. Posing risk to others was the trigger point for senior farmers to make behavior changes. Family members reported uneasiness in initiating safety conversations. Adaptation of existing interventions for self-assessment of risk was rejected. Use of the popular farm press and respected local resources were desired as avenues for safety education. Humor and stories were highly regarded. Interventions should be tailored for the target audience. These new insights into the risk perceptions of senior farmers and their families may result in more appropriate actions by health professionals, extension staff social workers, vocational rehabilitation specialists, and others who work with farm populations. PMID:26710583

  6. The structure of psychological life satisfaction: insights from farmers and a general community sample in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OBrien Léan V

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological life satisfaction is a robust predictor of wellbeing. Public health measures to improve wellbeing would benefit from an understanding of how overall life satisfaction varies as a function of satisfaction with multiple life domains, an area that has been little explored. We examine a sample of drought-affected Australian farmers and a general community sample of Australians to investigate how domain satisfaction combines to form psychological satisfaction. In particular, we introduce a way of statistically testing for the presence of “supra-domains” of satisfaction to propose a novel way of examining the composition of psychological life satisfaction to gain insights for health promotion and policy. Methods Covariance between different perceptions of life domain satisfaction was identified by conducting correlation, regression, and exploratory factor analyses on responses to the Personal Wellbeing Index. Structural equations modelling was then used to (a validate satisfaction supra-domain constructs emerging from different perceptions of life domain satisfaction, and (b model relationships between supra-domains and an explicit measure of psychological life satisfaction. Results Perceived satisfaction with eight different life domains loaded onto a single unitary satisfaction construct adequately in each sample. However, in both samples, different domains better loaded onto two separate but correlated constructs (‘supra-domains’: “satisfaction with connectedness” and “satisfaction with efficacy”. Modelling reciprocal pathways between these supra-domains and an explicit measure of psychological life satisfaction revealed that efficacy mediated the link between connectedness and psychological satisfaction. Conclusions If satisfaction with connectedness underlies satisfaction with efficacy (and thus psychological satisfaction, a novel insight for health policy emerges: psychological life satisfaction

  7. Australian Expatriates: Who are They?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Calderón Prada

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Australia is made up of 20 million people and, interestingly enough, over one million of the total population live overseas. Australians living abroad are known as `expatriates´ and they have a particular profile: highly educated and better skilled than their counterparts at home. Thus, on the one hand, a general division may be established between expatriates and Australians living at home; on the other, a particular division between expatriates themselves, which depends on the individual reasons that push them to leave Australia. At this point, it is important to outline the general reasons that lead expatriates to go overseas. To begin with, in terms of migration, Australia is both historically and contemporarily linked to other countries. Secondly, Australia is geographically isolated and, therefore, far away from the main global markets. Finally, it is quite right to conclude that although the logical assumption of expatriation is distance, expatriates are mentally, and often emotionally, linked to Australia and, therefore, the understanding of their situation is more positive than negative

  8. Learner discipline: An Australian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Stewart

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Australian schools by and large are safe schools. Nonetheless discipline problems do exist – including bullying behaviour. For this kind of problem schools should have management policies in place. As traditional behaviour-management practices – including corporal punishment – are largely prohibited in Australian schools, contemporary practices centre on management through supportive school programmes, including appropriate curricula and school-support structures. This article supports the belief that measures such as the exclusion of misbehaving learners should be treated with caution. Measures such as this might not reflect accepted international principles and practices and should only be exercised in the most extreme circumstances. The article also supports the view that it is part of the school’s role to ensure that all learners are aware of the reality that while they have rights, they also have corresponding responsibilities. This awareness is more likely to be achieved in a supportive school culture where each learner is recognised as having unique qualities that can mature and grow in an appropriate learning environment.

  9. Food Standards are Good – for Middle-Class Farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Trifkovic, Neda

    2014-01-01

    We estimate the causal effect of food standards on Vietnamese pangasius farmers’ wellbeing measured by per capita consumption expenditure. We estimate both the average effects and the local average treatment effects on poorer and richer farmers by instrumental variable quantile regression. Our...... results indicate that large returns can be accrued from food standards, but only for the upper middle-class farmers, i.e., those between the 50% and 85% quantiles of the expenditure distribution. Overall, our result points to an exclusionary impact of standards for the poorest farmers while the richest do...... not apply standards because the added gain is too small....

  10. Food Standards are Good– for Middle-class Farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Trifkovic, Neda

    We estimate the causal effect of food standards on Vietnamese pangasius farmers’ wellbeing measured by per capita consumption expenditure. We estimate both the average effects and the local average treatment effects on poorer and richer farmers by instrumental variable quantile regression. Our...... results indicate that large returns can be accrued from food standards, but only for the upper middle-class farmers, i.e., those between the 50% and 85% quantiles of the expenditure distribution. Overall, our result points to an exclusionary impact of standards for the poorest farmers while the richest do...... not apply standards because the added gain is too small....

  11. Feedback on Measured Dust Concentrations Reduces Exposure Levels Among Farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basinas, Ioannis; Sigsgaard, Torben; Bønløkke, Jakob Hjort;

    2016-01-01

    objective measurements has been limited. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether dust exposure can be reduced by providing feedback to the farmers concerning measurements of the exposure to dust in their farm. METHODS: The personal dust levels of farmers in 54 pig and 26 dairy cattle farms were evaluated in two...... quantified by means of linear mixed effect analysis with farm and worker id as random effects. Season, type of farming, and work tasks were treated as fixed effects. Changes in exposure over time were explored primarily at a farm level in models combined, as well as separate for pig and cattle farmers...

  12. Dutch dairy farmers' need for microbiological mastitis diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffioen, Karien; Hop, Geralda E; Holstege, Manon M C; Velthuis, Annet G J; Lam, Theo J G M

    2016-07-01

    Although several microbiological mastitis diagnostic tools are currently available, dairy farmers rarely use them to base treatment decisions on. In this study, we conducted a telephone interview among 195 randomly selected Dutch dairy farmers to determine their current use of and their need for microbiological diagnostics for clinical mastitis (CM), subclinical mastitis (SCM), and dry-cow treatment (DCT), followed by the test characteristics they consider important. A structured questionnaire was used, based on face-to-face interviews previously held with other farmers. The answers were registered in a database and analyzed using descriptive statistics and univariable and multivariable models. Antimicrobial treatment decisions for CM, SCM, and DCT were mainly based on clinical signs and somatic cell count. In case of CM, 34% of farmers indicated that they currently submit milk samples for bacteriological culture (BC). This would increase to 71% if an on-farm test resulting in treatment advice within 12 h were available. For SCM, use would increase from 22 to 55%, and for DCT, from 7 to 34%, if the same 12-h test were available. For CM and DCT, the preferred test outcome was advice on which antibiotic to use, according to 58 and 15% of the farmers, respectively. For SCM, the preferred test outcome was the causative bacterium for 38% of the farmers. Farmers who currently submit CM milk samples for BC were 13.1 times more likely to indicate, as the preferred test outcome, advice on which antibiotic to use, compared with farmers who do not currently submit CM milk samples for BC. Fourteen percent of the farmers indicated not being interested at all in microbiological mastitis diagnostics for CM. For SCM and DCT, 27 and 55%, respectively, were not interested in microbiological mastitis diagnostics. Regarding test characteristics that farmers considered important, reliability was most often indicated (44-51% of the farmers). Additionally, a preferred time-to-result of

  13. The Marketing Performance of Illinois and Kansas Wheat Farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Dietz, Sarah N.; Aulerich, Nicole M.; Irwin, Scott H.; Good, Darrel L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the marketing performance of wheat farmers in Illinois and Kansas over 1982-2004. The results show that farmer benchmark prices for wheat in Illinois and Kansas fall in the middle-third of the price range about half to three-quarters of the time. Consistent with previous studies, this refutes the contention that Illinois and Kansas wheat farmers routinely market the bulk of their wheat crop in the bottom portion of the price range. Tests of the aver...

  14. ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE LEVELS IN FARMERS EXPOSED TO PESTICIDES IN MALAYSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Ismarulyusda Ishak; Syarif Husin Lubis; Zariyantey Abd Hamid; Nihayah Mohammad; Hidayatulfathi Othman; Ahmad Rohi Ghazali; Muhammad Faiz Mohd Ismail; Shobna Sasitharan

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture is an important component of the Malaysian economy. Pesticides are widely used by farmers to increase crop production. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is known to play an important role in the degradation of acetylcholine (ACh) at the neuromuscular junction of the nervous system. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of pesticide exposure on serum levels of AChE of farmers. A cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 95 farmers from Kelantan (n = 49) and Selangor...

  15. Survey on Krishi-Mitra: Expert System for Farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachi Sawant

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In agricultural sector, farmers in rural areas faced major problems because of illiteracy. They cannot take the advantage of internet to access the information related to farming. The information represented in icons will help the farmers to take the important decisions. Also there will be additional benefit to farmer as there is speech based interaction in Indian language with icons. According to UNESCO report, 64% population in India cannot use the internet due to lack of technical knowledge. Here, we are extending the approach from computer devices to small mobile devices application.

  16. Effect of Crossbreeding Indigenous Sheep with Awassi and Corriedale Sires on Reproductive Performance under Smallholder Production System in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfaye Getachew

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of crossbreeding on reproductive performance. A village based sheep crossbreeding project has been implemented since 1998 in three villages in the South Wollo, Menz and Chacha districts in Ethiopia. Crossbred rams (3/4 Awassi x 1/4 Local were supplied to a group of farmers aiming to upgrading the indigenous genotype through backcrossing. The combined levels of location and genotype, year, season and parity had significant effects on the reproductive performance of ewes. Generally, local genotypes showed better (p<0.05 reproductive performance except for number of lambs weaned per ewe per year. The interaction of genotype and location was significant for age at first lambing and lambing interval. In Wollo, Corriedale x local crossbred ewes had similar reproductive performance to that of the local breed. The variation in reproductive performance among locations indicated the importance of delineating crossbreeding areas depending on environmental situation and farmers’ capacity.

  17. Survey on coenurosis in sheep and goats in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas A. Desouky

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 75 sheep and goats from apparently healthy and from clinically affected flocks were examined for Coenurus cerebralis cysts from different localities in Egypt. Of 25 animals examined from clinically diseased sheep and goats, 25 (100% revealed the presence of infestation with one to four coenuri in the brain. The sites of predilection were the left hemisphere (48%, followed by the right hemisphere (40% and the cerebellum (12%. There was no apparent effect of the age of sheep and goats on susceptibility to infestation with C. cerebralis. Another 50 animals from apparently healthy sheep and goat herds presented no C. cerebralis cysts. The cysts from infested sheep could infest newborn puppies experimentally, with a prepatent period of 60 days post infestation. A total of 15 immature worms that were recovered from one puppy did not reach patency until 105 days post infestation with C. cerebralis cyst scolices. Pathological changes in C. cerebralis-infested sheep brain revealed parasitic elements, demyelinated nerve tracts, hyperaemic blood vessels with round cell infiltration, encephalomalacia with round cell infiltration and palisading macrophages and giant cells, as well as focal replacement of the brain parenchyma with caseated and calcified materials. The morphological characteristics of both the larval stage from sheep and goats and adult worms of Taenia multiceps from experimentally infested dogs are described. The results conclude that C. cerebralis is one of the principal causes of nervous manifestations of coenurosis in clinically diseased sheep and goats in Egypt.

  18. Fixing Methods of Type in Sheep and Goat Breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Hilal Tozlu Çelik; Mustafa Olfaz

    2015-01-01

    Improvement studies are conduct to increasing of productivity native sheep breeds. This studies requires being quite comprehensive and disciplined. Improvement studies to achieve the desired characteristics and in which phase of finish is crucial. In this review, we focus on obtaining and fixing type in order to need to be implemented methods in sheep and goats.

  19. Veterinary and medical aspects of abortion in Danish sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Jørgen S.; Aalbæk, Bent; Fog-Larsen, Anne Marie;

    2006-01-01

    The Danish sheep population totals around 144,000 animals, but little is known of the causes and prevalance of diseases. This study focuses on the causes of abortion in Danish sheep. During one breeding season, aborted foetuses and stillbirths with signs of intrauterine death or malformation were...

  20. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... requirements established by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration at 21 CFR 589.2000, and, before the animal's... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats...

  1. Glucose metabolism in pregnant sheep when placental growth is restricted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of restricting placental growth on glucose metabolism in pregnant sheep in late gestation was determined by primed constant infusions of D-[U-14C]- and D-[2-3H]glucose and antipyrine into fetuses of six control sheep and six sheep from which endometrial caruncles had been removed before pregnancy (caruncle sheep). In the latter, placental and fetal weights were reduced, as was the concentration of glucose in fetal arterial blood. Fetal glucose turnover in caruncle sheep was only 52-59% of that in controls, largely because of lower umbilical loss of glucose back to the placenta (38-39% of control) and lower fetal glucose utilization (61-74% of control). However, fetal glucose utilization on a weight-specific basis was similar in control and caruncle sheep. Significant endogenous glucose production occurred in control and caruncle fetal sheep. Maternal glucose production and partition of glucose between the gravid uterus and other maternal tissues were similar in control and caruncle sheep. In conclusion, when placental and fetal growth are restricted, fetal glucose utilization is maintained by reduced loss of glucose back to the placenta and mother and by maintaining endogenous glucose production

  2. Toxoplasma gondii infections in sheep in Sicily, southern Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesco, G; Buffolano, W; La Chiusa, S;

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the burden of Toxoplasma gondii-infections in sheep in Sicily, southern Italy and the risk factors for infection. Sera from 1961 sheep were collected just before slaughtering from 62 farms located in 8 out of 9 Sicilian administrative districts. The sera were...

  3. Zoonotic Enterocytozoon bieneusi Genotypes found in Brazilian sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in sheep has been reported in only three countries worldwide. The present study has found E. bieneusi in Brazilian sheep for the first time; in 24/125 (19.2%) fecal samples by PCR and in 8/10 (80%) farms from three diverse locations. A significantly greater...

  4. The Portrayal of Indigenous Health in Selected Australian Media

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa J. Stoneham; Jodie Goodman; Mike Daube

    2014-01-01

    It is acknowledged that health outcomes for Australian Indigenous peoples are lower than those of non-Indigenous Australians. Research suggests negative media in relation to Indigenous Australians perpetuates racist stereotypes among the wider population and impacts on the health of Indigenous Australians. This study examined the media portrayal of Indigenous Australian public health issues in selected media over a twelve month period and found that, overwhelmingly, the articles were negative...

  5. Preventing proliferation : the role of Australian uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uranium debate has polarised Australian society for almost a decade. From 1977 until just before it achieved office in 1983 the Australia Labor Party took a position of strong opposition to uranium exports. The Australian Council of Trade Unions, the Australian Democrats, the Nuclear Disarmament Party, and many other organisations and sections of the community continue to oppose uranium mining and exports. Australia's uranium is currently exported for use in the commercial nuclear fuel cycle. But as the nuclear plants which are part of this cycle spread across the world, the risk rises that they will provide the cover and facilities for increasing numbers of countries to move towards nuclear weapons capability

  6. Compliance with Corporate Governance Principles: Australian Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Safari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the association between the level of compliance of Australian listed companies with Australian corporate governance principles, in aggregate, and the level of discretionary accruals using the modified Jones model. It is hypothesised that higher levels of compliance would be associated with lower levels of discretionary accruals. Data from a random sample of 214 Australian listed companies for the years 2009 and 2010 were used to test the hypothesis. The results demonstrate a significant negative relationship indicating that companies with higher levels of compliance engage in lower levels of earnings management via discretionary accruals.

  7. A new opportunity for Australian uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study analyses the outlook for the world uranium industry and includes projections of uranium demand, supply and prices over the next decade and a comparison with other forecasts. The potential increases in Australian output are quantified, under both continuation of the three mine policy and an open mine policy, as well as the potential impact on the world uranium market, using the well known ORANI model of the Australian economy. It is estimated that Australian output could almost double by 2004 if the three mine policy were abolished. 53 refs., 20 tabs., 6 figs

  8. Sheep Collisions: the Good, the Bad, and the TBI

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The title page of Chapter 9 in Fundamentals of Physics (Halliday, Resnick, and Walker, 8th Edition, p. 201) shows a dramatic photograph of two Big Horn sheep butting heads and promises to explain how sheep survive such violent clashes without serious injury. However, the answer presented in sample problem 9-4 (p. 213) errs in presuming an interaction time of 0.27 s which results in an unrealistically long stopping distance of 0.62 m. Furthermore, the assertion that the horns provide necessary cushioning of the blow is inconsistent with the absence of concussions in domestic breeds of hornless sheep. Results from traumatic brain injury (TBI) research allow acceleration tolerance of sheep to be estimated as 450 g facilitating an analysis of sheep collisions that is more consistent with available observations (stopping distance less than 1 cm, impact time of roughly 2 ms).

  9. Oldest Directly Dated Remains of Sheep in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, John; Dodson, Eoin; Banati, Richard; Li, Xiaoqiang; Atahan, Pia; Hu, Songmei; Middleton, Ryan J.; Zhou, Xinying; Nan, Sun

    2014-11-01

    The origins of domesticated sheep (Ovis sp.) in China remain unknown. Previous workers have speculated that sheep may have been present in China up to 7000 years ago, however many claims are based on associations with archaeological material rather than independent dates on sheep material. Here we present 7 radiocarbon dates on sheep bone from Inner Mongolia, Ningxia and Shaanxi provinces. DNA analysis on one of the bones confirms it is Ovis sp. The oldest ages are about 4700 to 4400 BCE and are thus the oldest objectively dated Ovis material in eastern Asia. The graphitisised bone collagen had δ13C values indicating some millet was represented in the diet. This probably indicates sheep were in a domestic setting where millet was grown. The younger samples had δ13C values indicating that even more millet was in the diet, and this was likely related to changes in foddering practices

  10. Quantitation of phosphorus excretion in sheep by compartmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The control of phosphorus excretion in sheep has been examined by constructing a kinetic model that contains a mechanistic set of connections between blood and gastrointestinal tract. The model was developed using experimental data from chaff-fed sheep and gives an accurate description of the absorption and excretion of 32P phosphorus in feces and urine of the ruminating sheep. These results indicated the main control site for phosphorus excretion in the ruminating sheep was the gastrointestinal tract, whereas for the non-ruminating sheep fed the liquid diet, control was exerted by the kidney. A critical factor in the induction of adaptation of phosphorus reabsorption by the kidney was the reduction in salivation, and since this response occurred independently of marked changes in the delivery of phosphorus to the kidney, a humoral factor may be involved in this communication between salivary gland and kidney

  11. REVEALING THE HISTORY OF SHEEP DOMESTICATION USING RETROVIRUS INTEGRATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chessa, B.; Pereira, F.; Arnaud, F.; Amorim, A.; Goyache, F.; Mainland, I.; Kao, R.R.; Pemberton, J. M.; Beraldi, D.; Stear, M.; Alberti, A.; Pittau, M.; Iannuzzi, L.; Banabazi, M.H.; Kazwala, R.; Zhang, Y.-P.; Arranz, J.J.; Ali, B.A.; Wang, Z.; Uzun, M.; Dione, M.; Olsaker, I.; Holm, L.-E.; Saarma, U.; Ahmad, S.; Marzanov, N.; Eythorsdottir, E.; Holland, M.J.; Ajmone-Marsan, P.; Bruford, M.W.; Kantanen, J.; Spencer, T.E.; Palmarini, M.

    2011-01-01

    The domestication of livestock represented a crucial step in human history. By using endogenous retroviruses as genetic markers, we found that sheep differentiated on the basis of their “retrotype” and morphological traits, dispersed across Eurasia and Africa via separate migratory episodes. Relicts of the first migrations include the Mouflon, as well as breeds previously recognized as “primitive” on the basis of their morphology, such as the Orkney, Soay and the Nordic short-tailed sheep now confined to the periphery of NW Europe. A later migratory episode, involving sheep with improved production traits, shaped the vast majority of present-day breeds. The ability to differentiate genetically primitive sheep from more modern breeds provides valuable insights into the history of sheep domestication. PMID:19390051

  12. The influence of radiation on reproduction of sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qualitative and quantitative histological changes in the sexual apparatus of slovak merino ewes were studies in the anoestrous period after irradiation (2.5 Gy) and hormonal stimulation. Estrus synchronization of the sheep has been carried out by application of 20 mg chlorosuperlutine in impregnated vaginal Ageline sponges. The sheep were hormone stimulated by application of 1500 IU of Serum gonadotrophin. The animals were killed approximately 120 h after the application of the hormone. Samples from the sexual apparatus were processed by the common histological methods for examination under a light microscope and for examination under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Despite higher number of ovulations in irradiated and hormonally stimulated sheep, the examination of viability of irradiated oocytes showed absence of pregnancy in all 20 sheep after mating. This indicated that the dose of 2.5 Gy was not harmless to the reproductive system of sheep. (authors)

  13. Australian natural gas market outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new study of the Australian natural gas industry by leading Australian economics and policy consultancy ACIL Tasman highlights the significant supply and demand side uncertainties currently facing the industry. The ACIL Tasman 'Australian Gas Market Review and Outlook 2004' study presents modelling results for three supply/demand scenarios in Eastern Australia and two in Western Australia. The results show that, even under moderate assumptions about future levels of gas demand growth, major supply-side investment is likely to be needed over the next ten to fifteen years. The base supply/demand scenario for Eastern Australia and Northern Territory, illustrated in Figure 1, shows that even allowing for substantial new discoveries in existing production basins and major expansion of coal seam methane production, in the absence of a northern gas connection to the eastern states (Timor Sea or PNG Highlands) a significant supply gap will begin to emerge from around 2013. The study identifies several supply-side options for Eastern Australia - new discoveries in the established production provinces in Bass Strait and Central Australia; greenfield developments such as the Otway Basin offshore from Victoria and South Australia; continuing expansion of coal seam methane production in Queensland and New South Wales; and gas from Papua New Guinea, Timor Sea or from the North West Shelf region delivered via a trans-continental pipeline. The study concludes that it is unlikely that any single option will suffice to meet future demand. Almost inevitably, a combination of these sources will be needed if anticipated growth opportunities are to be met. With regard to prices, the study shows that in the short to medium term the outlook is for some real reductions in wholesale prices in most regional markets. This reflects increasing levels of upstream competition and declining real costs of pipeline transportation. However in the longer term, supply-side constraints will tend to

  14. Australian national residue survey – closing the loop on pesticide residue risk management for Australian grain

    OpenAIRE

    Reichstein, I.; Healy, K; James, A.; Murray, B.

    2010-01-01

    Australia exports a major proportion of its agricultural production and is highly dependent on maintaining and developing access to, and competitiveness in, export markets. To preserve Australia’s status as a provider of high quality grain, the majority of Australian primary producers rely on pesticides to protect their crops from pests and diseases, particularly in post-harvest situations. The Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority (APVMA) supports Australian agriculture by...

  15. The Farmer Entrepreneurs’ Social Capital and Opportunity Recognition Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing; GAO; Yingliang; ZHANG; Changzheng; HE

    2013-01-01

    Using the multivariate ordered logistic and probit regression method,based on the survey data of entrepreneurship concerning farmers in China,we analyze the impact of social capital ( namely the social network) on the farmers’ recognition of entrepreneurial opportunities and property of entrepreneurial opportunities. The research results show that the scale of farmers being embedded in social network has a positive effect on the probability of farmers to recognize entrepreneurial opportunities. The higher the frequency of contact and the greater the size of weak ties network in the social network,then the greater the possibility of farmers to find innovative opportunities. But strong ties network has no significant effect on replicating-type entrepreneurial opportunities. At the same time,the entrepreneurial farmers’ education experience, migrant worker experience,innovation capability,and deep entrepreneurial atmosphere,are all important factors affecting the farmers’ opportunity recognition behavior

  16. WILLINGNESS TO TAKE AGRICULTURAL INSURANCE BY COCOA FARMERS IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Falola

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines willingness to take agricultural insurance by cocoa farmers in Nigeria. A three-stage sampling procedure was used to select 120 cocoa farm households and structured questionnaire was used to elicit data from the respondents. The data were analysed with descriptive statistics and probit regression model. Results showed that 77.5% of the farmers were aware of Agricultural Insurance but only 50% were willing to take it. The average willingness-to-pay (WTP for Agricultural Insurance by the respondents was N11,087.5/ha ($69.85/ha. The significant variables influencing willingness to take agricultural insurance by the farmers were age of household head, educational level, access to extension service and farm income. The study therefore recommends encouraging young well educated people to engage in cocoa farming, overhauling agricultural extension services as well as provision of insurance services to farmers at affordable rate.

  17. Animal responses to herbage allowance: Forage intake and body weight gain of sheep grazing the Inner Mongolian steppe - Results of a six-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickhoefer, U; Bösing, B M; Hasler, M; Hao, J; Lin, L; Müller, K; Wang, C; Glindemann, T; Tas, B; Gierus, M; Taube, F; Susenbeth, A

    2016-05-01

    An increasing human population and the growing demand for food of animal origin are leading to an intensification of sheep production and widespread overgrazing of the grassland steppe in Inner Mongolia. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of herbage allowance (HA) on OM intake (OMI) and BW gain (BWG) of grazing sheep. In July to September 2005 to 2010, a grazing experiment was conducted in the Xilin River Basin using 15-mo-old female Mongolian fat-tailed sheep (31.5 kg BW [SE 0.2]). Six HA classes were tested on 4 experimental plots per HA class that were alternately used for grazing and haymaking each year (i.e., = 2 grazed plots per HA class and year). Mean HA ranged from 15.4 (SD 4.0) to 1.5 kg (SD 0.8) herbage DM/kg BW in HA class 1 to 6, respectively. In 6 sheep per plot (4 sheep in 2009 and 2010), OMI and BWG were determined. Titanium dioxide was used to determine fecal excretion, and digestibility of ingested OM was estimated from CP concentration in feces. Fecal grab samples were collected during 5 d each in July, August, and September. The animals were weighed monthly. Daily OMI of sheep ranged between 68 and 89 g/kg BW and was not affected by HA class ( = 0.373), so that total OMI per hectare was exponentially decreased with increasing HA (root mean square error [RMSE] ≤ 0.31 g/d; ≤ 0.003 for the slope estimates). The BWG of individual sheep increased with increasing HA in 2 of the 6 yr (RMSE 18.4 g/d; ≤ 0.175 for the positive slope estimates). Nevertheless, BWG per hectare strongly decreased with increasing HA (RMSE 0.25 g/d; ≤ 0.006 for the slope estimates). These data support the common practice of farmers to manage the grassland at low HA to allow for greater animal performance per unit of land area. PMID:27285703

  18. Development of a cost calculation model and cost index for sheep production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Raineri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to develop a model for calculation and analysis of production costs of lamb and, from that, to elaborate a production cost index. Panel meetings were held in five regions of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, to define technical features of representative properties of lamb production, taken as a basis for the preparation of the cost calculation model. Then the model for production cost calculation was built. The third step consisted of monitoring prices of inputs used, calculating production costs along the studied period, and generating the cost index, by the Laspeyres model. Lastly, questionnaires were applied to sheep producers, to validate the cost index. The model for production cost calculation was planned to be of easy utilization by farmers, and simultaneously faithful to the theoretical principles. The adopted scheme of cost allocation followed the classification of "variable", "fixed operating", and "income of factors". We generated cost indexes for each of the five studied regions, which were then aggregated in a state index, by weighting regional indexes by flock size. More than 97% of the answers to the validation questionnaires were positive, so we considered that the index reached a high level of approval. The application of Economic Theory is essential for the development of cost calculation models. The developed model has potential to generate important information that can help producers to make decisions. It can work in many contexts, and it can even be adapted to other livestock species. The production cost index for lamb was approved and can collaborate with the organization of the sheep agroindustrial system.

  19. Utilization of FecJ F gene in developing commercial sheep farming : Economic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atien Priyanti

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available An increase of income per capita in Indonesia is not followed by an increase of numbers and quality of lambs stock. To meet he high demand both for domestic and international markets, sheep production should be elaborated commercially . The Research Institute for Animal Production, Bogor has been able to identify the segregation of FecJ F on Javanese sheep, which has large effect on ovulation rate and number of litters born. The study was purposed to analyse the economic value of using Fed gene and the crossing with St. Croix rams to obtain high number of lamb production as well as high pre-weaning growth rate . Sixty seven Garut ewes were used and classified into three classes of singles, twins and triplets or mom: lambs born . From each litter type, ewes were classified according to the breed of rams to be used . Gamt and St . Croix rams were used to represent small and large size of sires, respectively . The parameters observed were litter size, birth weight, sex, feed consumption, weaning weight and average daily gain . Lambs and ewes were weighed on biweekly and monthly basis, respectively. An increasing of input for single born ewes was not followed by dramatic increase in its body weight at weaning, which means that the optimum level of production was not achieved. This resulted a shortening of farmers income. However, for ewes having twins an increase of input was followed by significantly increased of production level . Therefore, the economic analysis model used for ewes that carry the Fed gene showed an increase of income of Rp.30,691 .50, and Rp.24,319.82, per ewe per period for St. Croix sires and Garut sires, respectively .

  20. Genotyping and surveillance for scrapie in Finnish sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hautaniemi Maria

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The progression of scrapie is known to be influenced by the amino acid polymorphisms of the host prion protein (PrP gene. There is no breeding programme for TSE resistance in sheep in Finland, but a scrapie control programme has been in place since 1995. In this study we have analysed PrP genotypes of total of 928 purebred and crossbred sheep together with the data of scrapie survey carried out in Finland during 2002–2008 in order to gain knowledge of the genotype distribution and scrapie prevalence in Finnish sheep. Results The ARQ/ARQ genotype was the most common genotype in all breeds studied. ARR allele frequency was less than 12% in purebred Finnish sheep and in most genotypes heterozygous for ARR, the second allele was ARQ. The VRQ allele was not detected in the Grey race sheep of Kainuu or in the Aland sheep, and it was present in less than 6% of the Finnish Landrace sheep. Leucine was the most prominent amino acid found in codon 141. In addition, one novel prion dimorphisms of Q220L was detected. During the scrapie survey of over 15 000 sheep in 2002–2008, no classical scrapie cases and only five atypical scrapie cases were detected. Conclusions The results indicate that the Finnish sheep populations have genetically little resistance to classical scrapie, but no classical scrapie was detected during an extensive survey in 2002–2008. However, five atypical scrapie cases emerged; thus, the disease is present in the Finnish sheep population at a low level.

  1. Risk Management of Occupational Health and Safety in RiceFarmers in Ngrendeng, East Java in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisa Yonelia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is an important sector that has big impact to the society thus a program that can keep its sustainability is needed, especially in term of productivity. The focus of this study was risk management of Occupational Health and Safety (OHS in rice farmers in Ngrendeng Village, Ngawi, East Java in 2012 with analyze hazard and risk on activities and workplaces. This study was a semi-quantitative analitical descriptive with observational approach using Australian Standard/New Zealand Standard (AS/NZS 4360:2004 about risk management. Analysis was made based on whole farming processes observed and information from village headman, a land and farm machines owner, and 5 farmers. The result showed that rice farmers’ activities have 71 risks from 16 work activities and hazard sources. Rice grinding activity was a high risk activity with 11 risks. The highest value of risk, reaching 1500 (very high, comes from ergonomy, in which noise exposure, vibration exposure, UV radiation exposure, chemical exposure from pesticide and fertilizer, gas exposure, and dust exposure attained. In brief, rice farming was an agriculture activity with high risks that harmful for farmers’ health and safety. Therefore, OHS program would be needed to manage hazard and risk and keep farmers’ productivities.

  2. Transfer of In Vitro Produced Sheep Embryos

    OpenAIRE

    BİRLER, Sema; PABUÇÇUOĞLU, Serhat; ATALLA, Hatem; ALKAN, Serhat; ÖZDAŞ, Özen Banu

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to transfer sheep embryos produced in vitro to recipient ewes. Ovaries were taken from slaughtered Kıvırcık ewes and transferred to the laboratory in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at 30-35 ºC. The cumulus-oocyte complexes were obtained by slicing and washing 1-6 mm diameter follicles and matured for 24 h in medium 199 supplemented with sodium pyruvate, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and 10% fetal calf serum (FCS) at 38.5 º...

  3. OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES FOR PCRRFLP FOR GENOTYPING SHEEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirokova N. V.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis by PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction – polymorphism of the lengths of restriction fragments is the standard analysis of point mutations for the diagnosis of allelic polymorphism of candidate genes related with productive qualities of farm animals. Along the length of the fragments (RFLP make a conclusion about the absence or presence of the point mutation, and homozygosity or heterozygosity of the individual. The aim of our work was the optimization of protocols for conducting PCR-RFLP analysis for genotyping sheep for genes of the growth hormone gene differential growth factor and gene of calpastatin

  4. Phosphorus availability from different sources for sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assay was carried out with 12 sheep to determine the endogenous losses of P and the true absorption of this element from rock phosphate (TP), diammonium phosphate (DP) and bone meal (BM). Animals received the experimental diet for 30 days and after this period 200μCi 32P was injected in each one. Blood and faeces samples were collected to determine specific activity. Faecal endogenous P and P availability were estimated. P availability was 58.39, 69.71 and 75.03 per cent for TP, DP and BM, respectively. (author). 1 fig., 2 tabs., 9 refs

  5. Animal sexual abuse in a female sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbschweiler, I; Kummerfeld, M; Gerhard, M; Pfeiffer, I; Wohlsein, P

    2009-12-01

    A case of animal sexual abuse and sadism in a female sheep is described. The animal suffered severe genital tract injury most likely caused by the insertion and manipulation of a branch of wood and by penile penetration by a human male. Postmortem examination revealed multiple perforations of the vagina with massive haemorrhages. Animal sexual abuse is a complex diagnostic problem in veterinary medicine. Reported cases are often linked to sadism and often lead to the animal's death. Veterinarians should keep in mind animal sexual abuse as a differential diagnosis in cases of anogenital injuries of unknown origin. PMID:18848792

  6. Factors influencing adoption of agroforestry among smallholder farmers in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Kabwe, Gillian; Bigsby, Hugh R.; Cullen, Ross

    2009-01-01

    Agroforestry technologies have been extensively researched and introduced to smallholder farmers in Zambia for over two decades. Despite the research and extension effort over this period, not many farmers have adopted these technologies. The purpose of this paper is to determine why agroforestry technologies are not being taken up by examining factors that influence the adoption of agroforestry practices. Based on data obtained from 388 farming households, statistical analysis show an associ...

  7. Anxiety and Depression Symptoms Among Farmers: The HUNT Study, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torske, Magnhild Oust; Hilt, Bjørn; Glasscock, David; Lundqvist, Peter; Krokstad, Steinar

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture has undergone profound changes, and farmers face a wide variety of stressors. Our aim was to study the levels of anxiety and depression symptoms among Norwegian farmers compared with other occupational groups. Working participants in the HUNT3 Survey (The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, 2006-2008), aged 19-66.9 years, were included in this cross-sectional study. We compared farmers (women, n = 317; men, n = 1,100) with HUNT3 participants working in other occupational groups (women, n = 13,429; men, n = 10,026), classified according to socioeconomic status. We used the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to measure anxiety and depression symptoms. Both male and female farmers had higher levels of depression symptoms than the general working population, but the levels of anxiety symptoms did not differ. The differences in depression symptom levels between farmers and the general working population increased with age. In an age-adjusted logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio (OR) for depression caseness (HADS-D ≥8) when compared with the general working population was 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22-1.83) in men and 1.29 (95% CI: 0.85-1.95) in women. Male farmers had a higher OR of depression caseness than any other occupational group (OR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.52-2.49, using higher-grade professionals as reference). Female farmers had an OR similar to men (2.00, 95% CI: 1.26-3.17), but lower than other manual occupations. We found that farmers had high levels of depression symptoms and average levels of anxiety symptoms compared with other occupational groups. PMID:26488439

  8. Cutaneous Mycoses among Rice Farmers in Anambra State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Chito Clare Ekwealor; Christie Amechi Oyeka

    2013-01-01

    Rice grain is one of the world's most important food crops, and its cultivation is a major occupation in Anambra State, Nigeria. These rice farmers are exposed to various agents that predispose them to cutaneous mycoses. The aim of this work was to screen rice farmers for lesions suggestive of cutaneous mycoses and to isolate and identify fungal agents associated with the infection. This survey was carried out between November 2009 and June 2011 in Anambra State, Nigeria. Clinical samples col...

  9. THE STRUCTURE OF FARMERS' PERCEPTIONS OF GROUND WATER POLLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Elnagheeb, Abdelmoneim H.; Jordan, Jeffrey L.; Humphrey, Vonda

    1995-01-01

    Data from a 1992 Georgia Farm Practices survey are used to examine the structure of farmers' perceptions of ground water pollution and their support of regulations to protect ground water. Estimates of the influence of farm and farmer characteristics on pollution perceptions and support for pollution control were computed using a multiple-indicator model. Results show that the willingness to change farm practices to protect ground water is positively related to how an operator perceives the s...

  10. Collective farmers marketing inititatives, Diversity, Contextuality and Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Renting, H.; Schermer, M.; Oostindië, H.A.

    2011-01-01

    Collective action by farmers has played an important role in the history of European agriculture. During the twentieth century, the foundation of agricultural marketing co-operatives contributed in many countries to better market access, increased farm incomes and rural employment. However, European agriculture is facing a range of new challenges nowadays. Farmers have increasingly lost control over supply chains, due to globalization processes and the growing power of retailers, and they are...

  11. The Sustainability Practices among Dairy Farmers: The Case of Johor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab Mohd Karim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability concept in agriculture is becoming widespread throughout industriesin many fields even in crop production, livestock production and etc. Sustainable in agriculture is believed can give present and future good benefit to the farmers and society. However, in dairy sector in Malaysia, the sustainability concepts and practices seems not fully aware by the farmers which result in low self- sufficiency level in milk production. The self-sufficiency level in Malaysia is merely 6% and this lead to the urgency of importing more milk from other countries such as Australia, Holland and others. This study attempts to describe the descriptive thoughts on sustainability among Malaysian dairy farmers as well as describing the socio economic characteristics of the dairy farmers which will be the indicator of adoption of sustainability practices among dairy farmers. The preliminary data was collected using questionnaires through conducting face to face interviews with 50 dairy farmers from Johor. The Likerttype scale was employed to determine the practices that adopted by the dairy farmers. The gathered data was analysed using SPSS. The findings indicated that the dairy farmers had a higher understanding about the farm sustainability aspect which gives the highest mean score of 4.41. The second highest mean score is the ecological aspect which is about 4.13. The mean score for economic aspect shows the mean score about 4.00. The social aspect of sustainability revealed the lowest mean score which was about 3.46. The resultsindicated that the farmersfavoursustainable practice is farm sustainability system. Sustainability in dairy farming sector in Malaysia can be achieved if the three elements of sustainability which is environmental, economic and social aspect were implemented and adopted in this sector

  12. Governance, CEO Identity, and Quality Provision of Farmer Cooperatives

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Qiao Xin

    2013-01-01

    textabstractGovernance structure specifies the allocation of ownership rights, decision rights, and income rights. A cooperative is characterized by user ownership, user control, and user benefits. The focus of this thesis is on various governance structure characteristics and the efficiency of farmer cooperatives. Special attention is dedicated to cooperatives in China. The thesis consists of six chapters. Chapter 1 outlines the structure of the thesis and provides an overview of farmer coop...

  13. FARM SUCCESSION PLANS AMONG POULTRY FARMERS IN OGUN STATE

    OpenAIRE

    Fasina O.; Inegbedion S.

    2014-01-01

    Ageing of farmers in Nigeria and especially in capitalized sectors of agriculture requires attention to enhance sustainability and food security. The study thus examined the farm succession plans of 60 long established poultry farmers purposively selected from the Poultry Association of Nigeria in Ogun State Nigeria. Descriptive statistics and the Chi square analysis were used to present the findings of the study. Mean age of respondents was 61years. Their children were mostly over 18years (6...

  14. Intelligent Farmer Agent for Multi-Agent Ecological Simulations Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Filipe Cruz; António Pereira; Pedro Valente; Pedro Duarte; Luis Paulo Reis

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a bivalve farmer agent interacting with a realistic ecological simulation system. The purpose of the farmer agent is to determine the best combinations of bivalve seeding areas in a large region, maximizing the production without exceeding the total allowed seeding area. A system based on simulated annealing, tabu search, genetic algorithms and reinforcement learning, was developed to minimize the number of iterations required to unravel a semi-optimum s...

  15. Farmer Consumer Partnerships Communicating Ethical Values: a conceptual framework

    OpenAIRE

    Padel, Susanne; Gössinger, Katherina

    2008-01-01

    The CORE-Organic Farmer Consumer Partnership project develops and tests innovative generic communication strategies as a valuable tool for the strategic positioning of organic companies and farmers' initiatives in the five partner countries: Austria, Germany, Italy, Switzerland and the UK. The main objective is to determine how commitment to a broader range of ethical values than those covered by European organic regulations can be reflected in communication with customers. This report re...

  16. Innovation for Vulnerable Farmers: Drought and Water Scarcity Adaptation Technologies.

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, William C; Harley, Alicia Grace; Holbrook, Noel Michele

    2015-01-01

    This report is a summary of themes discussed during a two-day workshop on “Innovation for Vulnerable Farmers: Drought and Water Scarcity Adaptation Technologies.†The workshop was held at Harvard University on September 11–12, 2014. It brought together a diverse group of scholars to explore how actors in the agriculture innovation system can better promote the needs of small and marginal farmers.

  17. Farmers' understandings of genetically modified crops within local communities

    OpenAIRE

    Lane, Andrew; Oreszczyn, Sue; Carr, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Background Much of the debate around the science and technology of genetically modified (GM) crops has focussed on the policies and practices of national governments and international organisations or on the acceptability of GM products with consumers. Little work had been done with the primary users of such technologies – farmers. Further, the management of knowledge has become a significant issue for all sectors of the economy and yet little attention had again been given to farmers as ...

  18. Expectations motivating the Macedonian farmers in attaining EU standards

    OpenAIRE

    Kotevska, Ana; Martinovska-Stojcheska, Aleksandra; Öhlmér, Bo; Dimitrievski, Dragi

    2014-01-01

    EU accession means reaching EU standards, and the agricultural sector will expectedly be one of the key areas that will require adjustment in the case of Macedonian farmers. This paper is investigating the factors that motivate farmers to a certain planned adjustments, in order to provide further existence. This problem is addressed through the lenses of the theory of planned behaviour, by the use of factor analysis and stepwise regression. The results showed the perception of the market as t...

  19. Appropriate metrics to inform farmers about species diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Lüscher, Gisela; Schneider, Manuel K.; Turnbull, Lindsay A; Arndorfer, Michaela; Bailey, Debra; Herzog, Felix; POINTEREAU Philippe; Richner, Nina; Jeanneret, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Farmers are key players in actions to halt biodiversity loss from farmland. However, if farmers are to sustain biodiversity, they must first be adequately informed about biodiversity and understand its drivers. Measuring biodiversity at the farm scale is difficult because of the structural complexity of many farms, and because different aspects of diversity can be considered desirable, e.g. species richness or rarity. In this study we examined 19 grassland farms in Central Switzerland, and sa...

  20. Financial Planning for a Farmer Undergoing Organic Conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Clavin, Dan

    2009-01-01

    The switch to organic farming may be the biggest farm management decision you ever undertake so careful planning is essential. The vast majority of organic farmers have no regrets once converted. Organic farming can be a profitable option due mainly to lower costs of production, an attractive organic farming scheme and attractive market premiums. However the change requires preparation, an attention to detail and good husbandry skills - a poor conventional farmer may make an even worse orga...

  1. DOES BRANDED FOOD PRODUCT ADVERTISING HELP OR HURT FARMERS?

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Mingxia; Sexton, Richard J.; Alston, Julian M.

    2002-01-01

    This study investigates market conditions when food processor/handler brand advertising, whether undertaken by an investor-owned firm or by a cooperative, will benefit or harm farmers. Addressing this question provides insight into the policy issue of whether and when promotion funds intended to benefit farmers should be used in support of brand advertising. Analysis of a two-stage oligopoly-oligopsony model shows that advertising by an investor-owned firm is most likely to be harmful to farm...

  2. Conservation Agriculture Practices and Adoption by Smallholder Farmers in Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Mazvimavi, Kizito; Ndlovu, Patrick V.; Nyathi, Putso; Minde, Isaac J.

    2010-01-01

    This study is based on a panel survey interviewing 416 farmers practising conservation agriculture for at least five cropping seasons. Farmers obtained higher yields on conservation agriculture plots than on nonconservation agriculture ones. The mean maize yield on conservation agriculture was 1546 kg/ha compared to 970 kg/ha for non-conventional draft tillage plots across all 15 districts. However, the contribution of conservation agriculture to total household food security requirements was...

  3. Adoption and Nonadoption of Precision Farming Technologies by Cotton Farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Pandit, Mahesh; Paudel, Krishna P.; Mishra, Ashok K.; Segarra, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed data obtained from the 2009 Southern Cotton Precision Farming Survey of farmers in twelve states (Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia) to identify reasons for adoption/nonadoption of precision farming technologies. Farmers provided cost, time constraint, satisfaction with the current practice and other as reasons for not adopting precision farming technology. Profit, environmental ben...

  4. Dairy Farmers Awareness about Food Standards - the Case of Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    MEDIN ZEQIRI; HYSEN BYTYQI; YLLI BIÇOKU

    2015-01-01

    This is an exploratory study, aiming at assessing farmers’ awareness about food safety standards. We expect that most farmers have limited awareness about national food safety standards, animal diseases and given constraints in institutional framework, and thereby such standards are not met in most cases – this survey provides insight into gaps in awareness and information at farm level looking into different aspects. A questionnaire-based study was conducted to assess the farmers...

  5. Farmer Entrepreneurship in New Zealand - Some Observations from Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Gow, Neil G.

    2005-01-01

    1984 was a watershed in New Zealand agriculture which led to a flowering of entrepreneurial activity by some New Zealand farmers. A change of government and a national economic crisis lead to a complete and drastic review and subsequent restructuring of the agricultural sector. Farmers were forced to recognize that they could no longer rely on government support but had to meet the market. This paper reflects on research carried out at Lincoln University that has focused on case histories of ...

  6. Eclipses in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2011-01-01

    We explore 50 Australian Aboriginal accounts of lunar and solar eclipses to determine how Aboriginal groups understood this phenomenon. We summarise the literature on Aboriginal references to eclipses, showing that many Aboriginal groups viewed eclipses negatively, frequently associating them with bad omens, evil magic, disease, blood and death. In many communities, Elders or medicine men were believed to have the ability to control or avert eclipses by magical means, solidifying their role as provider and protector within the community. We also show that many Aboriginal groups understood the motions of the sun-earth-moon system, the connection between the lunar phases and tides, and acknowledged that solar eclipses were caused by the moon blocking the sun.

  7. Eclipses in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-07-01

    We explore about fifty different Australian Aboriginal accounts of lunar and solar eclipses to determine how Aboriginal groups understood this phenomenon. We summarize the literature on Aboriginal references to eclipses. We show that many Aboriginal groups viewed eclipses negatively, frequently associating them with bad omens, evil magic, disease, blood and death. In many communities, elders or medicine men claimed to be able to control or avert eclipses by magical means, solidifying their roles as providers and protectors within their communities. We also show that some Aboriginal groups seem to have understood the motions of the Sun-Earth-Moon system, the connection between the lunar phases and tides, and acknowledged that solar eclipses were caused by the Moon blocking the Sun.

  8. Australians' attitudes to nuclear disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a series of surveys of 2900 Australians show that some 80 per cent favour nuclear disarmament. The nuclear disarmament view is broad-based, for example it cuts across differences in age, sex and education. However the view is more common among people towards the left of the political spectrum who view the world as benign rather than hostile and who consider stockpiles can be reduced by small, reciprocated and supervised reductions. Between 2.5 per cent and 5.5 per cent of respondents act to bring about nuclear disarmament. The findings support and extend results from studies outside Australia showing that attitudes favouring nuclear disarmament are distributing themselves widely

  9. GENETIC DIVERSITY AND RELATIONSHIPS OF HAIR SHEEP BREEDS OF THE AMERICAS: FIRST RESULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are two major types of sheep in the Americas, wooled and hair sheep. Such phenotypic differences bring into question an African or European origin for these types of sheep. It has been commonly thought that hair breeds of sheep imported into the new world came from Africa via the Canary Island...

  10. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. Goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed because of brucellosis must...

  11. Measuring efficiency of rice growing farmers using data envelopment analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaibidi, Nerda Zura; Kasim, Maznah Mat; Ramli, Razamin; Baten, Md. Azizul; Khan, Sahubar Ali Nadhar

    2015-12-01

    Self-sufficiency in rice production has been the main issue in Malaysia agriculture. It is significantly low and does not comply with the current average rice yield of 3.7 tons per ha per season. One of the best options and the most effective way to improve rice productivity is through more efficient utilization of paddy farmers. Getting farmers to grow rice is indeed a challenge when they could very well be making better money doing something else. This paper attempts to study the efficiency of rice growing farmers in Kubang Pasu using Data Envelopment Analysis model. For comparative analysis, three scenarios are considered in this study in measuring efficiency of rice growing farmers. The first scenario considers only fertilizer factor as an input while for the second, the land size is added as another factor. The third scenario considers more details about the inputs such as the type of fertilizer, NPK and mixed and also land tenureship and size. In all scenarios, the outputs are rice yield (tons) and the profit (RM). As expected, the findings show that the third scenario establishes the highest number of efficient rice growing farmers. It reveals that the combination of outputs and inputs chosen has significant contribution in measuring efficiency of rice growing farmers.

  12. ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE LEVELS IN FARMERS EXPOSED TO PESTICIDES IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismarulyusda Ishak

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is an important component of the Malaysian economy. Pesticides are widely used by farmers to increase crop production. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE is known to play an important role in the degradation of acetylcholine (ACh at the neuromuscular junction of the nervous system. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of pesticide exposure on serum levels of AChE of farmers. A cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 95 farmers from Kelantan (n = 49 and Selangor (n = 46 aged between 23 and 71 years were recruited. AChE concentration was measured by spectrophotometry. The results of this study showed that the mean AChE concentrations in farmers from Kelantan and Selangor were 2,715 and 2,660 U/L, respectively, significantly different (p < 0.05 from normal reference value (3500 U/l. Pearson correlation test showed a moderate correlation betweenAChE level and age (r = -0.551 and a strong correlation between AChE level and working period (r = -0.872 in farmers in Kelantan. AChE levels in Selangor were also moderately correlated with age (r = -0.353 and working period (r = -0.515. In conclusion, increasing age and long-term pesticide exposure reduce AChE levels in farmers.

  13. Animal Husbandry Practices of Organic Farmers: An Appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrahmanyeswari

    Full Text Available In Uttarakhand organic farming is being promoted through a special institution i.e. Uttarakhand Organic Commodity Board (UOCB through registering the farmers and orienting them towards organic farming. Organic farmers currently practicing and marketing only organic crop products. However, their livestock production practices are also similar to recommended organic standards. Hence, to document their livestock production practices, a total of 180 registered organic farmers selected through multistage sampling technique studied during 2006-07. Cent percent of registered organic farmers were involved in mixed farming enterprises and most of them were with more than one livestock species (farm diversity. The breeds maintained by these farmers were of indigenous and they were raising livestock on the inputs met on farm and from the farms of similar agro-ecological regions. In view of the raising demand for organic livestock products locally as well as internationally, the organic promoting agencies have to focus on orienting these farmers towards stringent organic livestock standards so as to enable them to meet the organic livestock products demand locally as well as internationally. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(10.000: 303-305

  14. Dairy Farmers Awareness about Food Standards - the Case of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEDIN ZEQIRI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This is an exploratory study, aiming at assessing farmers’ awareness about food safety standards. We expect that most farmers have limited awareness about national food safety standards, animal diseases and given constraints in institutional framework, and thereby such standards are not met in most cases – this survey provides insight into gaps in awareness and information at farm level looking into different aspects. A questionnaire-based study was conducted to assess the farmers’ general knowledge about animal diseases, as well as preventive farm practices with regard to food safety. A total of 150 dairy farmers, with more than four cows per farm were interviewed. About 87 percent of the respondents do not possess cooling tanks; 44.7 percent of farmers stated that they do not know which is the institution in charge of food safety; 11.3 percent state that they never or rarely use the ear tags; in addition most farmers’ state that they do not know symptoms of the Brucellosis (71.3% and TBC (68.6%, indicating the low awareness level among farmers about animal diseases and food safety. General hygienic and disease control practices need to be integrated in the milk production process particularly at the smallholder level. Awareness, teaching and training programs for dairy farmers can improve diseases control in animals and reduce the public health risk of milk-borne zoonosis. Also public and donors support schemes for farmers should be strongly linked to food safety standard implementation.

  15. 改善动物福利 重视养羊驱虫%Pay Attention to Desinsectization in Sheep Raising to Improve Animal Weffare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭巧萍

    2012-01-01

    养羊是畜牧业发展的重要组成部分,又是国家提倡发展节粮型草食家畜的重点,为满足人民的肉食需求及繁荣“三农”经济作出了很大的贡献.然而由于羊寄生虫病的为害,造成了重大的环境污染与经济损失.针对羊寄生虫病的预防、治疗和病原灭绝3个环节,提出了相应的防制措施.%Sheep raising is an important animal fanning and it is also focal point of forage-saving herbivore livestock advocated by government. Sheep raising has made contribution to meet peoples' appetite for meat and to boom "rural-farming-farmer" economy. But due to parasitosis harm serious environment pollutiom and econimic loss has brought. On views of prevention, treatment and pathogens destroy, measures was proposed to control sheep parasitosis.

  16. Role of Livelihood Capital in Reducing Climatic Vulnerability: Insights of Australian Wheat from 1990–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huai, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    In many agricultural countries, development of rural livelihood through increasing capital is a major regional policy to adapt to climate change. However, the role of livelihood capital in reducing climatic vulnerability is uncertain. This study assesses vulnerability and identifies the effects of common capital indicators on it, using Australian wheat as an example. We calculate exposure (a climate index) and sensitivity (a wheat failure index) to measure vulnerability and classify the resilient and sensitive cases, and express adaptive capacity through financial, human, natural, physical, and social capital indicators for 12 regions in the Australian wheat–sheep production zone from 1991–2010. We identify relationships between 12 indicators of five types of capital and vulnerability with t-tests and six logistic models considering the capital indicator itself, its first-order lag and its square as dependent variables to test the hypothesis that a high level of each capital metric results in low vulnerability. Through differing adaptive capacities between resilient and sensitive groups, we found that only four of the 12 (e.g., the access to finance, cash income level, total crop gross revenues, and family share of farm income) relate to vulnerability, which challenges the hypothesis that increasing capital reduces vulnerability. We conclude that further empirical reexaminations are required to test the relationships between capital measures and vulnerability under the sustainable livelihood framework (SLF). PMID:27022910

  17. Effectiveness of radio-agricultural farmer programme in technology transfer among rural farmers in Imo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njoku, J. I. K.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in Imo State to examine the effectiveness of radio-agricultural farmer programme in technology transfer to rural farmers in Imo State, Nigeria. Multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 120 respondents from the three agricultural zones of Imo State. Data were obtained using interview schedule and were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Result shows that majority of the respondents were males, married and educated with the mean age of 46 years. Result indicates that majority of the respondents indicate that radio-agricultural farmer programme was effective in technology transfer to rural farmers. Result further indicates that most (100% of the respondents confirmed that improved technologies transferred were relevant to their farm practices.

  18. Innovation in Australian Workplaces: An Empirical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Mark

    1999-01-01

    The determinants of innovation were examined using data from 698 Australian workplaces. Results suggest that better employee-management communications are associated with more change and that workplaces with higher levels of training undergo more change. (Author/JOW)

  19. China's first Australian Garden opens in Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The opening for the Australian Garden was jointly held by the BHP Billiton China and the CAS South China Botanical Garden (SCBG) in Guangzhou, capital of south China's Guangdong Province on 18 January.

  20. Host preference of the sheep scab mite, Psoroptes ovis : short communication

    OpenAIRE

    T. Meintjies; L. J. Fourie; I.G. Horak

    2002-01-01

    Sheep scab mites, Psoroptes ovis, collected from a Merino donor sheep, were used to infest Merino and Dorper sheep, and Angora and Boer goats. Mites were placed on the sheep on 1 or 2 occasions and on 5 occasions on the goats. All the animals were examined at regular intervals for the presence of scab lesions and living mites. Both sheep breeds developed lesions, but those on the Merino sheep were always larger than those on the Dorper sheep at the same intervals after infestation. None of th...

  1. Anthelmintic resistance in Northern Ireland. II: Variations in nematode control practices between lowland and upland sheep flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, C; Barley, J P; Edgar, H W J; Ellison, S E; Hanna, R E B; Malone, F E; Brennan, G P; Fairweather, I

    2013-02-18

    A questionnaire to obtain information on nematode control practices and sheep management was sent to over 1000 farmers in Northern Ireland. Replies were received from 305 flock owners, and data from 252 of them were analysed. Farms were divided into lowland and upland areas. Sizes of pasture and stocking rates on lowland and upland farms were 59.5 hectares, 6.99 sheep/hectare and 62.9 hectares and 10.01 sheep/hectare, respectively. Mean drenching rates for lambs and adults were 2.33 and 2.44, respectively, in lowland flocks and 2.73 and 2.71, respectively, in upland flocks. Between 2008 and 2011, the most frequently identified compounds in use were benzimidazoles and moxidectin in lowland flocks, and benzimidazoles and avermectins in upland flocks. Over the same period the most frequently identified commercial formulations were Tramazole(®), Panacur(®) and Allverm(®) (white drench), Levacide(®) (yellow drench), Oramec(®) (clear drench; avermectin), Cydectin(®) (clear drench; moxidectin) and Monepantel(®) (orange drench). Most respondents (56.35%) treated their lambs at weaning and the most common time to treat ewes was identified to be pre-mating (67.86% of respondents). The results of the questionnaire survey revealed that lowland annual drench frequency was 2.33 and 2.44 in lambs and ewes, respectively, although drench frequencies were higher in upland flocks: 2.73 and 2.71 for lambs and ewes, respectively. Annual drench rotation was practiced by 43.96% of flock owners, but whether this was true rotation or pseudo-rotation (i.e., substitution of one anthelmintic product by another product belonging to the same chemical group of anthelmintics) could not be explicitly determined. PMID:23228496

  2. Sources of variation and genetic profile of spontaneous, out-of-season ovulatory activity in the Chios sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouttos Athanasios

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Organising the breeding plan of a seasonally breeding species, such as sheep, presents a challenge to farmers and the industry as a whole, since both economical and biological considerations need to be carefully balanced. Understanding the breeding activity of individual animals becomes a prerequisite for a successful breeding program. This study set out to investigate the sources of variation and the genetic profile of the spontaneous, out-of-season ovulatory activity of ewes of the Chios dairy sheep breed in Greece. The definition of the trait was based on blood progesterone levels, measured before exposing the ewes to rams, which marks the onset of the usual breeding season. Data were 707 records, taken over two consecutive years, of 435 ewes kept at the Agricultural Research Station of Chalkidiki in northern Greece. When all available pedigree was included, the total number of animals involved was 1068. On average, 29% of all ewes exhibited spontaneous, out-of-season ovulatory activity, with no substantial variation between the years. Significant sources of systematic variation were the ewe age and live weight, and the month of previous lambing. Older, heavier ewes, that had lambed early the previous autumn, exhibited more frequent activity. Heritability estimates were 0.216 (± 0.084 with a linear and 0.291 with a threshold model. The latter better accounts for the categorical nature of the trait. The linear model repeatability was 0.230 (± 0.095. The results obtained in this study support the notion that spontaneous out-of-season ovulatory activity can be considered in the development of a breeding plan for the Chios sheep breed.

  3. ANSTO: Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization conducts or is engaged in collaborative research and development in the application of nuclear science and associated technology. Through its Australian radio-isotopes unit, it markets radioisotopes, their products and other services for nuclear medicine industry and research. It also operates national nuclear facilities ( HIFAR and Moata research reactors), promote training, provide advice and disseminates information on nuclear science and technology. The booklet briefly outlines these activities. ills

  4. Australian Politics in a Digital Age

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Peter John

    2013-01-01

    Information and communications technologies are increasingly important in the Australian political landscape. From the adoption of new forms of electoral campaigning to the use of networking technology to organise social movements, media technology has the potential to radically change the way politics is conducted and experienced in this country. The first comprehensive volume on the impact of digital media on Australian politics, this book examines the way these technologies shape political...

  5. Modelling and forecasting Australian domestic tourism

    OpenAIRE

    George Athanasopoulos; Rob J Hyndman

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we model and forecast Australian domestic tourism demand. We use a regression framework to estimate important economic relationships for domestic tourism demand. We also identify the impact of world events such as the 2000 Sydney Olympics and the 2002 Bali bombings on Australian domestic tourism. To explore the time series nature of the data, we use innovation state space models to forecast the domestic tourism demand. Combining these two frameworks, we build innovation state s...

  6. Ownership of Australian Equities and Corporate Bonds

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Black; Joshua Kirkwood

    2010-01-01

    Australian financial and non-financial companies tap capital markets – particularly equity and bond markets – to source funds from households, foreign investors and domestic institutional investors. Foreign investors supply around half of these funds, with institutional investors providing most of the remainder; households’ direct holdings are comparatively modest. During the financial crisis, foreign investors’ appetite for Australian assets remained strong, underpinned by the streng...

  7. Diffuse panbronchiolitis in an Australian aborigine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James; Simpson, Graham

    2014-06-01

    Diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB) is a chronic sino-bronchial disease. It has remained restricted to the Japanese and cases in the West are unusual. We present a patient of Australian aboriginal origin with DPB. The known efficacy of low-dose erythromycin in DPB is again described. Chronic respiratory disease is common in the Australian aboriginal population and DPB should be considered in the differential. PMID:25473569

  8. The Changing Political Economy of Australian Racism

    OpenAIRE

    Jock Collins

    1994-01-01

    The Australian labour market is undergoing fundamental change, following economic restructuring and industrial relations and vocational education reform. This article outlines the recent evidence relating to unequal outcomes for immigrants from non English-speaking background and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in the Australian labour market. It then argues that, rather than meritocratic, these outcomes are partially the result of racial discrimination. The paper then considers the so...

  9. An overview of Australian Higher Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯静

    2014-01-01

    This paper makes a brief introduction to Australian higher education in the following aspects such as educational ideas, teaching methods and assessment. The author of this paper holds the opinion that it’s necessary to take an overview of Australian higher education into consideration, if you hope that your study in Australia runs smoothly. In brief, this paper makes an attempt to provide a brief idea of higher education in Australia, especially to those who want to study in Australia for reference.

  10. Effectiveness of radio-agricultural farmer programme in technology transfer among rural farmers in Imo State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Njoku, J. I. K.

    2016-01-01

    The study was carried out in Imo State to examine the effectiveness of radio-agricultural farmer programme in technology transfer to rural farmers in Imo State, Nigeria. Multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 120 respondents from the three agricultural zones of Imo State. Data were obtained using interview schedule and were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Result shows that majority of the respondents were males, married and educated with the mean age o...

  11. Increasing Access to Farmers Markets for Beneficiaries of Nutrition Assistance: Evaluation of the Farmers Market Access Project

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, Kate; McNees, Molly; Kinney, Karen; Fisher, Kari; Krieger, James W

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Increased acceptance of nutrition benefits at farmers markets could improve access to nutritious foods for low-income shoppers. The objective of this study was to evaluate a pilot project to increase participation by farmers markets and their vendors in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Methods The intervention targeted 9 markets in lower-income regions of King County, Washington...

  12. FACTORS AFFECTING FARMER???S ADOPTION OF TECHNOLOGY FOR PROCESSING BEEF CATTLE WASTE ON INTEGRATED FARMING SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, Agustina; M Ali, Hikmah; J. A. Syamsu1

    2014-01-01

    FACTORS AFFECTING FARMER???S ADOPTION OF TECHNOLOGY FOR PROCESSING BEEF CATTLE WASTE ON INTEGRATED FARMING SYSTEMS Agustina Abdullah 1*), J. A.Syamsu 1) dan Hikmah M.A 1) 1) Faculty of Animal Agriculture, Hasanuddin University. * Corresponding author : Jl.Perintis Kemerdekaan Km.10 Tamalanrea, Makassar - 90245 South Sulawesi. Email address : ABSTRACT Integrated farming systems of beef cattle with paddy is the best strategy to improve the op...

  13. Publishing and Australian Literature: Crisis, Decline or Transformation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Bode

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The globalisation and consolidation of book publishing is widely seen as having negative consequences for Australian literature. Some commentators argue that this shift is detrimental to Australian literature as a whole; others identify the growth of multinational publishing conglomerates with a specific decline in Australian literary fiction. This article explores both positions, first identifying and investigating trends in Australian novel publication and comparing these to trends in the publication of novels from other countries as well as other Australian-originated literature (specifically, poetry and auto/biography. It then considers the specific case of Australian literary fiction, before looking in detail at the output of large publishers of Australian novels. This analysis reveals a recent decline in Australian novel and poetry titles, but offers a more complex picture of this trend than dominant expressions of nostalgia and alarm about the fate of Australian literature and publishing would suggest.

  14. Adoption of Integrated Pest Management Technologies: A Case Study of Potato Farmers in Carchi, Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Mauceri, Maria

    2004-01-01

    Potato farmers in Ecuador rely on chemical inputs to manage pests and optimize yields. IPM techniques are recommended to lower production costs, reduce exposure to pesticides, and improve the long-term sustainability of the agriculture system. We conducted a survey of 109 potato farmers in Carchi, Ecuador that included 30 Farmer Field School (FFS) participants, 28 farmers who had been exposed to FFS-participants, and 51 randomly selected farmers. Using an ordered probit model, the data were a...

  15. 29 CFR 780.132 - Operations must be performed “by” a farmer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operations must be performed âbyâ a farmer. 780.132 Section...” a farmer. “Farmer” includes the employees of a farmer. It does not include an employer merely because he employs a farmer or appoints a farmer as his agent to do the actual work. Thus, the...

  16. The Risk Attitudes of U.S. Farmers: Comparisons to the General Population and Business Owners

    OpenAIRE

    Roe, Brian E.

    2011-01-01

    I compare the risk attitudes of a large, representative sample of farmers to representative samples of the general population and of non-farm small business owners using a robust survey measure of risk tolerance. I find no difference between farmers and the general population in average risk tolerance while small business owners are significantly more risk tolerant than farmers. If farmers shared the same demographic profile as the general population, farmers would be significantly more risk ...

  17. Farmers Prone to Drought Risk: Why Some Farmers Undertake Farm-Level Risk-Reduction Measures While Others Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrehiwot, Tagel; van der Veen, Anne

    2015-03-01

    This research investigates farmers' cognitive perceptions of risk and the behavioral intentions to undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures. It has been observed that people who are susceptible to natural hazards often fail to act, or do very little, to protect their assets or lives. To answer the question of why some people show adaptive behavior while others do not, a socio-psychological model of precautionary adaptation based on protection motivation theory and trans-theoretical stage model has been applied for the first time to areas of drought risk in the developing countries cultural context. The applicability of the integrated model is explored by means of a representative sample survey of smallholder farmers in northern Ethiopia. The result of the study showed that there is a statistically significant association between farmer's behavioral intention to undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures and the main important protection motivation model variables. High perceived vulnerability, severity of consequences, self-efficacy, and response efficacy lead to higher levels of behavioral intentions to undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures. For farmers in the action stage, self-efficacy and response efficacy were the main motivators of behavioral intention. For farmers in the contemplative stage, self-efficacy and cost appear to be the main motivators for them to act upon risk reduction, while perceived severity of consequences and cost of response actions were found to be important for farmers in the pre-contemplative stage.

  18. Study on Profitability and Factors Influencing Participation in Organic Farmer Association : A Case Study of Sangthong District, Vientiane Capital, Laos

    OpenAIRE

    Phranakhone, Pangna; Nanseki, Teruaki

    2015-01-01

    This study compared profitability between the farmers participating in Sangthong Organic Farmers Association (SOFA) and the inorganic farmers in Sangthong District, Vientiane Capital, Laos, and estimated the factors influencing farmers to participate in the SOFA. The data collection was conducted with random sampling procedure to 110 organic farmers and 110 inorganic farmers in 10 target villages. Comparative analysis on revenue structure was conducted, to investigate whether organic farmers ...

  19. Work Culture and Developing Agri-Entrepreneurial Skills among Farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zainalabidin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The government of Malaysia has established several agencies within the Ministry of Agriculture and agri-based Industry such as the Farmers’ Organization Authority to provide technical and motivational training to individual members involved in farming practices to become agri-entrepreneurs. Approach: The objectives of the study are to identify and determine the entrepreneurial work culture as perceived by Farmers’ Organization Authority members. Members of Farmers’ Organization Authority were interviewed via a structured questionnaire. The factor analysis determines 6 latent factors that were realized by the Farmers’ Organization Authority members as being important for promoting an entrepreneurial work culture and therefore should be enhanced and re-inculcated among the Farmers’ Organization Authority farming community. Results: These factors translate into the community having to become more innovative, responsible and accountable, profit oriented, visionary, better at performing their study practices in a more systematic way and finally to become more self confident. Conclusion/Recommendation: Efforts should be intensified to encourage Farmers’ Organization Authority members with training to focus not on modern technologies only, but on enhancing the entrepreneurial work culture and fundamental changes in attitude towards treating farming as a business. Formal entrepreneurship training should be instituted to all Farmers’ Organization Authority members who are interested in taking a loan in enhancing their farming activities. This conditionality can be implemented to ensure that the loan is being spent accordingly and the development of agri-entrepreneurship skills can be enhanced.

  20. Norwegian farmers ceasing certified organic production: characteristics and reasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaten, Ola; Lien, Gudbrand; Koesling, Matthias; Løes, Anne-Kristin

    2010-12-01

    This article examines the characteristics of and reasons for Norwegian farmers' ceasing or planning to cease certified organic production. We gathered cross-sectional survey data in late 2007 from organic farmers deregistering between January 2004 and September 2007 (n=220), and similar data from a random sample of farmers with certified organic management in 2006 (n=407). Of the respondents deregistering by November 2007, 17% had quit farming altogether, 61% now farmed conventionally, and 21% were still farming by organic principles, but without certification. Nearly one in four organic farmers in 2007 indicated that they planned to cease certification within the next 5-10 years. From the two survey samples, we categorised farmers who expect to be deregistered in 5-10 years into three groups: conventional practices (n=139), continuing to farm using organic principles (uncertified organic deregistrants, n=105), and stopped farming (n=33). Of the numerous differences among these groups, two were most striking: the superior sales of uncertified organic deregistrants through consumer-direct marketing and the lowest shares of organic land among conventional deregistrants. We summarised a large number of reasons for deregistering into five factors through factor analysis: economics, regulations, knowledge-exchange, production, and market access. Items relating to economics and regulations were the primary reasons offered for opting out. The regression analysis showed that the various factors were associated with several explanatory variables. Regulations, for example, figured more highly among livestock farmers than crop farmers. The economic factor strongly reflected just a few years of organic management. Policy recommendations for reducing the number of dropouts are to focus on economics, environmental attitudes, and the regulatory issues surrounding certified organic production. PMID:20702020